Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W
This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.
Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.
OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585
... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...
Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene
Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.
Tucker, Joan S; Miles, Jeremy N V; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
This study examines the reciprocal longitudinal associations between alcohol or other drug (AOD)-related media exposure and alcohol use among middle school students, and explores whether these associations differ by ethnicity or gender. The analytic sample is 7th grade students who were recruited from 16 California middle schools and surveyed in the spring semester of two academic years. Students reported on their background characteristics, exposure to seven types of AOD-related media content (Internet videos, social networking sites, movies, television, magazine advertisements, songs, and video games) in the past 3 months, and alcohol use in the past 30 days. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-lagged associations between media exposure and alcohol use. Greater AOD-related media exposure in 7th grade was significantly associated with a higher probability of alcohol use in 8th grade (p = .02), and alcohol use in 7th grade was marginally associated with greater AOD-related media exposure in 8th grade (p = .07). These cross-lagged associations did not statistically differ by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic white) or gender. Further, there was no evidence that certain types of media exposure were more strongly associated with alcohol use than others. Results from this study suggest that AOD-related media effects and media selectively form a reciprocal, mutually influencing process that may escalate adolescent alcohol use over time. Addressing adolescents' exposure to AOD-related media content and its effects on behavior, such as through media literacy education, may hold promise for improving the efficacy of alcohol prevention efforts for middle school students. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pfinder, Manuela; Liebig, Stefan; Feldmann, Reinhold
The study aimed to investigate (a) the association between low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs in adolescence and (b) whether the associations are modified by gender and ethnicity. The subjects of the study were 5922 children and adolescents, aged from 11 to 17 years, enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (the KiGGS study). Information on PAE is based on parental self-report questionnaires. Use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs was assessed through self-report questionnaires for adolescents. Low to moderate PAE was associated with an increased risk of drinking alcohol (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34, 2.18) and also of illicit drug use (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.23, 2.14). The associations between PAE and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs differed according to gender and ethnicity. Gender-stratified analyses resulted in adverse effects of PAE on drinking alcohol, smoking and illicit drug use in females; however, in German males, the associations disappeared. Stronger associations between PAE and the outcome measures were found in non-Germans. Our findings indicate that low to moderate levels of maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy are a risk factor for use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs by the offspring, with stronger associations in females and non-Germans.
Crocker, Nicole; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N
The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Subjects were 56 children (29 AE, 27 CON) who were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory, and visual memory data were entered together on Step 1 followed by group on Step 2, and the interaction terms on Step 3. Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures; however, model fit improved with the addition of group on Step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.
Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…
Wright, A; Terry, P
Many previous studies have reported that alcohol and cannabis produce additive psychomotor effects in acute combination, but few have explicitly tested whether chronic exposure to cannabis, in the absence of acute administration, alters the effects of alcohol on psychomotor performance. To test whether long-term cannabis use modulates the effects of alcohol on psychomotor skills and self-reported mood and sensation. Regular cannabis users (minimum: daily use for at least 3 years) and infrequent users (maximum: once-monthly use for at most 3 years) were matched for sex, age, alcohol intake and other drug use (14 participants in each group). Participants received alcohol (females 0.35 g/kg; males 0.45 g/kg) and placebo drinks. By urinalysis, only regular users tested positive for metabolites of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; breath alcohol levels were similar between groups. Participants were tested on a computerised tracking task that has been used to screen drugs for adverse effects on driving. The task involved tracking a moving target on a computer screen while simultaneously responding to occasional presentations of stimuli in the periphery of the screen. Tracking accuracy was similar for both groups after placebo, but alcohol caused a significant deterioration in performance among infrequent cannabis users relative to regular users. These changes were mirrored by significant changes in self-reported scores for dizziness, measured by visual analogue scales. Alcohol slowed reaction times, but not differentially between groups. For psychomotor skills relevant to driving, chronic cannabis use (in the absence of acute administration) does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. In fact, the superior tracking accuracy of regular users relative to infrequent users after alcohol, and their lower scores for dizziness, suggest that chronic cannabis use may instead confer cross-tolerance to specific effects of alcohol on behaviour.
Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D
Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Boyle, Sarah C.; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Froidevaux, Nicole M.; Witkovic, Yong D.
Despite speculation that peers’ alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers’ alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers’ alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students’ and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers’ alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26835604
Migliorini, Robyn; Moore, Eileen M; Glass, Leila; Infante, M Alejandra; Tapert, Susan F; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P
Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n = 21). Adolescents (12-17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging yielding measures of gray matter volume, surface area, and thickness across four ACC subregions. A subset of subjects were administered the NEPSY-II Inhibition subtest. MANCOVA was utilized to test for group differences in ACC and inhibition performance and multiple linear regression was used to probe ACC-inhibition relationships. ACC surface area was significantly smaller in AE, though this effect was primarily driven by reduced right caudal ACC (rcACC). AE also performed significantly worse on inhibition speed but not on inhibition accuracy. Regression analyses with the rcACC revealed a significant group × ACC interaction. A smaller rcACC surface area was associated with slower inhibition completion time for AE but was not significantly associated with inhibition in CON. After accounting for processing speed, smaller rcACC surface area was associated with worse (i.e., slower) inhibition regardless of group. Examining processing speed independently, a decrease in rcACC surface area was associated with faster processing speed for CON but not significantly associated with processing speed in AE. Results support the theory that caudal ACC may monitor reaction time in addition to inhibition and highlight the possibility of delayed ACC neurodevelopment in prenatal alcohol exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use.From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily, and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women, the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely. Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28 drinks per week in men(women, heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month, alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence, tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more. Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status.Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance.Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to
Airagnes, Guillaume; Lemogne, Cédric; Goldberg, Marcel; Hoertel, Nicolas; Roquelaure, Yves; Limosin, Frédéric; Zins, Marie
To examine the associations between job exposure to the public (e.g., customers, guests, users of a public service, patients) and alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. From the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort, 16,566 men and 17,426 women currently working were included between 2012 and 2016. They reported their exposure to the public (daily versus no daily), and among the daily exposed participants (10,323 men and 13,318 women), the frequency of stressful exposure (often versus rarely). Dependent variables were: chronic alcohol consumption (42(28) drinks per week in men(women)), heavy episodic drinking (never, at most once a month, more than once a month), alcohol use risk with Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (mild, dangerous, problematic or dependence), tobacco use (non-smoker, former smoker, 1-9, 10-19, >19 cigarettes per day) and cannabis use (never, not in past year, less than once a month, once a month or more). Logistic regressions provided odds ratios of substance use, stratifying for gender and adjusting for sociodemographic confounders, depression, effort-reward imbalance and perceived health status. Exposed men had higher risks of alcohol (chronic alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking and alcohol use risk), tobacco and cannabis use. Exposed women had higher risks of tobacco and cannabis use. In men, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of heavy episodic drinking, tobacco and cannabis use. In women, stressful exposure was associated with increased risks of chronic alcohol consumption, alcohol use risk, tobacco and cannabis use. All these findings remained significant in multivariable analyses, taking into account sociodemographic variables, depressive symptoms, perceived health status and effort-reward imbalance. Interventions to reduce emotional job demand should systematically integrate assessment and prevention measures of addictive behaviors. Vulnerable workers may be offered more specific interventions to
Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W
Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.
Full Text Available Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6–11.0 years and controls (n = 16, 9.5–11.0 years. Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1 the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2 the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3 the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4 the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent.
Ross C. Hollett
Full Text Available According to the ambivalence model of craving, alcohol craving involves the dynamic interplay of separate approach and avoidance inclinations. Cue-elicited increases in approach inclinations are posited to be more likely to result in alcohol consumption and risky drinking behaviors only if unimpeded by restraint inclinations. Current study aims were (1 to test if changes in the net balance between approach and avoidance inclinations following alcohol cue exposure differentiate between low and high risk drinkers, and (2 if this balance is associated with alcohol consumption on a subsequent taste test. In two experiments (N = 60; N = 79, low and high risk social drinkers were exposed to alcohol cues, and pre- and post- approach and avoidance inclinations measured. An ad libitum alcohol consumption paradigm and a non-alcohol exposure condition were also included in Study 2. Cue-elicited craving was characterized by a predominant approach inclination only in the high risk drinkers. Conversely, approach inclinations were adaptively balanced by equally strong avoidance inclinations when cue-elicited craving was induced in low risk drinkers. For these low risk drinkers with the balanced craving profile, neither approach or avoidance inclinations predicted subsequent alcohol consumption levels during the taste test. Conversely, for high risk drinkers, where the approach inclination predominated, each inclination synergistically predicted subsequent drinking levels during the taste test. In conclusion, results support the importance of assessing both approach and avoidance inclinations, and their relative balance following alcohol cue exposure. Specifically, this more comprehensive assessment reveals changes in craving profiles that are not apparent from examining changes in approach inclinations alone, and it is this shift in the net balance that distinguishes high from low risk drinkers.
Jones, Sandra C; Magee, Christopher A
Underage drinking is a major problem in Australia and may be influenced by exposure to alcohol advertising. The objective of the present study was to collect data on 12-17 year old Australian adolescents' exposure to different types of alcohol advertising and examine the association between exposure to advertising and alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey of 1113 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited with a variety of methods to gain a cross-section of participants across metropolitan, regional and rural New South Wales (including independent schools, mall intercepts and online). Participants answered a series of questions assessing adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising across eight media (including television, Internet and point-of-sale). Alcohol consumption was assessed using three questions (initiation, recent consumption and frequency of consumption in the previous 12 months). The majority indicated that they had been exposed to alcohol advertisements on television, in newspapers and magazines, on the Internet, on billboards/posters and promotional materials and in bottleshops, bars and pubs; exposure to some of these types of alcohol advertisements was associated with increased alcohol consumption, with differences by age and gender. The results are consistent with studies from other countries and suggest that exposure to alcohol advertisements among Australian adolescents is strongly associated with drinking patterns. Given current high levels of drinking among Australian youth, these findings suggest the need to address the high levels of young people's exposure to alcohol advertising.
Vázquez, Mariam; Sánchez, Laura; Rivera, Patricia; Gavito, Ana; Mela, Virginia; Alén, Francisco; Decara, Juan; Suárez, Juan; Giné, Elena; López-Moreno, José Antonio; Chowen, Julie; Rodríguez-de-Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia; Viveros, María Paz
Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v) in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in young adult rats
Francisco Javier Pavón
Full Text Available Intermittent alcohol exposure is a common pattern of alcohol consumption among adolescents and alcohol is known to modulate the expression of the endocannabinoid system (ECS, which is involved in metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown whether this pattern may have short-term consequences on the ECS in the spleen. To address this question, we examined the plasma concentrations of metabolic and inflammatory signals and the splenic ECS in early adult rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence. A 4-day drinking in the dark (DID procedure for 4 weeks was used as a model of intermittent forced-alcohol administration (20%, v/v in female and male Wistar rats, which were sacrificed 2 weeks after the last DID session. First, there was no liver damage or alterations in plasma metabolic parameters. However, certain plasma inflammatory signals were altered according to sex and alcohol exposition. Whereas fractalkine [chemokine (C-X3-C motif ligand 1] was only affected by sex with lower concentration in male rats, there was an interaction between sex and alcohol exposure in the TNF-α and interleukin-6 concentrations and only female rats displayed changes. Regarding the mRNA and protein expression of the ECS, the receptors and endocannabinoid-synthesizing enzymes were found to be altered with area-specific expression patterns in the spleen. Overall, whereas the expression of the cannabinoid receptor CB1 and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor PPARα were lower in alcohol-exposed rats compared to control rats, the CB2 expression was higher. Additionally, the N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-specific phospholipase D expression was high in female alcohol-exposed rats and low in male alcohol-exposed rats. In conclusion, intermittent alcohol consumption during adolescence may be sufficient to induce short-term changes in the expression of splenic endocannabinoid signaling-related proteins and plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines in
Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J; Ponicki, William R
Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world.
Fink, David S; Keyes, Katherine M; Calabrese, Joseph R; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Cohen, Gregory H; Sampson, Laura; Galea, Sandro
Studies have shown that combat-area deployment is associated with increases in alcohol use; however, studying the influence of deployment on alcohol use faces 2 complications. First, the military considers a confluence of factors before determining whether to deploy a service member, creating a nonignorable exposure and unbalanced comparison groups that inevitably complicate inference about the role of deployment itself. Second, regression analysis assumes that a single effect estimate can approximate the population's change in postdeployment alcohol use, which ignores previous studies that have documented that respondents tend to exhibit heterogeneous postdeployment drinking behaviors. Therefore, we used propensity score matching to balance baseline covariates for the 2 comparison groups (deployed and nondeployed), followed by a variable-oriented difference-in-differences approach to account for the confounding and a person-oriented approach using a latent growth mixture model to account for the heterogeneous response to deployment in this prospective cohort study of the US Army National Guard (2009-2014). We observed a nonsignificant increase in estimated monthly drinks in the first year after deployment that regressed to predeployment drinking levels 2 years after deployment. We found a 4-class model that fit these data best, suggesting that common regression analyses likely conceal substantial interindividual heterogeneity in postdeployment alcohol-use behaviors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.
Aims To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Design Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. Setting All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. Participants A sample of 2541 respondents with a mean age of 18.1 years (51.6% female) of which 1053 (41%) never had a whole drink of alcohol and 1727 (67%) never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion. Measurements Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all ads as “party” or “non-party” ads. Sociodemographics, sensation seeking, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Findings Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, about half (M = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were “party” ads. If both types of exposures (“party” and “non-party”) were included in the regression model, only “party” exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset (AOR=19.17; 95%CI 3.72–98.79) and binge drinking onset (AOR=3.87; 95%CI 1.07–13.99) after covariate control. Conclusions Adolescents and young adults with higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme had higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset, even after control of exposure to other types of alcohol advertisements. PMID:27343140
Eilin K. Erevik
Full Text Available This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms, social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later (p < 0.001, when no covariates were controlled for. Frequent disclosure of content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol predicted stable or slightly increased alcohol use at Time 2 (p < 0.01, even when all covariates (i.e., demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions, and social media use were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure/exposure
Full Text Available There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89 in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children.
Cook, Robert L; Kelso, Natalie E; Brumback, Babette A; Chen, Xinguang
As persons with HIV are living longer, there is a growing need to investigate factors associated with chronic disease, rate of disease progression and survivorship. Many risk factors for this high-risk population change over time, such as participation in treatment, alcohol consumption and drug abuse. Longitudinal datasets are increasingly available, particularly clinical data that contain multiple observations of health exposures and outcomes over time. Several analytic options are available for assessment of longitudinal data; however, it can be challenging to choose the appropriate analytic method for specific combinations of research questions and types of data. The purpose of this review is to help researchers choose the appropriate methods to analyze longitudinal data, using alcohol consumption as an example of a time-varying exposure variable. When selecting the optimal analytic method, one must consider aspects of exposure (e.g. timing, pattern, and amount) and outcome (fixed or time-varying), while also addressing minimizing bias. In this article, we will describe several analytic approaches for longitudinal data, including developmental trajectory analysis, generalized estimating equations, and mixed effect models. For each analytic strategy, we describe appropriate situations to use the method and provide an example that demonstrates the use of the method. Clinical data related to alcohol consumption and HIV are used to illustrate these methods.
Gauthier, Theresa W
Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.
Gauthier, Theresa W.
Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensiv...
Pearton, Jordan Louise; Ramugondo, Elelwani; Cloete, Lizahn; Cordier, Reinie
South Africa carries a high burden of alcohol abuse. The effects of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy are most pronounced in poor, rural communities. Earlier research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure have poor social behaviour; however, to date, no research has investigated their playfulness. This study investigated the differences in playfulness of children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure. Grade one learners with a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) and a reference group without a positive history of prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 15) were filmed engaging in free play at their schools. The Test of Playfulness was used to measure playfulness from recordings. Data were subjected to Rasch analysis to calculate interval level measure scores for each participant. The overall measure scores and individual Test of Playfulness social items were subjected to paired samples t-tests to calculate if significant differences existed between the groups. Children with prenatal alcohol exposure had a significantly lower mean overall playfulness score than the reference group (t = -2.51; d.f. = 28; P = 0.02). Children with prenatal alcohol exposure also scored significantly lower than the reference group on 5 of the 12 Test of Playfulness items related to social play. This research suggests that children with prenatal alcohol exposure are more likely to experience poorer overall quality of play, with particular deficits in social play. Considering play is a child's primary occupation, this finding becomes pertinent for occupational therapy practice, particularly in post-apartheid South Africa, where high prenatal alcohol exposure prevalence rates are couched within persistent socio-economic inequalities. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.
Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830
King, Charles; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H; Wulach, Laura; Ross, Craig; Dixon, Karen; Ostroff, Joshua
To investigate whether alcoholic beverages popular among underage youths are more likely than those less popular among these youths to be advertised in magazines with high underage youth readerships. We compared the alcohol advertisement placement in 118 magazines during the period 2002 to 2006 for alcoholic beverages popular among youths to that of alcoholic beverages less likely to be consumed by youths. Using a random effects probit model, we examined the relationship between a magazine's youth (ages 12-20) readership and the probability of youth or nonyouth alcoholic beverage types being advertised in a magazine, controlling for young adult (ages 21-34) readership, cost of advertising, and other factors. Youth alcoholic beverage types were significantly more likely to be advertised in magazines with higher youth readership. Holding all other variables constant, the ratio of the probability of a youth alcoholic beverage type being advertised to that of a nonyouth alcoholic beverage type being advertised in a given magazine increased from 1.5 to 4.6 as youth readership increased from 0% to 40%. In magazines with the highest levels of youth readership, youth alcoholic beverage types were more than four times more likely to be advertised than nonyouth alcoholic beverage types. Alcoholic beverages popular among underage youths are more likely than those less popular among youths to be advertised in magazines with high youth readerships.
Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle
This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes and norms), social media use, and disclosure and exposure of alcohol on social media. Bivariate comparisons were conducted to assess differences in alcohol use between the frequent (i.e., monthly or more often) disclosure and exposure groups and low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups. Crude and adjusted linear regressions were employed to investigate if disclosure and exposure of alcohol could predict later alcohol use, when controlling for a range of covariates. Compared to the low-frequent disclosure and exposure groups, participants which frequently disclosed or were frequently exposed to alcohol-related content had higher alcohol use at baseline and 1 year later ( p social media use) were controlled for. In conclusion, frequent disclosure and/or exposure to alcohol-related content predicted alcohol use over time. Alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media could for the most part not predict later alcohol use when baseline alcohol use was controlled for. High alcohol use and alcohol disclosure/exposure on social media appear to be strongly intertwined, which hampers identification of directionality between alcohol use and disclosure/exposure. Disclosing content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol was the only independent variable that could predict further alcohol use when other factors, like baseline alcohol use, were held constant. This finding suggests that disclosure of alcohol content reflecting positive aspects of alcohol might
Hicks, Joshua A; Fields, Sherecce; Davis, William E; Gable, Philip A
Research shows that alcohol-related stimuli have the propensity to capture attention among individuals motivated to consume alcohol. Research has further demonstrated that impulsive individuals are especially prone to this type of attentional bias. Recently, it is suggested that alcohol cue exposure can also produce a general narrowing of attention consistent with the activation of approach motivational states. Based on previous models of addiction and recent research on the activation of approach motivational states, we predicted that impulsive individuals would demonstrate a constriction of attentional focus in response to alcohol cue exposure. Participants (n = 392) completed a task assessing attentional breadth in response to alcohol and non-alcohol cues, followed by measures of alcohol use and impulsivity. The findings revealed that impulsivity scores predicted narrowing of attentional scope following the presentation of alcohol cues for heavier drinkers but not for light drinkers. These results suggest that impulsive individuals who drink more heavily demonstrate a narrowing of attention in the presence of alcohol-related incentive cues. Implications for how these findings might account for the link between impulsivity and alcohol use and misuse are discussed.
Snyder, Leslie B; Milici, Frances Fleming; Slater, Michael; Sun, Helen; Strizhakova, Yuliya
To test whether alcohol advertising expenditures and the degree of exposure to alcohol advertisements affect alcohol consumption by youth. Longitudinal panel using telephone surveys. Households in 24 US media markets, April 1999 to February 2001. Individuals aged 15 to 26 years were randomly sampled within households and households within media markets. Markets were systematically selected from the top 75 media markets, representing 79% of the US population. The baseline refusal rate was 24%. Sample sizes per wave were 1872, 1173, 787, and 588. Data on alcohol advertising expenditures on television, radio, billboards, and newspapers were collected. Market alcohol advertising expenditures per capita and self-reported alcohol advertising exposure in the prior month. Self-reported number of alcoholic drinks consumed in the prior month. Youth who saw more alcohol advertisements on average drank more (each additional advertisement seen increased the number of drinks consumed by 1% [event rate ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.02]). Youth in markets with greater alcohol advertising expenditures drank more (each additional dollar spent per capita raised the number of drinks consumed by 3% [event rate ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05]). Examining only youth younger than the legal drinking age of 21 years, alcohol advertisement exposure and expenditures still related to drinking. Youth in markets with more alcohol advertisements showed increases in drinking levels into their late 20s, but drinking plateaued in the early 20s for youth in markets with fewer advertisements. Control variables included age, gender, ethnicity, high school or college enrollment, and alcohol sales. Alcohol advertising contributes to increased drinking among youth.
Hoffman, Eric W; Pinkleton, Bruce E; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda
Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors. Public and private university students (N = 637) participated November and December 2011 and April 2012. College students completed online surveys to measure their exposure to social and online media generally, as well as their alcohol-related digital media use and alcohol use. Use of social media related to alcohol marketing predicted alcohol consumption and engaging in risky behaviors, whereas the use of social media more generally did not. Students' use of alcohol-related social media-marketing content associates with their problem drinking. Results have implications for alcohol abuse reduction efforts targeted at college students and suggest the importance of considering social, cultural, and cognitive factors in campaign planning and design.
Boyle, Sarah C; Smith, Daniel J; Earle, Andrew M; LaBrie, Joseph W
Examine 1) whether observed social reinforcements (i.e., "likes") received by peers' alcohol-related social media posts are related to first-year college students' perceptions of peer approval for risky drinking behaviors; and 2) whether associations are moderated by students' alcohol use status. First-year university students (N = 296) completed an online survey in September, 2014. Participants reported their own alcohol use, friends' alcohol use, perceptions of the typical student's approval for risky drinking, and ranked 10 types of social media posts in terms of the relative numbers of "likes" received when posted by peers. Observed social reinforcement (i.e., "likes") for peers' alcohol-related posts predicted perceptions of peer approval for risky drinking behaviors among non-drinking students, but not drinking students. For first-year college students who have not yet initiated drinking, observing peers' alcohol-related posts to receive abundant "likes" may increase perceptions of peer approval for risky drinking.
Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.
Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an
Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
To test whether exposure to party-related alcohol advertising is associated with drinking behavior in a national US sample of adolescents and young adults, independently of exposure to other alcohol advertising. Longitudinal telephone- and web-based surveys conducted in 2011 and 2013. All regions of the United States, participants selected via mixed-mode random-digit-dial landline and cellphone frames. A sample of 705 respondents who never had a whole drink of alcohol at baseline (mean age 16.9 years, 53.3% female) and a sample of 1036 who never had six or more drinks during one drinking occasion (mean age 17.4 years, 55.8% female). Outcome measures were onset of alcohol use and binge drinking during the study interval. Primary predictor was exposure to television alcohol advertising, operationalized as contact frequency and brand recall for 20 randomly selected alcohol advertisements. Independent post-hoc analyses classified all advertisements as 'party' or 'non-party' advertisements. Socio-demographics, sensation-seeking, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use of friends and family were assessed as covariates. Onset rates for having the first whole drink of alcohol and for first binge drinking were 49.2% and 29.5%, respectively. On average, approximately half (median = 10.2) of the 20 alcohol advertisements in each individual survey were 'party' advertisements. If both types of exposures ('party' and 'non-party') were included in the regression model, only 'party' exposure remained a significant predictor of alcohol use onset [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 19.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.72-98.79] and binge drinking onset (AOR = 3.87; 95% CI = 1.07-13.99) after covariate control. Adolescents and young adults in the United States appear to have higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking onset if they have higher exposure to alcohol advertisements using a partying theme, independently of the amount of exposure to alcohol advertisements with non
Hoffman, Eric W.; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Weintraub Austin, Erica; Reyes-Velázquez, Wanda
Objective: Alcohol marketers have increasingly moved their advertising efforts into digital and social media venues. As a result, the purpose of this study is to investigate associations between students' use of social media, their exposure to alcohol marketing messages through social media, and their alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors.…
Tekes, Kornélia; Hantos, Mónika; Gyenge, Melinda; Csaba, Gyorgy
In earlier experiments perinatal hormonal imprinting by alcohol decreased the hormone content of immune cells for life. In the present study, both a single day (15% on the third postnatal day) and a long-term treatment schedule of alcohol exposure (3% for 21 days) of dams during lactation significantly (P < 0.01) enhanced endogenous levels of nocistatin in the blood plasma as well as in the cerebrospinal fluid of the offspring, measured in 3-month-old rats. Our data suggest that alcohol consumption during lactation can cause a life-long influence on nocistatin levels in the offspring and most likely modify nocistatin-related functions such as pain tolerance.
Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Slater, Michelle; Homanics, Gregg E
While alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a highly heritable condition, the basis of AUD in families with a history of alcoholism is difficult to explain by genetic variation alone. Emerging evidence suggests that parental experience prior to conception can affect inheritance of complex behaviors in offspring via non-genomic (epigenetic) mechanisms. For instance, male C57BL/6J (B6) mice exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol (CIE) prior to mating with Strain 129S1/SvImJ ethanol-naïve females produce male offspring with reduced ethanol-drinking preference, increased ethanol sensitivity, and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that these intergenerational effects of paternal CIE are reproducible in male offspring on an inbred B6 background. To this end, B6 males were exposed to 6 weeks of CIE (or room air as a control) before mating with ethanol-naïve B6 females to produce ethanol (E)-sired and control (C)-sired male and female offspring. We observed a sex-specific effect, as E-sired males exhibited decreased two-bottle free-choice ethanol-drinking preference, increased sensitivity to the anxiolytic effects of ethanol, and increased VTA BDNF expression; no differences were observed in female offspring. These findings confirm and extend our previous results by demonstrating that the effects of paternal preconception ethanol are reproducible using genetically identical, inbred B6 animals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Erevik, Eilin K.; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Andreassen, Cecilie S.; Vedaa, Øystein; Pallesen, Ståle
This article aims to investigate whether alcohol-related disclosure and exposure on social media can predict later alcohol use, and to identify covariates in these relationships. Data were collected by online surveys (two waves) among students in Bergen, Norway. The first survey was administered in fall 2015. The follow-up took place during fall 2016. A total of 5,217 students participated in both waves. The surveys included questions about demographics, personality, alcohol use, alcohol-rela...
Greitemeyer, Tobias; Nierula, Carina
Previous research has shown that acute alcohol consumption is associated with negative responses toward outgroup members such as sexual minorities. However, simple alcohol cue exposure without actually consuming alcohol also influences social behavior. Hence, it was reasoned that priming participants with words related to alcohol (relative to neutral words) would promote prejudiced attitudes toward sexual minorities. In fact, an experiment showed that alcohol cue exposure causally led to more negative implicit attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In contrast, participants' explicit attitudes were relatively unaffected by the priming manipulation. Moreover, participants' typical alcohol use was not related to their attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. In sum, it appears that not only acute alcohol consumption but also the simple exposure of alcohol cues may promote negative views toward lesbians and gay men.
Zerhouni, Oulmann; Bègue, Laurent; Duke, Aaron A; Flaudias, Valentin
Experimental studies investigating the impact of advertising with ecological stimuli on alcohol-related cognition are scarce. This research investigated the cognitive processes involved in learning implicit attitudes toward alcohol after incidental exposure to alcohol advertisements presented in a dynamic context. We hypothesized that incidental exposure to a specific alcohol brand would lead to heightened positive implicit attitudes toward alcohol due to a mere exposure effect. In total, 108 participants were randomly exposed to dynamic sporting events excerpts with and without advertising for a specific brand of alcohol, after completing self-reported measures of alcohol-related expectancies, alcohol consumption, and attitudes toward sport. Participants then completed a lexical decision task and an affective priming task. We showed that participants were faster to detect brand name after being exposed to advertising during a sports game, and that implicit attitudes of participants toward the brand were more positive after they were exposed to advertising, even when alcohol usage patterns were controlled for. Incidental exposure to alcohol sponsorship in sport events impacts implicit attitudes toward the advertised brand and alcohol in general. The effect of incidental advertising on implicit attitudes is also likely to be due to a mere exposure effect. However, further studies should address this point specifically. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; van Dalen, Wim
This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for non-alcohol branded media exposure. Prospective observational study (11-12- and 14-17-month intervals), using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged model. School-based sample in 181 state-funded schools in Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland. A total of 9075 eligible respondents participated in the survey (mean age 14 years, 49.5% male. Adolescents reported their frequency of past-month drinking and binge drinking. Alcohol marketing exposure was measured by a latent variable with 13 items measuring exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising, alcohol sport sponsorship, music event/festival sponsorship, ownership alcohol-branded promotional items, reception of free samples and exposure to price offers. Confounders were age, gender, education, country, internet use, exposure to non-alcohol sponsored football championships and television programmes without alcohol commercials. The analyses showed one-directional long-term effects of alcohol marketing exposure on drinking (exposure T1 on drinking T2: β = 0.420 (0.058), P 0.05). Similar results were found in the binge drinking model (exposure T1 on binge T2: β = 0.409 (0.054), P 0.05). There appears to be a one-way effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' alcohol use over time, which cannot be explained by either previous drinking or exposure to non-alcohol-branded marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane
Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p
Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane
Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p
Stephanie von Hinke Kessler Scholder; George L. Wehby; Sarah Lewis; Luisa Zuccolo
We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern, and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and be...
Zhou, Feng C; Zhao, Qianqian; Liu, Yunlong; Goodlett, Charles R; Liang, Tiebing; McClintick, Jeanette N; Edenberg, Howard J; Li, Lang
We have previously demonstrated that alcohol exposure at early neurulation induces growth retardation, neural tube abnormalities, and alteration of DNA methylation. To explore the global gene expression changes which may underline these developmental defects, microarray analyses were performed in a whole embryo mouse culture model that allows control over alcohol and embryonic variables. Alcohol caused teratogenesis in brain, heart, forelimb, and optic vesicle; a subset of the embryos also showed cranial neural tube defects. In microarray analysis (accession number GSM9545), adopting hypothesis-driven Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) informatics and intersection analysis of two independent experiments, we found that there was a collective reduction in expression of neural specification genes (neurogenin, Sox5, Bhlhe22), neural growth factor genes [Igf1, Efemp1, Klf10 (Tieg), and Edil3], and alteration of genes involved in cell growth, apoptosis, histone variants, eye and heart development. There was also a reduction of retinol binding protein 1 (Rbp1), and de novo expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1B1 (Aldh1B1). Remarkably, four key hematopoiesis genes (glycophorin A, adducin 2, beta-2 microglobulin, and ceruloplasmin) were absent after alcohol treatment, and histone variant genes were reduced. The down-regulation of the neurospecification and the neurotrophic genes were further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Furthermore, the gene expression profile demonstrated distinct subgroups which corresponded with two distinct alcohol-related neural tube phenotypes: an open (ALC-NTO) and a closed neural tube (ALC-NTC). Further, the epidermal growth factor signaling pathway and histone variants were specifically altered in ALC-NTO, and a greater number of neurotrophic/growth factor genes were down-regulated in the ALC-NTO than in the ALC-NTC embryos. This study revealed a set of genes vulnerable to alcohol exposure and genes that were associated with neural tube
... Are they related? Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association ...
Nicole M Mantella
Full Text Available Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1 or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2 were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are
De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G
Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.
Mantella, Nicole M; Youngentob, Steven L
Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our
O'Brien, Jessica W; Hill, Shirley Y
Prenatal exposures to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs of abuse are associated with numerous adverse consequences for affected offspring, including increased risk for substance use and abuse. However, maternal substance use during pregnancy appears to occur more often in those with a family history of alcohol dependence. Utilizing a sample that is enriched for familial alcohol dependence and includes controls selected for virtual absence of familial alcohol dependence could provide important information on the relative contribution of familial risk and prenatal exposures to offspring substance use. A sample of multigenerational families specifically ascertained to be at either high or low risk for developing alcohol dependence (AD) provided biological offspring for a longitudinal prospective study. High-risk families were selected based on the presence of 2 alcohol-dependent sisters. Low-risk families were selected on the basis of minimal first and second-degree relatives with AD. High-risk (HR = 99) and Low-risk offspring (LR = 110) were assessed annually during childhood and biennially in young adulthood regarding their alcohol, drug, and cigarette use. At the first childhood visit, mothers were interviewed concerning their prenatal use of substances. High-risk mothers were more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs during pregnancy than low-risk control mothers, and to consume these substances in greater quantities. Across the sample, prenatal exposure to alcohol was associated with increased risk for both offspring cigarette use and substance use disorders (SUD), and prenatal cigarette exposure was associated with increased risk for offspring cigarette use. Controlling for risk status by examining patterns within the HR sample, prenatal cigarette exposure remained a specific predictor of offspring cigarette use, and prenatal alcohol exposure was specifically associated with increased risk for offspring SUD. Women with a family history of
Gupta, Himanshu; Lam, Tina; Pettigrew, Simone; Tait, Robert J
Alcohol marketing on social networking sites (SNS) is associated with alcohol use among young people. Alcohol companies adapt their online marketing content to specific national contexts and responses to such content differ by national settings. However, there exists very little academic work comparing the association between alcohol marketing on SNS and alcohol use among young people in different national settings and across different SNS. Therefore, we aimed to extend the limited existing work by investigating and comparing the association between self-reported exposure to alcohol marketing on three leading SNS (Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter) and alcohol use among young people in diverse national contexts (India and Australia). Cross-sectional, self-report data were obtained from a convenience sample of 631 respondents (330 in India; 301 in Australia) aged 13-25 years via online surveys. Respondents answered questions on their drinking behaviors and involvement with alcohol marketing on SNS. Many respondents from both countries reported interacting with alcohol content online, predominantly on Facebook, followed by YouTube and then Twitter. The interaction was primarily in the forms of posting/liking/sharing/commenting on items posted on alcohol companies' social media accounts, viewing the event page/attending the event advertised by an alcohol company via social media, and/or accessing an alcohol website. Multivariate analyses demonstrated significant associations between respondents' interaction with alcohol content and drinking levels, with effects differing by SNS, demographic group, and country. For example, having friends who shared alcohol-related content was an important predictor of usual alcohol consumption for Indian respondents (p social media platforms and national contexts. The results highlight the need to formulate and implement strategies to effectively regulate the SNS alcohol marketing, especially among younger SNS users.
Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Shadel, William G; Becker, Kirsten M; Tolpadi, Anagha
Recent research revealed momentary associations between exposure to alcohol advertising and positive beliefs about alcohol among adolescents (Martino et al., 2016). We reanalyzed those data to determine whether associations depend on adolescents' appraisal of ads. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 youth, ages 11-14, in the Los Angeles, CA, area, participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements as they occurred and completing brief assessments of their skepticism toward, liking of, and identification with any people in each ad, as well as their alcohol-related beliefs at the moment. Participants also completed measures of their alcohol- related beliefs at random moments of nonexposure throughout each day. Mixed-effects regression models compared beliefs about alcohol at moments of exposure to alcohol advertising that was appraised in a particular way (e.g., with liking, without liking) to beliefs at random moments. When youth encountered ads they appraised positively, their beliefs about alcohol were significantly more positive than when they were queried at random moments. Beliefs in the presence of ads that were not positively appraised were generally similar to beliefs at random moments. Youth are active participants in the advertising process. How they respond to and process alcohol advertising strongly moderates the association between exposure and alcohol-related beliefs. More effort is needed to identify attributes of alcohol advertisements, and of youth, that determine how youth process alcohol ads. This information can be used to either limit exposure to problematic ads or make youth more resilient to such exposure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Spear, Linda Patia
-specific exposure effects, notable maturational changes in brain have been observed from early to late adolescence that could provide differential neural substrates for exposure timing-related consequences, with for instance exposure during early adolescence perhaps more likely to impact later self-administration and social/affective behaviors, whereas exposures later in adolescence may be more likely to influence cognitive tasks whose neural substrates (such as the prefrontal cortex [PFC]) are still undergoing maturation at that time. More work is needed, however to characterize timing-specific effects of adolescent ethanol exposures and their sex dependency, determine their neural substrates, and assess their comparability to and interactions with adolescent exposure to other drugs and stressors. Such information could prove critical for informing intervention/prevention strategies regarding the potential efficacy of efforts directed toward delaying onset of alcohol use versus toward reducing high levels of use and risks associated with that use later in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Martino, Steven C.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Shadel, William G.; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M.
Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a two-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past two weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths’ risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% white, 27% black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for under-reporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents’ exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. PMID:27819430
D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Martino, Steven C; Collins, Rebecca L; Shadel, William G; Tolpadi, Anagha; Kovalchik, Stephanie; Becker, Kirsten M
Little is known about the extent and nature of youth exposure to online alcohol advertising, or factors that may be associated with exposure. The current study recruited middle school students who completed a paper survey and then logged each alcohol advertisement that they encountered over a 2-week period using cell phones as part of an ecological momentary assessment design. We examined the percentage of youth who reported exposure to online alcohol advertising in the past 2 weeks, average weekly rate of exposure, types of online alcohol advertisements youth reported seeing, and factors that increased youths' risk of exposure to online alcohol advertising. Analyses are based on 485 participants (47% female; 25% Hispanic, 25% White, 27% Black; 6% Asian, 16% other). Youth logged exposures to a total of 3,966 (16,018 weighted for underreporting) alcohol advertisements across the monitoring period; 154 (568 weighted) or 3.6% were online ads. Seventeen percent of youth reported seeing any online alcohol ad; the majority of online ads seen were video commercials (44.8%) and banner/side ads (26.6%). Factors associated with greater ad exposure were being older, rebellious, and Black race; greater parental monitoring and more hours spent on social media were associated with less exposure. Findings provide important information about adolescents' exposure to online alcohol advertising and what might contribute to a greater likelihood of exposure. Given that online ad exposure is linked to drinking behavior, prevention programming for younger adolescents should continue to address this issue to help youth make healthy choices regarding alcohol use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Yu. P. Sivolap
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are the leading causes of worse health and increased mortality rates. Excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of the global burden of diseases and a leading factor for lower lifespan and higher mortality. Alcohol abuse decreases working capacity and efficiency and requires the increased cost of the treatment of alcohol-induced disorders, which entails serious economic losses. The unfavorable medical and social consequences of excessive alcohol use determine the importance of effective treatment for alcoholism. The goals of rational pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence are to enhance GABA neurotransmission, to suppress glutamate neurotransmission, to act on serotonin neurotransmission, to correct water-electrolyte balance, and to compensate for thiamine deficiency. Alcoholism treatment consists of two steps: 1 the prevention and treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and its complications (withdrawal convulsions and delirium alcoholicum; 2 antirecurrent (maintenance therapy. Benzodiazepines are the drugs of choice in alleviating alcohol withdrawal and preventing its convulsive attacks and delirium alcoholicum. Diazepam and chlordiazepoxide are most commonly used for this purpose; the safer drugs oxazepam and lorazepam are given to the elderly and patients with severe liver lesions. Anticonvulsants having normothymic properties, such as carbamazepine, valproic acid, topiramate, and lamotrigine, are a definite alternative to benzodiazepines. The traditional Russian clinical practice (clearance detoxification has not a scientific base or significant impact on alcohol withdrawal-related states in addicts. Relapse prevention and maintenance therapy for alcohol dependence are performed using disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone; since 2013 the European Union member countries have been using, besides these agents, nalmefene that is being registered in Russia. Memantine and a number of other
de Bruijn, Avalon; Tanghe, Jacqueline; de Leeuw, Rebecca; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Beccaria, Franca; Bujalski, Michał; Celata, Corrado; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Słodownik, Luiza; Wothge, Jördis; Dalen, Wim E.
Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents’ drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for
Bruijn, A. de; Tanghe, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anderson, P.D.; Beccaria, F.; Bujalski, M.; Celata, C.; Gosselt, J.; Schreckenberg, D.; Slodownik, L.; Wothge, J.; Dalen, W. van
Background and aims: This is the first study to examine the effect of alcohol marketing exposure on adolescents' drinking in a cross-national context. The aim was to examine reciprocal processes between exposure to a wide range of alcohol marketing types and adolescent drinking, controlled for
Lee, Kai H; Qiu, Michael; Sun, Jiandong
This study aimed to address 2 important aspects of temporal pattern in alcohol-related facial fractures: (1) comparison of temporal pattern of alcohol-related facial fracture (alcohol group) presentation with non-alcohol-related fracture (non-alcohol group) presentation; (2) temporal pattern of patient demographic characteristics, injury characteristics, and surgical management in the alcohol group presentation. This study retrospectively examined the Victorian admitted episodes data set (VAED) for the years 2010 to 2013. VAED is a standardized set of data collected during all hospital presentations in Victoria. The study found higher incidence of alcohol-related facial fracture presentations during weekends and during the summer and spring months compared with non-alcohol-related fractures (statistically significant). Alcohol-related facial fractures are more likely to involve male patients in the 20- to 29-year age group, occur as a result of interpersonal violence, and require shorter hospital stays during weekend admissions (statistically significant). No statistically significant relationship has been observed in seasonal variation across all variables. This study found distinct characteristics in temporal distribution of alcohol-related facial fractures. These characteristics are, in particular, significant in weekend trauma admissions. Such information is important in workforce planning, resource distribution, and implementation of injury prevention programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ross, Craig S; Henehan, Elizabeth R; Jernigan, David H
To update public health surveillance of alcohol advertising to underage populations by assessing alcohol industry compliance with their voluntary guidelines for US magazine advertisements from 2001 to 2011. Using advertising industry standard sources The Nielsen Company and MediaMark, we evaluated youth exposure to alcohol advertising, and relative advertising exposure of youths versus adults, in 168 national magazines. From 2001 to 2011, magazine alcohol advertising seen by youths declined by 62.9%, from 5.4 billion impressions (single person seeing a single advertisement) to 2.0 billion impressions. Most alcohol advertising (65.1% of ads) was for spirits (e.g., vodka, whiskey). Since 2008, alcohol companies achieved 100% compliance with their limited guidelines. However, youths were overexposed to magazine advertising relative to adults on average 73% of the time. Despite improving compliance with placement guidelines in national editions of the 168 measured magazines, most youth exposure to magazine alcohol advertising exceeded adult exposure, per capita. If alcohol companies adopted stricter guidelines based on public health risk assessments, youths would not be overexposed to alcohol advertising in magazines.
Daniel J. Liput
Full Text Available Excessive alcohol consumption leads to neurodegeneration, which contributes to cognitive decline that is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUDs. The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the development of AUDs, but little is known about how the neurotoxic effects of alcohol impact the endocannabinoid system. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of neurotoxic, binge-like alcohol exposure on components of the endocannabinoid system and related N-acylethanolamines (NAEs, and then evaluated the efficacy of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH inhibition on attenuating alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Male rats were administered alcohol according to a binge model, which resulted in a transient decrease in [3H]-CP-55,940 binding in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus following two days, but not four days, of treatment. Furthermore, binge alcohol treatment did not change the tissue content of the three NAEs quantified, including the endocannabinoid and anandamide. In a separate study, the FAAH inhibitor, URB597 was administered to rats during alcohol treatment and neuroprotection was assessed by FluoroJade B (FJB staining. The administration of URB597 during binge treatment did not significantly reduce FJB+ cells in the entorhinal cortex or hippocampus, however, a follow up “target engagement” study found that NAE augmentation by URB597 was impaired in alcohol intoxicated rats. Thus, potential alcohol induced alterations in URB597 pharmacodynamics may have contributed to the lack of neuroprotection by FAAH inhibition.
Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E
Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.
This report details our progress during the first year of a three-year proposal. The proposal's overall goal is to uncover biochemical mechanisms that underlie learning and memory deficits resulting from fetal alcohol exposure (FAE...
Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Skov; Bager, Heidi; Husby, Steffen
Alcohol exposure during pregnancy can cause adverse effects to the fetus, because it interferes with fetal development, leading to later physical and mental impairment. The most common clinical tool to determine fetal alcohol exposure is maternal self-reporting. However, a more objective and useful...... method is based on the use of biomarkers in biological specimens alone or in combination with maternal self-reporting. This review reports on clinically relevant biomarkers for detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). A systematic search was performed to ensure a proper overview in existing...... to be applicable for detection of even low levels of alcohol exposure. Meconium is an accessible matrix for determination of FAEEs and EtG, and blood an accessible matrix for determination of PEth....
Noel, Jonathan K; Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine
With governments relying increasingly upon the alcohol industry's self-regulated marketing codes to restrict alcohol marketing activity, there is a need to summarize the findings of research relevant to alcohol marketing controls. This paper provides a systematic review of studies investigating the content of, and exposure to, alcohol marketing in relation to self-regulated guidelines. Peer-reviewed papers were identified through four literature search engines: SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed and PsychINFO. Non-peer-reviewed reports produced by public health agencies, alcohol research centers, non-governmental organizations and government research centers were also identified. Ninety-six publications met the inclusion criteria. Of the 19 studies evaluating a specific marketing code and 25 content analysis studies reviewed, all detected content that could be considered potentially harmful to children and adolescents, including themes that appeal strongly to young men. Of the 57 studies of alcohol advertising exposure, high levels of youth exposure and high awareness of alcohol advertising were found for television, radio, print, digital and outdoor advertisements. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising has increased over time, even as greater compliance with exposure thresholds has been documented. Violations of the content guidelines within self-regulated alcohol marketing codes are highly prevalent in certain media. Exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly among youth, is also prevalent. Taken together, the findings suggest that the current self-regulatory systems that govern alcohol marketing practices are not meeting their intended goal of protecting vulnerable populations. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Carrotte, Elise R; Dietze, Paul M; Wright, Cassandra J; Lim, Megan S
To describe patterns of 'liking' alcohol marketing social media pages, and determine related alcohol consumption patterns among young Australians. Participants were 1,001 Australians aged 15-29 years who completed a cross-sectional online survey. Logistic regression and ordinal logistic regression were used. A quarter (249/1001, 24.9%) liked at least one of the alcohol marketing social media pages, most commonly brands of spirits, cider and alcohol retailers. Underage participants were as likely as older participants to report liking these pages. Alcohol marketing social media use was significantly and independently associated with male gender, living outside a major city, ever using illegal drugs and early age of first alcohol consumption (all pmarketing social media use (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.8, p=marketing pages is common regardless of age, and associated with riskier alcohol consumption, among young Australians. There is a need to develop strategies to reduce the exposure to, and potential impact of, alcohol marketing social media pages on young Australians, and ensure these pages are neither accessible to nor targeting underage social media users. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Schonfeld, Amy M; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P
Prenatal exposure to alcohol is associated with cognitive, behavioral and social deficits, including delinquency. Although delinquent populations and those with intellectual and behavioral deficits exhibit impaired moral judgment and reasoning, this area remains unexplored in alcohol-exposed individuals. Moral maturity and delinquency were evaluated in 27 participants with prenatal alcohol exposure (ALC group) and 29 nonexposed controls (CON group) matched on age (range: 10-18), gender, handedness, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Moral maturity was evaluated using the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form, and delinquency was evaluated with the Conduct Disorder (CD) Questionnaire. Additional measures included social desirability and inhibition. The ALC group performed at a lower level of moral maturity than the CON group. Whereas Verbal IQ primarily predicted this difference, a deficit on the moral value judgment having to do with relationships with others was specific to prenatal alcohol exposure. Furthermore, delinquency was higher in the ALC group, and specific sociomoral values were predictive of delinquent behavior. Finally, half of the children and adolescents with a history of prenatal alcohol exposure but without fetal alcohol syndrome had probable CD. The results of this study indicate that interventions aimed at reducing delinquency in those with prenatal alcohol exposure are necessary, and targeting moral judgment for this purpose may be beneficial.
von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wehby, George L; Lewis, Sarah; Zuccolo, Luisa
We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern , and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and behaviours. OLS regressions suggest an ambiguous association between alcohol exposure in utero and children's academic attainment, but there is a strong social gradient in maternal drinking, with mothers in higher socio-economic groups more likely to drink. In stark contrast to the OLS, the IV estimates show negative effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on child educational attainment. These results are very robust to an extensive set of model specifications. In addition, we show that that the effects are solely driven by the maternal genotype, with no impact of the child's genotype.
Cook, Michael B; Guénel, Pascal; Gapstur, Susan M
BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly due to its relative rarity. Although tobacco and alcohol exposures are known carcinogens, their association with male breast cancer risk remains ill-defined. METHODS: The Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project consortium prov...
Full Text Available William D Longhurst,1 Jordan Ernst,2 Larry Burd3 1Center for Emergency Medicine, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA; 2University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, North Dakota Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USA Background: The physiology of fetal alcohol exposure changes across gestation. Early in pregnancy placental, fetal, and amniotic fluid concentrations of alcohol exposure are equivalent. Beginning in mid-pregnancy, the maturing fetal epidermis adds keratins which decrease permeability resulting in development of a barrier between fetal circulation and the amniotic fluid. Barrier function development is essential for viability in late pregnancy and in the extra-uterine environment. In this paper we provide a selected review of the effects of barrier function on fetal alcohol exposure. Methods: We utilized a search of PubMed and Google for all years in all languages for MeSH on Demand terms: alcohol drinking, amnion, amniotic fluid, epidermis, ethanol, female, fetal development, fetus, humans, keratins, permeability, and pregnancy. We also reviewed the reference lists of relevant papers and hand-searched reference lists of textbooks for additional references. Results: By 30 gestational weeks, development of barrier function alters the pathophysiology of ethanol dispersion between the fetus and amniotic fluid. Firstly, increases in the effectiveness of barrier function decreases the rate of diffusion of alcohol from fetal circulation across fetal skin into the amniotic fluid. This reduces the volume of alcohol entering the amniotic fluid. Secondly, barrier function increases the duration of fetal exposure by decreasing the rate of alcohol diffusion from amniotic fluid back into fetal circulation. Ethanol is then transported into
Carter, R Colin; Wainwright, Helen; Molteno, Christopher D; Georgieff, Michael K; Dodge, Neil C; Warton, Fleur; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W
Animal studies have demonstrated adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on placental development, but few studies have examined these effects in humans. Little is known about effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine, marijuana, and cigarette smoking on placental development. Placentas were collected from 103 Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) pregnant women recruited at their first antenatal clinic visit in Cape Town, South Africa. Sixty-six heavy drinkers and 37 nondrinkers were interviewed about their alcohol, cigarette smoking, and drug use at 3 antenatal visits. A senior pathologist, blinded to exposure status, performed comprehensive pathology examinations on each placenta using a standardized protocol. In multivariable regression models, effects of prenatal exposure were examined on placental size, structure, and presence of infections and meconium. Drinkers reported a binge pattern of heavy drinking, averaging 8.0 drinks/occasion across pregnancy on 1.4 d/wk. 79.6% smoked cigarettes; 22.3% used marijuana; and 17.5% used methamphetamine. Alcohol exposure was related to decreased placental weight and a smaller placenta-to-birthweight ratio. By contrast, methamphetamine was associated with larger placental weight and a larger placenta-to-birthweight ratio. Marijuana was also associated with larger placental weight. Alcohol exposure was associated with increased risk of placental hemorrhage. Prenatal alcohol, drug, and cigarette use were not associated with chorioamnionitis, villitis, deciduitis, or maternal vascular underperfusion. Alcohol and cigarette smoking were associated with a decreased risk of intrauterine passing of meconium, a sign of acute fetal stress and/or hypoxia; methamphetamine, with an increased risk. This is the first human study to show that alcohol, methamphetamine, and marijuana were associated with distinct patterns of pathology, suggesting different mechanisms mediating their effects on placental development. Given the growing
Patil, Sunil; Winpenny, Eleanor M; Elliott, Marc N; Rohr, Charlene; Nolte, Ellen
Exposure of young people to alcohol advertising is a risk factor for underage drinking. This study assessed youth exposure to television alcohol advertising in the UK, the Netherlands and Germany, from December 2010 to May 2011. A negative binomial regression model predicted number of alcohol advertisements from the proportion of the television viewership in each age group. This allowed comparison of alcohol advertisement incidence for each youth age category relative to an adult reference category. In the UK, those aged 10-15 years were significantly more exposed to alcohol advertisements per viewing hour than adults aged ≥ 25 years [incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.11; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.06, 1.18; P advertisements than adults aged ≥ 25 years (IRR = 0.79; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.85; P children (aged 4-9 years in the UK and Germany, 6-12 years in the Netherlands) were less exposed than adults. Adolescents in the UK and the Netherlands, but not Germany, had higher exposure to television alcohol advertising relative to adults than would be expected from their television viewing. Further work across a wider range of countries is needed to understand the relationship between national policies and youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related
Kalberg, Wendy O; Provost, Beth; Tollison, Sean J; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Robinson, Luther K; Eugene Hoyme, H; Trujillo, Phyllis M; Buckley, David; Aragon, Alfredo S; May, Philip A
Researchers are increasingly considering the importance of motor functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The purpose of this study was to assess the motor development of young children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) to determine the presence and degree of delay in their motor skills and to compare their motor development with that of matched children without FAS. The motor development of 14 children ages 20 to 68 months identified with FAS was assessed using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). In addition, 2 comparison groups were utilized. Eleven of the children with FAS were matched for chronological age, gender, ethnicity, and communication age to: (1) 11 children with prenatal alcohol exposure who did not have FAS and (2) 11 matched children without any reported prenatal alcohol exposure. The motor scores on the VABS were compared among the 3 groups. Most of the young children with FAS in this study showed clinically important delays in their motor development as measured on the VABS Motor Domain, and their fine motor skills were significantly more delayed than their gross motor skills. In the group comparisons, the young children with FAS had significantly lower Motor Domain standard (MotorSS) scores than the children not exposed to alcohol prenatally. They also had significantly lower Fine Motor Developmental Quotients than the children in both the other groups. No significant group differences were found in gross motor scores. For MotorSS scores and Fine Motor Developmental Quotients, the means and standard errors indicated a continuum in the scores from FAS to prenatal alcohol exposure to nonexposure. These findings strongly suggest that all young children with FAS should receive complete developmental evaluations that include assessment of their motor functioning, to identify problem areas and provide access to developmental intervention programs that target deficit areas such as fine motor skills. Fine motor
Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.
Erevik, Eilin K; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Vedaa, Øystein; Andreassen, Cecilie S; Pallesen, Ståle
The present study aimed to explore students' reports of their sharing of alcohol-related content on different social networking sites (i.e., frequency of sharing and connotations of alcohol-related posts), and to identify indicators of such posting. Students at the four largest institutions for higher education in Bergen, Norway, were invited to participate in an Internet-based survey. The sample size was 11,236 (a 39.4% response rate). The survey included questions about disclosure of alcohol-related content on social networking sites, alcohol use (using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test), personality factors (using the Mini-IPIP), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze indicators of frequent sharing of alcohol-related content depicting positive and negative aspects of alcohol use. A majority of the students had posted alcohol-related content (71.0%), although few reported having done so frequently. Positive aspects of alcohol use (e.g., enjoyment or social community) were most frequently shared. Young, single, and extroverted students with high alcohol consumption were more likely to report frequent sharing of alcohol-related content. Positive attitudes toward posting alcohol-related content and reports of exposure to such content particularly increased the likelihood of one's own posting of alcohol-related content. Positive aspects of alcohol use seem to be emphasized on social networking sites. Sharing of alcohol-related content is associated with heightened alcohol use, which implies that such sites can be relevant for prevention agents. Social influence from social networking sites, such as exposure to others' alcohol-related content, is associated with one's own sharing of similar content.
Wrobel, Elzbieta; Skrok-Wolska, Dominika; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Korkosz, Agnieszka; Habrat, Boguslaw; Woronowicz, Bohdan; Kukwa, Andrzej; Kostowski, Wojciech; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Scinska, Anna
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic exposure to alcohol on taste responses to a prototypic umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG). The rated intensity and pleasantness of MSG taste (0.03-10.0%) was compared in chronic male alcoholics (n = 35) and control subjects (n = 25). In a separate experiment, the effects of acute exposure of the oral mucosa to ethanol rinse (0.5-4.0%) on MSG taste (0.3-3.0%) were studied in 10 social drinkers. The alcoholic and control group did not differ in terms of the rated intensity and pleasantness of MSG taste. Electrogustometric thresholds were significantly (P alcohol-dependent subjects. The difference remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking. Rinsing with ethanol did not alter either intensity or pleasantness of MSG taste in social drinkers. The present results suggest that: (i) neither acute nor chronic alcohol exposure modifies taste responses to MSG; (ii) alcohol dependence may be associated with deficit in threshold taste reactivity, as assessed by electrogustometry.
de Bruijn, Avalon; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Bujalski, Michal; Gosselt, Jordy; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Wohtge, Jördis; de Leeuw, Rebecca
The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times; even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in four European countries. A total of 9038 students with a mean age of 14.05 (SD 0.82) participated in a school-based survey in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. Logistic regression analyses of cross-sectional cross-country survey data were undertaken. Exposure to online alcohol marketing, televised alcohol advertising and ownership of alcohol-branded items was estimated to be controlled for relevant confounders. Onset of drinking and binge drinking in the past 30 days were included in the study as outcome variables. Adjusted for relevant confounders, higher exposure to (online) alcohol marketing exposure was found to be related to the odds of starting to drink (p four countries. Active engagement with online alcohol marketing was found to interact more strongly with drinking outcomes than passive exposure to online alcohol marketing. Youngsters in the four European countries report frequent exposure to online alcohol marketing. The association between this exposure and adolescents' drinking was robust and seems consistent across national contexts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.
Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Collins, Rebecca L; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
To evaluate the momentary association between exposure to alcohol advertising and middle-school students' beliefs about alcohol in real-world settings and to explore racial/ethnic differences in this association. Middle-school students (N = 588) carried handheld data collection devices for 14 days, recording their exposures to all forms of alcohol advertising during the assessment period. Students also responded to three investigator-initiated control prompts (programmed to occur randomly) on each day of the assessment period. After each exposure to advertising and at each control prompt, students reported their beliefs about alcohol. Mixed-effects regression models compared students' beliefs about alcohol between moments of exposure to alcohol advertising and control prompts. Students perceived the typical person their age who drinks alcohol (prototype perceptions) more favorably and perceived alcohol use as more normative at times of exposure to alcohol advertising than at times of nonexposure (i.e., at control prompts). Exposure to alcohol advertising was not associated with shifts in the perceived norms of black and Hispanic students, however, and the association between exposure and prototype perceptions was stronger among non-Hispanic students than among Hispanic students. Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with acute shifts in adolescents' perceptions of the typical person that drinks alcohol and the normativeness of drinking. These associations are both statistically and substantively meaningful. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Rhonda M. Brand
Full Text Available Alcoholics suffer from immune dysfunction that can impede vaccine efficacy. If ethanol (EtOH-induced immune impairment is in part a result of direct exposure of immune cells to EtOH, then reduced levels of exposure could result in less immune dysfunction. As alcohol ingestion results in lower alcohol levels in skin than blood, we hypothesized that the skin immune network may be relatively preserved, enabling skin-targeted immunizations to obviate the immune inhibitory effects of alcohol consumption on conventional vaccines. We employed the two most common chronic EtOH mouse feeding models, the liver-damaging Lieber-DeCarli (LD and liver-sparing Meadows-Cook (MC diets, to examine the roles of EtOH and/or EtOH-induced liver dysfunction on alcohol related immunosuppression. Pair-fed mice were immunized against the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA by DNA immunization or against flu by administering the protein-based influenza vaccine either systemically (IV, IM, directly to liver (hydrodynamic, or cutaneously (biolistic, ID. We measured resulting tissue EtOH levels, liver stress, regulatory T cell (Treg, and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC populations. We compared immune responsiveness by measuring delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL, and antibody induction as a function of delivery route and feeding model. We found that, as expected, and independent of the feeding model, EtOH ingestion inhibits DTH, CTL lysis, and antigen-specific total IgG induced by traditional systemic vaccines. On the other hand, skin-targeted vaccines were equally immunogenic in alcohol-exposed and non-exposed subjects, suggesting that cutaneous immunization may result in more efficacious vaccination in alcohol-ingesting subjects.
Doney, Robyn; Lucas, Barbara R; Jones, Taryn; Howat, Peter; Sauer, Kay; Elliott, Elizabeth J
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated neurodevelopmental impairments. It is uncertain which types of fine motor skills are most likely to be affected after PAE or which assessment tools are most appropriate to use in FASD diagnostic assessments. This systematic review examined which types of fine motor skills are impaired in children with PAE or FASD; which fine motor assessments are appropriate for FASD diagnosis; and whether fine motor impairments are evident at both "low" and "high" PAE levels. A systematic review of relevant databases was undertaken using key terms. Relevant studies were extracted using a standardized form, and methodological quality was rated using a critical appraisal tool. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Complex fine motor skills, such as visual-motor integration, were more frequently impaired than basic fine motor skills, such as grip strength. Assessment tools that specifically assessed fine motor skills more consistently identified impairments than those which assessed fine motor skills as part of a generalized neurodevelopmental assessment. Fine motor impairments were associated with "moderate" to "high" PAE levels. Few studies reported fine motor skills of children with "low" PAE levels, so the effect of lower PAE levels on fine motor skills remains uncertain. Comprehensive assessment of a range of fine motor skills in children with PAE is important to ensure an accurate FASD diagnosis and develop appropriate therapeutic interventions for children with PAE-related fine motor impairments.
Babor, Thomas F; Robaina, Katherine; Noel, Jonathan K; Ritson, E Bruce
The concern that alcohol advertising can have detrimental effects on vulnerable viewers has prompted the development of codes of responsible advertising practices. This paper evaluates critically the concept of vulnerability as it applies to (1) susceptibility to alcohol-related harm and (2) susceptibility to the effects of marketing, and describes its implications for the regulation of alcohol marketing. We describe the findings of key published studies, review papers and expert reports to determine whether these two types of vulnerability apply to population groups defined by (1) age and developmental history; (2) personality characteristics; (3) family history of alcoholism; (4) female sex and pregnancy risk; and (5) history of alcohol dependence and recovery status. Developmental theory and research suggest that groups defined by younger age, incomplete neurocognitive development and a history of alcohol dependence may be particularly vulnerable because of the disproportionate harm they experience from alcohol and their increased susceptibility to alcohol marketing. Children may be more susceptible to media imagery because they do not have the ability to compensate for biases in advertising portrayals and glamorized media imagery. Young people and people with a history of alcohol dependence appear to be especially vulnerable to alcohol marketing, warranting the development of new content and exposure guidelines focused on protecting those groups to improve current self-regulation codes promoted by the alcohol industry. If adequate protections cannot be implemented through this mechanism, statutory regulations should be considered. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Naimi, Timothy S; Ross, Craig S; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H
Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13-20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth's alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure-consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media.
Khan, Burhan A; Robinson, Renee F; Smith, Julia J; Dillard, Denise A
Recent reports indicate a decline in rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) infants. Nevertheless, AN/AI infants remain disproportionately impacted by the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. AN/AI pregnant women in their 3rd trimester completed a questionnaire on demographic data and the amount and frequency of their alcohol consumption in the month prior to conception and during pregnancy. Differences across demographics and trimesters were tested with the Chi-square, Fisher's exact or McNemar's test as appropriate. Of the 125 participants, 56% (n = 71) reported no alcohol consumption in the 1st through 3rd trimesters of pregnancy; 30% (n = 38) of the 125 participants also reported no alcohol consumption in the month before pregnancy. Of the 43% (n = 54) who reported consuming alcohol during pregnancy (1st, 2nd and/or 3rd trimester), most (35%) reported alcohol use only in the 1st trimester. Binge drinking in the 1st or 2nd trimester was reported amongst 20% (n = 25) of participants with an additional 18% (n = 29) reporting binge drinking in the month prior to pregnancy. Women who reported pre-conception binge drinking were significantly more likely to report binge drinking during their 1st trimester (p pregnancy (p pregnancy. Among study participants, reported use of alcohol was primarily limited to pre-conception and the 1st trimester, with a dramatic decrease in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Prevention programmes, such as the Alaska FAS Prevention Project, may have contributed to observed decreases in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Additional study and focus on pre-conception, the 1st trimester and binge drinking, as well as tobacco use might augment Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder prevention efforts.
Woud, M.L.; Pawelczak, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.; Wiers, R.W.; Becker, E.S.
Background: Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an
Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: An indirect path model
Mares, S.H.W.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.
Alcohol-specific parent-child communication has often been studied in relation to regular alcohol use of adolescents. However, it might be as important to focus on adolescent problematic alcohol use. In addition, the way parents communicate with their children about alcohol might depend on their own
Jernigan, David H; Padon, Alisa; Ross, Craig; Borzekowski, Dina
Alcohol marketing is known to be a significant risk factor for underage drinking. However, little is known about youth and adult exposure to alcohol advertising in digital and social media. This study piloted a comparative assessment of youth and adult recall of exposure to online marketing of alcohol. From September to October 2013, a pilot survey of past 30-day exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content in traditional and digital media was administered to a national sample of 1,192 youth (ages 13 to 20) and 1,124 adults (ages ≥21) using a prerecruited Internet panel maintained by GfK Custom Research. The weighted proportions of youth and adults who reported this exposure were compared by media type and by advertising and promotional content. Youth were more likely than adults to recall exposure to alcohol advertising on television (69.2% vs. 61.9%), radio (24.8% vs. 16.7%), billboards (54.8% vs. 35.4%), and the Internet (29.7% vs. 16.8%), but less likely to recall seeing advertising in magazines (35.7% vs. 36.4%). Youth were also more likely to recall seeing advertisements and pictures on the Internet of celebrities using alcohol (36.1% vs. 20.8%) or wearing clothing promoting alcohol (27.7% vs. 15.9%), and actively respond (i.e., like, share, or post) to alcohol-related content online. Youth report greater exposure to alcohol advertising and promotional content than adults in most media, including on the Internet. These findings emphasize the need to assure compliance with voluntary industry standards on the placement of alcohol advertising and the importance of developing better tools for monitoring youth exposure to alcohol marketing, particularly on the Internet. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Naimi, Timothy S.; Ross, Craig S.; Siegel, Michael B.; DeJong, William; Jernigan, David H.
Objective: Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. Method: Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13–20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth’s alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. Results: For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. Conclusions: Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure–consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media. PMID:27588530
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess alcohol consumption has serious adverse effects on health and violence-related harm. In the UK around 37% of men and 29% of women drink to excess and 20% and 13% report binge drinking. The potential impact on population health from a reduction in consumption is considerable. One proposed method to reduce consumption is to reduce availability through controls on alcohol outlet density. In this study we investigate the impact of a change in the density of alcohol outlets on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms to health in the community. Methods/Design A natural experiment of the effect of change in outlet density between 2005–09, in Wales, UK; population 2.4 million aged 16 years and over. Data on outlets are held by the 22 local authorities in Wales under The Licensing Act 2003. The study outcomes are change in (1 alcohol consumption using data from annual Welsh Health Surveys, (2 alcohol-related hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales, (3 Accident & Emergency department attendances between midnight–6am, and (4 alcohol-related violent crime against the person, using Police data. The data will be anonymously record-linked within the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage Databank at individual and 2001 Census Lower Super Output Area levels. New methods of network analysis will be used to estimate outlet density. Longitudinal statistical analysis will use (1 multilevel ordinal models of consumption and logistic models of admissions and Accident & Emergency attendance as a function of change in individual outlet exposure, adjusting for confounding variables, and (2 spatial models of the change in counts/rates of each outcome measure and outlet density. We will assess the impact on health inequalities and will correct for population migration. Discussion This inter-disciplinary study requires expertise in epidemiology and public health, health informatics, medical statistics
Petrelli, Berardino; Weinberg, Joanne; Hicks, Geoffrey G
The potential impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) varies considerably among exposed individuals, with some displaying serious alcohol-related effects and many others showing few or no overt signs of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). In animal models, variables such as nutrition, genetic background, health, other drugs, and stress, as well as dosage, duration, and gestational timing of exposure to alcohol can all be controlled in a way that is not possible in a clinical situation. In this review we examine mouse models of PAE and focus on those with demonstrated craniofacial malformations, abnormal brain development, or behavioral phenotypes that may be considered FASD-like outcomes. Analysis of these data should provide a valuable tool for researchers wishing to choose the PAE model best suited to their research questions or to investigate established PAE models for FASD comorbidities. It should also allow recognition of patterns linking gestational timing, dosage, and duration of PAE, such as recognizing that binge alcohol exposure(s) during early gestation can lead to severe FASD outcomes. Identified patterns could be particularly insightful and lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying FASD.
Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N
Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Ninety-six school-age children made up 2 groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 49) and control children (CON, n = 47). Children completed select subtests from the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-Second Edition and the NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically related cognitive variables were evaluated using multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance, whereas for reading, group membership and all cognitive variables contributed significantly. For both reading and spelling, group × working memory interactions revealed that working memory contributed independently only for alcohol-exposed children. Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Loeber, Sabine; Kirsch, Martina; Bach, Patrick; Richter, Anne; Bühler, Mira; von der Goltz, Christoph; Hermann, Derik; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk
In alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-associated cues elicit brain activation in mesocorticolimbic networks involved in relapse mechanisms. Cue-exposure based extinction training (CET) has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of alcoholism; however, it has remained unexplored whether CET mediates its therapeutic effects via changes of activity in mesolimbic networks in response to alcohol cues. In this study, we assessed CET treatment effects on cue-induced responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a randomized controlled trial, abstinent alcohol-dependent patients were randomly assigned to a CET group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). All patients underwent an extended detoxification treatment comprising medically supervised detoxification, health education, and supportive therapy. The CET patients additionally received nine CET sessions over 3 weeks, exposing the patient to his/her preferred alcoholic beverage. Cue-induced fMRI activation to alcohol cues was measured at pretreatment and posttreatment. Compared with pretreatment, fMRI cue-reactivity reduction was greater in the CET relative to the control group, especially in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the insula, as well as limbic and frontal regions. Before treatment, increased cue-induced fMRI activation was found in limbic and reward-related brain regions and in visual areas. After treatment, the CET group showed less activation than the control group in the left ventral striatum. The study provides first evidence that an exposure-based psychotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of alcoholism impacts on brain areas relevant for addiction memory and attentional focus to alcohol-associated cues and affects mesocorticolimbic reward pathways suggested to be pathophysiologically involved in addiction. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keri J. Woods
Full Text Available Number processing is a cognitive domain particularly sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure, which relies on intact parietal functioning. Alcohol-related alterations in brain activation have been found in the parietal lobe during symbolic number processing. However, the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the neural correlates of non-symbolic number comparison and the numerical distance effect have not been investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we examined differences in brain activation associated with prenatal alcohol exposure in five parietal regions involved in number processing during a non-symbolic number comparison task with varying degrees of difficulty. fMRI results are presented for 27 Cape Colored children (6 fetal alcohol syndome (FAS/partial FAS, 5 heavily exposed (HE non-sydromal, 16 controls; mean age ± SD = 11.7 ± 1.1 years. Fetal alcohol exposure was assessed by interviewing mothers using a timeline follow-back approach. Separate subject analyses were performed in each of five regions of interest, bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulci (IPS, bilateral posterior superior parietal lobules (PSPL, and left angular gyrus (left AG, using the general linear model with predictors for number comparison and difficulty level. Mean percent signal change for each predictor was extracted for each subject for each region to examine group differences and associations with continuous measures of alcohol exposure. Although groups did not differ in performance, controls activated the right PSPL more during non-symbolic number comparison than exposed children, but this was not significant after controlling for maternal smoking, and the right IPS more than children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS or partial FAS. More heavily exposed children recruited the left AG to a greater extent as task difficulty increased, possibly to compensate, in part, for impairments in function in the PSPL and IPS. Notably, in non
Paredes, Valerie; Cantu, Vanessa C.; Graf, Noreen M.
This study is designed to examine the effects of reality television and alcohol-related beliefs and behaviors of Hispanic college students (N = 285). Reality television is a new form of media that is gaining popularity and provides increased exposure to glamorized alcohol use. There is a lack of research studies focused on the impact that reality…
Bailey, Beth A.; Sokol, Robert J.
In addition to fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with many other adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. Research suggests that alcohol use during pregnancy may increase the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, and sudden infant death syndrome. This research has some inherent difficulties, such as the collection of accurate information about alcohol consumption during pregnancy and controlling for comorbid exposure...
Filbey, Francesca M; Claus, Eric; Audette, Amy R; Niculescu, Michelle; Banich, Marie T; Tanabe, Jody; Du, Yiping P; Hutchison, Kent E
A growing number of imaging studies suggest that alcohol cues, mainly visual, elicit activation in mesocorticolimbic structures. Such findings are consistent with the growing recognition that these structures play an important role in the attribution of incentive salience and the pathophysiology of addiction. The present study investigated whether the presentation of alcohol taste cues can activate brain regions putatively involved in the acquisition and expression of incentive salience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we recorded BOLD activity while delivering alcoholic tastes to 37 heavy drinking but otherwise healthy volunteers. The results yielded a pattern of BOLD activity in mesocorticolimbic structures (ie prefrontal cortex, striatum, ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra) relative to an appetitive control. Further analyses suggested strong connectivity between these structures during cue-elicited urge and demonstrated significant positive correlations with a measure of alcohol use problems (ie the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). Thus, repeated exposure to the taste alcohol in the scanner elicits activation in mesocorticolimbic structures, and this activation is related to measures of urge and severity of alcohol problems.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, with overall volume of exposure as the principal underlying dimension. Two main sources of data on volume of alcohol exposure are available: surveys and per capita consumption derived from routine statistics such as taxation. As both sources have significant problems, this paper presents an approach that triangulates information from both sources into disaggregated estimates in line with the overall level of per capita consumption. Methods A modeling approach was applied to the US using data from a large and representative survey, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Different distributions (log-normal, gamma, Weibull were used to model consumption among drinkers in subgroups defined by sex, age, and ethnicity. The gamma distribution was used to shift the fitted distributions in line with the overall volume as derived from per capita estimates. Implications for alcohol-attributable fractions were presented, using liver cirrhosis as an example. Results The triangulation of survey data with aggregated per capita consumption data proved feasible and allowed for modeling of alcohol exposure disaggregated by sex, age, and ethnicity. These models can be used in combination with risk relations for burden of disease calculations. Sensitivity analyses showed that the gamma distribution chosen yielded very similar results in terms of fit and alcohol-attributable mortality as the other tested distributions. Conclusions Modeling alcohol consumption via the gamma distribution was feasible. To further refine this approach, research should focus on the main assumptions underlying the approach to explore differences between volume estimates derived from surveys and per capita consumption figures.
Carr, Sherilene; O'Brien, Kerry S; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Livingston, Michael; Vandenberg, Brian; Donovan, Robert J; Lynott, Dermot
Exposure to alcohol advertising is associated with greater alcohol consumption in children and adolescents, and alcohol advertising is common in Australian sport. We examine child, adolescent and young adult exposure to alcohol advertising during three televised sports in Australia: Australian Football League (AFL), cricket and the National Rugby League (NRL). Alcohol advertising and audience viewing data were purchased for all AFL, cricket and NRL TV programs in Australia for 2012. We estimated children and adolescents (0-17 years) and young adults (18-29 years) exposure to alcohol advertising during AFL, cricket and NRL programs in the daytime (06:00-20:29 h), and night-time (20:30-23:59 h). There were 3544 alcohol advertisements in AFL (1942), cricket (941) and NRL programs (661), representing 60% of all alcohol advertising in sport TV, and 15% of all alcohol advertisements on Australian TV. These programs had a cumulative audience of 26.9 million children and adolescents, and 32 million young adults. Children and adolescents received 51 million exposures to alcohol advertising, with 47% of this exposure occurring during the daytime. Children and adolescents exposure to alcohol advertising was similar to young adults and peaked after 8.30pm. Child and adolescent and young adult's exposure to alcohol advertising is high when viewing sport TV in Australia in the daytime and night-time. Current alcohol advertising regulations are not protecting children and adolescents from exposure, particularly in prominent televised sports. The regulations should be changed to reduce children and adolescent excessive exposure to alcohol advertising when watching sport. [Carr S, O'Brien KS, Ferris J, Room R, Livingston M, Vandenberg B, Donovan RJ, Lynott D. Child and adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising in Australia's major televised sports. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:406-411]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Pieters, S.; Vorst, H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.
Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1; N
Pieters, S.; Vorst, H. van der; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
Research has indicated that implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions jointly predict alcohol use in adolescents and adults. Only few studies assessed these cognitions in children. Associations between alcohol cognitions and alcohol use were tested in two studies with 10 year olds (Study 1: N
Sowell, Elizabeth R; Leow, Alex D; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Smith, Lynne M; O'Connor, Mary J; Kan, Eric; Rosso, Carly; Houston, Suzanne; Dinov, Ivo D; Thompson, Paul M
Here we investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine (MA) on local brain volume using magnetic resonance imaging. Because many who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined whether local brain volumes differed among 61 children (ages 5-15 years), 21 with prenatal MA exposure, 18 with concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but not MA exposure (ALC group), and 27 unexposed controls. Volume reductions were observed in both exposure groups relative to controls in striatal and thalamic regions bilaterally and in right prefrontal and left occipitoparietal cortices. Striatal volume reductions were more severe in the MAA group than in the ALC group, and, within the MAA group, a negative correlation between full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) scores and caudate volume was observed. Limbic structures, including the anterior and posterior cingulate, the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and ventral and lateral temporal lobes bilaterally, were increased in volume in both exposure groups. Furthermore, cingulate and right IFG volume increases were more pronounced in the MAA than ALC group. Discriminant function analyses using local volume measurements and FSIQ were used to predict group membership, yielding factor scores that correctly classified 72% of participants in jackknife analyses. These findings suggest that striatal and limbic structures, known to be sites of neurotoxicity in adult MA abusers, may be more vulnerable to prenatal MA exposure than alcohol exposure and that more severe striatal damage is associated with more severe cognitive deficit.
Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.
Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative–motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increased lifetime risks for the development of alcohol dependence, violence, and injuries. Brain synapses, myelination, and neural circuits mature in adolescence to adult levels in parallel with increased reflection on the consequence of actions and reduced impulsivity and thrill seeking. Alcohol binge drinking could alter human development, but variations in genetics, peer groups, family structure, early life experiences, and the emergence of psychopathology in humans confound studies. As adolescence is common to mammalian species, preclinical models of binge drinking provide insight into the direct impact of alcohol on adolescent development. This review relates human findings to basic science studies, particularly the preclinical studies of the Neurobiology of Adolescent Drinking in Adulthood (NADIA) Consortium. These studies focus on persistent adult changes in neurobiology and behavior following adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE), a model of underage drinking. NADIA studies and others find that AIE results in the following: increases in adult alcohol drinking, disinhibition, and social anxiety; altered adult synapses, cognition, and sleep; reduced adult neurogenesis, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurons; and increased neuroimmune gene expression and epigenetic modifiers of gene expression. Many of these effects are specific to adolescents and not found in parallel adult studies. AIE can cause a persistence of adolescent-like synaptic physiology, behavior, and sensitivity
K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)
textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
O'Brien, Kerry S; Forrest, Walter; Greenlees, Iain; Rhind, Daniel; Jowett, Sophia; Pinsky, Ilana; Espelt, Albert; Bosque-Prous, Marina; Sonderlund, Anders Larrabee; Vergani, Matteo; Iqbal, Muhammad
There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. Cross-sectional. A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e.g., hit/assaulted, vandalism, sexual assault). Logistic regressions examined predictors of alcohol-related violence/aggression and anti-social behaviours. Significant bivariate relationships between masculinity, within-sport violence, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour were found for both men and women (p'smasculinity and alcohol consumption in men and women were related to an increased odds of having conducted an aggressive, violent and/or anti-social act in the past 12 months when intoxicated. Odds ratios were largest for relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport violence, and interpersonal violence/aggression (p'smasculinity and excessive drinking. Interventions that reduce excessive alcohol consumption, masculine norms and associated within-sport violence, could be effective in reducing alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in UK sportspeople. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Roberts, Sarah C M; Bond, Jason
We examined the relationship between state-level income inequality and alcohol outcomes and sought to determine whether associations of inequality with alcohol consumption and problems would be more evident with between-race inequality measures than with the Gini coefficient. We also sought to determine whether inequality would be most detrimental for disadvantaged individuals. Data from 2 nationally representative samples of adults (n = 13,997) from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys were merged with state-level inequality and neighborhood disadvantage indicators from the 2000 US Census. We measured income inequality using the Gini coefficient and between-race poverty ratios (Black-White and Hispanic-White). Multilevel models accounted for clustering of respondents within states. Inequality measured by poverty ratios was positively associated with light and heavy drinking. Associations between poverty ratios and alcohol problems were strongest for Blacks and Hispanics compared with Whites. Household poverty did not moderate associations with income inequality. Poverty ratios were associated with alcohol use and problems, whereas overall income inequality was not. Higher levels of alcohol problems in high-inequality states may be partly due to social context.
Hahn, Austin M; Tirabassi, Christine K; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S
This study tested a path model of relationships between military sexual trauma (MST), combat exposure, negative urgency, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 86 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who reported drinking at least one alcoholic beverage per week. PTSD mediated the relationships between MST and alcohol-related problems, negative urgency and alcohol-related problems, and combat exposure and alcohol-related problems. In addition, negative urgency had a direct effect on alcohol problems. These results indicate that MST, combat exposure, and negative urgency independently predict PTSD symptoms and PTSD symptoms mediate their relationship with alcohol-related problems. Findings support previous literature on the effect of combat exposure and negative urgency on PTSD and subsequent alcohol-related problems. The current study also contributes to the limited research regarding the relationship between MST, PSTD, and alcohol use and related problems. Clinical interventions aimed at reducing emotional dysregulation and posttraumatic stress symptomology may subsequently improve alcohol-related outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Parker, Matthew O; Evans, Alexandra M-D; Brock, Alistair J; Combe, Fraser J; Teh, Muy-Teck; Brennan, Caroline H
Exposure to alcohol during early central nervous system development has been shown variously to affect aspects of physiological and behavioural development. In extreme cases, this can extend to craniofacial defects, severe developmental delay and mental retardation. At more moderate levels, subtle differences in brain morphology and behaviour have been observed. One clear effect of developmental alcohol exposure is an increase in the propensity to develop alcoholism and other addictions. The mechanisms by which this occurs, however, are not currently understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult zebrafish chronically exposed to moderate levels of ethanol during early brain ontogenesis would show an increase in conditioned place preference for alcohol and an increased propensity towards habit formation, a key component of drug addiction in humans. We found support for both of these hypotheses and found that the exposed fish had changes in mRNA expression patterns for dopamine receptor, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and μ-opioid receptor encoding genes. Collectively, these data show an explicit link between the increased proclivity for addiction and addiction-related behaviour following exposure to ethanol during early brain development and alterations in the neural circuits underlying habit learning. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months.Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors.Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included. Of these, 204 subjects (65.8% consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. Independent predictors for alcohol use were antiepileptic drug monotherapy (OR 1.901 and physicians' advice that a light alcohol intake is harmless (OR 4.102. Seizure worsening related to alcohol consumption was reported by 37 of the 204 patients (18.1% who had used alcohol. All 37 subjects had consumed large quantities of alcohol prior to the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures regardless of their usual alcohol-drinking behavior. The amount of alcohol intake prior to alcohol-related seizures was at least 7 standard drinks, which is equivalent to 1.4 L of beer or 0.7 L of wine. In 95% of cases, alcohol-related seizures occurred within 12 h after cessation of alcohol intake. Independent predictors for alcohol-related seizures were generalized genetic epilepsy (OR 5.792 and chronic heavier alcohol use (OR 8.955.Conclusions: Two-thirds of interviewed subjects had consumed alcohol within the last 12 months. This finding may be an underestimate due to patients' self-reporting and recall error. In all cases, the occurrence of alcohol related-seizures was associated with timely consumption of considerably large amounts of alcohol. Thus, a responsible alcohol intake seems to be safe for most patients with epilepsy. However, subjects with epilepsy and especially those with generalized genetic epilepsy should be made aware of an increased risk for seizures related to heavy
von der Goltz, Christoph; Vengeliene, Valentina; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Perreau-Lenz, Stephanie; Pawlak, Cornelius R; Kiefer, Falk; Spanagel, Rainer
In humans, the retrieval of memories associated with an alcohol-related experience frequently evokes alcohol-seeking behaviour. The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become labile and susceptible to disruption after memory retrieval. The aim of our study was to examine whether retrieval of alcohol-related memories undergoes a reconsolidation process. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ethanol in the presence of specific conditioned stimuli. Thereafter, animals were left undisturbed in their home cages for the following 21 days. Memory retrieval was performed in a single 5-min exposure to all alcohol-associated stimuli. The protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, the non-competitive N-methyl-D: -aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 and acamprosate, a clinically used drug known to reduce a hyper-glutamatergic state, were given immediately after retrieval of alcohol-related memories. The impact of drug treatment on cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour was measured on the following day and 7 days later. Administration of both anisomycin and MK-801 reduced cue-induced alcohol-seeking behaviour, showing that memory reconsolidation was disrupted by these compounds. However, acamprosate had no effect on the reconsolidation process, suggesting that this process is not dependent on a hyper-glutamatergic state but is more related to protein synthesis and NMDA receptor activity. Pharmacological disruption of reconsolidation of alcohol-associated memories can be achieved by the use of NMDA antagonists and protein synthesis inhibitors and may thus provide a potential new therapeutic strategy for the prevention of relapse in alcohol addiction.
Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Paschall, Mallie J.; Gitelman, Amy M.
This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey…
Idrus, N M; Happer, J P; Thomas, J D
Alcohol is a known teratogen that is estimated to affect 2-5% of the births in the U.S. Prenatal alcohol exposure can produce physical features such as facial dysmorphology, physiological alterations such as cell loss in the central nervous system (CNS), and behavioral changes that include hyperactivity, cognitive deficits, and motor dysfunction. The range of effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure is referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Despite preventative measures, some women continue to drink while pregnant. Therefore, identifying interventions that reduce the severity of FASD is critical. This study investigated one such potential intervention, vitamin D3, a nutrient that exerts neuroprotective properties. The present study determined whether cholecalciferol, a common vitamin D3 nutritional supplement, could serve as a means of mitigating alcohol-related learning deficits. Using a rat model of FASD, cholecalciferol was given before, during, and after 3rd trimester equivalent alcohol exposure. Three weeks after cholecalciferol treatment, subjects were tested on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task. Animals exposed to ethanol committed significantly more errors compared to controls. Cholecalciferol treatment reduced perseverative behavior that is associated with developmental alcohol exposure in a dose-dependent manner. These data have important implications for the treatment of FASD and suggest that cholecalciferol may reduce some aspects of FASD. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Peter; de Bruijn, Avalon; Angus, Kathryn; Gordon, Ross; Hastings, Gerard
To assess the impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on future adolescent alcohol use. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, Sociological Abstracts, and PsycLIT, from 1990 to September 2008, supplemented with searches of Google scholar, hand searches of key journals and reference lists of identified papers and key publications for more recent publications. We selected longitudinal studies that assessed individuals' exposure to commercial communications and media and alcohol drinking behaviour at baseline, and assessed alcohol drinking behaviour at follow-up. Participants were adolescents aged 18 years or younger or below the legal drinking age of the country of origin of the study, whichever was the higher. Thirteen longitudinal studies that followed up a total of over 38,000 young people met inclusion criteria. The studies measured exposure to advertising and promotion in a variety of ways, including estimates of the volume of media and advertising exposure, ownership of branded merchandise, recall and receptivity, and one study on expenditure on advertisements. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 96 months. One study reported outcomes at multiple time-points, 3, 5, and 8 years. Seven studies provided data on initiation of alcohol use amongst non-drinkers, three studies on maintenance and frequency of drinking amongst baseline drinkers, and seven studies on alcohol use of the total sample of non-drinkers and drinkers at baseline. Twelve of the thirteen studies concluded an impact of exposure on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking amongst existing drinkers, with a dose response relationship in all studies that reported such exposure and analysis. There was variation in the strength of association, and the degree to which potential confounders were controlled for. The thirteenth study, which tested the impact of outdoor advertising placed near schools failed to detect an impact on alcohol use, but found an impact on
Chambers, T; Pearson, A L; Stanley, J; Smith, M; Barr, M; Ni Mhurchu, C; Signal, L
Exposure to alcohol marketing within alcohol retailers has been associated with higher rates of childhood drinking, brand recognition, and marketing recall. This study aimed to objectively measure children's everyday exposure to alcohol marketing within supermarkets. Children aged 11-13 (n = 167) each wore a wearable camera and GPS device for four consecutive days. Micro-spatial analyses were used to examine exposures within supermarkets. In alcohol retailing supermarkets (n = 30), children encountered alcohol marketing on 85% of their visits (n = 78). Alcohol marketing was frequently near everyday goods (bread and milk) or entrance/exit. Alcohol sales in supermarkets should be banned in order to protect children from alcohol marketing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nordahl Christensen, Helene; Diderichsen, Finn; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur
alcohol consumption at baseline using self-administrated questionnaires. Information on highest attained education 1 year before study entry and hospital and mortality data on alcohol-related medical events were obtained through linkage to nationwide registries. We performed analyses using the Aalen...... may also play a role. We investigated the joint effect of alcohol consumption and educational level on the rate of alcohol-related medical events.Methods: We pooled seven prospective cohorts from Denmark that enrolled 74,278 men and women age 30–70 years (study period, 1981 to 2009). We measured...... additive hazards model.Results: During follow-up (1,085,049 person-years), a total of 1718 alcohol-related events occurred. The joint effect of very high alcohol consumption (>21 [>28] drinks per week in women [men]) and low education on alcohol-related events exceeded the sum of their separate effects...
Slutske, Wendy S; Piasecki, Thomas M; Nathanson, Lisa; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G
To quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to alcohol hangover. Biometric models were used to partition the variance in hangover phenotypes. A community-based sample of Australian twins. Members of the Australian Twin Registry, Cohort II who reported consuming alcohol in the past year when surveyed in 2004-07 (n = 4496). Telephone interviews assessed participants' frequency of drinking to intoxication and frequency of hangover the day after drinking. Analyses examined three phenotypes: hangover frequency, hangover susceptibility (i.e. residual variance in hangover frequency after accounting for intoxication frequency) and hangover resistance (a dichotomous variable defined as having been intoxicated at least once in the past year with no reported hangovers). Genetic factors accounted for 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 37-53%] and 40% (95% CI = 33-48%) of the variation in hangover frequency in men and women, respectively. Most of the genetic variation in hangover frequency overlapped with genetic contributions to intoxication frequency. Genetic influences accounted for 24% (95% CI = 14-35%) and 16% (95% CI = 8-25%) of the residual hangover susceptibility variance in men and women, respectively. Forty-three per cent (95% CI = 22-63%) of the variation in hangover resistance was explained by genetic influences, with no evidence for significant sex differences. There was no evidence for shared environmental influences for any of the hangover phenotypes. Individual differences in the propensity to experience a hangover and of being resistant to hangover at a given level of alcohol use are genetically influenced. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Spear, Linda Patia; Swartzwelder, H. Scott
Alcohol use is typically initiated during adolescence, which, along with young adulthood, is a vulnerable period for the onset of high-risk drinking and alcohol abuse. Given across-species commonalities in certain fundamental neurobehavioral characteristics of adolescence, studies in laboratory animals such as the rat have proved useful to assess persisting consequences of repeated alcohol exposure. Despite limited research to date, reports of long-lasting effects of adolescent ethanol exposure are emerging, along with certain common themes. One repeated finding is that adolescent exposure to ethanol sometimes results in the persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes into adulthood. Instances of adolescent -like persistence have been seen in terms of baseline behavioral, cognitive, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical characteristics, along with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivities to acute ethanol challenge. These effects are generally not observed after comparable ethanol exposure in adulthood. Persistence of adolescent-typical phenotypes is not always evident, and may be related to regionally-specific ethanol influences on the interplay between CNS excitation and inhibition critical for the timing of neuroplasticity. PMID:24813805
Curtis, Brenda J.; Zahs, Anita; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.
Alcohol consumption alters factors that modify gene expression without changing the DNA code (i.e., epigenetic modulators) in many organ systems, including the immune system. Alcohol enhances the risk for developing several serious medical conditions related to immune system dysfunction, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), liver cancer, and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Binge and chronic drinking also render patients more susceptible to many infectious pathogens and advance the progression of HIV infection by weakening both innate and adaptive immunity. Epigenetic mechanisms play a pivotal role in these processes. For example, alcohol-induced epigenetic variations alter the developmental pathways of several types of immune cells (e.g., granulocytes, macrophages, and T-lymphocytes) and through these and other mechanisms promote exaggerated inflammatory responses. In addition, epigenetic mechanisms may underlie alcohol’s ability to interfere with the barrier functions of the gut and respiratory systems, which also contribute to the heightened risk of infections. Better understanding of alcohol’s effects on these epigenetic processes may help researchers identify new targets for the development of novel medications to prevent or ameliorate alcohol’s detrimental effects on the immune system. PMID:24313169
... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...
Andrew W Walker
Full Text Available Stressful life events are causally linked with alcohol use disorders (AUDs, providing support for a hypothesis that alcohol consumption is aimed at stress reduction. We have previously shown that expression of relaxin-3 mRNA in rat brain correlates with alcohol intake and that central antagonism of relaxin-3 receptors (RXFP3 prevents stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking. Therefore the objectives of these studies were to investigate the impact of Rxfp3 gene deletion in C57BL/6J mice on baseline and stress-related alcohol consumption. Male wild-type (WT and Rxfp3 knockout (KO (C57/B6JRXFP3TM1/DGen littermate mice were tested for baseline saccharin and alcohol consumption and preference over water in a continuous access two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Another cohort of mice was subjected to repeated restraint followed by swim stress to examine stress-related alcohol preference. Hepatic alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was assessed in mice following chronic alcohol intake and in naive controls. WT and Rxfp3 KO mice had similar baseline saccharin and alcohol preference, and hepatic alcohol processing. However, Rxfp3 KO mice displayed a stress-induced reduction in alcohol preference that was not observed in WT littermates. Notably, this phenotype, once established, persisted for at least six weeks after cessation of stress exposure. These findings suggest that in mice, relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling is involved in maintaining high alcohol preference during and after stress, but does not appear to strongly regulate the primary reinforcing effects of alcohol.
Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana
Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team's initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana
Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080
Salomone, A; Bozzo, A; Di Corcia, D; Gerace, E; Vincenti, M
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in hair are effective direct biomarkers of ethanol ingestion, whose analytical determination can be used to discriminate between chronic and occasional ethanol intake. Ethanol is a compound widely used in some workplaces (e.g., clinics, hospitals) and is present in considerable amounts in mouthwash for oral cleaning, medications, cosmetic products, hydro-alcoholic disinfectants and antiseptics for hands. This study examined the ethyl alcohol exposure derived from hand disinfectants (in gel form) by simulating the typical occupational situation of medical-health workers (healthcare workers, nurses, surgeons, etc.) who frequently wash their hands with antiseptic sanitizer. Two types of hand disinfectants with 62% w/w of ethanol content were daily applied to the hands of a teetotaler for 20 times a day, for 4 consecutive weeks, thus simulating a typical workplace situation and a cumulative dermal exposure to ethanol of ~1,100 g. Different matrices (head, chest and beard hair, urine) were regularly sampled and analyzed using a ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem massspectrometry validated method for EtG and a (HS)SPME-GC-MS validated technique for FAEEs. The data obtained showed that a significant dermal absorption and/or inhalation of ethanol occurred, and that the use of detergents produce urinary EtG concentrations both higher than the cut-offs normally used for clinical and forensic analyses (either 100 and 500 ng/mL, depending on the context). The concentrations of the ethanol metabolites in the keratin matrices were, respectively, below the cut-off of 7 pg/mg for EtG and below 0.5 ng/mg for FAAEs (0.35 ng/mg for ethyl palmitate). In conclusion, the regular use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers can affect the concentration of urinary EtG and lead to positive analytical results, particularly when specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanol-containing hand sanitizer. On the
Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Sherk, Adam; Callaghan, Russell C; Macdonald, Scott; Gatley, Jodi
Saskatchewan's introduction in April 2010 of minimum prices graded by alcohol strength led to an average minimum price increase of 9.1% per Canadian standard drink (=13.45 g ethanol). This increase was shown to be associated with reduced consumption and switching to lower alcohol content beverages. Police also informally reported marked reductions in night-time alcohol-related crime. This study aims to assess the impacts of changes to Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol-pricing regulations between 2008 and 2012 on selected crime events often related to alcohol use. Data were obtained from Canada's Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test immediate and lagged associations between minimum price increases and rates of night-time and police identified alcohol-related crimes. Controls were included for simultaneous crime rates in the neighbouring province of Alberta, economic variables, linear trend, seasonality and autoregressive and/or moving-average effects. The introduction of increased minimum-alcohol prices was associated with an abrupt decrease in night-time alcohol-related traffic offences for men (-8.0%, P prices may contribute to reductions in alcohol-related traffic-related and violent crimes perpetrated by men. Observed lagged effects for violent incidents may be due to a delay in bars passing on increased prices to their customers, perhaps because of inventory stockpiling. [Stockwell T, Zhao J, Sherk A, Callaghan RC, Macdonald S, Gatley J. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:492-501]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Peterson, Veronica L; Jury, Nicholas J; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Draper, Lorraine A; Crispie, Fiona; Cotter, Paul D; Dinan, Timothy G; Holmes, Andrew; Cryan, John F
The gut microbiota includes a community of bacteria that play an integral part in host health and biological processes. Pronounced and repeated findings have linked gut microbiome to stress, anxiety, and depression. Currently, however, there remains only a limited set of studies focusing on microbiota change in substance abuse, including alcohol use disorder. To date, no studies have investigated the impact of vapour alcohol administration on the gut microbiome. For research on gut microbiota and addiction to proceed, an understanding of how route of drug administration affects gut microbiota must first be established. Animal models of alcohol abuse have proven valuable for elucidating the biological processes involved in addiction and alcohol-related diseases. This is the first study to investigate the effect of vapour route of ethanol administration on gut microbiota in mice. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 4 weeks of chronic intermittent vapourized ethanol (CIE, N=10) or air (Control, N=9). Faecal samples were collected at the end of exposure followed by 16S sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Robust separation between CIE and Control was seen in the microbiome, as assessed by alpha (pgut microbiota in mice. Significant increases in genus Alistipes (pgut-brain axis and align with previous research showing similar microbiota alterations in inflammatory states during alcoholic hepatitis and psychological stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E
Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.
McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.
Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…
George, M S; Anton, R F; Bloomer, C; Teneback, C; Drobes, D J; Lorberbaum, J P; Nahas, Z; Vincent, D J
Functional imaging studies have recently demonstrated that specific brain regions become active in cocaine addicts when they are exposed to cocaine stimuli. To test whether there are regional brain activity differences during alcohol cue exposure between alcoholic subjects and social drinkers, we designed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol involving alcohol-specific cues. Ten non-treatment-seeking adult alcoholic subjects (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.9 [9.9] years) as well as 10 healthy social drinking controls of similar age (2 women) (mean [SD] age, 29.4 [8.9] years) were recruited, screened, and scanned. In the 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, subjects were serially rated for alcohol craving before and after a sip of alcohol, and after a 9-minute randomized presentation of pictures of alcoholic beverages, control nonalcoholic beverages, and 2 different visual control tasks. During picture presentation, changes in regional brain activity were measured with the blood oxygen level-dependent technique. Alcoholic subjects, compared with the social drinking subjects, reported higher overall craving ratings for alcohol. After a sip of alcohol, while viewing alcohol cues compared with viewing other beverage cues, only the alcoholic subjects had increased activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior thalamus. The social drinkers exhibited specific activation only while viewing the control beverage pictures. When exposed to alcohol cues, alcoholic subjects have increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex and anterior thalamus-brain regions associated with emotion regulation, attention, and appetitive behavior.
Voogt, Carmen; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: Limited research is available on children's alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms, yet a better comprehension of these factors may be crucial in explaining alcohol use later in life. This study provides insights into alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms in 4-
Voogt, C.V.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Background: Limited research is available on children's alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms, yet a better comprehension of these factors may be crucial in explaining alcohol use later in life. This study provides insights into alcohol-related knowledge and alcohol-related norms in
Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N
Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) frequently exhibit impairment on tasks measuring inhibition. The objective of this study was to determine if a performance-based relationship exists between psychometric tests and eye movement tasks in children with FASD. Participants for this dataset were aged 5-17 years and included those diagnosed with an FASD (n=72), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=21), and typically developing controls (n=139). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery, which included the NEPSY-II subtests of auditory attention, response set, and inhibition. Each participant completed a series of saccadic eye movement tasks, which included the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Both the FASD and the PAE groups performed worse than controls on the subtest measures of attention and inhibition. Compared with controls, the FASD group made more errors on the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Among the combined FASD/PAE group, inhibition and switching errors were negatively correlated with direction errors on the antisaccade task but not on the memory-guided task. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggests that response inhibition deficits in children with FASD/PAE are associated with difficulty controlling saccadic eye movements which may point to overlapping brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests that are used during FASD diagnosis, and may therefore help with early identification of children who would benefit from a multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M
The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Conclusion: We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern.
Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Agner, T.
Background. Hand eczema is common in healthcare workers, owing to intensive exposure to wet work and skin irritants. Targeted interventions and vocational guidance based on documented exposures and risk factors are needed. Objectives. The aims of the study were to investigate the relationship bet...
The characteristics of dementia relating to excessive alcohol use have received increased research interest in recent times. In this paper, the neuropathology, nosology, epidemiology, clinical features, and neuropsychology of alcohol-related dementia (ARD) and alcohol-induced persisting amnestic syndrome (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, or WKS) are reviewed. Neuropathological and imaging studies suggest that excessive and prolonged use of alcohol may lead to structural and functional damage that is permanent in nature; however, there is debate about the relative contributions of the direct toxic effect of alcohol (neurotoxicity hypothesis), and the impact of thiamine deficiency, to lasting damage. Investigation of alcohol-related cognitive impairment has been further complicated by differing definitions of patterns of alcohol use and associated lifestyle factors related to the abuse of alcohol. Present diagnostic systems identify two main syndromes of alcohol-related cognitive impairment: ARD and WKS. However, 'alcohol-related brain damage' is increasingly used as an umbrella term to encompass the heterogeneity of these disorders. It is unclear what level of drinking may pose a risk for the development of brain damage or, in fact, whether lower levels of alcohol may protect against other forms of dementia. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals with ARD typically have a younger age of onset than those with other forms of dementia, are more likely to be male, and often are socially isolated. The cognitive profile of ARD appears to involve both cortical and subcortical pathology, and deficits are most frequently observed on tasks of visuospatial function as well as memory and higher-order (executive) tasks. The WKS appears more heterogeneous in nature than originally documented, and deficits on executive tasks commonly are reported in conjunction with characteristic memory deficits. Individuals with alcohol-related disorders have the potential to at least
Thurin, Kyle; Ceballos, Natalie A; Graham, Reiko
Research on attentional biases to alcohol images has used heterogeneous sets of stimuli (e.g., an isolated beer can or a group of people drinking). However, alcoholic beverage preferences play an important part in determining an individual's alcohol use pattern and may influence attentional biases, especially for inexperienced drinkers. The current study examined whether alcoholic beverage preferences affect event-related potential (ERP) indices of cue reactivity to different types of alcohol images (e.g., beer, wine, and distilled spirits) in heavy episodic drinkers. ERPs were recorded in 14 heavy episodic drinkers (7 male) who completed a Go/No-Go task using preferred and nonpreferred alcohol images with nonalcoholic beverage images as controls. Larger N2 amplitudes for preferred alcohol images were observed relative to control images and to nonpreferred alcohol images, indicating increased attentional capture by preferred beverages. P3 amplitudes and latencies were not sensitive to preferences, but latencies were delayed and amplitudes were enhanced on No-Go trials (i.e., trials requiring response inhibition). These results suggest that alcoholic beverage preference is a factor influencing alcohol cue reactivity in heavy-episodic-drinking college students. This information has methodological significance and may also be applied to improve treatment and prevention programs that focus on attentional bias modification and inhibitory control training.
Nesi, Jacqueline; Rothenberg, W Andrew; Hussong, Andrea M; Jackson, Kristina M
Adolescents' increased use of social networking sites (SNS) coincides with a developmental period of heightened risk for alcohol use initiation. However, little is known regarding associations between adolescents' SNS use and drinking initiation nor the mechanisms of this association. This study examined longitudinal associations among adolescents' exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS postings, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms, and initiation of drinking behaviors. Participants were 658 high-school students who reported on posting of alcohol-related SNS content by self and friends, alcohol-related injunctive norms, and other developmental risk factors for alcohol use at two time points, 1 year apart. Participants also reported on initiation of three drinking behaviors: consuming a full drink, becoming drunk, and heavy episodic drinking (three or more drinks per occasion). Probit regression analyses were used to predict initiation of drinking behaviors from exposure to alcohol-related SNS content. Path analyses examined mediation of this association by peer injunctive norms. Exposure to friends' alcohol-related SNS content predicted adolescents' initiation of drinking and heavy episodic drinking 1 year later, controlling for demographic and known developmental risk factors for alcohol use (i.e., parental monitoring and peer orientation). In addition, alcohol-favorable peer injunctive norms statistically mediated the relationship between alcohol-related SNS exposure and each drinking milestone. Results suggest that social media plays a unique role in contributing to peer influence processes surrounding alcohol use and highlight the need for future investigative and preventive efforts to account for adolescents' changing social environments. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Provincial Alcohol Index (PAI is one of the efforts to develop a composite measurement to operationalize the situation of alcohol consumption and related risk behaviors. The index offers a means for national and subnational alcohol control committees to address alcohol-related problems in their responsible jurisdiction areas. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between PAI scores and alcohol-related problems using Thailand as an example. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of PAI scores based on the 2007 National Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behavior Survey (CSAD and the National Statistical Office data were conducted. CSAD data were collected from 168,285 Thai residents aged 15 years and above in 76 provinces of Thailand (population range 180,787 to 5,716,248. The PAI scores were generated using three different methods based on five indicators: 1 prevalence of adult (≥15 years drinkers, 2 prevalence of underage drinkers, 3 proportion of regular drinkers, 4 proportion of binge drinkers and 5 proportion of drink-drivers. Alcohol-related injuries and violent events together with provincial level covariates (age, gender, income and region were assessed. Correlational and linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between PAI scores and alcohol-related problems. Results The PAI scores generated from the three methods were significantly correlated with one another (r > 0.7, p < 0.05 and significantly related to alcohol-related problems after adjusting for the provincial level covariates. Based on the normalized method, PAI scores had a significant and positive relationship with prevalence of alcohol-related injuries (beta = 562 cases per million population, p = 0.027 and violence (beta = 451 events per million population, p = 0.013. PAI scores were highest in the north and lowest in the south of the country. Conclusions The findings of this
Rouzer, Siara K.; Cole, Jesse M.; Johnson, Julia M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Diaz, Marvin R.
Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12) heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model modera...
There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.
Chavira, Cynthia; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lin, Johnny; del Pino, Homero E; Bazargan, Mohsen
We compared the prevalence of exposure to violence across different types of alcohol consumed and the association between the type of alcohol consumed and exposure to violence. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a sample of 295 Emergency Department (ED) patients identified as having an alcohol problem. Outcome measure include exposure to violence, and the main study predictor was "type of alcoholic drink" including: malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, wine cooler, wine, fortified wine or hard liquor. Using logistic regression analysis, ED patients who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol increased their odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 8.5 compared to ED patients who drank other types of alcohol. Being female increased the odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 2.5 and using illicit drugs increased the odds by 3.8. Analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means revealed that ED patients who only drank MLB had a higher exposure to violence compared to non-MLB drinkers, and that female illicit drug users who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol had the highest exposure to violence. MLB was identified as a predictor of the amount of exposure to violence and in particular, that the use of malt liquor beer in combination with other types of alcohol increased the risk of being both threatened and physically attacked. Implications for ED and community interventions are suggested.
Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D
Prenatal alcohol exposure can disrupt central nervous system development, manifesting as behavioral deficits that include motor, emotional, and cognitive dysfunction. Both clinical and animal studies have reported binge drinking during development to be highly correlated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We hypothesized that binge drinking may be especially damaging because it is associated with episodes of alcohol withdrawal. Specifically, we have been investigating the possibility that NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity occurs during alcohol withdrawal and contributes to developmental alcohol-related neuropathology. Consistent with this hypothesis, administration of the NMDA receptor antagonists MK-801 or eliprodil during withdrawal attenuates behavioral alterations associated with early alcohol exposure. In this study, we investigated the effects of memantine, a clinically used NMDA receptor antagonist, on minimizing ethanol-induced overactivity and spatial learning deficits. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol via intubation on postnatal day (PD) 6, a period of brain development that models late gestation in humans. Controls were intubated with a calorically matched maltose solution. During withdrawal, 24 and 36 hours after ethanol exposure, subjects were injected with a total of either 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg memantine. The subjects' locomotor levels were recorded in open field activity monitors on PDs 18 to 21 and on a serial spatial discrimination reversal learning task on PDs 40 to 43. Alcohol exposure induced overactivity and impaired performance in spatial learning. Memantine administration significantly attenuated the ethanol-associated behavioral alterations in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, memantine may be neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data have important implications for the treatment of EtOH's neurotoxic effects and provide further support that ethanol withdrawal
de Haan L
Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were
Full Text Available In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9, on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.
Zemore, Sarah E; Mulia, Nina; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J; Liu, Huiguo; Schmidt, Laura
We examined whether race/ethnicity was related to exposure to acute economic losses in the 2008-2009 recession, even accounting for individual-level and geographic variables, and whether it influenced associations between economic losses and drinking patterns and problems. Data were from the 2010 National Alcohol Survey (N = 5,382). Surveys assessed both severe losses (i.e., job and housing loss) and moderate losses (i.e., reduced hours/pay and trouble paying the rent/mortgage) attributed to the 2008-2009 recession. Alcohol outcomes included total annual volume, monthly drunkenness, drinking consequences, and alcohol dependence (based on criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Compared with Whites, Blacks reported significantly greater exposure to job loss and trouble paying the rent/mortgage, and Latinos reported greater exposure to all economic losses. However, only Black-White differences were robust in multivariate analyses. Interaction tests suggested that associations between exposure to economic loss and alcohol problems were stronger among Blacks than Whites. Given severe (vs. no) loss, Blacks had about 13 times the odds of both two or more drinking consequences and alcohol dependence, whereas the corresponding odds ratios for Whites were less than 3. Conversely, associations between economic loss and alcohol outcomes were weak and ambiguous among Latinos. Results suggest greater exposure to economic loss for both Blacks and Latinos (vs. Whites) and that the Black population may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of economic hardship on the development and/or maintenance of alcohol problems. Findings extend the economic literature and signal policy makers and service providers that Blacks and Latinos may be at special risk during economic downturns.
Curtis, Brenda L; Lookatch, Samantha J; Ramo, Danielle E; McKay, James R; Feinn, Richard S; Kranzler, Henry R
Despite the pervasive use of social media by young adults, there is comparatively little known about whether, and how, engagement in social media influences this group's drinking patterns and risk of alcohol-related problems. We examined the relations between young adults' alcohol-related social media engagement (defined as the posting, liking, commenting, and viewing of alcohol-related social media content) and their drinking behavior and problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems with alcohol-related social media engagement. Summary baseline variables regarding the social media platform used (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), social media measures assessed (e.g., number of alcohol photographs posted), alcohol measures (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Timeline Follow back Interview), and the number of time points at which data were collected were extracted from each published study. We used the Q statistic to examine heterogeneity in the correlations between alcohol-related social media engagement and both drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems. Because there was significant heterogeneity, we used a random-effects model to evaluate the difference from zero of the weighted aggregate correlations. We used metaregression with study characteristics as moderators to test for moderators of the observed heterogeneity. Following screening, 19 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The primary findings indicated a statistically significant relationship and moderate effect sizes between alcohol-related social media engagement and both alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.44, p social media engagement and drinking behavior or these were measured on different occasions and (ii) whether measurements were taken by self-report or observation of social media engagement. We found moderate-sized effects across the 19
Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they
Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry
In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996.......92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light...
Janssen, Tim; Treloar Padovano, Hayley; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Jackson, Kristina M.
Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent…
Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The current study set out to investigate alcohol availability in a densely populated, residential area of suburban São Paulo associated with high levels of social deprivation and violence. Gun-related deaths and a heavy concentration of alcohol outlets are notable features of the area surveyed. Given the strong evidence for a link between alcohol availability and a number of alcohol-related problems, including violent crime, measures designed to reduce accessibility have become a favored choice for alcohol prevention programs in recent years. METHODS: The interviewers were 24 residents of the area who were trained for the study. It was selected an area of nineteen streets, covering a total distance of 3.7 km. A profile of each alcohol outlet available on the area was recorded. RESULTS: One hundred and seven alcohol outlets were recorded. The number of other properties in the same area was counted at 1,202. Two measures of outlet density may thus be calculated: the number of outlets per kilometer of roadway (29 outlets/km; and the proportion of all properties that sold alcohol (1 in 12. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study is compared with others which are mainly from developed countries and shown that the area studied have the highest density of alcohol outlet density ever recorded in the medical literature. The implication of this data related to the violence of the region is discussed. By generating a profile of alcohol sales and selling points, it was hoped to gain a better understanding of alcohol access issues within the sample area. Future alcohol prevention policy would be well served by such knowledge.
Thomas, Jennifer D; Idrus, Nirelia M; Monk, Bradley R; Dominguez, Hector D
Prenatal alcohol exposure can alter physical and behavioral development, leading to a range of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Despite warning labels, pregnant women continue to drink alcohol, creating a need to identify effective interventions to reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent studies indicate that choline supplementation can reduce the teratogenic effects of developmental alcohol exposure. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during prenatal ethanol treatment could mitigate the adverse effects of ethanol on behavioral development. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were intubated with 6 g/kg/day ethanol in a binge-like manner from gestational days 5-20; pair-fed and ad libitum chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group were intubated with either 250 mg/kg/day choline chloride or vehicle. Spontaneous alternation, parallel bar motor coordination, Morris water maze, and spatial working memory were assessed in male and female offspring. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited delayed development of spontaneous alternation behavior and deficits on the working memory version of the Morris water maze during adulthood, effects that were mitigated with prenatal choline supplementation. Neither alcohol nor choline influenced performance on the motor coordination task. These data indicate that choline supplementation during prenatal alcohol exposure may reduce the severity of fetal alcohol effects, particularly on alterations in tasks that require behavioral flexibility. These findings have important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Brett, Emma I; Leavens, Eleanor L; Miller, Mary Beth; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leffingwell, Thad R
College students in the U.S. continue to drink in hazardous ways and experience a range of alcohol-related consequences. Personalized feedback interventions (PFIs), which often include normative components comparing personal drinking to that of similar peers, have been effective in reducing alcohol outcomes among college students. Though normative perceptions of the quantity and frequency of alcohol use have been examined in many studies, norms for alcohol-related consequences have received less attention. The current study examined self-other discrepancies (SODs) for alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants overestimated how often alcohol-related consequences are experienced by other same-sex students on campus and rated consequences as more acceptable for others to experience than themselves. No differences in SODs were found between those who did and did not report alcohol use. Future studies should examine the efficacy of PFIs that incorporate normative feedback on alcohol-related consequences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smart, Mieka J; Yearwood, Safiya S; Hwang, Seungyoung; Thorpe, Roland J; Furr-Holden, C Debra
This study A) assessed whether levels of alcohol-related disciplinary actions on college campuses changed among MD college students after the 2011 Maryland (MD) state alcohol tax increase from 6% to 9%, and B) determined which school-level factors impacted the magnitude of changes detected. A quasi-experimental interrupted time series (ITS) analysis of panel data containing alcohol-related disciplinary actions on 33 MD college campuses in years 2006-2013. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine whether there was a statistically significant difference in counts of alcohol-related disciplinary actions comparing time before and after the tax increase. The ITS anaysis showed an insignificant relationship between alcohol-related disciplinary actions and tax implementation (β = -.27; p =.257) but indicated that alcohol-related disciplinary actions decreased significantly over the time under study (β = -.05; p =.022). Alcohol related disciplinary actions did decrease over time in the years of study, and this relationship was correlated with several school-level characteristics, including school price, school funding type, types of degrees awarded, and specialty. School price may serve as a proxy mediator or confounder of the effect of time on disciplinary actions.
Taylor, Paul A.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; van der Kouwe, André; Molteno, Christopher D.; Chen, Gang; Wintermark, Pia; Alhamud, Alkathafi; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.
Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to have severe, long-term consequences for brain and behavioral development already detectable in infancy and childhood. Resulting features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) include cognitive and behavioral effects, as well as facial anomalies and growth deficits. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography were used to analyze white matter development in 11 newborns (age since conception <45 weeks) whose mothers were recruited during pregnancy. Comparisons were made with 9 age-matched controls born to abstainers or light drinkers from the same Cape Coloured (mixed ancestry) community near Cape Town, South Africa. DTI parameters, T1 relaxation time, proton density and volumes were used to quantify and investigate group differences in white matter (WM) in the newborn brains. Probabilistic tractography was used to estimate and to delineate similar tract locations among the subjects for transcallosal pathways, cortico-spinal projection fibers and cortico-cortical association fibers. In each of these WM networks, the axial diffusivity AD was the parameter that showed the strongest association with maternal drinking. The strongest relations were observed in medial and inferior WM, regions in which the myelination process typically begins. In contrast to studies of older individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, FA did not exhibit a consistent and significant relation with alcohol exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first DTI-tractography study of prenatally alcohol exposed newborns. PMID:25182535
In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties in some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relation between alcohol and cardiovascular disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Several large American studies have shown...... to a binge - intake of alcohol have benefits with regard to cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies from the UK, Sweden and Denmark have further suggested that wine drinkers have a lower mortality than beer and spirits drinkers. SUMMARY: The J-shaped relation between alcohol intake and cardiovascular...... that the J-shaped relation is influenced by age and coronary heart disease risk-factor status since only middle-aged and elderly and those already at risk of developing coronary heart disease seem protected by drinking alcohol. It has also been suggested that only those who have a steady - in contrast...
Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.
Full Text Available This study examines the relation between multiple self-concept dimensions and alcohol consumption within the adolescent schooling. A sample of 642 students (263 boys and 379 girls aged between 15 and 23 years completed the Self-Description Questionnaire II (SDQ II and an alcohol drinking measure. Results reveal an absence of significant relationships between global self-esteem and alcohol consumption and a small relation, found only in the female, between alcoholic drinking and global self-concept, supporting the assumption that supports the low sensitivity and the consequent use of scarce global dimensions of the self. In contrast, there are significant relations between some specific dimensions of the self and alcohol consumption, whilst the correlation coefficients vary according to subject’s gender, suggesting a cultural involvement based analysis.
Zupanc, Tomaž; Pregelj, Peter; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan; Paska, Alja Videtič
Substantial evidence from family, twin, and adoption studies corroborates implication of genetic and environmental factors, as well as their interactions, on suicidal behavior and alcoholism risk. Serotonergic disfunction seems to be involved in the pathophysiology of substance abuse, and has also an important role in suicidal behavior. Recent studies of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 showed mild or no association with suicide and alcohol-related suicide. We performed SNP and alcohol analysis on 388 suicide victims and 227 controls. The results showed association between suicide (Pχ²=0.043) and alcohol-related suicide (Pχ²=0.021) for SNP Rs1843809. A tendency for association was determined also for polymorphism Rs1386493 (Pχ²=0.055) and alcohol-related suicide. Data acquired from psychological autopsies in a subsample of suicide victims (n=79) determined more impulsive behavior (Pχ²=0.016) and verbal aggressive behavior (Pχ²=0.025) in the subgroup with alcohol misuse or dependency. In conclusion, our results suggest implication of polymorphisms in suicide and alcohol-related suicide, but further studies are needed to clarify the interplay among serotonergic system disfunction, suicide, alcohol dependence, impulsivity and the role of TPH2 enzyme. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nawyn, S J; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Hughes, T L
While workplace sexual harassment has received a great deal of attention in both the popular media and scientific literature, less attention has been directed to the differential occurrence of sexual harassment among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual men and women, and the relationships between these experiences and alcohol-related outcomes. Additionally, the distribution of alcohol-related outcomes of non-sexual forms of workplace harassment among these groups have not been adequately explored. Using data from a university-based study of workplace harassment and alcohol use (N = 2492), we focus on exposure to workplace harassment and alcohol-related outcomes for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to heterosexual men and women. Lesbian/bisexual women did not differ significantly from heterosexual women in their experiences of workplace harassment. However, stronger linkages between harassment and increased alcohol consumption and problems were found for lesbian and bisexual women than for heterosexual women. Gay/bisexual men, on the other hand, experienced significantly more sexual harassment than heterosexual men, but did not report a corresponding increase in alcohol use and abuse. Implications for future research on sexual identity, alcohol use, and workplace harassment are discussed.
Willford, Jennifer; Day, Richard; Aizenstein, Howard; Day, Nancy
This study identified structural changes in the caudate nucleus in offspring of mothers who drank moderate levels of alcohol during pregnancy. In addition, the effect of duration of alcohol use during pregnancy was assessed. Young adults were recruited from the Maternal Health Practices and Child Development Project. Three groups were evaluated: prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) during all three trimesters (3T), PAE during the first trimester only (1T), and controls with no PAE (0T). Magnetic r...
Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Gehlert, Donald R.; Ryabinin, Andrey; Kaur, Simranjit; Cippitelli, Andrea; Thorsell, Annika; Lê, Anh D.; Hipskind, Philip A.; Hamdouchi, Chafiq; Lu, Jianliang; Hembre, Erik J.; Cramer, Jeffrey; Song, Min; McKinzie, David; Morin, Michelle; Economidou, Daina; Stopponi, Serena; Cannella, Nazzareno; Braconi, Simone; Kallupi, Marsida; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Massi, Maurizio; George, David T.; Gilman, Jody; Hersh, Jacqueline; Tauscher, Johannes T.; Hunt, Stephen P.; Hommer, Daniel; Heilig, Markus
This article summarizes the proceedings of a symposium held at the conference on “Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies” in Volterra, Italy, May 6–9, 2008. Chaired by Markus Heilig and Roberto Ciccocioppo, this symposium offered a forum for the presentation of recent data linking neuropetidergic neurotransmission to the regulation of different alcohol related behaviours in animals and in humans. Dr. Donald Gehlert described the development of a new corticotrophin releasing factor (CRH) receptor 1 antagonist and showed its efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and stress-induced relapse in different animal models of alcohol abuse. Dr. Andrey Ryabinin reviewed recent findings in his laboratory indicating a role of the urocortin 1 (Ucn) receptor system in the regulation of alcohol intake. Dr. Annika Thorsell showed data supporting the significance of the neuropetide Y (NPY) receptor system in the modulation of behaviours associated with a history of ethanol intoxication. Dr. Roberto Ciccocioppo focused his presentation on the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptors as treatment targets for alcoholism. Finally, Dr. Markus Heilig showed recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that neurokinin 1 (NK1) antagonism may represent a promising new treatment for alcoholism. Collectively, these investigators highlighted the significance of neuropeptidergic neurotransmission in the regulation of neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol addiction. Data also revealed the importance of these systems as treatment targets for the development of new medication for alcoholism. PMID:19913192
Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun
BACKGROUND: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... Therefore the aim of this study was to explore how bladder cancer patients experience a perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in two urology out-patient clinics. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews...... with 11 purposively sampled persons who had received the smoking and alcohol cessation intervention. The analysis followed the steps contained in the thematic network analysis. RESULTS: Two global themes emerged: "smoking and alcohol cessation was experienced as an integral part of bladder cancer surgery...
Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.
The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…
Rainer, J P
This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further
Leigh, B C
Recent psychosocial research on alcohol expectancies--beliefs about the effects of alcohol on behavior, moods and emotions--has suggested that these expectancies mediate not only decisions about drinking but the alcohol effects displayed by those who have been drinking. Results of a study of drinking and sexual behavior showed that individuals of different gender and sexual orientation differed in their beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sexual responding. In addition, expectations of sexual enhancement and disinhibition were related to the initiation of sexual activity and to the proportion of sexual encounters that took place while drinking, and interacted with sex guilt to predict the amount drunk in the most recent sexual encounter. These results suggest that beliefs about the effects of alcohol on sex may affect the characteristics of sexual encounters that involve drinking.
Jill A. Poole
Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability
Palmisano, Martina; Pandey, Subhash C
Stress-related disorders, such as anxiety, early life stress, and posttraumatic stress disorder appear to be important factors in promoting alcoholism, as alcohol consumption can temporarily attenuate the negative affective symptoms of these disorders. Several molecules involved in signaling pathways may contribute to the neuroadaptation induced during alcohol dependence and stress disorders, and among these, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and opioid peptides (i.e., nociceptin and dynorphin) are involved in the interaction of stress and alcohol. In fact, alterations in the expression and function of these molecules have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. In recent years, various studies have focused on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate chromatin architecture, thereby modifying gene expression. Interestingly, epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions have been shown to be associated with the neurobiology of psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism and stress. In particular, the enzymes responsible for chromatin remodeling (i.e., histone deacetylases and methyltransferases, DNA methyltransferases) have been identified as common molecular mechanisms for the interaction of stress and alcohol and have become promising therapeutic targets to treat or prevent alcoholism and associated emotional disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sanders, James L; Breen, Rebecca E Hudson; Netelenbos, Nicole
Diagnostic criteria have recently been introduced in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), for neurobehavioral disorder associated with prenatal alcohol exposure (ND-PAE). The purpose of this study is to assess the classification of this condition using the Canadian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) multidisciplinary diagnostic guidelines as the standard of comparison. First, classification of ND-PAE was compared with Canadian FASD diagnoses of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Second, classification of ND-PAE was compared with FAS and pFAS only, a criterion for which includes facial features highly predictive of prenatal alcohol exposure and effects. Eighty-two patients underwent multidisciplinary clinical evaluations using the Canadian FASD diagnostic guidelines between 2011 and 2015. Two clinicians independently reviewed patient files for evidence of diagnostic criteria for ND-PAE when applying an impairment cut-off level of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean, or clinically significant impairment in the absence of standardized norm-referenced measures. Good interrater reliability was established between clinicians (κ = 0.79). Classifications of ND-PAE and Canadian FASD diagnoses, including alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder, were moderately correlated (Cramer V  = 0.44, p 0.05). Although there is considerable overlap between both sets of criteria, ND-PAE was less likely to identify patients with FASD. Although the neurobehavioral domains assessed by ND-PAE are supported in research, its diagnostic structure restricts the identification of FASD at the impairment threshold of 2 or more standard deviations. A disconnect remains with regard to impairment thresholds between FASD, which relies on neurodevelopmental data, and ND-PAE, which relies on clinical judgment.
Huckle, Taisia; Pledger, Megan; Casswell, Sally
To assess alcohol-related harms and offences in New Zealand from 1990 to 2003, a period of alcohol policy liberalization, that included the lowering of the purchase age from 20 to 18 years in 1999. Time trend analyses were carried out on routinely collected data for prosecutions for driving with excess alcohol; alcohol-involved vehicle crashes (all and fatal) and prosecutions for disorder offences. These were carried out separately for those aged 14-15, 16-17, 18-19, 20-24 and 25 years and over. Rates of: prosecutions for driving with excess alcohol (1990-2003); rates of alcohol- involved vehicle crashes (all and fatal) (1990-2003); and rates of prosecutions for disorder offences (1994-2003). Effects of alcohol policy liberalization: positive trends were found in the rates of prosecutions for disorder in the 16-17, 18-19, 20-24 and 25 + age groups; with 18-19-year-olds and 16-17-year-olds having the largest rates and largest positive trend in rates. For 16-17-year-olds, there was a positive trend in the rates of prosecutions for excess breath alcohol. Negative trends in rates were found for alcohol-related crashes (all and fatal) among all age groups. Negative trends for those over 16-17 years were found for prosecutions for driving with excess breath alcohol (this was prior to the lowering of the purchase age). Effects of lowering the minimum purchase age: the lowering of minimum purchase age coincided with an increase in the trend of alcohol-related crashes for 18-19-year-olds; the next largest increase was among the 20-24-year-olds (all other age groups also increased but at a much lower rate). A similar result was found for driving with excess alcohol for those aged 18-19 (and those aged 20-24 years). An increase in the rates of prosecutions for disorder offences occurred for the 14-15-year-old group following the lowering of the purchase age. The liberalization of alcohol throughout the 1990s may have influenced younger people more, as reflected in increases
Alcohol related violence is a troubling backdrop to the social lives and relationships of many young people in post-industrial societies. The development of the night-time economy where young people are encouraged to drink heavily in entertainment precincts has increased the risk of violence. This paper reports on 60 individual structured in-depth interviews about the drinking biographies of young people (aged 20-24) living in Victoria, Australia. Twenty-six males and 34 females participated in the research. The participants discussed their experiences with alcohol over their life course to date. The material on alcohol related violence is analysed in this paper. Just over half of the participants (33/60) recounted negative experiences with alcohol related violence. The findings demonstrate the continuing gendered nature of experiences of perpetration and victimization. Participants reported that aggression and violence perpetrated by some men was fuelled by alcohol consumption and required ongoing management. Experiences of violence were also spatialized. Men were more likely to report managing and avoiding violence in particular public settings whilst more women than men discussed managing violence in domestic settings. The central argument of this paper is that incidents of alcohol related violence and reactions to it are specific gender performances that occur in specific socio-cultural contexts. In contrast to research which has found some young people enjoy the adventure and excitement of alcohol related violence the mainstream participants in this study saw violence as a negative force to be managed and preferably avoided. Understanding violence as a dynamic gender performance complicates the development of policy measures designed to minimize harm but also offers a more holistic approach to developing effective policy in this domain. There is a need for greater acknowledgement that alcohol related violence in public venues and in families is primarily about
White, Victoria; Azar, Denise; Faulkner, Agatha; Coomber, Kerri; Durkin, Sarah; Livingston, Michael; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Room, Robin; Wakefield, Melanie
To determine (i) whether Australian adolescents' exposure to television alcohol advertisements changed between 1999 and 2011 and (ii) examine the association between television alcohol advertising and adolescent drinking behaviours. Cross-sectional surveys conducted every 3 years between 1999 and 2011. Analyses examined associations between advertising exposures and reported drinking. Five Australian major cities. Students aged 12-17 years participating in a triennial nationally representative school-based survey residing in the television advertising markets associated with the major cities (sample size range per survey: 12 644-16 004). Outcome measures were: drinking in the past month, past week and past-week risky drinking (5+ drinks on a day). The key predictor variable was past-month adolescent-directed alcohol advertising Targeted Rating Points (TRPs, a measure of television advertising exposure). Control measures included student-level characteristics, government alcohol-control advertising TRPs, road safety (drink-driving) TRPs and time of survey. Average monthly adolescent alcohol TRPs increased between 1999 (mean = 2371) to 2005 (mean = 2679) (P advertising variables showed a significant association between past-month alcohol TRPs and past-month drinking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.15), past-week drinking (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.06-1.14) and past-week risky drinking (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.09-1.22). Past-week risky drinking was associated inversely with road safety TRPs (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.98). While Australian adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising on television reduced between 1999 and 2011, higher levels of past-month television alcohol advertising were associated with an increased likelihood of adolescents' drinking. The reduction in television alcohol advertising in Australia in the late 2000s may have played a part in reducing adolescents' drinking prevalence. © 2017 Society
Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Grønbaek, Morten
The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake.......The health effects of drinking may be related to psychological characteristics influencing both health and drinking habits. This study aims to examine the relationship between intelligence, later beverage preference and alcohol intake....
Buzzetti, Elena; Kalafateli, Maria; Thorburn, Douglas
of the various pharmacological interventions compared with each other or with placebo or no intervention. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently identified trials and independently extracted data. We calculated the odds ratio (OR) and rate ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using...... cirrhosis, liver transplantation. None of the trials reported health-related quality of life or incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Severe alcoholic hepatitis Of the trials on alcoholic hepatitis, 19 trials (2545 participants) included exclusively participants with severe alcoholic hepatitis (Maddrey...... and follow-up of one to two years in order to compare the benefits and harms of different treatments in people with alcoholic hepatitis. Randomised clinical trials should include health-related quality of life and report serious adverse events separately from adverse events. Future randomised clinical trials...
Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R
of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally......Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester...... and persist through infancy (5 months) and juvenile (2 years) stages. Although the volumes of hippocampal subdivisions in FAE animals are not atypical at birth, by age 2, they are only 65-70% of those estimated in age-matched controls. These data suggest that moderate, naturalistic alcohol consumption during...
Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Dias, Sonia; Babor, Thomas; Esser, Marissa B; Parry, Charles D H
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the total amount of alcohol consumed in the African region is expected to increase due to the growth of new alcohol consumers, especially young people and women. With the changing alcohol environment, increases in the alcohol-attributable burden of disease are inevitable. To our knowledge, there has not been a comprehensive analysis of the factors that could be driving those increases. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the factors that could be instrumental in this process, in order to inform strategic policy-related decisions. A narrative review was conducted using a thematic analysis approach. We searched papers published between January 2000 and July 2014 in PubMed, the WHO's Global Health Library and African Journals Online. Our analysis identified seven factors (demographics, rapid urbanization, economic development, increased availability, corporate targeting, weak policy infrastructure and trade agreements) which are potentially tied to changes in alcohol consumption in Africa. Driven largely by globalization, a potential convergence of these various factors is likely to be associated with continued growth in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. To address the emerging risk factors associated with increased alcohol consumption, African governments need to take a more active role in protecting the public's health. In particular, important strategic shifts are needed to increase implementation of intersectoral strategies, community involvement in the policy dialogue, health services re-orientation and better regulation of the alcohol beverage industry. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Fearnow-Kenny, Melodie D.; Wyrick, David L.; Hansen, William B.; Dyreg, Doug; Beau, Dan B.
Investigation (1) examined interrelations among normative beliefs, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related problems, and (2) investigated whether alcohol-related expectancies mediate associations between normative beliefs and alcohol-related problems. Analyses revealed that alcohol expectancies mediate the relationship between normative beliefs…
Reinaldo, Amanda Márcia Dos Santos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina
Problems related to alcohol abuse have been associated to different factors, regardless of the causes attributed to this phenomenon. Alcohol consumption and dependence is considered a public health problem and deserve attention because of the social, work, family, physical, legal and violence-related risks it represents. This study aimed to identify the effects of alcoholism on family relations and, by means of case management, to encourage the recovery of these relationships. The results show that the problems caused by alcohol abuse impose profound suffering to family members, which contributes to high levels of interpersonal conflict, domestic violence, parental inadequacy, child abuse and negligence, financial and legal difficulties, in addition to clinical problems associated to it.
McCartney, G; Bouttell, J; Craig, N; Craig, P; Graham, L; Lakha, F; Lewsey, J; McAdams, R; MacPherson, M; Minton, J; Parkinson, J; Robinson, M; Shipton, D; Taulbut, M; Walsh, D; Beeston, C
To provide a basis for evaluating post-2007 alcohol policy in Scotland, this paper tests the extent to which pre-2007 policy, the alcohol market, culture or clinical changes might explain differences in the magnitude and trends in alcohol-related mortality outcomes in Scotland compared to England & Wales (E&W). Rapid literature reviews, descriptive analysis of routine data and narrative synthesis. We assessed the impact of pre-2007 Scottish policy and policy in the comparison areas in relation to the literature on effective alcohol policy. Rapid literature reviews were conducted to assess cultural changes and the potential role of substitution effects between alcohol and illicit drugs. The availability of alcohol was assessed by examining the trends in the number of alcohol outlets over time. The impact of clinical changes was assessed in consultation with key informants. The impact of all the identified factors were then summarised and synthesised narratively. The companion paper showed that part of the rise and fall in alcohol-related mortality in Scotland, and part of the differing trend to E&W, were predicted by a model linking income trends and alcohol-related mortality. Lagged effects from historical deindustrialisation and socio-economic changes exposures also remain plausible from the available data. This paper shows that policy differences or changes prior to 2007 are unlikely to have been important in explaining the trends. There is some evidence that aspects of alcohol culture in Scotland may be different (more concentrated and home drinking) but it seems unlikely that this has been an important driver of the trends or the differences with E&W other than through interaction with changing incomes and lagged socio-economic effects. Substitution effects with illicit drugs and clinical changes are unlikely to have substantially changed alcohol-related harms: however, the increase in alcohol availability across the UK is likely to partly explain the rise in
Rehm, Jürgen; Klotsche, Jens; Patra, Jayadeep
Alcohol has been identified as one of the most important risk factors in the burden experienced as a result of disease. The objective of the present contribution is to establish a framework to comparatively quantify alcohol exposure as it is relevant for burden of disease. Different key indicators are combined to derive this quantification. First, adult per capita consumption, composed of recorded and unrecorded consumption, yields the best overall estimate of alcohol exposure for a country or region. Second, survey information is used to allocate the per capita consumption into sex and age groups. Third, an index for detrimental patterns of drinking is used to determine the additional impact on injury and cardiovascular burden. The methodology is applied to estimate global alcohol exposure for the year 2002. Finally, assumptions and potential problems of the approach are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie
Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic experience alone. Although the harmful effects of both have been well documented individually, there is no research documenting the concurrent effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal trauma on a child's developmental process. Transdisciplinary assessment of the children included the core disciplines of medicine, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, social work, and psychology. Medical examination, standardized developmental and intelligence testing, projective tools, parent questionnaires, and psychosocial interviews provided information in the primary developmental areas. Findings indicated that children who had been exposed prenatally to alcohol along with postnatal traumatic experience had lower intelligence scores and more severe neurodevelopmental deficits in language, memory, visual processing, motor skills, and attention than did traumatized children without prenatal alcohol exposure, as well as greater oppositional/defiant behavior, inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and social problems. Successful teacher and speech-language pathologist interventions with traumatized children with prenatal alcohol exposure demand a paradigm shift that requires the development of new perspectives and ongoing training.
Stevie C. Biffen
Full Text Available Disproportionate volume reductions in the basal ganglia, corpus callosum (CC and hippocampus have been reported in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. However, few studies have investigated these reductions in high prevalence communities, such as the Western Cape Province of South Africa, and only one study made use of manual tracing, the gold standard of volumetric analysis. The present study examined the effects of PAE on subcortical neuroanatomy using manual tracing and the relation of volumetric reductions in these regions to IQ and performance on the California Verbal Learning Test-Children's Version (CVLT-C, a list learning task sensitive to PAE. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired, using a sequence optimized for morphometric neuroanatomical analysis, on a Siemens 3T Allegra MRI scanner from 71 right-handed, 9- to 11-year-old children [9 fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS, 19 partial FAS (PFAS, 24 non-syndromal heavily exposed (HE and 19 non-exposed controls]. Frequency of maternal drinking was ascertained prospectively during pregnancy using timeline follow-back interviews. PAE was examined in relation to volumes of the CC and left and right caudate nuclei, nucleus accumbens and hippocampi. All structures were manually traced using Multitracer. Higher levels of PAE were associated with reductions in CC volume after adjustment for TIV. Although the effect of PAE on CC was confounded with smoking and lead exposure, additional analyses showed that it was not accounted for by these exposures. Amongst dysmorphic children, smaller CC was associated with poorer IQ and CVLT-C scores and statistically mediated the effect of PAE on IQ. In addition, higher levels of PAE were associated with bilateral volume reductions in caudate nuclei and hippocampi, effects that remained significant after control for TIV, child sex and age, socioeconomic status, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and childhood lead exposure. These data confirm
Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.
Nearly 2 million women in the United States alone are at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy, including more than 600,000 who binge drink. Even low levels of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to a variety of birth defects, including craniofacial and neurodevelopmental defects, as well as increased risk of miscarriages and stillbirths. Studies have also shown an interaction between drinking while pregnant and an increase in congenital heart defects (CHD), including atrioventricular septal defects and other malformations. We have previously established a quail model of PAE, modeling a single binge drinking episode in the third week of a woman's pregnancy. Using optical coherence tomography (OCT), we quantified intraventricular septum thickness, great vessel diameters, and atrioventricular valve volumes. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septum, and aortic vessels. We previously showed that supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, improved survival rates, and prevented cardiac defects. Here we show that these preventative effects are also observed with folate (another methyl donor) supplementation. Folate also appears to normalize retrograde flow levels which are elevated by ethanol exposure. Finally, preliminary findings have shown that glutathione, a crucial antioxidant, is noticeably effective at improving survival rates and minimizing gross defects in ethanol-exposed embryos. Current investigations will examine the impact of glutathione supplementation on PAE-related CHDs.
Schlummer, Martin; Gruber, Ludwig; Fiedler, Dominik; Kizlauskas, Markus; Müller, Josef
Fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOH) are important precursors of perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCA). These neutral and volatile compounds are frequently found in indoor air and may contribute to the overall human exposure to per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS). In this study air samples of ten workplace environments and a car interior were analysed. In addition, extracts and emissions from selected outdoor textiles were analysed in order to establish their potential contribution to the indoor levels of the above-mentioned compounds. Concentrations of FTOHs measured in air ranged from 0.15 to 46.8, 0.25 to 286, and 0.11 to 57.5ng/m(3) for 6:2, 8:2 and 10:2 FTOHs, respectively. The highest concentrations in air were identified in shops selling outdoor clothing, indicating outdoor textiles to be a relevant source of FTOH in indoor workplace environments. Total amounts of FTOH in materials of outdoor textiles accounted for selling outdoor textiles contains the highest levels of FTOH. Exposure of humans to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) through absorption of FTOH and subsequent degradation is discussed on the basis of indoor air levels. Calculation of indoor air-related exposure using the median of the measured air levels revealed that exposure is on the same order of magnitude as the recently reported dietary intakes for a background-exposed population. On the basis of the 95th percentile, indoor air exposure to PFOA was estimated to exceed dietary exposure. However, indoor air-related intakes of FTOH are far below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of PFOA, indicating that there is no risk to health, even when assuming an unrealistic complete degradation of FTOH into PFOA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Larkby, Cynthia A.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Day, Nancy L.
Objective: To evaluate the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and the rate of conduct disorder in exposed compared with unexposed adolescents. Method: Data for these analyses are from a longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposures. Women were interviewed at their fourth and seventh prenatal months, and with their children, at…
Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Becker, Kirsten M.; Shadel, William G.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth’s exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Method: Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles–area youth ages 11–14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. Results: African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Conclusions: Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school–age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth. PMID:27172570
Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Kovalchik, Stephanie A; Becker, Kirsten M; Shadel, William G; D'Amico, Elizabeth J
The purpose of this study was to quantify middle school youth's exposure to alcohol advertisements across media and venues, determine venues of greatest exposure, and identify characteristics of youth who are most exposed. Over a 10-month period in 2013, 589 Los Angeles-area youth ages 11-14 from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds completed a short paper-and-pencil survey assessing background characteristics and then participated in a 14-day ecological momentary assessment, logging all exposures to alcohol advertisements on handheld computers as they occurred. African American and Hispanic youth were exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth, who were exposed to 2.0 advertisements per day. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second. Exposure to alcohol advertising is frequent among middle school-age youth and may put them at risk for earlier or more frequent underage drinking. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising outdoors and on television should be considered by regulators and by the alcohol industry and should focus particularly on reducing exposure among minority youth.
Marczinski, Cecile A.; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F.; Stamates, Amy L.; O’Connor, Kathleen
The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use. PMID:28138317
Smith, Ryan C; Geller, E Scott
Alcohol-related youth traffic fatalities continue as a major public-health concern. While state and federal laws can be useful in tackling this problem, the efficacy of many laws has not been empirically demonstrated. We examined the impact of state laws prohibiting alcohol advertising to target minors. Using statistics obtained from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), youth alcohol-related, single-vehicle, driver traffic fatalities were compared by state as a function of whether the state has a law prohibiting alcohol advertising that targets minors. Overall, states possessing this law experienced 32.9% fewer of the above specified traffic fatalities. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: The results suggest that not only are youth drinking rates affected by alcohol advertisements targeting youth, but also drink-driving behaviors. Indeed, we estimate that if this type of legislation were adopted in the 26 states that do not prohibit targeting of minors with alcohol advertising, then 400 youth lives could be saved annually.
Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein
We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However
Vallance, Kate; Stockwell, Tim; Pauly, Bernie; Chow, Clifton; Gray, Erin; Krysowaty, Bonnie; Perkin, Kathleen; Zhao, Jinhui
Managed alcohol programs (MAPs) are a harm reduction strategy for people with severe alcohol dependence and unstable housing. MAPs provide controlled access to alcohol usually alongside accommodation, meals, and other supports. Patterns of alcohol consumption and related harms among MAP participants and controls from a homeless shelter in Thunder Bay, Ontario, were investigated in 2013. Structured interviews were conducted with 18 MAP and 20 control participants assessed as alcohol dependent with most using non-beverage alcohol (NBA). Qualitative interviews were conducted with seven participants and four MAP staff concerning perceptions and experiences of the program. Program alcohol consumption records were obtained for MAP participants, and records of police contacts and use of health services were obtained for participants and controls. Some participants' liver function test (LFT) results were available for before and after MAP entry. Compared with periods off the MAP, MAP participants had 41 % fewer police contacts, 33 % fewer police contacts leading to custody time (x (2) = 43.84, P detox admissions (t = -1.68, P = 0.06), and 32 % fewer hospital admissions (t = -2.08, P = 0.03). MAP and control participants shared similar characteristics, indicating the groups were broadly comparable. There were reductions in nearly all available LFT scores after MAP entry. Compared with controls, MAP participants had 43 % fewer police contacts, significantly fewer police contacts (-38 %) that resulted in custody time (x (2) = 66.10, P detox admissions (t = -2.19, P = 0.02), and 47 % fewer emergency room presentations. NBA use was significantly less frequent for MAP participants versus controls (t = -2.34, P detox episodes, and police contacts leading to custody, reduced NBA consumption, and decreases in some alcohol-related harms. These encouraging trends are being investigated in a larger national study.
Na, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Ja Young
Many meta-analysis, large cohort studies, and experimental studies suggest that chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric and colon cancer. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), catalase or cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) to acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. The acetaldehyde level in the stomach and colon is locally influenced by gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori or colonic microbes, as well as polymorphisms in the genes encoding tissue alcohol metabolizing enzymes, especially ALDH2. Alcohol stimulates the uptake of carcinogens and their metabolism and also changes the composition of enteric microbes in a way to enhance the aldehyde level. Alcohol also undergoes chemical coupling to membrane phospholipids and disrupts organization of tight junctions, leading to nuclear translocation of β-catenin and ZONAB, which may contributes to regulation of genes involved in proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Alcohol also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by suppressing the expression of antioxidant and cytoprotective enzymes and inducing expression of CYP2E1 which contribute to the metabolic activation of chemical carcinogens. Besides exerting genotoxic effects by directly damaging DNA, ROS can activates signaling molecules involved in inflammation, metastasis and angiogenesis. In addition, alcohol consumption induces folate deficiency, which may result in aberrant DNA methylation profiles, thereby influencing cancer-related gene expression.
Chen Bo; Xia Jing; Li Guangxing; Zhou Yifeng
Physiological and behavioral studies have demonstrated that a number of visual functions such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and motion perception can be impaired by acute alcohol exposure. The orientation- and direction-selective responses of cells in primary visual cortex are thought to participate in the perception of form and motion. To investigate how orientation selectivity and direction selectivity of neurons are influenced by acute alcohol exposure in vivo, we used the extracellular single-unit recording technique to examine the response properties of neurons in primary visual cortex (A17) of adult cats. We found that alcohol reduces spontaneous activity, visual evoked unit responses, the signal-to-noise ratio, and orientation selectivity of A17 cells. In addition, small but detectable changes in both the preferred orientation/direction and the bandwidth of the orientation tuning curve of strongly orientation-biased A17 cells were observed after acute alcohol administration. Our findings may provide physiological evidence for some alcohol-related deficits in visual function observed in behavioral studies.
Monakhova, Yulia B; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) regularly occurs in foods and in alcoholic beverages. However, the risk of HMF associated with alcohol consumption has not been systematically studied, so that this study will provide the first quantitative risk assessment of HMF for consumers of alcoholic beverages. Human dietary intake of HMF via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data combined with our own survey data (n=944) and literature data (n=147) about the HMF contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. For olfactory epithelium metaplasia in female mice, a benchmark dose (BMD) of 127 mg/kg bodyweight (bw)/d and a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 79 mg/kg bw/d were calculated from National Toxicology Program oral long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to HMF from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 6.0E-3 mg/kg bw/d, which is approximately 8.5% of the total dietary exposure. In comparison of the human exposure with BMDL, the MOE was 13,167 for average alcohol consumption scenarios, which is a value that would be generally assumed as safe for threshold based compounds. The results show that the risk from HMF to the alcohol-consuming population is rather low and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is also low. Further toxicological research about HMF is required to further elucidate its mechanism.
Suttie, Michael; Wetherill, Leah; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Hoyme, H Eugene; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Coles, Claire; Wozniak, Jeffrey R; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Foroud, Tatiana; Hammond, Peter
Our objective is to help clinicians detect the facial effects of prenatal alcohol exposure by developing computer-based tools for screening facial form. All 415 individuals considered were evaluated by expert dysmorphologists and categorized as (i) healthy control (HC), (ii) fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), or (iii) heavily prenatally alcohol exposed (HE) but not clinically diagnosable as FAS; 3D facial photographs were used to build models of facial form to support discrimination studies. Surface curvature-based delineations of facial form were introduced. (i) Facial growth in FAS, HE, and control subgroups is similar in both cohorts. (ii) Cohort consistency of agreement between clinical diagnosis and HC-FAS facial form classification is lower for midline facial regions and higher for nonmidline regions. (iii) Specific HC-FAS differences within and between the cohorts include: for HC, a smoother philtrum in Cape Coloured individuals; for FAS, a smoother philtrum in Caucasians; for control-FAS philtrum difference, greater homogeneity in Caucasians; for control-FAS face difference, greater homogeneity in Cape Coloured individuals. (iv) Curvature changes in facial profile induced by prenatal alcohol exposure are more homogeneous and greater in Cape Coloureds than in Caucasians. (v) The Caucasian HE subset divides into clusters with control-like and FAS-like facial dysmorphism. The Cape Coloured HE subset is similarly divided for nonmidline facial regions but not clearly for midline structures. (vi) The Cape Coloured HE subset with control-like facial dysmorphism shows orbital hypertelorism. Facial curvature assists the recognition of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and helps explain why different facial regions result in inconsistent control-FAS discrimination rates in disparate ethnic groups. Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can give rise to orbital hypertelorism, supporting a long-standing suggestion that prenatal alcohol exposure at a particular time causes
Soltis, Kathryn E; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G
Elevated depression and stress have been linked to greater levels of alcohol problems among young adults even after taking into account drinking level. This study attempts to elucidate variables that might mediate the relation between symptoms of depression and stress and alcohol problems, including alcohol demand, future time orientation, and craving. Participants were 393 undergraduates (60.8% female, 78.9% White/Caucasian) who reported at least 2 binge-drinking episodes (4/5+ drinks for women/men, respectively) in the previous month. Participants completed self-report measures of stress and depression, alcohol demand, future time orientation, craving, and alcohol problems. In separate mediation models that accounted for gender, race, and weekly alcohol consumption, future orientation and craving significantly mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and alcohol problems. Alcohol demand, future orientation, and craving significantly mediated the relation between stress symptoms and alcohol problems. Heavy-drinking young adults who experience stress or depression are likely to experience alcohol problems, and this is due in part to elevations in craving and alcohol demand, and less sensitivity to future outcomes. Interventions targeting alcohol misuse in young adults with elevated levels of depression and stress should attempt to increase future orientation and decrease craving and alcohol reward value. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Grimby, Agneta; Johansson, Asa K
The use of alcohol and medications among Swedish widows was analyzed in relation to various background variables. In Total, 1053 widows (640 widows younger than 65 years and 413 widows older than 65 years) answered the questionnaire. Many reported increased fatigue and sleeping problems. Around one-third of the widows reported drinking alcohol for relief of grief and inadequate support. Association existed between grief and increased intake of sedatives and sleeping pills, and between grief and drinking for relief of grief, as well as increase in intake of sedatives. In widows older than 65 years, perception of bad health, negative outlook for the future, and insufficient support seemed to increase the risk of more sedatives and sleeping pills. Negative outlook for the future also tended to lead to a heightened risk for increased intake of alcohol. There seems to be remaining health problems a long time after bereavement, and counseling may be needed especially when drugs and alcohol are extensively used.
McGeary John E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Craving for alcohol is a highly controversial subjective construct and may be clarified by Loewenstein's visceral theory, which emphasizes craving's behavioral effects on the relative value of alcohol. Based on the visceral theory, this study examined the effects of a craving induction on the relative value of alcohol as measured by a behavioral choice task. In addition, based on previous evidence of its role in the expression of craving, the influence of DRD4 VNTR genotype (DRD4-L vs. DRD4-S was also examined. Methods Thirty-five heavy drinkers (54% male; 31% DRD4-L were randomly assigned to receive either a craving induction (exposure to personally relevant alcohol cues or a control induction (exposure to neutral cues, which was followed by an alcohol-money choice task. Participants were assessed for craving and positive/negative affect throughout the procedure, and relative value of alcohol was derived from participant choices for alcohol versus money. DRD4 VNTR status was assessed retrospectively via buccal samples using previously established protocols. Results Factorial analysis of the craving induction revealed that it was associated with significant increase in craving (p p p Conclusion These results are interpreted as generally supporting Loewenstein's visceral theory of craving and evidence of a functional role of DRD4 VNTR genotype in the expression of craving for alcohol. Methodological limitations, mechanisms underlying these findings, and future directions are discussed.
Payne, Janet M; France, Kathryn E; Henley, Nadine; D'Antoine, Heather A; Bartu, Anne E; O'Leary, Colleen M; Elliott, Elizabeth J; Bower, Carol; Geelhoed, Elizabeth
The objective was to evaluate the Alcohol and Pregnancy Project that provided health professionals in Western Australia (WA) with educational resources to inform them about prevention of prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The authors developed, produced, and distributed educational resources to 3,348 health professionals in WA. Six months later, they surveyed 1,483 of these health professionals. The authors used the RE-AIM framework (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) to evaluate the project. The educational resources were effective in producing a 31% increase in the proportion of health professionals who routinely provided pregnant women with information about the consequences of drinking alcohol during pregnancy. One hundred percent of the settings adopted the project, it reached 96.3% of the target population, it was implemented as intended, and the resources were maintained (http://www.ichr.uwa.edu.au/alcoholandpregnancy). The educational resources for health professionals have potential to contribute to reducing prenatal alcohol exposure and FASD.
Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin
Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759
Christopher K. Bitten
Full Text Available This article examines Alcoholics Anonymous (AA as a relational therapy, seen through the lens of the relational needs described by Richard Erskine. AA as a resource may be underemployed by therapists who do not realize its potential to heal the relational damage suffered and inflicted by their alcoholic clients. Common misconceptions about AA are addressed, and ways for therapists to facilitate successful referrals of clients to AA are described. The author posits that there is a synergistic benefit in combining integrative psychotherapy with the client’s involvement in AA.
Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be severely damage to the brain development in fetuses. This study investigates the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on brain development in mice embryos. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were intragastrically gavaged with ethanol (3g/Kg bwt) twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and imaged using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. 3D images of the mice embryo brain were obtained and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. The average volumes of the left and the right volumes of 5 embryos each alcohol-exposed and control embryos were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3, respectively. The results suggest that the left and right ventricle volumes of brain are much larger in the alcohol-exposed embryos as compared to control embryos indicating alcohol-induced developmental delay.
Timothy J. Hendrickson
Conclusions: Abnormalities in cortical development were seen across the brain in children with PAE compared to controls. Cortical gyrification and IQ were strongly correlated, suggesting that examining mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts cortical formation may yield clinically relevant insights and potential directions for early intervention.
Sammeta V. Raju
Full Text Available Alcohol abuse has been associated with increased susceptibility to pulmonary infection. It is not fully defined how alcohol contributes to the host defense compromise. Here primary human airway epithelial cells were cultured at an air-liquid interface to form a differentiated and polarized epithelium. This unique culture model allowed us to closely mimic lung infection in the context of alcohol abuse by basolateral alcohol exposure and apical live bacterial challenge. Application of clinically relevant concentrations of alcohol for 24 h did not significantly alter epithelial integrity or barrier function. When apically challenged with viable Klebsiella pneumoniae, the cultured epithelia had an enhanced tightness which was unaffected by alcohol. Further, alcohol enhanced apical bacterial growth, but not bacterial binding to the cells. The cultured epithelium in the absence of any treatment or stimulation had a base-level IL-6 and IL-8 secretion. Apical bacterial challenge significantly elevated the basolateral secretion of inflammatory cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-γ, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. However, alcohol suppressed the observed cytokine burst in response to infection. Addition of adenosine receptor agonists negated the suppression of IL-6 and TNF-α. Thus, acute alcohol alters the epithelial cytokine response to infection, which can be partially mitigated by adenosine receptor agonists.
Hahn, Robert A; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci L; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Lawrence, Briana; Campbell, Carla Alexia
Excessive alcohol consumption is the third-leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. This systematic review is one in a series exploring effectiveness of interventions to reduce alcohol-related harms. The focus of this review was on studies evaluating the effects of the privatization of alcohol retail sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Using Community Guide methods for conducting systematic reviews, a systematic search was conducted in multiple databases up to December 2010. Reference lists of acquired articles and review papers were also scanned for additional studies. A total of 17 studies assessed the impact of privatizing retail alcohol sales on the per capita alcohol consumption, a well-established proxy for excessive alcohol consumption; 9 of these studies also examined the effects of privatization on the per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages that were not privatized. One cohort study in Finland assessed the impact of privatizing the sales of medium-strength beer (MSB) on self-reported alcohol consumption. One study in Sweden assessed the impact of re-monopolizing the sale of MSB on alcohol-related harms. Across the 17 studies, there was a 44.4% median increase in the per capita sales of privatized beverages in locations that privatized retail alcohol sales (interquartile interval: 4.5% to 122.5%). During the same time period, sales of nonprivatized alcoholic beverages decreased by a median of 2.2% (interquartile interval: -6.6% to -0.1%). Privatizing the sale of MSB in Finland was associated with a mean increase in alcohol consumption of 1.7 liters of pure alcohol per person per year. Re-monopolization of the sale of MSB in Sweden was associated with a general reduction in alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, there is strong evidence that privatization of retail alcohol sales leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Søndergaard, Grethe; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
AIMS: To estimate the association between educational status and alcohol-related somatic and non-somatic morbidity and mortality among full siblings in comparison with non-related individuals. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Approximately 1.4 million full siblings born in De...
Full Text Available Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%–13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs. Methods: Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. Results: The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101 and 21–60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98, respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to characterize the clinical profile of patients with alcohol related seizures (ARS and to identify the prevalence of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE in the same. Materials and Methods: 100 consecutive male patients presenting to a tertiary care center in South India with new onset ARS were analyzed with alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT score. All underwent 19 channel digital scalp electroencephalography (EEG and at least computed tomography (CT scan. Results: A total of 27 patients (27% who had cortical atrophy on CT had a mean duration of alcohol intake of 23.62 years compared with 14.55 years in patients with no cortical atrophy (P < 0.001. Twenty-two patients (22% had clustering in the current episode of whom 18 had cortical atrophy. Nearly, 88% patients had generalized tonic clonic seizures while 12% who had partial seizures underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which identified frontal focal cortical dysplasia in one. Mean lifetime duration of alcohol intake in patients presenting with seizures within 6 hours (6H-gp of intake of alcohol was significantly lower (P = 0.029. One patient in the 6H-gp with no withdrawal symptoms had EEG evidence for IGE and had a lower AUDIT score compared with the rest. Conclusion: CT evidence of cortical atrophy is related to the duration of alcohol intake and portends an increased risk for clustering. Partial seizures can be a presenting feature of ARS and those patients may benefit from MRI to identify underlying symptomatic localization related epilepsy (8.3% of partial seizures. IGE is more likely in patients presenting with ARS within first 6 hours especially if they do not have alcohol withdrawal symptoms and scalp EEG is helpful to identify this small subgroup (~1% who may require long-term anti-epileptic medication.
Asbridge, Mark; Weerasinghe, Swarna
The aim of the current paper is to examine the impact of the enactment of constitutional prohibition in the United States in 1920 on total homicides, alcohol-related homicides and non-alcohol-related homicides in Chicago. Data are drawn from the Chicago Historical Homicide Project, a data set chronicling 11 018 homicides in Chicago between 1870 and 1930. Interrupted time-series and autoregression integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are employed to examine the impact of prohibition on three separate population-adjusted homicide series. All models control for potential confounding from World War I demobilization and from trend data drawn from Wesley Skogan's Time-Series Data from Chicago. Total and non-alcohol-related homicide rates increased during prohibition by 21% and 11%, respectively, while alcohol-related homicides remained unchanged. For other covariates, alcohol-related homicides were related negatively to the size of the Chicago police force and positively to police expenditures and to the proportion of the Chicago population aged 21 years and younger. Non-alcohol-related homicides were related positively to police expenditures and negatively to the size of the Chicago police force. While total and non-alcohol-related homicides in the United States continued to rise during prohibition, a finding consistent with other studies, the rate of alcohol-related homicides remained unchanged. The divergent impact of prohibition on alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides is discussed in relation to previous studies of homicide in this era.
Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D
Our objective was to assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from 2 Latin American countries. We performed a cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style, and media access. Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7), and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8 and 10.9%, respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) comparing quartiles 4 and 1, 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73 to 2.30) for current drinking, aOR 1.68 (CI 1.39 to 2.02) for binge drinking, and aOR 1.80 (1.52 to 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.76) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to try drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.64). Higher levels of exposure to AUF were associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Ortega-García, Juan A; Gutierrez-Churango, Jorge E; Sánchez-Sauco, Miguel F; Martínez-Aroca, Miguel; Delgado-Marín, Juan L; Sánchez-Solis, M; Parrilla-Paricio, J J; Claudio, Luz; Martínez-Lage, Juan F
We aimed to assess the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke, alcohol and illegal drugs during early pregnancy on the head circumference (HC) at birth of otherwise healthy neonates. A follow-up study from the first trimester of pregnancy to birth was carried out in 419 neonates. An environmental reproductive health form was used to record data of substance exposure obtained during the first obstetric visit at the end of the first trimester. A multiple linear regression model was created for this purpose. Alcohol intake during pregnancy and medical ionizing radiation exposure were the most significant predictors of HC. The mothers' alcohol consumption increased with the mothers' and fathers' education level, net family income and fathers' alcohol consumption. In contrast, maternal smoking decreased with increasing mothers' and fathers' education level and net family income. About 13% of the surveyed embryos were exposed to illegal drugs. Mild to moderate alcohol consumption diminishes the at-birth HC of theoretically healthy newborns in a linear form. There was no threshold dose. We perceived a need for increasing the awareness, and for training, of health care professionals and parents, in regard to risks of alcohol consumption and for recommending abstinence of these substances in both parents during pregnancy. It should also be remembered that medical ionizing radiation should be performed only during the first half of the cycle in fertile women. We think that our study has an important social impact as it affords data for implementing policies for promoting "healthy pregnancies".
Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry
.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light......In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through...... alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk....
Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure affects 1 in 100 children making it the leading cause of mental retardation in the US. It has long been known that alcohol affects cerebellum development and function. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear.We demonstrate that CREB binding protein (CBP is widely expressed in granule and Purkinje neurons of the developing cerebellar cortex of naïve rats. We also show that exposure to ethanol during the 3(rd trimester-equivalent of human pregnancy reduces CBP levels. CBP is a histone acetyltransferase, a component of the epigenetic mechanism controlling neuronal gene expression. We further demonstrate that the acetylation of both histone H3 and H4 is reduced in the cerebellum of ethanol-treated rats.These findings indicate that ethanol exposure decreases the expression and function of CBP in the developing cerebellum. This effect of ethanol may be responsible for the motor coordination deficits that characterize fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.
Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca
Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.
Jelte A Wouda
Full Text Available Disrupting reconsolidation of drug-related memories may be effective in reducing the incidence of relapse. In the current study we examine whether alcohol- related memories are prone to disruption by the β -adrenergicreceptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg and the NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (0.1 mg/kg following their reactivation. In operant chambers, male Wistar rats were trained to self-administer a 12% alcohol solution. After 3 weeks of abstinence, the animals were placed in the self-administration cages and were reexposed to the alcohol-associated cues for a 20-min retrieval period, immediately followed by a systemic injection of either propranolol, MK801 or saline. Rats were tested for cue-induced alcohol seeking on the following day. Retrieval session, injection and test were repeated on 2 further occasions at weekly intervals. Both propranolol and MK801 administration upon reactivation did not reduce alcohol seeking after the first reactivation test. However, a significant reduction of alcohol seeking was observed over three post-training tests in propranolol treated animals, and MK801 treated animals showed a strong tendency towards reduced alcohol seeking (p=0.06. Our data indicate that reconsolidation of alcohol-related memories can be disrupted after a long post-training interval and that particularly β-adrenergic receptors may represent novel targets for pharmacotherapy of alcoholism, in combination with cue-exposure therapies.
Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken
Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1....
Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey
To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Crews, Fulton T.; Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.
Adolescence is a developmental period when physical and cognitive abilities are optimized, when social skills are consolidated, and when sexuality, adolescent behaviors, and frontal cortical functions mature to adult levels. Adolescents also have unique responses to alcohol compared with adults, being less sensitive to ethanol sedative?motor responses that most likely contribute to binge drinking and blackouts. Population studies find that an early age of drinking onset correlates with increa...
Sheehan, Megan M.; Karunamuni, Ganga; Pedersen, Cameron J.; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.
Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. Up to 40% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects (CHDs) including life-threatening outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies. Previously we established a PAE model in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay looping-stage (early) cardiac function/structure and septation-stage (late) cardiac defects. Early-stage ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions (valve precursors) and increased retrograde flow, while late-stage embryos presented with gross head/body defects, and exhibited smaller atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, interventricular septae, and aortic vessels. However, supplementation with the methyl donor betaine reduced gross defects, prevented cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valves, and normalized cardiac parameters. Immunofluorescent staining for 5-methylcytosine in transverse embryo sections also revealed that DNA methylation levels were reduced by ethanol but normalized by co-administration of betaine. Furthermore, supplementation with folate, another methyl donor, in the PAE model appeared to normalize retrograde flow levels which are typically elevated by ethanol exposure. Studies are underway to correlate retrograde flow numbers for folate with associated cushion volumes. Finally, preliminary findings have revealed that glutathione, a key endogenous antioxidant which also regulates methyl group donation, is particularly effective in improving alcohol-impacted survival and gross defect rates. Current investigations will determine whether glutathione has any positive effect on PAE-related CHDs. Our studies could have significant implications for public health, especially related to prenatal nutrition recommendations.
Coggon, David; Harris, E. Clare; Brown, Terry; Rice, Simon; Palmer, Keith T
AIms To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Methods Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardised proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. Results The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes), and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters, and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), “other alcohol-related diseases” (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267), and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for HIV/AIDS were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95%CI 369-1890, in men; 804, 95%CI 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95%CI 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Conclusions Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers. PMID:20407041
Coggon, D; Harris, E C; Brown, T; Rice, S; Palmer, K T
To identify opportunities for targeted prevention, we explored differences in occupational mortality from diseases and injuries related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits and drug abuse. Using data on all deaths among men and women aged 16-74 years in England and Wales during 1991-2000, we derived age- and social class-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) by occupation for cause of death categories defined a priori as potentially related to alcohol consumption, sexual habits or drug abuse. The highest mortality from alcohol-related diseases and injuries was observed in publicans and bar staff (both sexes) and in male caterers, cooks and kitchen porters and seafarers. Male seafarers had significantly elevated PMRs for cirrhosis (179), 'other alcohol-related diseases' (275), cancers of the liver (155), oral cavity (275) and pharynx (267) and injury by fall on the stairs (187). PMRs for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were particularly high in tailors and dressmakers (918, 95% CI: 369-1890, in men; 804, 95% CI: 219-2060, in women) and male hairdressers (918, 95% CI: 717-1160). Most jobs with high mortality from HIV/AIDS also had more deaths than expected from viral hepatitis. Of seven jobs with significantly high PMRs for both drug dependence and accidental poisoning by drugs, four were in the construction industry (male painters and decorators, bricklayers and masons, plasterers, and roofers and glaziers). Our findings highlight major differences between occupations in mortality from diseases and injuries caused by alcohol, sexual habits and drug abuse. Priorities for preventive action include alcohol-related disorders in male seafarers and drug abuse in construction workers.
Wildenberg, E. van den; Janssen, R.G.J.H.; Hutchison, K.E.; Breukelen, G.J.P. van; Wiers, R.W.H.J.
Polymorphisms in the D4 dopamine receptor gene (DRD4) and the CB1 cannabinoid receptor gene (CNR1) have been associated with a differential response to alcohol after consumption. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether heavy drinkers with these polymorphisms would respond with
Juliana Gabrielle Martins-Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT. The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI, mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05 and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.
Robinson, T N; Chen, H L; Killen, J D
Alcohol use is frequently portrayed in television programming and advertising. Exposure to media portrayals of alcohol use may lead to increased drinking. To address this issue, we examined prospectively the associations between media exposure and alcohol use in adolescents. Prospective cohort study. Setting. Six public high schools in San Jose, California. Participants. Ninth-grade students (N = 1533; mean age = 14.6 years). Students reported hours of television, music video, and videotape viewing; computer and video game use; and lifetime and past 30 days' alcohol use at baseline and 18 months later. Associations between baseline media exposure and subsequent alcohol use were examined with multiple logistic regression. During the 18-month follow-up, 36.2% of baseline nondrinkers began drinking and 50.7% of baseline drinkers continued to drink. Onset of drinking was significantly associated with baseline hours of television viewing (odds ratio [OR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01-1.18), music video viewing (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 1. 17-1.47), and videotape viewing (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.79-0.99), controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, and other media use. Computer and video game use was not significantly associated with the subsequent onset of drinking. Among baseline drinkers, there were no significant associations between baseline media use and maintenance of drinking. Increased television and music video viewing are risk factors for the onset of alcohol use in adolescents. Attempts to prevent adolescent alcohol use should address the adverse influences of alcohol use in the media.
Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós
Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.
Conclusions: Negative alcohol-related expectations, emotional impulse intensity and positive emotional expressiveness were significant even though quite weak triggers for alcohol-dependent patients’ different level of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. An assumption could be made that by changing these triggers it is possible to change addictive behavior.
Voogt, Carmen; Beusink, Miriam; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger; Smit, Koen; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of the impact of parental alcohol use on the acquisition of children's alcohol-related cognitions (alcohol-related knowledge, alcohol-related norms, alcohol expectancies) in the developmental period from age two to ten. METHODS: A
Voogt, C.V.; Beusink, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Smit, K.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Background: This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence of the impact of parental alcohol use on the acquisition of children's alcohol-related cognitions (alcohol-related knowledge, alcohol-related norms, alcohol expectancies) in the developmental period from age two to ten. Methods: A
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C
Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy
Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana
Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana
Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079
Mark W. Burke
Full Text Available Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE alters hippocampal cell numbers in rodents and primates, and this may be due, in part, to a reduction in the number or migration of neuronal progenitor cells. The olfactory bulb exhibits substantial postnatal cellular proliferation and a rapid turnover of newly formed cells in the rostral migratory pathway, while production and migration of postnatal neurons into the dentate gyrus may be more complex. The relatively small size of the olfactory bulb, compared to the hippocampus, potentially makes this structure ideal for a rapid analysis. This study used the St. Kitts vervet monkey (Chlorocebus sabeus to (1 investigate the normal developmental sequence of post-natal proliferation in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus and (2 determine the effects of naturalistic prenatal ethanol exposure on proliferation at three different ages (neonate, five months and two years. Using design-based stereology, we found an age-related decrease of actively proliferating cells in the olfactory bulb and dentate gyrus for both control and FAE groups. Furthermore, at the neonatal time point, the FAE group had fewer actively proliferating cells as compared to the control group. These data are unique with respect to fetal ethanol effects on progenitor proliferation in the primate brain and suggest that the olfactory bulb may be a useful structure for studies of cellular proliferation.
Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Upchurch, Dawn M
To examine gender differences in the associations between childhood adversity and different types of substance use disorders and whether gender moderates these relationships. We analyzed data from 19,209 women and 13,898 men as provided by Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender moderates the associations between childhood adversity and DSM-IV defined lifetime occurrence of alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders. We used multinomial logistic regression, weighted to be representative of the US adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population, and we calculated predicted probabilities by gender, controlling for covariates. To test which specific moderation contrasts were statistically significant, we conducted pair-wise comparisons corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni's method. For each type of substance use disorder, risk was increased by more exposure to childhood adversity, and women had a lower risk than men. However, moderation effects revealed that with more experiences of childhood adversity, the gender gap in predicted probability for a disorder narrowed in relation to alcohol, it converged in relation to drugs such that risk among women surpassed that among men, and it widened in relation to polysubstances. Knowledge regarding substance-specific gender differences associated with childhood adversity exposure can inform evidence-based treatments. It may also be useful for shaping other types of gender-sensitive public health initiatives to ameliorate or prevent different types of substance use disorders.
Walvoort, S.J.; Wester, A.J.; Doorakkers, M.C.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Egger, J.I.
BACKGROUND: It is evident from the dsm-iv-tr that alcohol-related impairment is extremely difficult to classify accurately. As a result, cognitive deficits can easily be overlooked. The dsm-5, however, incorporates a new category, namely 'neurocognitive disorders', which may lead to significant
Wintemute, Garen J
Alcohol use and firearm ownership are risk factors for violent injury and death. To determine whether firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours, the author conducted a cross-sectional study using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for eight states in the USA from 1996 to 1997 (the most recent data available). Altogether, 15 474 respondents provided information on firearm exposure. After adjustment for demographics and state of residence, firearm owners were more likely than those with no firearms at home to have ≥5 drinks on one occasion (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.50), to drink and drive (OR 1.79; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.39) and to have ≥60 drinks per month (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.83). Heavy alcohol use was most common among firearm owners who also engaged in behaviours such as carrying a firearm for protection against other people and keeping a firearm at home that was both loaded and not locked away. The author concludes that firearm ownership and specific firearm-related behaviours are associated with alcohol-related risk behaviours.
Nexøe, Jørgen; Wilche, Julie Præst; Niclasen, Birgit
for presentation were mental or social problems, attempted suicide, accidents, or violence, 24, 50, 15, and 59% respectively were intoxicated. Alcohol intoxication was statistically significantly more often associated with advanced treatment (e.g. evacuation, hospitalisation, or follow up by doctor or nurse...... by simple means. Methods: Registration of all emergencies presented in 15 out of 17 of Greenland's health districts in the period 21 May to 7 June 2010. Results: In the 17-day registration period, 2403 emergencies were registered. In 10% of cases the patients were clinically alcohol intoxicated. When reason......). Conclusions: This study confirms that violence- and alcohol-related emergencies put a considerable strain on Greenland's healthcare system. Due to the short observation period, we have not been able to describe the actual extent of the problem in detail, nor was it possible to estimate whether this problem...
Schuckit, M A
The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-Trait Scale (STAI) were administered to male university students and nonacademic staff. Subjects classified as "at-risk" on the basis of a history of alcoholism in a first-degree relative (N = 30) were compared to controls with no such family histories (N = 30). The two groups were matched on demographic variables and drinking history. No significant differences were found between the groups on the traits of anxiety or assertiveness, although the subjects hypothesized to be at higher risk for alcoholism showed a trend toward higher assertiveness scores. These findings are not consistent with the hypothesis that higher levels of anxiety and/or lower levels of assertiveness predispose an individual toward the development of alcoholism.
Stein, Jeffrey S.; Renda, C. Renee; Hinnenkamp, Jay E.; Madden, Gregory J.
In a prior study (Stein et al., 2013), we reported that rats pre-exposed to delayed rewards made fewer impulsive choices, but consumed more alcohol (12% wt/vol), than rats pre-exposed to immediate rewards. To understand the mechanisms that produced these findings, we again pre-exposed rats to either delayed (17.5 s; n = 32) or immediate (n = 30) rewards. In post-tests, delay-exposed rats made significantly fewer impulsive choices at both 15- and 30-s delays to a larger, later food reward than the immediacy-exposed comparison group. Behavior in an open-field test provided little evidence of differential stress exposure between groups. Further, consumption of either 12% alcohol or isocaloric sucrose in subsequent tests did not differ between groups. Because Stein et al. introduced alcohol concentration gradually (3–12%), we speculate that their group differences in 12% alcohol consumption were not determined by alcohol’s pharmacological effects, but by another variable (e.g., taste) that was preserved as an artifact from lower concentrations. We conclude that pre-exposure to delayed rewards generalizes beyond the pre-exposure delay; however, this same experimental variable does not robustly influence alcohol consumption. PMID:25418607
Kloss, Olena; Eskin, N A Michael; Suh, Miyoung
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when the dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction because thiamin is involved in the synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (e.g., acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and its deficiency increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents. Thiamin deficiency also leads to neural membrane dysfunction, because thiamin is a structural component of mitochondrial and synaptosomal membranes. Similarly, in-utero exposure to alcohol leads to fetal brain dysfunction, resulting in negative effects such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Thiamin deficiency and prenatal exposure to alcohol could act synergistically to produce negative effects on fetal development; however, this area of research is currently under-studied. This minireview summarizes the evidence for the potential role of thiamin deficiency in fetal brain development, with or without prenatal exposure to alcohol. Such evidence may influence the development of new nutritional strategies for preventing or mitigating the symptoms of FASD.
Full Text Available During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption.
Vestergaard, M; Wisborg, K; Henriksen, TB
of extensive brain growth and differentiation in this period. We evaluated the association between prenatal exposure to cigarettes, alcohol, and coffee and the risk for febrile seizures in 2 population-based birth cohorts. METHODS: The Aarhus Birth Cohort consisted of 25,196 children of mothers who were...... Birth Cohort, but the corresponding association was weak in the Aalborg-Odense cohort. We found no association between maternal alcohol and coffee consumption and the risk for febrile seizures. The results were similar for simple and complex febrile seizures. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that prenatal...... exposure to low to moderate levels of alcohol and coffee has no impact on the risk for febrile seizures, whereas a modest smoking effect cannot be ruled out....
Goldstick, Jason E; Heinze, Justin E; Stoddard, Sarah A; Cunningham, Rebecca M; Zimmerman, Marc A
Using data from a cohort study of students at risk for high school dropout, we examined associations between violence exposure and past 30-day alcohol and marijuana use. We used varying-coefficient regression with person-level fixed effects to estimate how those associations changed within-person across ages approximately 14-23. Generally, violence perpetration was most strongly associated with substance use, within-person. Substance use became increasingly associated with both observed violence and violence perpetration during early/middle adolescence; this increase continued longer into development (age 18+) for alcohol use. Across most of the age range studied here, violence victimization was minimally associated with within-person changes in substance use. Results indicate age-specific associations between violence exposure and alcohol and other drug use, which may be useful for informing prevention strategies. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Gentry, Elisabeth; Poirier, Katie; Wilkinson, Tiana; Nhean, Siphannay; Nyborn, Justin; Siegel, Michael
We investigated the frequency of alcohol ads at all 113 subway and streetcar stations in Boston and the patterns of community exposure stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and age. We assessed the extent of alcohol advertising at each station in May 2009. We measured gross impressions and gross rating points (GRPs) for the entire Greater Boston population and for Boston public school student commuters. We compared the frequency of alcohol advertising between neighborhoods with differing demographics. For the Greater Boston population, alcohol advertising at subway stations generated 109 GRPs on a typical day. For Boston public school students in grades 5 to 12, alcohol advertising at stations generated 134 GRPs. Advertising at stations in low-poverty neighborhoods generated 14.1 GRPs and at stations in high-poverty areas, 63.6 GRPs. Alcohol ads reach the equivalent of every adult in the Greater Boston region and the equivalent of every 5th- to 12th-grade public school student each day. More alcohol ads were displayed in stations in neighborhoods with high poverty rates than in stations in neighborhoods with low poverty rates.
Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H
Recently published research has identified the alcohol brands most frequently consumed by underage youth. The present study examines alcohol magazine advertising in 2011 to report age- and sex-specific exposure to advertisements for these brands in contrast with other magazine advertising brands less popular with youth. We licensed magazine advertising occurrence data from Nielsen and magazine audience data from the research company GfK MRI (Growth from Knowledge, Mediamark Research & Intelligence) for national full-run editions for 2011. We contrasted per capita advertising exposure, considering different age- and sex-specific groups, for popular youth brands versus all other magazine brands. For each brand, we reported the age group receiving the highest level of per capita advertising exposure, as well as other age groups within 10% of that peak level. Underage males ages 18-20 were the most heavily exposed age group for 11 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 6 brands. Underage females ages 18-20 were most heavily exposed for 16 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 2 brands. In contrast, those ages 18-20 were the most heavily exposed group for fewer than 10% of the remaining 308 magazine advertising brands for either sex. These findings suggest a relationship between advertising exposure and youth alcohol brand consumption. Current alcohol industry self-regulatory codes may not be sufficiently protective of youth.
Hillmer, Ansel T; Tudorascu, Dana L; Wooten, Dustin W; Lao, Patrick J; Barnhart, Todd E; Ahlers, Elizabeth O; Resch, Leslie M; Larson, Julie A; Converse, Alexander K; Moore, Colleen F; Schneider, Mary L; Christian, Bradley T
The precise nature of modifications to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system in response to chronic ethanol exposure is poorly understood. The present work used PET imaging to assay α4β2* nAChR binding levels of eight rhesus monkeys before and during controlled chronic ethanol intake. [(18)F]Nifene PET scans were conducted prior to alcohol exposure, and then again after at least 8 months controlled ethanol exposure, including 6 months at 1.5 g/kg/day following a dose escalation period. Receptor binding levels were quantified with binding potentials (BPND) using the cerebellum as a reference region. Alcohol self-administration was assessed as average daily alcohol intake during a 2 month free drinking period immediately following controlled alcohol. Significant decreases in α4β2* nAChR binding were observed in both frontal and insular cortex in response to chronic ethanol exposure. During chronic alcohol exposure, BPND in the lateral geniculate region correlated positively with the amount of alcohol consumed during free drinking. The observed decreases in nAChR availability following chronic alcohol consumption suggest alterations to this receptor system in response to repeated alcohol administration, making this an important target for further study in alcohol abuse and alcohol and nicotine codependence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott
Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender
Sanchez-Ramirez, Diana C; Voaklander, Donald
Evidence supports the expectation that changes in time of alcohol sales associate with changes in alcohol-related harm in both directions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive systematic reviews had examined the effect of policies restricting time of alcohol trading on specific alcohol-related harms. To compile existing evidence related to the impact of policies regulating alcohol trading hours/days of on specific harm outcomes such as: assault/violence, motor vehicle crashes/fatalities, injury, visits to the emergency department/hospital, murder/homicides and crime. Systematic review of literature studying the impact of policies regulation alcohol trading times in alcohol-related harm, published between January 2000 and October 2016 in English language. Results support the premise that policies regulating times of alcohol trading and consumption can contribute to reduce injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations/emergency department visits, homicides and crime. Although the impact of alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is also positive, these associations seem to be more complex and require further study. Evidence suggests a potential direct effect of policies that regulate alcohol trading times in the prevention of injuries, alcohol-related hospitalisations, homicides and crime. The impact of these alcohol trading policies in assault/violence and motor vehicle crashes/fatalities is less compelling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Slavinskienė, Justina; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina
The aim of this study was to evaluate the importance of alcohol-dependent patients' emotional expressivity, alcohol-related expectations and socio-demographic factors for prediction of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. The study sample consisted of 136 alcohol-dependent patients (100 men and 36 women) undergoing treatment in Kaunas center for addictive disorders. Only higher expression of negative alcohol-related expectations (std. beta=0.192, P=0.023), higher emotional impulse intensity (std. beta=0.229, P=0.021) and higher expression of positive emotional expressiveness (std. beta=0.021, P=0.020) as well as gender (std. beta=0.180, P=0.049), education (std. beta=-0.137, P=0.038) and alcohol dependency treatment conditions (members of support group after rehabilitation program) (std. beta=0.288, P=0.001; std. beta=0.608, P=0.001) were significant factors for predicting the different level of alcohol-dependent patients motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. Negative alcohol-related expectations, emotional impulse intensity and positive emotional expressiveness were significant even though quite weak triggers for alcohol-dependent patients' different level of motivation to refuse alcohol consumption. An assumption could be made that by changing these triggers it is possible to change addictive behavior. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
Navarro Junior, L.
The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)
Lundgaard, Iben; Wang, Wei; Eberhardt, Allison; Vinitsky, Hanna Sophia; Reeves, Benjamin Cameron; Peng, Sisi; Lou, Nanhong; Hussain, Rashad; Nedergaard, Maiken
Prolonged intake of excessive amounts of ethanol is known to have adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here we investigated the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal from chronic ethanol exposure on glymphatic function, which is a brain-wide metabolite clearance system connected to the peripheral lymphatic system. Acute and chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg (binge level) ethanol dramatically suppressed glymphatic function in awake mice. Chronic exposure to 1.5 g/kg ethanol increased GFAP expression and induced mislocation of the astrocyte-specific water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), but decreased the levels of several cytokines. Surprisingly, glymphatic function increased in mice treated with 0.5 g/kg (low dose) ethanol following acute exposure, as well as after one month of chronic exposure. Low doses of chronic ethanol intake were associated with a significant decrease in GFAP expression, with little change in the cytokine profile compared with the saline group. These observations suggest that ethanol has a J-shaped effect on the glymphatic system whereby low doses of ethanol increase glymphatic function. Conversely, chronic 1.5 g/kg ethanol intake induced reactive gliosis and perturbed glymphatic function, which possibly may contribute to the higher risk of dementia observed in heavy drinkers.
Chavez, Laura J; Williams, Emily C; Lapham, Gwen T; Rubinsky, Anna D; Kivlahan, Daniel R; Bradley, Katharine A
Brief alcohol interventions are recommended for primary care patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse, but implementation is challenging. The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (Veterans Affairs [VA]) implemented brief interventions for patients with alcohol misuse in 2008, and rates of brief interventions documented in the electronic medical record increased from 24% to 78% (2008-2011). This study examined whether an independent measure of brief interventions-patient-reported alcohol-related advice-also increased among VA outpatients who screened positive for alcohol misuse on a mailed survey. This retrospective cross-sectional study included VA outpatient respondents to the VA's Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients (SHEP; 2007-2011) who reported past-year alcohol use and answered a question about alcohol-related advice. Alcohol-related advice was defined as a report of past-year advice from a VA clinician to abstain from or reduce drinking. The adjusted prevalence of alcoholrelated advice among patients who screened positive for alcohol misuse (SHEP AUDIT-C ≥ 5) was estimated for each year. Among patients with alcohol misuse (n = 61,843), the adjusted prevalence of alcohol-related advice increased from 40.4% (95% CI [39.3%, 41.5%]) in 2007 to 55.5% (95% CI [53.3%, 57.8%]) in 2011. Rates of alcoholrelated advice increased significantly each year except the last. The VA's efforts to implement brief interventions were associated with increased patient-reported alcohol-related advice over time, with a majority of patients with alcohol misuse reporting its receipt. Other systems considering similar approaches to implementation may benefit from collecting patient-reported measures of brief interventions for an additional perspective on implementation.
Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that DNA methylation plays an important role in the development of alcohol abuse. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dc, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferases, was FDA approved for myelodysplastic syndrome treatment. However, it is unclear whether 5-Aza-dc is involved in alcohol abuse. In this study, using a chronic alcohol exposure model in rats, 5-Aza-dc was injected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC. Alcohol-drinking behavior and the anxiety related behavior were evaluated by two-bottle choice and open field test. We found that 5-Aza-dc injection into the mPFC significantly decreased alcohol consumption and alcohol preference in alcohol-exposure rats, corresponding to the reduced blood alcohol levels. Although 5-Aza-dc potentiated the anxiety-like behavior of alcohol-exposure rats, it had no effect on the locomotor activity. Moreover, both of the mRNA and protein levels of DNA Methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A and DNMT3B in the mPFC were upregulated after 35 days of alcohol exposure and this upregulation could be reversed by 5-Aza-dc treatment. Additionally, 5-Aza-dc reversed the alcohol-induced downregulation of neurotrophin-3 (Ntf3, correspondingly the expression of its receptor-TrkC was reduced. These findings identified a functional role of 5-Aza-dc in alcohol-related behavioral phenotypes and one of the potential target genes, Ntf3. We also provide novel evidence for DNA methyltransferases as potential therapeutic targets in alcohol abuse.
Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G
Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.
Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes. PMID:24462223
Verhaeghe, Nick; Lievens, Delfine; Annemans, Lieven; Vander Laenen, Freya; Putman, Koen
Alcohol is associated with adverse health effects causing a considerable economic impact to society. A reliable estimate of this economic impact for Belgium is lacking. This is the aim of the study. A prevalence-based approach estimating the direct, indirect and intangible costs for the year 2012 was used. Attributional fractions for a series of health effects were derived from literature. The human capital approach was used to estimate indirect costs, while the concept of disability-adjusted life years was used to estimate intangible costs. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were conducted to assess the uncertainty around cost estimates and to evaluate the impact of alternative modelling assumptions. In 2012, total alcohol-attributable direct costs were estimated at €906.1 million, of which the majority were due to hospitalization (€743.7 million, 82%). The indirect costs amounted to €642.6 million, of which 62% was caused by premature mortality. Alcohol was responsible for 157,500 disability-adjusted life years representing €6.3 billion intangible costs. Despite a number of limitations intrinsic to this kind of research, the study can be considered as the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the health-related social costs of alcohol in Belgium.
Full Text Available Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OHD 3 ] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH 2 D 3 ] and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37. Alcohol-mediated reduction of LL-37 may be partly responsible for increased incidence of more frequent and severe respiratory infections among subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OHD 3 , active vitamin D (1, 25(OH 2 D 3 , cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced ( P < 0.05 when compared with the matched healthy control group. However, CYP2E1 was elevated in all the samples examined. Chronic exposure to alcohol has the potential to reduce the levels of pulmonary vitamin D and results in subsequent downregulation of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, in the human pulmonary system.
Fielder, Lynda; Donovan, Robert J; Ouschan, Robyn
This study investigated the exposure of underage youth to alcohol television advertising on metropolitan free-to-air television in the five mainland capital city markets of Australia. Exposure levels (target audience rating points; TARPs) were obtained for all alcohol advertisements screened from November 2005 to October 2006 in each capital city market for: children 0-12 years; underage teens 13-17 years; young adults 18-24 years; and mature adults 25+ years. The 30 most exposed advertisements across age groups were then content-analysed for elements appealing to children and underage youth. In each of the five metropolitan markets, mature adults were most exposed to alcohol advertising. Children were exposed to one-third the level of mature adults and underage teens to approximately the same level as young adults. However, there was considerable variation in media weight between markets, such that underage teens in two markets had higher advertising TARPs than young adults in other markets. All 30 highest exposed advertisements contained at least one element known to appeal to children and underage youth, with 23 containing two or more such elements. Fifteen of the 30 advertisements featured an animal. The self-regulation system in Australia does not protect children and youth from exposure to alcohol advertising, much of which contains elements appealing to these groups.
Windle, Michael; Windle, Rebecca C
This study used prospective data from 706 young adults to evaluate the impact of parental divorce and family history of alcoholism (FH+) on the outcomes of offspring alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships with parents. Assessments of parental divorce were based on parent reports, and young adult outcomes were collected from an offspring cohort (n = 706; X age = 33.25 years; females = 53%) via computer-based individual interviews (CAPI and ACASI). Family history of alcohol disorders for parents was based on assessments by mothers, fathers, and young adults. Parental divorce significantly predicted marijuana use but not alcohol problems. Maternal, but not paternal, alcoholism also significantly predicted marijuana use. Two-way interactions indicated that sex moderated several of the relationships. For example, among those with divorced parents, daughters reported higher levels of conflict with fathers than sons, and sons reported lower levels of maternal support than daughters. Paternal alcoholism was also associated with higher levels of alcohol problems among sons relative to daughters. There was also a significant 2-way interaction between divorce status and maternal alcoholism indicating that young adults who experienced both maternal alcoholism and parental divorce had the highest levels of marijuana use. These findings highlight the role that parental divorce and FH+ have on alcohol problems, marijuana use, and interpersonal relationships in young adulthood, and how sex may moderate some of these more nuanced relationships. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Winter, Matthew V; Donovan, Robert J; Fielder, Lynda J
This article reports the extent to which children (0-12 years) and teenagers below the legal drinking age in Australia (13-17 years) were exposed to alcohol advertising on free-to-air television in Sydney, Australia, during the period from March 2005 to February 2006. Exposure levels were obtained from weekly Target Audience Rating Points (TARPs) data generated by OzTAM, the official Australian television audience monitoring system. (The TARPs figure for an advertisement is calculated based on the number of individuals from a target audience [e.g., 13- to 17-year-olds] exposed to the ad as a proportion of the total number of individuals within the target audience, multiplied by 100). Exposure levels were obtained for four age groups-up to 12 years, 13-17 years, 18-24 years, and 25 years and older-for 156 different ads for 50 brands. Adults 25 years and older were most exposed to alcohol advertising: approximately 660 TARPs per week. The level to which underage teenagers (13-17 years) were exposed to alcohol advertising was virtually identical to that of young adults (18-24 years): 426 TARPs per week vs 429 TARPs per week. Children (0-12 years) were exposed to approximately one in every three alcohol ads seen on average by mature adults (ages 25 years and older). This study found that Australian children and teenagers below the legal drinking age currently are exposed to unacceptably high levels of alcohol advertising on television. These findings suggest that alcohol marketers may be deliberately targeting underage adolescents. At the very least the findings highlight the need for action to be taken to reduce levels to which underage Australians are exposed to alcohol advertising on television.
Helland, Arne; Lydersen, Stian; Lervåg, Lone-Eirin; Jenssen, Gunnar D; Mørland, Jørg; Slørdal, Lars
Simulator sickness is a major obstacle to the use of driving simulators for research, training and driver assessment purposes. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of simulator sickness on driving performance measures such as standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), and the effect of alcohol or repeated simulator exposure on the degree of simulator sickness. Twenty healthy male volunteers underwent three simulated driving trials of 1h's duration with a curvy rural road scenario, and rated their degree of simulator sickness after each trial. Subjects drove sober and with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) of approx. 0.5g/L and 0.9g/L in a randomized order. Simulator sickness score (SSS) did not influence the primary outcome measure SDLP. Higher SSS significantly predicted lower average speed and frequency of steering wheel reversals. These effects seemed to be mitigated by alcohol. Higher BAC significantly predicted lower SSS, suggesting that alcohol inebriation alleviates simulator sickness. The negative relation between the number of previous exposures to the simulator and SSS was not statistically significant, but is consistent with habituation to the sickness-inducing effects, as shown in other studies. Overall, the results suggest no influence of simulator sickness on SDLP or several other driving performance measures. However, simulator sickness seems to cause test subjects to drive more carefully, with lower average speed and fewer steering wheel reversals, hampering the interpretation of these outcomes as measures of driving impairment and safety. BAC and repeated simulator exposures may act as confounding variables by influencing the degree of simulator sickness in experimental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.
According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking
Robinson, Mark; Shipton, Deborah; Walsh, David; Whyte, Bruce; McCartney, Gerry
Regional differences in population levels of alcohol-related harm exist across Great Britain, but these are not entirely consistent with differences in population levels of alcohol consumption. This incongruence may be due to the use of self-report surveys to estimate consumption. Survey data are subject to various biases and typically produce consumption estimates much lower than those based on objective alcohol sales data. However, sales data have never been used to estimate regional consumption within Great Britain (GB). This ecological study uses alcohol retail sales data to provide novel insights into regional alcohol consumption in GB, and to explore the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality. Alcohol sales estimates derived from electronic sales, delivery records and retail outlet sampling were obtained. The volume of pure alcohol sold was used to estimate per adult consumption, by market sector and drink type, across eleven GB regions in 2010-11. Alcohol-related mortality rates were calculated for the same regions and a cross-sectional correlation analysis between consumption and mortality was performed. Per adult consumption in northern England was above the GB average and characterised by high beer sales. A high level of consumption in South West England was driven by on-trade sales of cider and spirits and off-trade wine sales. Scottish regions had substantially higher spirits sales than elsewhere in GB, particularly through the off-trade. London had the lowest per adult consumption, attributable to lower off-trade sales across most drink types. Alcohol-related mortality was generally higher in regions with higher per adult consumption. The relationship was weakened by the South West and Central Scotland regions, which had the highest consumption levels, but discordantly low and very high alcohol-related mortality rates, respectively. This study provides support for the ecological relationship between alcohol-related
Karunamuni, Ganga; Gu, Shi; Doughman, Yong Qiu; Sheehan, Megan M.; Ma, Pei; Peterson, Lindsy M.; Linask, Kersti K.; Jenkins, Michael W.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Watanabe, Michiko
Over 500,000 women per year in the United States drink during pregnancy, and 1 in 5 of this population also binge drink. As high as 20-50% of live-born children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) present with congenital heart defects including outflow and valvuloseptal anomalies that can be life-threatening. Previously we established a model of PAE (modeling a single binge drinking episode) in the avian embryo and used optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to assay early-stage cardiac function/structure and late-stage cardiac defects. At early stages, alcohol/ethanol-exposed embryos had smaller cardiac cushions and increased retrograde flow. At late stages, they presented with gross morphological defects in the head and chest wall, and also exhibited smaller or abnormal atrio-ventricular (AV) valves, thinner interventricular septae (IVS), and smaller vessel diameters for the aortic trunk branches. In other animal models, the methyl donor betaine (found naturally in many foods such as wheat bran, quinoa, beets and spinach) ameliorates neurobehavioral deficits associated with PAE but the effects on heart structure are unknown. In our model of PAE, betaine supplementation led to a reduction in gross structural defects and appeared to protect against certain types of cardiac defects such as ventricular septal defects and abnormal AV valvular morphology. Furthermore, vessel diameters, IVS thicknesses and mural AV leaflet volumes were normalized while the septal AV leaflet volume was increased. These findings highlight the importance of betaine and potentially methylation levels in the prevention of PAE-related birth defects which could have significant implications for public health.
Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)
Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption)
Nhean, Siphannay; Nyborn, Justin; Hinchey, Danielle; Valerio, Heather; Kinzel, Kathryn; Siegel, Michael; Jernigan, David H
This research provides an estimate of the frequency of company-sponsored alcohol brand-related sites on Facebook™. We conducted a systematic overview of the extent of alcohol brand-related sites on Facebook™ in 2012. We conducted a 2012 Facebook™ search for sites specifically related to 898 alcohol brands across 16 different alcoholic beverage types. Descriptive statistics were produced using Microsoft SQL Server. We identified 1,017 company-sponsored alcohol-brand related sites on Facebook™. Our study advances previous literature by providing a systematic overview of the extent of alcohol brand sites on Facebook™.
Pegg, Karlee J; O'Donnell, Alexander W; Lala, Girish; Barber, Bonnie L
Social networking sites (SNSs) are social platforms that facilitate communication. For adolescents, peers play a crucial role in constructing the self online through displays of group norms on SNSs. The current study investigated the role of online social identity (OSI) in the relationship between adolescent exposure to alcohol-related content posted by peers on SNSs and alcohol use. In a sample (N = 929) of Australian adolescents (Age M = 17.25, SD = 0.31) higher levels of exposure to alcohol-related content on SNSs was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Importantly, the association was stronger when the participants reported higher OSI particularly when also reporting low or moderate amount of time spent on SNS. The findings can be explained by social identity literature that demonstrates individuals align their behaviors with other members of their social group to demonstrate, enact, and maintain social identity. The results of this study reflect the importance of considering the construction of the "self" through online and offline constructs.
O'Donnell, Alexander W.; Lala, Girish; Barber, Bonnie L.
Abstract Social networking sites (SNSs) are social platforms that facilitate communication. For adolescents, peers play a crucial role in constructing the self online through displays of group norms on SNSs. The current study investigated the role of online social identity (OSI) in the relationship between adolescent exposure to alcohol-related content posted by peers on SNSs and alcohol use. In a sample (N = 929) of Australian adolescents (Age M = 17.25, SD = 0.31) higher levels of exposure to alcohol-related content on SNSs was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. Importantly, the association was stronger when the participants reported higher OSI particularly when also reporting low or moderate amount of time spent on SNS. The findings can be explained by social identity literature that demonstrates individuals align their behaviors with other members of their social group to demonstrate, enact, and maintain social identity. The results of this study reflect the importance of considering the construction of the “self” through online and offline constructs. PMID:28574719
Sadrian, B; Subbanna, S; Wilson, D A; Basavarajappa, B S; Saito, M
Fetal alcohol exposure can cause developmental defects in offspring known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD symptoms range from obvious facial deformities to changes in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology that disrupt normal brain function and behavior. Ethanol exposure at postnatal day 7 in C57BL/6 mice induces neuronal cell death and long-lasting neurobehavioral dysfunction. Previous work has demonstrated that early ethanol exposure impairs spatial memory task performance into adulthood and perturbs local and interregional brain circuit integrity in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway. Here we pursue these findings to examine whether lithium prevents anatomical, neurophysiological, and behavioral pathologies that result from early ethanol exposure. Lithium has neuroprotective properties that have been shown to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. Here we show that mice co-treated with lithium on the same day as ethanol exposure exhibit dramatically reduced acute neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and retain hippocampal-dependent spatial memory as adults. Lithium co-treatment also blocked ethanol-induced disruption in synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of hippocampal CA1 in the adult mouse brain. Moreover, long-lasting dysfunctions caused by ethanol in olfacto-hippocampal networks, including sensory-evoked oscillations and resting state coherence, were prevented in mice co-treated with lithium. Together, these results provide behavioral and physiological evidence that lithium is capable of preventing or reducing immediate and long-term deleterious consequences of early ethanol exposure on brain function. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hirst, Andrew; Miller-Archie, Sara A; Welch, Alice E; Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M
To describe patterns of drug- and alcohol-related hospitalizations among persons exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks and to assess whether 9/11-related exposures or post-9/11 post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were associated with increased odds of hospitalization. Data for adult enrollees in the WTC Health Registry, a prospective cohort study, were linked to New York State (NYS) administrative hospitalization data to identify alcohol- and drug-related hospitalizations from enrollment to December 31, 2010. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between substance use-related hospitalization, 9/11-related exposure and PTSD. Of 41,176 NYS resident enrollees, we identified 626 (1.5%) who had at least one alcohol- or drug-related hospitalization; 53.4% (n = 591) of these hospitalizations were for alcohol only diagnoses and 46.6% (n = 515) were drug-related. Witnessing ≥3 traumatic events on 9/11 was significantly associated with having a drug-related hospitalization (AOR 1.4, 95% CI = [1.1, 1.9]). PTSD was significantly associated with both having a drug-related hospitalization as well as an alcohol only-related hospitalization. (AOR 2.6, 95% CI = [2.0, 3.3], AOR 1.8, 95% CI = [1.4, 2.3], respectively). Witnessing traumatic events and having PTSD were independently associated with substance use-related hospitalizations. Targeting people who witnessed traumatic events on 9/11 and/or who have PTSD for substance use- treatment could reduce alcohol and drug-related hospitalizations connected to 9/11. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Flaherty, J A; Freels, S
While sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse (GWA) have been linked with alcohol use and abuse, active problem-focused coping has been shown to lessen vulnerability to deleterious mental health consequences of varied social stressors. At the same time, active coping is relatively more efficacious in response to stressors, which are amenable to change by personal actions. However, the moderating role that coping plays in relation to harassment and drinking is unknown. Using data from a two-wave survey of university employees (N=2038), we addressed the extent to which (1) active coping was utilized by harassed and abused employees, (2) whether coping impacted on the continuation or cessation of harassment and abuse, and (3) the extent to which nonsuccessful coping was predictive of alcohol use and abuse. Active coping had no significant impact on the ability to end harassing or abusive experiences. Moreover, the use of problem-focused coping that was unsuccessful predicted some drinking outcomes for both men and women, controlling for Wave I drinking and sociodemographic characteristics. The data suggest that increased institutional attention to the prevention of workplace harassment and abuse might impact on decreasing alcohol use and abuse.
Kyzar, Evan J; Zhang, Huaibo; Sakharkar, Amul J; Pandey, Subhash C
Alcohol exposure in adolescence is an important risk factor for the development of alcoholism in adulthood. Epigenetic processes are implicated in the persistence of adolescent alcohol exposure-related changes, specifically in the amygdala. We investigated the role of histone methylation mechanisms in the persistent effects of adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure in adulthood. Adolescent rats were exposed to 2 g/kg ethanol (2 days on/off) or intermittent n-saline (AIS) during postnatal days (PND) 28-41 and used for behavioral and epigenetic studies. We found that AIE exposure caused a long-lasting decrease in mRNA and protein levels of lysine demethylase 1(Lsd1) and mRNA levels of Lsd1 + 8a (a neuron-specific splice variant) in specific amygdaloid structures compared with AIS-exposed rats when measured at adulthood. Interestingly, AIE increased histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) levels in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA) in adulthood without producing any change in H3K4me2 protein levels. Acute ethanol challenge (2 g/kg) in adulthood attenuated anxiety-like behaviors and the decrease in Lsd1 + 8a mRNA levels in the amygdala induced by AIE. AIE caused an increase in H3K9me2 occupancy at the brain-derived neurotrophic factor exon IV promoter in the amygdala that returned to baseline after acute ethanol challenge in adulthood. These results indicate that AIE specifically modulates epizymes involved in H3K9 dimethylation in the amygdala in adulthood, which are possibly responsible for AIE-induced chromatin remodeling and adult psychopathology such as anxiety. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Wiebe, Douglas J; Morrison, Christopher N; Remer, Lillian G; Wiehe, Sarah E
Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents' activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Adolescents (N = 18) aged 16-17 years carried global positioning system (GPS)-enabled smartphones for 1 week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting global positioning system points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained nine times more alcohol outlets than that of residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low-socioeconomic status exposure was related to marijuana use. Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lassi, Zohra S; Imam, Ayesha M; Dean, Sohni V; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300 mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects (OR 2.80; 95% CI 1
Idrus, Nirelia M; Breit, Kristen R; Thomas, Jennifer D
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause a range of physical and behavioral alterations; however, the outcome among children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy varies widely. Some of this variation may be due to nutritional factors. Indeed, higher rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are observed in countries where malnutrition is prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown that many pregnant women throughout the world may not be consuming adequate levels of choline, an essential nutrient critical for brain development, and a methyl donor. In this study, we examined the influence of dietary choline deficiency on the severity of fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive diets containing 40, 70, or 100% recommended choline levels. A group from each diet condition was exposed to ethanol (6.0g/kg/day) from gestational day 5 to 20 via intubation. Pair-fed and ad lib lab chow control groups were also included. Physical and behavioral development was measured in the offspring. Prenatal alcohol exposure delayed motor development, and 40% choline altered performance on the cliff avoidance task, independent of one another. However, the combination of low choline and prenatal alcohol produced the most severe impairments in development. Subjects exposed to ethanol and fed the 40% choline diet exhibited delayed eye openings, significantly fewer successes in hindlimb coordination, and were significantly overactive compared to all other groups. These data suggest that suboptimal intake of a single nutrient can exacerbate some of ethanol's teratogenic effects, a finding with important implications for the prevention of FASD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen
Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk. Copyright © 2012 UICC.
Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.
Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991
Cranwell, Jo; Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John
To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Ten-second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12-week period in 2013/14; on-line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high-content videos. Great Britain. A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11-18 years who completed an on-line survey. Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33-51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13-27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0-4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2-11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0-7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0-3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E-Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re-watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re-watch the videos than boys, P branding. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.
Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H
Objective: Recently published research has identified the alcohol brands most frequently consumed by underage youth. The present study examines alcohol magazine advertising in 2011 to report age- and sex-specific exposure to advertisements for these brands in contrast with other magazine advertising brands less popular with youth. Method: We licensed magazine advertising occurrence data from Nielsen and magazine audience data from the research company GfK MRI (Growth from Knowledge, Mediamark Research & Intelligence) for national full-run editions for 2011. We contrasted per capita advertising exposure, considering different age- and sex-specific groups, for popular youth brands versus all other magazine brands. For each brand, we reported the age group receiving the highest level of per capita advertising exposure, as well as other age groups within 10% of that peak level. Results: Underage males ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed age group for 11 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 6 brands. Underage females ages 18–20 were most heavily exposed for 16 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 2 brands. In contrast, those ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed group for fewer than 10% of the remaining 308 magazine advertising brands for either sex. Conclusions: These findings suggest a relationship between advertising exposure and youth alcohol brand consumption. Current alcohol industry self-regulatory codes may not be sufficiently protective of youth. PMID:24988260
Levin, Michael E.; Lillis, Jason; Seeley, John; Hayes, Steven C.; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Biglan, Anthony
Objective: This study explored the relationship of experiential avoidance (eg, the tendency to avoid, suppress, or otherwise control internal experiences even when doing so causes behavioral harm) to alcohol use disorders and alcohol-related problems. Participants: Cross-sectional data were collected from 240 undergraduate college students in…
Romelsjö, A; Diderichsen, Finn
in 1975 and 1980 with the inpatient care registers for 1976 and 1981. In both years, all rates were highest for people outside the labor market and lowest among white collar employees. The employment rate for those aged 25-44 years and treated in 1981 for alcohol psychosis, alcoholism, and alcohol...... intoxication--already low in 1975--had drifted further downward by 1980. Total rates of inpatient treatment for alcohol-related diagnoses generally declined but the gap between blue collar workers and white collar workers widened. We conclude that the goal for national alcohol policy, suggested by the WHO...
Sargent, James D; Wills, Thomas A; Stoolmiller, Mike; Gibson, Jennifer; Gibbons, Frederick X
Little is known about the impact of viewing depictions of alcohol in entertainment media on adolescent drinking behavior. Our aims were to assess drinking in a sample of popular contemporary movies and to examine the association of movie alcohol exposure with early-onset drinking in an adolescent sample. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional survey (N=4655) with longitudinal follow-up of never-drinkers (N=2406) involving adolescents ages 10-14 years and recruited from 15 New Hampshire and Vermont schools. Screen depictions of alcohol use were timed for each of 601 popular contemporary movies. Each adolescent was asked if he/she had seen a unique list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected from the larger pool. Movie alcohol use was summed for movies the adolescent had seen, adjusted to reflect exposure to the larger pool and modeled as a continuous variable. Ninety-two percent of the movies in the sample depicted drinking; median screen time for movie alcohol use was 2.5 minutes (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.9-5.0 minutes). Median exposure to movie alcohol use from the 601 movies was 8.6 hours (IQR: 4.6-13.5 hours). Overall 23.1% of the cross-sectional sample had tried alcohol, and 14.8% of initial nondrinkers had tried alcohol at the follow-up assessment. We found statistical evidence to support a curvilinear association between higher exposure to movie alcohol use and increased risk of prevalent and incident alcohol use, with a statistically significant linear and quadratic effect, and suggesting a higher dose-effect relationship at lower movie alcohol exposure levels compared to higher levels. The linear and the quadratic associations remained strong and significant in cross-sectional and prospective models after controlling for sociodemographics (grade in school, school, gender, parent education), personality characteristics of the adolescent (sensation seeking, rebelliousness, self-esteem), school performance, parenting style, and smoking experimentation
Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter
Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and "non-fermented" food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the "categories" bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the "categories," exposure rose to 12.5-23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Moreau, David; Villain, Arthur; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent
Insufficient bone anchoring is a major limitation of artificial substitutes for connective osteoarticular tissues. The use of coatings containing osseoconductive ceramic particles is one of the actively explored strategies to improve osseointegration and strengthen the bone-implant interface for general tissue engineering. Our hypothesis is that hydroxyapatite (HA) particles can be coated robustly on specific assemblies of PVA hydrogel fibers for the potential anchoring of ligament replacements. A simple dip-coating method is described to produce composite coatings made of microscopic hydroxyapatite (HA) particles dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The materials are compatible with the requirements for implant Good Manufacturing Practices. They are applied to coat bundles of PVA hydrogel fibers used for the development of ligament implants. By means of optical and electronic microscopy, we show that the coating thickness and surface state can be adjusted by varying the composition of the dipping solution. Quantitative analysis based on backscattered electron microscopy show that the exposure of HA at the coating surface can be tuned from 0 to over 55% by decreasing the weight ratio of PVA over HA from 0.4 to 0.1. Abrasion experiments simulating bone-implant contact illustrate how the coating cohesion and wear resistance increase by increasing the content of PVA relative to HA. Using pullout experiments, we find that these coatings adhere well to the fiber bundles and detach by propagation of a crack inside the coating. These results provide a guide to select coated implants for anchoring artificial ligaments.
Morean, Meghan E; Cooney, Judith L
Military service is associated with increased rates of heavy drinking. Widely used clinical practices (e.g., motivational interviewing) indicate that addressing both negative and positive drinking consequences is essential to effective treatment. However, research on effectively assessing positive drinking consequences in a clinical population is absent. The current study (1) evaluated the utility of the Positive Drinking Consequences Questionnaire (PDCQ), a measure previously validated in an undergraduate sample, for use with treatment-seeking veterans, and (2) evaluated relationships between positive drinking consequences and alcohol expectancies, pre-treatment alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Ninety-seven veterans seeking treatment for alcohol problems completed an anonymous survey (97.9% male; mean age = 49.76[11.40], 67.0% Caucasian). The PDCQ evidenced a single factor latent structure and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .90). Positive drinking consequences and expectancies were related yet distinct constructs. After controlling for demographic factors, experiencing more positive drinking consequences at program intake was associated with heavier pretreatment drinking (ηp(2) = .10, p = .003) and alcohol-related problems (ηp(2) = .18, p alcohol use (ηp(2) = .12, p = .002) and alcohol-related problems (ηp(2) = .11, p = .003) when expectancies also were included in the model. Positive drinking consequences are assessed reliably by the PDCQ in a clinical sample and appear to play an important role in the drinking behavior of veterans seeking alcohol treatment.
Yates, W R; Labrecque, D R; Pfab, D
Alcoholic liver disease is considered an indication for liver transplantation when a candidate is felt to have a high likelihood of abstinence following transplantation. Historical variables such as duration of sobriety, duration and quantity of drinking, and treatment history are commonly used to estimate alcoholism prognosis, yet their reliability and validity in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis has received limited study. Fifty subjects (9 women and 41 men) with alcoholic cirrhosis underwent an alcoholism history interview. Each subject had a collateral source (usually a spouse) who was interviewed by a second interviewer blind to the subject's alcoholism history. The two histories were compared for duration of abstinence in months and estimated alcoholism relapse risk was calculated using the High-risk Alcoholism Relapse scale (HRAR). Duration of sobriety correlated highly between subject and collateral source (Spearman r= 0.96, P = 0.0001) as did HRAR total score (Spearman r = 0.72, P = 0.0001). Categorical assignments also showed high correlations with duration of sobriety (kappa = 0.97) and HRAR category (kappa = 0.63). When disagreements were present, collateral sources tended to underestimate severity of alcoholism. We conclude that patients with alcoholic liver disease provide a reliable history for alcoholism variables when compared with a collateral source, and that, when disagreements are present, subjects tend to report a more acute or severe alcohol problem. The results support the clinical use of patient history information in making decisions about medical interventions for alcoholic liver disease.
Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.
The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135
Nordaune, Kristin; Skarpaas, Lisebet S; Sagvaag, Hildegunn; Haveraaen, Lise; Rimstad, Silje; Kinn, Liv G; Aas, Randi W
Alcohol is one of the leading causes of ill health and premature death in the world. Several studies indicate that working life might influence employees' alcohol consumption and drinking patterns. The aim of this study was to explore work-related drinking situations, with a special focus on answering who initiates and organises these situations. Data were collected through semi-structured group interviews in six Norwegian companies from the private ( n=4) and public sectors ( n=2), employing a total of 3850 employees. The informants ( n=43) were representatives from management and local unions, safety officers, advisers from the social insurance office and human-resource personnel, health, safety and environment personnel, and members from the occupational environment committee. Both qualitative and quantitative content analyses were applied in the analyses of the material. Three different initiators and organisers were discovered: the employer, employees and external organisers. External organisers included customers, suppliers, collaborators, sponsors, subcontractors, different unions and employers' organisations. The employer organised more than half of the situations; external organisers were responsible for more than a quarter. The differences between companies were mostly due to the extent of external organisers. The employer initiates and organises most situations for work-related alcohol use. However, exposure to such situations seems to depend on how many external relations the company has. These aspects should be taken into account when workplace health-promotion initiatives are planned.
Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.
Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…
Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome. In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inpatient care for alcohol intoxication is increasing in Sweden, especially among young women. Since it is well known that alcohol disorder is a chronic relapsing illness, this study examines the extent to which people return for more care. Method All inpatients with alcohol-related diagnoses in Stockholm County during 1997 were followed prospectively to 2007 through registers. The proportion reappearing for the same diagnosis, other alcohol-related inpatient, or outpatient care each year after baseline, as well as the number of years the inpatients reappeared were calculated (n = 2735. Three diagnoses were examined separately; alcohol dependence, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol intoxication. Results Three out of five inpatients with an alcohol diagnoses reappeared for more alcohol-related inpatient care during the following decade. The proportion returning was largest the year after baseline and then decreased curvilinearly over time. The inclusion of outpatient care increased proportions, but did not change patterns. Of those with an alcohol dependence diagnosis at baseline 42 percent returned for more alcohol-related inpatient care the first, 28 percent the fifth, and 25 percent the tenth year. Corresponding proportions for harmful use and intoxication were smaller. One in five among those with an alcohol dependence returned for more than five of the ten years. Ordered logistic regressions confirmed that besides diagnosis, age and gender were independently related to the number of years returning to care. Conclusions While middle-aged males with alcohol dependence were in a revolving door, young female inpatients with intoxication diagnosis returned to a comparably lower degree.
Mesman, Glenn R
Although there is evidence to suggest an association between ADHD and alcohol use in college students, results are inconclusive primarily because studies have failed to control for related variables. Thus, this study was designed to systematically compare the relative contributions of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems in a sample of college students while controlling for effects of antisocial behaviors. A total of 192 undergraduate college students from a rural Midwestern university received class credit for participating in the study. They completed measures of alcohol use, ADHD symptoms, and antisocial behavior. Hierarchical regressions revealed inattention, but not hyperactivity/impulsivity, was related to alcohol-related problems even when controlling for antisocial behavior. However, neither inattention nor hyperactivity/impulsivity was related to alcohol use regardless of whether current antisocial behavior was controlled. Inattention may be an important factor related to alcohol-related problems in college students. © 2013 SAGE Publications.
The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists' models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists' models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs.
Hendriks, H.; Gebhardt, W.A.; van den Putte, B.
Many young people place alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNS) which can result in undesirable effects. Although several recent studies have investigated the occurrence of alcohol-related SNS use, it is neither clear (a) what type of alcohol posts are placed on SNS, (b) the
Woud, M.L.; Fitzgerald, D.A.; Wiers, R.W.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
Alcohol misuse is characterized by patterns of selective information processing. The present study investigated whether heavy- compared with light-drinking students, show evidence of an alcohol-related interpretation bias to ambiguous, alcohol-related cues. Toward this aim, participants were asked
Conclusion: Injuries were alcohol related in one out of seven patients this study from an emergency department in eastern Taiwan. Ongoing epidemiologic monitoring of the prevalence and nature of alcohol abuse among patients visiting the ED are urgently needed.
Mares, S.H.W.; Stone, L.L.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
According to the cognitive model of intergenerational transference, modeling of alcohol use is an indirect process in which parental drinking shapes alcohol expectancies of children, which in turn are associated with later alcohol use in adolescents. The present study examined whether parental
Yamane, H; Katoh, N
The role of alcohol intake and withdrawal in so-called alcoholic epilepsy is discussed and illustrated by case reports. A classification is made which includes definitions of withdrawal convulsions, tetany-like withdrawal convulsions and alcohol-induced epileptic fits, with or without predisposing features.
Eva M. Marco
Full Text Available Alcohol is a serious public health concern that has a differential impact on individuals depending upon age and sex. Patterns of alcohol consumption have recently changed: heavy episodic drinking—known as binge-drinking—has become most popular among the youth. Herein, we aimed to investigate the consequences of intermittent adolescent alcohol consumption in male and female animals. Thus, Wistar rats were given free access to ethanol (20% in drinking water or tap water for 2-h sessions during 3 days, and for an additional 4-h session on the 4th day; every week during adolescence, from postnatal day (pnd 28–52. During this period, animals consumed a moderate amount of alcohol despite blood ethanol concentration (BEC did not achieve binge-drinking levels. No withdrawal signs were observed: no changes were observed regarding anxiety-like responses in the elevated plus-maze or plasma corticosterone levels (pnd 53–54. In the novel object recognition (NOR test (pnd 63, a significant deficit in recognition memory was observed in both male and female rats. Western Blot analyses resulted in an increase in the expression of synaptophysin in the frontal cortex (FC of male and female animals, together with a decrease in the expression of the CB2R in the same brain region. In addition, adolescent alcohol induced, exclusively among females, a decrease in several markers of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission, in which epigenetic mechanisms, i.e., histone acetylation, might be involved. Taken together, further research is still needed to specifically correlate sex-specific brain and behavioral consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.
Norris, Jeanette; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.
Women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study examined the role of specific situational cues embedded within a violent pornographic story, as well as alcohol consumption and alcohol expectancies, to determine potential mechanisms through which these effects occur. Female social drinkers (N=123),…
Loukas, A; Krull, J L; Chassin, L; Carle, A C
The current study had two goals. The first goal was to test the mediational role of young adult personality in the relation between parental alcoholism and young adult alcoholism. The second was to examine the associations between personality and alcohol use motives and reasons to limit drinking in order to explore possible mechanisms by which personality may influence alcohol abuse/dependence. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to analyze data obtained from a community sample of young adult children of alcoholics and demographically matched controls. Results revealed that young adult neuroticism and agreeableness each, in part, mediated the effect of parental alcoholism on young adult alcoholism. Moreover, individuals high in neuloticism reported stronger coping motives to use alcohol, individuals low in agreeableness reported stronger coping motives and weaker upbringing reasons to limit drinking, and individuals low in conscientiousness reported stronger coping and enhancement motives to use alcohol, and weaker performance reasons to limit drinking.
Simmons, Roger W; Thomas, Jennifer D; Levy, Susan S; Riley, Edward P
The present experiment assessed motor response programming and movement time in children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (PEA). Alcohol-exposed children between the ages of 7 and 17 years were classified into two groups: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS: n=9) and children with PEA (PEA: n=19) but who did not have the defining characteristics of FAS. The FAS and PEA children were compared with non-alcohol-exposed children (NC: n=23) when completing two tasks: a simple reaction time task (RT alone condition) and a reaction plus movement task (RT+Move condition). The movement involved responding to an imperative stimulus signal and depressing three target buttons in a set sequence. Participants completed 24 trials each for the RT alone and RT+Move response conditions. Results indicated no significant differences in performance among FAS, PEA, and NC groups during the RT alone condition. However, during the RT+Move condition, the FAS group produced significantly longer and more variable RTs than the PEA and NC groups, which produced comparable RTs. The FAS group also produced significantly slower movement times when moving to all three targets, whereas movement time variability did not significantly differ as a function of group. The observed results indicate children with FAS experience deficits in response programming and movement time production. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Balaraman, Sridevi; Idrus, Nirelia M; Miranda, Rajesh C; Thomas, Jennifer D
Prenatal alcohol exposure can result in a range of physical, neuropathological, and behavioral alterations, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We have shown that supplementation with the nutrient choline reduces the severity of developmental alcohol-associated deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviors and normalizes some aspects of hippocampal cholinergic development and DNA methylation patterns. Alcohol's developmental effects may also be mediated, in part, by altering microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as negative regulators of gene translation. To determine whether choline supplementation alters ethanol's long-lasting effects on miRNAs, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5.25 g/kg/day ethanol from postnatal days (PD) 4-9 via intubation; controls received sham intubations. Subjects were treated with choline chloride (100 mg/kg/day) or saline vehicle subcutaneously (s.c.) from PD 4-21. On PD 22, subjects were sacrificed, and RNA was isolated from the hippocampus. MiRNA expression was assessed with TaqMan Human MicroRNA Panel Low-Density Arrays. Ethanol significantly increased miRNA expression variance, an effect that was attenuated with choline supplementation. Cluster analysis of stably expressed miRNAs that exceeded an ANOVA p < 0.05 criterion indicated that for both male and female offspring, control and ethanol-exposed groups were most dissimilar from each other, with choline-supplemented groups in between. MiRNAs that expressed an average 2-fold change due to ethanol exposure were further analyzed to identify which ethanol-sensitive miRNAs were protected by choline supplementation. We found that at a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted criterion of p < 0.05, miR-200c was induced by ethanol exposure and that choline prevented this effect. Collectively, our data show that choline supplementation can normalize disturbances in miRNA expression following developmental alcohol exposure and can protect specific miRNAs from induction by
Full Text Available The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i AD; (ii chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP; and (iii alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC. Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10−6; pcorrected = 0.020. This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed.
Treutlein, Jens; Streit, Fabian; Juraeva, Dilafruz; Degenhardt, Franziska; Rietschel, Liz; Forstner, Andreas J.; Ridinger, Monika; Dukal, Helene; Foo, Jerome C.; Soyka, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Dahmen, Norbert; Scherbaum, Norbert; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lucae, Susanne; Ising, Marcus; Stickel, Felix; Berg, Thomas; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Scholz, Henrike; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Buch, Stephan; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Spanagel, Rainer; Brors, Benedikt; Cichon, Sven; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Hampe, Jochen; Rosendahl, Jonas; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rietschel, Marcella
The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD) using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i) AD; (ii) chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP); and (iii) alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC). Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10−6; pcorrected = 0.020). This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed. PMID:28714907
Amanuel, Hanna; Morojele, Neo; London, Leslie
The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of easy access to alcohol and exposure to alcohol advertisements on women's alcohol consumption, reproductive history, and health and social outcomes in an urban and rural site in South Africa. Trained fieldworkers conducted face-to-face interviews with 1,018 women of childbearing age in the Moot, Mamelodi, and Eesterus areas of the City of Tshwane (Gauteng province) and in the rural Cederberg, Bergrivier, and Swartland municipalities (Western Cape province), recruited through random sampling and stratified cluster random sampling, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted, stratified according to the urban and rural sites and controlled for four demographic factors. In Tshwane, complications in the last pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] = 7.84, 95% CI [1.77, 34.80]), interpartner binge drinking (OR = 6.50, 95% CI [3.85, 10.94]), and community drinking (OR = 7.92, 95% CI [4.59, 13.65]) were positively associated with alcohol accessibility. Interpartner violence (OR = 4.16, 95% CI [1.99, 8.70]) and community drinking (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [2.07, 5.53]) were positively associated with exposure to alcohol advertisements. In Western Cape, community drinking (OR = 10.26, 95% CI [4.02, 26.20]) was positively associated with alcohol accessibility, whereas ability to pay for health care (OR = 0.48, 95% CI [0.24, 0.96]) was inversely associated. Hazardous drinking on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; OR = 2.26, 95% CI [1.03, 4.95]) and CAGE (OR = 4.51, 95% CI [1.30, 15.61]), interpartner violence (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.04, 2.76]), and community drinking (OR = 3.39, 95% CI [2.07, 5.53]) were positively associated with exposure to alcohol advertisements. Easy access to alcohol and exposure to alcohol advertisements are positively associated with adverse health and social outcomes. Although further studies are needed, these findings lend support to emphasizing upstream policy
Schry, Amie R; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W
We sought to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Women (Time 1: n = 574; Time 2: n = 88) who reported consuming alcohol at least once during the assessment timeframe participated. Social anxiety, alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, and sexual victimization were assessed twice, approximately two months apart. Logistic regressions were used to examine social anxiety as a risk factor for alcohol-related sexual victimization at both time points. Longitudinally, women high in social anxiety were approximately three times more likely to endorse unwanted alcohol-related sexual experiences compared to women with low to moderate social anxiety. This study suggests social anxiety, a modifiable construct, increases risk for alcohol-related sexual victimization among college women. Implications for clinicians and risk-reduction program developers are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gantiva, Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; Romo-González, Tania
Research that has examined responses to alcohol-related words in drinkers has mostly linked such responses to memory, attentional, and perceptual bias. However, studies of emotional processing in alcoholics have not received much attention. The main goal of the present study was to identify the features and differences of emotional responses to alcohol-related words in low- and high-risk drinkers. A total of 149 low-risk drinkers and 125 high-risk drinkers evaluated five alcohol-related words and 15 words from the Affective Norms for English Words in the dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance using the Self-Assessment Manikin. The results indicated that high-risk drinkers evaluated alcohol-related words as more appetitive and arousing. These results, together with findings in the attention and memory research literature, suggest that alcohol-related words can serve as conditioned cues in alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siegel, Michael; Kurland, Rachel P; Castrini, Marisa; Morse, Catherine; de Groot, Alexander; Retamozo, Cynthia; Roberts, Sarah P; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H
No previous paper has examined alcohol advertising on the internet versions of television programs popular among underage youth. To assess the volume of alcohol advertising on web sites of television networks which stream television programs popular among youth. Multiple viewers analyzed the product advertising appearing on 12 television programs that are available in full episode format on the internet. During a baseline period of one week, six coders analyzed all 12 programs. For the nine programs that contained alcohol advertising, three underage coders (ages 10, 13, and 18) analyzed the programs to quantify the extent of that advertising over a four-week period. Alcohol advertisements are highly prevalent on these programs, with nine of the 12 shows carrying alcohol ads, and six programs averaging at least one alcohol ad per episode. There was no difference in alcohol ad exposure for underage and legal age viewers. There is a substantial potential for youth exposure to alcohol advertising on the internet through internet-based versions of television programs. The Federal Trade Commission should require alcohol companies to report the underage youth and adult audiences for internet versions of television programs on which they advertise.
Asimes, AnnaDorothea; Torcaso, Audrey; Pinceti, Elena; Kim, Chun K; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Pak, Toni R
Teenage binge drinking is a major health concern in the United States, with 21% of teenagers reporting binge-pattern drinking behavior in the previous 30 days. Recently, our lab showed that alcohol-naïve offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during adolescence exhibited altered gene expression profiles in the hypothalamus, a brain region involved in stress regulation. We employed Enhanced Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing as an unbiased approach to test the hypothesis that parental exposure to binge-pattern alcohol during adolescence alters DNA methylation profiles in their alcohol-naïve offspring. Wistar rats were administered a repeated binge-ethanol exposure paradigm during early (postnatal day (PND) 37-44) and late (PND 67-74) adolescent development. Animals were mated 24 h after the last ethanol dose and subsequent offspring were produced. Analysis of male PND7 offspring revealed that offspring of alcohol-exposed parents exhibited differential DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus. The differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs) were distinct between offspring depending on which parent was exposed to ethanol. Moreover, novel DMCs were observed when both parents were exposed to ethanol and many DMCs from single parent ethanol exposure were not recapitulated with dual parent exposure. We also measured mRNA expression of several differentially methylated genes and some, but not all, showed correlative changes in expression. Importantly, methylation was not a direct predictor of expression levels, underscoring the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Overall, we demonstrate that adolescent binge ethanol exposure causes altered genome-wide DNA methylation patterns in the hypothalamus of alcohol-naïve offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hendriks, Hanneke; Gebhardt, Winifred A; van den Putte, Bas
Many young people place alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNS) which can result in undesirable effects. Although several recent studies have investigated the occurrence of alcohol-related SNS use, it is neither clear (a) what type of alcohol posts are placed on SNS, (b) the motivations to place alcohol posts, nor (c) which young people are most likely to place alcohol posts. This study addressed these three goals. A large cross-sectional study among young participants (12-30 years; N = 561) assessed the posting of different types of alcohol posts, the motivations to (not) post these posts, and potential differences in posting between subgroups (i.e., in terms of age, gender, and religion). Participants reported that they most often placed moderate, instead of more extreme, alcohol posts, in particular, when alcohol was present in the post "by chance". Furthermore, they indicated to post alcohol-related content mostly for entertainment reasons. Finally, we found differences in self-reported posting and motivations to post according to age, gender, and religion. These findings provide relevant implications for future interventions aiming to decrease alcohol posts, for example, by making participants aware of their posting behavior and by targeting specific at risk groups. Future research should explore the effectiveness of such intervention strategies and should investigate whether alcohol posts lead to an underestimation of alcohol-related risks.
Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.
This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…
May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara; Hasken, Julie M; Marais, Anna-Susan; de Vries, Marlene M; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Botha, Isobel; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Burroughs, Zachary R; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Adnams, Colleen M; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene
To examine outcomes among boys and girls that are associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. Boys and girls with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and randomly-selected controls were compared on a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits. Sex ratios indicated that heavy maternal binge drinking may have significantly diminished viability to birth and survival of boys postpartum more than girls by age seven. Case control comparisons of a variety of physical and neurobehavioral traits at age seven indicate that both sexes were affected similarly for a majority of variables. However, alcohol-exposed girls had significantly more dysmorphology overall than boys and performed significantly worse on non-verbal IQ tests than males. A three-step sequential regression analysis, controlling for multiple covariates, further indicated that dysmorphology among girls was significantly more associated with five maternal drinking variables and three distal maternal risk factors. However, the overall model, which included five associated neurobehavioral measures at step three, was not significant (p=0.09, two-tailed test). A separate sequential logistic regression analysis of predictors of a FASD diagnosis, however, indicated significantly more negative outcomes overall for girls than boys (Nagelkerke R 2 =0.42 for boys and 0.54 for girls, z=-2.9, p=0.004). Boys and girls had mostly similar outcomes when prenatal alcohol exposure was linked to poor physical and neurocognitive development. Nevertheless, sex ratios implicate lower viability and survival of males by first grade, and girls have more dysmorphology and neurocognitive impairment than boys resulting in a higher probability of a FASD diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lai, Xiao-ping; Yu, Xiao-jun; Qian, Hong; Wei, Lai; Lv, Jun-yao; Xu, Xiao-hu
Alcohol-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition in medical and forensic practice, and results in high prehospital mortality. We investigated the mechanism of chronic alcoholism-related mortality by examining the effects of alcohol on the synapses of the medulla oblongata in a rat model of TBI. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either ethanol (EtOH) group, EtOH-TBI group, or control groups (water group, water-TBI group). To establish chronic alcoholism model, rats in the EtOH group were given EtOH twice daily (4 g/kg for 2 weeks and 6 g/kg for another 2 weeks). The rats also received a minor strike on the occipital tuberosity with an iron pendulum. Histopathologic and ultrastructure changes and the numerical density of the synapses in the medulla oblongata were examined. Expression of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95) in the medulla oblongata was measured by ELISA. Compared with rats in the control group, rats in the chronic alcoholism group showed: (1) minor axonal degeneration; (2) a significant decrease in the numerical density of synapses (p Chronic alcoholism induces significant synapse loss and axonal impairment in the medulla oblongata and renders the brain more susceptible to TBI. The combined effects of chronic alcoholism and TBI induce significant synapse and axon impairment and result in high mortality.
Primack, Brian A; McClure, Auden C; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D
The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. In 2010 to 2011, we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 and 23 years of age, of whom 3,422 (53%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2,541 opted to participate in a subsequent web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Among the 2,541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least 1 alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing, but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and having ever binged on alcohol
Full Text Available Purpose: Benzodiazepines (BDZs are the drugs of choice to prevent the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS. Various treatment protocols are published and have been shown to be effective in both office-managed and facility-managed treatment of AWS. The aim of this scientific commentary is to demonstrate the differences in the expected exposure to BDZs during AWS treatment using different treatment regimens available in the literature, in patients with or without alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Methods: Diazepam and lorazepam AWS protocols were examined and reviewed in the literature, and blood plasma levels were examined and compared, respectively. Results: Considerable variation in the blood levels with the different dosing schedules was found. Because the drugs are metabolized differently, we have also shown that liver disease affects the blood levels of diazepam, but not of lorazepam. Conclusions: Differences in treatment regimens, the choice of BDZ, as well as the presence of liver cirrhosis can substantially alter the exposure of patients to drugs used for AWS treatment. Outpatient treatment of AWS has been shown to be relatively safe and effective for the treatment of AWS but patients should be carefully monitored.
Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel
Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH - ) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH - and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH + ) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was ∼ 1.5-fold greater in ADH - vs. ADH + deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH - deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.
Tindall, Jenny; Groombridge, Daniel; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Palmer, Darren; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Miller, Peter
Bars, pubs and taverns in cities are often concentrated in entertainment precincts that are associated with higher rates of alcohol-related crime. This study assessed public perception and experiences of such crime in two city entertainment precincts, and support for alcohol-related crime reduction strategies. A cross-sectional household telephone survey in two Australian regions assessed: perception and experiences of crime; support for crime reduction strategies; and differences in such perceptions and support. Six hundred ninety-four people completed the survey (32%). Most agreed that alcohol was a problem in their entertainment precinct (90%) with violence the most common alcohol-related problem reported (97%). Almost all crime reduction strategies were supported by more than 50% of participants, including visitors to the entertainment precincts, with the latter being slightly less likely to support earlier closing and restrictions on premises density. Participants in one region were more likely to support earlier closing and lock-out times. Those at-risk of acute alcohol harm were less likely to support more restrictive policies. High levels of community concern and support for alcohol harm-reduction strategies, including restrictive strategies, provide policy makers with a basis for implementing evidence-based strategies to reduce such harms in city entertainment precincts. [Tindall J, Groombridge D, Wiggers J, Gillham K, Palmer D, Clinton-McHarg T, Lecathelinais C, Miller P. Alcohol-related crime in city entertainment precincts: Public perception and experience of alcohol-related crime and support for strategies to reduce such crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:263-272]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Johnson, Patrick S; Sweeney, Mary M; Herrmann, Evan S; Johnson, Matthew W
Alcohol use, especially at binge levels, is associated with sexual HIV risk behavior, but the mechanisms through which alcohol increases sexual risk taking are not well-examined. Delay discounting, that is, devaluation of future consequences as a function of delay to their occurrence, has been implicated in a variety of problem behaviors, including risky sexual behavior. Probability discounting is studied with a similar framework as delay discounting, but is a distinct process in which a consequence is devalued because it is uncertain or probabilistic. Twenty-three, nondependent alcohol users (13 male, 10 female; mean age = 25.3 years old) orally consumed alcohol (1 g/kg) or placebo in 2 separate experimental sessions. During sessions, participants completed tasks examining delay and probability discounting of hypothetical condom-protected sex (Sexual Delay Discounting Task, Sexual Probability Discounting Task) and of hypothetical and real money. Alcohol decreased the likelihood that participants would wait to have condom-protected sex versus having immediate, unprotected sex. Alcohol also decreased the likelihood that participants would use an immediately available condom given a specified level of sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk. Alcohol did not affect delay discounting of money, but it did increase participants' preferences for larger, probabilistic monetary rewards over smaller, certain rewards. Acute, binge-level alcohol intoxication may increase sexual HIV risk by decreasing willingness to delay sex in order to acquire a condom in situations where one is not immediately available, and by decreasing sensitivity to perceived risk of STI contraction. These findings suggest that delay and probability discounting are critical, but heretofore unrecognized, processes that may mediate the relations between alcohol use and HIV risk. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Grigsby, Timothy J; Forster, Myriam; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve
To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siara K. Rouzer
Full Text Available Among the numerous consequences of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE is an increase in anxiety-like behavior that can prove debilitating to daily functioning. A significant body of literature has linked gestational day 12 (G12 heavy ethanol exposure with social anxiety, evident in adolescent males and females. However, the association between non-social anxiety-like behavior and moderate alcohol exposure, a more common pattern of drinking in pregnant women, is yet unidentified. To model moderate PAE (mPAE, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to either room air or vaporized ethanol for 6 h on G12. Adolescent offspring were then tested on postnatal days (P 41–47 in one of the following four anxiety assays: novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH, elevated plus maze (EPM, light-dark box (LDB and open-field (OF. Our findings revealed significant increases in measures of anxiety-like behavior in male PAE offspring in the NIH, LDB and OF, with no differences observed in females on any test. Additionally, male offspring who demonstrated heightened anxiety-like behavior as adolescents demonstrated decreased anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, as measured by a marble-burying test (MBT, while females continued to be unaffected in adulthood. These results suggest that mPAE leads to dynamic changes in anxiety-like behavior exclusively in male offspring.
Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.
Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…
Schry, Amie R.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. METHODS: In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age) = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) ...
Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia
Recent research indicates that there is a link between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD), but the underlying mechanisms still need to be clarified. There is reason to assume that maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses. The current study aimed to examine this network in AD patients who experienced emotional abuse using a priming paradigm. A specific priming effect in emotionally abused AD subjects was hypothesized for maltreatment related words that preceded alcohol related words. 49 AD subjects (n=14 with emotional abuse vs. n=35 without emotional abuse) and 34 control subjects performed a priming task with maltreatment related and neutral prime words combined with alcohol related and neutral target words. Maltreatment related words consisted of socially and physically threatening words. As hypothesized, a specific priming effect for socially threatening and physically threatening cues was found only in AD subjects with emotional abuse. The present data are the first to provide evidence that child maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network in alcoholics with emotional abuse experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moreau, David; Villain, Arthur; Ku, David N; Corté, Laurent
Insufficient bone anchoring is a major limitation of artificial substitutes for connective osteoarticular tissues. The use of coatings containing osseoconductive ceramic particles is one of the actively explored strategies to improve osseointegration and strengthen the bone-implant interface for general tissue engineering. Our hypothesis is that hydroxyapatite (HA) particles can be coated robustly on specific assemblies of PVA hydrogel fibers for the potential anchoring of ligament replacements. A simple dip-coating method is described to produce composite coatings made of microscopic hydroxyapatite (HA) particles dispersed in a poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix. The materials are compatible with the requirements for implant Good Manufacturing Practices. They are applied to coat bundles of PVA hydrogel fibers used for the development of ligament implants. By means of optical and electronic microscopy, we show that the coating thickness and surface state can be adjusted by varying the composition of the dipping solution. Quantitative analysis based on backscattered electron microscopy show that the exposure of HA at the coating surface can be tuned from 0 to over 55% by decreasing the weight ratio of PVA over HA from 0.4 to 0.1. Abrasion experiments simulating bone-implant contact illustrate how the coating cohesion and wear resistance increase by increasing the content of PVA relative to HA. Using pullout experiments, we find that these coatings adhere well to the fiber bundles and detach by propagation of a crack inside the coating. These results provide a guide to select coated implants for anchoring artificial ligaments. PMID:25482413
Winpenny, Eleanor Margaret; Marteau, Theresa; Nolte, Ellen
AIMS: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. METHODS: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6-14 years; 15-24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users...
Acuff, Samuel F; Luciano, Matthew T; Soltis, Kathryn E; Joyner, Keanan J; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan; Murphy, James G
Symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTS) show significant comorbidity with alcohol use, but little is known about the mechanisms that might account for this comorbidity. Deficits in reward functioning have long been implicated in alcohol misuse and more recently in PTS reactions, but no study has examined whether reward deprivation may serve as a transdiagnostic risk factor for comorbid PTS-alcohol misuse. The current cross-sectional study sought to test the behavioral economic hypothesis that reward deprivation would be related to both PTS symptoms and alcohol problems, and would mediate the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems in college students. We recruited a diverse sample of urban college students (N = 203, M age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.5; 79.5% female; 56.8% White, 28.1% Black, .9% Asian, 9.8% Multiracial) who endorsed both alcohol use and PTS symptoms. Reward deprivation (lack of access to, and ability to, experience reward) was related to alcohol problems, and a lack of access to reward was related to PTS symptoms. Furthermore, reward access mediated the relation between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems and craving, after controlling for alcohol use, age, gender, and race. These data provide preliminary support for behavioral economic models of alcohol comorbidity and suggest that treatments for combined PTS and alcohol misuse should attempt to reduce barriers to accessing natural rewards. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Tsuruya, Atsuki; Kuwahara, Akika; Saito, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Haruhiko; Tsubo, Takahisa; Suga, Shogo; Inai, Makoto; Aoki, Yuichi; Takahashi, Seiji; Tsutsumi, Eri; Suwa, Yoshihide; Morita, Hidetoshi; Kinoshita, Kenji; Totsuka, Yukari; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Nakayama, Toru
Chronic consumption of excess ethanol increases the risk of colorectal cancer. The pathogenesis of ethanol-related colorectal cancer (ER-CRC) is thought to be partly mediated by gut microbes. Specifically, bacteria in the colon and rectum convert ethanol to acetaldehyde (AcH), which is carcinogenic. However, the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the human gut microbiome are poorly understood, and the role of gut microbes in the proposed AcH-mediated pathogenesis of ER-CRC remains to be elaborated. Here we analyse and compare the gut microbiota structures of non-alcoholics and alcoholics. The gut microbiotas of alcoholics were diminished in dominant obligate anaerobes (e.g., Bacteroides and Ruminococcus) and enriched in Streptococcus and other minor species. This alteration might be exacerbated by habitual smoking. These observations could at least partly be explained by the susceptibility of obligate anaerobes to reactive oxygen species, which are increased by chronic exposure of the gut mucosa to ethanol. The AcH productivity from ethanol was much lower in the faeces of alcoholic patients than in faeces of non-alcoholic subjects. The faecal phenotype of the alcoholics could be rationalised based on their gut microbiota structures and the ability of gut bacteria to accumulate AcH from ethanol.
Amlung, Michael; Few, Lauren R; Howland, Jonathan; Rohsenow, Damaris J; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James
Problematic alcohol use among college students continues to be a prominent concern in the United States, including the growing trend of consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs). Epidemiologically, CAB use is associated with incremental risks from drinking, although these relationships could be due to common predisposing factors rather than specifically due to CABs. This study investigated the relationship between CAB use, alcohol misuse, and person-level characteristics, including impulsive personality traits, delayed reward discounting, and behavioral economic demand for alcohol use. Participants were 273 regularly drinking undergraduate students. Frequency of CAB use was assessed over the past month. A multidimensional assessment of impulsivity included the UPPS-P questionnaire, which measures positive and negative urgency, premeditation (lack thereof), perseverance (lack thereof), and sensation seeking (Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, & Cyders, 2007), and a validated questionnaire-based measure of delayed reward discounting. Demand was assessed via a hypothetical alcohol purchase task. Frequency of CAB consumption was significantly higher in men than in women and was also associated with higher impulsivity on the majority of the UPPS-P subscales, steeper delayed reward discounting, and greater demand for alcohol. Significant correlations between CAB use and both alcohol demand and lack of premeditation remained present after including level of alcohol misuse in partial correlations. In a hierarchical linear regression incorporating demographic, demand, and impulsivity variables, CAB frequency continued to be a significant predictor of hazardous alcohol use. These results suggest that although there are significant associations between CAB consumption and gender, impulsivity, and alcohol demand, CAB use continues to be associated with alcohol misuse after controlling for these variables.
Roche, Ann; Pidd, Ken; Kostadinov, Victoria
Absenteeism related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use can place a substantial burden on businesses and society. This study estimated the cost of AOD-related absenteeism in Australia using a nationally representative dataset. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey (n=12,196) was undertaken. Two measures of AOD-related absenteeism were used: participants' self-reported absence due to AOD use (M1); and the mean difference in absence due to any illness/injury for AOD users compared to abstainers (M2). Both figures were multiplied by $267.70 (average day's wage in 2013 plus 20% on-costs) to estimate associated costs. M1 resulted in an estimation of 2.5 million days lost annually due to AOD use, at a cost of more than $680 million. M2 resulted in an estimation of almost 11.5 million days lost, at a cost of $3 billion. AOD-related absenteeism represents a significant and preventable impost upon Australian businesses. Workplaces should implement evidence-based interventions to promote healthy employee behaviour and reduce AOD-related absenteeism. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G
Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.
Primack, Brian A.; McClure, Auden; Li, Zhigang; Sargent, James D.
Background The average U.S. adolescent is exposed to about 2.5 hours of popular music per day and 8 mentions of alcohol brands every day. Alcohol brand mentions may function as advertising whether or not they are sanctioned by the alcohol industry. Our study aimed to determine associations between adolescents' involvement with music containing alcohol brand mentions and alcohol-related behaviors. Methods In 2010–2011 we conducted a random-digit-dial survey using national U.S. land line and cell phone frames. Through screening interviews, we identified 6,466 eligible households with subjects between 15 to 23 years of age, of whom 3422 (52%) completed the telephone survey. Of these, 2541 opted to participate in a subsequent Web-based component. Independent variables included a composite score indicating owning and liking popular songs with alcohol brand mentions and correct recall of alcohol brands in songs. Outcome measures included ever having consumed a complete drink, ever bingeing, bingeing at least monthly, and having experienced problems from alcohol use. Results Among the 2541 participants, compared with those in the lowest tertile on the receptivity scale, those in the highest tertile had higher odds of having had a complete drink (OR=3.4; 95% CI=2.2, 5.2) after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, sensation seeking, friend alcohol use, and parent alcohol use. Compared with those who did not identify at least one alcohol brand correctly, those who did had over twice the odds of having had a complete drink (OR=2.1; 95% CI=1.2, 3.8) after adjusting for all covariates. Results were also significant for the outcome of ever bingeing but not for bingeing at least monthly or having had problems due to drinking. Conclusions In a national sample of U.S. adolescents and young adults, there were independent associations between involvement with popular music containing alcohol brand mentions and both having ever had a complete drink and
Harper, Jeremy; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G
Adolescent alcohol use (AAU) is associated with brain anomalies, but less is known about long-term neurocognitive effects. Despite theoretical models linking AAU to diminished cognitive control, empirical work testing this relationship with specific cognitive control neural correlates (e.g., prefrontal theta-band EEG dynamics) remains scarce. A longitudinal twin design was used to test the hypothesis that greater AAU is associated with reduced conflict-related EEG theta-band dynamics in adulthood, and to examine the genetic/environmental etiology of this association. In a large (N=718) population-based prospective twin sample, AAU was assessed at ages 11/14/17. Twins completed a flanker task at age 29 to elicit EEG theta-band medial frontal cortex (MFC) power and medial-dorsal prefrontal cortex (MFC-dPFC) connectivity. Two complementary analytic methods (cotwin control analysis; biometric modeling) were used to disentangle the genetic/shared environmental risk towards AAU from possible alcohol exposure effects on theta dynamics. AAU was negatively associated with adult cognitive control-related theta-band MFC power and MFC-dPFC functional connectivity. Genetic influences primarily underlie these associations. Findings provide strong evidence that genetic factors underlie the comorbidity between AAU and diminished cognitive control-related theta dynamics in adulthood. Conflict-related theta-band dynamics appear to be candidate brain-based endophenotypes/mechanisms for AAU. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma
In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the “Monitoring the Future” (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-d...
Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn
Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group.
Full Text Available Context is important in developing strategies to address alcohol related violence. Knowledge of local conditions is critical to action in rural areas. The aim of this study was to gather information about context specific alcohol related problems experienced by frontline workers in a regional centre to inform the local alcohol action plan. Frontline workers were invited to participate in one of five focus group discussions that investigated problems experienced as a result of other people’s alcohol use. Alcohol related problems were more frequently associated with time periods than any single group in the community. Social media was used to incite arguments between groups in different venues during the lock-out periods. The focus groups identified that the location of licensed premises and a taxi rank; and previous relationships between protagonists were the key contextual factors causing alcohol related problems. A second taxi rank was identified as a useful local management strategy. Supply reduction was suggested as a key factor in long term solutions to alcohol related problems in rural towns. The local liquor accord did not want to reduce supply of alcohol by closing late night venues earlier. Local action to reduce alcohol related problems will be limited to pragmatic solutions because supply reduction is unacceptable to those in the business of selling alcohol.
Steinmann, Tobias P.; Andrew, Colin M.; Thomsen, Carsten E.
Abstract—In this study event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on response inhibition identified during task performance. ERPs were recorded during a auditory Go/No Go task in two groups of children with mean age of 12:8years (11years to 14......:7years): one diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (FAS/PFAS; n = 12) and a control group of children of same age whose mothers abstained from alcohol or drank minimally during pregnancy (n = 11). The children were instructed to push a button in response to the Go stimulus...... trials, suggesting a less efficient early classification of the stimulus. P3 showed larger amplitudes to No-Go vs. Go in both groups. The study has provided new evidence for inhibition deficits in FAS/PFAS subjects identified by ERPs....
Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H
A significant body of research has demonstrated an association between adolescent alcohol consumption and subsequent fights and injuries. To date, however, no research has identified which brands are associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries among underage drinkers. We aimed to: (1) report the prevalence of alcohol-related fights and injuries among a national sample of underage drinkers in the U.S. and (2) describe the relationship between specific alcohol brand consumption and these alcohol-related negative consequences. We recruited 1,031 self-reported drinkers (ages 13-20 years) via an internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks to complete an online survey. Respondents reported their past-month overall and brand-specific alcohol consumption, risky drinking behavior, and past-year alcohol-related fights and injuries. Over one-quarter of the respondents (26.7%, N = 232) reported at least one alcohol-related fight or injury in the past year. Heavy episodic drinkers were over six times more likely to report one of these negative alcohol-related consequences (AOR: 6.4, 95% CI: 4.1-9.9). Respondents of black race and those from higher-income households were also significantly more likely to report that experience (AOR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.7; AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0 and 1.1-3.2, respectively). We identified eight alcohol brands that were significantly associated with alcohol-related fights and injuries. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Alcohol-related fights and injuries were frequently reported by adolescent respondents. Eight alcohol brands were significantly more popular among drinkers who experienced these adverse consequences. These results point to the need for further research on brand-specific correlates of underage drinking and negative health outcomes.
Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J
The New South Wales Tissue Resource Centre at the University of Sydney, Australia, is one of the few human brain banks dedicated to the study of the effects of chronic alcoholism. The bank was affiliated in 1994 as a member of the National Network of Brain Banks and also focuses on schizophrenia and healthy control tissue. Alcohol abuse is a major problem worldwide, manifesting in such conditions as fetal alcohol syndrome, adolescent binge drinking, alcohol dependency, and alcoholic neurodegeneration. The latter is also referred to as alcohol-related brain damage (ARBD). The study of postmortem brain tissue is ideally suited to determining the effects of long-term alcohol abuse, but it also makes an important contribution to understanding pathogenesis across the spectrum of alcohol misuse disorders and potentially other neurodegenerative diseases. Tissue from the bank has contributed to 330 peer-reviewed journal articles including 120 related to alcohol research. Using the results of these articles, this review chronicles advances in alcohol-related brain research since 2003, the so-called genomic age. In particular, it concentrates on transcriptomic approaches to the pathogenesis of ARBD and builds on earlier reviews of structural changes (Harper et al. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:951) and proteomics (Matsumoto et al. Expert Rev Proteomics 2007;4:539). Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Bruce, Kenneth; Mansour, Sandra; Steiger, Howard
To investigate behavior-outcome expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with bulimia nervosa (BN). Women with BN (N = 29), women with BN and a co-morbid lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD; N = 18), and control women (N = 24), completed interviews and questionnaires assessing eating- and alcohol-related symptoms, as well as questionnaires measuring expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, both bulimic groups reported greater positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction and eating; expectancy endorsements were also predictive of the severity of eating-related symptoms. Compared with the other groups, the bulimic group with comorbid lifetime AUD had elevated positive alcohol-related expectancies, and alcohol expectancy endorsements predicted severity of alcohol-related symptoms. Women with BN endorsed more positive expectancies relating to thinness, dietary restriction, and eating, whereas women with BN and a lifetime comorbid AUD endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies. The results are consistent with expectancy theory in that positive expectancy endorsements were associated with symptom severity in a syndrome-specific manner. Expectancies related to thinness, dietary restriction, eating, and alcohol consumption in women with BN. (c) 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J
Previous findings on the relationship between suicide ideation (SI) and alcohol misuse among college students are inconsistent, leading to conflicting clinical implications. We aimed to clarify this relationship in order to determine the utility of regarding alcohol misuse as a risk factor for SI in this population. Unselected college students (N = 545) completed an online survey including measures of alcohol consumption, problems, drinking motives, SI, and related variables. Our results suggest alcohol misuse is not a correlate of SI among college students; therefore, one should not assume that students who misuse alcohol are necessarily at increased risk for SI. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.
Winpenny, Eleanor M; Marteau, Theresa M; Nolte, Ellen
In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6-14 years; 15-24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15-24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation.
Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen
Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506
Catherine E. Creeley
Full Text Available Anesthetic and anti-epileptic drugs used in pediatric and obstetric medicine and several drugs, including alcohol, that are abused by pregnant women, trigger widespread neuroapoptosis in the developing brain of several animal species, including non-human primates. Caffeine (CAF is often administered to premature infants to stimulate respiration, and these infants are also exposed simultaneously to anesthetic drugs for procedural sedation and/or surgical procedures. Pregnant women who abuse alcohol or other apoptogenic drugs also may heavily consume CAF. We administered CAF to infant mice alone or in combination with alcohol, phencyclidine, diazepam, midazolam, ketamine, or isoflurane, which are drugs of abuse and/or drugs frequently used in pediatric medicine, and found that CAF weakly triggers neuroapoptosis by itself and markedly potentiates the neuroapoptogenic action of each of these other drugs. Exposure of infant mice to CAF + phencyclidine resulted in long-term impairment in behavioral domains relevant to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, whereas exposure to CAF + diazepam resulted in long-term learning/memory impairment. At doses used in these experiments, these behavioral impairments either did not occur or were substantially less pronounced in mice exposed to CAF alone or to phencyclidine or diazepam alone. CAF currently enjoys the reputation of being highly beneficial and safe for use in neonatal medicine. Our data suggest the need to consider whether CAF may have harmful as well as beneficial effects on the developing brain, and the need for research aimed at understanding the full advantage of its beneficial effects while avoiding its potentially harmful effects.
Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…
Nathanson, Amy I.; Aladé, Fashina; Sharp, Molly L.; Rasmussen, Eric E.; Christy, Katheryn
This study investigated the relations between television exposure during the preschool years and the development of executive function (EF). Data were gathered from 107 parents of preschoolers who provided information on children's television viewing, background television exposure, exposure to specific televised content, and the age at which…
Woud, M.L.; Hutschemaekers, M.H.M.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.
Background and objectives: There is a large body of evidence demonstrating that alcohol abuse and misuse is characterized by alcohol-related interpretation biases (IBs). The present study tested whether alcohol-related IBs can be trained, and whether this has an effect on alcohol-related
Deckel, A W; Hesselbrock, V; Bauer, L
This experiment examined the relationship between anterior brain functioning and alcohol-related expectancies. Ninety-one young men at risk for developing alcoholism were assessed on the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) and administered neuropsychological and EEG tests. Three of the scales on the AEQ, including the "Enhanced Sexual Functioning" scale, the "Increased Social Assertiveness" scale, and items from the "Global/Positive Change scale," were used, because each of these scales has been found to discriminate alcohol-based expectancies adequately by at least two separate sets of investigators. Regression analysis found that anterior neuropsychological tests (including the Wisconsin Card Sorting test, the Porteus Maze test, the Controlled Oral Word Fluency test, and the Luria-Nebraska motor functioning tests) were predictive of the AEQ scale scores on regression analysis. One of the AEQ scales, "Enhanced Sexual Functioning," was also predicted by WAIS-R-Verbal scales, whereas the "Global/Positive" AEQ scale was predicted by the WAIS-R Performance scales. Regression analysis using EEG power as predictors found that left versus right hemisphere "difference" scores obtained from frontal EEG leads were predictive of the three AEQ scales. Conversely, parietal EEG power did not significantly predict any of the expectancy scales. It is concluded that anterior brain any of the expectancy scales. It is concluded that anterior brain functioning is associated with alcohol-related expectancies. These findings suggest that alcohol-related expectancy may be, in part, biologically determined by frontal/prefrontal systems, and that dysfunctioning in these systems may serve as a risk factor for the development of alcohol-related behaviors.
... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...
Priscila D. Gonçalves
Full Text Available Objective: To explore how a genetically-influenced characteristic (the level of response to alcohol [LR], ethnicity, and sex relate to environmental and attitudinal characteristics (peer drinking [PEER], drinking to cope [COPE], and alcohol expectancies [EXPECT] regarding future alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs. Methods: Structural equation models (SEMs were used to evaluate how baseline variables related to ARB patterns in 462 college students over 55 weeks. Data were extracted from a longitudinal study of heavy drinking and its consequences at a U.S. university. Results: In the SEM analysis, female sex and Asian ethnicity directly predicted future ARBs (beta weights 0.10 and -0.11, respectively, while all other variables had indirect impacts on ARBs through alcohol quantities (beta weights ~ 0.23 for European American ethnicity and low LR, 0.21 for cannabis use and COPE, and 0.44 for PEER. Alcohol quantities then related to ARBs with beta = 0.44. The SEM explained 23% of the variance. Conclusion: These data may be useful in identifying college students who are more likely to experience future ARBs over a 1-year period. They enhance our understanding of whether the relationships of predictors to ARBs are direct or mediated through baseline drinking patterns, information that may be useful in prevention strategies for ARBs.
To determine the prevalence of alcohol-related presentations in all 29 emergency departments (EDs) in Ireland and compare with non-alcohol-related presentations in order to identify opportunities for improvements in the quality of patient care and related data collection.
Scalzo, Simon J; Bowden, Stephen C; Ambrose, Margaret L; Whelan, Greg; Cook, Mark J
Although Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is a common condition, diagnosis remains difficult. WKS not associated with alcohol is rare and thought to present differently to alcohol-related WKS. We conducted a systematic review of WKS not related to alcohol to enhance understanding of WKS not related to alcohol and WKS in general. A systematic review was conducted of case reports, published in English, of Wernicke's encephalopathy and WKS in patients without a history of alcohol-use disorder. Main data sources: MEDLINE, Index Medicus. Eligible cases totaled 623. Publication dates ranged from 1867 to 2014. Comparisons of clinical presentation were made with published data on samples comprising, almost exclusively, alcohol-related WKS. A wide array of illnesses precipitated WKS. When diagnosis of WKS was performed postmortem, non-alcohol-related cases presented a similar number of signs of the classic triad as alcohol-related cases (p=0.662, Cohen's w=0.12) but more signs when diagnosed antemortem (pKorsakoff syndrome or ongoing memory impairment was reported in 25% of non-alcohol-related WKS, although cognitive status was not explicitly reported in many cases. When duration of memory impairment was reported, 56% had clinically obvious memory impairment lasting beyond the period of acute presentation. Non-alcohol-related WKS was more often associated with female gender, younger age, shorter duration of precipitating illness and better survival rate compared to alcohol-related WKS. Thiamine deficiency in the absence of an alcohol-use disorder can cause the full clinical spectrum of WKS, including chronic cognitive impairment and Korsakoff syndrome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha
The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin (modulate tryptophan/tyrosine transport), dolichol (important in N -glycosylation of proteins), and ubiquinone (free radical scavenger). It was considered pertinent to assess the pathway in alcoholic addiction, alcoholic cirrhosis, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration. Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport, the pathway was also assessed in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in its pathogenesis. In the patient group there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites as reduced endogenous morphine synthesis from tyrosine. There was an increase in cholesterol:phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in these groups of patients. The same patterns were obtained in individuals with right hemispheric chemical dominance. Alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic addiction, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration are associated with an upregulated isoprenoid pathway and elevated digoxin secretion from the hypothalamus. This can contribute to NMDA excitotoxicity and altered connective tissue/lipid metabolism important in its pathogenesis. Endogenous morphine deficiency plays a role in alcoholic addiction. Alcoholic cirrhosis, addiction, and acquired hepato -cerebral degeneration occur in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals. Ninety percent of the patients with alcoholic addiction, alcoholic cirrhosis, and acquired hepatocerebral degeneration were right-handed and left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. However, their biochemical patterns were similar to those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Hemispheric chemical dominance is a different entity and has no correlation
Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A
On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.
Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu
The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, psipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD is caused by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and often leads to long-lasting developmental symptoms, including increased microglial migration and increased release of the chemokine, fractalkine, both of which play a role in embryonic brain development. However, the effects of low-dose alcohol exposure on microglia and fractalkine embryonically are not well documented. This study addresses this gap by using the voluntary drinking paradigm, Drinking in the Dark (DiD, to expose mice to acute doses of alcohol from embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5 to E14.5. Maternal mice and embryo analyses revealed increased embryo weights and a trend of increased gestational weight gain in alcohol-exposed mice compared to water-exposed mice. After quantifying soluble fractalkine concentrations through Western Blots, results indicated decreased fractalkine in alcohol-exposed mice compared to water-exposed. Overall, our data suggest that exposure to low doses of alcohol inhibits fractalkine release, which may affect microglial function.
During the past two decades, the use of genetically manipulated animal models in alcohol research has greatly improved the understanding of the mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction. In this chapter, we present an overview of the progress made in this field by summarizing findings obtained from studies of mice harboring global and conditional mutations in genes that influence alcohol-related phenotypes. The first part reviews behavioral paradigms for modeling the different phases of the alcohol addiction cycle and other alcohol-induced behavioral phenotypes in mice. The second part reviews the current data available using genetic models targeting the main neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems involved in the reinforcement and stress pathways, focusing on the phenotypes modeling the alcohol addiction cycle. Finally, the third part will discuss the current findings and future directions, and proposes advanced transgenic mouse models for their potential use in alcohol research.
Litt, Dana M; Stock, Michelle L
The present study examined the impact of socially based descriptive norms on willingness to drink alcohol, drinker prototype favorability, affective alcohol attitudes, and perceived vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences within the Prototype Willingness model. Descriptive norms were manipulated by having 189 young adolescents view experimenter-created profile pages from the social networking site Facebook, which either showed older peers drinking or not. The results provided evidence that descriptive norms for alcohol use, as portrayed by Facebook profiles, significantly impact willingness to use, prototypes, attitudes toward use, and perceived vulnerability. A multiple mediation analysis indicated that prototypes, attitudes, and perceptions of use mediated the relationship between the content of the Facebook profile and willingness. These results indicate that adolescents who perceive that alcohol use is normative, as evidenced by Facebook profiles, are at higher risk for cognitions shown to predict alcohol use than adolescents who do not see alcohol use portrayed as frequently on Facebook.
Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Lucht, Michael J; Angermeyer, Matthias C
Alcohol dependence is a severely stigmatized disorder. Perceived stigma may deter help-seeking and is associated with higher co-morbidity and self-stigma in persons with alcohol dependence. We assess changes in the perception of alcohol-related stigma over 21 years in the general population. Two representative population surveys using identical methodology were conducted in Germany in 1990 and 2011 (n=1022 and n=967), eliciting the perceived discrimination and devaluation of someone with a history of alcohol problems as measured with an adoption of Link's Perceived Discrimination and Devaluation Scale (aPDDS), and perceived negative stereotypes of an "alcoholic." Both on item level and using factor scores, attitudes changed significantly between 1990 and 2011. Perceived discrimination and devaluation of someone with a history of alcohol dependence decreased considerably by 0.44 standard deviations (SD). Perceived negative stereotypes related to unpredictability of an "alcoholic" increased slightly by 0.15 SD, while perceived stereotypes related to strangeness decreased (-0.23 SD). Our findings suggest that particularly the image of someone who has received treatment for alcohol dependence has improved in Germany. This parallels increasing acceptance of professional treatment for alcohol dependence among the general population over the last twenty years, and contrasts with overall unchanged negative attitudes toward persons who actually suffer from alcohol problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Logrip, Marian L; Zorrilla, Eric P
Stressful experiences can result in elevated alcohol drinking, as exemplified in many individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. However, how stress history, rather than acute stressors, influences alcohol intake remains uncertain. To model the protracted effects of past stress, male Wistar rats were subjected to light-cued footshock (stress history) or light cues alone (control) prior to acquisition of alcohol self-administration (1-hour sessions, fixed ratio 1-3, 100 µl of 10% v/v alcohol as reinforcer). Stress history did not alter mean alcohol intake during acquisition of self-administration, but it increased preference for the alcohol-paired lever over the inactive lever. Following an extinction period, rats with a history of stress exposure and low baseline alcohol intake showed a twofold elevation in alcohol self-administration, as compared with low-drinking rats with no stress history. Similar effects were not seen in rats self-administering 0.1% sucrose. Analysis of mRNA levels of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate hydrolyzing enzyme, showed that stress history increased Pde10a mRNA levels in the basolateral amygdala and, in low-drinking rats, the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC). Pde10a mRNA levels in the plPFC correlated directly with greater alcohol self-administration during the relapse-like phase, and greater BLA Pde10a mRNA levels correlated with increased ethanol preference after acquisition. The data demonstrate that stress history sensitizes otherwise low alcohol drinkers to consume more alcohol in a relapse-like situation and identify stress-induced neuroadaptations in amygdala and prefrontal cortical Pde10a expression as changes that may drive heightened alcohol intake and preference in susceptible individuals. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Kinner, Stuart A; George, Jessica; Johnston, Jennifer; Dunn, Matthew; Degenhardt, Louisa
A significant proportion of young Australians engage in risky alcohol consumption, and an increasing minority are regular ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users. Risky alcohol use, alone or in combination with ecstasy, is associated with a range of acute and chronic health risks. The aim of this study was to document the incidence and some health-related correlates of alcohol use, and concurrent alcohol and ecstasy use, among a large, national sample of regular ecstasy users (REU) in Australia. National, cross-sectional surveys of REU in Australia 2003-2008. Among REU in 2008 (n=678) usual alcohol use, psychological distress and health-related quality of life were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and Short Form-8 Survey respectively. Among REU in 2008, 36% reported high-risk patterns of usual alcohol consumption, 62% reported usually consuming more than five standard drinks with ecstasy, and 24% reported currently experiencing high or very high levels of psychological distress. Controlling for age and education, high-risk drinking among REU was associated with higher levels of psychological distress and poorer health-related functioning; however, the associations between concurrent alcohol and ecstasy use, and health outcomes, were not significant (P>0.05). A large and increasing proportion of REU in Australia engage in high-risk patterns of alcohol consumption, including in combination with ecstasy. High-risk alcohol consumption among this group is associated with adverse health-related outcomes. Prevention and harm reduction interventions for REU should incorporate messages about the risks associated with alcohol use. There is an ongoing need for youth-specific, coordinated alcohol and other drug and mental health services. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo
to nearest major road had no significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: The cause(s) or exposure(s) responsible for the urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk were closer related to the degree of urbanization than to the geographical distance to nearest major road. Traffic related exposures might thus be less......BACKGROUND: Urban birth or upbringing increase schizophrenia risk. Though unknown, the causes of these urban-rural differences have been hypothesized to include, e.g., infections, diet, toxic exposures, social class, or an artefact due to selective migration. METHODS: We investigated the hypothesis...... that traffic related exposures affect schizophrenia risk and that this potential effect is responsible for the urban-rural differences. The geographical distance from place of residence to nearest major road was used as a proxy variable for traffic related exposures. We used a large population-based sample...
Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Ham, Lindsay S; Huang, Shi
The present study used a cultural and social cognitive conceptual framework to investigate whether alcohol expectancies and valuations would mediate the associations between specific acculturation orientations and alcohol-related risk behaviors. The sample comprised 1,527 Hispanic students attending colleges and universities in diverse regions of the United States. Respondents completed self-report measures of Hispanic and American cultural practices; alcohol expectancies and valuations; and self-reported frequency of hazardous alcohol use, binge drinking, sexual activity under the influence of alcohol, driving under the influence of alcohol, and riding with a drunk driver. Latent class analysis was used to classify participants into acculturation orientations. Results indicated that acculturation orientations were differentially associated with alcohol-related risk outcomes, with separated bicultural and low bicultural orientations inversely related to all of the alcohol-related risk behaviors except for riding with a drunk driver. Negative expectancy valuations were positively associated with endorsement of binge drinking and drunk driving and negative expectancies were negatively associated with binge drinking, drunk driving, and riding with a drunk driver. With the exception of sexual activity under the influence of alcohol, the associations between acculturation orientations and alcohol-related risk behaviors were partially mediated by positive alcohol expectancies. Our findings provided relevant data that are informative for preventing alcohol and related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon
To describe television news coverage between 2005 and 2010 of alcohol, health and relevant alcohol-control policies, with a view to informing policy advocacy. A content analysis of all alcohol stories archived by the Australian Health News Research Collaboration. We recorded what triggered a news item, the main topics covered, whether risks to health were communicated, whether alcohol-control policies were featured and which news-actors appeared. We identified 612 stories, where 69.2% were triggered by a particular newsworthy incident or the release of new findings. The most frequently reported alcohol stories were focused on associated harms (30.2%) and 'binge drinking' (19.0%). A majority (75.3%) reported a variety of positive and negative health effects, yet mainly focused on short-term consequences. Combined, 63% mentioned an alcohol-control policy, yet no one particular policy was featured in more than 10% of all stories. The most commonly featured news-actors included public-health professionals (50.0%), members of affected communities (28.4%) and government representatives (24.3%) Problems related to alcohol were well-established foci of news attention and reportage and covered a broad spectrum of issues related to public health goals, yet less coverage centred on long-term health consequences or effective policy solutions. Future policy advocacy could focus on moving the debate away from simple problem definition to better communication of long-term health risks, existing policies, and evidence of their effectiveness and arguments for their adoption. Future research might consider audience understanding of the information. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.
Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E
A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim
Discrimination is a risk factor for health-risk behaviors, including alcohol abuse. Far less is known about the mechanisms through which discrimination leads to alcohol-related problems, particularly during high-risk developmental periods such as young adulthood. The present study tested a mediation model using prospective data from a large, diverse sample of 1539 college students. This model hypothesized that discrimination would be associated with established cognitive (positive alcohol expectancies) and affective (negative affect and coping motives) risk factors for alcohol-related problems, which would account for the prospective association between discrimination and alcohol problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that discrimination was associated cross-sectionally with negative affect and more coping motives for drinking, but not with greater alcohol expectancies. Coping motives mediated the prospective relationship between discrimination and alcohol-related problems. Additionally, results indicated significant indirect effects from discrimination to alcohol-related problems through negative affect and coping motives. These associations were evident for multiple groups confronting status-based discrimination, including women, racial/ethnic minorities, and lesbian/gay/bisexual individuals. This study identified potential affective mechanisms linking discrimination to alcohol-related problems. Results suggest several avenues for prevention and intervention efforts with individuals from socially disadvantaged groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Water, E. de; Braams, B.R.; Crone, E.A.; Peper, J.S.
Adolescents often show risk-taking behavior, including experimentation with alcohol. Previous studies have shown that advanced pubertal maturation is related to increased alcohol use in adolescents, even when controlling for age. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this relation
Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.
A considerable amount of attention and research has been dedicated to addressing alcohol use and related problems among students at 4-year colleges; however, less attention has been given to alcohol-related issues among students at 2-year technical/community colleges. This article describes research that expands on a study by Chiauzzi and…
Leavens, Eleanor L.; Leffingwell, Thad R.; Miller, Mary Beth; Brett, Emma I.; Lombardi, Nathaniel
Objective: Research suggests college students rate some alcohol-related consequences less negatively than others, yet it is unclear how or when these differences in perception develop. The current study compared college students' subjective evaluations of alcohol-related consequences that they had and had not experienced in order to test the…
Doumas, Diana M.
This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)
Full Text Available Twenty-four chronic alcoholics admitted to hospital for detoxification after a drinking spree were examined by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Biopsy specimens were taken from corpus/fundus, antrum and duodenum for tissue histology (eosin stain. From the duodenum villus index and ultrastructure (scanning electron microscopy, SEM were also performed. As a control group 12 subjectively healthy non-alcoholics referred to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy mainly for dyspepsia were chosen.
Full Text Available Although, smoking is considered the most important predisposing factor in development of emphysema; environmental exposures also play an important role. There have been several studies on work related respiratory symptoms and ventilatory disorders among employees of cement industry. We report a case of cement exposure related emphysema in 75 years old woman construction worker.
Simons, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Murase, Hanako
This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schry, Amie R; Norberg, Melissa M; Maddox, Brenna B; White, Susan W
Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age) = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role). Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences.
Amie R Schry
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. METHODS: In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M(age = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role. Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. RESULTS: After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences.
Schry, Amie R.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Maddox, Brenna B.; White, Susan W.
Background and Objectives Identification of risk factors for alcohol-related consequences is an important public health concern. Both gender and social anxiety have been associated with alcohol-related consequences broadly, but it is unknown whether these variables are differentially related to specific types of alcohol-related consequences for American college students. Methods In the present study, 573 undergraduate students (M age = 19.86 years, SD = 1.40; range 18 to 25; 68.9% female) completed an on-line assessment of social anxiety, alcohol use, and four types of alcohol-related consequences (personal, social, physical, and role). Poisson regressions were run to examine social anxiety, gender, and the interaction between social anxiety and gender as predictors of each type of alcohol-related consequences. Results After controlling for alcohol use, social anxiety was positively associated with all four types of consequences, and females endorsed higher rates of physical, personal, and role consequences. The interaction between social anxiety and gender was statistically significant only for physical consequences, with social anxiety having a stronger effect for males. Discussion and Conclusions These findings, which diverge somewhat from those of a prior study with Australian college students, are discussed in the context of a biopsychosocial model of social anxiety and substance use problems. Scientific Significance This study highlights the importance of further investigating cultural differences in the relationships among social anxiety, gender, and alcohol-related consequences. PMID:25541722
de Haan, L.; de Haan, H.A.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Olivier, B.; Verster, J.C.
Background: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol
Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.
Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…
... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...
Jongen, Stefan; Vuurman, Eric; Ramaekers, Jan; Vermeeren, Annemiek
Medication and illicit drugs can have detrimental side effects which impair driving performance. A drug's impairing potential should be determined by well-validated, reliable, and sensitive tests and ideally be calibrated by benchmark drugs and doses. To date, no consensus has been reached on the issue of which psychometric tests are best suited for initial screening of a drug's driving impairment potential. The aim of this alcohol calibration study is to determine which performance tests are useful to measure drug-induced impairment. The effects of alcohol are used to compare the psychometric quality between tests and as benchmark to quantify performance changes in each test associated with potentially impairing drug effects. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, four-way crossover study. Treatments were placebo and three different doses of alcohol leading to blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 g/L. Main effects of alcohol were found in most tests. Compared with placebo, performance in the Divided Attention Test (DAT) was significantly impaired after all alcohol doses and performance in the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Balance Test was impaired with a BAC of 0.5 and 0.8 g/L. The largest effect sizes were found on postural balance with eyes open and mean reaction time in the divided attention and the psychomotor vigilance test. The preferable tests for initial screening are the DAT and the PVT, as these tests were most sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol and being considerably valid in assessing potential driving impairment.
Kully-Martens, Katrina; Denys, Kennedy; Treit, Sarah; Tamana, Sukhpreet; Rasmussen, Carmen
Individuals gestationally exposed to alcohol experience a multitude of sociobehavioral impairments, including deficits in adaptive behaviors such as social skills. The goal of this report is to critically review research on social skills deficits in individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure, including individuals with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Social deficits are found in alcohol-exposed children, adults, and adolescents with and without a clinical presentation. These deficits tend to persist across the lifespan and may even worsen with age. Social deficits in this population appear to be independent of facial dysmorphology and IQ and are worse than can be predicted based on atypical behaviors alone. Abnormalities in neurobiology, executive function, sensory processing, and communication likely interact with contextual influences to produce the range of social deficits observed in FASD. Future investigations should strive to reconcile the relationship between social skills deficits in FASD and variables such as gender, age, cognitive profile, and structural and functional brain impairments to enable better characterization of the deficits observed in this population, which will enhance diagnosis and improve remediation. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Moustgaard, Heta; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Myrskylä, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka
A marked decline in suicide rates has co-occurred with increased antidepressant sales in several countries but the causal connection between the trends remains debated. Most previous studies have focused on overall suicide rates and neglected differential effects in population subgroups. Our objective was to investigate whether increasing sales of non-tricyclic antidepressants have reduced alcohol- and non-alcohol-related suicide risk in different population subgroups. We followed a nationally representative sample of 950,158 Finnish adults in 1995-2007 for alcohol-related (n = 2,859) and non-alcohol-related (n = 8,632) suicides. We assessed suicide risk by gender and social group according to regional sales of non-tricyclic antidepressants, measured by sold doses per capita, prevalence of antidepressant users, and proportion of antidepressant users with doses reflecting minimally adequate treatment. Fixed-effects Poisson regression models controlled for regional differences and time trends that may influence suicide risk irrespective of antidepressant sales. The number of sold antidepressant doses per capita and the prevalence of antidepressant users were unrelated to male suicide risk. However, one percentage point increase in the proportion of antidepressant users receiving minimally adequate treatment reduced non-alcohol-related male suicide risk by one percent (relative risk 0.987, 95% confidence interval 0.976-0.998). This beneficial effect only emerged among men with high education, high income, and employment, among men without a partner, and men not owning their home. Alcohol-related suicides and female suicides were unrelated to all measures of antidepressant sales. We found little evidence that increase in overall sales or in the prevalence of non-tricyclic antidepressant users would have caused the fall in suicide rates in Finland in 1995-2007. However, the rise in the proportion of antidepressant users receiving minimally adequate treatment, possibly
Uban, K A; Herting, M M; Wozniak, J R; Sowell, E R
Despite accumulating evidence from animal models demonstrating that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in life-long neuroendocrine dysregulation, very little is known on this topic among humans with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). We expected that alterations in gonadal hormones might interfere with the typical development of white matter (WM) myelination, and in a sex-dependent manner, in human adolescents with FASD. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess: 1) whether or not sex moderates the impact of PAE on WM microstructure; and 2) how gonadal hormones relate to alterations in WM microstructure in children and adolescents affected by PAE. 61 youth (9 to 16 yrs.; 49% girls; 50% PAE) participated as part of the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD). DTI scans and passive drool samples were obtained to examine neurodevelopmental associations with testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels in boys and girls, and estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) levels in girls. Tract-based spatial statistics were utilized to generate fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) for 9 a priori WM regions of interest (ROIs). As predicted, alterations in FA were observed in adolescents with PAE relative to controls, and these differences varied by sex. Girls with PAE exhibited lower FA (Inferior fronto-occipital and Uncinate fasciculi) while boys with PAE exhibited higher FA (Callosal body, Cingulum, Corticospinal tract, Optic radiation, Superior longitudinal fasciculus) relative to age-matched controls. When gonadal hormone levels were examined in relation to DTI measures, additional group differences in FA were revealed, demonstrating that neuroendocrine factors are associated with PAE-related brain alterations. These findings provide human evidence that PAE relates to sex-specific differences in WM microstructure, and underlying alterations in gonadal hormone
Mies, Gabry W; Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Ligthart, Lannie; Fedko, Iryna O; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M
Genetic and environmental factors contribute about equally to alcohol-related phenotypes in adulthood. In the present study, we examined whether more stress at home or low satisfaction with life might be associated with heavier drinking or more alcohol-related problems in individuals with a high genetic susceptibility to alcohol use. Information on polygenic scores and drinking behavior was available in 6705 adults (65% female; 18-83 years) registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were constructed for all subjects based on the summary statistics of a large genome-wide association meta-analysis on alcohol consumption (grams per day). Outcome measures were quantity of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Stress at home and life satisfaction were moderating variables whose significance was tested by Generalized Estimating Equation analyses taking familial relatedness, age and sex into account. PRSs for alcohol were significantly associated with quantity of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems in the past year (R 2 =0.11% and 0.10% respectively). Participants who reported to have experienced more stress in the past year and lower life satisfaction, scored higher on alcohol-related problems (R 2 =0.27% and 0.29 respectively), but not on alcohol consumption. Stress and life satisfaction did not moderate the association between PRSs and the alcohol outcome measures. There were significant main effects of polygenic scores and of stress and life satisfaction on drinking behavior, but there was no support for PRS-by-stress or PRS-by-life satisfaction interactions on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.
Erevik, Eilin Kristine
Alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance worldwide. It is considered to increase social cohesion, and to play a part both in the development and expression of identity. Alcohol is, however, also associated with a range of adverse effects for the individual, and involves a great financial and social burden for society. Social media has currently become very popular commodity for social bonding, identity formation and expression, and social influence. This thesis consists of thr...
of 3000 obstetric -gynecologic pa- tients: the PRIME-MD Patient Health Questionnaire Obstetrics -Gynecology Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(3):759...Shepherd J, Irish M, Scully C, Leslie I. Alcohol con- sumption among victims of violence and among com- parable UK populations. Br J Addict. 1989;84(9
Bertholomey, M L; Nagarajan, V; Torregrossa, Mary M
Women represent a vulnerable and growing population with respect to alcohol abuse. Elevated glucocorticoid exposure in adolescence increases addiction risk and stress sensitivity in adulthood. However, little is known about sex differences in ethanol craving-like behavior. This study characterized sex differences in ethanol-motivated behavior following ethanol-paired cues and/or acute stimulation of the HPA axis in male and female rats with or without exposure to chronically elevated glucocorticoids in adolescence. Adolescent corticosterone-treated (Experiment 1) or naïve (Experiment 2) male and female rats were trained as adults to self-administer ethanol paired with a cue, and tested for the effects of this cue, alone or in combination with yohimbine, on the reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Females showed elevated ethanol self-administration and seeking compared to males. In Experiment 1, corticosterone exposure in adolescence augmented cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking in females only, and females were more sensitive to yohimbine in promoting reinstatement. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and showed that exposure to both yohimbine and alcohol-related cues enhanced the reinstatement of alcohol seeking, producing additive effects in females. Corticosterone levels were higher in females and in yohimbine-treated rats, and corticosterone and estradiol correlated with responding during reinstatement. Chronic manipulations in adolescence and acute manipulations in adulthood of the HPA axis increase cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking to a greater degree in females than in males. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie these effects may lead to the development of sex-specific interventions aimed at mitigating alcohol relapse risk in females.
Harrar, Vanessa; Elkrief, Laurent; Bouskila, Joseph
Purpose: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a developmental disease characterized by behavioral problems and physical defects including malformations of the eye and associated optical defects. How these malformations affect retinal functioning is not well known, although animal models have...... suggested that scotopic vision is particularly deficient. Age is also known to affect scotopic vision. Here, we determined the combined effects of age and fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) on retinal function using full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) in monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Methods: ERGs were recorded...... in monkeys aged 3- to 12-years old, at multiple flash intensities under scotopic and photopic conditions, and functions were fit to the amplitudes of the a- and b-waves. Results: We found that both age and alcohol exposure affected ERGs. In photopic ERGs, amplitudes increased with age, and were higher...
de Bruijn, Avalon; Engels, Rutger; Anderson, Peter; Bujalski, Michal; Gosselt, Jordi F.; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Wohtge, Jördis; de Leeuw, Rebecca
Aims: The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in
Bruijn, A. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Anderson, P.D.; Bujalski, M.; Gosselt, J.; Schreckenberg, D.; Wohtge, J.; Leeuw, R.N.H. de
Aims: The Internet is the leading medium among European adolescents in contemporary times; even more time is spent on the Internet than watching television. This study investigates associations between online alcohol marketing exposure and onset of drinking and binge drinking among adolescents in
Pedrelli, P.; Collado, A.; Shapero, B. G.; Brill, C.; MacPherson, L.
Objectives Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARP) and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods College students (N = 163; 49.7% female) completed self-report measures on alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, coping motives, and ARPs. Results Structural equation modeling showed that the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs was mediated by coping motives in both females and males. However, frequency of heavy alcohol use mediated the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in females but not in males. Conclusions Different models explain the association between depressive symptoms and ARPs in male and female college students. Prevention programs aimed at reducing ARPs should focus on increasing alcohol screening among students with depressive symptoms, teaching coping skills, and emphasizing moderation in alcohol consumption. PMID:27219280
Kaiser, Alison J; Davis, Heather A; Milich, Richard; Smith, Gregory T; Charnigo, Richard
To explore the bidirectional relations between alcohol use and three impulsive personality traits, to advance understanding of risk processes. 525 college students (mean age = 18.95 years) recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up annually for three years. Personality and past/current substance use were assessed. T2 sensation seeking mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 alcohol use, and T2 alcohol use mediated the predictive relationship between T1 and T3 sensation seeking. In addition, T2 alcohol problems mediated the predictive relationship between T1 alcohol use and T3 negative urgency. Findings support a bidirectional relationship between sensation seeking and alcohol use, and drinking anticipates drinking problems, which predict increases in negative urgency. For some individuals, there appears to be an ongoing process of increased risk in the form of increases in both drinking and high-risk personality traits.
Moon, Sung Seek; Rao, Uma
In this article, we present the effects of three hypothesized protective factors: social activities, school-related activities, and anti-substance use media messages on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Data were drawn from the "Monitoring the Future" (MTF) research project, which was conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample included 2,551 twelfth-grade students. The results of the structural equation model showed that exposure to media anti-drug messages had an indirect negative effect on tobacco and alcohol use through school-related activity and social activity. The results suggest that comprehensive ecological interventions encompassing media, family, and school can increase on the preventive effects of adolescent's substance use.
Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Kobayashi, Miwako
Mass media campaigns have long been used as a tool for promoting public health. In the past decade, the growth of social media has allowed more diverse options for mass media campaigns. This systematic review was conducted to assess newer evidence from quantitative studies on the effectiveness of mass media campaigns for reducing alcohol-impaired driving (AID) and alcohol-related crashes, particularly after the paper that Elder et al. published in 2004. This review focused on English language studies that evaluated the effect of mass media campaigns for reducing AID and alcohol-related crashes, with or without enforcement efforts. A systematic search was conducted for studies published between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2013. Studies from the review by Elder et al. were added as well. A total of 19 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, including three studies from the review by Elder et al. Nine of them had concomitant enforcement measures and did not evaluate the impact of media campaigns independently. Studies that evaluated the impact of mass media independently showed reduction more consistently (median -15.1%, range -28.8 to 0%), whereas results of studies that had concomitant enforcement activities were more variable (median -8.6%, range -36.4 to +14.6%). Summary effects calculated from seven studies showed no evidence of media campaigns reducing the risk of alcohol-related injuries or fatalities (RR 1.00, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.06). Despite additional decade of evidence, reviewed studies were heterogeneous in their approaches; therefore, we could not conclude that media campaigns reduced the risk of alcohol-related injuries or crashes. More studies are needed, including studies evaluating newly emerging media and cost-effectiveness of media campaigns.
Full Text Available Background: Dual process models suggest that the development of addictive behaviors is the result of interplay between impulsive and reflective processes, modulated by boundary conditions such as individual or situational factors. Empirical support for this model has been repeatedly demonstrated in adult samples (for a meta-analysis see Rooke, Hine, & Thorsteinsson, 2008. The purpose of this study was to test these processes as they relate to emerging alcohol use in adolescents. Specifically, the interactive effects of several measures of impulsive and reflective processes and working memory capacity are examined as predictors of changes in alcohol use among adolescents. It was expected that measures of reflective processes would better predict changes in alcohol use than measures of impulsive processes. Moreover, it was anticipated that working memory capacity would moderate the relation between alcohol-specific impulsive and reflective processes and changes in adolescent alcohol use. Methods: The sample consisted of 427 adolescents (47.7% male between 12 and 16 years of age (M = 13.96, SD = .78 who reported drinking alcohol at least once. Four measures of impulsive processes were included. Attentional bias for alcohol was assessed with a Visual Probe Test; approach bias toward alcohol was assessed with a Stimulus Response Compatibility Test (SRC; and memory associations with alcohol were assessed with an Implicit Association Test (IAT and a Word Association Test (WAT. Two measures of reflective measures were included: positive and negative expectancies. Working memory capacity was measured using a Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT.Results: Results showed that positive expectancies predicted changes in alcohol use, but this effect was qualified by an interaction with IAT scores. Moreover, SRC scores predicted changes in alcohol use only when negative expectancies were low. Attentional bias and word association scores did not predict changes in
Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.
This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…
MacKillop, James; Acker, John D; Bollinger, Jared; Clifton, Allan; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Goodie, Adam S
Alcohol misuse is substantially influenced by social factors, but systematic assessments of social network drinking are typically lengthy. The goal of the present study was to provide further validation of a brief measure of social network alcohol use, the Brief Alcohol Social Density Assessment (BASDA), in a sample of emerging adults. Specifically, the study sought to examine the BASDA's convergent, criterion, and incremental validity in relation to well-established measures of drinking motives and problematic drinking. Participants were 354 undergraduates who were assessed using the BASDA, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drinking Motives Questionnaire. Significant associations were observed between the BASDA index of alcohol-related social density and alcohol misuse, social motives, and conformity motives, supporting convergent validity. Criterion-related validity was supported by evidence that significantly greater alcohol involvement was present in the social networks of individuals scoring at or above an AUDIT score of 8, a validated criterion for hazardous drinking. Finally, the BASDA index was significantly associated with alcohol misuse above and beyond drinking motives in relation to AUDIT scores, supporting incremental validity. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the BASDA as an efficient measure of drinking in an individual's social network. Methodological considerations as well as recommendations for future investigations in this area are discussed.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
Volume 8 of the 19-volume Highway Safety Program Manual (which provides guidance to State and local governments on preferred highway safety practices) concentrates on alcohol in relation to highway safety. The purpose and objectives of the alcohol program are outlined. Federal authority in the area of highway safety and general policies regarding…
Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda
Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…
Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.
The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males)
van Hoof, Joris Jasper; van Zanten, Eva; van der Lely, Nicolaas
Over the four years of the study, the number of adolescents treated with alcohol-related harm increased significantly (from 297 in 2007 to 684 in 2010), up to a total of 1,616. The dominant reason for hospitalization was “alcohol intoxication” (in total 1,350; 88% of all cases). The gender ratio did
Ostafin, Brian D.; Bauer, Chris; Myxter, Peter
Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol and drug use are influenced by automatic motivational responses to substance use cues. With increasing evidence that automatic alcohol motivation is related to heavy drinking, researchers have begun to examine interventions that may modulate the
Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.
Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…
Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian
Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…
Pedrelli, Paola; Collado, Anahi; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Brill, Charlotte; MacPherson, Laura
Objectives: Comprehensive models elucidating the intricate associations of depressive symptoms, coping motives, alcohol use, alcohol-related problems (ARPs), and gender among young adults have been scarcely examined. This study investigated relationships among these variables and the effect of gender on these pathways. Methods: College students (N…
Thomas, Richard W.; Seibold, David R.
A study examined the interpersonal influence strategies reported by college students in two alcohol-related situations--a drunk driving intervention situation and a non-driving alcohol abuse situation. Subjects, 489 undergraduate students attending a large midwestern university, a large central midwestern university, or a mid-sized upper…
Mikhailovich, Katja; George, Amanda; Rickwood, Debra; Parker, Rhian
Studies documenting the harm associated with excessive drinking amongst university students are numerous. Fewer studies have explored the experience of non-drinkers in the university setting. In 2008, 826 students aged 18-29 years responded to an online survey aiming to investigate alcohol use and alcohol related harm at an Australian university.…
Magdalena M Przybycien-Szymanska
Full Text Available Adolescence is a dynamic and important period of brain development however, little is known about the long-term neurobiological consequences of alcohol consumption during puberty. Our previous studies showed that binge-pattern ethanol (EtOH treatment during pubertal development negatively dysregulated the responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, as manifested by alterations in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH, arginine vasopressin (AVP, and corticosterone (CORT during this time period. Thus, the primary goal of this study was to determine whether these observed changes in important central regulators of the stress response were permanent or transient. In this study, juvenile male Wistar rats were treated with a binge-pattern EtOH treatment paradigm or saline alone for 8 days. The animals were left undisturbed until adulthood when they received a second round of treatments consisting of saline alone, a single dose of EtOH, or a second binge-pattern treatment paradigm. The results showed that pubertal binge-pattern EtOH exposure induced striking long-lasting alterations of many HPA axis parameters. Overall, our data provide strong evidence that binge-pattern EtOH exposure during pubertal maturation has long-term detrimental effects for the healthy development of the HPA axis.
Background: The towns of Marietta and East Liverpool (EL), Ohio, have been identified as having elevated manganese (Mn) in air due to industrial pollution. Objectives: To evaluate relationships between environmental Mn (Mn-air) exposure and distance from the source and cognitive function in residents of two Ohio towns. Methods: Data were obtained from an EPA-sponsored study comparing two towns exposed to Mn-air (Marietta and EL). A cross-sectional design was used. The same inclusion/exclusion criteria and procedures were applied in the two towns. A neuropsychological screening test battery was administered to study participants (EL=86, Marietta=100) which included Stroop Color Word Test, Animal Naming, Auditory Consonant Trigrams (ACT) and Rey-O. To estimate Mn-air, U.S.EPA’s AERMOD dispersion model was used. Distance from source was calculated based on participants’ residential address and air miles from industrial facility emitting Mn-air. A binary logistic regression model controlling for annual household income was used to examine distance from source and neuropsychological outcomes Results: There were no age, sex, or employment status differences between the two towns. Years education was lower in EL (mean (M)=12.9) than Marietta (M=14.6) and years residency in town were higher in EL (M=47.0) than Marietta (M=36.1). EL participants resided closer to the Mn source than Marietta (M=1.12 vs M=4.75 air miles). Mn-air concentrations were higher in EL (M=0
Ross, Craig S.; Brewer, Robert D.; Jernigan, David H.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to outline a method to improve alcohol industry compliance with its self-regulatory advertising placement guidelines on television with the goal of reducing youth exposure to noncompliant advertisements. Method: Data were sourced from Nielsen (The Nielsen Company, New York, NY) for all alcohol advertisements on television in the United States for 2005–2012. A “no-buy” list, that is a list of cable television programs and networks to be avoided when purchasing alcohol advertising, was devised using three criteria: avoid placements on programs that were noncompliant in the past (serially noncompliant), avoid placements on networks at times of day when youth make up a high proportion of the audience (high-risk network dayparts), and use a “guardbanded” (or more restrictive) composition guideline when placing ads on low-rated programs (low rated). Results: Youth were exposed to 15.1 billion noncompliant advertising impressions from 2005 to 2012, mostly on cable television. Together, the three no-buy list criteria accounted for 99% of 12.9 billion noncompliant advertising exposures on cable television for youth ages 2–20 years. When we evaluated the no-buy list criteria sequentially and mutually exclusively, serially noncompliant ads accounted for 67% of noncompliant exposure, high-risk network-daypart ads accounted for 26%, and low rated ads accounted for 7%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the prospective use of the no-buy list criteria when purchasing alcohol advertising could eliminate most noncompliant advertising exposures and could be incorporated into standard post-audit procedures that are widely used by the alcohol industry in assessing exposure to television advertising. PMID:26751350
Ross, Craig S; Brewer, Robert D; Jernigan, David H
The purpose of this study was to outline a method to improve alcohol industry compliance with its self-regulatory advertising placement guidelines on television with the goal of reducing youth exposure to noncompliant advertisements. Data were sourced from Nielsen (The Nielsen Company, New York, NY) for all alcohol advertisements on television in the United States for 2005-2012. A "no-buy" list, that is a list of cable television programs and networks to be avoided when purchasing alcohol advertising, was devised using three criteria: avoid placements on programs that were noncompliant in the past (serially noncompliant), avoid placements on networks at times of day when youth make up a high proportion of the audience (high-risk network dayparts), and use a "guardbanded" (or more restrictive) composition guideline when placing ads on low-rated programs (low rated). Youth were exposed to 15.1 billion noncompliant advertising impressions from 2005 to 2012, mostly on cable television. Together, the three no-buy list criteria accounted for 99% of 12.9 billion noncompliant advertising exposures on cable television for youth ages 2-20 years. When we evaluated the no-buy list criteria sequentially and mutually exclusively, serially noncompliant ads accounted for 67% of noncompliant exposure, high-risk network-daypart ads accounted for 26%, and low-rated ads accounted for 7%. These findings suggest that the prospective use of the no-buy list criteria when purchasing alcohol advertising could eliminate most noncompliant advertising exposures and could be incorporated into standard post-audit procedures that are widely used by the alcohol industry in assessing exposure to television advertising.
Miskulin, Ivan; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Miskulin, Maja
The aim of this study was to describe the alcohol consumption patterns and to identify the association of injury with excess drinking among Croatian students. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 845 university students by the use of the WHO AUDIT questionnaire. A total of 39.9% of the university students reported some level of excess…
Penzenstadler, Louise; Chatton, Anne; Van Singer, Mathias; Khazaal, Yasser
Apps for smartphones are opening an important range of opportunities for improving the care of people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This study aimed to evaluate the quality of English language apps for AUDs and to compare paid and free apps. The keywords 'alcohol', 'alcohol addiction', 'alcohol help' and 'stop drinking' were entered into the iTunes Store search engine. Apps were evaluated using a standardized assessment designed to rate the quality of apps in terms of accountability, interactivity, self-help score and evidence-based content. The Brief DISCERN score and the criteria of the 'Health on the Net' label were also used as content quality indicators. Of the 137 unique apps identified, 52 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the content quality and self-help scores of these AUD apps were poor. The main quality indicators were not linked to payment status. Multiple linear regressions showed that the Brief DISCERN score significantly predicted content quality. Poor content quality and self-help scores of AUD smartphone apps underline the gap between their potential promises and the overall quality of available products in stores. The quality indicators used in the present study may be used for further app developments. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Receiving an alcohol-related diagnosis is associated with subsequent increased use of social services and contacts with the justice system. Upstream efforts to reduce alcohol-related diagnoses may result in reduced use of social services and justice contacts.
Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal
Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Smith, Georgia; Burn, Michele; Litherland, Steven; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter
Few studies have investigated the relationship of barroom aggression with both general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies. The present study investigated these associations in a rarely studied and high-risk population: construction tradespeople. Male construction tradespeople (n = 211) aged 18-35 years (M = 21.91, SD = 4.08 years) participated in a face-to-face questionnaire assessing general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies and perpetration of physical and verbal barroom aggression as well as control variables, age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. Sequential logistic regression analyses revealed that general alcohol-aggression expectancies of courage or dominance were not predictive of either verbal or physical barroom aggression after controlling for age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. However, barroom-specific alcohol expectancies were associated with both verbal and physical barroom aggression, with positive associations found for expected hyper-emotionality and protective effects for expected cognitive impairment. In a population where rates of risky drinking and barroom aggression are high, specific expectations about the effects of drinking in bars may influence subsequent aggressive behaviour in bars. [Zinkiewicz L, Smith G, Burn M, Litherland S, Wells S, Graham K, Miller P. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:549-556]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Janette L. Smith
Full Text Available Aims: Long-term heavy use of cannabis and alcohol are known to be associated with memory impairments. In this study, we used event-related potentials to examine verbal learning and memory processing in a commonly used behavioral task.Method: We conducted two studies: first, a small pilot study of adolescent males, comprising 13 Drug-Naive Controls (DNC, 12 heavy drinkers (HD and 8 cannabis users (CU. Second, a larger study of young adults, comprising 45 DNC (20 female, 39 HD (16 female, and 20 CU (9 female. In both studies, participants completed a modified verbal learning task (the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, RAVLT while brain electrical activity was recorded. ERPs were calculated for words which were subsequently remembered vs. those which were not remembered, and for presentations of learnt words, previously seen words, and new words in a subsequent recognition test. Pre-planned principal components analyses (PCA were used to quantify the ERP components in these recall and recognition phases separately for each study.Results: Memory performance overall was slightly lower than published norms using the standardized RAVLT delivery, but was generally similar and showed the expected changes over trials. Few differences in performance were observed between groups; a notable exception was markedly poorer delayed recall in HD relative to DNC (Study 2. PCA identified components expected from prior research using other memory tasks. At encoding, there were no between-group differences in the usual P2 recall effect (larger for recalled than not-recalled words. However, alcohol-related differences were observed in a larger P540 (indexing recollection in HD than DNC, and cannabis-related differences were observed in a smaller N340 (indexing familiarity and a lack of previously seen > new words effect for P540 in Study 2.Conclusions: This study is the first examination of ERPs in the RAVLT in healthy control participants, as well as substance
Robertson, Kirsten; Forbes, Sarah; Thyne, Maree
Existing literature exemplifies the relationship between alcohol and overt aggression, especially for adult males. Less clear is the relationship between alcohol and aggression among male and female college students, in particular, the nature of this aggression and the co-occurrence of drinking and aggression on the same day (temporal proximity). This study examines the chronic and temporal nature of males' and females' alcohol-related aggression among college students. Two hundred fourteen students completed a web-based 7-day event-level survey measuring alcohol consumption and perpetration of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and relational aggression over 4 weeks, resulting in 4,256 observations (days). The global analysis revealed students who are heavy drinkers are more likely to perpetrate all four forms of aggression, whereas the event-level analysis revealed that specific forms of aggression are associated with drinking at the time, while other forms were not linked to drinking occasions. Cross-tabulation revealed males and females were more likely to use verbal and physical aggression when drinking. For females, drinking was also associated with relational aggression and anger. Despite often being overlooked in research on aggression during emerging adulthood, relational aggression was prevalent. Discrepancies between the global and temporal analysis revealed factors other than alcohol might explain the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and specific forms of aggression. This is one of the first event-level studies to show the temporal relationship between alcohol and relational aggression. The distinctions in the current study, exemplifying the diversity of alcohol-related aggression, are critical for understanding aggressive behavior, potential gender differences, and for developing interventions. The temporal relationship between alcohol and aggression suggests health interventions should target drinking and aggression
Hermansson, Ulric; Helander, Anders; Brandt, Lena; Huss, Anders; Rönnberg, Sten
Previous studies have shown that elevated, risky levels of alcohol consumption may lead to higher rates of sickness absence. However, no studies have examined the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) or serum carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) in relation to sickness absence in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sick-days, 12 months before screening, and the AUDIT and CDT (CDTect kit). Serum gamma-glutamyltransferase also was used for comparison. The study was carried out over 36 months in a large workplace and formed part of an ongoing controlled study. In conjunction with a routine health examination, employees were offered the opportunity to undergo an alcohol screening. Absence data were obtained from the company payroll system, and sickness absence was analyzed by using a three-ordinal level cumulative logistic model on the number of sick-days. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Of the 989 subjects who participated in the study, 193 (19.5%) screened positive in relation to either the AUDIT (>or=8 points) or CDT (women), or both. Employees who screened positive with the AUDIT had a significantly higher proportion of sick-days (p = 0.047) compared with those who screened negative (OR = 1.4, CI 1.0-1.9). Neither long, continuous periods of sickness absence nor absence on Mondays or Fridays gave a clear indication of individuals who screened positive on the AUDIT or CDT test. Our data indicate that individuals with moderately elevated or risky levels of alcohol consumption show an increase in sick-days. Accordingly, workplaces have a good reason for using a more systematic approach to alcohol screening in routine workplace health examinations.
Keyes, Katherine M.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Greenstein, Eliana; McLaughlin, Kate; Wall, Melanie; Aharonovich, Efrat; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah
Background Civilian populations now comprise the majority of casualties in modern warfare, but effects of war exposure on alcohol disorders in the general population are largely unexplored. Accumulating literature indicates that adverse experiences early in life sensitize individuals to increased alcohol problems after adult stressful experiences. However, child and adult stressful experiences can be correlated, limiting interpretation. We examine risk for alcohol disorders among Israelis after the 2006 Lebanon War, a fateful event outside the control of civilian individuals and uncorrelated with childhood experiences. Further, we test whether those with a history of maltreatment are at greater risk for an alcohol use disorder after war exposure compared to those without such a history. Methods Adult household residents selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a psychiatric structured interview; the analyzed sample included 1306 respondents. War measures included self-reported days in an exposed region. Results Among those with a history of maltreatment, those in a war-exposed region for 30+ days had 5.3 times the odds of subsequent alcohol disorders compared to those exposed 0 days (95%C.I. 1.01–27.76), controlled for relevant confounders; the odds ratio for those without this history was 0.5 (95%C.I. 0.25–1.01); test for interaction: X2 = 5.28, df = 1, P = 0.02. Conclusions Experiencing a fateful stressor outside the control of study participants, civilian exposure to the 2006 Lebanon War, is associated with a heightened the risk of alcohol disorders among those with early adverse childhood experiences. Results suggest that early life experiences may sensitize individuals to adverse health responses later in life. PMID:24262650
Keyes, Katherine M; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Greenstein, Eliana; McLaughlin, Kate; Wall, Melanie; Aharonovich, Efrat; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Spivak, Baruch; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah
Civilian populations now comprise the majority of casualties in modern warfare, but effects of war exposure on alcohol disorders in the general population are largely unexplored. Accumulating literature indicates that adverse experiences early in life sensitize individuals to increased alcohol problems after adult stressful experiences. However, child and adult stressful experiences can be correlated, limiting interpretation. We examine risk for alcohol disorders among Israelis after the 2006 Lebanon War, a fateful event outside the control of civilian individuals and uncorrelated with childhood experiences. Further, we test whether those with a history of maltreatment are at greater risk for an alcohol use disorder after war exposure compared to those without such a history. Adult household residents selected from the Israeli population register were assessed with a psychiatric structured interview; the analyzed sample included 1306 respondents. War measures included self-reported days in an exposed region. Among those with a history of maltreatment, those in a war-exposed region for 30+ days had 5.3 times the odds of subsequent alcohol disorders compared to those exposed 0 days (95%C.I. 1.01-27.76), controlled for relevant confounders; the odds ratio for those without this history was 0.5 (95%C.I. 0.25-1.01); test for interaction: X(2)=5.28, df=1, P=0.02. Experiencing a fateful stressor outside the control of study participants, civilian exposure to the 2006 Lebanon War, is associated with a heightened the risk of alcohol disorders among those with early adverse childhood experiences. Results suggest that early life experiences may sensitize individuals to adverse health responses later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blasco-Alonso, Marta; González-Mesa, Ernesto; Gálvez Montes, Milagros; Lozano Bravo, Isabel; Merino Galdón, Federico; Cuenca Campos, Francisco; Marín Schiaffino, Gema; Pérez Torres, Sergio; Herrera Peral, José; Bellido Estévez, Inmaculada
The prevalence of substance abuse in women who become pregnant is similar to that of the general population, resulting in a high fetal exposure rate during the most vulnerable period regarding neurodevelopment and organogenesis. The present study was intended to assess the level of prenatal exposure to tobacco, alcohol or illicit drugs in the city of Málaga (Spain). It was designed as a cross-sectional study, and based on the anonymous self-reports of participants. A total of 451 pregnant women were recruited in the first, second or third trimester. The prevalence in each of the quarters respectively was 21.2%, 18.5% and 13.3% for smoking, 40.7%, 23.1% and 17.1% for alcohol and 4.8%, 1.9% and 1.2% for cannabis. We also found that a higher educational level was associated with a lower consumption of tobacco (RR 0.659 [0.537-0.810] p<0.0001) and greater exposure to alcohol (RR 1.87 [1.30-2.69] p<0.0007). These results, particularly in regard to alcohol intake, are sufficiently alarming to alert obstetric care providers about the need to implement preventive measures.
Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Klokker, Mads
BACKGROUND: Wind turbine noise exposure and suspected health-related effects thereof have attracted substantial attention. Various symptoms such as sleep-related problems, headache, tinnitus and vertigo have been described by subjects suspected of having been exposed to wind turbine noise...... existing statistically-significant evidence indicating any association between wind turbine noise exposure and tinnitus, hearing loss, vertigo or headache. LIMITATIONS: Selection bias and information bias of differing magnitudes were found to be present in all current studies investigating wind turbine...
Bunker, Naomi; Woods, Cindy; Conway, Jane; Barker, Ruth; Usher, Kim
This study aimed to establish the scale of alcohol-related injuries originating in the home. Despite recent media and public attention on alcohol-related injuries occurring at licensed venues, many occur in other locations including the home. A retrospective observational study. Emergency department surveillance data sourced from the Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit were interrogated for alcohol-related emergency department presentations from 2003-2012 (n = 12,296). Descriptive analysis was undertaken to assess alcohol involvement in injury, and analysis of variance was used to determine the differences among group means and their associated presentations. The relationship between demographic variables and injury location was assessed using p value of domestic violence by spouse or partner (n = 510), 59·5% occurred 'at home'. This is the first study to investigate alcohol-related injuries occurring at home. The home accounts for a greater proportion of injuries than the frequently assessed licensed premises location. Further research is required to validate these findings in a wider setting. A public health campaign is required to minimise harm associated with alcohol-related injuries in the home, and nurses are positioned to inform health policy makers around this issue. Furthermore, emergency department nurses are in a unique position to provide brief interventions around safe alcohol consumption and injury prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D
To compare the immediate effects on drinkers of television advertisements focusing upon short- versus long-term harms with and without low-risk drinking guidelines. Between-participants on-line experiment, with random assignment to view: (a) alcohol product advertisements (ALC control); (b) advertisements unrelated to alcohol (NON-ALC control); (c) advertisements featuring short-term harms (STH) of alcohol; (d) advertisements featuring STH plus a STH guideline (STH+G); (e) advertisements featuring long-term harms (LTH); or (f) advertisements featuring LTH plus a LTH guideline (LTH+G). Australia, 2016. A total of 3718 drinkers aged 18-64 years (48.5% male). Post-exposure likelihood that participants provided a correct estimate of drinking levels associated with short- and long-term harms; post-exposure intentions to avoid alcohol or reduce consumption. After exposure to STH+G or LTH+G advertisements, participants were more likely to estimate correctly rather than overestimate drinking levels associated with harm, compared with those exposed to STH (P < 0.001) and LTH advertisements without guidelines, respectively (P = 0.019) and ALC control (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH+G, P < 0.001; LTH+G, P = 0.011). Drinkers exposed to STH conditions were more likely to intend to reduce next-week alcohol consumption than those exposed to ALC control (both P < 0.001) and NON-ALC control conditions (STH, P = 0.001; STH+G, P < 0.001); a similar pattern was observed for intentions to avoid alcohol. Drinkers exposed to LTH conditions were also more likely than drinkers exposed to ALC or NON-ALC controls to intend to avoid and reduce alcohol in the next week. Additionally, drinkers exposed to LTH+G were more likely to intend to reduce drinking than those exposed to LTH advertisements without guidelines (P = 0.022). Response patterns for low- and high-risk drinkers by condition were similar. Alcohol harm television
Chan, Patrick; Yomen, Katie; Turcios, Jennifer; Richman, Mark
Patients suffering from major depressive disorder are more likely to suffer from alcohol use disorder. The data is inconclusive for the effectiveness of antidepressant treatment of patients suffering from both illnesses in regards to improving sobriety and reducing alcohol-related healthcare expenses such as hospitalizations. The objective of this study is to determine if a new prescription of an antidepressant upon inpatient discharge is associated with a reduction in the number of future acute alcohol-related hospital readmissions to the same institution in patients suffering from major depressive disorder and alcohol-use disorder. A retrospective, medical record review study was conducted at a publicly-supported hospital in Sylmar, CA. A query was performed for adult patients admitted between 1/1/2005-12/31/2013 who had ICD-9 codes for both alcohol-use disorder and depression. Index admission was the first hospitalization in which the patient was currently consuming alcohol and had depression as identified by physician documentation as a problem. Acute alcohol-related admissions were those for alcohol intoxication or withdrawal (indicating current alcohol use). Patients were excluded if they were receiving an antidepressant on index admission, depressive disorder with a prescription for an antidepressant is not associated with a reduction in future readmissions, nor significantly increase the number of days to readmission. The study does not support the concept of antidepressants in reducing acute alcohol-related readmissions.
Kyzar, Evan J; Pandey, Subhash C
Alcohol use and alcohol addiction represent dysfunctional brain circuits resulting from neuroadaptive changes during protracted alcohol exposure and its withdrawal. Alcohol exerts a potent effect on synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation in specific brain regions, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a critical regulator of gene expression and synaptic plasticity-related events in the brain. Alcohol exposure and withdrawal induce changes in crucial epigenetic processes in the emotional brain circuitry (amygdala) that may be relevant to the negative affective state defined as the "dark side" of addiction. Here, we review the literature concerning synaptic plasticity and epigenetics, with a particular focus on molecular events related to dendritic remodeling during alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Targeting epigenetic processes that modulate synaptic plasticity may yield novel treatments for alcoholism. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim
Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available Background. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA is a syndrome characterized by abnormal proliferation of the skin and bony structures at the distal extremities resulting in digital clubbing, periosteal bony reaction, and joint effusion. It can be primary (idiopathic without any clear identifiable etiology as well as secondary to variety of systemic diseases most notably lung pathology. Case Presentation. We describe a rare case of primary idiopathic osteoarthropathy in a male patient who presented with severe pain and tenderness in his legs. His history was significant for long standing alcoholism. Physical examination showed severe fingers and toes clubbing. He reported similar changes in his mother. Clinical and radiological findings were remarkable for distal leg tenderness and diffuse periosteal bony reactions, respectively. Computerized tomography scan failed to show any pathology apart from fatty liver infiltration. In the absence of obesity or diabetes, this was consistent with alcoholic steatosis. He was started on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug which dramatically improved his symptoms. Conclusion. Primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy should be considered in a previously healthy person presenting with bony pain and finger clubbing especially after ruling out the common secondary causes. Moreover, alteration of prostaglandin metabolism secondary to alcoholic consumption might be a contributing factor.
Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) offers as much as 90% protection against HIV transmission. However, the effectiveness of PrEP depends on uptake and adherence to even intermittent dosing. Along with intoxication leading to unintentional non-adherence, believing that alcohol mixed with pharmaceuticals is harmful (i.e., interactive toxicity beliefs) may lead to poor uptake and intentional non-adherence. HIV-negative sexually active men who have sex with men ( N = 272) at a large Gay Pride event in Atlanta, GA, completed anonymous surveys of demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, alcohol use and PrEP-related alcohol interactive toxicity beliefs. A total of 118 (43%) men surveyed had two or more male sex partners and condomless anal sex in the previous six months. Alcohol use was reported by over 90% of men and it was common for participants to believe that mixing alcohol and antiretrovirals is toxic; 75% endorsed at least one interactive toxicity belief. Among the 118 men who had engaged in condomless anal sex and had multiple sex partners, one in three stated that they were not interested in PrEP and men not interested in PrEP were significantly more likely to binge drink and hold interactive toxicity beliefs. These results mirror studies that find interactive toxicity beliefs are a potent predictor of intentional antiretroviral non-adherence among people living with HIV and suggest interactive toxicity beliefs may impede PrEP uptake and adherence. Messages to increase PrEP awareness and adherence may also take steps to counter erroneous beliefs about mixing alcohol with antiretrovirals in the context of PrEP.
Lendoiro, Elena; González-Colmenero, Eva; Concheiro-Guisán, Ana; de Castro, Ana; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Concheiro, Marta
Drug of abuse consumption throughout pregnancy is a serious public health problem and an important economic cost to the health system. The aim of this work was to compare maternal interview and hair analysis to determine drug consumption throughout pregnancy and to study relations among maternal interview, hair results, and neonatal outcomes. Two hundred nine mothers agreed to participate. After delivery, they were interviewed and a hair sample collected. Hair samples were segmented in trimesters and analyzed for 35 drugs [opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), ketamine, methadone, antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and hypnotics; limits of quantification 5-100 pg/mg] and for ethyl glucuronide (limit of quantification 10 pg/mg) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed with χ test and t test. In the interview, 4.3% mothers declared using illicit drugs during pregnancy (cocaine 1.4%, THC 2.9%, and opiates 1%), 3.3% medicines (methadone 1.9%, benzodiazepines 1.9%, and antidepressants 0.5%), 21.5% tobacco, and 13.7% alcohol. Hair analysis showed 15.4% prevalence in illicit drugs (cocaine 12.4%, THC 3.8%, opiates 1%, and ketamine 1%), 22.5% in medicines (methadone 3.3%, benzodiazepines 11%, antidepressants 9.1%, zopiclone 1%, and fentanyl 1.4%), and 3.9% in alcohol. Neonatal abstinence syndrome was developed in 8.1% newborns, all of them from mothers with high methadone-positive hair results (>926.2 pg/mg). Statistically significant lower newborn weight and length were found in neonates from declared smokers compared with nonsmokers (P drug use during pregnancy, except for alcohol. In this preliminary study, no statistically significant differences were found between exposed and nonexposed newborns to drugs, except for tobacco consumption.
Allen, Junior Lloyd; Mowbray, Orion
Gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) individuals appear to have an increased likelihood of alcohol use disorders and treatment utilization for alcohol related problems compared to heterosexual individuals. Despite this increase, treatment utilization rates among GLB individuals remain low. In an effort to address this, our paper examined whether or not GLB individuals encounter unique barriers when pursuing treatment for alcohol related problems. Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC), we examined service sector specific factors, some of which included (a) utilization rates, (b) self-reported treatment barriers, and (c) whether or not there were emergent differences among GLB individuals, after controlling for socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Findings indicated that GLB individuals reported higher severity rates for alcohol use disorders when compared to heterosexual individuals, and were significantly more likely to utilize treatment services for alcohol related problems, however, not across all treatment sectors. While similar patterns were observed when examining barriers to treatment, bisexual individuals reported significantly more barriers than heterosexual and gay/lesbian individuals. These findings underscored the importance of identifying and developing interventions that addresses treatment barriers associated with alcohol use service utilization among GLB populations, and creating improved outreach and education programs to better address stigmas associated with substance use and sexuality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steers, Mai-Ly N; Neighbors, Clayton; Hove, M Christina; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M
Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults' passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention.
Kessler, Klaus; Pajak, Katarzyna Malgorzata; Harkin, Ben; Jones, Barry
We tested 44 participants with respect to their working memory (WM) performance on alcohol-related versus neutral visual stimuli. Previously an alcohol attentional bias (AAB) had been reported using these stimuli, where the attention of frequent drinkers was automatically drawn toward alcohol-related items (e.g., beer bottle). The present study set out to provide evidence for an alcohol memory bias (AMB) that would persist over longer time-scales than the AAB. The WM task we used required memorizing 4 stimuli in their correct locations and a visual interference task was administered during a 4-sec delay interval. A subsequent probe required participants to indicate whether a stimulus was shown in the correct or incorrect location. For each participant we calculated a drinking score based on 3 items derived from the Alcohol Use Questionnaire, and we observed that higher scorers better remembered alcohol-related images compared with lower scorers, particularly when these were presented in their correct locations upon recall. This provides first evidence for an AMB. It is important to highlight that this effect persisted over a 4-sec delay period including a visual interference task that erased iconic memories and diverted attention away from the encoded items, thus the AMB cannot be reduced to the previously reported AAB. Our finding calls for further investigation of alcohol-related cognitive biases in WM, and we propose a preliminary model that may guide future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
This project developed methods to more accurately identify alcohol-related crash hot spots, ultimately allowing for more effective and efficient enforcement and safety campaigns. Advancements in accuracy came from improving the calculation of spatial...
Leichliter, J S; Meilman, P W; Presley, C A; Cashin, J R
Alcohol use, binge drinking, and substance abuse-related consequences among students with varying levels of participation in intercollegiate athletics were examined. Between October 1994 and May 1996, 51,483 students at 125 institutions answered questions about their involvement in athletics, ranging from noninvolvement to participant to leadership positions, on the long form of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. In comparisons with nonathletes, both male and female athletes consumed significantly more alcohol per week, engaged in binge drinking more often, and suffered more adverse consequences from their substance use. No support was found for the hypothesis that athletic leaders were more responsible than other team participants in using alcohol. Male team leaders appeared to be at significantly greater risk than female team leaders; they also consumed more alcohol, binged more often, and suffered more consequences than other team members.
Thaís Bozelli Ciarlo
Full Text Available Problems related to alcohol consumption are frequent, especially among young people. Alcohol beverage advertisements influence its consumption and is one of the liable to modification factors. In this work, it was carried out a bibliographical review of works that investigated, from several points of view, the relationship between media and consumption. We have used Scielo database and Google Academic for scientific works, searching for the keywords media, alcohol consumption and advertising, as well as articles and books of reference in the area. The reading of the texts has allowed us to reflect on the influence of media in alcohol consumption, and we can also verify the high exposition of youth to alcohol advertisements, becoming relevant a discussion on the subject, particularly regarding protection policies, as well as self-regulamentation advertising rules in public health policies.
Shuler, Kristrina A.; Schroeder, Hannes
-wide consumption of lead-tainted rum by enslaved Africans. Skeletons excavated in 1997-1998 (n= 45) were examined for congenital anomalies, using clinical/experimental descriptions to differentially diagnose possible ARBD. Enamel lead data served as a proxy for developmental exposure to tainted rum in a subsample...... (n= 26). Elevated enamel lead (3.8. μg/g), vertebral synostosis, and micrognathism in one subadult fit expectations for exposure. An adult male with low enamel lead (0.3. μg/g) had congenital anomalies, but not those described with ethanol or lead exposures. Contrary to expectations, we did...... not identify ARBD in most individuals, including those with isotopic signatures of Barbadian origin who also showed consistently elevated dental lead levels. We discuss how such patterns may have emerged from timing of exposures and colonial medical practices, but underreporting remains a likely concern...
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C
Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot
Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Kilburn, Tina R.
Please cite this paper as: Falgreen Eriksen H, Mortensen E, Kilburn T, Underbjerg M, Bertrand J, Støvring H, Wimberley T, Grove J, Kesmodel U. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children. BJOG 2012;119:1191-1200. Objective To examine...... the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children's intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from...... the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy...
Renteria, Rafael; Baltz, Emily T; Gremel, Christina M
Addiction involves a predominance of habitual control mediated through action selection processes in dorsal striatum. Research has largely focused on neural mechanisms mediating a proposed progression from ventral to dorsal lateral striatal control in addiction. However, over reliance on habit striatal processes may also arise from reduced cortical input to striatum, thereby disrupting executive control over action selection. Here, we identify novel mechanisms through which chronic intermittent ethanol exposure and withdrawal (CIE) disrupts top-down control over goal-directed action selection processes to produce habits. We find CIE results in decreased excitability of orbital frontal cortex (OFC) excitatory circuits supporting goal-directed control, and, strikingly, selectively reduces OFC output to the direct output pathway in dorsal medial striatum. Increasing the activity of OFC circuits restores goal-directed control in CIE-exposed mice. Our findings show habitual control in alcohol dependence can arise through disrupted communication between top-down, goal-directed processes onto basal ganglia pathways controlling action selection.