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Sample records for alcohol dose effects

  1. Alcohol and cirrhosis: dose--response or threshold effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Grønbaek, Morten; Tolstrup, Janne;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: General population studies have shown a strong association between alcohol intake and death from alcoholic cirrhosis, but whether this is a dose-response or a threshold effect remains unknown, and the relation among alcohol misusers has not been studied. METHODS: A cohort of 6152...... alcohol misusing men and women aged 15-83 were interviewed about drinking pattern and social issues and followed for 84,257 person-years. Outcome was alcoholic cirrhosis mortality. Data was analyzed by means of Cox-regression models. RESULTS: In this large prospective cohort study of alcohol misusers...... there was a 27 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in men and a 35 fold increased mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis in women compared to the Danish population. Number of drinks per day was not significantly associated with death from alcoholic cirrhosis, since there was no additional risk of death...

  2. Dose-related effects of alcohol on cognitive functioning.

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    Matthew J Dry

    Full Text Available We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N = 56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18-45 years were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%, employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention; the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory; Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding; the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization; the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function; and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function. Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties.

  3. Physiological and Psychological Effects of a High Dose of Alcohol in Young Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Vinader Caerols, Concepción; Monleón Verdú, Santiago; Parra Gimeno, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a high dose of alcohol on physiological and psychological parameters in young men and women with a previous history of alcohol consumption. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, state anxiety, attention, time estimation and manual dexterity were registered before (phase 1) and after (phase 2) intake of alcohol (38.4 g) or a non-alcoholic beverage. Trait anxiety was registered in phase 2 only. The results showed that acute...

  4. Effects of low doses of alcohol on declarative memory in humans

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    José Arturo Bríñez-Horta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of low doses of alcohol on two elements of explicit or declarative memory, in 16 participants, 8 women and 8 men, with The Weschler Memory Scale III Text Test. A factorial 2 * 4 counterbalanced with repeated measures design was used. There were no statistically significant differences by gender, but there were differences among doses, specially 0.150 g / Kg., which reduced episodic and semantic retrieval, between 43.9 and 62.9 % of effect strength, in intermediate term memory. These results provided evidence that alcohol in low doses has a more pronounced effect in semantic, rather than episodic memory, in the middle term

  5. Effects of low doses of alcohol on declarative memory in humans

    OpenAIRE

    José Arturo Bríñez-Horta; Raúl Oyuela-Vargas

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of low doses of alcohol on two elements of explicit or declarative memory, in 16 participants, 8 women and 8 men, with The Weschler Memory Scale III Text Test. A factorial 2 * 4 counterbalanced with repeated measures design was used. There were no statistically significant differences by gender, but there were differences among doses, specially 0.150 g / Kg., which reduced episodic and semantic retrieval, between 43.9 and 62.9 % of effect strength, in intermedia...

  6. Effects of low doses of alcohol on delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol's effects in pregnant rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, E.L.; Subramanian, M.G. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Pregnant rats were intubated with 50 mg/kg of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or with THC plus alcohol to determine if a low dose of alcohol would significantly increase blood levels of THC. On the basis of this study, a second study was conducted in which pregnant rats were intubated with THC plus alcohol from gestation day six to parturition. THC reduced birth weights but did not significantly affect litter size or passive avoidance learning. Alcohol did not have a significant effect on offspring birth weight nor did it interact with THC to affect offspring.

  7. Alcohol Dose Effects on Brain Circuits During Simulated Driving: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meda, Shashwath A; Calhoun, Vince D.; Astur, Robert S.; Turner, Beth M.; Ruopp, Kathryn; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Driving while intoxicated remains a major public health hazard. Driving is a complex task involving simultaneous recruitment of multiple cognitive functions. The investigators studied the neural substrates of driving and their response to different blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a virtual reality driving simulator. We used independent component analysis (ICA) to isolate spatially independent and temporally correlated driving-related...

  8. Estradiol valerate and alcohol intake: dose-response assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirarte, Gina L; Reid, Larry D; de la Teja, I Sofía Ledesma; Reid, Meta L; Sánchez, Marco A; Díaz-Trujillo, Arnulfo; Aguilar-Vazquez, Azucena; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A

    2007-01-01

    Background An injection of estradiol valerate (EV) provides estradiol for a prolonged period. Recent research indicates that a single 2.0 mg injection of EV modifies a female rat's appetite for alcoholic beverages. This research extends the initial research by assessing 8 doses of EV (from .001 to 2.0 mg/female rat), as well assessing the effects of 2.0 mg EV in females with ovariectomies. Results With the administration of EV, there was a dose-related loss of bodyweight reaching the maximum loss, when it occurred, at about 4 days after injections. Subsequently, rats returned to gaining weight regularly. Of the doses tested, only the 2.0 mg dose produced a consistent increase in intake of ethanol during the time previous research indicated that the rats would show enhanced intakes. There was, however, a dose-related trend for smaller doses to enhance intakes. Rats with ovariectomies showed a similar pattern of effects, to intact rats, with the 2 mg dose. After extensive histories of intake of alcohol, both placebo and EV-treated females had estradiol levels below the average measured in females without a history of alcohol-intake. Conclusion The data support the conclusion that pharmacological doses of estradiol can produce enduring changes that are manifest as an enhanced appetite for alcoholic beverages. The effect can occur among females without ovaries. PMID:17335585

  9. Dose response effect of rutin a dietary antioxidant on alcohol-induced prooxidant and antioxidant imbalance - a histopathologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenbagam, Madhavan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2011-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of rutin on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner in rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 rats served as control and group 2 rats received rutin 100 mg/kg body weight. Hepatotoxicity was induced in groups 3-6 rats (20% ethanol) for 60 days. In addition, groups 4-6 rats received rutin at doses of 25, 50, 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively for the last 30 days of the experiment. We observed a significant increase in the activities of liver marker enzymes, serum amino transferases, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, and a decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione and its related enzymes, vitamins C and E when compared to ethanol-fed rats. Rutin supplementation along with ethanol significantly decreased the levels of liver marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and significantly elevated the activities of liver SOD, CAT, GSH, glutathione peroxidase, vitamins C and E when compared to untreated ethanol supplemented rats. Among the three doses, 100 mg/kg body weight of rutin was found to exert a more pronounced hepatoprotective effect against ethanol-induced toxicity. Our results were also confirmed by the histopathologic observations. PMID:20727014

  10. Acute Effect of Low Doses of Alcohol on P300%急性少量饮酒对P300参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玺; 邢丽冬; 钱志余; 李宁; 何俊豪; 邓建辉; 于婷婷

    2014-01-01

    为研究急性少量饮酒对认知功能的影响,对22名志愿者采集轻度饮酒前以及饮酒后两小时的脑电信号,利用事件相关电位技术提取P300电位,以P300峰值与潜伏期为指标对其进行研究。实验结果表明,志愿者饮酒后0.5 h到1.5 h内,P300峰值显著提高,其他时段无显著性差异,P300潜伏期各时段间均无显著差异。结合实验结果与神经行为认知状态测试(NCSE)得出结论,急性少量饮酒在短时间会提高大脑兴奋性,增强认知能力。%Inorder to explore acute effect of low doses of alcohol,22 volunteers participated in this P300 ERP(event related poten-tial,ERP)experiment.We collected their EEG without drinking alcohol and 2 h after they drunk.The result showed that the P300 am-plitudes collected at 0.5 to 1 .5 h after drinking were higher than that collected without drinking.There was no difference in latency.It can be concluded that low doses of acute drinking alcohol can make cerebral excitarory,and enhance the cognitive ability.

  11. Effect of acute dose of alcohol on the biochemical features of syndrome X in different categories of male and female Nigerian drinkers in apparent good health.

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    Innocent Onyesom

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: «Syndrome X», known since the 1980’s is a disease condition precipitated by insulin resistance. Insulin resistance causes glucose and insulin to accumulate in the blood. Syndrome X is characterized by abnormal values of triacylglycerol (TAG, blood pressure (BP, glucose and HDL-cholesterol-all risk factors for heart disease. Insulin resistance may be exacerbated by bad diet, poor lifestyle, absence of physical activity, genetic predisposition and being overweight. However, recent reports have shown that poor lifestyle is likely to be the main cause rather than bad diet or being overweight. Even though heavy consumption of alcohol could be regarded as a poor lifestyle, its relationship to the biochemical features and symptoms of Syndrome X in both genders is yet to be properly documented among Nigerian drinkers of alcohol. Methods: To establish a baseline information on the relationship between alcohol consumption and Syndrome X among Nigerians, two hundred and seventy-four consenting individuals in apparent good health and who were either light (53 male, 44 female, moderate (51 male, 42 female or heavy (46 male, 38 female drinkers of alcohol were selected. They had no personal or familial history of CHD, stroke, cancer or related diseases. The drinkers were tested using an acute dose (1 g ethanol/kg body weight of alcohol. Results: Results show that the administered acute dose (1 g ethanol/kg body weight increased serum glucose, (p>0.05, TAG (p Conclusions: Based on the available evidence, it would be reasonable to conclude that heavy consumption of alcohol by Nigerian women especially may be yet another predisposing lifestyle to Syndrome X. The incidence of Syndrome X among drinkers of alcohol should be further investigated in order to provide clues to the underlying molecular mechanisms. This is important in order to strategize therapeutic approaches, since individuals with the disease may not recognize it.

  12. Anticipated effects of alcohol stimulate craving and impair inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Paul; Jennings, Emily; Rose, Abigail K

    2016-05-01

    A considerable evidence base has demonstrated that priming doses of alcohol impair inhibitory control and activate motivation to consume alcohol. There is, however, a lack of studies investigating the effect of placebo-alcohol on these processes and their association with alcohol outcome expectancies (AOE). We investigated the effect of placebo-alcohol on craving and inhibitory control, and the extent to which placebo effects correlated with AOE in 32 nondependent drinkers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing typical alcohol use (fortnightly alcohol consumption, AUDIT) and AOE (measured using the Alcohol Outcome Expectancy Scale). On a within-subjects basis participants consumed a placebo-alcohol drink and control drink. Measures of craving were taken pre- and postdrink, and participants completed a go/no-go task following the drink. Craving was increased by the placebo-alcohol and, importantly, placebo-alcohol impaired inhibitory control. Furthermore expectancies of cognitive and behavioral impairment were correlated with go/no-go task performance following a placebo. Increases in craving were associated with a range of elevated outcome expectancies. This suggests that the anticipated effects of alcohol can impair inhibitory control and increase craving; therefore studies using placebo versus alcohol comparisons relative to studies using a pure no-alcohol control are underestimating the real-world effect of alcohol on these processes, which is a combination of pharmacological and anticipated effects of alcohol. Furthermore, individual differences in AOE may influence reactivity to the anticipated effects of alcohol. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27031087

  13. A moderate dose of alcohol does not influence experience of social ostracism in hazardous drinkers

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    Joseph OL Buckingham

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4g/kg or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. In each session, participants were exposed to an ostracism event via the computerized ball passing game, Cyberball. In order to quantify the effects of ostracism, the fundamental needs questionnaire was completed twice on each testing session; immediately after (i social inclusion and (ii social exclusion. Ostracism caused robust changes to scores on the fundamental needs questionnaire, in line with previous literature. Alcohol administration did not influence the effects of simulated social ostracism, which was supported by a Bayesian analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative relationship between age and ostracism induced fundamental needs threat across both sessions. In conclusion, a moderate dose of alcohol did not influence experience of simulated social ostracism in hazardous drinkers. Further research is needed to establish the effects of alcohol administration on social ostracism using different doses and populations of alcohol users.

  14. A Moderate Dose of Alcohol Does Not Influence Experience of Social Ostracism in Hazardous Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Joseph; Moss, Abigail; Gyure, Krisztina; Ralph, Neil; Hindocha, Chandni; Lawn, Will; Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4 g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. In each session, participants were exposed to an ostracism event via the computerized ball passing game, "Cyberball." In order to quantify the effects of ostracism, the fundamental needs questionnaire was completed twice on each testing session; immediately after (i) social inclusion and (ii) social exclusion. Ostracism caused robust changes to scores on the fundamental needs questionnaire, in line with previous literature. Alcohol administration did not influence the effects of simulated social ostracism, which was supported by a Bayesian analysis. Exploratory analyses revealed a negative relationship between age and ostracism induced fundamental needs threat across both sessions. In conclusion, a moderate dose of alcohol did not influence experience of simulated social ostracism in hazardous drinkers. Further research is needed to establish the effects of alcohol administration on social ostracism using different doses and populations of alcohol users. PMID:27148155

  15. Nicotine interactions with low-dose alcohol: pharmacological influences on smoking and drinking motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J

    2013-11-01

    An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence.

  16. Low doses of alcohol potentiate GABA sub B inhibition of spontaneous activity of hippocampal CA1 neurons in vivo

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    Criado, J.R.; Thies, R. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Low doses of alcohol facilitate firing of hippocampal neurons. Such doses also enhance the inhibitory actions of GABA. Alcohol is known to potentiate inhibition via GABA{sub A} receptors. However, the effects of alcohol on GABA{sub B} receptor function are not understood. Spontaneous activity of single units was recorded from CA1 neurons of male rats anesthetized with 1.0% halothane. Electrical recordings and local application of drugs were done with multi-barrel pipettes. CA1 pyramidal neurons fired spontaneous bursts of action potentials. Acute alcohol decreased the interval between bursts, a mild excitatory action. Alcohol also more than doubled the period of complete inhibition produced by local application of both GABA and baclofen. These data suggest that GABA{sub B}-mediated inhibition is also potentiated by low doses of alcohol.

  17. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects. Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999. (5) Loft, S. ; ... A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158: ...

  18. Low-dose alcohol actions on α4β3δ GABAA receptors are reversed by the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, M.; Hanchar, H. J.; Olsen, R. W.

    2006-01-01

    Although it is now more than two decades since it was first reported that the imidazobenzodiazepine Ro15-4513 reverses behavioral alcohol effects, the molecular target(s) of Ro15-4513 and the mechanism of alcohol antagonism remain elusive. Here, we show that Ro15-4513 blocks the alcohol enhancement on recombinant “extrasynaptic” α4/6β3δ GABAA receptors at doses that do not reduce the GABA-induced Cl− current. At low ethanol concentrations (≤30 mM), the Ro15-4513 antagonism is complete. However, at higher ethanol concentrations (≥100 mM), there is a Ro15-4513-insensitive ethanol enhancement that is abolished in receptors containing a point mutation in the second transmembrane region of the β3 subunit (β3N265M). Therefore, α4/6β3δ GABA receptors have two distinct alcohol modulation sites: (i) a low-dose ethanol site present in α4/6β3δ receptors that is antagonized by the behavioral alcohol antagonist Ro15-4513 and (ii) a site activated at high (anesthetic) alcohol doses, defined by mutations in membrane-spanning regions. Receptors composed of α4β3N265Mδ subunits that lack the high-dose alcohol site show a saturable ethanol dose-response curve with a half-maximal enhancement at 16 mM, close to the legal blood alcohol driving limit in most U.S. states (17.4 mM). Like in behavioral experiments, the alcohol antagonist effect of Ro15-4513 on recombinant α4β3δ receptors is blocked by flumazenil and β-carboline-ethyl ester (β-CCE). Our findings suggest that ethanol/Ro15-4513-sensitive GABAA receptors are important mediators of behavioral alcohol effects. PMID:16698930

  19. Effects of low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actually, even though it is comfortable for the risk management, the hypothesis of the dose-effect relationship linearity is not confirmed for any model. In particular, in the area of low dose rate delivered by low let emitters. this hypothesis is debated at the light of recent observations, notably these ones relative to the mechanisms leading to genetic instability and induction eventuality of DNA repair. The problem of strong let emitters is still to solve. (N.C.)

  20. Correlates of baclofen effectiveness in alcohol dependence

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    Lekhansh Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201 or Baclofen (348. ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75 and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19; t (547 = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables - dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ′dose of baclofen′ and ′average alcohol intake′ explain a significant amount of variance in ′time to first drink′. [F (1, 345 = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2 adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier.

  1. Alcohol dosing and the heart: updating clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Franchini, Massimo; Russolillo, Anna; Lupoli, Roberta; Iervolino, Salvatore; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2011-11-01

    The consequences of heavy or irregular alcohol drinking have long been known. Recently, consistent information has been provided in support of an association between light/moderate alcohol consumption and protection from vascular and all-cause mortality, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, congestive heart failure, and recurrence of ischemic events. After reviewing the information with respect to major aspects of cardiovascular pathophysiology, to potential confounders and to underlying mechanisms, several concepts emerge. First, the recommended amounts of "safe alcohol drinking" in healthy individuals are up to two standard drinks (~20 g/d) for a man and up to one drink (10 g/d) for a nonpregnant woman. The overall balance for young premenopausal women, but not for older women, would be unfavorable for drinking. The risk of cancer would not outweigh potential benefits of alcohol on heart disease. Second, within the frame of a balanced pattern of dietary energy intake, patients with cardiovascular disease who drink alcohol should not exceed one or two standard drinks per day for women or up to two or three drinks per day for men. Third, the low rates of coronary heart disease among the Mediterranean people may be related to their pattern of drinking wine every day during meals. Regular drinking is associated with better outcomes than occasional (binge)/weekly drinking. Fourth, wine (ethanol with antioxidants) exhibits significantly higher anti-inflammatory effects than gin (ethanol without polyphenols), and thus in general wine should be preferred to liquor or beer.

  2. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

    OpenAIRE

    Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

  3. Alcohol and marijuana effects on ocular tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, M C; Brown, B; Adams, A J; Jones, R T

    1976-12-01

    Experienced alcohol and marijuana users were instructed to track with their eyes a small spot that moved horizontally back and forth in pendular (sinusoidal) motion across a 7.5-degree field. The frequency of spot oscillation was gradually increased from 0.5 to 3.0 Hz in 40 sec. Eye movement recordings showed the frequency at which smooth tracking and, soon thereafter, saccadic tracking broke down. These smooth and saccadic cutoff frequencies were reduced after administration of alcohol, but not after marijuana or placebo. For low alcohol doses, smooth tracking was impaired and saccadic tracking was unaffected, much like an effect previously reported for barbiturates. Alcohol seems to affect smooth tracking by increasing the central processing time required to generate the appropriate eye movement. It affects saccadic tracking by slightly decreasing saccadic velocity and to a greater extent by increasing latency time, part of which may be devoted to central processing. The site of action of alcohol appears to be central to both the paramedian pontine reticular formation and the flocculus of the cerebellum.

  4. The use of very high-doses of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol-dependence: a case series.

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    Renaud ede Beaurepaire

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, that is to say, more than 300mg per day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very high doses baclofen were justified in almost all the cases. Side effects are analyzed.

  5. Acute alcohol effects on inhibitory control and implicit cognition: implications for loss of control over drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Field; R.W. Wiers; P. Christiansen; M.T. Fillmore; J.C. Verster

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of

  6. Do baseline executive functions mediate prospective memory performance under a moderate dose of alcohol?

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    James Hugo Smith-Spark

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM is memory for delayed intentions. While deleterious effects of acute doses of alcohol on PM have been documented previously using between-subjects comparisons, the current study adopted a single blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design to explore whether the extent to which alcohol-related impairments in PM are mediated by executive functions (EFs. To this end, 52 male social drinkers with no history of substance-related treatment were tested using two parallel versions of a clinical measure of PM (the Memory for Intentions Test; Raskin, Buckheit & Sherrod, 2010, and a battery of EF measures. Testing took place on two occasions, with the order of administration of the alcohol and placebo conditions being fully counterbalanced. Overall, PM was worse under alcohol and participants showed deficits on five of the six subscales making up the clinical test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that EFs did not predict PM performance decrements overall but did predict performance when time cues were presented and when verbal responses were required. Phonemic fluency was the strongest of the EF predictors; a greater capacity to gain controlled access to information in long-term memory predicted a smaller difference between placebo- and alcohol-related performance on both the time cue and verbal response scales. Prospective memory is crucial to compliance with, and response to, both therapy programmes and alcohol harm prevention campaigns. The results indicate that individual differences in cognitive function need to be taken into account when designing such interventions in order to increase their effectiveness.

  7. Do Baseline Executive Functions Mediate Prospective Memory Performance under a Moderate Dose of Alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H.; Moss, Antony C.; Dyer, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is memory for delayed intentions. While deleterious effects of acute doses of alcohol on PM have been documented previously using between-subjects comparisons, the current study adopted a single blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design to explore whether the extent to which alcohol-related impairments in PM are mediated by executive functions (EFs). To this end, 52 male social drinkers with no history of substance-related treatment were tested using two parallel versions of a clinical measure of PM (the Memory for Intentions Test; Raskin et al., 2010), and a battery of EF measures. Testing took place on two occasions, with the order of administration of the alcohol and placebo conditions being fully counterbalanced. Overall, PM was worse under alcohol and participants showed deficits on five of the six subscales making up the clinical test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that EFs did not predict PM performance decrements overall but did predict performance when time cues were presented and when verbal responses were required. Phonemic fluency was the strongest of the EF predictors; a greater capacity to gain controlled access to information in long-term memory predicted a smaller difference between placebo- and alcohol-related performance on both the time cue and verbal response scales. PM is crucial to compliance with, and response to, both therapy programs and alcohol harm prevention campaigns. The results indicate that individual differences in cognitive function need to be taken into account when designing such interventions in order to increase their effectiveness. PMID:27630600

  8. Gabapentin potentiates sensitivity to the interoceptive effects of alcohol and increases alcohol self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besheer, Joyce; Frisbee, Suzanne; Randall, Patrick A; Jaramillo, Anel A; Masciello, Maria

    2016-02-01

    Gabapentin, a drug used in the treatment of epileptic seizures and neuropathic pain, has shown efficacy in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Moreover, given that gabapentin is used in the general population (e.g., non-dependent individuals, social drinkers), we sought to utilize preclinical assessments to examine the effects of gabapentin on sensitivity to moderate alcohol doses and alcohol self-administration in rats with a history of moderate drinking. To this end, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 120 mg/kg, IG) pretreatment alters sensitivity to experimenter- and self-administered alcohol, and whether gabapentin alone has alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects in rats trained to discriminate alcohol dose (1 g/kg, IG) vs. water. Second, we assessed whether gabapentin (0, 10, 30, 60 mg/kg, IG) would alter alcohol self-administration. Gabapentin pretreatment potentiated the interoceptive effects of both experimenter-administered and self-administered alcohol in discrimination-trained rats. Additionally, the highest gabapentin doses tested (30 and 120 mg/kg) were found to have partial alcohol-like discriminative stimulus effects when administered alone (e.g., without alcohol). In the self-administration trained rats, gabapentin pretreatment (60 mg/kg) resulted in an escalation in alcohol self-administration. Given the importance of interoceptive drug cues in priming and maintaining self-administration, these data define a specific behavioral mechanism (i.e., potentiation of alcohol effects) by which gabapentin may increase alcohol self-administration in non-dependent populations.

  9. Lipid metabolism abnormalities in alcohol-treated rabbits: a morphometric and haematologic study comparing high and low alcohol doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Iwasaki, Kenyu; Yamaguchi, Ryosuke; Zhao, Garida; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteonecrosis remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the morphological changes in bone marrow fat cells and the changes in the serum lipid levels in alcohol-treated rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were randomly assigned into three groups: Four rabbits intragastrically received low-dose alcohol (LDA) (15 ml/kg per day) containing 15% ethanol for 4 weeks, five rabbits received high-dose alcohol (HDA) (30 ml/kg per day) for 4 weeks and six rabbits received physiologic saline for 4 weeks as a control group. Six weeks after the initial alcohol administration, all rabbits were sacrificed. The mean size of the bone marrow fat cells in rabbits treated with HDA was significantly larger than that in the control group (P = 0.0001). Haematologically, the levels of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the rabbits treated with both low-dose and HDA were significantly higher than those in the control group (P = 0.001 for both comparisons). The results of this study are that there are lipid metabolism abnormalities, both morphologically and haematologically, after alcohol administration. Also these findings were more apparent in rabbits treated with HDA than those treated with LDA. PMID:21645143

  10. Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects of a Low Amount of Alcohol Drinking on Outcome Valuation and Risk Perception in Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Tokuda, Shinsuke; Harada, Tokiko; Takahashi, Taiki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The high-dose, alcohol-induced influences on risk perception and loss aversion depend on sex. On the other hand, low-dose alcohol has less effect on risky behavior. However, the effect of low-dose alcohol on subjective valuation of gain or loss and also the effect of placebo (expectancy of alcohol) on risk perception have not been fully investigated. We investigated the effects of low-dose alcohol (0.02 g/100 ml blood alcohol concentration) and placebo effects on subjective risk perception an...

  11. Efficacy of High-Dose Baclofen for Alcohol Use Disorder and Comorbid Bulimia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Sébastien; Lalanne, Laurence; Riegert, Myriam; Bertschy, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    High-dose baclofen is a promising treatment for alcohol use disorder, with a specific action on craving. A more general action on craving in other addictive disorders has been suggested based on the hypothesis of a common neurobiological pathway in addictions. We report the case of a woman with both alcohol use disorder and bulimia nervosa. There was a positive response to high-dose baclofen on alcohol craving, but no response on food craving. The case illustrates that craving could be differentially responsive to anti-craving drugs.

  12. The Use of Very High-Doses of Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol-Dependence: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Baclofen, particularly high-dose baclofen, has recently emerged as a treatment of major interest for alcohol-dependence. However, baclofen has many potentially dangerous side effects, and the maximal dose of baclofen that may be used is a matter of discussion. Here, the author analyses the medical charts of the last 100 patients seen in his clinic, 17 of whom have been taking a very high dose of baclofen, which is to say, more than 300 mg/day. The analysis of the charts shows that the very hi...

  13. The Effects of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Forensic Breath Alcohol Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, James L; Renfroe, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    Fifteen test subjects, 10 of whom were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), were dosed with alcohol to BACs above 0.150 g/dL. Blood and breath assays taken at 20-min intervals for 8 h after dosing demonstrated close agreement between postabsorptive BAC and BrAC values. Three subjects exhibited elevated breath alcohol concentrations up to 0.105 g/dL during the absorptive phase that were apparently due to the passage of gastric alcohol through the lower esophageal sphincter not attributable to eruction or regurgitation. The effect of gastric alcohol was not consistently proportional to the amount of unabsorbed gastric alcohol. Absorption of alcohol in the esophagus explains the nonproportionality. Breath samples contaminated by GERD-related alcohol leakage from the stomach into a breath sample were found only when there was a high concentration of alcohol in the stomach. When contaminated breath samples were encountered, they were irreproducible in magnitude.

  14. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  15. A moderate dose of alcohol does not influence experience of social ostracism in hazardous drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph OL Buckingham; Abigail eMoss; Krisztina eGyure; Neil eRalph; Chandni eHindocha; Will eLawn; H Valerie eCurran; Freeman, Tom P.

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions i...

  16. A Moderate Dose of Alcohol Does Not Influence Experience of Social Ostracism in Hazardous Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    J. Buckingham; Moss, A; Gyure, K.; Ralph, N.; Hindocha, C.; Lawn, W.; Curran, H V; Freeman, T P

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and correlational evidence suggests a relationship between social ostracism and alcohol dependence. Furthermore, a recent fMRI investigation found differences in the neural correlates associated with ostracism in people with alcohol dependence compared to healthy controls. We predicted that acutely administered alcohol would reduce the negative effects of social ostracism. Alcohol (0.4 g/kg) or matched placebo was administered to a sample of 32 hazardous drinkers over two sessions i...

  17. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that are similar to those found in alcoholics, even if they have never been drinking alcohol. This suggests that brain damage in alcohol-dependent individuals is at least partly related to genetic factors...

  18. Effects of alcohol and frustration on experimental graffiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlander, T; Nordmarker, A; Archer, T

    1998-12-01

    This study aimed to examine effects between alcohol and frustration in regard to graffiti. Forty-two subjects, 21 men and 21 women were randomly assigned in equal numbers to each of the three experimental groups, namely a Control group, an Alcohol group, and an Alcohol + Frustration group (alcohol dose: 1 ml 100% alcohol/kg body weight). For the purposes of this experiment, a test (AET) was constructed that provided scores of "scrawling-graffiti" (i.e., the amount of scrawling on pictures), "destruction", "aggression", and "sexuality". An elaboration test and a test measuring the "dispositional optimism" were also applied. The primary results indicated that (a) the Alcohol + Frustration group scored significantly higher on scrawling-graffiti compared to the Control group, (b) female subjects performed graffiti-scrawling to a greater extent than male subjects in all three groups, (c) women scored significantly higher on elaboration as compared to men. These results were interpreted as supporting the hypothesis that alcohol intake by itself is unlikely to induce destructive behavior unless accompanied by a "provocative" factor (e.g. frustration) that precipitates the putative expressions of aggressiveness. PMID:9883098

  19. Medical exposure and effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frequency of radiological diagnosis in Japan and individual population effective dose are reported. Questionnaire on radiological practice was delivered to selected medical facilities. The total number of X-ray diagnosis performed in 1991 was 180,000,000, being age-dependent in both men and women. The chest was the most common site to be examined. The number of X-ray films per examination was the highest for the stomach. The spread of ultrasound has decreased radiological practice in the obstetric field (approximately one sixth between 1979 and 1986). There was an 8-fold increase in the number of X-ray CT as of 1989 during the past decade. The total number of CT scanning in 1989 reached nearly 14,850,000 (about 16 times as much as that of 1979). The number of stomach X-ray screening increased to 7,800,000 which is twice as much as that in 1975. In the dental field, panoramic method brought about a 7-fold increase between 1974 and 1985. The frequency of nuclear medicine diagnosis has slightly increased, reaching 1,400,000 cases in 1992, and 99mTc was the most common nuclide. The total population effective dose of radiography and fluoroscopy was 179,000 mSv. The highest effective dose was associated with gastric X-ray. The effective dose equivalent per diagnosis was estimated to be 1.02 mSv (the total population/total number of radiological diagnosis). The population effective dose per person was 2.3 mSv (population effective dose equivalent/national population), which was equal to the world average of yearly effective dose equivalent of natural radiation. (S.Y.)

  20. Acute High-Dose and Chronic Lifetime Exposure to Alcohol Consumption and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: T-CALOS Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunji Hwang

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of acute high-dose and chronic lifetime exposure to alcohol and exposure patterns on the development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC.The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS included 2,258 DTC patients (449 men and 1,809 women and 22,580 healthy participants (4,490 men and 18,090 women who were individually matched by age, gender, and enrollment year. In-person interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire to obtain epidemiologic data. Clinicopathologic features of the patients were obtained by chart reviews. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI were estimated using conditional regression models.While light or moderate drinking behavior was related to a reduced risk of DTC, acute heavy alcohol consumption (151 g or more per event or on a single occasion was associated with increased risks in men (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.27-3.87 and women (OR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.52-8.58 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of alcohol for 31 or more years was a significant risk factor for DTC for both men (31-40 years: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.10-2.28; 41+ years: OR = 3.46, 95%CI = 2.06-5.80 and women (31-40 years: OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.62-2.92; 41+ years: OR = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.36-5.05 compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of a large amount of alcohol on a single occasion was also a significant risk factor, even after restricting DTC outcomes to tumor size, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension and TNM stage.The findings of this study suggest that the threshold effects of acute high-dose alcohol consumption and long-term alcohol consumption are linked to an increased risk of DTC.

  1. Performance-based testing for drugs of abuse: dose and time profiles of marijuana, amphetamine, alcohol, and diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Emurian, C S; Fischman, M W

    1993-09-01

    The time courses of the effects of acute doses of amphetamine (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), alcohol (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg), diazepam (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), and marijuana (2.0% and 3.5% delta 9-THC) on performance engendered by each of four computerized behavioral tasks were evaluated in six human subjects. These performance-based tasks have potential commercial utility for drug-use detection in the workplace. Alcohol and marijuana effects were reliably detected for up to three hours following dose administration with most procedures. Amphetamine and diazepam effects were also detected, but the dose effects and time courses were variable. The profile of behavioral effects varied across drugs, suggesting that performance-based testing procedures might be useful in discriminating which drug was administered and the time course of the drug's effects. Results indicate that repeated measurement with performance-based drug detection procedures can provide immediate indications of performance impairment in a cost-effective and noninvasive manner and, as such, would be a useful supplement to biological sample testing for drug-use detection.

  2. Effects of alcohol intake on brain structure and function in non-alcohol-dependent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, Eveline Astrid de

    2005-01-01

    About 85% of the adult population in the Netherlands regularly drinks alcohol. Chronic excessive alcohol intake in alcohol-dependent individuals is known to have damaging effects on brain structure and function. Relatives of alcohol-dependent individuals display differences in brain function that ar

  3. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system.

  4. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. PMID:25733499

  5. Resistance to change of alcohol self-administration: effects of alcohol-delivery rate on disruption by extinction and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Gomez, Corina; Shahan, Timothy A

    2007-03-01

    A common finding in resistance to change research with food-maintained operant behavior is that the persistence of behavior depends on the rate of reinforcement delivered in the context in which the behavior occurs. The present experiment evaluated the effects of rate of response-dependent alcohol delivery on the resistance to change of rats' alcohol self-administration in the face of disruption produced by extinction and a range of doses of naltrexone (1.0, 3.0, 10.0 mg/kg, subcutaneous). Rats responded for a 10% alcohol solution in a multiple schedule of reinforcement arranging a higher rate of alcohol delivery (variable interval 15 s) in the presence of one stimulus and a lower rate of alcohol delivery (variable interval 45 s) in the presence of another stimulus. Baseline response rates and resistance to extinction were higher in the presence of the stimulus associated with higher rates of alcohol delivery. This finding is consistent with studies of the resistance to change of food-maintained behavior. The rate of alcohol delivered in the components, however, did not systematically affect resistance to disruption by naltrexone. One interpretation of this finding from the perspective of behavioral momentum theory is that naltrexone may decrease the impact of alcohol-associated stimuli on the persistence of drinking by reducing sensitivity to the relative reinforcement conditions arranged in the presence of different stimuli. PMID:17351423

  6. Effects of proton radiation dose, dose rate and dose fractionation on hematopoietic cells in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, J.H.; Rusek, A.; Sanzari, J.; Avery, S.; Sayers, C.; Krigsfeld, G.; Nuth, M.; Wan, X.S.; Kennedy, A.R.

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05-0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals were used as controls. The results demonstrate a dose-dependent loss of white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes by up to 61% and 72%, respectively, in mice irradiated with protons at doses up to 2 Gy. The results also demonstrate that the dose rate, fractionation pattern and energy of the proton radiation did not have significant effects on WBC and lymphocyte counts in the irradiated animals. These results suggest that the acute effects of proton radiation on WBC and lymphocyte counts are determined mainly by the radiation dose, with very little contribution from the dose rate (over the range of dose rates evaluated), fractionation and energy of the protons.

  7. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Lekhansh Shukla; Tulika Shukla; Spandana Bokka; Arun Kandasamy; Vivek Benegal; Pratima Murthy; Prabhat Chand

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ′Time to first drink′ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and ...

  8. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages.

  9. Protective effect of heat-treated cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) juice on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Kim, Na-Hyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Kangmin; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, heat-treated cucumber juice was assessed for its protective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats. Initially, during detoxification of alcohol, all groups were orally dosed to 22% alcohol (6ml/kg body weight) along with different concentrations of heat-treated cucumber juice (10, 100 and 500mg/kg) and commercial goods for hangover-removal on sale (2ml/kg). Cucumber juice was dosed before 30 min, and simultaneously after 30min of alcohol administration, and its hepatoprotective effect on blood alcohol levels and hepatic alcohol metabolic enzyme system in experimental rats was evaluated. As a result, after 7h, remarkable reduction was found in the blood alcohol levels for all concentrations of cucumber juice treatment. Treatment with cucumber juice resulted in increasing dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymatic activities in rat liver at 9h after alcohol administration thereby stimulated blood alcohol metabolism as compared with control group. The effect of heat-treated cucumber juice on alcohol detoxification was observed only in the rats treated before 30min from alcohol administration. These findings indicate that heat-treated cucumber juice has significant protective effect on alcohol detoxification in experimental rats, suggesting its usefulness in the treatment of liver injury caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:27383492

  10. Low dose effects. Adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate if there are disturbancies in adaptive response when lymphocytes of people living on the polluted with radionuclides area after Chernobyl disaster and liquidators suffered from accident have been investigated. The level of lymphocytes with micronuclei have been scored in Moscow donors and people living in Bryansk region with the degree of contamination 15 - 40 Ci/km. The doses that liquidators have been obtained were not higher then 25 cGy. The mean spontaneous level of MN in control people and people from Chernobyl zones does't differ significantly but the individual variability in the mean value between two populations does not differ significantly too. And in this case it seems that persons of exposed areas. Then another important fact in lymphocytes of people living on polluted areas the chronic low dose irradiation does not induce the adaptive response. In Moscow people in most cases (≅ 59 %) the adaptive response is observed and in some cases the demonstration of adaptive response is not significant (≅1%). In Chernobyl population exposed to chronic low level, low dose rate irradiation there are fewer people here with distinct adaptive response (≅38%). And there appear beings with increased radiosensitivity after conditioned dose. Such population with enhanced radiosensitivity have not observed in Moscow. In liquidators the same types of effects have been registered. These results have been obtained on adults. Adaptive response in children 8 - 14 old population living in Moscow and in Chernobyl zone have been investigated too. In this case the spontaneous level of MN is higher in children living in polluted areas, after the 1.0 Gy irradiation the individual variability is very large. Only 5 % of children have distinct is very large. Only 5 % of children have distinct adaptive response, the enhancement of radiosensitivity after conditioned dose is observed. (authors)

  11. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain.

  12. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the dose makes the poison…or the remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Bajwa, Ata; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-03-01

    Habitual light to moderate alcohol intake (up to 1 drink per day for women and 1 or 2 drinks per day for men) is associated with decreased risks for total mortality, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and stroke. However, higher levels of alcohol consumption are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Indeed, behind only smoking and obesity, excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of premature death in the United States. Heavy alcohol use (1) is one of the most common causes of reversible hypertension, (2) accounts for about one-third of all cases of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, (3) is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation, and (4) markedly increases risks of stroke-both ischemic and hemorrhagic. The risk-to-benefit ratio of drinking appears higher in younger individuals, who also have higher rates of excessive or binge drinking and more frequently have adverse consequences of acute intoxication (for example, accidents, violence, and social strife). In fact, among males aged 15 to 59 years, alcohol abuse is the leading risk factor for premature death. Of the various drinking patterns, daily low- to moderate-dose alcohol intake, ideally red wine before or during the evening meal, is associated with the strongest reduction in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Health care professionals should not recommend alcohol to nondrinkers because of the paucity of randomized outcome data and the potential for problem drinking even among individuals at apparently low risk. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed for the 15-year period 1997 through 2012 using the search terms alcohol, ethanol, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, and mortality. Studies were considered if they were deemed to be of high quality, objective, and methodologically sound. PMID:24582196

  13. Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the dose makes the poison…or the remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Bajwa, Ata; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J

    2014-03-01

    Habitual light to moderate alcohol intake (up to 1 drink per day for women and 1 or 2 drinks per day for men) is associated with decreased risks for total mortality, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and stroke. However, higher levels of alcohol consumption are associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Indeed, behind only smoking and obesity, excessive alcohol consumption is the third leading cause of premature death in the United States. Heavy alcohol use (1) is one of the most common causes of reversible hypertension, (2) accounts for about one-third of all cases of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, (3) is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation, and (4) markedly increases risks of stroke-both ischemic and hemorrhagic. The risk-to-benefit ratio of drinking appears higher in younger individuals, who also have higher rates of excessive or binge drinking and more frequently have adverse consequences of acute intoxication (for example, accidents, violence, and social strife). In fact, among males aged 15 to 59 years, alcohol abuse is the leading risk factor for premature death. Of the various drinking patterns, daily low- to moderate-dose alcohol intake, ideally red wine before or during the evening meal, is associated with the strongest reduction in adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Health care professionals should not recommend alcohol to nondrinkers because of the paucity of randomized outcome data and the potential for problem drinking even among individuals at apparently low risk. The findings in this review were based on a literature search of PubMed for the 15-year period 1997 through 2012 using the search terms alcohol, ethanol, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, and mortality. Studies were considered if they were deemed to be of high quality, objective, and methodologically sound.

  14. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  15. Dose Response and Optical Properties of Dyed Poly Vinyl Alcohol-Trichloroacetic Acid Polymeric Blends Irradiated with Gamma-Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effects of gamma irradiation on optical properties of cresol-red dyed Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA blended with Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA for possible use in dosimetry and measurement of radiation dose in gamma rays have been studied using both Raman spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectrophotometer method. Approach: The dosimeters are composed of Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA, Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA at various concentrations are 20, 25, 30 and 35%, and acid-base indicator cresol-red dyed. Results: The dosimeters were irradiated to doses up 12 kGy using 60Co gamma ray source at a constant dose rate. The polymeric films undergo color change from purple to yellow due to radiation-induced acid formation. The molecular vibrational spectra were measured using Raman spectroscopy, resulting in a decrease of the Raman intensity inelastic scattering of C-Cl molecular stretching from TCA with increasing dose. The absorption spectra were measured using UV-visible spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 350-700 nm, resulting in a decrease of the absorbance at 575 nm band peak with increasing dose. The dose sensitivity D0 increases with increasing TCA concentration for both scattering and absorption methods. The optical absorption studies show that the direct and indirect optical energy band gaps and optical activation energies are dependent on dose and TCA concentration. Conclusion: The shift in the optical band gap Eg values towards lower energy with radiation dose leads to a shift of the optical activation energy DeltaE value towards the lower energy region with increasing dose. The optical band gap (Eg and the absorption edge decrease with increasing dose attributed to the structural disorder of polymer blends due to dehydrochlorination of trichloroacetic acid with increasing dose. The energy width of the tail of localized state in the forbidden band gap was evaluated using the Urbach-edges method. It was found that the activation energy

  16. Effects of Proton Radiation Dose, Dose Rate and Dose Fractionation on Hematopoietic Cells in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ware, J.H.; Sanzari, J.; Avery, S.; Sayers, C; Krigsfeld, G.; Nuth, M.; Wan, X. S.; Rusek, A.; Kennedy, A R

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute effects of radiation dose, dose rate and fractionation as well as the energy of protons in hematopoietic cells of irradiated mice. The mice were irradiated with a single dose of 51.24 MeV protons at a dose of 2 Gy and a dose rate of 0.05–0.07 Gy/min or 1 GeV protons at doses of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Gy delivered in a single dose at dose rates of 0.05 or 0.5 Gy/min or in five daily dose fractions at a dose rate of 0.05 Gy/min. Sham-irradiated animals...

  17. Alcohol: A Nutrient with Multiple Salutary Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Pownall

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that cardiovascular disease is lower among alcohol consumers than among nonconsumers. Many of the metabolic effects of alcohol are mediated by its terminal metabolite, acetate, which has reported insulinemic properties. There have been few rational metabolic targets that underly its cardioprotective effects until it was reported that acetate, the terminal product of alcohol metabolism, is the ligand for G-protein coupled receptor 43 (GPCR43, which is highly expressed in adipose tissue. Here, we recast much of some of the major lipid and lipoprotein effects of alcohol in the context of this newly discovered G-protein and develop a mechanistic model connecting the interaction of acetate with adipose tissue-GPCR43 with these effects. According to our model, ingestions of acetate could replace alcohol as a means of improving plasma lipid risk factors, improving glucose disposal, and reducing cardiovascular disease. Future studies should include biochemical, cell, animal, and human tests of acetate on energy metabolism.

  18. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders. PMID:27107672

  19. Intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) potentiates the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besheer, Joyce; Fisher, Kristen R; Cannady, Reginald; Grondin, Julie J M; Hodge, Clyde W

    2012-03-17

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK(1/2)) has been implicated in modulating drug seeking behavior and is a target of alcohol and other drugs of abuse. Given that the discriminative stimulus (subjective/interoceptive) effects of drugs are determinants of abuse liability and can influence drug seeking behavior, we examined the role of ERK(1/2) in modulating the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. Using drug discrimination procedures, rats were trained to discriminate a moderate intragastric (IG) alcohol dose (1g/kg) versus water (IG). Following an alcohol (1g/kg) discrimination session phosphorylated ERK(1/2) (pERK(1/2)) immunoreactivity (IR) was significantly elevated in the amygdala, but not the nucleus accumbens. Therefore, we hypothesized that intra-amygdala inhibition of ERK(1/2) would disrupt expression of the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol. However, intra-amygdala or accumbens administration of the MEK/ERK(1/2) inhibitor U0126 (1 and 3μg) had no effect on the discriminative stimulus effects of the training dose of alcohol (1g/kg). Contrary to our hypothesis, intra-amygdala infusion of U0126 (3μg) potentiated the discriminative stimulus effects of a low alcohol dose (0.5g/kg) and had no effect following nucleus accumbens infusion. Importantly, site-specific inhibition of pERK(1/2) in each brain region was confirmed. Therefore, the increase in pERK(1/2) IR in the amygdala following systemic alcohol administration may be reflective of the widespread effects of alcohol on the brain (activation/inhibition of brain circuits), whereas the site specific microinjection studies confirmed functional involvement of intra-amygdala ERK(1/2). These findings show that activity of the ERK signaling pathway in the amygdala can influence the discriminative stimulus effects of alcohol.

  20. From body burden to effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessary data to calculate the effective committed dose equivalent and the effective dose-equivalent rate from measured body burdens are presented. Both ingestion and inhalation intakes are considered, for single intake as well as for continuous exposure

  1. Neonatal Binge Alcohol Exposure Produces Dose Dependent Deficits in Interstimulus Interval Discrimination Eyeblink Conditioning in Juvenile Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kevin L.; Burman, Michael A.; Duong, Huan B.; Stanton, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in neonatal rats produces cerebellar damage and is widely used to model 3rd-trimester human fetal alcohol exposure. Neonatal “binge-like” exposure to high doses of alcohol (5 g/kg/day or more) impairs acquisition of eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC), a cerebellar-dependent Pavlovian motor learning task. We have recently found impairments in interstimulus interval (ISI) discrimination – a complex task variant of EBC - in adult rats following postnatal day (PD) 4–9 alcoh...

  2. Effects of methylmercury and alcohol exposure in Drosophila melanogaster: Potential risks in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2016-06-01

    Extensive evidence suggests the role of oxidative stress in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we investigated whether methylmercury (MeHg) and/or alcohol exposure has deleterious effects in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). A diet containing different concentrations of MeHg in Drosophila induced free radical generation and increased lipid peroxidation (markers of oxidative stress) in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of MeHg on oxidative stress was enhanced by further exposure to alcohol. It was observed that alcohol alone could also induce free radical generation in flies. After alcohol exposure, MeHg did not affect the immobilization of flies, but it increased the recovery time in a concentration-dependent manner. MeHg significantly inhibited the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in a dose-dependent manner. Linear regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between ADH activity and recovery time upon alcohol exposure in the flies fed a diet with MeHg. This relationship between ADH activity and recovery time after alcohol exposure was confirmed by adding 4-methyl pyrazole (an inhibitor of ADH) to the diet for the flies. These results suggest that consumption of alcohol by pregnant mothers who are exposed to MeHg may lead to increased oxidative stress and to increased length of time for alcohol clearance, which may have a direct impact on the development of the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27151262

  3. Suppression by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid of alcohol deprivation effect in rats: Preclinical evidence of its anti-relapse properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo eColombo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB reduces (a alcohol intake and alcohol motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats and (b alcohol drinking and craving for alcohol in human alcoholics. The present study was designed to extend to relapse-like drinking the capacity of GHB to suppress different alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring rats. The alcohol deprivation effect, defined as the temporary increase in alcohol intake occurring in laboratory animals after a period of alcohol deprivation, was used as model of alcohol relapse. Acute administration of non-sedative doses of GHB (0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, i.p. resulted in the complete suppression of the extra-amount of alcohol consumed by Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP rats during the first hour of re-access to alcohol after a 14-day period of deprivation. These data demonstrate that GHB suppressed relapse-like drinking in a rat model of excessive alcohol consumption.

  4. Health effect of low dose/low dose rate radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clarified and non-clarified scientific knowledge is discussed to consider the cause of confusion of explanation of the title subject. The low dose is defined roughly lower than 200 mGy and low dose rate, 0.05 mGy/min. The health effect is evaluated from 2 aspects of clinical symptom/radiation hazard protection. In the clinical aspect, the effect is classified in physical (early and late) and genetic ones, and is classified in stochastic (no threshold value, TV) and deterministic (with TV) ones from the radioprotection aspect. Although the absence of TV in the carcinogenic and genetic effects has not been proved, ICRP employs the stochastic standpoint from the safety aspect for radioprotection. The lowest human TV known now is 100 mGy, meaning that human deterministic effect would not be generated below this dose. Genetic deterministic effect can be observable only in animal experiments. These facts suggest that the practical risk of exposure to <100 mGy in human is the carcinogenesis. The relationship between carcinogenic risk in A-bomb survivors and their exposed dose are found fitted to the linear no TV model, but the epidemiologic data, because of restriction of subject number analyzed, do not always mean that the model is applicable even below the dose <100 mGy. This would be one of confusing causes in explanation: no carcinogenic risk at <100 mGy or risk linear to dose even at <100 mGy, neither of which is scientifically conclusive at present. Also mentioned is the scarce risk of cancer in residents living in the high background radiation regions in the world in comparison with that in the A-bomb survivors exposed to the chronic or acute low dose/dose rate. Molecular events are explained for the low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair, gene mutation and chromosome aberration, hypothesis of carcinogenesis by mutation, and non-targeting effect of radiation (bystander effect and gene instability). Further researches to elucidate the low dose

  5. Effects of low doses; Effet des faibles doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guen, B. [Electricite de France (EDF-LAM-SCAST), 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2001-07-01

    Actually, even though it is comfortable for the risk management, the hypothesis of the dose-effect relationship linearity is not confirmed for any model. In particular, in the area of low dose rate delivered by low let emitters. this hypothesis is debated at the light of recent observations, notably these ones relative to the mechanisms leading to genetic instability and induction eventuality of DNA repair. The problem of strong let emitters is still to solve. (N.C.)

  6. Combined effects of alcohol and sleep deprivation in normal young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeke, S C; Callaway, E; Jones, R T; Stone, G C; Doyle, J

    1980-01-01

    The effect of combining sleep deprivation and moderate alcohol consumption in male college students differed from the effects of each treatment alone. Following either alcohol or sleep deprivation, there was mild performance impairment, decreased alertness and reduced amplitude and increased latency of cortical evoked potential (EP) components. Heart rate increased after alcohol and anxiety increased after sleep deprivation. When alcohol and sleep deprivation were combined, antagonistic effects were found for most measures (reaction time, heart rate, alertness, anxiety, latency of early EP components), but synergistic effects also occurred (performance accuracy, latency of late EP components). These effects were found in a double-blind experiment using 24 subjects. The experimental treatments were alcohol doses of 0, 0.45 and 0.90 ml/kg of 95% ethanol and 0 and 26 h of sleep deprivation. PMID:6770408

  7. The sensitivity of laboratory tests assessing driving related skills to dose-related impairment of alcohol: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, S; Vuurman, E F P M; Ramaekers, J G; Vermeeren, A

    2016-04-01

    Laboratory tests assessing driving related skills can be useful as initial screening tools to assess potential drug induced impairment as part of a standardized behavioural assessment. Unfortunately, consensus about which laboratory tests should be included to reliably assess drug induced impairment has not yet been reached. The aim of the present review was to evaluate the sensitivity of laboratory tests to the dose dependent effects of alcohol, as a benchmark, on performance parameters. In total, 179 experimental studies were included. Results show that a cued go/no-go task and a divided attention test with primary tracking and secondary visual search were consistently sensitive to the impairing effects at medium and high blood alcohol concentrations. Driving performance assessed in a simulator was less sensitive to the effects of alcohol as compared to naturalistic, on-the-road driving. In conclusion, replicating results of several potentially useful tests and their predictive validity of actual driving impairment should deserve further research. In addition, driving simulators should be validated and compared head to head to naturalistic driving in order to increase construct validity. PMID:26802474

  8. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims - This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design - A two (sex) x two (movie: a

  9. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; D.J. Anschutz; R.B. van Baaren; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design A two (sex) × two (movie: alcoh

  10. Effects of iloperidone, combined with desipramine, on alcohol drinking in the Syrian golden hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Jibran Y; Green, Alan I

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia dramatically worsens their clinical course, and few treatment options are available. Clozapine appears to reduce alcohol use in these patients, but its toxicity limits its use. To create a safer clozapine-like drug, we tested whether the antipsychotic iloperidone, a drug that combines a weak dopamine D2 receptor blockade and a potent norepinephrine alpha-2 receptor blockade would reduce alcohol drinking, and whether its effect on alcohol drinking could be increased if combined with an agent to facilitate norepinephrine activity. Syrian golden hamsters (useful animal model for screening drugs that reduce alcohol drinking in patients with schizophrenia) were given free access to water and alcohol (15% v/v) until stable drinking was established. Animals (n = 6-7/group), matched according to alcohol intake, were treated daily with each drug (iloperidone; clozapine; haloperidol; desipramine [norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor]; with idazoxan [norepinephrine alpha-2 receptor antagonist]) or with a two-drug (iloperidone + desipramine; iloperidone + idazoxan) combination for 14 days. Moderate doses of iloperidone (1-5 mg/kg) significantly reduced alcohol drinking (p animal model, iloperidone decreases alcohol drinking as effectively as clozapine, and desipramine appears to amplify this effect. The data suggest that iloperidone, alone or in combination with desipramine, should be tested in patients with schizophrenia and alcohol use disorder. PMID:26796639

  11. Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160853.html Can Exercise Offset Alcohol's Damaging Effects? Even gardening, brisk walking may reduce your risk ...

  12. Low dose prenatal alcohol exposure does not impair spatial learning and memory in two tests in adult and aged rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie L Cullen

    Full Text Available Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol ethanol (EtOH or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult or 15 months (Aged of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance.

  13. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  14. Organ Doses and Effective Doses in Pediatric Radiography: Patient-Dose Survey in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiljunen, T.; Tietaevaeinen, A.; Parviainen, T.; Viitala, A.; Kortesniemi, M. (Radiation Practices Regulation, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    Background: Use of the effective dose in diagnostic radiology permits the radiation exposure of diverse diagnostic procedures to be quantified. Fundamental knowledge of patient doses enhances the implementation of the 'as low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA) principle. Purpose: To provide comparative information on pediatric examination protocols and patient doses in skull, sinus, chest, abdominal, and pelvic radiography examinations. Material and Methods: 24 Finnish hospitals were asked to register pediatric examination data, including patient information and examination parameters and specifications. The total number of examinations in the study was 1916 (1426 chest, 228 sinus, 96 abdominal, 94 skull, and 72 pelvic examinations). Entrance surface dose (ESD) and dose-area products (DAP) were calculated retrospectively or DAP meters were used. Organ doses and effective doses were determined using a Monte Carlo program (PCXMC). Results: There was considerable variation in examination protocols between different hospitals, indicating large variations in patient doses. Mean effective doses of different age groups ranged from 5 muSv to 14 muSv in skull and sinus examinations, from 25 muSv to 483 muSv in abdominal examinations, and from 6 muSv to 48 muSv in chest examinations. Conclusion: In chest and sinus examinations, the amount of data was extensive, allowing national pediatric diagnostic reference levels to be defined. Parameter selection in pediatric examination protocols should be harmonized in order to reduce patient doses and improve optimization

  15. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  16. The effects of acute alcohol on psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-05-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults.

  17. Decreased effective connectivity in the visuomotor system after alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtmann, Michael; Jachau, Katja; Adolf, Daniela; Baecke, Sebastian; Lützkendorf, Ralf; Müller, Charles; Tempelmann, Claus; Bernarding, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows observing cerebral activity not only in separated cortical regions but also in functionally coupled cortical networks. Although moderate doses of ethanol slowdown the neurovascular coupling, the functions of the primary sensorimotor and the visual system remain intact. Yet little is known about how more complex interactions between cortical regions are affected even at moderate doses of alcohol. Therefore the method of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was applied to analyze ethanol-induced effects on the effective connectivity in the visuomotor system. Fourteen healthy social drinkers with no personal history of neurological disorders or substance abuse were examined. In a test/re-test design they served as their own controls by participating in both the sober and the ethanol condition. All participants were scanned in a 3 T MR scanner before and after ingestion of a body-weight-dependent amount of ethanol calculated to achieve a blood alcohol concentration of 1.0‰. PPIs were calculated for the primary visual cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the left and right primary motor cortex using the statistical software package SPM. The PPI analysis showed selective disturbance of the effective connectivity between different cortical areas. The regression analysis revealed the influence of the supplementary motor area on connected regions like the primary motor cortex to be decreased yet preserved. However, the connection between the primary visual cortex and the posterior parietal cortex was more severely impaired by the influence of ethanol, leading to an uncoupled regression between these regions. The decreased effective connectivity in the visuomotor system suggests that complex tasks requiring interaction or synchronization between different brain areas are affected even at moderate levels of alcohol. This finding may have important consequences for determining which components of demanding tasks such

  18. Exploiting Redundant Measurement of Dose and Developmental Outcome: New Methods from the Behavioral Teratology of Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstein, Fred L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of new statistical procedures in a study of the enduring effects of prenatal alcohol exposure upon the neurobehavioral development of some 500 children born in 1975-76. Explains how the Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology can summarize the data powerfully while avoiding familiar inferential pitfalls. (MDM)

  19. The Effects of Alcohol Regulation on Physical Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Michael Grossman

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the established relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of measures of the ease of obtaining alcohol, illegal drug prices, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the parent on the incidence of child abuse. ...

  20. No Effects of Acute Alcohol Ingestion on Subjective Visual Horizontal Determination During Eccentric Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren; Svenson; Olsson; Ödkvist; Ledin

    1998-01-01

    Evaluating the function of the vestibular part of the inner ear comprises more than the classic analysis of the lateral semicircular canal function. In healthy subjects, positional alcohol nystagmus may be seen after acute alcohol ingestion. Posturography has shown a deteriorated equilibrium after even moderate doses of alcohol, which speculatively could be an effect of otolith disturbance or a central integrative effect. We tested the possibility of an otolith effect by using linear acceleration in the lateral direction by means of eccentric rotation, stimulating mainly the outermost ear's otolith organ. The subject is seated eccentrically in a rotatory chair facing the direction of rotation. Thus, the otolith organs are stimulated in steady-state rotation. The subject experiences a lateral tilt and, in darkness, is instructed to put a short light bar in the position thought to be that of a water surface, which is identical to the perceived tilt. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women) aged 20-29 years were tested before and approximately 1 hour after ingestion of alcohol, the amounts consumed corresponding to an approximate blood alcohol level of 0.05%, well above the maximum permissible level for driving in Sweden. No significant effects of alcohol were found. The otolith function probably is not affected by moderate alcohol intoxication levels. From this point of view, equilibrium deterioration due to alcohol ingestion in the erect position is caused by a central integrative deficit and not by an otolith effect.

  1. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  2. Effect of Citrocard on functional activity of cardiomyocyte mitochondria during chronic alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Ostrovskii, O V; Verovskii, V E; Popova, T A; Lebedeva, S A; Dib, H

    2007-03-01

    Chronic administration of 50% ethanol in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a toxic effect on functional activity of cardiomyocyte mitochondria, which manifested in decreased rates of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. Structural GABA analogue Citrocard (phenibut citrate) and reference preparation piracetam in doses of 50 and 200 mg/kg, respectively, prevented the damaging effect of alcohol, which was seen from increased indexes of oxidative phosphorylation in treated animals compared to the control group. PMID:18225758

  3. Pharmacological and Expectancy Effects of a Low Amount of Alcohol Drinking on Outcome Valuation and Risk Perception in Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Tokuda, Shinsuke; Harada, Tokiko; Takahashi, Taiki; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The high-dose, alcohol-induced influences on risk perception and loss aversion depend on sex. On the other hand, low-dose alcohol has less effect on risky behavior. However, the effect of low-dose alcohol on subjective valuation of gain or loss and also the effect of placebo (expectancy of alcohol) on risk perception have not been fully investigated. We investigated the effects of low-dose alcohol (0.02 g/100 ml blood alcohol concentration) and placebo effects on subjective risk perception and subjective valuation of uncertain gain and loss in females and males. Participants in the control group and the placebo group were served alcohol-free, wine-flavored beverage and participants of alcohol group were served wine (14% alcohol). The placebo group was not informed that the drink was not alcohol but the control group was informed. Then paper-pencil tasks for subjective risk perception and valuation of gain or loss were performed 45 min after drinking the beverage. The participants were asked to draw the line on a 180 mm scale for each question. The placebo effects as well as the low-dose alcohol effects were observed in subjective valuations of gain or loss. Except for effect of beverages, a gender difference was also observed for subjective likelihood. The females estimated a low-probability loss as more likely and estimated a high-probability gain as less likely than did the males. From the Stevens' law fitting analysis, the placebo, not alcohol, significantly induced the psychophysical effect of the subjective valuation of gain or loss. These results indicate that the psychological effects of expectancy of alcohol (placebo) could be a major factor in changing the subjective valuation of gain or loss over the pharmacological effects of a small amount of alcohol (like a glass of wine). Furthermore, these results also indicate that gender differences should be taken into account when investigating pharmacological or psychological effect on decision-making. PMID

  4. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations alcohol potentiating the duration of the cannabis effects. Effect-versus-THC concentration and effect-versus-alcohol concentration hystereses were counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively. OF/blood and OF/plasma THC significantly correlated (all Spearman r≥0.71), but variability was high. Vaporized cannabis subjective effects were similar to those previously reported after smoking, with duration extended by concurrent alcohol. Cannabis intake was identified by OF testing, but OF concentration variability limited interpretation. Blood THC concentrations were more consistent across subjects and more accurate at predicting cannabis' subjective effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26257143

  5. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  6. The Effects of Alcohol on Spiders: What Happens to Web Construction after Spiders Consume Alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Victor E.

    2006-01-01

    In the high school experiment reported in this paper, spiders were provided with 40% ethanol (ETOH) in order to determine the effects of alcohol on the web-spinning ability of orb weaver spiders. It was hypothesized that alcohol would have a deleterious effect on the number of radii, number of cells, and area of cells in the webs of orb weaving…

  7. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  8. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  9. Effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Bervoets, Adriana C; de Klerk, Suzanne; Vreman, Rick A; Olivier, Berend; Roth, Thomas; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance. METHODS: Driving performance of forty-two social drinkers was tested the morning following an evening of consuming on average 10.2 (SD = 4.2) alcoholic drinks (alcohol hango

  10. Effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C.; Bervoets, Adriana C.; de Klerk, Suzanne; Vreman, Rick A.; Olivier, Berend; Roth, Thomas; Brookhuis, Karel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol hangover on simulated highway driving performance. Methods Driving performance of forty-two social drinkers was tested the morning following an evening of consuming on average 10.2 (SD=4.2) alcoholic drinks (alcohol hangover)

  11. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton-Voak, Ian S; Cooper, Robbie M; Roberts, Rachel E; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether a stimulus face was looking towards or away from them. Gaze direction varied across trials, allowing calculation of a threshold at which participants considered gaze to switch from direct to averted. Target faces varied in both sex and attractiveness. Thirty social drinkers attended three randomized experimental sessions. At each session, participants consumed 0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg alcohol, and completed the gaze perception task. A significant three-way interaction involving target sex, participant sex and alcohol dose indicated that alcohol increased the cone of gaze for females viewing male targets (i.e. females were biased towards making a direct gaze judgement), but decreased the cone of gaze for males viewing male targets. Our data indicate that alcohol consumption influences gaze perception, but that these effects vary across sex of both stimulus and rater. These effects may have important implications for alcohol-related violence. PMID:20937615

  12. Effects of alcohol ingestion on cardiac rhythm in patients with ischaemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentala, E; Luurila, O; Salaspuro, M P

    1976-12-01

    The effect of alcohol on cardiac rhythm was examined in ten male volunteers with a history of acute myocardial infarction. ECG monitoring with a portable ECG recorder was carried out for a period of 48 hours. After a control period of 15-18 hours an exercise test was performed and repeated after a standard dose (0.5 g/kg b.wt.) of alcohol. Then the patients were allowed to drink alcohol freely for two and half hours. The third exercise test was performed on the second morning. Heart rate at rest and sitting on a bicycle was highest in the third test, during the "hangover" period (p less than 0.05). With a submaximal work load heart rate, and also the heart rate-blood pressure pressure product, were highest after a standard dose of alcohol in the second test (p less than 0.05 and less than 0.01 respectively). The number of ectopic beats showed no significant difference in repeated exercise tests. On tape recordings, however, five of the ten patients experienced changes in cardiac rhythm after alcohol. In two patients the number of ectopic beats increased, the third patient had three successive ventricular ectopic beats after alcohol ingestion and in the fourth patient multiple sinus arrests occurred. In one patient a higher heart rate after alcohol ingestion abolished the ventricular ectopic focus seen during the control period. PMID:1008479

  13. Biological Effects of Low-Dose Exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Komochkov, M M

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the two-protection reaction model an analysis of stochastic radiobiological effects of low-dose exposure of different biological objects has been carried out. The stochastic effects are the results published in the last decade: epidemiological studies of human cancer mortality, the yield of thymocyte apoptosis of mice and different types of chromosomal aberrations. The results of the analysis show that as dependent upon the nature of biological object, spontanous effect, exposure conditions and radiation type one or another form dose - effect relationship is realized: downwards concave, near to linear and upwards concave with the effect of hormesis included. This result testifies to the incomplete conformity of studied effects of 1990 ICRP recomendations based on the linear no-threshold hypothesis about dose - effect relationship. Because of this the methodology of radiation risk estimation recomended by ICRP needs more precisian and such quantity as collective dose ought to be classified into...

  14. Myths about drinking alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to. I spend a lot of time getting alcohol, drinking alcohol, or recovering from the effects of alcohol. ... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Overview of Alcohol Consumption. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  15. Caution: Alcohol Advertising and the Surgeon General's Alcohol Warnings May Have Adverse Effects on Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Deborah J.; Snyder, Leslie B.

    A study investigated the effects of the newly introduced Surgeon General's alcohol warnings and advertisements on college students. One hundred fifty-nine undergraduates in communication sciences at the University of Connecticut viewed slides of alcohol products, with or without advertisements and warnings. Following the viewings, subjects filled…

  16. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of changes in alcohol taxation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda;

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a public health problem in many countries including Denmark, where 6% of the burden of disease is due to alcohol consumption, according to the new estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Pricing policies, including tax increases, have been shown to...... to effectively decrease the level of alcohol consumption.......Excessive alcohol consumption is a public health problem in many countries including Denmark, where 6% of the burden of disease is due to alcohol consumption, according to the new estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Pricing policies, including tax increases, have been shown...

  18. Alcohol abuse: medical effects of heavy drinking in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambert, S R

    1997-06-01

    As many as 15% of community-dwelling older persons are heavy drinkers, but their alcoholism is often hidden from their physicians. Depression, loneliness, and lack of social support are the most frequently cited antecedents to drinking for older alcoholics. Clinically, the same amount of alcohol once consumed with impunity may cause clinical symptoms in late life. Physiologic changes in volume of distribution make older patients susceptible to acute alcohol toxicity, with its CNS effects and metabolic disturbances. Liver disease, nutritional deficiencies, and impotence are consequences of chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:9194788

  19. Nutrition and Alcoholic Liver Disease: Effects of Alcoholism on Nutrition, Effects of Nutrition on Alcoholic Liver Disease, and Nutritional Therapies for Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2016-08-01

    Malnutrition is the most frequent and nearly universal consequence in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that adversely affects clinical outcomes. Sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss is the major component of malnutrition in liver disease. There are no effective therapies to prevent or reverse sarcopenia in ALD because the mechanisms are not well understood. Consequences of liver disease including hyperammonemia, hormonal perturbations, endotoxemia and cytokine abnormalities as well as the direct effects of alcohol and its metabolites contribute to sarcopenia in ALD. This article focuses on the prevalence, methods to quantify malnutrition, specifically sarcopenia and potential therapies including novel molecular targeted treatments. PMID:27373615

  20. Effective dose from chest tomosynthesis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomosynthesis (digital tomography) is a recently introduced low-dose alternative to CT in the evaluation of the lungs in patients with cystic fibrosis and pulmonary nodules. Previous studies have reported an adult effective dose of 0.12-0.13 mSv for chest tomosynthesis. The aim of this study was to determine the paediatric effective dose from the dose-area-product. During a 3-y period, 38 children with cystic fibrosis and 36 paediatric oncology patients were examined with chest tomosynthesis, totally 169 posteroanterior and 17 anteroposterior examinations (40 boys and 34 girls, mean age 13.7 y, range 7-20 y). Using recently reported paediatric chest tomosynthesis conversion factors (0.23-1.09 mSv Gy cm-2) corrected for sex, age and energy, the mean posteroanterior effective dose calculated was 0.17 mSv; using the proposed simplified conversion factors of 0.6 (8-10 y), 0.4 (11-14 y) and 0.3 mSv Gy cm-2 (15-19 y), the mean posteroanterior effective dose calculated was 0.15 mSv. As the difference in the calculated effective dose was minor, it is recommendable to use the simplified conversion factors. Using the conversion factor for adult chest tomosynthesis (0.26 mSv Gy cm-2), the mean effective dose was 0.11 mSv. Anteroposterior exposures had considerably higher effective dose. By using conversion factors adapted for children, the calculated risks from radiologic procedures will be more accurate. (authors)

  1. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Renske eKoordeman; Doeschka J. eAnschutz; Rutger C. M. E. eEngels

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers...

  2. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers ...

  3. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to

  4. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  5. Effective dose: a radiation protection quantity

    CERN Document Server

    Menzel, H G

    2012-01-01

    Modern radiation protection is based on the principles of justification, limitation, and optimisation. Assessment of radiation risks for individuals or groups of individuals is, however, not a primary objective of radiological protection. The implementation of the principles of limitation and optimisation requires an appropriate quantification of radiation exposure. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has introduced effective dose as the principal radiological protection quantity to be used for setting and controlling dose limits for stochastic effects in the regulatory context, and for the practical implementation of the optimisation principle. Effective dose is the tissue weighted sum of radiation weighted organ and tissue doses of a reference person from exposure to external irradiations and internal emitters. The specific normalised values of tissue weighting factors are defined by ICRP for individual tissues, and used as an approximate age- and sex-averaged representation of th...

  6. Effect of age and sex on warfarin dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoury G

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ghada Khoury,1 Marwan Sheikh-Taha2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon Objective: We examined the potential effect of sex and age on warfarin dosing in ambulatory adult patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients attending an anticoagulation clinic. We included patients anticoagulated with warfarin for atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism who had a therapeutic international normalized ratio of 2–3 for 2 consecutive months. We excluded patients who had been on any drug that is known to have a major interaction with warfarin, smokers, and heavy alcohol consumers. Out of 340 screened medical records, 96 met the predetermined inclusion criteria. The primary outcome assessed was warfarin total weekly dose (TWD. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the TWD among the ages (P<0.01; older patients required lower doses. However there was no statistically significant difference in the TWD between sexes (P=0.281. Conclusion: Age was found to have a significant effect on warfarin dosing. Even though women did require a lower TWD than men, this observation was not statistically significant. Keywords: warfarin, INR, anticoagulation, vitamin K antagonists, age

  7. The effect of acute alcohol on motor-related EEG asymmetries during preparation of approach or avoid alcohol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korucuoglu, Ozlem; Gladwin, Thomas E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-approach tendencies have been associated with heavy drinking and play a role in the transition to alcohol abuse. Such cognitive biases might predict future alcohol use better under a low dose of alcohol. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate both the magnitude and the predictive power of alcohol-induced changes on approach-avoidance bias and bias-related cortical asymmetries during response preparation across heavy and light drinking adolescents. In heavy drinking adolescents greater approach-related asymmetry index in the beta-band was observed for soft-drink cues compared to alcohol ones and this increase was associated with increase in difficulty to regulate alcohol intake. Earlier findings demonstrated that young heavy drinkers hold both positive and negative implicit alcohol associations, reflecting an ambiguity towards alcohol. The increase in approach related beta-lateralization for soft-drink cues measured in this study may represent a compensatory effort for the weaker S-R mapping (approaching soft drink). The MRAA findings in this study may highlight a mechanism related to overcompensation due to ambivalent attitudes towards drinking in our heavy drinking sample who had greater problems to limit their alcohol intake compared to light drinkers. Moreover, a relatively strong approach soft-drink and weak approach alcohol reaction-time bias after alcohol predicted decreasing drinking; suggesting that the capacity to control the bias under alcohol could be a protective factor. PMID:26762699

  8. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance.

  9. Effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosa damascena on cardiovascular responses in normotensive rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naser Shafei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rosa damascena mill L. (R. damascena is a well-known plant with fragrant effects. Several therapeutic effects of this plant on respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems have been reported. It is also suggested to have beneficial effect on cardiovascular system especially blood pressure regulation. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute cardiovascular effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n= 8 for each group. After anesthesia, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and blood pressure and heart rate (HR were continuously recorded by a power lab system. Animals received three doses of hydro-alcoholic extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg via peritoneal (i.p. After 30 min, systolic blood pressure (SBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP and HR were recorded and maximal changes were compared to control group. Results: Injection of all doses of the extract did not significantly change HR compare to control group. The SBP, dose dependently, was decreased by all doses of the extract and the maximal response was significant compared to saline group (p Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a hypotensive effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena with no significant effect on HR. Therefore, R. damascena is suggested to have beneficial effect to control blood pressure. However, it needs to be more investigated.

  10. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    AYGEN, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of hypertension and lowering blood pressure with non-pharmacological treatment and lifestyle changes may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol while they also play an important role in reducing the cost of medical treatment. Reduction of alcohol consumption is one of the recommended lifestyle changes in the JNC VII report. Excessive amounts of alcohol consumption leads to an increase in blood pressure in both normotensive and hypertensive individuals...

  11. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a

  12. Dose-related analgesic effects of flupirtine.

    OpenAIRE

    Hummel, T; Friedmann, T; Pauli, E.; Niebch, G.; Borbe, H. O.; Kobal, G

    1991-01-01

    1. Flupirtine is a novel and, in all probability, centrally acting, analgesic. The present investigation was conducted in order to investigate dose-related effects of perorally administered flupirtine in man, with special regard to specifically analgesic actions, employing a model based on pain-related chemosomatosensory evoked potentials and subjective intensity estimates of painful stimuli. 2. Plasma concentrations of flupirtine measured 2 h after dosing linearly increased as a function of ...

  13. Alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.; Tol, A. van

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects overall mortality. Light to moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; epidemiological, physiological and genetic data show a causal relationship. Light to moderate drinking is also associated with a reduced risk of other vascular diseases an

  14. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Date reviewed: January 2014 previous 1 • 2 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Word! Alcoholism What You Need to Know About Drugs What You Need to Know About Drugs: Depressants What Kids Say About: Drinking Alcohol Dealing With Peer Pressure Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  15. EFFECT OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN PREGNANCY ON PUP QUALITY, EXPLORATORY BEHAVIOUR, MEMORY RETENTION IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitha K.V

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to alcohol can affect both prenatal and postnatal neurogenesis in the developing brain and impair brain function in their early life. Aim: Our study was aimed to assess the effect of prenatal alcoholic exposure on memory retention and exploratory behavior in young adult rats. We also studied the effect of maternal alcohol intake on pup quality, mortality rate and post natal weight gain of the pups during their weaning period. Methods: Female rats were divided into control and alcohol fed group. Rats in alcoholic group were orally fed (force feeding with 30% alcohol at a dose of 5g/kg /day. Treatment was started 14 days before mating, continued throughout their gestation period and weaning period. Control group was administrated with equivalent volume of water. Offspring from each group were divided into male and female group. Birth weight, crown-rump length, litter size were taken from the day of delivery, whereas cognitive function test were done from 75th day of post natal life. Statistics: Data obtained from the tests were analyzed by applying independent T test. Results: Single dose of 5g/kg/day maternal ethanol treatment decreased the memory retention (p=0.003, decreased the weight gain during weaning period (p=0.000, increased the locomotor activities (p=0.05 and increased the mortality rate of pups during weaning period. No significant change was observed in the pup quality between control mother and alcoholic mother. Conclusion: The present study showed that maternal alcohol consumption could affect mortality rate of the pups and their post natal weight gain during weaning period. It also affects their cognitive behaviour and locomotor activities in their later life.

  16. The Alcohol Warning and Adolescents: 5-Year Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, David P.; Nohre, Liva; Pentz, Mary Ann; Stacy, Alan W.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the effect of alcohol warning labels on adolescents during the first 5 years that the warning was required. Surveys of 10th and 12th grade students over 5 years indicated that the initial positive effects of the labels on adolescents leveled off after 3.5 years. The labels have not affected adolescents' beliefs about alcohol or…

  17. Effect of Alcohol Administration on Blood Sugar of Normal and Alcohol Habituated Rates during Acute Cold Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Srivastava

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoregulatory failure of alcohol administered fasted rates has been studied under acute cold stress. Twentyfour hour fasted rates developed acute hypoglycemia on being given a single oral dose of ethanol (1.3g/kg body weight during a two hour exposure at -20 degree calcius. Alcohol habituated rates, under similar conditions, more or less maintained their blood sugar concentration.

  18. The Effects of Prices on Alcohol Use and its Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin; Frank J. Chaloupka

    2011-01-01

    Over the past three decades, economists and others have devoted considerable effort to assessing the impact of alcoholic-beverage taxes and prices on alcohol consumption and its related adverse consequences. Federal and State excise taxes have increased only rarely and, when adjusted for inflation, have declined significantly over the years, as have overall prices for alcoholic beverages. Yet studies examining the effects of increases of monetary prices (e.g., through raising taxes) on alcoho...

  19. Therapeutic effects of low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This editorial explores the scientific basis of radiotherapy with doses of < 1 Gy for various non-malignant conditions, in particular dose-effect relationships, risk-benefit considerations and biological mechanisms. A review of the literature, particularly clinical and experimental reports published more than 50 years ago was conducted to clarify the following problems. 1. The dose-response relationships for the therapeutic effects on three groups of conditions: non-malignant skin disease, arthrosis and other painful degenerative joint disorders and anti-inflammatory radiotherapy; 2. risks after radiotherapy and after the best alternative treatments; 3. the biological mechanisms of the different therapeutic effects. Radiotherapy is very effective in all three groups of disease. Few dose-finding studies have been performed, all demonstrating that the optimal doses are considerable lower than the generally recommended doses, yet few of these studies meet the required standard. In different conditions, risk-benefit analysis of radiotherapy versus the best alternative treatment yields very different results: whereas radiotherapy for acute postpartum mastitis may not be justified any more, the risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy of other conditions and particularly so in dermatology and some anti-inflammatory radiotherapy appears to be more favourable than the risk-benefit ratio of the best alternative treatments. Radiotherapy can be very effective treatment for various non-malignant conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, periarthritis humeroscapularis, epicondylitis, knee arthrosis, hydradenitis, parotitis and panaritium and probably be associated with less acute and long-term side effects than similarly effective other treatments. Randomized clinical studies are required to find the optimal dosage which, at present, may be unnecessarily high. Since no adequate experimental studies have been performed nothing is known about the mechanisms of these therapeutic radiation

  20. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Olson

    Full Text Available Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  1. Therapeutic effects of low radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, K.R. (Dept. of Radiation Biology, St. Bartholomew' s Medical College, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    This editorial explores the scientific basis of radiotherapy with doses of < 1 Gy for various non-malignant conditions, in particular dose-effect relationships, risk-benefit considerations and biological mechanisms. A review of the literature, particularly clinical and experimental reports published more than 50 years ago was conducted to clarify the following problems. 1. The dose-response relationships for the therapeutic effects on three groups of conditions: non-malignant skin disease, arthrosis and other painful degenerative joint disorders and anti-inflammatory radiotherapy; 2. risks after radiotherapy and after the best alternative treatments; 3. the biological mechanisms of the different therapeutic effects. Radiotherapy is very effective in all three groups of disease. Few dose-finding studies have been performed, all demonstrating that the optimal doses are considerable lower than the generally recommended doses. In different conditions, risk-benefit analysis of radiotherapy versus the best alternative treatment yields very different results: whereas radiotherapy for acute postpartum mastitis may not be justified any more, the risk-benefit ratio of radiotherapy of other conditions and particularly so in dermatology and some anti-inflammatory radiotherapy appears to be more favourable than the risk-benefit ratio of the best alternative treatments. Radiotherapy can be very effective treatment for various non-malignant conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, periarthritis humeroscapularis, epicondylitis, knee arthrosis, hydradenitis, parotitis and panaritium and probably be associated with less acute and long-term side effects than similarly effective other treatments. Randomized clinical studies are required to find the optimal dosage which, at present, may be unnecessarily high.

  2. Alcohol and its effects on sprint and middle distance running.

    OpenAIRE

    McNaughton, L; D. Preece

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol has been used as an aid to performance for a considerable period of time in many athletic endeavours. Five sprinters and five middle distance athletes were tested to determine whether differing levels of alcohol (0.01 mg X ml-1, 0.05 mg X ml-1 and 0.10 mg X ml-1) had differing effects upon performance times in the 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1500 m events. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was estimated from breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) using a hand held Drager Alcotest 7310...

  3. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clugston, Robin D.; Blaner, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered. PMID:22690322

  4. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Blaner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A, as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.

  5. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Muscle Soreness and Inflammation During Recovery From Strenuous Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yen Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although parties or get-togethers with alcoholic beverages after sporting competitions are popular, studies on the effects of alcohol ingestion after strenuous exercise on muscle damage and inflammation in non-drinkers’ are few and ambiguous. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol ingestion during recovery from an acute bout of exercise on muscle soreness and inflammatory markers in regular exercisers who do not regularly consume alcohol. Male participants (n = 15 completed two bouts of exercise on a rowing ergometer for 2000 m in a randomized fashion. All participants ingested 5 mL of alcoholic (AL or placebo (PL beverage per kg of body weight within 10 min post-exercise. Blood samples for blood alcohol, creatine kinase (CK, C-reactive protein (CRP, and interleukin (IL-6 concentrations were collected pre-exercise (T0, and at 1 (T1, 3 (T2, and 24 h (T3 post-ingestion. Self-reported muscle soreness was assessed at the same time points. Lactate levels were measured before exercise and within 1 h post-exercise. Muscle soreness was significantly lower in the AL than the PL trials at T3 (p < 0.05. Although CK, IL-6 and CRP levels were significantly higher during recovery than before exercising, there was no significant difference between the AL and PL trials. In addition, no significant difference in lactate concentrations between the two trials was evident in the 1 h after exercise. For regular exercisers, the alcoholic beverage ingested did not increase CK, IL-6, or CRP compared to their placebo trial, despite attenuated muscle soreness. Comparisons between drinkers and non-drinkers of high fitness ingesting permissible alcohol doses should be performed in the future.  Keywords: alcohol, inflammation, strenuous exercise, muscle damage

  6. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  7. Effects of a Natural Community Intervention Intensifying Alcohol Law Enforcement Combined With a Restrictive Alcohol Policy on Adolescent Alcohol Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelleman-Offermans, K.; Knibbe, R.A.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Casswell, S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Determining whether intensified inspections on alcohol retailers, combined with a policy withdrawing liquor licenses if retailers are fined twice per annum, is effective in reducing adolescents' odds to initiate weekly drinking and drunkenness. Causal pathways by which the intervention was a

  8. Social anxiety and alcohol use: evaluation of the moderating and mediating effects of alcohol expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade Eggleston, A; Woolaway-Bickel, Kelly; Schmidt, Norman B

    2004-01-01

    Previous work suggests that social anxiety is inconsistently related to alcohol use. To further explore this relationship, alcohol outcome expectancies were evaluated as potential moderator and mediators in a large sample (N=284) of college undergraduates. The expectancy variables included positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies as well as expectancies specific to social facilitation. Consistent with a self-presentation model of shyness, social anxiety was related to decreased drinking. Interestingly, social anxiety was associated with increased positive as well as increased negative expectancies. There was not support for moderator or mediator effects. Consistent with prior work, social facilitation expectancies appear to operate as a suppressor variable in the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use.

  9. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  10. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. METHODS: The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and moti

  11. Effects of Alcohol on a Fetus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder, and alcohol-related birth defects. In the United States, about 130,000 pregnant women each year drink at levels shown to increase the risk of having a child with an FASD. 3 Each year, as many ...

  12. Effects of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategies to Reduce or Prevent Drunk Driving Increasing Alcohol Ignition Interlock Use State Data & Maps Publications Distracted Driving Pedestrian Safety Tribal Road Safety Get the Facts Roadway to Safer Tribal Communities Toolkit Motorcycle Safety Bicycle ... Tweet Share Compartir ...

  13. Psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant administered in combination with alcohol in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Yee, Ka Lai; Gill, Sean; Liu, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Panebianco, Deborah; Mangin, Eric; Morrison, Dennis; McCrea, Jacqueline; Wagner, John A; Troyer, Matthew D

    2015-11-01

    A double-blind crossover study investigated psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant with and without alcohol. Healthy adults (n=31) were randomized to receive placebo or suvorexant (40 mg) plus placebo solution or alcohol (0.7 g/kg) in each of four treatments (single doses; morning administration). The US Food and Drug Administration approved suvorexant dose is 10 mg (up to 20 mg) daily. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed using tests of digit vigilance (DVT; primary endpoint), choice reaction time, digit symbol substitution, numeric working memory, immediate/delayed word recall, body sway and subjective alertness. Suvorexant alone did not significantly affect DVT reaction time, but did impact some pharmacodynamic tests. Suvorexant with alcohol increased reaction time versus either alone (mean difference at 2 h: 44 ms versus suvorexant, p<0.001; 24 ms, versus alcohol, p<0.05) and had additive negative effects on tests of vigilance, working/episodic memory, postural stability and alertness. No effects of suvorexant alone or with alcohol were observed by 9 h. No important changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were observed upon co-administration. All treatments were generally well tolerated without serious adverse events. In conclusion, co-administration of 40 mg suvorexant and 0.7 g/kg alcohol had additive negative psychomotor effects. Patients are advised not to consume alcohol with suvorexant. PMID:26464455

  14. The Protective Effects of Buzui on Acute Alcoholism in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Da-Chao; Gao, Shu-di; Hu, Xiao-yu; Yi, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of a traditional buzui recipe in anti-inebriation treatment. Buzui consists of Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis, Fructus Chebulae, Fructus Mume, Fructus Crataegi, Endothelium Corneum Gigeriae Galli, and Excrementum Bombycis. The buzui mixture was delivered by gavage, and ethanol was delivered subsequent to the final treatment. The effects of buzui on the righting reflex, inebriation rates, and the survival curve are depicted. Blood alcohol concentrations, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were recorded. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), as well as malonaldehyde (MDA) levels, were also measured. Our results demonstrated that a traditional buzui recipe showed significant effects on promoting wakefulness and the prevention of acute alcohol intoxication, accelerating the metabolism of alcohol in the liver and reducing the oxidative damage caused by acute alcoholism. PMID:26884793

  15. Dose-effect relationship in radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1983-01-01

    As criterion for the evaluation of risk in connection with nuclear accidents the diminishing of life expectance is assumed. This would allow a better weighting of the different detriments. The possible dose-effect relations for the different detriments caused by radiation are discussed. Some models for a realistic evaluation of the different radiation detriments are proposed.

  16. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use ...

  17. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  18. Stimulating effects of low doses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different ionizing radiations cause biochemical and biophysical changes in the cells of the genotypes according to the application of the doses applied to different organs of the plants, and the manner of their application (acute, chronic, or acute and chronic). The sensitivity of different genotypes, and their tissues, depends on the stage at which their tissues were irradiated as well as on the environmental conditions under which the irradiation was made. Relatively strong doses usually cause some genetic changes in the somatic and generative cells. Small doses can, in some genotypes, stimulate the growth of some tissues to some extent. The stimulating effect on the growth of seedlings of the M2 generation, developed from acute seed irradiation of some genotypes of wheat, barley, and inbred lines of maize and their hybrids is described here. 3 refs, 5 tabs

  19. 49 CFR 40.273 - What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? 40... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.273 What is the effect of a cancelled alcohol test? (a) A cancelled alcohol test is neither positive nor negative. (1)...

  20. Protective Effects of Oyster Extract Against Hepatic Tissue Injury in Alcoholic Liver Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cuiping; LI Xiaoyu; JING Xue; ZHANG Bo; ZHANG Qi; NIU Qinghui; WANG Jianjun; TIAN Zibin

    2014-01-01

    Oyster extract is an effective bioactivity component. It has abundant nutritional value and antiviral, antitumor and im-mune defense functions. The role of oyster extract in treating liver injury has been paid more attention. We use Wistar rats to make alcoholic liver disease model through injecting alcohol into rats’ stomachs. These rats were randomly divided into five groups:model group, control group, low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose experimental group with a dose of 0.12 g kg-1, 0.40 g kg-1, and 1.20 g kg-1 alcoholic. After nine weeks, serum biomarkers (ALT, AST, TG and TCHO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), C3a, C5a, IL-17, TNF-ɑ, anti-MAA-HAS IgG, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, NK cell activation and zinc content were assessed. The results showed that the serum biomarkers(ALT, AST, TG and TCHO), MDA content, anti-MAA-HSA IgG, serum C3a, C5a IL-17 and TNF-ɑlevels of oyster extract treatment groups were significantly decreased in comparison with model group. On the contrary, GSH showed ad-verse trend. Serum CD3+, CD4+ and NK cell activation were significantly increased in middle-dose group and high-dose group compared with model group, and there was decrease of CD8+activity in high-dose group. Plasma Zn level was decreased in model group compared with that in control group. Meanwhile, Mean plasma Zn levels increased dramatically following the dose increase of a given oyster extract.

  1. The effect of alcohol hangover on choice response time

    OpenAIRE

    Grange, JA; Stephens, R.; Jones, K; Owen, L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alcohol hangover on cognitive processing has received little attention. We explored the effect of alcohol hangover on choice response time (RT), a dominant dependent variable (DV) in cognitive research. Prior research of the effect of hangover on RT has produced mixed findings; all studies reviewed relied exclusively on estimates of central tendency (e.g. mean RT), which has limited information value. Here we present novel analytical methods by going beyond mean RT analysis. Spe...

  2. Effectiveness of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention: changes in alcohol use of adolescents after 1 and 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, S.C.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Bos-Oude Groeniger, I.; Izeboud, C.; Rover, de C.; Veer, van 't P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Underage alcohol drinking is a severe public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention on alcohol use of adolescents in the second and fourth grade of high school. Methods: The community interven

  3. Effects of alcohol on human carboxylesterase drug metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert B.; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Meibohm, Bernd; Laizure, S. Casey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Human carboxylesterase-1 (CES1) and human carboxylesterase-2 (CES2) play an important role in metabolizing many medications. Alcohol is a known inhibitor of these enzymes but the relative effect on CES1 and CES2 is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of alcohol on the metabolism of specific probes for CES1 (oseltamivir) and CES2 (aspirin). Methods The effect of alcohol on CES1- and CES2-mediated probe drug hydrolysis was determined in vitro using recombinant human carboxylesterase. To characterize the in vivo effects of alcohol, healthy volunteers received each probe drug alone and in combination with alcohol followed by blood sample collection and determination of oseltamivir, aspirin, and respective metabolite pharmacokinetics. Results Alcohol significantly inhibited oseltamivir hydrolysis by CES1 in vitro but did not affect aspirin metabolism by CES2. Alcohol increased the oseltamivir area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0-6 h by 27% (range 11-46%, p=0.011) and decreased the metabolite/oseltamivir AUC 0-6 h ratio by 34% (range 25-41%, p<0.001). Aspirin pharmacokinetics were not affected by alcohol. Conclusions Alcohol significantly inhibited the hydrolysis of oseltamivir by CES1 both in vitro and in humans, but did not affect the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid by CES2. These results suggest that alcohol's inhibition of CES1 could potentially result in clinically significant drug interactions with other CES1-substrate drugs, but it is unlikely to significantly affect CES2-substrate drug hydrolysis. PMID:25511794

  4. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescent alcohol use and the mediating effect of adolescent alcohol-related cognitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Previous research indicated that alcohol-specific parenting is an important precursor of adolescent alcohol use, but failed to define the underlying mechanism. Based on social cognitive theory, alcohol-related cognitions such as alcohol refusal self-efficacy and alcohol-related expectan

  5. Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several groups of human have been irradiated by accidental or medical exposure, if no gene defect has been associated to these exposures, some radioinduced cancers interesting several organs are observed among persons exposed over 100 to 200 mSv delivered at high dose rate. Numerous steps are now identified between the initial energy deposit in tissue and the aberrations of cell that lead to tumors but the sequence of events and the specific character of some of them are the subject of controversy. The stake of this controversy is the risk assessment. From the hypothesis called linear relationship without threshold is developed an approach that leads to predict cancers at any tiny dose without real scientific foundation. The nature and the intensity of biological effects depend on the quantity of energy absorbed in tissue and the modality of its distribution in space and time. The probability to reach a target (a gene) associated to the cancerating of tissue is directly proportional to the dose without any other threshold than the quantity of energy necessary to the effect, its probability of effect can be a more complex function and depends on the quality of the damage produced as well as the ability of the cell to repair the damage. These two parameters are influenced by the concentration of initial injuries in the target so by the quality of radiation and by the dose rate. The mechanisms of defence explain the low efficiency of radiation as carcinogen and then the linearity of effects in the area of low doses is certainly the least defensible scientific hypothesis for the prediction of the risks. (N.C.)

  6. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontitis in older Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hach, M; Holm-Pedersen, P; Adegboye, A R A;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis at 20 years follow-up and to investigate whether long-term alcohol consumption is related to periodontitis in old age. DESIGN: Participants aged 65 years or older in 2003, from...... the longitudinal study Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), were invited to participate in the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Study. METHODS: Clinical periodontal attachment loss was calculated to determine the progress of periodontitis. Alcohol consumption was measured at CCHS follow-ups in 1981-1983, 1991...... alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis and to assess the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on periodontitis. RESULTS: The results show that heavy drinkers in 1981-1983 had a higher odds ratio for having periodontitis compared to light drinkers (OR = 4.64 95% CI...

  7. Long-term, high-dose benzodiazepine prescriptions in veteran patients with PTSD: influence of preexisting alcoholism and drug-abuse diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermos, John A; Young, Melissa M; Lawler, Elizabeth V; Rosenbloom, David; Fiore, Louis D

    2007-10-01

    Databases from the New England Veterans Integrated Service Network were analyzed to determine factors associated with long-term, high-dose anxiolytic benzodiazepine prescriptions dispensed to patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and existing alcoholism and/or drug abuse diagnoses. Among 2,183 PTSD patients, 234 received the highest 10% average daily doses for alprazolam, clonazepam, diazepam, or lorazepam, doses above those typically recommended. Highest doses were more commonly prescribed to patients with existing drug abuse diagnoses. Among patients with PTSD and alcoholism, younger age, drug abuse, and concurrent prescriptions for another benzodiazepine and oxycodone/acetaminophen independently predicted high doses. Results indicate that for veteran patients with PTSD, alcoholism alone is not associated with high-dose benzodiazepines, but existing drug abuse diagnoses do increase that risk.

  8. Testing the individual effective dose hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hung T; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-04-01

    The assumption of the individual effective dose is the basis for the probit method used for analyzing dose or concentration-response data. According to this assumption, each individual has a uniquely innate tolerance expressed as the individual effective dose (IED) or the smallest dose that is sufficient to kill the individual. An alternative to IED, stochasticity suggests that individuals do not have uniquely innate tolerance; deaths result from random processes occurring among similar individuals. Although the probit method has been used extensively in toxicology, the underlying assumption has not been tested rigorously. The goal of the present study was to test which assumption, IED or stochasticity, best explained the response of Daphnia magna exposed to multiple pulses of copper sulfate (CuSO4 ) over 24 d. Daphnia magna were exposed to subsequent age-dependent 24-h median lethal concentrations (LC50s) of copper (Cu). Age-dependent 24-h LC50 values and Cu depuration test were determined prior to the 24-d bioassay. The LC50 values were inversely related to organism age. The Cu depuration of D. magna did not depend on age or Cu concentration, and 5 d was sufficient recovery time. Daphnia magna were exposed to 4 24-h Cu exposures, and surviving organisms after each exposure were transferred to Cu-free culture media for recovery before the next exposure. Stochasticity appropriately explained the survival and reproduction response of D. magna exposed to Cu. PMID:24318469

  9. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  10. Dose and Dose-Rate Effectiveness Factor (DDREF); Der Dosis- und Dosisleistungs-Effektivitaetsfaktor (DDREF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckow, Joachim [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2016-08-01

    For practical radiation protection purposes it is supposed that stochastic radiation effects a determined by a proportional dose relation (LNT). Radiobiological and radiation epidemiological studies indicated that in the low dose range a dependence on dose rates might exist. This would trigger an overestimation of radiation risks based on the LNT model. OCRP had recommended a concept to combine all effects in a single factor DDREF (dose and dose-Rate effectiveness factor). There is still too low information on cellular mechanisms of low dose irradiation including possible repair and other processes. The Strahlenschutzkommission cannot identify a sufficient scientific justification for DDREF and recommends an adaption to the actual state of science.

  11. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements

    OpenAIRE

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertis...

  12. Covert effects of "one drink" of alcohol on brain processes related to car driving: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebe, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2015-04-23

    The effects of a low dose of alcohol on car driving remain controversial. To address this issue, event-related potentials were recorded while subjects performed a simple car-following task in a driving simulator before and after consuming either "one drink" of beer (representing one standard alcoholic beverage containing 14 g of alcohol) or mineral water (control condition). Subjects who had consumed the determined amount of alcohol demonstrated no detectable outward behavioral signs of intoxication while performing the driving task, an observation in agreement with previous findings. However, the parietal P3 elicited by the brake lights of the preceding car was significantly reduced in amplitude, approximately 50% that observed under the control condition, likely indicating alteration of the neural processing of visual information critical for safe driving. The finding suggests that alcohol begins to affect neural processes for driving even at quantities too low to modify behavior.

  13. Biologically effective doses of postoperative radiotherapy in the prevention of keloids. Dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the recurrence rates of keloids after surgical excision followed by radiotherapy, and to answer the question whether after normalization of the dose, a dose-effect relationship could be derived. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed to identify studies dealing with the efficacy of various irradiation regimes for the prevention of keloids after surgery. Biologically effective doses (BEDs) of the various irradiation regimens were calculated using the linear-quadratic concept. A distinction between recurrence rates of keloids in the face and neck region and those in other parts of the body was made. Results: 31 reports were identified with PubMed with the search terms keloids, surgery, radiation therapy, radiotherapy. 13 reports were excluded, because no link could be found between recurrence rate and dose, or if less than ten patients per dose group. The recurrence rate for surgery only was 50-80%. For BED values >10 Gy the recurrence rate decreased as a function of BED. For BED values >30 Gy the recurrence rate was <10%. For a given dose, the recurrence rates of keloids in the sites with high stretch tension were not significantly higher than in sites without stretch tension. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that for effectively treating keloids postoperatively, a relatively high dose must be applied in a short overall treatment time. The optimal treatment probably is an irradiation scheme resulting in a BED value of at least 30 Gy. A BED value of 30 Gy can be obtained with, for instance, a single acute dose of 13 Gy, two fractions of 8 Gy two fractions of 8 Gy or three fractions of 6 Gy, or a single dose of 27 Gy at low dose rate. The radiation treatment should be administered within 2 days after surgery. (orig.)

  14. A PC-based software test for measuring alcohol and drug effects in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, K C; Parkman, K M; Spruill, S E

    1996-12-01

    A new software-based visual search and divided-attention test of cognitive performance was developed and evaluated in an alcohol dose-response study with 24 human subjects aged 21-62 years. The test used language-free, color, graphic displays to represent the visuospatial demands of driving. Cognitive demands were increased over previous hardware-based tests, and the motor skills required for the test involved minimal eye movements and eye-hand coordination. Repeated performance on the test was evaluated with a latin-square design by using a placebo and two alcohol doses, low (0.48 g/kg/LBM) and moderate (0.72 g/kg/LBM). The data on 7 females and 17 males yielded significant falling and rising impairment effects coincident with moderate rising and falling breath alcohol levels (mean peak BrALs = 0.045 g/dl and 0.079 g/dl). None of the subjects reported eye-strain or psychomotor fatigue as compared with previous tests. The high sensitivity/variance relative to use in basic and applied research, and worksite fitness-for-duty testing, was discussed. The most distinct advantage of a software-based test that operates on readily available PCs is that it can be widely distributed to researchers with a common reference to compare a variety of alcohol and drug effects. PMID:8986207

  15. Social determinants of alcohol and marijuana effects: a systematic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, J D

    1975-01-01

    Based on the sociological perspective on recreational drug effects, three social determinants are propositionally related to the normal effects of alcohol and marijuana. Effects vary across drugs, users, and situations along an experimental-behavioral dimension termed "effect-orientation." The content of normative expectations toward effects and the interactional characteristics of drug-using situations are conceptualized as direct determinants of effect-orientations. The relative clarity of normative expectations indirectly influences effect-orientations through its relationship to the other two social determinants. The theory stresses the importance of comparative research on the normal uses of alcohol and marijuana.

  16. Effective dose to radon considering people's activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tidal volume was estimated for evaluating the effective dose due to radon concentration in the atmosphere. In this study regional population was separated to vocation and non-vocation. The occupancy time and the breathing rate for both vocation and non-vocation groups were estimated, and the annual tidal volume for both groups were calculated. Human actions were separated to 18 activities in the process for estimating the breathing rate. It was clear that the breathing rate depended on human activity and that the human activity changed with its age, so the breathing rate varied with age. Finally the effective doses due to radon and radon progeny indoors and outdoors were evaluated. The maximum annual effective dose was estimated to be 1.2 mSv, minimum 0.2 mSv, and mean 0.51 mSv for vocation. For non-vocation, the male maximum value 0.43 mSv was obtained at the 16 age and the minimum 0.12 mSv at the 70 age, whereas female maximum 0.26 mSv was obtained at the 12 age and the minimum 0.11 mSv at the 70 age. In addition in this study objective areas are Aichi, Gifu, and Mie prefectures for vocation and only Aichi prefecture for non-vocation. (author)

  17. Does Alcohol Advertising Effect Young People’s Alcohol Consumption? – A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Clift, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the claim that alcohol advertising has an effect on young people’s levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Studies were identified using a systematic search from September 2010 to December 2011. Wiley Interscience, Science Direct, Pubmed, Ovid Online and Google scholar were used to search studies that that were no older than 15years of age, participant age from 10 to 26years old and were of primary research design. Results: Six studies that followed up 9,750 young peopl...

  18. Causal effects of alcoholism on earnings: estimates from the NLSY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison Snow; Richmond, David W

    2006-08-01

    Propensity score matching is used to investigate the causal relationship between alcoholism and earnings in a young cohort of males and females drawn from the 1989 and 1994 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) in order to investigate productivity losses attributed to alcoholism and to quantify these effects. Results suggest that there are productivity losses attributable to alcoholism; that they become more pronounced over the life cycle; and that they differ between men and women. Ways in which estimates from propensity score matching may or may not improve on instrumental variables estimates are discussed.

  19. Patient Dosimetry in Arteriography of the Lower Limbs. Part II: Dose Conversion Coefficients, Organ Doses and Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X ray projection data (see Part I) and GSF phantoms ADAM and EVA were used as input for the GSF Monte Carlo transport code to calculate hitherto unavailable dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) for common projections in arteriography of the lower limbs. These DCCs served to estimate organ equivalent doses and effective dose in a study of 455 patients. The effective dose caused by percutaneous needle puncture arteriography of one leg was on average 1 mSv, by Seldinger catherisation for arteriography of both legs 4 mSv, and by intravenous digital subtraction arteriography (DSA) 5 mSv. For needle puncture and Seldinger arteriography the effective dose attributable to fluoroscopy was about 50% for male and 60% for female patients. The contribution of DSA was between 15 and 35%, that of cut films between 17 to 28%, depending on gender and procedure. The effective dose in intravenous arteriography was mainly due to DSA (91-93%). (author)

  20. Effects of an Online Alcohol Education Course Among College Freshmen: An Investigation of Potential Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Ringwalt, Chris; Wyatt, Todd; DeJONG, WILLIAM

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated possible mediating effects of psychosocial variables (perceived drinking norms, positive and negative alcohol expectancies, personal approval of alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies) targeted by an online alcohol education course (AlcoholEdu for College) as part of a 30-campus randomized trial with 2,400 first-year students. Previous multi-level analyses found significant effects of the AlcoholEdu course on the frequency of past-30-day alcohol use and binge dr...

  1. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. PMID:27211627

  2. Space Radiation Quality Factors and the Delta Ray Dose and Dose-Rate Reduction Effectiveness Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Cacao, Eliedonna; Alp, Murat

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the authors recommend that the dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor used for space radiation risk assessments should be based on a comparison of the biological effects of energetic electrons produced along a cosmic ray particles path in low fluence exposures to high dose-rate gamma-ray exposures of doses of about 1 Gy. Methods to implement this approach are described. PMID:26808878

  3. Psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant administered in combination with alcohol in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Yee, Ka Lai; Gill, Sean; Liu, Wen; Li, Xiaodong; Panebianco, Deborah; Mangin, Eric; Morrison, Dennis; McCrea, Jacqueline; Wagner, John A; Troyer, Matthew D

    2015-11-01

    A double-blind crossover study investigated psychomotor effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant with and without alcohol. Healthy adults (n=31) were randomized to receive placebo or suvorexant (40 mg) plus placebo solution or alcohol (0.7 g/kg) in each of four treatments (single doses; morning administration). The US Food and Drug Administration approved suvorexant dose is 10 mg (up to 20 mg) daily. Pharmacodynamic effects were assessed using tests of digit vigilance (DVT; primary endpoint), choice reaction time, digit symbol substitution, numeric working memory, immediate/delayed word recall, body sway and subjective alertness. Suvorexant alone did not significantly affect DVT reaction time, but did impact some pharmacodynamic tests. Suvorexant with alcohol increased reaction time versus either alone (mean difference at 2 h: 44 ms versus suvorexant, palcohol, peffects on tests of vigilance, working/episodic memory, postural stability and alertness. No effects of suvorexant alone or with alcohol were observed by 9 h. No important changes in pharmacokinetic parameters were observed upon co-administration. All treatments were generally well tolerated without serious adverse events. In conclusion, co-administration of 40 mg suvorexant and 0.7 g/kg alcohol had additive negative psychomotor effects. Patients are advised not to consume alcohol with suvorexant.

  4. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  5. The Effect of Contracted Abstinence on College Students' Behavior toward Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Steven B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the relative effects of contracted abstinence and a class in alcoholism on college students' attitudes and behavior toward alcohol use. The alcohol class was effective in modifying self-reported drinking behavior,while contracted abstinence was an effective tool when used in the context of an alcohol class. (Author)

  6. The Calpain Inhibitor A-705253 Attenuates Alcohol-Seeking and Relapse with Low Side-Effect Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Moeller, Achim; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Beardsley, Patrick M; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Spanagel, Rainer; Bespalov, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Preclinical studies revealed contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases including alcoholism, but development of NMDAR antagonists for therapeutic use has been a challenge, in part due to severe side effects. One of the key intracellular events resulting from stimulation of NMDAR is activation of calpains-calcium-dependent cysteine proteases. Here we studied whether inhibition of calpains would produce therapeutic-like effects of NMDAR antagonists but without their NMDAR-mediated side-effect profile. The calpain inhibitor A-705253 (3-10 mg/kg) was tested in a model of cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior in post-dependent Wistar rats and in an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) model in long-term alcohol drinking Wistar rats, two behavioral models for alcohol-seeking and relapse, respectively. We also tested the effect of A-705253 on the saccharine deprivation effect (SDE) as a selectivity measure. Acute treatment with A-705253 dose-dependently reduced cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior. Repeated administration of A-705253 caused significant reductions of relapse-like excessive alcohol intake during the post-abstinence drinking days, an effect that persisted during two more successive drug-free drinking weeks, which was selective for the ADE as the SDE was unaffected. However, A-705253 did not produce psychostimulant, cognition impairing (delayed-matching-to-position), or psychotomimetic effects (specifically, phencyclidine discriminative stimulus effects). Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of calpains in alcohol-seeking and relapse and present a rationale for a novel pharmacological intervention that may reduce craving and relapse with minimal side effects in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:26216521

  7. Effect of dose ascertainment errors on observed risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaccuracies in dose assignments can lead to misclassification in epidemiological studies. The extent of this misclassification is examined for different error functions, classification intervals, and actual dose distributions. The error function model is one which results in a truncated lognormal distribution of the assigned dose for each actual dose. The error function may vary as the actual dose changes. The effect of misclassification on the conclusions about dose effect relationships is examined for the linear and quadratic dose effect models. 10 references, 9 figures, 8 tables

  8. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces:Implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Angela S Attwood; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with chan...

  9. Effectiveness of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention: changes in alcohol use of adolescents after 1 and 5 years

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, S.C.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Bos-Oude Groeniger, I.; Izeboud, C.; Rover, de, M.; Veer, van 't, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Underage alcohol drinking is a severe public health problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a Dutch community-based alcohol intervention on alcohol use of adolescents in the second and fourth grade of high school. Methods: The community intervention integrated health education, regulation, and enforcement in multiple settings, targeting adolescents as well as their environments. In order to evaluate effectiveness, a quasi-experimental pre...

  10. Alcohol use disorder: pathophysiology, effects, and pharmacologic options for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wackernah RC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robin C Wackernah,1 Matthew J Minnick,1 Peter Clapp2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Rueckert-Hartman College for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, CO, USA Abstract: Alcohol use disorders (AUD continue to be a concerning health issue worldwide. Harmful alcohol use leads to 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide. Multiple options exist for the management of dependence on alcohol, not all of which are approved by drug-regulating agencies. Current practice in treating AUD does not reflect the diversity of pharmacologic options that have potential to provide benefit, and guidance for clinicians is limited. Few medications are approved for treatment of AUD, and these have exhibited small and/or inconsistent effects in broad patient populations with diverse drinking patterns. The need for continued research into the treatment of this disease is evident in order to provide patients with more specific and effective options. This review describes the neurobiological mechanisms of AUD that are amenable to treatment and drug therapies that target pathophysiological conditions of AUD to reduce drinking. In addition, current literature on pharmacologic (both approved and non-approved treatment options for AUD offered in the United States and elsewhere are reviewed. The aim is to inform clinicians regarding the options for alcohol abuse treatment, keeping in mind that not all treatments are completely successful in reducing craving or heavy drinking or increasing abstinence. Keywords: abuse, alcohol, alcoholism, craving, dependence, relapse

  11. Economic effect of the production of alcoholic beverages with lower toxic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mykola Holovko; Natalia Penkina; Victoria Kolesnyk

    2015-01-01

    In this article we have an assessment of the economic effect of the production of new alcoholic beverages. In the modern setting during the manufacturing of the alcoholic products, extra attention is aimed at the improvement of technology and the use of raw materials which will lower the toxic levels of alcohol. Analyzation of the recipes for the production of alcohol will allow to manufacture "safe" alcohol compared to the traditional alcohol, increase the assortment of the product available...

  12. Effect of alcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants on the altered enzymatic activities of diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the effect of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana was studied on serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and on serum urea, total protein and albumin concentrations of streptozotocin diabetic rats. Diabetes in rats was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg i. p.. On confirming the diabetes after 48 h of injection, alcoholic extracts of three plants were administered orally in doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg/d for 30 d. Glibenclamide (300 µg/kg/d was used as a reference drug for comparison. Streptozotocin diabetic rats showed a significant increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities and serum urea concentration but a significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin concentrations and albumin/globulin ratio. Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Momordica charantia, Aegle marmelos and Eugenia jambolana in daily doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg for a period of 1 mo produced dose- and duration-dependent decrease in serum glutamic oxaloacetate transminase and serum glutamic pyruvate transminase activities as well as decrease in serum urea concentration and restored the serum total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio to a great extent in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The beneficial effects of these plants in 500 mg/kg dose in streptozotocin diabetic rats were comparable to that of glibenclamide (300 µg/kg, a standard oral hypoglycaemic drug used in clinical practice.

  13. Effects of Exposure Imprecision on Estimation of the Benchmark Dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    Environmental epidemiology; exposure measurement error; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; exposure standards; benchmark dose......Environmental epidemiology; exposure measurement error; effect of prenatal mercury exposure; exposure standards; benchmark dose...

  14. Evaluation of Protective Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Fruit Peels of Punica granatum Linn against Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashar Kalangottil; Karunakar Hegde; Naseeb K M

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruits peels of Punica granatum Linn. against acetic acid and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Acute oral toxicity study was performed to find out the test dose according to OECD guidelines 425 and hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel (PGPE) was found to be safe at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The animals pretreated with hydro-alcoholic extract of P....

  15. Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic media effects on polyols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare-Addo, Kofi; Conway, Barbara R; Hajamohaideen, Mohamed J; Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali; Larhrib, Hassan

    2013-11-01

    The ingestion of drug products with alcohol can have an adverse effect on drug levels in a patient's blood. The Food and Drug Agency (FDA) issued an alert in 2005 after hydromorphone was withdrawn from the market after clinical trials showed ingestion with alcohol to potentially result in lethal drug peak plasma concentrations. The potential impact of alcohol on extended release (ER) tablet matrices and the need to develop ER matrices robust to alcohol effects has then been of interest. This study investigated the compaction properties of polyols and their effect on drug release. Polyols (erythritol, xylitol, mannitol and maltitol) with increasing hydroxyl groups were used as diluents for HPMC matrices containing theophylline. Release profiles were determined in pH 1.2 and 6.8 dissolution media with hydro-alcoholic concentrations of 5-40%. Increases in the polyols' hydroxyl groups brought about an increase in tablet strength and a decrease in the drug release rates. This is likely due to stronger bond formation with increasing hydroxyls. The impact of alcohol on drug release was studied further for maltitol formulations. Maltitol was resilient to the presence of ethanol (5-40% v/v) at pH 1.2 (f2=57-74) but not at pH 6.8 (f2=36-48). Drug release was not different above 5% alcohol concentration at pH 6.8. The results of this in vitro study suggest that ethanol concentrations as high as 40% do not substantially alter the drug release properties of theophylline from maltitol matrix tablets. However, care and consideration should be given to the choice of polyol or mixture of polyols in obtaining a desired drug release profile. PMID:23777788

  16. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  17. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Homayoun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena. In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1 Control: received saline, (2 PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3 PTZ-Extract 50 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 50, (4 PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 100, and (5 PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s as well as the possible mechanism(s.

  18. Low doses effects and gamma radiations low dose rates; Les effets des faibles doses et des faibles debits de doses de rayons gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averbeck, D. [Institut Curie, CNRS UMR 2027, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    This expose wishes for bringing some definitions and base facts relative to the problematics of low doses effects and low dose rates effects. It shows some already used methods and some actual experimental approaches by focusing on the effects of ionizing radiations with a low linear energy transfer. (N.C.)

  19. Determination of the effective dose equivalent in gynecologic radium therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the authors describe how to determine the effective dose equivalent absorbed by occupationally exposed persons during a gynecologic radium therapy. The observed irradiation conditions of the physician and the medical staff are approximated by a standard geometry, for which conversion factors between the measured personal dose, the effective dose equivalent and different organ doses, respectively, are calculated. The results are job-specific conversion factors between dose to a personal dosimeter and the effective dose equivalent for the occupationally exposed persons involved. According to the individual tasks, these factors are between 0.59 and 1.13. (orig.)

  20. Effect of Alcohol References in Music on Alcohol Consumption in Public Drinking Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Slettenhaar, H.G.J.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs

  1. Effects of Alcohol on Women's Risky Sexual Decision Making during Social Interactions in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawacki, Tina

    2011-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of alcohol on women's sexual decision making during a laboratory social interaction with a potential dating partner. Participants completed an assessment of sex-related alcohol expectancies, were randomly assigned to consume alcohol, no alcohol, or a placebo, and then interacted with a male confederate.…

  2. [Effect of phenibut on the behavior of experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiurenkov, I N; Voronkov, A V; Borodkina, L E

    2005-01-01

    The effect of phenibut on the locomotor and orientation-research activity, as well as on the alcohol and food motivation, was studied on experimental animals under conditions of voluntary chronic alcoholism. Phenibut decreased the manifestations of alcohol-induced behavioral disorders and reduced alcohol motivation. PMID:16047680

  3. Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience as Moderators of the Effects of Perceived Drinking Norms on Student Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…

  4. Collective effective dose equivalent, population doses and risk estimates from occupational exposures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collective dose equivalent and population dose from occupational exposures in Japan, 1988 were estimated on the basis of a nationwide survey. The survey was conducted on annual collective dose equivalents by sex, age group and type of radiation work for about 0.21 million workers except for the workers in nuclear power stations. The data on the workers in nuclear power stations were obtained from the official report of the Japan Nuclear Safety Commission. The total number of workers including nuclear power stations was estimated to be about 0.26 million. Radiation works were subdivided as follows: medical works including dental; non-atomic energy industry; research and education; atomic energy industry and nuclear power station. For the determination of effective dose equivalent and population dose, organ or tissue doses were measured with a phantom experiment. The resultant doses were compared with the doses previously calculated using a chord length technique and with data from ICRP publications. The annual collective effective dose equivalent were estimated to be about 21.94 person·Sv for medical workers, 7.73 person·Sv for industrial workers, 0.75 person·Sv for research and educational workers, 2.48 person·Sv for atomic energy industry and 84.4 person ·Sv for workers in nuclear power station. The population doses were calculated to be about 1.07 Sv for genetically significant dose, 0.89 Sv for leukemia significant dose and 0.42 Sv for malignant significant dose. The population risks were estimated using these population doses. (author)

  5. Solvent effects on hydrogen bonding between primary alcohols and esters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DHARMALINGAM K.; RAMACHANDRAN K.; SIVAGURUNATHAN P.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction by hydrogen bond formation of some primary alcohols (1-heptanol, 1-octanol and 1-decanol) with esters (methyl methacrylate, ethyl methacrylate and butyl methacrylate) was investigated in non-polar solvents viz., n-heptane,CCh and benzene by means of FTIR spectroscopy. Formation constants and free energy changes of complex formation were determined. The dependence of the equilibrium constants and free energy changes of complex formation on the alkyl chain length of both the alcohols and esters are discussed. The solvent effect on the hydrogen bond formation is discussed in terms of specific interaction between the solute and solvent.

  6. Alcoholism and its Effects: an Approach Based on Health Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de las Mercedes Pretel Olite

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a complex biopsychosocial disorder that requires a specialised and multidisciplinary approach focusing on both the patient and the family. Alcohol consumption is the most important addiction worldwide due to its prevalence and impact. Therefore, the main objective of a primary care physician should be to facilitate the referral of patients and their families to a structured treatment, support and guidance program during the whole detoxification process. In every health area in Cienfuegos, there are community mental health centers with a staff trained to deal with these disorders in addicts and their family. A literature review was conducted to establish the relationship between alcohol consumption and its harmful effects on health, family and society, using an approach based on Health Psychology.

  7. The effect of fluorine substitution in alcohol-amine complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Schou; Du, Lin; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2014-01-01

    The effect of fluorine substitution on the hydrogen bond strength in alcohol-amine molecular complexes was investigated, with a combination of vapour phase infrared spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. The complexes were combined from methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and trifluoroethanol (TFE...... formation were determined by combining a calculated intensity and the measured integrated absorbance. The observation of two transitions in the alcohol-DMA complexes provides an opportunity for two independent determinations of the equilibrium constants. Molecular interactions between the monomers were...... elucidated by Natural Bond Orbital, Atoms in Molecules and Non-covalent Interactions analysis. We find that the alcohol-amine complexes with TFE as the hydrogen bond donor form stronger hydrogen bonds and that secondary interactions between the monomers increase from MeOH to EtOH to TFE. TFE is a stronger...

  8. Alcohol Use and the Effects on University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Charles H.; Leonard, Valorie M.; Lebrasseur, Rolland

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of alcohol consumption on university undergraduate students in eight management schools in the province of Ontario, Canada. The study establishes two contrasting groups--the socially oriented and the academically oriented. It elaborates on the potential consequences that excessive drinking may have on the learning,…

  9. Effectiveness of alcohol prevention program for pre-adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof Jan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this research was to assess the delayed effects of a two-year alcohol prevention program implemented in Polish primary schools. Method. The program comprised two curricula implemented the school and in family houses: Program Domowych Detektywów and Fantastyczne Możliwości. Both curricula were the Polish versions of two American school-based prevention programs which belonged to Project Northland. The initial study sample (N=802 comprised 10 to 11 years old pupils (fourth and fifth-grade from eight primary schools in Warsaw. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=421 and the reference group (n=381. A self-completion questionnaire was administered to students four times: at the baseline, seven, fifteen and twenty seven months after. Results. The program had an expected influence on the students’ attitudes, knowledge and resistance skills towards alcohol. The effects on the participants’ initiation of drunkenness and their first experience in alcohol use with their peers have also been reported. Most of the positive effects remained significant over time. Conclusions. The effectiveness of the program, as shown by the outcome evaluation, supports an argument for its wide implementation in Polish schools. Further progress in the fieldof alcohol and drug prevention in Poland depends on overcoming the existing barriers in this area of public health.

  10. Total ionizing dose effects of domestic SiGe HBTs under different dose rate

    CERN Document Server

    Mo-Han, Liu; Wu-Ying, Ma; Xin, Wang; Qi, Guo; Cheng-Fa, He; Ke, Jiang; Xiao-Long, Li; Ming-Zhu, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    The total ionizing radiation (TID) response of commercial NPN silicon germanium hetero-junction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) produced domestic were investigated under the dose rate of 800mGy(Si)/s and 1.3mGy(Si)/s with Co-60 gamma irradiation source, respectively. The changes of the transistor parameter such as Gummel characteristics, excess base current before and after irradiation are investigated. The results of the experiments shows that for the KT1151, the radiation damage have slightly difference under the different dose rate after the prolonged annealing, shows an time dependent effect(TDE). But for the KT9041, the degradations of low dose rate irradiation are more higher than the high dose rate, demonstrate that there have potential enhanced low dose rate sensitive(ELDRS) effect exist on KT9041. The underlying physical mechanisms of the different dose rates response induced by the gamma ray are detailed discussed.

  11. Total ionizing dose effects of domestic SiGe HBTs under different dose rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mo-Han; Lu, Wu; Ma, Wu-Ying; Wang, Xin; Guo, Qi; He, Cheng-Fa; Jiang, Ke; Li, Xiao-Long; Xun, Ming-Zhu

    2016-03-01

    The total ionizing radiation (TID) response of commercial NPN silicon germanium hetero-junction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) produced domestically are investigated under dose rates of 800 mGy(Si)/s and 1.3 mGy(Si)/s with a Co-60 gamma irradiation source. The changes of transistor parameters such as Gummel characteristics, and excess base current before and after irradiation, are examined. The results of the experiments show that for the KT1151, the radiation damage is slightly different under the different dose rates after prolonged annealing, and shows a time dependent effect (TDE). For the KT9041, however, the degradations of low dose rate irradiation is higher than for the high dose rate, demonstrating that there is a potential enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) effect for the KT9041. The possible underlying physical mechanisms of the different dose rates responses induced by the gamma rays are discussed.

  12. Temperature effect on 4-aminophtalimide fluorescence in n-alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobek, Krzysztof, E-mail: dobas@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Karolczak, Jerzy, E-mail: jgkarol@amu.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Center For Ultrafast Laser Spectroscopy, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-09-15

    The compound 4-aminophthalimide (4-AP) is a well-known dye used as an environment polarity sensitive probe e.g. in solvation studies. This paper presents the effect of temperature on 4-aminophthalimides steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence in five n-alcohols. It is shown that the hydrogen bonding ability of n-alcohols affects the shifts of steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-aminophthalimide at room temperature, and the shifts of fluorescence also at temperatures from the range 180 to 323 K. Temperature is shown to affect the change in hydrogen bond energy that follows 4-AP excitation, in a way dependent on the n-alcohol alkyl chain length. On the other hand, time-resolved results indicate that the temperature dependence of 4-AP deactivation follows mainly from the energy-gap dependent non-radiative deactivation rate. Fluorescence transition dipole moments at room temperature have been found to be slightly dependent on the solvent, but nothing proves that these changes are connected to different hydrogen bonding character of each n-alcohol. Therefore, while the steady-state results provide clear evidence of hydrogen bonding between 4-AP and n-alcohols, the time-resolved results do not show any evident sign of hydrogen bonding, besides the influence of the position of fluorescence emission on the radiative and non-radiative rates. - Highlights: • We show temperature effect on 4-aminophthalimide (4-AP) absorption and emission. • Hydrogen bonds formation between n-alcohols and 4-AP affect steady-state results. • Temperature change influences hydrogen bonds energy. • 4-AP non-radiative deactivation is energy-gap controlled.

  13. gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) suppresses alcohol's motivational properties in alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Pes, Daniela; Fantini, Noemi; Carai, Mauro A M; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2008-03-01

    gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) reduces alcohol drinking, promotes abstinence from alcohol, suppresses craving for alcohol, and ameliorates alcohol withdrawal syndrome in alcoholics. At preclinical level, GHB suppresses alcohol withdrawal signs and alcohol intake in rats. The present study was designed to investigate whether GHB administration was capable of affecting alcohol's motivational properties (the possible animal correlate of human craving for alcohol) in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. To this aim, rats were initially trained to lever press for alcohol (15%, vol/vol) under a procedure of operant, oral alcohol self-administration (fixed ratio 4 in 30-min daily sessions). Once responding for alcohol had stabilized, rats were divided into two groups and allocated to two independent experiments. Experiment 1 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on breakpoint for alcohol, defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved by each rat when exposed to a single-session progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of GHB (0, 25, 50, and 100mg/kg, i.p.) on single-session extinction responding for alcohol (alcohol was absent and unreinforced responding was recorded). Breakpoint and extinction responding for alcohol are reliable indexes of alcohol's motivational strength. In Experiment 1, all doses of GHB reduced--by approximately 20% in comparison to saline-treated rats--breakpoint for alcohol. In Experiment 2, administration of 25, 50, and 100mg/kg GHB reduced--by approximately 25%, 40%, and 50%, respectively, in comparison to saline-treated rats--extinction responding for alcohol. Conversely, no dose of GHB altered breakpoint and extinction responding for sucrose (3%, wt/vol) in two independent subsets of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Together, these data suggest that GHB administration specifically suppressed alcohol's motivational properties in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats

  14. Topics on study of low dose-effect relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is not exceptional but usually observed that a dose-effect relationship in biosystem is not linear. Sometimes, the low dose-effect relationship appears entirely contrary to the expectation from high dose-effect. This is called a 'hormesis' phenomena. A high dose irradiation inflicts certainly an injury on biosystem. No matter how low the dose may be, an irradiation might inflict some injury on biosystem according to Linear Non-Threshold hypothesis(LNT). On the contrary to the expectation, a low dose irradiation stimulates immune system, and promotes cell proliferation. This is called 'radiation hormesis'. The studies of the radiation hormesis are made on from four points of view as follows: (1) radiation adaptive response, (2) revitalization caused by a low dose stimulation, (3) a low dose response unexpected from the LNT hypothesis, (4) negation of the LNT hypothesis. The various empirical proofs of radiation hormesis are introduced in the report. (M . Suetake)

  15. Biological effects of low doses of radiation at low dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report was to examine available scientific data and models relevant to the hypothesis that induction of genetic changes and cancers by low doses of ionizing radiation at low dose rate is a stochastic process with no threshold or apparent threshold. Assessment of the effects of higher doses of radiation is based on a wealth of data from both humans and other organisms. 234 refs., 26 figs., 14 tabs

  16. EVALUATION OF ANTIULCEROGENIC EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MAYTENUS EMARGINATA (WILLD. DING HOU LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonia Lalita

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Dind Hou belongs to family Celastraceae, is an evergreen tree that tolerates various types of stresses of the desert, locally known as “Kankero”. Maytenus emarginata has been used for fever, asthama, rheumatism and gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Maytenus emarginata was investigated in rats to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity by using aspirin induced gastric ulcer pyloric ligation model. The parameters taken to assess anti-ulcer activity were volume of gastric secretion, pH, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index. In present study the orally administered alcoholic extract significantly (P < 0.05 increases pH and decreases the volume of gastric acid secretion, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index with respect to control at a dose of 125 and 187 mg/kg body weight. This study lend support to the traditional use of Maytenus emarginata as antiulcerogenic.

  17. The effect of cigarette and alcohol consumption on birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    behaviors, most importantly prenatal alcohol consumption. Second, it uses prenatal maternal reports on inputs and objective administrative data on child outcomes. Both features of the data reduce the threat of recall bias and measurement error. Third, the paper identifies the effect of health behaviors...... by exploiting variation between siblings. The results of the paper confirm and extend earlier findings. Maternal smoking decreases birth weight and fetal growth, with smaller effects in sibling models. The negative alcohol effect on birth outcomes is pronounced and remains intact in sibling models. Both effects......This paper uses Danish survey and register data to examine the effect of maternal inputs on child health at birth. The paper adds to the literature in several ways: First, while previous studies mainly have focused on maternal smoking, this paper factors in a larger number of maternal health...

  18. Alcohol Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action and Maternal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Ornoy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of mothers using ethanol during pregnancy are known to suffer from developmental delays and/or a variety of behavioral changes. Ethanol, may affect the developing fetus in a dose dependent manner. With very high repetitive doses there is a 6–10% chance of the fetus developing the fetal alcoholic syndrome manifested by prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, specific craniofacial dysmorphic features, mental retardation, behavioral changes and a variety of major anomalies. With lower repetitive doses there is a risk of "alcoholic effects" mainly manifested by slight intellectual impairment, growth disturbances and behavioral changes. Binge drinking may impose some danger of slight intellectual deficiency. It is advised to offer maternal abstinence programs prior to pregnancy, but they may also be initiated during pregnancy with accompanying close medical care. The long term intellectual outcome of children born to ethanol dependent mothers is influenced to a large extent by the environment in which the exposed child is raised.

  19. Effects of Alcohol Injection in Rat Sciatic Nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoch, Mathew J.; Cheema, Gulraiz A.; Suva, Larry J.; Thomas, Ruth L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that the injection of dehydrated alcohol has been successful for the treatment of Morton's neuroma in the foot. In this study, we determined the cellular effect of injection of alcohol into and around the sciatic nerve of rats, and measured the extent of cell necrosis and/or any associated histologic or inflammatory changes. Methods Twenty-two male (~375g) Wistar rats were randomized into two groups each receiving alcohol injections into or around the sciatic nerve after nerve exposure under sterile technique. Group 1 rats were injected with a 0.5ml solution of 0.5% Marcaine in the left sciatic nerve as a control group. In the right sciatic nerve a 0.5ml solution of 4% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine was injected. Group 2 rats received 0.5ml of 20%ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the left sciatic nerve and 0.5 ml of 30% ethanol with 0.5% Marcaine injected into the right sciatic nerve. In each group, the rats were placed in 3 subgroups: intraneural, perineural, perimuscular injections. All rats were sacrificed and tissue harvested for histologic evaluation at day 10 post injection. Results No evidence of alcohol-associated cell necrosis, apoptosis or apparent inflammation was observed in histologic specimens of any injected nerves, perineural tissue, or muscles in controls or experimental groups regardless of concentration of ethanol injected on day 10. Conclusion We concluded that alcohol injection (≤30% ethanol) into and/or around the sciatic nerve or the adjacent muscle of rats has no histologic evidence of necrosis or inflammation to the nerve or surrounding tissue. There was no observable histological change in apoptosis, or cell number, in response to the alcohol injection. PMID:25097192

  20. Development of Two-Dosemeter Algorithm for Better Estimation of Effective Dose Equivalent and Effective Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optimal algorithm, which suitably combines two dosemeter readings, one dosemeter on the chest and the other on the back, for better estimation of effective dose equivalent (HE) and effective dose (E), was developed by utilising hundreds of broad parallel photon beam irradiation geometries. The developed algorithm, weighting front (chest) and back dosemeter readings by 0.58 and 0.42, respectively, was found to be superior to other currently available algorithms, neither underestimating HE or E by more than 14%, nor overestimating by more than a few tens of a per cent for a broad range of frontal and dorsal incident beams. Like other algorithms, however, this algorithm tends to overestimate HE and E significantly for the lateral, overhead and underfoot beam directions. This study also suggests that this overestimation problem significantly decreases when one uses typical commercial dosemeters instead of isotropic-responding dosemeters. (author)

  1. Dose Effects of Ion Beam Exposure on Deinococcus Radiodurans: Survival and Dose Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To explore the survival and dose response of organism for different radiation sources is of great importance in the research of radiobiology. In this study, the survival-dose response of Deinococcus radiodurans (E.coli, as the control) for ultra-violet (UV), γ-rays radiation and ion beam exposure was investigated. The shoulder type of survival curves were found for both UV and γ-ray ionizing radiation, but the saddle type of survival curves were shown for H+ 、 N+( 20keV and 30keV) and Ar+ beam exposure. This dose effect of the survival initially decreased withthe increase in dose and then increased in the high dose range and finally decreased again in thehigher dose range. Our experimental results suggest that D. radiodurans, which is considerablyradio-resistant to UV and x-ray and γ-ray ionizing radiation, do not resist ion beam exposure.

  2. Dose Effects of Ion Beam Exposure on Deinococcus Radiodurans: Survival and Dose Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dao-jun; Wu, Li-fang; Wu, Li-jun; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2001-02-01

    To explore the survival and dose response of organism for different radiation sources is of great importance in the research of radiobiology. In this study, the survival-dose response of Deinococcus radiodurans (E.coli, as the control) for ultra-violet (UV), γ-rays radiation and ion beam exposure was investigated. The shoulder type of survival curves were found for both UV and γ-ray ionizing radiation, but the saddle type of survival curves were shown for H+, N+(20keV and 30keV) and Ar+ beam exposure. This dose effect of the survival initially decreased with the increase in dose and then increased in the high dose range and finally decreased again in the higher dose range. Our experimental results suggest that D. radiodurans, which is considerably radio-resistant to UV and x-ray and γ-ray ionizing radiation, do not resist ion beam exposure.

  3. [Modification of drug mutagenicity by their immobilization. Effect of prostatilen immobilized in polyvinyl alcohol in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, V S; Bolonina, V P; Gorbachev, A G

    1992-08-01

    Mutagenic drug effect of prostatilen and the possibility of modification were analysed in the sperm head anomalies (SHA) and the bone marrow cell aberrations (CA) tests in Mus musculus. It was found that intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 micrograms of prostatilen induced no significant increase in SHA and CA frequencies, the dose of 5 micrograms inducing both SHA and CA. Ultrafiltration of prostatilen led to decrease in its mutagenicity in the SHA test. Immobilization of the drug (5 and 10 micrograms) in polyvinyl alcohol reduced SHA and CA frequencies, the former decreasing to the control level.

  4. A diffusion model decomposition of the effects of alcohol on perceptual decision making

    OpenAIRE

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Dutilh, Gilles; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Even in elementary cognitive tasks, alcohol consumption results in both cognitive and motor impairments (e.g., Schweizer and Vogel-Sprott, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 16: 240–250, 2008). Objectives The purpose of this study is to quantify the latent psychological processes that underlie the alcohol-induced decrement in observed performance. Methods In a double-blind experiment, we administered three different amounts of alcohol to participants on different days: a placebo dose (0 g/l),...

  5. Low Dose Effects: Testing the Assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our work is to investigate the biological responses of cells and animals to low doses and low dose rates of low linear energy transfer radiation and to compare the results to the predictions of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis. These experiments indicate that at low dose, none of the assumptions of the LNT hypothesis were supported by the data, either in cells or in animals. If these results from human and rodent cells, and from other animals, are applicable to humans, the data further indicate that the use of the LNT hypothesis for radiation protection purposes is not conservative but may actually increase the overall risk of cancer

  6. Dose reconstruction in deforming lung anatomy: Dose grid size effects and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we investigated the accumulation of dose to a deforming anatomy (such as lung) based on voxel tracking and by using time weighting factors derived from a breathing probability distribution function (p.d.f.). A mutual information registration scheme (using thin-plate spline warping) provided a transformation that allows the tracking of points between exhale and inhale treatment planning datasets (and/or intermediate state scans). The dose distributions were computed at the same resolution on each dataset using the Dose Planning Method (DPM) Monte Carlo code. Two accumulation/interpolation approaches were assessed. The first maps exhale dose grid points onto the inhale scan, estimates the doses at the 'tracked' locations by trilinear interpolation and scores the accumulated doses (via the p.d.f.) on the original exhale data set. In the second approach, the 'volume' associated with each exhale dose grid point (exhale dose voxel) is first subdivided into octants, the center of each octant is mapped to locations on the inhale dose grid and doses are estimated by trilinear interpolation. The octant doses are then averaged to form the inhale voxel dose and scored at the original exhale dose grid point location. Differences between the interpolation schemes are voxel size and tissue density dependent, but in general appear primarily only in regions with steep dose gradients (e.g., penumbra). Their magnitude (small regions of few percent differences) is less than the alterations in dose due to positional and shape changes from breathing in the first place. Thus, for sufficiently small dose grid point spacing, and relative to organ motion and deformation, differences due solely to the interpolation are unlikely to result in clinically significant differences to volume-based evaluation metrics such as mean lung dose (MLD) and tumor equivalent uniform dose (gEUD). The overall effects of deformation vary among patients. They depend on the tumor location, field

  7. The effect of job stress on smoking and alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of job stress on two key health risk-behaviors: smoking and alcohol consumption, using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey. Findings in the extant literature are inconclusive and are mainly based on standard models which can model differential responses to job stress only by observed characteristics. However, the effect of job stress on smoking and drinking may largely depend on unobserved characteristics such as: self control, stress-coping...

  8. Effect of tea polyphenols on alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-rongHE; Guan-huaDU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the scavenging effects of tea polyphenols on aldehyde in vitro and searching for the preliminary mechanism of tea polyphenols (TP) on alcoholic liver disease.METHODS: The effect of aldehyde absorption is tested at gaseous and liquid phases. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, HPll00Series) and UV-visible Detector(Wavelength: 235 nm) are used to analyze the components of the outcome of solution reaction. RESULTS: In vitro study showed

  9. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight.

  10. Dose rate effect in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been suggested that the minor losses of nutrients associated with radiation processing may be further reduced by irradiating foods at the high dose rates generally associated with electron beams from accelerators, rather than at the low dose rates typical of gamma irradiation (e.g. 60Co). This review briefly examines available comparative data on gamma and electron irradiation of foods to evaluate these suggestions. (137 refs., 27 tabs., 11 figs.)

  11. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The presen

  12. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; D.J. Anschutz; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The presen

  13. Effect of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be severely damage to the brain development in fetuses. This study investigates the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on brain development in mice embryos. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were intragastrically gavaged with ethanol (3g/Kg bwt) twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and imaged using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. 3D images of the mice embryo brain were obtained and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. The average volumes of the left and the right volumes of 5 embryos each alcohol-exposed and control embryos were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3, respectively. The results suggest that the left and right ventricle volumes of brain are much larger in the alcohol-exposed embryos as compared to control embryos indicating alcohol-induced developmental delay.

  14. Positive and negative effects of alcohol and nicotine and their interactions: a mechanistic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Laura L; Taylor, Robert E; Tizabi, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine and alcohol are two of the most commonly abused legal substances. Heavy use of one drug can often lead to, or is predictive of, heavy use of the other drug in adolescents and adults. Heavy drinking and smoking alone are of significant health hazard. The combination of the two, however, can result in synergistic adverse effects particularly in incidences of various cancers (e.g., esophagus). Although detrimental consequences of smoking are well established, nicotine by itself might possess positive and even therapeutic potential. Similarly, alcohol at low or moderated doses may confer beneficial health effects. These opposing findings have generated considerable interest in how these drugs act. Here we will briefly review the negative impact of drinking-smoking co-morbidity followed by factors that appear to contribute to the high rate of co-use of alcohol and nicotine. Our main focus will be on what research is telling us about the central actions and interactions of these drugs, and what has been elucidated about the mechanisms of their positive and negative effects. We will conclude by making suggestions for future research in this area.

  15. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  16. Symptom-triggered benzodiazepine therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome in the emergency department: a comparison with the standard fixed dose benzodiazepine regimen.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cassidy, Eugene M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to compare symptom-triggered and standard benzodiazepine regimens for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome in an emergency department clinical decision unit. The authors found that the symptom-triggered approach reduced cumulative benzodiazepine dose and length of stay.

  17. Effects of low doses: Proof and inferences; Effet des faibles doses: preuves et inferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, Ph. [Ineris Direction des risques chroniques, 60 - Verneuil-en-Halatte (France)

    2010-07-15

    It is essential to discuss the plausibility of 'low-dose' effects from environmental exposures. The question, nonetheless, is wrongly labelled, for it is not the magnitude of the dose that matters, but rather the effect. The question thus concerns 'doses with low effects'. More precisely, because the low effects on large populations are not that small, even when epidemiological tools fail to detect them, it would be more accurate to talk about 'doses with undetectable or barely detectable effects'. Hereafter, we describe this 'low-effect dose' concept from the viewpoint of toxicology and epidemiology and discuss the fragile boundary line for these low-effect doses. Next, we review the different types of inference from observed situations (i.e., with high effects) to situations relevant to public health, to characterize the level of confidence to be accorded them. The first type is extrapolation - from higher to lower doses or from higher to lower dose rates. The second type is transposition - from humans to other humans or from animals to humans. The third type can be called 'analogy' as in 'read across' approaches, where QSAR (Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship) methodology can be used. These three types of inferences can be based on an estimate of the 'distance' between observed and predicted areas, but can also rely on knowledge and theories of the relevant mechanisms. The new tools of predictive toxicology are helpful both in deriving quantitative estimates and grounding inferences on sound bases. (author)

  18. Dose and dose rate effects on coherent-to-incoherent transition of precipitates upon irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhengchao

    2006-01-01

    A typical precipitation hardened alloy, Cu-Co dilute alloy was selected to study the precipitation behavior and irradiation effect on precipitates. It is found that the principal effect of ion irradiation on the coherent precipitates is loss of coherency, and TEM cross-section observations show that the fraction of the incoherent precipitates is dependent on dose but not on dose rate during heavy ion irradiation.

  19. Evaluation of effective dose equivalent from environmental gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organ doses and effective dose equivalents for environmental gamma rays were calculated using human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods accounting rigorously the environmental gamma ray fields. It was suggested that body weight is the dominant factor to determine organ doses. The weight function expressing organ doses was introduced. Using this function, the variation in organ doses due to several physical factors were investigated. A detector having gamma-ray response similar to that of human bodies has been developed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator. (author)

  20. Alcohols solubilization in a nonionic fluorinated surfactant based system: effects on the characteristics of mesoporous silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blin, J L; Du, N; Stébé, M J

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we have used hydrogenated alcohols with different chain lengths and one fluorinated alcohol as additives to determine their effect on the characteristics of mesoporous materials prepared from fluorinated micelles.

  1. Alcohol and marijuana effects on static visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A J; Brown, B; Flom, M C; Jones, R T; Jampolsky, A

    1975-11-01

    Static visual acuity was measured at two contrast levels (12 and 49%) in ten subjects in a double blind experiment involving five drug conditions of alcohol and marijuana (0.5 ml and 1.0 ml/kg body weight of 95% ethanol, 8 and 15 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and a placebo). We found no statistically significant change in static visual acuity for any of the dose levels at any of the measurement time up to six hours following drug ingestion; this is sharply contrasted with the marked decrements in acuity which were found in the same subjects under the same drug conditions when the targets were in motion and required corrdinated eye movements for their resolution.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of changes in alcohol taxation in Denmark: a modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is a public health problem in many countries including Denmark, where 6% of the burden of disease is due to alcohol consumption, according to the new estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study. Pricing policies, including tax increases, have been shown to effectively decrease the level of alcohol consumption. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of three different scenarios of changed taxation of alcoholic beverages in Denmark (20% ...

  3. EFFECTS OF BEVERAGE-SPECIFIC ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON DRINKING BEHAVIORS AMONG URBAN YOUTH*

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic regression tested the effects of beverage-specific use on consequences (e.g., alcohol use in the past month, week, heavy drinking, and ever drunkennes...

  4. The effects of crude aqueous and alcohol extracts of Aloe vera on growth and abdominal viscera of suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beya, Wabeya; Davidson, Bruce; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of neonates is sensitive to dietary manipulations. When nursing mothers use Aloe vera, their babies are at risk of indirect exposure to Aloe vera via breast feeding or directly as health supplements. The effects of orally administered extracts of Aloe vera in unweaned rats were investigated. Six day old Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with aqueous or alcohol extracts of Aloe vera (low dose 50mg. kg⁻¹ or high dose 500mg. kg⁻¹) daily for eight days. All data were expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by one way ANOVA. Pups receiving high doses of either extract had a significantly higher body mass gain than the group receiving lower dose (p Aloe vera extracts resulted in growth promotion, enhanced hepatic storage of metabolic substrates, increased ALP possibly in relation to bone growth and caused hypertrophy of the caecum of neonatal rats. These effects need to be explored further to enhance animal production and health.

  5. Survey of effective dose levels from typical paediatric CT protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concern over reported large radiation doses leading to a high cancer risk for paediatric CT patients has prompted considerable investigation in paediatric CT. The recent release of software from Germany has allowed effective doses to be calculated from CT protocol information and radiation measurement for standard paediatric patient sizes for both sexes. An initial study has been undertaken in nine radiology departments, four of which were dedicated paediatric departments, for routine chest and abdominal CT procedures. The dose calculation software is based on Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray conditions during a CT procedure and utilized a 'tomographic' phantom model of a 7-year-old child and an 8-week-old baby to allow calculation of organ dose and hence effective dose. Results of the survey indicate that effective doses were higher for females than males, and higher for abdominal procedures. Slightly higher effective doses were calculated for the child compared to the baby. All centres but one recorded lower effective doses with their current protocols than if they had used recommended CT protocols found in the literature. Analysis of the survey data indicates that scan parameters are the main cause of dose variations, although the type of scanner can affect dose by a factor of 2 (when comparing different units) as well as variation in anatomy scanned in protocols. Dose reduction appears to be most closely linked with reduced mAs and increased pitch as expected. The calculation of effective dose appears to be a key factor in assessing CT protocols, particularly for paediatric patients. Copyright (2003) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis. PMID:25900594

  7. Alcohol and pregnancy: Effects on maternal care, HPA axis function, and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Joanna L; Raineki, Charlis; Weinberg, Joanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2015-07-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption negatively affects health, and has additional consequences if consumption occurs during pregnancy as prenatal alcohol exposure adversely affects offspring development. While much is known on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in offspring less is known about effects of alcohol in dams. Here, we examine whether chronic alcohol consumption during gestation alters maternal behavior, hippocampal neurogenesis and HPA axis activity in late postpartum female rats compared with nulliparous rats. Rats were assigned to alcohol, pair-fed or ad libitum control treatment groups for 21 days (for pregnant rats, this occurred gestation days 1-21). Maternal behavior was assessed throughout the postpartum period. Twenty-one days after alcohol exposure, we assessed doublecortin (DCX) (an endogenous protein expressed in immature neurons) expression in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and HPA axis activity. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy reduced nursing and increased self-directed and negative behaviors, but spared licking and grooming behavior. Alcohol consumption increased corticosterone and adrenal mass only in nulliparous females. Surprisingly, alcohol consumption did not alter DCX-expressing cell density. However, postpartum females had fewer DCX-expressing cells (and of these cells more immature proliferating cells but fewer postmitotic cells) than nulliparous females. Collectively, these data suggest that alcohol consumption during pregnancy disrupts maternal care without affecting HPA function or neurogenesis in dams. Conversely, alcohol altered HPA function in nulliparous females only, suggesting that reproductive experience buffers the long-term effects of alcohol on the HPA axis.

  8. Frequency and collective effective dose equivalent of medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to ICRP recommendation, medical exposure refers to the intentional exposure of patients for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and to the exposures resulting from the artificial replacement of body organs or functions. Since the objective of radiotherapy is to give a large amount of radiation dose to the patient to kill cancer cells, neither individual nor collective effective doses are directly relevant for comparisons with doses from other sources, not even with diagnostic procedures. For this reason, in present report, therapeutic uses of radiations and radiopharmaceuticals are not included in the medical exposures. Medical exposures in Japan have been investigated by the nationwide surveys on the type and the frequency of radiological procedures and by the dose determinations with phantom experiments or calculations since 1960. Present report reviews the frequency of diagnostic radiological procedures and the collective effective dose equivalents from these procedures, and excess deaths from the medical exposures in Japan. In 1986, the number of X-ray diagnostic examinations was estimated to be about 1.41 x 108. The preliminary result in 1991 shows the number will be about 1.8 x 108. The resultant collective effective dose equivalent from X-ray diagnosis in 1986 was about 1.84 x 105 person Sv. Consequently per Caput mean effective dose equivalent was about 1.48 mSv/person in 1986. The total collective effective dose equivalent from all the diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan was estimated to be about 2.96 x 105 person Sv/year. per Caput mean effective dose equivalent from the total diagnostic radiological procedures in Japan was evaluated to be about 2.3 mSv/year. This value may be comparable to the mean annual effective dose equivalent received from natural radiations for the worldwide population. Mean effective dose equivalent per diagnostic radiological examination was calculated to be about 1.00 mSv/examination. (author)

  9. Current issues in carcinogenic effect of low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of publications dealing with study of radiation sources and biological evaluation of increasing doses of people irradiation under occupational and usual living conditions is presented. The existing natural and artifial irradiation sources are considered. It is noted that all types of ionizing radiations are characterized by high carcinogenic efficiency and can induce benign and malignant tumors practically in all organs. Statistically reliable data in experimental and epidemiological investigations were recorded under the effect of large and mean doses. Minor radiation doses not responsible for visible functional and morphological changes in early periods can cause pathological changes in delayed periods. The data on carcinogenic effect of relatively small radiation doses are available

  10. Determining effective radiation mutagen dose for garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to get database for future garlic mutation breeding studies. For this aim, 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Gy doses of Cs137 (gamma-ray) were applied on garlic cloves as a physical mutagen. 50 cloves were used for each dose. Sixty days after treatment, germination rate and shoot development of cloves were determined. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by regression analyses. According to the results, 4.455 Gy dose was found to be effective as ED50. (author)

  11. Effects of Alcoholism on Grandchildren: A Bowenian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Barbara J.; Coll, Kenneth M.

    In comparing the personality characteristics of late adolescent and young adult children of alcoholics with those of their peers, it was found that individuals with grandparents who were alcoholics in the absence of parental alcoholism were very similar to children of alcoholics. Grandparents may exert a social influence by passing on…

  12. Effects of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal on Stress Responsiveness and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Howard C Becker

    2012-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between alcohol-drinking behavior and stress. Alcohol has anxiety-reducing properties and can relieve stress, while at the same time acting as a stressor and activating the body’s stress response systems. In particular, chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal can profoundly disturb the function of the body’s neuroendocrine stress response system, the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. A hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is produc...

  13. A review of existing studies reporting the negative effects of alcohol access and positive effects of alcohol control policies on interpersonal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Laura Fitterer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 88 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-two (82% reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offences. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%, with trading hours (63%, and alcohol price following (58%. Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offences. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater up take of local level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes such as 1% increases in alcohol price, one hour changes

  14. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitterer, Jessica L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  15. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 μSv and 37.8 μSv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 μSv, 27.6 μSv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 μSv, 15.9 μSv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom.

  16. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gun Sun; Kim, Jin Soo; Seo, Yo Seob; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 {mu}Sv and 37.8 {mu}Sv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 {mu}Sv, 27.6 {mu}Sv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 {mu}Sv, 15.9 {mu}Sv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom.

  17. Aspects of the relationship between drug dose and drug effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Abraham

    2009-02-09

    It is generally assumed that there exists a well-defined relationship between drug dose and drug effect and that this can be expressed by a dose-response curve. This paper argues that there is no such clear relation and that the dose-response curve provides only limited information about the drug effect. It is demonstrated that tolerance development during the measurement of the dose-response curve may cause major distortion of the curve and it is argued that the curve may only be used to indicate the response to the first administration of a drug, before tolerance has developed. The precise effect of a drug on an individual depends on the dynamic relation between several variables, particularly the level of tolerance, the dose anticipated by the organism and the actual drug dose. Simulations with a previously published mathematical model of drug tolerance demonstrate that the effect of a dose smaller than the dose the organism has developed tolerance to is difficult to predict and may be opposite to the action of the usual dose.

  18. The anesthetic effect of alcohols and alkanes in caenorhabditis elegans (C. E. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, A.H.; Berk, A.I.; Nicholls, C.H. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors colleagues reported that the non-parasitic roundworm, C.E., was reversibly immobilized by volatile anesthetics, whose potencies were directly related to their lipid solubilities as in other animals. In further studies on this phenomenon, they tested a homologous series of organic solvents, to determine whether they also had a reversible anesthetic effect in C.E. as in other animals. Synchronized 3-1/2 day-old cultures of about 100 worms each were exposed to increasing concentrations of the alcohols (C{sub 1} - C{sub 14}) and alkanes (C{sub 5} -C{sub 10}) in 15 ml sealed bottles in a volume of 0.5 ml. The dose that reversibly immobilized 50% of the worms was determined and a straight line was plotted against the octanol/water partition coefficient (K) of each series. As with other animals, potency was directly related to the lipid solubility of these agents so that, for example, the ID{sub 50} for methanol was 1,000 mmol (K=0.12) whereas it was 0.17 mmol for heptanol (K=3,000). The alcohols were about 20 times more potent than the alkanes even though the latter were about 10 times more lipid soluble than the alcohols. In spite of these differences, the cut-off point was at C{sub 9} in the two series.

  19. Effect of alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on testicular function in male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GustavoF.Gonzales; JulioRubio; ArturoChung; ManuelGasco; LeonVillegas

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of the alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on the spermatogenesisin male rats. Methods: In Holtzman rats, Maca alcoholic extract (5 %) was given by oral route at doses of 48 mg/day or 96 mg/day for 7 days, 14 days and 21 days. Testicular function was assessed by measurements of lengths of different stages of seminiferous epithelia and by epididymal sperm count. Results: Ethanolic extract of Maca increased the length of stages IX-XI of seminiferous epithelium at treatment day 7, day 14 and day 21. Progression of spermatogenesis was evident only after day 21 when lengths of stages XII-XIV of seminiferous epithelium were increased; at day 7 and day 14, no important change in spermatogenesis was observed. Epididymal sperm count was increased with 48 mg/day at all times. With 96 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed at day 7, but it was reduced at day 14 and day 21 of treatment. Serum testosterone levels were not affected. Conclusion: The alcoholic extract of Maca activates onset ant progression of spermatogenesis at 48 mg/day or 96 mg/day in rats.

  20. Assessment of organ equivalent doses and effective doses from diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIRD-type adult male, female and age 10 phantoms were constructed to evaluate organ equivalent dose and effective dose of patient due to typical diagnostic X-ray examination. These phantoms were constructed with external and internal dimensions of Korean. The X-ray energy spectra were generated with SPEC78. MCNP4B ,the general-purposed Monte Carlo code, was used. Information of chest PA , chest LAT, and abdomen AP diagnostic X-ray procedures was collected on the protocol of domestic hospitals. The results showed that patients pick up approximate 0.02 to 0.18 mSv of effective dose from a single chest PA examination, and 0.01 to 0.19 mSv from a chest LAT examination depending on the ages. From an abdomen AP examination, patients pick up 0.17 to 1.40 mSv of effective dose. Exposure time, organ depth from the entrance surface and X-ray beam field coverage considerably affect the resulting doses. Deviation among medical institutions is somewhat high, and this indicated that medical institutions should interchange their information and the need of education for medical staff. The methodology and the established system can be applied, with some expansion, to dose assessment for other medical procedures accompanying radiation exposure of patients like nuclear medicine or therapeutic radiology

  1. Errors and Uncertainties in Dose Reconstruction for Radiation Effects Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2008-04-14

    Dose reconstruction for studies of the health effects of ionizing radiation have been carried out for many decades. Major studies have included Japanese bomb survivors, atomic veterans, downwinders of the Nevada Test Site and Hanford, underground uranium miners, and populations of nuclear workers. For such studies to be credible, significant effort must be put into applying the best science to reconstructing unbiased absorbed doses to tissues and organs as a function of time. In many cases, more and more sophisticated dose reconstruction methods have been developed as studies progressed. For the example of the Japanese bomb survivors, the dose surrogate “distance from the hypocenter” was replaced by slant range, and then by TD65 doses, DS86 doses, and more recently DS02 doses. Over the years, it has become increasingly clear that an equal level of effort must be expended on the quantitative assessment of uncertainty in such doses, and to reducing and managing uncertainty. In this context, this paper reviews difficulties in terminology, explores the nature of Berkson and classical uncertainties in dose reconstruction through examples, and proposes a path forward for Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Project 2.4 that requires a reasonably small level of effort for DOSES-2008.

  2. Effects of Alcohol-related Health Education on Alcohol and Drinking Behavior Awareness among Japanese Junior College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Geshi, Masayo; Hirokawa, Kumi; TANIGUCHI, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito; Kawakami, Norito

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving Japanese junior college students aimed at investigating the effects of a single session of alcohol health education concerning the effects of alcohol, alcohol-related health problems, and drinking behavior. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=38) or a control group (n=33). The intervention group attended a 90-minute alcohol health education session that included demonstration of an ethanol patch test, watching videos, and ...

  3. Effects of different doses of white wine consumption having on blood lipid and the relationships between alcohol consumption and cerebrovascular disease%不同浓度白酒对大鼠血脂的影响及与脑血管病的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家文; 刘应时; 于晓军; 刘芳; 刘艳伟; 陈小艳

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨不同浓度白酒对大鼠血脂的影响及与脑血管病的关系。方法采用酶法测定高浓度灌酒组、中浓度灌酒组及灌水对照组大鼠血总胆固醇(TC)、甘油三酯(TG)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)水平,分析各组大鼠血脂水平与大鼠脑血管病的关系。结果高、中浓度灌酒组大鼠血TC、TG、LDL-C水平均高于灌水对照组(P〈0.05),高浓度组更为显著(P〈0.05);高浓度组HDL-C水平低于灌水对照组(P〈0.05),中浓度组变化不明显(P〉0.05)。脑血管形态学观察,大鼠血脂水平升高(TC、TG、LDL-C)/降低(HDL-C)程度与脑血管病变程度之间存在浓度效应关系。结论慢性灌酒可使大鼠血TC、TG、LDL-C水平升高,高浓度灌酒组更为明显;高浓度灌酒组HDL-C降低,中浓度灌酒组变化不明显。大鼠血TC、TG、LDL-C升高水平或HDL-C降低水平与脑血管病变程度之间存在浓度效应关系,说明长期酗酒可使血TC、TG、LDL-C水平升高和HDL-C水平降低,进而导致脑血管出现病变,且浓度越高危害性越大。%Objective To investigate the influence of different doses of spirits on rat's blood lipids and cerebrovascular disease.Methods Rats were divided into three groups.The first group was treated with high concentration of alcohol,the second group with middle concentration of alcohol and the third was the control group.The levels of total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C) in blood and the relationship between lipid levels and cerebral vascular disease were analyzed.Results The average levels of TC,TG,LDL-C in blood in the high and middle concentration groups were higher than those of the control group(P0.05).These levels high concentration group was significantly different(P0.05);the level of HDL-C in high

  4. Dexamphetamine and alcohol effects in simulated driving and cognitive task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, Marieke; Simons, Ries; Ramaekers, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of dexamphetamine with and without alcohol on simulated driving and cognitive tasks. 18 subjects participated in all 4 conditions: 10 mg dexamphetamine and 0.8g/kg alcohol, 10 mg dexamphetamine only, 0.8g/kg alcohol only, and a placebo control condition. A driving sim

  5. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  6. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA and superoxide dismutase (SOD in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury.

  7. The Effects of Education on the Attitudes of Counselors in Training toward Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kampen, Pamela Sue

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of education on the attitudes of counselors in training toward alcoholism. Alcoholism is a treatable disease if recognized, properly diagnosed and the appropriate interventions are made available to the alcoholic and their families. There is estimated to be more than two billion people…

  8. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  9. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  10. Effects of Beverages on Alcohol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic beverages are usually consumed accompanying alcoholic drinks, and their effects on alcohol metabolism are unclear in vivo. In this study, the effects of 20 nonalcoholic beverages on alcohol metabolism and liver injury caused by alcohol were evaluated in mice. Kunming mice were orally fed with alcohol (52%, v/v) and beverages. The concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood as well as the activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in liver were assessed to indicate alcohol metabolism. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in serum as well as the levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver were measured to reflect the alcohol-induced liver injury. The results showed that the treatment of soda water, green tea and honey chrysanthemum tea could accelerate ethanol metabolism and prevent liver injuries caused by alcohol when companied with excessive alcohol drinking. They might be potential dietary supplements for the alleviation of harmful effects from excessive alcohol consumption. On the contrary, some beverages such as fresh orange juice and red bull are not advised to drink when companied with alcohol consumption due to their adverse effects on ethanol induced liver injury. PMID:27005619

  11. Effects of Low Dose Radiation on Mammals 1

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Yutaka; Mine, Mariko; Kishikawa, Masao

    1991-01-01

    Radiation has been applied widely to clinics, researches and industries nowadays. Irradiation by atomic bomb produced many victims in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Radiation effects on animals and human belings have been reported extensively, especially at a dose range of high amount of radiation. As radiation effects at low dose have not been well studied, it is believed that even a small amount of radiation produces hazardous effects. However, it might not be true. Beneficial effects of a low dos...

  12. Chest X ray effective doses estimation in computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional chest radiography is technically difficult because of wide in tissue attenuations in the chest and limitations of screen-film systems. Computed radiography (CR) offers a different approach utilizing a photostimulable phosphor. photostimulable phosphors overcome some image quality limitations of chest imaging. The objective of this study was to estimate the effective dose in computed radiography at three hospitals in Khartoum. This study has been conducted in radiography departments in three centres Advanced Diagnostic Center, Nilain Diagnostic Center, Modern Diagnostic Center. The entrance surface dose (ESD) measurement was conducted for quality control of x-ray machines and survey of operators experimental techniques. The ESDs were measured by UNFORS dosimeter and mathematical equations to estimate patient doses during chest X rays. A total of 120 patients were examined in three centres, among them 62 were males and 58 were females. The overall mean and range of patient dosed was 0.073±0.037 (0.014-0.16) mGy per procedure while the effective dose was 3.4±01.7 (0.6-7.0) mSv per procedure. This study compared radiation doses to patients radiographic examinations of chest using computed radiology. The radiation dose was measured in three centres in Khartoum- Sudan. The results of the measured effective dose showed that the dose in chest radiography was lower in computed radiography compared to previous studies.(Author)

  13. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de L.; Haan, de H.A.; Palen, van der J.A.M.; Olivier, B.; Verster, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumpt

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Ledgaard Holm; Lennert Veerman; Linda Cobiac; Ola Ekholm; Finn Diderichsen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advert...

  15. Alcohol Cue Exposure Effects on Craving and Attentional Bias in Underage College Student Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Jason J.; Monti, Peter M.; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of alcohol cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention towards alcohol cues, which in turn perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce...

  16. Characterisation and in vitro stability of low-dose, lidocaine-loaded poly(vinyl alcohol)-tetrahydroxyborate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, D H; Osman, M A; El-Gizawy, S A; Faheem, A M; McCarron, P A

    2016-03-16

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels cross-linked with the tetrahydroxyborate anion possess textural and rheological properties that can be used as novel drug-loaded vehicles for application to traumatic wounds. However, addition of soluble drug substances causes concentration-dependent phase separation and rheological changes. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of adding a local anaesthetic, but keeping the concentration low in an attempt to prevent these changes. Cross-linked hydrogels prepared from three grades of poly(vinyl alcohol) were characterised rheologically. Temperature sweep studies showed an elevated complex viscosity upon moving from 25°C to 80°C, which remained high for 48 h following completion of the cycle. Adhesion to model dermal surfaces achieved a maximum of 2.62 N cm(-2) and were greater than that observed to epidermal substrates, with a strong dependence on the rate of detachment used during testing. An optimised formulation (6% w/w PVA (31-50; 99) and 2% w/w THB) containing lidocaine hydrochloride loaded to an upper maximum concentration of 1.5% w/w was assessed for phase separation and drug crystallisation. After six months, crystallisation was present in formulations containing 0.7% and 1.5% lidocaine HCl. Changes in pH in response to increases in lidocaine loading were low. Drug release was shown to operate via a non-Fickian process for all three concentrations, with 60% occurring after approximately 24h. It can be concluded that using a low concentration of lidocaine hydrochloride in hydrogels based on poly(vinyl alcohol) will result in crystallisation. Furthermore, these hydrogels are unlikely to induce rapid anaesthesia due to the low loading and slow release kinetics. PMID:26802495

  17. What can we say about the dose-effect relationship at very low doses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a few sets of low-dose experimental radiobiological data to examine just what these data sets say with respect to the shape of the dose-effect relationship at very low doses. The examination of the data leads to the conclusion that neither experimental nor epidemiological data will ever be statistically strong enough to resolve the debate unambiguously. An alternative approach to the low-dose problem is proposed based on gaining a deeper understanding of both the mechanism of action of radiation and the cellular changes which lead to malignancy. Research spending needs to be directed to more basic investigations of radiation action and to ways by which the information from these studies can be applied to the interpretation of epidemiological data. (author)

  18. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2012-01-01

    Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration...... of BHBA, propanol, isopropanol, and isobutyrate; net splanchnic flux of propionate; hepatic extraction of ethanol and portal recovery of dietary ethanol. The overall metabolic effect of feeding large doses of propanol was a glucogenic response presumably driven by hepatic metabolism of propanol...... all 3 treatments C ≪ PPA metabolic variables responded to P and PPA treatments including decreased proportion of ruminal acetate to total VFA; increased proportions of ruminal propionate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate; increased arterial glucose concentration; decreased arterial...

  19. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  20. Effects of Interpretations of Televised Alcohol Portrayals on Children's Alcohol Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Meili, Heidi Kay

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a model of television interpretation processes regarding the influences of alcohol advertising and describes a study that tested the model with preadolescent at-risk students. Highlights include perceptions of alcohol use at home and on television; social norms; perceived realism of commercials; and intent to drink. (41 references) (LRW)

  1. The effect of ongoing exposure dynamics in dose response relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M Pujol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing infectivity as a function of pathogen dose is integral to microbial risk assessment. Dose-response experiments usually administer doses to subjects at one time. Phenomenological models of the resulting data, such as the exponential and the Beta-Poisson models, ignore dose timing and assume independent risks from each pathogen. Real world exposure to pathogens, however, is a sequence of discrete events where concurrent or prior pathogen arrival affects the capacity of immune effectors to engage and kill newly arriving pathogens. We model immune effector and pathogen interactions during the period before infection becomes established in order to capture the dynamics generating dose timing effects. Model analysis reveals an inverse relationship between the time over which exposures accumulate and the risk of infection. Data from one time dose experiments will thus overestimate per pathogen infection risks of real world exposures. For instance, fitting our model to one time dosing data reveals a risk of 0.66 from 313 Cryptosporidium parvum pathogens. When the temporal exposure window is increased 100-fold using the same parameters fitted by our model to the one time dose data, the risk of infection is reduced to 0.09. Confirmation of this risk prediction requires data from experiments administering doses with different timings. Our model demonstrates that dose timing could markedly alter the risks generated by airborne versus fomite transmitted pathogens.

  2. Committed effective doses at various times after intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed effective doses at nine times after intake from intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu 1 AMAD particles by adults. Data are given for various chemical forms of 359 nuclides. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on committed equivalent doses to organs is given in NRPB-M288. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  3. Effect of acute alcohol use on the lethality of suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo; Oquendo, Maria A; Richardson-Vejlgaard, Randall; Makhija, Nita M; Posner, Kelly; Mann, J John; Stanley, Barbara H

    2009-07-01

    Acute alcohol use is an important risk factor for attempted and completed suicide. We evaluated the effect of acute alcohol intake on the lethality of suicide attempts to test the hypothesis that acute alcohol intoxication is associated with more lethal suicide attempts. This retrospective study included 317 suicide attempters enrolled in mood disorders protocols. Demographic and clinical parameters were assessed. The use of alcohol at the time of the most lethal suicide attempt was determined. On the basis of their responses participants were classified into three groups: participants who reported "Enough alcohol intake to impair judgment, reality testing and diminish responsibility" or "Intentional intake of alcohol in order to facilitate implementation of attempt" were included in the group "Alcohol" (A); participants who reported "Some alcohol intake prior to but not related to attempt, reportedly not enough to impair judgment, reality testing" were included in the group "Some Alcohol" (SA); and participants who reported "No alcohol intake immediately prior to attempt" were included in the group "No Alcohol" (NA). Lethality of the most lethal suicide attempts was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. Prevalence of patients with alcohol use disorders was higher in the A group compared to the SA and NA groups. SA participants reported more reasons for living and lower suicide intent scores at the time of their most lethal suicide attempt compared to the A and NA groups. Acute alcohol use increases the lethality of suicide attempts in individuals with mood disorders.

  4. Total dose dependency and ELDRS effects on bipolar linear devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, C. C.; McClure, S. S.; Rax, B. G.; Lehman, J. M.; Minto, T. D.; Wiedeman, M.

    2002-01-01

    The use of bipolar linear devices is prevalent in most satellite and some space applications. However, degradation as a result of low dose irradiations known as ELDERS (effects of enhanced low dose rate sensitivity) is a major concern when selecting flight hardware. Many studies and reports have been conducted on this possible phenomenon as well as their responsible physical mechanisms.

  5. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional dose, volume, and outcome data for lung are reviewed in detail. The rate of symptomatic pneumonitis is related to many dosimetric parameters, and there are no evident threshold 'tolerance dose-volume' levels. There are strong volume and fractionation effects.

  6. Radiation dose-volume effects in the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marks, Lawrence B; Bentzen, Soren M; Deasy, Joseph O;

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional dose, volume, and outcome data for lung are reviewed in detail. The rate of symptomatic pneumonitis is related to many dosimetric parameters, and there are no evident threshold "tolerance dose-volume" levels. There are strong volume and fractionation effects....

  7. Nutraceutical strategies for ameliorating the toxic effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2013-04-01

    Rodent studies reveal that oxidative stress, much of it generated via induction/activation of NADPH oxidase, is a key mediator of a number of the pathogenic effects of chronic ethanol overconsumption. The highly reactive ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde is a key driver of this oxidative stress, and doubtless works in other ways to promote alcohol-induced pathology. Effective antioxidant measure may therefore be useful for mitigating the adverse health consequences of alcohol consumption; spirulina may have particular utility in this regard, as its chief phycochemical phycocyanobilin has recently been shown to function as an inhibitor of certain NADPH oxidase complexes, mimicking the physiological role of its chemical relatives biliverdin/bilirubin in this respect. Moreover, certain nutraceuticals, including taurine, pantethine, and lipoic acid, may have the potential to boost the activity of the mitochondrial isoform of aldehyde dehydrogenase, ALDH-2, accelerating conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate (which arguably has protective health effects). Little noticed clinical studies conducted nearly three decades ago reported that pre-ingestion of either taurine or pantethine could blunt the rise in blood acetaldehyde following ethanol consumption. Other evidence suggests that lipoic acid may function within mitochondria to maintain aldehyde dehydrogenase in a reduced active conformation; the impact of this agent on ethanol metabolism has however received little or no study. Studies evaluating the impact of nutracetical strategies on prevention of hangovers - which likely are mediated by acetaldehyde - may represent a quick, low-cost way to identify nutraceutical regimens that merit further attention for their potential impact on alcohol-induced pathology. Measures which boost or preserve ALDH-2 activity may also have important antioxidant potential, as this enzyme functions physiologically to protect cells from toxic aldehydes generated by oxidant stress. PMID

  8. Effects of alcohol compounds on the growth and lipid accumulation of oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available The inhibitors present in dilute acid-treated lignocellulosic hydrolysates would show great effect on the growth and product formation of microorganisms. To understand their inhibitory law and mechanism on oleaginous microorganism could help improving the efficiency of lignocellulose hydrolysis, detoxification, and lipid fermentation. The effects of four representative alcohol compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including furfuryl alcohol, vanillyl alcohol, catechol, hydroquinone on the cell growth and lipid accumulation of Trichosporon fermentans were systematically investigated in this work. The toxicity of selected alcohol compounds was well related to their log P value except furfuryl alcohol, whose log P value was the minimum but with the highest toxicity to T. fermentans. The inhibition of all the alcohol compounds on the growth of T. fermentans was more serious than on the lipid synthesis. Also, the growth of T. fermentans was more sensitive to the variation of inoculum size, temperature, and initial pH than lipid synthesis in the presence of alcohol compounds. Initial pH had more profound influence on the lipid fermentation than inoculum size and cultural temperature did. Careful control of fermentation conditions could be helpful for improving lipid yield of T. fermentans in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Among the four alcohol compounds tested, most alcohol compounds showed inhibition on both sugar consumption and malic enzyme activity of T. fermentans. However, vanillyl alcohol had little influence on the malic enzyme activity. Similarly, all alcohol compounds except vanillyl alcohol exerted damage on the cell membrane of T. fermentans.

  9. Effective dose and cancer risk in PET/CT exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the use of radiopharmaceutical positron-emitting in PET exam and realization of tomography by x-ray transmission in CT examination, an increase of dose with hybrid PET/CT technology is expected. However, differences of doses have been reported in many countries for the same type of procedure. It is expected that the dose is an influent parameter to standardize the protocols of PET/CT. This study aimed to estimate the effective doses and absorbed in 65 patients submitted to oncological Protocol in a nuclear medicine clinic in Rio de Janeiro, considering the risk of induction of cancer from the scan. The CT exam-related doses were estimated with a simulator of PMMA and simulated on the lmPACT resistance, which for program effective dose, were considered the weight factors of the lCRP 103. The PET exam doses were estimated by multiplying the activity administered to the patient with the ICRP dose 80 factors. The radiological risk for cancer incidence were estimated according to the ICRP 103. The results showed that the effective dose from CT exam is responsible for 70% of the effective total in a PET/CT scan. values of effective dose for the PET/CT exam reached average values of up to 25 mSv leading to a risk of 2, 57 x 10-4. Considering that in staging of oncological diseases at least four tests are performed annually, the total risk comes to 1,03x 10-3

  10. Alcohol intake and its effect on some appetite-regulating hormones in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calissendorff, Jan; Gustafsson, Thomas; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2012-01-01

    Background. Alcohol stimulates appetite. Ghrelin, obestatin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin are putative mediators. Objective. We studied whether alcohol ingestion affects serum levels of these peripheral hormones, and if gastroprotective sucralfate prevents such an effect. Materials....... Results. The ghrelin and leptin levels fell after ingestion of alcohol, whereas the obestatin and GLP-1 levels remained unchanged. Sucralfate did not affect any of the basal four hormone levels, nor the ghrelin or leptin responses to alcohol. Conclusions. An appetite-stimulating effect of alcohol...... is hardly mediated by any of the hormones studied in this investigation, as the GLP-1 and obestatin levels were unaffected by alcohol, the ghelin level decreased, and leptin - although declining after alcohol - has not previously been found to have short-term inhibitory effect on hunger....

  11. Topics on study of low dose-effect relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Takeshi [Toho Univ., School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Ohyama, Harumi

    1999-09-01

    It is not exceptional but usually observed that a dose-effect relationship in biosystem is not linear. Sometimes, the low dose-effect relationship appears entirely contrary to the expectation from high dose-effect. This is called a 'hormesis' phenomena. A high dose irradiation inflicts certainly an injury on biosystem. No matter how low the dose may be, an irradiation might inflict some injury on biosystem according to Linear Non-Threshold hypothesis(LNT). On the contrary to the expectation, a low dose irradiation stimulates immune system, and promotes cell proliferation. This is called 'radiation hormesis'. The studies of the radiation hormesis are made on from four points of view as follows: (1) radiation adaptive response, (2) revitalization caused by a low dose stimulation, (3) a low dose response unexpected from the LNT hypothesis, (4) negation of the LNT hypothesis. The various empirical proofs of radiation hormesis are introduced in the report. (M . Suetake)

  12. Effective dose estimation to patients and staff during urethrography procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulieman, A. [Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, P. O- Box 422, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Barakat, H. [Neelain University, College of Science and Technology, Medical Physics Department, Khartoum (Sudan); Alkhorayef, M.; Babikir, E. [King Saud University, College of Applied Sciences, Radiological Sciences Department, P. O. Box 10219, Riyadh 11433 (Saudi Arabia); Dalton, A.; Bradley, D. [University of Surrey, Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, Department of Physics, Surrey, GU2 7XH Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Medical-related radiation is the largest source of controllable radiation exposure to humans and it accounts for more than 95% of radiation exposure from man-made sources. Few data were available worldwide regarding patient and staff dose during urological ascending urethrography (ASU) procedure. The purposes of this study are to measure patient and staff entrance surface air kerma dose (ESAK) during ASU procedure and evaluate the effective doses. A total of 243 patients and 145 staff (Urologist) were examined in three Hospitals in Khartoum state. ESAKs were measured for patient and staff using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). Effective doses (E) were calculated using published conversion factors and methods recommended by the national Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). The mean ESAK dose for patients and staff dose were 7.79±6.7 mGy and 0.161±0.30 mGy per procedures respectively. The mean and range of the effective dose was 1.21 mSv per procedure. The radiation dose in this study is comparable with previous studies except Hospital C. It is obvious that high patient and staff exposure is due to the lack of experience and protective equipment s. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore continuous training is crucial. (Author)

  13. Cytotoxic Effects of Alcoholic Extract of Dorema Glabrum Seed on Cancerous Cells Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Bannazadeh Amirkhiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In the present study cytotoxic effects of the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed on viability of WEHI-164 cells, mouse Fibrosarcoma cell line and L929 normal cells were compared with the cytotoxic effects of Taxol (anticancer and apoptosis inducer drug. Methods: To find out the plant extract cytotoxic effects, MTT test and DNA fragmentation assay, the biochemical hallmark of apoptosis were performed on cultured and treated cells. Results: According to the findings the alcoholic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed can alter cells morphology and because of chromatin condensation and other changes they shrink and take a spherical shape, and lose their attachment too. So the plant extract inhibits cell growth albeit in a time and dose dependent manner and results in degradation of chromosomal DNA. Conclusion: Our data well established the anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Dorema Glabrum seed and clearly showed that the plant extract can induce apoptosis and not necrosis in vitro, but the mechanism of its activities remained unknown. These results demonstrated that Dorema Glabrum seed might be a novel and attractive therapeutic candidate for tumor treatment in clinical practices.

  14. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    CERN Document Server

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  15. Effects of dose fractionation on the response of alanine dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanine dosimetry is well established as a transfer standard and is becoming more prevalently used in routine dosimetry systems for radiation processing. Many routine measurement applications in radiation processing involve absorbed dose measurements resulting from fractioned exposures to ionizing radiation. Fractioning of absorbed dose is identified as an influence quantity (ISO/ASTM, 2013). This paper reports on study results of absorbed dose fractioning characteristics of alanine for gamma and high energy electron beam radiation sources. The results of this study indicate a radiation response difference due to absorbed dose fractioning in response can be observed after four fractionations for high-energy electron beams and no difference up to seven fractions for gamma rays using an ANOVA evaluation method. - Highlights: • Fractioning effects signaled in electron beam using an ANOVA at 6 equal increments. • Fractioning effects not signaled in gamma using an ANOVA up to 7 equal increments. • Insensitivity of alanine to dose fractioning indicates nominal impact on calibration

  16. Radioactive Doses - Predicted and Actual - and Likely Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagataki, S; Takamura, N

    2016-04-01

    Five years have passed since the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations on 11 March 2011. Here we refer to reports from international organisations as sources of predicted values obtained from environmental monitoring and dose estimation models, and reports from various institutes in Japan are used as sources of individual actual values. The World Health Organization, based on information available up to 11 September 2011 (and published in 2012), reported that characteristic effective doses in the first year after the accident, to all age groups, were estimated to be in the 10-50 mSv dose band in example locations in evacuation areas. Estimated characteristic thyroid doses to infants in Namie Town were within the 100-200 mSv dose band. A report from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation published in 2014 shows that the effective dose received by adults in evacuation areas during the first year after the accident was 1.1-13 mSv. The absorbed dose to the thyroid in evacuated settlements was 7.2-35 mSv in adults and 15-83 mSv in 1-year-old infants. Individual external radiation exposure in the initial 4 months after the accident, estimated by superimposing individual behaviour data on to a daily dose rate map, was less than 3 mSv in 93.9% of residents (maximum 15 mSv) in evacuation areas. Actual individual thyroid equivalent doses were less than 15 mSv in 98.8% of children (maximum 25 mSv) in evacuation areas. When uncertainty exists in dose estimation models, it may be sensible to err on the side of caution, and final estimated doses are often much greater than actual radiation doses. However, overestimation of the dose at the time of an accident has a great influence on the psychology of residents. More than 100 000 residents have not returned to the evacuation areas 5 years after the Fukushima accident because of the social and mental effects during the initial period of the disaster. Estimates of

  17. The effect of alcohol hangover on choice response time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, James A; Stephens, Richard; Jones, Kate; Owen, Lauren

    2016-07-01

    The effect of alcohol hangover on cognitive processing has received little attention. We explored the effect of alcohol hangover on choice response time (RT), a dominant dependent variable (DV) in cognitive research. Prior research of the effect of hangover on RT has produced mixed findings; all studies reviewed relied exclusively on estimates of central tendency (e.g. mean RT), which has limited information value. Here we present novel analytical methods by going beyond mean RT analysis. Specifically, we examined performance in hangover conditions (n=31) across the whole RT distribution by fitting ex-Gaussian models to participant data, providing a formal description of the RT distribution. This analysis showed detriments to performance under hangover conditions at the slower end of the RT distribution and increased RT variance under hangover conditions. We also fitted an explicit mathematical process model of choice RT - the diffusion model - which estimates parameters reflecting psychologically-meaningful processes underlying choice RT. This analysis showed that hangover reduced information processing efficiency during response selection, and increased response caution; changes in these parameters reflect hangover affecting core decisional-components of RT performance. The implications of the data as well as the methods used for hangover research are discussed. PMID:27166364

  18. Radiation doses and correlated late effects in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patient irradiation in diagnostic radiology was estimated from measurements of absorbed doses in different organs, assessment of the energy imparted and retrospective calculations based on literature data. Possible late biological effects, with special aspects on children, were surveyed. The dose to the lens of the eye and the possibility of shielding in carotid angiography was studied as was the absorbed dose to the thyroid gland at cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography in children. Calculations of the mean bone marrow dose and gonad doses were performed in children with chronic skeletal disease revealing large contributions from examinations of organs other than the skeleton. The dose distribution in the breast in mammography was investigated. Comparison of the energy imparted in common roentgen examinations in 1960 and 1975 showed an unexpected low decrease in spite of technical improvements. Reasons for the failing decrease are discussed. The energy imparted to children in urological examinations was reduced significantly due to introduction of high sensitivity screens and omission of dose demanding projections. Contributions to the possible late effects were estimated on the basis of the organ doses assessed. (author)

  19. Experimental dose effects after interstitial irradiation of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments performed on healthy brain (beagle) were performed to study the dose effects of the gamma emitters iodine-125, iridium-192, and gold-198. Permanent implants with low dose rates were contrasted with temporary implants with high-dose rates at an identical accumulative total dose across the study period (5-365 days). The three radioisotopes used allow to achieve sharply demonstrated necrotic volumes in the healthy tissue. Necrotic volume and side effects in terms of a vasogenic oedema can be influenced in dependence from the emitter applied. Dose absorption is nonlinear in the case of permanent implants due to perifocal mineralization. In cases of high-dose-rate implants, nonlinear dose absorption is of secondary importance. Opening of the blood-brain barrier resulting in a vasogenic oedema is the limiting factor for the tolerance of the healthy brain. Application of temporary high-dose-rate iodine-125 seeds is already one conclusion drawn from these experimental findings which is relevant to clinical application for the treatment of human brain tumours. (orig./MG)

  20. Correlation between effective dose and radiological risk: general concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Nersissian, Denise Yanikian; Melo, Camila Souza

    2016-01-01

    The present review aims to offer an educational approach related to the limitations in the use of the effective dose mgnitude as a tool for the quantification of doses resulting from diagnostic applications of ionizing radiation. We present a critical analysis of the quantities accepted and currently used for dosimetric evaluation in diagnostic imaging procedures, based on studies published in the literature. It is highlighted the use of these quantities to evaluate the risk attributed to the procedure and to calculate the effective dose, as well as to determine its correct use and interpretation.

  1. Correlation between effective dose and radiological risk: general concepts*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Nersissian, Denise Yanikian; Melo, Camila Souza

    2016-01-01

    The present review aims to offer an educational approach related to the limitations in the use of the effective dose mgnitude as a tool for the quantification of doses resulting from diagnostic applications of ionizing radiation. We present a critical analysis of the quantities accepted and currently used for dosimetric evaluation in diagnostic imaging procedures, based on studies published in the literature. It is highlighted the use of these quantities to evaluate the risk attributed to the procedure and to calculate the effective dose, as well as to determine its correct use and interpretation. PMID:27403018

  2. Correlation between effective dose and radiological risk: general concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Paulo Roberto; Yoshimura, Elisabeth Mateus; Nersissian, Denise Yanikian; Melo, Camila Souza, E-mail: pcosta@if.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2016-05-15

    The present review aims to offer an educational approach related to the limitations in the use of the effective dose magnitude as a tool for the quantification of doses resulting from diagnostic applications of ionizing radiation. We present a critical analysis of the quantities accepted and currently used for dosimetric evaluation in diagnostic imaging procedures, based on studies published in the literature. It is highlighted the use of these quantities to evaluate the risk attributed to the procedure and to calculate the effective dose, as well as to determine its correct use and interpretation. (author)

  3. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to widespread white matter loss. PMID:27286935

  4. An Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies on Youth Risky Sexual Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Robert Kaestner; Michael Grossman

    2005-01-01

    The problems of teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and the high rates of other sexually transmitted diseases among youth have lead to widespread concern with the sexual behaviors of teenagers. Alcohol use is one of the most commonly cited correlates of risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this research is to investigate the causal role of alcohol in determining sexual activity and risky sexual behavior among teenagers and young adults. This research also addresses the question of whether there are pub...

  5. Effective dose range for dental cone beam computed tomography scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To estimate the absorbed organ dose and effective dose for a wide range of cone beam computed tomography scanners, using different exposure protocols and geometries. Materials and methods: Two Alderson Radiation Therapy anthropomorphic phantoms were loaded with LiF detectors (TLD-100 and TLD-100H) which were evenly distributed throughout the head and neck, covering all radiosensitive organs. Measurements were performed on 14 CBCT devices: 3D Accuitomo 170, Galileos Comfort, i-CAT Next Generation, Iluma Elite, Kodak 9000 3D, Kodak 9500, NewTom VG, NewTom VGi, Pax-Uni3D, Picasso Trio, ProMax 3D, Scanora 3D, SkyView, Veraviewepocs 3D. Effective dose was calculated using the ICRP 103 (2007) tissue weighting factors. Results: Effective dose ranged between 19 and 368 μSv. The largest contributions to the effective dose were from the remainder tissues (37%), salivary glands (24%), and thyroid gland (21%). For all organs, there was a wide range of measured values apparent, due to differences in exposure factors, diameter and height of the primary beam, and positioning of the beam relative to the radiosensitive organs. Conclusions: The effective dose for different CBCT devices showed a 20-fold range. The results show that a distinction is needed between small-, medium-, and large-field CBCT scanners and protocols, as they are applied to different indication groups, the dose received being strongly related to field size. Furthermore, the dose should always be considered relative to technical and diagnostic image quality, seeing that image quality requirements also differ for patient groups. The results from the current study indicate that the optimisation of dose should be performed by an appropriate selection of exposure parameters and field size, depending on the diagnostic requirements.

  6. Effect of Short Chain Alcohols upon Viscosity of TTAB Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-fei Yan; Hua-zhen Li; Hai-yang Yang; Jia-sheng Qian; Ping-ping Zhu; Ping-sheng He

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ethanol (C2H5OH),propanol (C3H7OH),and butanol (C4H9OH) upon the viscosity of tetrade- cyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) solution in the presence or absence of KBr at 30℃ was investi- gated,where the surfactant concentration Cs is kept constant.In the absence of KBr,the relative viscosity ηr of TTAB solution increases linearly with the alcohol concentration CA,indicating that the alcohols do not promote micelle formation of TTAB.In the presence of KBr,ηr linearly decreases with CA for C2H5OH, but it exhibits a maximum with increasing CA for C3H7OH or C4H9OH.The facts reveal that C2H5OH or C4H9OH promotes the micelle formation of TTAB.A possible explanation is that the hydrophobicity of the micellar interior is enhanced by KBr,so that C2H5OH or C4H9OH can dissolve in micelle and promotes micelle formation.In the presence of KCl,which is less efficient in promoting the micelle formation of cationic surfactant,both C3H7OH and C4H9OH have only a slight effect on the micelle formation.In contrast,due to the hydrophilicity,C2H5OH cannot dissolve in micelles in the presence of KBr or KCl.

  7. Biological effects and equivalent doses in radiotherapy: a software solution

    CERN Document Server

    Voyant, Cyril; Roustit, Rudy; Biffi, Katia; Marcovici, Celine Lantieri

    2013-01-01

    The limits of TDF (time, dose, and fractionation) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding the delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. We therefore propose a calculation interface under the GNU license to be used for equivalent doses, biological doses, and normal tumor complication probability (Lyman model). The methodology used draws from several sources: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames. The results are obtained from an algorithm that minimizes an ad-hoc cost function, and then compared to the equivalent dose computed using standard calculators in seven French radiotherapy centers.

  8. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  9. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose.

  10. Effect of staff training on radiation dose in pediatric CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojreh, Azadeh, E-mail: azadeh.hojreh@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biological Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of General and Paediatric Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18–20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Weber, Michael, E-mail: michael.Weber@Meduniwien.Ac.At [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Division of General and Paediatric Radiology, Waehringer Guertel 18–20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Homolka, Peter, E-mail: peter.Homolka@Meduniwien.Ac.At [Medical University of Vienna, Centre for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Waehringer Guertel 18–20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Pediatric patient CT doses were compared before and after staff training. • Staff training increasing dose awareness resulted in patient dose reduction. • Application of DRL reduced number of CT's with unusually high doses. • Continuous education and training are effective regarding dose optimization. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of staff training on radiation doses applied in pediatric CT scans. Methods: Pediatric patient doses from five CT scanners before (1426 scans) and after staff training (2566 scans) were compared statistically. Examinations included cranial CT (CCT), thoracic, abdomen–pelvis, and trunk scans. Dose length products (DLPs) per series were extracted from CT dose reports archived in the PACS. Results: A pooled analysis of non-traumatic scans revealed a statistically significant reduction in the dose for cranial, thoracic, and abdomen/pelvis scans (p < 0.01). This trend could be demonstrated also for trunk scans, however, significance could not be established due to low patient frequencies (p > 0.05). The percentage of scans performed with DLPs exceeding the German DRLs was reduced from 41% to 7% (CCT), 19% to 5% (thorax-CT), from 9% to zero (abdominal–pelvis CT), and 26% to zero (trunk; DRL taken as summed DRLs for thorax plus abdomen–pelvis, reduced by 20% accounting for overlap). Comparison with Austrian DRLs – available only for CCT and thorax CT – showed a reduction from 21% to 3% (CCT), and 15 to 2% (thorax CT). Conclusions: Staff training together with application of DRLs provide an efficient approach for optimizing radiation dose in pediatric CT practice.

  11. Effect of staff training on radiation dose in pediatric CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pediatric patient CT doses were compared before and after staff training. • Staff training increasing dose awareness resulted in patient dose reduction. • Application of DRL reduced number of CT's with unusually high doses. • Continuous education and training are effective regarding dose optimization. - Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of staff training on radiation doses applied in pediatric CT scans. Methods: Pediatric patient doses from five CT scanners before (1426 scans) and after staff training (2566 scans) were compared statistically. Examinations included cranial CT (CCT), thoracic, abdomen–pelvis, and trunk scans. Dose length products (DLPs) per series were extracted from CT dose reports archived in the PACS. Results: A pooled analysis of non-traumatic scans revealed a statistically significant reduction in the dose for cranial, thoracic, and abdomen/pelvis scans (p < 0.01). This trend could be demonstrated also for trunk scans, however, significance could not be established due to low patient frequencies (p > 0.05). The percentage of scans performed with DLPs exceeding the German DRLs was reduced from 41% to 7% (CCT), 19% to 5% (thorax-CT), from 9% to zero (abdominal–pelvis CT), and 26% to zero (trunk; DRL taken as summed DRLs for thorax plus abdomen–pelvis, reduced by 20% accounting for overlap). Comparison with Austrian DRLs – available only for CCT and thorax CT – showed a reduction from 21% to 3% (CCT), and 15 to 2% (thorax CT). Conclusions: Staff training together with application of DRLs provide an efficient approach for optimizing radiation dose in pediatric CT practice

  12. Monsters, Monkeys, & Mandalas: Art Therapy with Children Experiencing the Effects of Trauma and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerteisen, June

    2008-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term that describes the range of effects associated with the diagnoses of Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). FASD itself is not a diagnosis, but rather encompasses a wide range of symptomatic behaviors that occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during…

  13. Effect of D-(+)-glucose on the stability of polyvinyl alcohol fricke hydrogel three dimensional dosimeter for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yue Jiao; Chen, Jie; Yang, Liming; Chen, Bin; Sheng, Zhenmei; Luo, Wen Yun [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai (China); Chen, Jian Xin; Lu, Xun; Sui, Guo Ping [Chemical and Ionizing Radiation Metrology Institute, Shanghai Institute of Measurement and Testing Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    D-(+)-glucose (Glc) was added to the original Fricke polyvinyl alcohol-glutaraldehyde-xylenol orange (FPGX) hydrogel dosimeter system to make a more stable FPGX hydrogel three-dimensional dosimeter in this paper. Polyvinyl alcohol was used as a substrate, which was combined with Fricke solution. Various concentrations of Glc were tested with linear relevant fitting for optimal hydrogel production conditions. The effects of various formulations on the stability and sensitivity of dosimeters were evaluated. The results indicated that D-(+)-Glc, as a free radical scavenger, had a great effect on stabilizing the dose response related to absorbency and reducing the auto-oxidization of ferrous ions. A careful doping with Glc could slow down the color change of the dosimeter before and after radiation without any effect on the sensitivity of the dosimeter.

  14. Effectiveness of ignition interlocks for preventing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes: a Community Guide systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Randy W; Voas, Robert; Beirness, Doug; Shults, Ruth A; Sleet, David A; Nichols, James L; Compton, Richard

    2011-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of ignition interlocks for reducing alcohol-impaired driving and alcohol-related crashes was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Because one of the primary research issues of interest--the degree to which the installation of interlocks in offenders' vehicles reduces alcohol-impaired driving in comparison to alternative sanctions (primarily license suspension)--was addressed by a 2004 systematic review conducted for the Cochrane Collaboration, the current review incorporates that previous work and extends it to include more recent literature and crash outcomes. The body of evidence evaluated includes the 11 studies from the prior review, plus four more recent studies published through December 2007. The installation of ignition interlocks was associated consistently with large reductions in re-arrest rates for alcohol-impaired driving within both the earlier and later bodies of evidence. Following removal of interlocks, re-arrest rates reverted to levels similar to those for comparison groups. The limited available evidence from three studies that evaluated crash rates suggests that alcohol-related crashes decrease while interlocks are installed in vehicles. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these findings provide strong evidence that interlocks, while they are in use in offenders' vehicles, are effective in reducing re-arrest rates. However, the potential for interlock programs to reduce alcohol-related crashes is currently limited by the small proportion of offenders who participate in the programs and the lack of a persistent beneficial effect once the interlock is removed. Suggestions for facilitating more widespread and sustained use of ignition interlocks are provided. PMID:21335270

  15. Costs, health effects and cost-effectiveness of alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, T.; Habicht, J.; Reinap, M.; Chisholm, D.; Baltussen, R.M.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the population-level costs, effects and cost-effectiveness of different alcohol and tobacco control strategies in Estonia. DESIGN: A WHO cost-effectiveness modelling framework was used to estimate the total costs and effects of interventions. Costs were assessed in Estonian Kroo

  16. Unchanged acetylation of isoniazid by alcohol intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcke, J T R; Døssing, M; Angelo, H R;

    2004-01-01

    no impact on the conversion of INH to its metabolite acetylisoniazid, which is catalysed by the enzyme N-acetyltranferase. Accordingly, a metabolic effect of acute alcohol intake on INH metabolism probably contributes little to the therapeutic failure of anti-tuberculosis treatment among alcoholics.......SETTING: In 10 healthy subjects, the influence of acute alcohol intake on the pharmacokinetics of isoniazid (INH) was studied. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that alcohol increases the conversion of INH by acetylation into its metabolite acetylisoniazid. DESIGN: In a crossover design, an oral...... dose of 300 mg INH was administered on 2 separate days, 14 days apart, with or without alcohol to a serum alcohol of about 21 mmol/l (1 g/l) maintained for 12 h. RESULTS: Neither the metabolism of INH nor that of acetylisoniazid was changed by acute alcohol intake. CONCLUSION: Acute alcohol intake has...

  17. Doses and biological effect of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic values and their symbols as well as units of physical dosimetry are given. The most important information about biological radiation effects is presented. Polish radiation protection standards are cited. (A.S.)

  18. Effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; Effets des faibles doses de rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, R. [Office de Protection contre les Rayonnements Ionisants, 78 - le Vesinet (France)

    2006-07-01

    Several groups of human have been irradiated by accidental or medical exposure, if no gene defect has been associated to these exposures, some radioinduced cancers interesting several organs are observed among persons exposed over 100 to 200 mSv delivered at high dose rate. Numerous steps are now identified between the initial energy deposit in tissue and the aberrations of cell that lead to tumors but the sequence of events and the specific character of some of them are the subject of controversy. The stake of this controversy is the risk assessment. From the hypothesis called linear relationship without threshold is developed an approach that leads to predict cancers at any tiny dose without real scientific foundation. The nature and the intensity of biological effects depend on the quantity of energy absorbed in tissue and the modality of its distribution in space and time. The probability to reach a target (a gene) associated to the cancerating of tissue is directly proportional to the dose without any other threshold than the quantity of energy necessary to the effect, its probability of effect can be a more complex function and depends on the quality of the damage produced as well as the ability of the cell to repair the damage. These two parameters are influenced by the concentration of initial injuries in the target so by the quality of radiation and by the dose rate. The mechanisms of defence explain the low efficiency of radiation as carcinogen and then the linearity of effects in the area of low doses is certainly the least defensible scientific hypothesis for the prediction of the risks. (N.C.)

  19. The Hepatoprotective Effects of Corn Silk against Dose-induced Injury of Ecstasy (MDMA Using Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk (CS is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatoprotective activity of CS by Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System (IRLP. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk (10, 20, 40, and 100 mg kg-1 was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity by IRLP. Phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve, respectively. IRLP system is ideal for studying biochemical alterations of chemicals with minimum neuro-hormonal effects. In this study, the liver was perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentration of hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk (10, 20, 40, 50,100mg/kg, added to the buffer, and perfused for 2 hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including amino-transferees activities and the level of GSH, were assessed as indicators of liver viability. Consequently, sections of liver tissues were examined for any histopathological changes. Results: Histopathological changes in liver tissues were related to hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Also, 50 and 100mg/kg doses caused significant (P<0.05 histopathological changes. Level of GSH in samples perfused with hydro-alcoholic extract increased compared to the control group. Conclusion: Hepatoprotective effect of CS is due to decreased lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms might also be involved.

  20. Radiation-induced stress effects following low dose exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recent advances in our understanding of effects of radiation on living cells suggest that fundamentally different mechanisms are operating at low doses compared with high doses. Also, acute low doses appear to involve different response mechanisms compared with chronic low doses. Both genomic instability and so called 'bystander effects' show many similarities with well known cellular responses to oxidative stress. These predominate following low dose exposures and are maximally expressed at doses as low as 5mGy. At the biological level this is not surprising. Chemical toxicity has been known for many years to show these patterns of dose response. Cell signaling and coordinated stress mechanisms appear to dominate acute low dose exposure to chemicals. Adaptation to chemical exposures is also well documented although mechanisms of adaptive responses are less clear. In the radiation field adaptive responses also become important when low doses are protracted or fractionated. Recent data from our group concerning bystander effects following multiple low dose exposures suggest that adaptive responses can be induced in cells which only receive signals from irradiated neighbours. We have data showing delayed and bystander effects in humans, rodents 3 fish species and in prawns following in vitro and/or in vivo irradiation of haematopoietic tissues and, from the aquatic groups, gill and skin/fin tissue. Bystander signals induced by radiation can be communicated from fish to fish in vivo and are detectable as early as the eyed egg stage, i.e. as soon as tissue starts to develop. Using proteomic approaches we have determined that the bystander and the direct irradiation proteomes are different. The former show significant upregulation of 5 proteins with anti-oxidant, regenerative and restorative functions while the direct radiation proteome has 2 upregulated proteins both involved in proliferation. These data have implications for

  1. SU-E-T-58: Calculation of Dose Distribution of Accuboost Brachytherapy in Deformable Polyvinil Alcohol Breast Phantom Using Biomechanical Modeling and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadyari, P [Nuclear Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz Un, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi, R [Nuclear Engineering Department, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirazi, M Mosleh [Radiotherapy and Oncology Department, Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University of M, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lotfi, M [Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Medical Imaging Research Center, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Meigooni, A [Comprehensive cancer center of Nevada - University of Nevada Las Vegas UNL, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: the accuboost is the most modern method of breast brachytherapy that is a boost method in compressed tissue by a mammography unit. the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue, as compressed tissue is important that should be characterized. Methods: In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast in mammography loading, the displacement of breast tissue and the dose distribution in compressed and uncompressed tissue, are investigated. Dosimetry was performed by two dosimeter methods of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 code and thermoluminescence dosimeters. For Monte Carlo simulations, the dose values in cubical lattice were calculated using tally F6. The displacement of the breast elements was simulated by Finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software, from which the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model is constructed from MR images of 6 volunteers. Experimental dosimetery was performed by placing the thermoluminescence dosimeters into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom and on the proximal edge of compression plates to the chest. Results: The results indicate that using the cone applicators would deliver more than 95% of dose to the depth of 5 to 17mm, while round applicator will increase the skin dose. Nodal displacement, in presence of gravity and 60N forces, i.e. in mammography compression, was determined with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in orthogonal orientation. Finally, in comparison of the acquired from thermoluminescence dosimeters with MCNP5, they are consistent with each other in breast phantom and in chest's skin with average different percentage of 13.7±5.7 and 7.7±2.3, respectively. Conclusion: The major advantage of this kind of dosimetry is the ability of 3D dose calculation by FE Modeling. Finally, polyvinyl alcohol is a reliable material as a breast tissue equivalent dosimetric phantom that provides the ability of TLD

  2. Sedative effect of monoterpene alcohols in mice: a preliminary screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Raphael, Ellen; Brocksom, Ursula; Brocksom, Timothy John

    2007-01-01

    Many essential oils and monoterpenes are used therapeutically as relaxing drugs and tranquilizers. In this study, ten structurally related monoterpene alcohols, present in many essential oils, were evaluated in mice to investigate their pharmacological potential in the central nervous system. Isopulegol (1), neoisopulegol (2), (+/-)-isopinocampheol (3), (-)-myrtenol (4), (-)-cis-myrtanol (5), (+)-p-menth-1-en-9-ol (6) and (+/-)-neomenthol (8) exhibited a depressant effect in the pentobarbital-induced sleep test, indicating a sedative property. (-)-Menthol (7), (+)-dihydrocarveol (9), and (+/-)-isoborneol (10) were ineffective in this test. The results show that these psychoactive monoterpenes have the profile of sedative drugs, and this pharmacological effect is influenced by the structural characteristics of the molecules. PMID:17913072

  3. The Effect of Alcohol Prohibition on Illicit-Drug-Related Crimes

    OpenAIRE

    Conlin, Michael; Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Pepper, John

    2005-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of alcohol access on drug-related crime and mortality using detailed information on access laws in Texas between 1978 and 1996. Counties with alcohol access have higher average levels of drug-related crimes. However, after controlling for both county and year fixed effects, we find that having local alcohol access decreases crime associated with illicit drugs. This basic finding is replicated in two alternative analyses. First, we find that prohibiting the sale of beer ...

  4. The effect of alcohol and repetition at encoding on implicit and explicit false memories

    OpenAIRE

    Garfinkel, S.N.; Dienes, Zoltán; Duka, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol impairs explicit memory, whilst leaving implicit memory relatively intact. Less is known about its effects on false memories. Aim The present study examines the effects of alcohol on explicit and implicit false memories using study list repetition as a tool for modulating learning at encoding. Methods Thirty-two participants were given either an alcohol (0.6 g/kg) or placebo beverage before undergoing an encoding phase consisting of 10 lists of nine associated words (veridic...

  5. Health effects of daily airborne particle dose in children: Direct association between personal dose and respiratory health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution is a widespread health problem associated with respiratory symptoms. Continuous exposure monitoring was performed to estimate alveolar and tracheobronchial dose, measured as deposited surface area, for 103 children and to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to airborne particles through spirometry, skin prick tests and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). The mean daily alveolar deposited surface area dose received by children was 1.35 × 103 mm2. The lowest and highest particle number concentrations were found during sleeping and eating time. A significant negative association was found between changes in pulmonary function tests and individual dose estimates. Significant differences were found for asthmatics, children with allergic rhinitis and sensitive to allergens compared to healthy subjects for eNO. Variation is a child's activity over time appeared to have a strong impact on respiratory outcomes, which indicates that personal monitoring is vital for assessing the expected health effects of exposure to particles. -- Highlights: •Particle dose was estimated through personal monitoring on more than 100 children. •We focused on real-time daily dose of particle alveolar deposited surface area. •Spirometry, skin prick and exhaled Nitric Oxide tests were performed. •Negative link was found between changes in pulmonary functions and individual doses. •A child's lifestyle appeared to have a strong impact on health respiratory outcomes. -- The respiratory health effects of daily airborne particle dose on children through personal monitoring

  6. The effect of low-dose spironolactone on resistant hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engbaek, Mette; Hjerrild, Mette; Hallas, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to estimate the effect of addition of low-dose spironolactone to previous antihypertensive therapy in patients with resistant hypertension. Patients had 25 to 50 mg of spironolactone once daily added to the treatment of hypertension that was uncontrolled despite previous treatment...... with three classes of antihypertensive drugs. The effect on blood pressure was estimated by office measurements together with serum potassium and adverse effects. The data were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 544 patients were identified; 200 were excluded because of secondary hypertension, other......-dose spironolactone is highly effective when added to previous treatment of patients with resistant hypertension....

  7. The Effect of Subchronic Administration of the Aqueous and Hydro-alcoholic Extracts of Crocus sativus from Estahbanat, Fars Province, on Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Emamghoreishi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: In Iranian traditional medicine, Crocus sativus L. has been defined as an exultant plant. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of subchronic administration of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of Crocus sativus on mice. Methods: The effect of subchronic i.p. administration of different doses of the aqueous extract (50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg or water and the hydro-alcoholic extract (100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg or water of Crocus sativus stigma on immobility, climbing, and swimming behaviors were evaluated in the forced swimming test in mice. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg and imipramine (15 mg/kg were used as reference drugs. Additionally, the effect of both plant preparations on spontaneous activity was examined. The collected data was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Results: The aqueous extract at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg produced a significant reduction in immobility along with an increase in climbing behavior which is similar to those which have been observed with imipramine. The hydro-alcoholic extract did not show significant effects on immobility, climbing and swimming behaviors of all studied doses, compared to control group. The aqueous extract of all studied doses and the hydro-alcoholic extract at dose of 1600 mg/kg decreased spontaneous activity. Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that the aqueous, but not hydro-alcoholic, extract of Crocus sativus stigma from Estahbanat in Fars province, in subchronic administration possess an antidepressant-like activity which may be mediated through norepinephrine system.

  8. A review of in vitro dose-effect relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the principal reasons for investigating the relationship between absorbed dose and the number of chromosome aberrations per cell in lymphocytes taken from samples of human peripheral blood is to obtain a calibration curve for biological dosimetry. Factors affecting the radiation-induced aberration yield in vitro of T lymphocytes are reviewed under the following heads: temperature, oxygen effect, inter-mitotic death, mitotic delay, dose rate background of aberrations in normal humans, mathematical representation. (U.K.)

  9. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to widespread white matter loss.

  10. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  11. Ameliorative Effects of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF from Schisandra chinensis on Alcoholic Liver Oxidative Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate transaminase, TC (total cholesterol, TG (triglyceride, L-DLC (low density lipoprotein in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05 in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase, GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase, and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05. Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  12. Ameliorative effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) from Schisandra chinensis on alcoholic liver oxidative injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Qu, Xin-Nan; Han, Ye; Zheng, Si-Wen; Wang, Jia; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the protective effect of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) on acute alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury in mice. 5-HMF, a maillard reaction product, was isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis for animal experiments. Experimental ICR mice were pretreated with different doses of 5-HMF (7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg) for seven days by gavage feeding. Biochemical markers and enzymatic antioxidants from serum and liver tissue were examined. Our results showed that the activities of ALT (alanine aminotransferase), AST (aspartate transaminase), TC (total cholesterol), TG (triglyceride), L-DLC (low density lipoprotein) in serum and the levels of MDA (malondialdehyde) in liver tissue, decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in the 5-HMF-treated group compared with the alcohol group. On the contrary, enzymatic antioxidants CAT (catalase), GSH-Px (glutathione peroxidase), and GSH SOD (superoxide dismutase) were markedly elevated in liver tissue treated with 5-HMF (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the hepatic levels of pro-inflammatory response marker tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly suppressed (p < 0.05). Histopathological examination revealed that 5-HMF (30 mg/kg) pretreatment noticeably prevented alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. It is suggested that the hepatoprotective effects exhibited by 5-HMF on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  13. Dose-effect relationships for the US radium dial painters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-response data are presented from a large percentage of the US workers who were exposed to radium through the painting of luminous dials. The data in this paper are only from females, because very few males worked in this occupation. Log-normal analyses were done for radium-induced bone sarcomas and head carcinomas after the populations of the respective doses were first determined to be log-normally distributed. These populations included luminisers who expressed no radium-related cancerous condition. In this study of the female radium luminisers, the most important data concerning radiation protection are probably from workers who were exposed to radium but showed no cancer incidence. A total of 1391 subjects with average measured skeletal doses below 10 Gy are in this category. A primary purpose is to illustrate the strong case that 226,228Ra is representative of those radionuclides that exemplify in humans a 'threshold' dose, a dose below which there has been no observed health effects on the exposed individual. Application of a threshold dose for radium deposited in the skeleton does not mean to imply that any other source of skeletal irradiation should be considered to follow a similar pattern. Second, a policy issue that begs for attention is the economic consequence of forcing radiation to appear as a highly toxic insult. It is time to evaluate the data objectively instead of formatting the extrapolation scheme beforehand and forcing the data to fit a preconceived pattern such as linearity through the dose-effect origin. In addition, it is time to re-evaluate (again) variations in background radiation levels throughout the world and to cease being concerned with, and regulating against, miniscule doses for which no biomedical effects on humans have ever been satisfactorily identified or quantified. (author)

  14. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Juan L; Cunningham, Christopher L; Finn, Deborah A; Young, Emily A; Helpenstell, Lily K; Schuette, Lindsey M; Fidler, Tara L; Kosten, Therese A; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2015-10-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increase alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects of ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies.

  15. Chronic Alcohol Intoxication and Cortical Ischemia: Study of Their Comorbidity and the Protective Effects of Minocycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gomes-Leal, Walace; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol intoxication (CAI) increases both morbidity and mortality of stroke patients. Despite the high prevalence of CAI and ischemic stroke, studies addressing their comorbidity and/or protective alternatives remain scarce. Thus, the influence of CAI on both stroke outcome and minocycline treatment (recognized for its neuroprotective effect) was investigated. Female Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) for 55 days. Then, focal ischemia was induced by endothelin-1 in the motor cortex. Two hours later, four doses of 50 mg/kg of minocycline every 12 hours followed by five doses of 25 mg/kg every 24 hours were administered. Behavioral performance (open field and rotarod tests) and immunohistochemical (cellular density, neuronal death, and astrocytic activation) and biochemical (lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels) analyses were performed. CAI increased motor disruption, nitrite and lipid peroxidation levels, and neuronal loss caused by ischemia, whereas it reduced the astrogliosis. Minocycline was effective in preventing the motor and tissue damage caused by stroke. However, these effects were attenuated when CAI preceded stroke. Our data suggest that CAI beginning in adolescence contributes to a worse outcome in ischemic stroke survivors and reduces the benefits of minocycline, possibly requiring adjustments in therapy. PMID:27418952

  16. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandro La Vignera; Rosita A Condorelli; Giancarlo Balercia; Enzo Vicari; Aldo E Calogero

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used,its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial.Over the years,many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility.This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences.Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities,a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition,and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate.These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption.Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters.This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low-normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol.Nevertheless,alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies.Finally,the genetic background and other concomitant,alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage.In conclusion,alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation.

  17. EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL INTAKE ON PENILE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of alcohol intake on penile structure and function in rats.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group and alcohol intake group. They were administered with 2 mL of normal saline and 40% alcohol solution respectively through gastric tubes every day. Three months later, the animal model of alcohol intake was evaluated by modified Nayagida's method, and the effects of alcohol on the rats were studied by sexual behavior, the number of apomorphine-induced penile erection,level of testosterone in the sera, and the content of penile smooth muscle.Results The scores of animal model of alcohol intake evaluated by Nayagida's method were 0. 66 ± 2. 05 in the control group and 9. 26 ± 5.50 in the alcohol intake group (P < 0.05 ), which indicated that an animal model of alcohol intake was successfully established. Sexual behavior, the number of apomorphine-induced penile erection, testosterone level in the sera, and the content of penile smooth muscle of the alcohol intake group were all statistically different as compared with the control group ( P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Alcohol intake induces sexual dysfunction in rats, which may be due to the decline of testosterone level in the sera and decline of penile smooth muscle.

  18. Clinical effect of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on alcohol hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Joon Seok; Chung, Yoon Hee; Chung, Su Jin; Lee, Ho Sung; Song, Eun Ho; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Lee, Yu Jeung; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nam, Yunsung; Jeong, Ji Hoon

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus (PEA) on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hangover as well as blood lab parameters. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial was conducted. The PEA was orally administered before and after consuming alcohol 1.75 g/kg of pure alcohol. After alcohol consumption, BAC was measured for evaluation of alcohol pharmacokinetics. In the second day morning, subjects were asked to complete the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS) questionnarie. BAC results showed little difference between placebo and PEA groups, indicating that PEA does not have an effect on the pharmacokinetics of alcohol. However, several AHS items (i.e., tired, headache, dizziness, stomachache and nausea) and AHS total score were significantly improved by PEA. Blood lab parameters were significantly altered by alcohol in the placebo group. The alteration by alcohol of glucose and C-reactive protein (CRP) level was significantly attenuated by PEA. Therefore, PEA may have potential to reduce the severity of the alcohol hangover by inhibiting the alcohol-induced hypoglycemia and inflammatory response. PMID:26012258

  19. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and information processing in high and low sensation-seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Ostling, Erik W.; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that has been associated with drug abuse. Some evidence suggests that sensation-seekers might experience increased rewarding effects from drugs of abuse, possibly contributing to the association between sensation-seeking and risk for drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of three doses of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg) on inhibitory control, information processing, and subjective ratings in a group of high sensation-...

  20. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Willem-Jan; Cleveringa, A. M.; Greijdanus, B.; Meyer, P.; Heineman, E.; Hulscher, J. B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced

  1. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. (St. Mary' s Coll., Notre Dame, IN (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  2. Reducing effect of saikosaponin A, an active ingredient of Bupleurum falcatum, on alcohol self-administration in rats: Possible involvement of the GABAB receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Lorrai, Irene; Carai, Mauro A M; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Mugnaini, Claudia; Corelli, Federico; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2016-05-16

    Recent studies demonstrated that treatment with saikosaponin A (SSA) - an active ingredient of the medicinal herb, Bupleurum falcatum L. - selectively suppressed, likely via a GABAB receptor-mediated mechanism, intravenous self-administration of morphine and cocaine in rats [Yoon et al., 2012; 2013]. The present study was designed to investigate whether the capacity of SSA to suppress morphine and cocaine self-administration extends to oral alcohol self-administration. To this end, selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats were trained to lever-respond on a Fixed Ratio (FR) 4 (FR4) schedule of reinforcement for alcohol (15%, v/v) in daily 30-min sessions. Once responding had stabilized, rats were tested under the FR4 (measure of alcohol reinforcing properties) and Progressive Ratio (PR; measure of alcohol motivational properties) schedules of reinforcement. The possible involvement of the GABAB receptor system was investigated testing the effect of (a) pretreatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist, SCH50911, and (b) combined treatment with the positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, GS39783. Treatment with SSA (0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/kg, i.p.) markedly reduced lever-responding for alcohol, amount of self-administered alcohol, and breakpoint for alcohol (defined as the lowest response requirement not achieved in the PR experiment). Pretreatment with 2mg/kg SCH50911 (i.p.) resulted in a partial blockade of the reducing effect of 0.5mg/kg SSA on lever-responding for alcohol and amount of self-administered alcohol. Combination of per se ineffective doses of GS39783 (5mg/kg, i.g.) and SSA (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) reduced lever-responding for alcohol and amount of self-administered alcohol. These results (a) extend to alcohol self-administration the capacity of SSA to suppress morphine and cocaine self-administration in rats and (b) suggest that the GABAB receptor system is likely part of the neural substrate underlying the reducing effect of SSA on

  3. Cost-effectiveness of reduction of off-site dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1970's, nuclear power plants have been designed and operated with a target of not releasing more than one percent of the licensed limits (derived emission limits) in liquid and gaseous effluents. The AECB initiated this study of the cost-effectiveness of the reduction of off-site doses as part of a review to determine if further measures to reduce off-site doses might be reasonably achievable. Atlantic Nuclear has estimated the cost of existing technology options that can be applied for a further reduction of radioactive effluents from future CANDU nuclear power plants. Detritiation, filtration, ion exchange and evaporation are included in the assessment. The costs are presented in 1987 Canadian dollars, and include capital and operating costs for a reference 50 year plant life. Darlington NGS and Point Lepreau NGS are the reference nuclear power plant types and locations. The effect resulting from the hypothetical application of each technology has been calculated as the resulting reduction in world collective radiation dose detriment. The CSA N288.1 procedure was used for local pathway analysis and the global dispersion model developed by the NEA (OECD) group of experts was used for dose calculations. The reduction in the 'collective effective dose equivalent commitment' was assumed to exist for 10,000 years, the expected life-span of solid waste repositories. No attempt was made to model world population dynamics. The collective dose reductions were calculated for a nominal world population of 10 billion persons. The estimated cost and effect of applying the technology options are summarized in a tabular form for input to further consideration of 'reasonably achievable off-site dose levels'

  4. Thermal dose requirement for tissue effect: experimental and clinical findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhirst, Mark; Viglianti, Benjamin L.; Lora-Michiels, Michael; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hanson, Margaret A.

    2003-06-01

    In this review we have summarized the basic principles that govern the relationships between thermal exposure (temperature and time of exposure) and thermal damage, with an emphasis on normal tissue effects. We have also attempted to identify specific thermal dose information (for safety and injury) for a variety of tissues in a variety of species. We address the use, accuracy and difficulty of conversion of an individual time and temperature (thermal dose) to a standardized value (eg equivalent minutes at 43degC) for comparison of thermal treatments. Although, the conversion algorithm appears to work well within a range of moderately elevated temperatures (2-15degC) above normal physiologic baseline (37-39degC) there is concern that conversion accuracy does not hold up for temperatures which are minimally or significantly above baseline. An extensive review of the literature suggests a comprehensive assessment of the "thermal dose-to-tissue effect" has not previously been assembled for most individual tissues and never been viewed in a semi-comprehensive (tissues and species) manner. Finally, we have addressed the relationship of thermal dose-to-effect vs. baseline temperature. This issues is important since much of the thermal dose-to-effect information has been accrued in animal models with baseline temperatures 1-2 deg higher than that of humans.

  5. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. Aim - To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant ag

  6. Effect of type of alcoholic beverages on carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, sialic acid, and liver enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillanaukee, P.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Sierksma, A.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Strid, N.; Pönniö, M.; Nikkari, S.T.

    2003-01-01

    Background: There are only limited data obtained under well controlled conditions on the effects of moderate drinking on markers of alcohol use disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate intake of different alcoholic beverages on these markers, including carbohydrate

  7. Sleep Quality and Alcohol Risk in College Students: Examining the Moderating Effects of Drinking Motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…

  8. Soil biochar amendments: type and dose effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, G.; Domene, X.; Mattana, S.; Sousa, J. P.; Ortiz, O.; Andres, P.; Alcañiz, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar is an organic material produced via the pyrolysis of C-based biomass, which is increasingly being recognized by scientists and policy makers for its potential role in carbon sequestration, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, waste mitigation, and as a soil amendment. Recent studies indicated that biochar improves soil fertility through its positive influence on physical-chemical properties, since not only improves water retention, aggregation and permeability, but its high charge density can also hold large amounts of nutrients, increasing crop production. However, it was observed that combustion temperature could affects the degree of aromaticity and the size of aromatic sheets, which in turns determine short-term mineralization rates. To reconcile the different decompasibility observations of biochar, it has sugested that physical protection and interactions with soil minerals play a significant part in biochar stability. In this context, it has initiated one pilot studies which aims to assess the effects of biochar application on physical and chemical properties of agricultural soil under Mediterranean conditions, such as changes in aggregate formation, intra-aggregate carbon sequestration and chemistry of soil water. In the present study, different clases of biochar produced from fast, slow and gasification pyrolisis of vegetal (pine, poplar) and dried sludge biomass, were applied at 1% of biochar-C to mesocosmos of an agricultural soil. Preliminary, it must be pointed out that slow and gasification pyrolisis changes the proportion of particles < 2 mm in diameter, from 10% (original materials) to almost 100%. In contrast, slow pyrolisis not modifies significantly biochar granulometry. As a consequence, bulk density of poplar and pine splinters decreases after fast pyrolisis. Regarding to organic carbon contents of biochar, all biochars obtained from plant biomass presented percentagens of total organic carbon (TOC) between 70 - 90%, while biochar

  9. Effect of alcohols on third phase formation in extraction of Th(IV) by tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports results on studies on the effect of alcohols on third phase formation during extraction of thorium by TBP/n- dodecane. The results indicate that for the same concentration of the modifier, the limiting organic phase concentration (LOC) increases with increasing carbon number of the alcohol. Also, increasing the concentration of an alcohol was always found to increase the LOC within the range of concentrations studied. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Use Self-Efficacy Effects on Women’s Condom Use Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Eakins, Danielle; Danube, Cinnamon L.; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.

    2013-01-01

    Although research has consistently demonstrated that condom use self-efficacy significantly predicts condom use, there has been little investigation of whether acute alcohol intoxication moderates this relationship. Because alcohol intoxication is often associated with increased sexual risk taking, further examination of such moderating effects is warranted. Using a community sample of young heterosexual women (n = 436) with a history of heavy episodic drinking, this alcohol administration ex...

  11. The Effect of Family Factors on Intense Alcohol Use among European Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kristjan Kask; Anna Markina; Zuzana Podana

    2013-01-01

    In Europe use of alcohol by adolescents is a large and increasing problem. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of family factors such as structure, social control, affluence, and negative life events on adolescents' risky alcohol use. Data on alcohol use and family factors were obtained from the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2). Using multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense ...

  12. Frontally mediated inhibitory processing and white matter microstructure: age and alcoholism effects

    OpenAIRE

    Colrain, Ian M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Judith M Ford; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McPherson, Selwyn-Lloyd; Roach, Brian J.; Crowley, Kate E.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The NOGO P3 event-related potential is a sensitive marker of alcoholism, relates to EEG oscillation in the δ and θ frequency ranges, and reflects activation of an inhibitory processing network. Degradation of white matter tracts related to age or alcoholism should negatively affect the oscillatory activity within the network. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of alcoholism and age on δ and θ oscillations and the relationship between these oscillations and measures of ...

  13. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collecte...

  14. Evaluation of the effective dose and image quality of low-dose multi-detector CT for orthodontic treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to compare the effective doses from low-dose and standard-dose multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanning protocols and evaluate the image quality and the spatial resolution of the low-dose MDCT protocols for clinical use. 6-channel MDCT scanner (Siemens Medical System, Forschheim, Germany), was used for this study. Protocol of the standard-dose MDCT for the orthodontic analysis was 130 kV, 35 mAs, 1.25 mm slice width, 0.8 pitch. Those of the low-dose MDCT for orthodontic analysis and orthodontic surgery were 110 kV, 30 mAs, 1.25 mm slice width, 0.85 pitch and 110 kV, 45 mAs, 2.5 mm slice width, 0.85 pitch. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed at 31 sites throughout the levels of adult female ART head and neck phantom. Effective doses were calculated according to ICRP 1990 and 2007 recommendations. A formalin-fixed cadaver and AAPM CT performance phantom were scanned for the evaluation of subjective image quality and spatial resolution. Effective doses in μSv (E2007) were 699.1, 429.4 and 603.1 for standard-dose CT of orthodontic treatment, low-dose CT of orthodontic analysis, and low-dose CT of orthodontic surgery, respectively. The image quality from the low-dose protocol were not worse than those from the standard-dose protocol. The spatial resolutions of both standard-dose and low-dose CT images were acceptable. From the above results, it can be concluded that the low-dose MDCT protocol is preferable in obtaining CT images for orthodontic analysis and orthodontic surgery.

  15. Effective dose and risks from medical x-ray procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation risks from a range of medical x-ray examinations (radiography, fluoroscopy, and computed tomography) were assessed as a function of the age and sex of the patient using risk models described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) and UNSCEAR (2006, Annex A). Such estimates of risk based on typical organ doses were compared with those derived from effective doses using the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s nominal risk coefficients. Methodologically similar but not identical dose and risk calculations were performed independently at the Institute of Radiation Hygiene (Russia) and the Health Protection Agency (UK), and led to similar conclusions. The radiogenic risk of stochastic health effects following various x-ray procedures varied significantly with the patient’s age and sex, but to differing degrees depending on which body organs were irradiated. In general, the risks of radiation-induced stochastic health effects in children are estimated to be higher (by a factor of ⩽4) than in adults, and risks in senior patients are lower by a factor of ⩾10 relative to younger people. If risks are assessed on the basis of effective dose, they are underestimated for children of both sexes by a factor of ⩽4. This approach overestimates risks by a factor of ⩽3 for adults and about an order of magnitude for senior patients. The significant sex and age dependence of radiogenic risk for different cancer types is an important consideration for radiologists when planning x-ray examinations. Whereas effective dose was not intended to provide a measure of risk associated with such examinations, it may be sufficient to make simple adjustments to the nominal risk per unit effective dose to account for age and sex differences.

  16. Delay or probability discounting in a model of impulsive behavior: effect of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J B; Zhang, L; Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H

    1999-03-01

    Little is known about the acute effects of drugs of abuse on impulsivity and self-control. In this study, impulsivity was assessed in humans using a computer task that measured delay and probability discounting. Discounting describes how much the value of a reward (or punisher) is decreased when its occurrence is either delayed or uncertain. Twenty-four healthy adult volunteers ingested a moderate dose of ethanol (0.5 or 0.8 g/kg ethanol: n = 12 at each dose) or placebo before completing the discounting task. In the task the participants were given a series of choices between a small, immediate, certain amount of money and $10 that was either delayed (0, 2, 30, 180, or 365 days) or probabilistic (i.e., certainty of receipt was 1.0, .9, .75, .5, or .25). The point at which each individual was indifferent between the smaller immediate or certain reward and the $10 delayed or probabilistic reward was identified using an adjusting-amount procedure. The results indicated that (a) delay and probability discounting were well described by a hyperbolic function; (b) delay and probability discounting were positively correlated within subjects; (c) delay and probability discounting were moderately correlated with personality measures of impulsivity; and (d) alcohol had no effect on discounting. PMID:10220927

  17. Effects of dose, dose-rate and fraction on radiation-induced breast and lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results from a large Canadian epidemiologic cohort study of low-LET radiation and cancer will be described. This is a study of 64,172 tuberculosis patients first treated in Canada between 1930 and 1952, of whom many received substantial doses to breast and lung tissue from repeated chest fluoroscopies. The mortality of the cohort between 1950 and 1987 has been determined by computerized record linkage to the National Mortality Data Base. There is a strong positive association between radiation and breast cancer risk among the females in the cohort, but in contrast very little evidence of any increased risk in lung cancer. The results of this and other studies suggest that the effect of dose-rate and/or fractionation on cancer risk may will differ depending upon the particular cancer being considered. (author)

  18. Predicted effects of countermeasures on radiation doses from contaminated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative assessments of the effects on radiation-dose reductions from nine typical countermeasures against accidental fod contamination have been carried out with dynamic radioecological models. The foodstuffs are assumed to be contaminated with iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137 after a release of radioactive materials from the Ringhals nuclear power station in Sweden resulting from a hypothetical core melt accident. The release of activity of these radionuclides is assumed at 0.07% of the core inventory of the unit 1 reactor (1600 TBq of I-131, 220 TBq of Cs-134 and 190 TBq of Cs-137). Radiation doses are estimated for the 55,000 affected inhabitants along the south-eastern coast of Sweden eating locally produced foodstuffs. The average effective dose equivalent to an individual in the critical group is predicted to be 2.9 mSv from food consumption contaminated with I-131. An accident occurring during winter is estimated to cause average individual doses of 0.32 mSv from Cs-134 and 0.47 mSv from Cs-137, and 9.4 mSv and 6.8 mSv from Cs-134 and Cs-137, respectively, for an accident occurring during summer. Doses from the intake of radioiodine may be reduced by up to a factor of 60 by rejecting contaminated food for 30 days. For the doses from radiocaesium, the largest effect is found form deep ploughing which may reduce the dose by up to a factor of 80. (au) (12 tabs., 6 ills., 19 refs.)

  19. Effect of low dose ionizing radiation upon concentration of

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viliae, M.; Kraljeviae, P.; Simpraga, M.; Miljaniae, S.

    2004-07-01

    It is known that low dose ionizing radiation might have stimulating effects (Luckey, 1982, Kraljeviae, 1988). This fact has also been confirmed in the previous papers of Kraljeviae et al. (2000-2000a; 2001). Namely, those authors showed that irradiation of chicken eggs before incubation by a low dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation increases the activity aspartateaminotrasferases (AST) and alanine-aminotransferases (ALT) in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs, as well as growth of chickens during the fattening period. Low doses might also cause changes in the concentration of some biochemical parameters in blood plasma of the same chickens such as changes in the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol. In this paper, an attempt was made to investigate the effects of low dose gamma radiation upon the concentration of sodium and potassium in the blood plasma of chickens which were hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation by dose of 0.15 Gy. Obtained results were compared with the results from the control group (chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of sodium and potassium was determined spectrophotometrically by atomic absorbing spectrophotometer Perkin-Elmer 1100B. The concentration of sodium and potassium in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 19th day of incubation by dose of 0.15 Gy indicated a statistically significant increase (P>0.01) only on the first day of the experiment. Obtained results showed that irradiation of eggs on the 19th day of incubation by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation could have effects upon the metabolism of electrolytes in chickens. (Author)

  20. Plasma membrane proteome analysis of the early effect of alcohol on liver:implications for alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Zhang; Ye Zheng; Pengyuan Yang; Zhenghong Yuan; Xiaofang Jia; Yanling Feng; Xia Peng; Zhiyong Zhang; Wenjiang Zhou; Zhanqing Zhang; Fang Ma; Xiaohui Liu

    2011-01-01

    In humans, the over-consumption of alcohol can lead to serious liver disease. To examine the early effects of alcohol on liver disease, rats were given sufficient ethanol to develop liver cirrhosis. Rats before the onset of fibrosis were studied in this work. Plasma membranes (PM) of liver were extracted by twice sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The proteome profiles of PM from ethanol-treated rats and the controls were analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) tech-nology. Ethanol treatment altered the amount of 15 differ-ent liver proteins: 10 of them were detected by 2-DE and 5 by iTRAQ. Keratin 8 was detected by both methods.Gene ontology analysis of these differentially detected proteins indicated that most of them were involved in important cell functions such as binding activity (includ-ing ion, DNA, ATP binding, etc.), cell structure, or enzyme activity. Among these, annexin A2, keratin 8, and keratin 18 were further verified using western blot analy-sis and annexin A2 was verified by immunohistochemis-try. Our results suggested that alcohol has the potential to affect cell structure, adhesion and enzyme activity by altering expression levels of several relevant proteins in the PM. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to study the effect of alcohol on the liver PM pro-teome and it might be helpful for understanding the poss-ible mechanisms of alcohol-induced liver disease.

  1. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25243832

  2. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Effects of MAOA-Genotype, Alcohol Consumption, and Aging on Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. Methods This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. Results The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Conclusions Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype. PMID:19120058

  4. Dispositional drinking motives: associations with appraised alcohol effects and alcohol consumption in an ecological momentary assessment investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Cooper, M Lynne; Wood, Phillip K; Sher, Kenneth J; Shiffman, Saul; Heath, Andrew C

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol use can be understood as a strategic behavior, such that people choose to drink based on the anticipated affective changes produced by drinking relative to those produced by alternative behaviors. This study investigated whether people who report drinking for specific reasons via the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) actually experience the alcohol effects they purportedly seek. As a secondary goal, we examined relations between drinking motives and indices of the amount of alcohol consumed. Data were drawn from 3,272 drinking episodes logged by 393 community-recruited drinkers during a 21-day Ecological Momentary Assessment investigation. After accounting for selected covariates, DMQ-R enhancement motives uniquely predicted real-time reports of enhanced drinking pleasure. DMQ-R coping motives were associated with reports of increased drinking-contingent relief and punishment. Enhancement motives uniquely predicted consuming more drinks per episode and higher peak intra-episode estimated blood alcohol concentration. The findings extend the evidence for the validity of the DMQ-R motive scores by demonstrating that internal drinking motives (enhancement and coping) are related to the experienced outcomes of drinking in the manner anticipated by theory.

  5. The Effectiveness of Alcohol Policies in 4-Year Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Gayle T.

    2010-01-01

    A problem facing American universities is heavy drinking by the student body which results in unintentional injuries and deaths, illegal offenses, sexual assault, altercations, and academic demise. The relationship between the type of alcohol policy enacted on campus and alcohol consumption among undergraduate students attending 4-year public…

  6. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P; Sen, Subrata

    2014-04-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism.

  7. Effective UV radiation dose in polyethylene exposed to weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Mota, R.; Soto-Bernal, J. J.; Rosales-Candelas, I.; Calero Marín, S. P.; Vega-Durán, J. T.; Moreno-Virgen, R.

    2009-09-01

    In this work we quantified the effective UV radiation dose in orange and colorless polyethylene samples exposed to weather in the city of Aguascalientes, Ags. Mexico. The spectral distribution of solar radiation was calculated using SMART 2.9.5.; the samples absorption properties were measured using UV-Vis spectroscopy and the quantum yield was calculated using samples reflectance properties. The determining factor in the effective UV dose is the spectral distribution of solar radiation, although the chemical structure of materials is also important.

  8. Pulsed total dose damage effect experimental study on EPROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, memory radiation effect study mainly focus on functionality measurement. Measurable parameters is few in china. According to the present situation, threshold voltage testing method was presented on floating gate EPROM memory. Experimental study of pulsed total dose effect on EPROM threshold voltage was carried out. Damage mechanism was analysed The experiment results showed that memory cell threshold voltage negative shift was caused by pulsed total dose, memory cell threshold voltage shift is basically coincident under steady bias supply and no bias supply. (authors)

  9. Effects of Alcohol-related Health Education on Alcohol and Drinking Behavior Awareness among Japanese Junior College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami,Norito

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a randomized controlled trial involving Japanese junior college students aimed at investigating the effects of a single session of alcohol health education concerning the effects of alcohol, alcohol-related health problems, and drinking behavior. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention (n=38 or a control group (n=33. The intervention group attended a 90-minute alcohol health education session that included demonstration of an ethanol patch test, watching videos, and a lecture by an ex-alcoholic. The control group received health education regarding smoking. The students. knowledge regarding alcohol, their drinking behavior, and problem drinking (CAGE were measured by a self-administered questionnaire at the baseline and at a two-month follow-up. A repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA of those who completed the follow-up indicated the education sessions. significant intervention (group*time effect on the scores related to knowledge of alcohol-related health problems (p=0.035, with a greater increase in the scores of the intervention group at the follow-up. No significant intervention eff ect was observed regarding drinking behavior or problem drinking as measured by CAGE (p>0.05. Alcohol-related education can be considered an effective way to increase awareness of alcohol-related health problems, but less effective for changing drinking the behavior of Japanese junior college students.

  10. Effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijona Elisabeth

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resveratrol is a polyphenol with important antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the effect of resveratrol on alcohol-induced mortality and liver lesions in mice. Methods Mice were randomly distributed into four groups (control, resveratrol-treated control, alcohol and resveratrol-treated alcohol. Chronic alcohol intoxication was induced by progressively administering alcohol in drinking water up to 40% v/v. The mice administered resveratrol received 10 mg/ml in drinking water. The animals had free access to standard diet. Blood levels were determined for transaminases, IL-1 and TNF-α. A histological evaluation was made of liver damage, and survival among the animals was recorded. Results Transaminase concentration was significantly higher in the alcohol group than in the rest of the groups (p Conclusion The results obtained suggest that resveratrol reduces mortality and liver damage in mice.

  11. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (pshangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2. PMID:23587660

  12. Prevention of cancer and the dose-effect relationship: the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    seldom occur. Promoting factors are agents that either perturb intercellular signalling or stimulate cell proliferation (e.g. hormones) or increase cell mortality: mechanical or chemical irritation (e.g. alcohol, bacteria, viruses) thereby inducing compensatory cell proliferation. Thus, gradually pre-cancerous cells become able to divide more rapidly with greater autonomy. This phase ends when a sub clone of cells has acquired the capacity of autonomous proliferation. The third phase is that of progression during which cells proliferate regularly without any stimulation. In one of the cells of one of the pre-cancerous lesions (e.g. polyps) a cell acquires the capacity of invading surrounding tissue or to metastasize. The whole carcinogenic process is very slow, extending over several decades, because the specific mutations seldom occur and the probability of an accumulation of several specific mutations in the same cell or cell lineage is very small. It can be accelerated by intense stimulation of cell proliferation or genetic instability. Ionizing radiations act firstly as a mutagen, however when the dose is high they also kill a significant proportion of cells and by a homeostatic mechanism they induce cell proliferation and clonal amplification. It has been claimed that even the smallest dose of radiation can induce a cancer. This concept is associated with the L.N.T. model and it is not based on scientific evidence. It has fuelled a fear of radiation which had detrimental consequences. Conversely the high efficacy of defense mechanisms against radio carcinogenesis, particularly when the tissue is not disorganized, can explain the lack of carcinogenic effect of contamination by small doses of radium or thorium which has been observed on radium dial painters or in patients injected with thorotrast. The study of second cancers in patients treated by radiotherapy could provide important information and should be actively pursued with two aims: reduce the incidence of

  13. The effect of dose calculation accuracy on inverse treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeraj, Robert; Keall, Paul J.; Siebers, Jeffrey V.

    2002-02-01

    The effect of dose calculation accuracy during inverse treatment planning for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was studied in this work. Three dose calculation methods were compared: Monte Carlo, superposition and pencil beam. These algorithms were used to calculate beamlets, which were subsequently used by a simulated annealing algorithm to determine beamlet weights which comprised the optimal solution to the objective function. Three different cases (lung, prostate and head and neck) were investigated and several different objective functions were tested for their effect on inverse treatment planning. It is shown that the use of inaccurate dose calculation introduces two errors in a treatment plan, a systematic error and a convergence error. The systematic error is present because of the inaccuracy of the dose calculation algorithm. The convergence error appears because the optimal intensity distribution for inaccurate beamlets differs from the optimal solution for the accurate beamlets. While the systematic error for superposition was found to be ~1% of Dmax in the tumour and slightly larger outside, the error for the pencil beam method is typically ~5% of Dmax and is rather insensitive to the given objectives. On the other hand, the convergence error was found to be very sensitive to the objective function, is only slightly correlated to the systematic error and should be determined for each case individually. Our results suggest that because of the large systematic and convergence errors, inverse treatment planning systems based on pencil beam algorithms alone should be upgraded either to superposition or Monte Carlo based dose calculations.

  14. Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

  15. Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demou, Evangelia; Tran, Lang; Housiadas, Christos

    2009-02-01

    Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08#/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

  16. Investigations into the effective dose and collective dose from diagnostic X-ray examinations in the former Federal Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Members of the staff of the Institute of Radiation Hygiene have started early in 1992 to measure or record the surface dose products for various types of diagnostic X-ray examinations. Approx. 5,000 surface dose products for 38 different procedures have so far been evaluated by some members of the task group or the institute on the basis of a uniform record sheet. The data were obtained in 8 hospitals and 2 medical practices and had mostly been compiled during the years 1992/93. For most types of examination, the effective doses and collective effective doses were calculated. The effective doses for mammography, dental radiogrammes and examinations of the extremities as well as for computerized tomography were determined in separate procedures. The different approaches used in the calculation of the effective dose with reference to age and sex are discussed. (orig./MG)

  17. Patient effective dose from endovascular brachytherapy with 192Ir sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perma, L; Bianchi, C; Nicolini, G; Novario, R; Tanzi, F; Conte, L

    2002-01-01

    The growing use of endovascular brachytherapy has been accompanied by the publication of a large number of studies in several fields, but few studies on patient dose have been found in the literature. Moreover, these studies were carried out on the basis of Monte Carlo simulation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effective dose to the patient undergoing endovascular brachytherapy treatment with 112Ir sources, by means of experimental measurements. Two standard treatments were taken into account: an endovascular brachytherapy of the coronary artery corresponding to the activity x time product of 184 GBq.min and an endovascular brachytherapy of the renal artery (898 GBq.min). Experimental assessment was accomplished by thermoluminescence dosemeters positioned in more than 300 measurement points in a properly adapted Rqndo phantom. A method has been developed to estimate the mean organ doses for all tissues and organs concerned in order to calculate the effective dose associated with intravascular brachytherapy. The normalised organ doses resulting from cronary treatment were 2.4 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for lung, 0.9 x 10(-2) mSv.GBSq(-1).min(-1) for oesophagus and 0.48 x 10(-2) mS.GBq(-1).min(-1) for bone marrow. During brachytherapy of the renal artery, the corresponding normalised doses were 4.2 x 10(-2) mS.GBq(-1).min(-1) for colon, 7.8 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for stomach and 1.7 x 10(-2) mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1) for liver. Coronary treatment iJnvlled an efl'fective dose of (0.046 mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1), whereas the treatment of the renal artery resulted in an effective dose of 0.15 mSv.GBq(-1).min(-1); there were many similarities with data from former studies. Based on these results it can be concluded that the dose level of patients exposed during brachytherapy treatment is low.

  18. Evaluation of Protective Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Fruit Peels of Punica granatum Linn against Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashar Kalangottil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruits peels of Punica granatum Linn. against acetic acid and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Acute oral toxicity study was performed to find out the test dose according to OECD guidelines 425 and hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel (PGPE was found to be safe at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The animals pretreated with hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively significantly restored the altered hematological, biochemical parameters to normal levels when compared with control. The protective effect of P. granatum peel extract was comparable to standard sulfasalazine. The findings of the present study revealed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel possessed a dose dependent significant inhibitory activity against ulcerative colitis. The results obtained established the efficacy of the Punica granatum fruit peel against inflammatory bowel diseases possibly by its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

  19. Low doses effects of ionizing radiation on Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of living cells to low doses of ionizing radiation induce in response the activation of cellular protection mechanisms against subsequent larger doses of radiation. This cellular adaptive response may vary depending on radiation intensity and time of exposure, and also on the testing probes used whether they were mammalian cells, yeast, bacteria and other organisms or cell types. The mechanisms involved are the genome activation, followed by DNA repair enzymes synthesis. Due to the prompt cell response, the cell cycle can be delayed, and the secondary detoxification of free radicals and/or activation of membrane bound receptors may proceed. All these phenomena are submitted to intense scientific research nowadays, and their elucidation will depend on the complexity of the organism under study. In the present work, the effects of low doses of ionizing radiation (gamma rays) over a suspension of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was studied, mainly in respect to survival rate and radio-adaptive response. At first, the yeast surviving curve was assessed towards increasing doses, and an estimation of Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) was made. The irradiation tests were performed at LINAC (electrons Linear Accelerator) where electron energy reached approximately 2.65 MeV, and gamma-radiation was produced for bremsstrahlung process over an aluminium screen target. A series of experiments of conditioning doses was performed and an increment surviving fraction was observed when the dose was 2.3 Gy and a interval time between this and a higher dose (challenging dose) of 27 Gy was 90 minutes. A value of 58 ± 4 Gy was estimated for LD50, at a dose rate of 0.44 ± 0.03 Gy/min These quantities must be optimized. Besides data obtained over yeast survival, an unusual increasing amount of tiny yeast colonies appeared on the agar plates after incubation, and this number increased as increasing the time exposure. Preliminary results indicate these colonies as

  20. Measurement of effective dose for paediatric scoliotic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chih-I. [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia); McLean, Donald [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia)]. E-mail: rdmc@imag.wsahs.nsw.gov.au; Robinson, John [School of Medical Radiation Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe NSW 1825 (Australia)

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Paediatric radiation dose from scoliosis X-ray examinations is of concern because of its routine nature. Few studies have calculated effective dose which is the primary indicator of radiation risk. This study reports on the use of a new flexible Monte Carlo software package PCXMC14 for such calculation from documented radiographic and patient data. Method: Patient and radiographic data were collected from 54 patient examinations for both postero-anterior (PA) and lateral X-ray projections. A spreadsheet mainly based on radiographic calibration was used to process the raw data and compute entrance air kerma for input in the PCXMC program. A partitioning model was developed to more accurately estimate the effect of an aluminium wedge filter. Results: Results showed the effective dose ranged from 81 to 123 {mu}Sv for the PA projection and 124 to 207 {mu}Sv for the lateral projection, with patient weights varying from 20 to 70 kg. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the usefulness of the PCXMC program to evaluate the effective dose in paediatric scoliosis radiography.

  1. The effect of radiation dose on mouse skeletal muscle remodeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two clinically relevant radiation doses on the susceptibility of mouse skeletal muscle to remodeling. Alterations in muscle morphology and regulatory signaling were examined in tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles after radiation doses that differed in total biological effective dose (BED). Female C57BL/6 (8-wk) mice were randomly assigned to non-irradiated control, four fractionated doses of 4 Gy (4x4 Gy; BED 37 Gy), or a single 16 Gy dose (16 Gy; BED 100 Gy). Mice were sacrificed 2 weeks after the initial radiation exposure. The 16 Gy, but not 4x4 Gy, decreased total muscle protein and RNA content. Related to muscle regeneration, both 16 Gy and 4x4 Gy increased the incidence of central nuclei containing myofibers, but only 16 Gy increased the extracellular matrix volume. However, only 4x4 Gy increased muscle 4-hydroxynonenal expression. While both 16 Gy and 4x4 Gy decreased IIB myofiber mean cross-sectional area (CSA), only 16 Gy decreased IIA myofiber CSA. 16 Gy increased the incidence of small diameter IIA and IIB myofibers, while 4x4 Gy only increased the incidence of small diameter IIB myofibers. Both treatments decreased the frequency and CSA of low succinate dehydrogenase activity (SDH) fibers. Only 16 Gy increased the incidence of small diameter myofibers having high SDH activity. Neither treatment altered muscle signaling related to protein turnover or oxidative metabolism. Collectively, these results demonstrate that radiation dose differentially affects muscle remodeling, and these effects appear to be related to fiber type and oxidative metabolism

  2. Evaluation of the central effects of alcohol and caffeine interaction.

    OpenAIRE

    Azcona, O; Barbanoj, M. J.; Torrent, J.; Jané, F

    1995-01-01

    1. The dynamic and kinetic interactions of alcohol and caffeine were studied in a double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. Treatments were administered to eight healthy subjects in four experimental sessions, leaving a 1 week wash-out period between each, as follows: 1) placebo, 2) alcohol (0.8 g kg-1), 3) caffeine (400 mg) and 4) alcohol (0.8 g kg-1) + caffeine (400 mg). 2. Evaluations were performed by means of: 1) objective measures: a) psychomotor performance (critical flicker ...

  3. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil;

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  4. Sorption of poly(vinyl alcohol) and its cationic derivative on silica oxide: effect of charge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liesiene, J.; Matulioniene, J.; Aniulyte, J.; Keizer, de A.

    2005-01-01

    Adsorption of poly(vinyl alcohol)-based cationic polyelectrolyte (DEAE-PVA) as well as unmodified poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) onto silica oxide surface was studied by means of reflectometry. The study was focused on the effect of charge of polymer segments on their adsorption on silica oxide. The resu

  5. Comined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome: the lifelines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, S.N.; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, J.V.; Vonk, J.M.; Boezen, H.M.; Dullaart, R.P.F.; Muller Kobold, A.C.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Beek, van A.P.; Klauw, van der M.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction - The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. Methods - 64,046 participants aged 18–80 years from the LifeLin

  6. Combined effects of smoking and alcohol on metabolic syndrome : the LifeLines cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slagter, Sandra N; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Vonk, Judith M; Boezen, Hendrika; Dullaart, Robin P F; Muller Kobold, Anna; Feskens, Edith J M; van Beek, André P; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. METHODS: 64,046 participants aged 18-80 years from the LifeLines

  7. The effect of positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward the movie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effects of alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward a movie. In addition, we examined whether positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals affect transportation into and attitude toward the movie. Methods: A within-subject design was used in whic

  8. Effects of five different alcoholic drinks on patients with Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne; Nielsen, Aneta Alexandra;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many patients with Crohn's disease (CD) complain of abdominal discomfort after alcohol intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ethanol and sugar content in five different alcoholic drinks on abdominal discomfort in patients with CD. MATERIAL AND METHODS...

  9. Moderating Effects of Gender on Alcohol Use: Implications for Condom Use at First Intercourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Claire; Upchurch, Dawn M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of level of alcohol consumption on condom use at first sex depend on adolescents' gender, utilizing data from Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Compared to girls who did not consume any alcohol, inebriated girls were significantly less likely to use a condom at…

  10. Conscientiousness, Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Alcohol Use: Testing for Mediated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if use of protective behavioral strategies mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Participants were 186 college students at a state university campus in the Northeastern United States participating in a study examining the effectiveness of a brief…

  11. Economic effect of the production of alcoholic beverages with lower toxic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Holovko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have an assessment of the economic effect of the production of new alcoholic beverages. In the modern setting during the manufacturing of the alcoholic products, extra attention is aimed at the improvement of technology and the use of raw materials which will lower the toxic levels of alcohol. Analyzation of the recipes for the production of alcohol will allow to manufacture "safe" alcohol compared to the traditional alcohol, increase the assortment of the product available on the market, and increase its competitive value. At this moment there are three products available "Red Light", "Orange light", "Green Light" based on the availability of vegetative and animal raw materials with lower toxic effects, and during the consumption of it there are lower negative effects on the organism, and the chances of a hangover are lower as well. The cost of beverages has been calculated, its value has been estimated, which includes its production and the changes to the volume have been analyzed towards strong alcoholic beverages and the effect of introducing to the production newly developed alcoholic beverages based on vegetative and animal raw materials.

  12. The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbaek, M

    2009-01-01

    tract cancer and alcohol dependency. Second, it is justified that alcohol has beneficial effects for some individuals, especially with regard to prevention of thrombosis of the heart. The public health relevance of these results is considered. The sensible drinking limits, used in both the UK......In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive...... and Denmark, of a maximum of 21 drinks per week for men and 14 drinks per week for women seem valid. A broader public health message of the beneficial effects of alcohol does not seem to be of interest in Western societies, where only a very small fraction of the population are non drinkers and may have very...

  13. Biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few weeks ago, when the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) submitted to the U.N. General Assembly the UNSCEAR 1994 report, the international community had at its disposal a broad view of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation. The 1994 report (272 pages) specifically addressed the epidemiological studies of radiation carcinogenesis and the adaptive responses to radiation in cells and organisms. The report was aimed to supplement the UNSCEAR 1993 report to the U.N. General Assembly- an extensive document of 928 pages-which addressed the global levels of radiation exposing the world population, as well as some issues on the effects of ionizing radiation, including: mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis due to radiation exposure, influence of the level of dose and dose rate on stochastic effects of radiation, hereditary effects of radiation effects on the developing human brain, and the late deterministic effects in children. Those two UNSCEAR reports taken together provide an impressive overview of current knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation. This article summarizes the essential issues of both reports, although it cannot cover all available information. (Author)

  14. Effects of exposure imprecision on estimation of the benchmark dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    In regression analysis failure to adjust for imprecision in the exposure variable is likely to lead to underestimation of the exposure effect. However, the consequences of exposure error for determination of safe doses of toxic substances have so far not received much attention. The benchmark......, then the benchmark approach produces results that are biased toward higher and less protective levels. It is therefore important to take exposure measurement error into account when calculating benchmark doses. Methods that allow this adjustment are described and illustrated in data from an epidemiological study...

  15. Effect of Beverage Containing Fermented Akebia quinata Extracts on Alcoholic Hangover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suhan; Lee, Sang Hoon; Song, Young Sun; Lee, Seo Yeon; Kim, So Young; Ko, Kwang Suk

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of beverages containing fermented Akebia quinata extracts on alcoholic hangover. For this study, 25 healthy young men were recruited. All participants consumed 100 mL of water (placebo), commercial hangover beverage A or B, fermented A. quinata leaf (AQL) or fruit (AQF) extract before alcohol consumption. After 1 h, all participants consumed a bottle of Soju, Korean distilled liquor (360 mL), containing 20% alcohol. Blood was collected at 0 h, 1 h, 3 h, and 5 h after alcohol consumption. The plasma alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was highest in the placebo group. Compared with the control group, the AQL and AQF groups showed decreased ALT activity at 5 h after alcohol consumption. Plasma ethanol concentration was increased after alcohol intake and peaked at 3 h after alcohol consumption. Compared with the control group, the A group showed a higher plasma ethanol concentration at 1 h (Palcohol consumption, the AQF group showed the lowest mean plasma ethanol concentration compared to the other groups; however, there were no statistical differences. After 5 h of alcohol consumption, the AQL and AQF groups showed lower plasma ethanol concentrations compared with the B group. The sensory evaluation score for the fermented A. quinata fruit extract was lower than for the commercial hangover beverages. In conclusion, the present intervention study results suggest that fermented A. quinata extracts alleviate alcoholic hangover and reduce plasma ethanol concentrations. PMID:27069900

  16. The Effect of Family Factors on Intense Alcohol Use among European Adolescents: A Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, Kristjan; Markina, Anna; Podana, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    In Europe use of alcohol by adolescents is a large and increasing problem. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of family factors such as structure, social control, affluence, and negative life events on adolescents' risky alcohol use. Data on alcohol use and family factors were obtained from the International Self-Report Delinquency Study (ISRD-2). Using multilevel analysis, it was found that overall, complete family and high social control by parents were lowering the intense alcohol use whereas negative life events in the family and high family affluence were increasing youngsters' intense alcohol use. Differences between regions of Europe were present for all family factors except affluence. Namely, in Northern Europe the impact of family structure and social control on intense alcohol use was stronger than that in other regions (e.g., Western Europe, Mediterranean, and Postsocialist countries). Also, in Northern Europe where the proportion of adolescents who have not experienced negative life events is the highest, the impact of negative life events on intense alcohol use was stronger; that is, negative life events increased the alcohol use. We conclude that family plays a significant role in adolescents' risky alcohol use. PMID:24236275

  17. Importance of genetics in fetal alcohol effects: null mutation of the nNOS gene worsens alcohol-induced cerebellar neuronal losses and behavioral deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonthius, Daniel J; Winters, Zachary; Karacay, Bahri; Bousquet, Samantha Larimer; Bonthius, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is a major target of alcohol-induced damage in the developing brain. However, the cerebella of some children are much more seriously affected than others by prenatal alcohol exposure. As a consequence of in utero alcohol exposure, some children have substantial reductions in cerebellar volume and corresponding neurodevelopmental problems, including microencephaly, ataxia, and balance deficits, while other children who were exposed to similar alcohol quantities are spared. One factor that likely plays a key role in determining the impact of alcohol on the fetal cerebellum is genetics. However, no specific gene variant has yet been identified that worsens cerebellar function as a consequence of developmental alcohol exposure. Previous studies have revealed that mice carrying a homozygous mutation of the gene for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS-/- mice) have more severe acute alcohol-induced neuronal losses from the cerebellum than wild type mice. Therefore, the goals of this study were to determine whether alcohol induces more severe cerebellum-based behavioral deficits in nNOS-/- mice than in wild type mice and to determine whether these worsened behavior deficits are associated with worsened cerebellar neuronal losses. nNOS-/- mice and their wild type controls received alcohol (0.0, 2.2, or 4.4mg/g) daily over postnatal days 4-9. In adulthood, the mice underwent behavioral testing, followed by neuronal quantification. Alcohol caused dose-related deficits in rotarod and balance beam performance in both nNOS-/- and wild type mice. However, the alcohol-induced behavioral deficits were substantially worse in the nNOS-/- mice than in wild type. Likewise, alcohol exposure led to losses of Purkinje cells and cerebellar granule cells in mice of both genotypes, but the cell losses were more severe in the nNOS-/- mice than in wild type. Behavioral performances were correlated with neuronal number in the nNOS-/- mice, but not in wild type. Thus, homozygous

  18. The Evaluation of the Analgesic Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Solanum Melongena in Syrian Mice Using Tail Flick Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Falah-Tafti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, many researches are being conducted in order to evaluate the analgesic effects of different plants which have been used as sedative in traditional medicine. Solanum Melongena is a plant with different theories about its analgesic effects. In this experimental trial research, the effects of intraperitoneal(IP injection of hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena were assessed and compared with different doses of morphine and distilled water in Syrian mice. Methods: The effects of different doses of Solanum Melongena (1, 10, 100, and 1000µg/Kg, different doses of morphine sulfate (1, 2, and 4 µg/Kg and distilled water on acute pain was assessed in Syrian mice. Tail flick latency after IP injection was measured for 75 minutes as the index of pain tolerance, using a tail flick apparatus which projects a condensed light stimulus on the animal's tail. Results: Our findings showed that different doses of Solanum increased analgesia index. This effect was more prominent in 45-60 minutes after IP injections which was significantly greater than the control group (p<0.05(. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the hydro-alcoholic extract of Solanum Melongena produces analgesic effect in a dose- related manner.

  19. Effects of dose and dose protraction on embryotoxicity of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckman, D.A.; Buck, S.J. [Alfred I. duPont Institute, Wilmington, DE (United States)]|[Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Solomon, H.M. [SmithKline and Beecham Pharmaceuticals, King of Prussia, PA (United States); Gorson, R.O. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mills, R.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Brent, R.L. [Alfred I. duPont Institute, Wilmington, DE (United States)]|[Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The embryotoxic effects of neutron radiation on rodent embryos are documented, but there is disagreement about the dose-response relationship and the impact of protracting the dose. Pregnant rats were exposed to total absorbed doses of 0.15 to 1.50 Gy 14.1 MeV neutrons on day 9.5 after conception, coincident with the most sensitive stage of embryonic development for the induction of major congenital malformations. In general terms, the incidence of embryotoxic effects increased with increasing total absorbed dose. However, the dose-response relationship differed depending on the parameter of embryotoxicity chosen, namely, intrauterine death, malformations or very low body weight. In a second study, embryos were exposed to a single embryotoxic absorbed dose (0.75 Gy) administered at a range of dose rates, from 0.10 to 0.50 Gy/h. The results offer no evidence that protraction of this selected dose significantly increased or decreased the incidence or pattern of embryotoxicity of the neutron exposure used in this study. The results do not support the hypothesis of a linear dose-response relationship for the effects of prenatal neutron irradiation that contribute to embryotoxicity for total absorbed doses of 0.15 to 1.50 Gy. 23 refs., 8 tabs.

  20. Actions for adoption of effective dose equivalent standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulations related with radiological protection have been revised to adopt SI units and to accept the ICRP recommendation requesting to use the effective dose equivalent for radiation exposure control. The present report mainly deals with actions to be taken in the field of radiation instrumentation to promote the adoption of effective dose equivalent standards. In the past, exposure in roentgen has been generally used as a quantity to represent the intensity of a X-ray or alpha-ray field, because it can be measured relatively easily and accurately. The introduction of the effective dose equivalent is intended to establish annual exposure limits to ensure that the possibility of death of workers in a radioactive environment and that of development of hereditary disorders in their children or grandchildren will be maintained below permissible levels. The quantity is expressed as the sum of each organ's dose equivalent multiplied by a weight that reflects risks. Presently, such weights are assigned to seven organs including the gential glands and red marrow. Fixed-type area monitors and portable survey meters are used for work environment monitoring while film badges, TLDs, dosimeters, etc., are employed for personnel monitoring. (Nogami, K.)

  1. Effect of low dose irradiation on Trichinella isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation should be an effective and safe method for reducing the risk of human trichinellosis. With the existence of different Trichinella phenotypes, however, parasite strains with different gene pools may exhibit different radiosensitivity. Studies were performed using the rat as a laboratory animal for testing Trichinella spiralis isolated from different hosts from one geographic region. The results showed no unique radioresistance of the strains. Although the effective dose of irradiation (i.e. the dose required for total blocking of development of muscle larvae) for most isolates was 0.6kGy, that dose did not affect the viability of Trichinella larvae of all strains. Two strains, tested at doses only up to 0.6 kGy, had their reproductive capacities reduced by more than 10,000-fold as a result of exposure to irradiation. On the other hand, strains of Trichinella isolated in a different region from different hosts and belonging to different taxa (T. spiralis, T. nativa, T. nelsoni, putative European T. nelsoni = T3) were similarly more radiosensitive when tested in mice. A dose of 0.2 kGy prevented the production of larval progeny of all but one strain. The results of the experiments performed with the same T. spiralis strain on two different laboratory hosts (rat and mouse) showed unequivocally that the different results of the former experiments were attributable to the laboratory host used. The laboratory rat was found to be more sensitive in a bioassay for monitoring Trichinella larvae viability. It is concluded that low dose irradiation, 0.3-0.6 kGy, of hog carcasses can provide a substantial margin of safety for human consumption of pork heavily infected with Trichinella. However, irradiation procedures should be complemented by health education, improvement in sanitary measures on farms raising pigs and improvement in diagnosing infections in animals. Isolation of the domestic transmission cycle from the wildlife transmission cycle is also important

  2. Protective Effects of the Alcohol Dehydrogenase-ADH1B*3 Allele on Attention and Behavior Problems in Adolescents Exposed to Alcohol during Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Neil C.; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the metabolism of alcohol. Expression of three alleles at the ADH1B locus results in enzymes that differ in turnover rate and affinity for alcohol. The ADH1B*3 allele, which appears to be unique to individuals of African descent, is associated with more rapid alcohol metabolism than the more prevalent ADH1B*1 allele. It has been previously demonstrated that the presence of at least one maternal ADH1B*3 allele confers a protective effect against al...

  3. Examining fast and slow effects for alcohol and negative emotion in problem and social drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Simon; Sharma, Dinkar; Slater, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias (AB) for alcohol-related stimuli has been consistently demonstrated in social and problem drinkers. The aims of this study were to: investigate whether AB for alcoholrelated stimuli could be described as a slow effect as well as a fast effect; how these effects relate to drinking behaviour; and the influence of the experimental procedure on priming effects. Two experiments were designed. In experiment 1, problem drinkers in treatment at a community alcohol service (N¼62) and ...

  4. Effects of single cyanamide dose on free amino acid pool in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovskiy, S.Yu.

    Outbred rats were employed in trials on the effects of cyanamide - an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase proposed for the treatment of alcoholism - on the brain pool of essential and nonessential amino acid. Cyanamide was administered intraperitoneally in a dose of 60 mg/kg, followed in some experiments by intraperitoneal ethanol in a dose of 0.5 g/kg. Following cyanamide administration, marked enhancement of the levels of taurine, cystine, and GABA was noted, whereas the increase in serine was less pronounced. Cyanamide administration also induced depression of alanine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, and of ethanolamine levels. Administration of ethanol after priming with cyanamide had only the additional effect of diminishing the levels of cysteic acid and ornithine in the brain. However, the differences between the cyanamide animals and the cyanamide + ethanol animals were not significant. With currently available data, it is difficult to tell whether the effects of cyanamide are due to elevation in acetaldehyde levels, or to some direct effect of the drug on protein or amino acid metabolism. 24 references.

  5. Prospective Effects of Possible Selves on Alcohol Consumption in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.; Park, Chang G.; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents’ alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade pred...

  6. Context Effects and False Memory for Alcohol Words in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (81 male) 10th grade students, ages 14–16 (M = 15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental – Group E, n = 92) or only Neutral (Control – Group C, n = 79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two’s. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhib...

  7. Oral High-Dose Ankaferd Administration Effects on Gastrointestinal System

    OpenAIRE

    Akbal, Erdem; Köklü, Seyfettin; Astarcı, Hesna Müzeyyen; Koçak, Erdem; Karaca, Gökhan; Beyazıt, Yavuz; Topcu, Güler; Acar, Bilgehan; Ergün, Dilek; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim Celalettin

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a herbal extract obtained from five different plants. It has a therapeutic potential for the management of external hemorrhage and controlling gastrointestinal bleeding. However, ABS's effects are not unknown on gastrointestinal systems. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of short- and long-term systemic exposure and gastrointestinal safety following the oral administration of high-dose ABS in rats. Methods: Eighteen healthy adu...

  8. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  9. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Developing Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnak Assadi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clinical and experimental studies strongly suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with zinc deficiency and impaired renal tubular function. Whether maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes renal tubular cell injury is unknown.Material & Methods: Renal function was studied in 8 infants with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS and 8 healthy age-matched infants. Renal function and structure were also examined in 11 offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during gestation.Findings: Infants with FAS had limited ability to concentrate urine after water restriction (P<0.001 and impaired acidification after acute acid loading (P<0.001 compared to control group. Plasma zinc levels were lower (P<0.001 and urinary zinc excretion was higher (P<0.001 in infants with FAS compared to control infants. Scanning electron microscopic studies revealed cytoplasmic mitochondrial hypertrophy and vacuolar structures of the epithelial cells of the cortical collecting ducts in the rat kidney following fetal exposure to alcohol.Conclusion: These findings suggest that offspring of rats exposed to alcohol during fetal life have renal functional and structural abnormalities that may be responsible in the genesis of renal functional abnormalities as described in infants with FAS.

  10. Effect of folic acid on prenatal alcohol-induced modification of brain proteome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yajun; Tang, Yunan; Li, Yong

    2008-03-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can induce central nervous system abnormalities in the fetus, and folic acid supplementation can reverse some of the effects. The objective of the present study was to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal brain proteome alteration and the protective effect of folic acid using proteomic techniques. Alcohol (5.0 g/kg) was given intragastrically from gestational day (GD) 6 to 15, with or without 60.0 mg folic acid/kg given intragastrically during GD 1-16 to pregnant Balb/c mice. The control group received distilled water only. Results of litter evaluation on GD 18 showed that supplementation of folic acid reversed the prevalence of microcephaly induced by alcohol. Proteomic analysis indicated that, under the dosage of the present investigation, folic acid mainly reversed the alcohol-altered proteins involved in energy production, signal pathways and protein translation, which are all important for central nervous system development. PMID:17697403

  11. Life-cycle effects of alcoholism on education, earnings, and occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, J; Sindelar, J

    1989-01-01

    In this article we examine the life-cycle effects of alcoholism on human capital formation and labor market outcomes. We attempt empirically to unravel some of the complicated structural relationships among family background, educational attainment, labor force participation, earnings, and current as well as past alcoholism. Access to a new data set allows us to study some of these relationships. The Epidemiological Catchment Area data set contains not only the standard socioeconomic and demographic variables but also information on family background and age of onset of symptoms and current alcoholism. Thus, when estimating models of occupational choice and earnings, we can assess both the indirect and the direct effects of alcoholism. We find that early onset of alcoholism significantly retards educational attainment.

  12. Attributability of Health Effects at Low Radiation Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A controversy still persists on whether health effects can be alleged from radiation exposure situations involving low radiation doses (e.g. below the international dose limits for the public). Arguments have evolved around the validity of the dose response representation that is internationally used for radiation protection purposes, namely the so-called linear-non-threshold (LNT) model. The debate has been masked by the intrinsic randomness of radiation interaction at the cellular level and also by gaps in the relevant scientific knowledge on the development and expression of health effects. There has also been a vague use, abuse, and misuse of radiation-related risk concepts and quantities and their associated uncertainties. As a result, there is some ambiguity in the interpretation of the phenomena and a general lack of awareness of the implications for a number of risk-causation qualities, namely its attributes and characteristics. In particular, the LNT model has been used not only for protection purposes but also for blindly attributing actual effects to specific exposure situations. The latter has been discouraged as being a misuse of the model, but the supposed incorrectness has not been clearly proven. The paper will endeavour to demonstrate unambiguously the following thesis in relation to health effects due to low radiation doses: (i) Their existence is highly plausible. A number of epidemiological statistical assessments of sufficiently large exposed populations show that, under certain conditions, the prevalence of the effects increases with dose. From these assessments, it can be hypothesized that the occurrence of the effects at any dose, however small, appears decidedly worthy of belief. While strictly the evidence does not allow to conclude that a threshold dose level does not exist either In fact, a formal quantitative uncertainty analysis, combining the different uncertain components of estimated radiation-related risk, with and

  13. Attributability of health effects at low radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A controversy still persists on whether health effects can be alleged from radiation exposure situations involving low radiation doses (e.g. below the international dose limits for the public). Arguments have evolved around the validity of the dose-response representation that is internationally used for radiation protection purposes, namely the so-called linear-non-threshold (LNT) model. The debate has been masked by the intrinsic randomness of radiation interaction at the cellular level and also by gaps in the relevant scientific knowledge on the development and expression of health effects. There has also been a vague use, abuse, and misuse of radiation-related risk concepts and quantities and their associated uncertainties. As a result, there is some ambiguity in the interpretation of the phenomena and a general lack of awareness of the implications for a number of risk-causation qualities, namely its attributes and characteristics. In particular, the LNT model has been used not only for protection purposes but also for blindly attributing actual effects to specific exposure situations. The latter has been discouraged as being a misuse of the model, but the supposed incorrectness has not been clearly proven. The paper will endeavour to demonstrate unambiguously the following thesis in relation to health effects due to low radiation doses: 1) Their existence is highly plausible. A number of epidemiological statistical assessments of sufficiently large exposed populations show that, under certain conditions, the prevalence of the effects increases with dose. From these assessments, it can be hypothesized that the occurrence of the effects at any dose, however small, appears decidedly worthy of belief. While strictly the evidence does not allow to conclude that a threshold dose level does not exist either. In fact, a formal quantitative uncertainty analysis, combining the different uncertain components of estimated radiation-related risk, with and

  14. Do we act upon what we see? Direct effects of alcohol cues in movies on young adults’ alcohol drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; E. Kuntsche; D.J. Anschutz; R.B. van Baaren; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Ample survey research has shown that alcohol portrayals in movies affect the development of alcohol consumption in youth. Hence, there is preliminary evidence that alcohol portrayals in movies also directly influence viewers’ drinking of alcohol while watching movies. One process that might ac

  15. The Difference between Anxiolytic and Anxiogenic Effects Induced by Acute and Chronic Alcohol Exposure and Changes in Associative Learning and Memory Based on Color Preference and the Cause of Parkinson-Like Behaviors in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Xu; Li, Yi-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Chen, Di; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2015-01-01

    We describe an interdisciplinary comparison of the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure in terms of their disturbance of light, dark and color preferences and the occurrence of Parkinson-like behavior in zebrafish through computer visual tracking, data mining, and behavioral and physiological analyses. We found that zebrafish in anxiolytic and anxious states, which are induced by acute and chronic repeated alcohol exposure, respectively, display distinct emotional reactions in light/dark preference tests as well as distinct learning and memory abilities in color-enhanced conditional place preference (CPP) tests. Additionally, compared with the chronic alcohol (1.0%) treatment, acute alcohol exposure had a significant, dose-dependent effect on anxiety, learning and memory (color preference) as well as locomotive activities. Acute exposure doses (0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%) generated an "inverted V" dose-dependent pattern in all of the behavioral parameters, with 1.0% having the greatest effect, while the chronic treatment had a moderate effect. Furthermore, by measuring locomotive activity, learning and memory performance, the number of dopaminergic neurons, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, and the change in the photoreceptors in the retina, we found that acute and chronic alcohol exposure induced varying degrees of Parkinson-like symptoms in zebrafish. Taken together, these results illuminated the behavioral and physiological mechanisms underlying the changes associated with learning and memory and the cause of potential Parkinson-like behaviors in zebrafish due to acute and chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:26558894

  16. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gonzalo; Guzzo-Merello; Marta; Cobo-Marcos; Maria; Gallego-Delgado; Pablo; Garcia-Pavia

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy(ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM.

  17. Dose dependent sun protective effect of topical melatonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by sunlight results in an increasing number of skin conditions. Earlier studies have suggested a protective effect of topical treatment with the pineal hormone melatonin. However, this protective effect has never been evaluated in natural sunlight......, and the optimal dosing has not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the sun protective effect of topical treatment with three different doses of melatonin (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) against erythema induced by natural sunlight. METHOD: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double...... to 2:02 PM local time and UV-index was 9. Primary outcome was reduction in erythema evaluated by chromatography after sun exposure, when treated with topical melatonin cream (0.5%, 2.5%, 12.5%) versus placebo and no treatment. The erythema reaction was evaluated with chromatography and visual scoring...

  18. Frequency of chromosome aberration and dose/dose rate effects in the mouse exposed to long-term low dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Authors have been conducting long term irradiation experiments in the mouse with the dose rate as low as unreported hitherto and have shown with highly sensitive methods to detect chromosomal aberration, that there is the positive dose rate effect under even such a condition, of which details are described herein. According to the definition of United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCER) (1993), the low dose rate is 137Cs-gamma-ray at the low dose rate of 1 or 20 mGy/22 h/day (total, 125-615 or 100-8000 mGy, respectively). Other groups received radiations of 0 Gy (non-irradiated, age-matched control), 200-8000 mGy at 200 mGy/22 h/day, 400-8000 mGy at 400 mGy/22 h/day, or 250-2000 mGy at 890 mGy/min. At the defined days after exposure, mice were sacrificed, their spleens were dissected out, splenic cells were cultured for 48 hr, and their chromosome specimens were prepared to be stained with Giemsa or FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). Dicentric (dic) and translocation chromosomal aberrations were found to increase even with the lowest total (accumulated) dose, where the frequency was significantly higher than that in control. Comparison of the regression slopes at each dose rate of the relation between dose and aberration revealed the difference dependent on the rate, thus demonstrating the presence of dose rate effect. Dose/dose rate effect factor (DDREF) calculated by authors' procedure (at 1000-100 mGy: DDREF=17.8-4.5 for dic by FISH; 24.5-5.2 for dic+ring chromosome by Giemsa) was thought important in the risk assessment of low dose radiation and also revealed a problem in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (1991) calculation of the factor. (K.T.)

  19. The Gastrointestinal Microbiome: Alcohol Effects on the Composition of Intestinal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Phillip A; Green, Stefan J; Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The excessive use of alcohol is a global problem causing many adverse pathological health effects and a significant financial health care burden. This review addresses the effect of alcohol consumption on the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Although data are limited in humans, studies highlight the importance of changes in the intestinal microbiota in alcohol-related disorders. Alcohol-induced changes in the GIT microbiota composition and metabolic function may contribute to the well-established link between alcohol-induced oxidative stress, intestinal hyperpermeability to luminal bacterial products, and the subsequent development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), as well as other diseases. In addition, clinical and preclinical data suggest that alcohol-related disorders are associated with quantitative and qualitative dysbiotic changes in the intestinal microbiota and may be associated with increased GIT inflammation, intestinal hyperpermeability resulting in endotoxemia, systemic inflammation, and tissue damage/organ pathologies including ALD. Thus, gut-directed interventions, such as probiotic and synbiotic modulation of the intestinal microbiota, should be considered and evaluated for prevention and treatment of alcohol-associated pathologies.

  20. Drinking alcohol has sex-dependent effects on pair bond formation in prairie voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Ahern, Todd H; Hostetler, Caroline M; Dufour, Brett D; Smith, Monique L; Cocking, Davelle L; Li, Ju; Young, Larry J; Loftis, Jennifer M; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2014-04-22

    Alcohol use and abuse profoundly influences a variety of behaviors, including social interactions. In some cases, it erodes social relationships; in others, it facilitates sociality. Here, we show that voluntary alcohol consumption can inhibit male partner preference (PP) formation (a laboratory proxy for pair bonding) in socially monogamous prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Conversely, female PP is not inhibited, and may be facilitated by alcohol. Behavior and neurochemical analysis suggests that the effects of alcohol on social bonding are mediated by neural mechanisms regulating pair bond formation and not alcohol's effects on mating, locomotor, or aggressive behaviors. Several neuropeptide systems involved in the regulation of social behavior (especially neuropeptide Y and corticotropin-releasing factor) are modulated by alcohol drinking during cohabitation. These findings provide the first evidence to our knowledge that alcohol has a direct impact on the neural systems involved in social bonding in a sex-specific manner, providing an opportunity to explore the mechanisms by which alcohol affects social relationships. PMID:24711424

  1. Dose, dose-rate and field size effects on cell survival following exposure to non-uniform radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Karl T.; McGarry, Conor K.; Trainor, Colman; McMahon, Stephen J.; O'Sullivan, Joe M.; Schettino, Giuseppe; Hounsell, Alan R.; Prise, Kevin M.

    2012-05-01

    For the delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), highly modulated fields are used to achieve dose conformity across a target tumour volume. Recent in vitro evidence has demonstrated significant alterations in cell survival occurring out-of-field which cannot be accounted for on the basis of scattered dose. The radiobiological effect of area, dose and dose-rate on out-of-field cell survival responses following exposure to intensity-modulated radiation fields is presented in this study. Cell survival was determined by clonogenic assay in human prostate cancer (DU-145) and primary fibroblast (AG0-1522) cells following exposure to different modulated field configurations delivered using a X-Rad 225 kVp x-ray source. Uniform survival responses were compared to in- and out-of-field responses in which 25-99% of the cell population was shielded. Dose delivered to the out-of-field region was varied from 1.6-37.2% of that delivered to the in-field region using different levels of brass shielding. Dose rate effects were determined for 0.2-4 Gy min-1 for uniform and modulated exposures with no effect seen in- or out-of-field. Survival responses showed little dependence on dose rate and area in- and out-of-field with a trend towards increased survival with decreased in-field area. Out-of-field survival responses were shown to scale in proportion to dose delivered to the in-field region and also local dose delivered out-of-field. Mathematical modelling of these findings has shown survival response to be highly dependent on dose delivered in- and out-of-field but not on area or dose rate. These data provide further insight into the radiobiological parameters impacting on cell survival following exposure to modulated irradiation fields highlighting the need for refinement of existing radiobiological models to incorporate non-targeted effects and modulated dose distributions.

  2. Tolerance and cross-tolerance to neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Theunissen, Eef L.; de Brouwer, Marjolein; Toennes, Stefan W.; Moeller, Manfred R; Kauert, Gerhold

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown that heavy cannabis users develop tolerance to the impairing effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on neurocognitive functions. Animal studies suggest that chronic cannabis consumption may also produce cross-tolerance for the impairing effects of alcohol, but supportive data in humans is scarce. Purpose The present study was designed to assess tolerance and cross-tolerance to the neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users. Met...

  3. Effect of γ-radiation on the physical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) dyed with chromeazurol S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation sensitive indicators based on dyed poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) containing acid sensitive dye chromeazurol S (CAS) and chloral hydrate (CH) have been developed. These plastic film dosimeters undergo colour change from orange to yellow colour, useful dose ranges are between 2 to 40 kGy. In presence of different concentrations of CH the colour change from orange to red indicating acid formation and the useful dose range from 100 Gy to 5 kGy. The radiation chemical yield G(value) was calculated. The films have the advantage of negligible humidity effects on response in the intermediate range of relative humidity from 10 to 50% and good stability before and after irradiation under different storage conditions.

  4. The Indirect Effect of Alcohol Use on GPA in First-Semester College Students: The Mediating Role of Academic Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, James M.; DiPlacido, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on first-semester college students, investigating (a) indirect effects of aggregate alcohol use on grade point average (GPA) through academic effort (skipping class and time on schoolwork) and (b) daily effects of alcohol use on reduced effort. Eighty students reported daily alcohol use and academic effort (skipping class and…

  5. Acute effects of alcohol on feedback processing and outcome evaluation during risky decision-making: an ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); C.S. Meel (Catharine); M. Snelleman (Michelle); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRationale: Although risky decision-making is one of the hallmarks of alcohol use disorders, relatively little is known about the acute psychopharmacological effects of alcohol on decision-making processes. Objective: The present study investigated the acute effects of alcohol on neural m

  6. Interactions between alcohol- and opioid-induced suppression of rat testicular steroidogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M L; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1997-06-01

    To examine interactions between alcohol and endogenous opioids in their suppressive effects on rat testicular function, the opioid antagonist naltrexone or the opioid agonist morphine was administered to adult male rats alone or in combination with alcohol. Serum testosterone, testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) testosterone, and TIF volumes were measured to assess testicular function. Naltrexone induced dose-dependent increases in serum and TIF testosterone levels without changes in TIF volume. Alcohol (0.5 g/kg) inhibited naltrexone-induced stimulation of testosterone secretion and shifted the naltrexone dose-response curve to the right. Conversely, naltrexone (0.05 mg/kg) inhibited alcohol-induced suppression of testosterone secretion and shifted the alcohol dose-response curve to the right. Relatively high doses of naltrexone (5 to 30 mg/kg) were needed to stimulate testosterone secretion maximally in rats treated with a low dose of alcohol (0.5 g/kg) and to stimulate normal levels of testosterone secretion in rats treated with a high dose of alcohol (2 g/kg). In addition, combined treatment with 1 and 30 mg/kg of naltrexone and 0.5 to 2 g/kg of alcohol did not alter blood alcohol concentrations significantly, suggesting that the interactions between alcohol and naltrexone were unrelated to gross changes in alcohol metabolism or bioavailability factors. Simultaneous treatments with a low dose of alcohol (0.3 g/kg), near the threshold of efficacy, and low-moderate doses of morphine (0.3 to 3 mg/kg) were not additive in suppressing testosterone secretion, compared with either agent alone. These results support the hypothesis that opioid antagonists can reverse the suppressive effect of alcohol on testicular steroidogenesis, but the results also suggest that endogenous opioids do not exclusively mediate alcohol's effects on testosterone secretion. PMID:9194925

  7. The relationships between radiation doses and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-effect relationships have been developed both for the biological effects studied by Radiobiology and the long-term pathological effects (malignant diseases) studied by Radiation Protection. The former approach chiefly considers the primary biological injuries at the cellular level, and the relationship between the dependent variable characteristic of the effect and the dose -an independent variable- has an explanatory meaning. The parameters associated to the independent variable have a biophysical signification and fit into a model of the action of ionizing radiations. In the latter approach, the relationship is pragmatic and the previous parameters are just the results of a curve-fitting procedure realized on experimental or human data. The biophysical models have led to a general formulation associating a linear term to a quadratic term both of them weighted by an exponential term describing cellular killing at the highest doses. To a certain extent the curves obtained for leukemias, bronchopulmonary and breast cancers prove the validity of the pragmatic model

  8. Effect of Large Dose Methylcobalamin on Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The effects of large dose methylcobalamin injection on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients were observed to observe the subjective symptom of diabetic perpheral neuropathy (DPN) patients and detect the motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) and sense nerve conduction velocity (SCV). Fifteen patients were received large dose methylcobalamin injection for two weeks as treatment group, another eleven patients were received muscular injection VitB1 100mg/ d, VitB12 500ug/ d for two weeks as control group. After 2 weeks treatment the subjective symptoms and signs were significantly improved with a total effective rate of 82.9% in the treatment group however the effective rate only has 52.0% in the control group. The result has obvious difference in statistics nerve MCV in median common peroneal nerve, SCV in median and superficial peroneal nerve were improved significantly in the treatment group and no such changes were observed in the control group. So, large dose methylcobalamin is an effective and safe agent for treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  9. Interaction of carbohydrates with alcohol dehydrogenase: Effect on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Swati B; Bankar, Sandip B; Granström, Tom; Ojamo, Heikki; Singhal, Rekha S; Survase, Shrikant A

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was covalently conjugated with three different oxidized carbohydrates i.e., glucose, starch and pectin. All the carbohydrates inhibited the enzyme. The inhibition was studied with respect to the inhibition rate constant, involvement of thiol groups in the binding, and structural changes in the enzyme. The enzyme activity decreased to half of its original activity at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of pectin, 4 mg/mL of glucose and 10 mg/mL of starch within 10 min at pH 7. This study showed oxidized pectin to be a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase followed by glucose and starch. Along with the aldehyde-amino group interaction, thiol groups were also involved in the binding between alcohol dehydrogenase and carbohydrates. The structural changes occurring on binding of alcohol dehydrogenase with oxidized carbohydrates was also confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Oxidized carbohydrates could thus be used as potential inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase.

  10. Effective dose efficiency: an application-specific metric of quality and dose for digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T; Dobbins, James T III; Ravin, Carl E, E-mail: samei@duke.edu [Carl E Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2011-08-21

    The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) and the effective DQE (eDQE) are relevant metrics of image quality for digital radiography detectors and systems, respectively. The current study further extends the eDQE methodology to technique optimization using a new metric of the effective dose efficiency (eDE), reflecting both the image quality as well as the effective dose (ED) attributes of the imaging system. Using phantoms representing pediatric, adult and large adult body habitus, image quality measurements were made at 80, 100, 120 and 140 kVp using the standard eDQE protocol and exposures. ED was computed using Monte Carlo methods. The eDE was then computed as a ratio of image quality to ED for each of the phantom/spectral conditions. The eDQE and eDE results showed the same trends across tube potential with 80 kVp yielding the highest values and 120 kVp yielding the lowest. The eDE results for the pediatric phantom were markedly lower than the results for the adult phantom at spatial frequencies lower than 1.2-1.7 mm{sup -1}, primarily due to a correspondingly higher value of ED per entrance exposure. The relative performance for the adult and large adult phantoms was generally comparable but affected by kVps. The eDE results for the large adult configuration were lower than the eDE results for the adult phantom, across all spatial frequencies (120 and 140 kVp) and at spatial frequencies greater than 1.0 mm{sup -1} (80 and 100 kVp). Demonstrated for chest radiography, the eDE shows promise as an application-specific metric of imaging performance, reflective of body habitus and radiographic technique, with utility for radiography protocol assessment and optimization.

  11. Community organization moderates the effect of alcohol outlet density on violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridemore, William Alex; Grubesic, Tony H

    2012-12-01

    There is growing evidence from multiple disciplines that alcohol outlet density is associated with community levels of assault. Based on the theoretical and empirical literatures on social organization and crime, we tested the hypothesis that the association between alcohol outlet density and neighbourhood violence rates is moderated by social organization. Using geocoded police data on assaults, geocoded data on the location of alcohol outlets, and controlling for several structural factors thought to be associated with violence rates, we tested this hypothesis employing negative binomial regression with our sample of 298 block groups in Cincinnati. Our results revealed direct effects of alcohol outlet density and social organization on assault density, and these effects held for different outlet types (i.e., off-premise, bars, restaurants) and levels of harm (i.e., simple and aggravated assaults). More importantly, we found that the strength of the outlet-assault association was significantly weaker in more socially organized communities. Subsequent analyses by level of organization revealed no effects of alcohol outlet density on aggravated assaults in organized block groups, but significant effects in disorganized block groups. We found no association between social (dis)organization and outlet density. These results clarify the community-level relationship between alcohol outlets and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  12. Small alcohols destabilize the KcsA tetramer via their effect on the membrane lateral pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink-van der Laan, Els; Chupin, Vladimir; Killian, J Antoinette; de Kruijff, Ben

    2004-05-25

    Previously, it was shown that the tetrameric potassium channel KcsA when present in a lipid bilayer can be dissociated by trifluoroethanol [van den Brink-van der Laan, E., et al. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 4240-4250]. Here, we demonstrate that this is a general property of small alcohols. We found that small alcohols dissociate the KcsA tetramer, at a concentration that depends on their membrane affinity. Importantly, the efficiency of the alcohol-induced tetramer dissociation was found to correlate with the efficiency of both alcohol-induced bilayer leakage and acyl chain disordering. Our data suggest that the ability of small alcohols to induce KcsA tetramer dissociation and to function as anesthetics depends on their effect on the membrane lateral pressure. PMID:15147177

  13. Is the effect of alcohol on risk of stroke confined to highly stressed persons?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N R; Truelsen, T; Barefoot, J C;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress and alcohol are both suggested as risk factors for stroke. Further, there appears to be a close relation between stress and alcohol consumption. Several experimental studies have found alcohol consumption to reduce the immediate effects of stress in a laboratory...... setting. We aimed to examine whether the association between alcohol and stroke depends on level of self-reported stress in a large prospective cohort. METHODS: The 5,373 men and 6,723 women participating in the second examination of the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1981-1983 were asked at baseline...... about their self-reported level of stress and their weekly alcohol consumption. The participants were followed-up until 31st of December 1997 during which 880 first ever stroke events occurred. Data were analysed by means of Cox regression modelling. RESULTS: At a high stress level, weekly total...

  14. Modeling of biological doses and mechanical effects on bone transduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, Romain; Jennane, Rachid; 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.01.003

    2012-01-01

    Shear stress, hormones like parathyroid and mineral elements like calcium mediate the amplitude of stimulus signal which affects the rate of bone remodeling. The current study investigates the theoretical effects of different metabolic doses in stimulus signal level on bone. The model was built considering the osteocyte as the sensing center mediated by coupled mechanical shear stress and some biological factors. The proposed enhanced model was developed based on previously published works dealing with different aspects of bone transduction. It describes the effects of physiological doses variations of Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 on the stimulus level sensed by osteocytes in response to applied shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow. We retained the metabolic factors (Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide, and Prostaglandin E2) as parameters of bone cell mechanosensitivity because stimulation/inhibition of induced pathways stimulates osteogenic response in vivo. We t...

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects and Safety Assessment of Corn Peptides on Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-mei; WEN Lian-kui; LI Shi-jun; ZHANG Da-li; LIN Bai-song

    2011-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo effects of corn peptides(CPs) prepared from corn gluten meal by proteolysis with an alkaline protease and fractions of CPs from Sephadex G-15 and G-10 columns on activities of alcohol dehydrogenase(ADH) were studied.The results show that CPs and fraction 3 of CPs from Sephadex G-10 column enhance in vitro ADH activity.Furthermore,the in vitro accelerating effect of the fraction 3 of CPs on ADH activity was superior to that of glutathione,which was also found even in the presence of ADH inhibitor,such as pyrazole.In the in vivo experiments,the animals were fed with different dosages of CPs and with a dose of Chinese distilled spirit orally,and sacrificed for the measurement of ADH activity.In vivo experimental results indicate that CPS enhanced hepatic ADH activities.To test the safety of CPs as health food,30 d feeding test was performed.No obvious toxic effects were detected in treated Wistar rats.

  16. Effect of alcohol on blood glucose and antioxidant enzymes in the liver and kidney of diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Shanmugam; K Mallikarjuna; K Sathyavelu Reddy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes mellitus affects every organ in the man including eyes, kidney, heart, and nervous system. Alcohol consumption is a widespread practice. As the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on diabetic state have been little studied, this study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of alcohol in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, the rats were divided into five groups (n = 6 in each group): normal control (NC), alcohol treatment (At), d...

  17. The effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and species on tissue and blood levels of benzene metabolites.

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, R F; Sabourin, P J; Bechtold, W E; Griffith, W. C.; Medinsky, M A; Birnbaum, L S; Lucier, G W

    1989-01-01

    Studies were completed in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to determine the effect of dose, dose rate, route of administration, and rodent species on formation of total and individual benzene metabolites. Oral doses of 50 mg/kg or higher saturated the capacity for benzene metabolism in both rats and mice, resulting in an increased proportion of the administered dose being exhaled as benzene. The saturating air concentration for benzene metabolism during 6-hr exposures was between 130 and 900 ppm. ...

  18. Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effects in the nucleus accumbens relate to relapse in alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbusow, Maria; Schad, Daniel J; Sebold, Miriam; Friedel, Eva; Bernhardt, Nadine; Koch, Stefan P; Steinacher, Bruno; Kathmann, Norbert; Geurts, Dirk E M; Sommer, Christian; Müller, Dirk K; Nebe, Stephan; Paul, Sören; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Walter, Henrik; Smolka, Michael N; Sterzer, Philipp; Rapp, Michael A; Huys, Quentin J M; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    In detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-related stimuli can promote relapse. However, to date, the mechanisms by which contextual stimuli promote relapse have not been elucidated in detail. One hypothesis is that such contextual stimuli directly stimulate the motivation to drink via associated brain regions like the ventral striatum and thus promote alcohol seeking, intake and relapse. Pavlovian-to-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) may be one of those behavioral phenomena contributing to relapse, capturing how Pavlovian conditioned (contextual) cues determine instrumental behavior (e.g. alcohol seeking and intake). We used a PIT paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of classically conditioned Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental choices in n = 31 detoxified patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence and n = 24 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Patients were followed up over a period of 3 months. We observed that (1) there was a significant behavioral PIT effect for all participants, which was significantly more pronounced in alcohol-dependent patients; (2) PIT was significantly associated with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in subsequent relapsers only; and (3) PIT-related NAcc activation was associated with, and predictive of, critical outcomes (amount of alcohol intake and relapse during a 3 months follow-up period) in alcohol-dependent patients. These observations show for the first time that PIT-related BOLD signals, as a measure of the influence of Pavlovian cues on instrumental behavior, predict alcohol intake and relapse in alcohol dependence. PMID:25828702

  19. Clinical effectiveness of baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan JL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Brennan,2 Jonathan G Leung,1 Jane P Gagliardi,3 Sarah K Rivelli,3 Andrew J Muzyk4 1Department of Hospital Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC, 4Department of Pharmacy Practice, Campbell University School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Buies Creek, NC, USA Abstract: Baclofen, an agonist at the B subunit of gaba-aminobutyric acid receptor, possesses pharmacologic properties that may confer utility for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Research suggests that not only can it be useful in promoting maintenance of alcohol abstinence but also it may play a key role in decreasing alcohol cravings and anxiety often associated with alcohol dependence. To assess the benefit of baclofen for alcohol dependence, a review of the literature was conducted to identify published data investigating this off-label treatment. Four randomized controlled trials to date have been published and were included in this review. Although primary outcomes differ between studies, patients randomized to baclofen experience higher rates of abstinence from alcohol than those taking placebo in two of the trials. Secondary analyses indicate that baclofen is safe in patients with alcohol dependence, including those with moderate to severe liver cirrhosis, and may provide beneficial anxiolytic effects. Despite some positive data, the largest available randomized controlled trial failed to find any differences between baclofen and placebo. In all studies, individuals with severe medical comorbidities, seizure disorders, and psychiatric disorders were excluded from trials, which may limit external validity. In summary, there may be beneficial effects from using baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence; however, limited conclusions can be drawn from the small number of studies

  20. Determining effective methadone doses for individual opioid-dependent patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie A Trafton

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials of methadone maintenance have found that on average high daily doses are more effective for reducing heroin use, and clinical practice guidelines recommend 60 mg/d as a minimum dosage. Nevertheless, many clinicians report that some patients can be stably maintained on lower methadone dosages to optimal effect, and clinic dosing practices vary substantially. Studies of individual responses to methadone treatment may be more easily translated into clinical practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A volunteer sample of 222 opioid-dependent US veterans initiating methadone treatment was prospectively observed over the year after treatment entry. In the 168 who achieved at least 1 mo of heroin abstinence, methadone dosages on which patients maintained heroin-free urine samples ranged from 1.5 mg to 191.2 mg (median = 69 mg. Among patients who achieved heroin abstinence, higher methadone dosages were predicted by having a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder or depression, having a greater number of previous opioid detoxifications, living in a region with lower average heroin purity, attending a clinic where counselors discourage dosage reductions, and staying in treatment longer. These factors predicted 42% of the variance in dosage associated with heroin abstinence. CONCLUSIONS: Effective and ineffective methadone dosages overlap substantially. Dosing guidelines should focus more heavily on appropriate processes of dosage determination rather than solely specifying recommended dosages. To optimize therapy, methadone dosages must be titrated until heroin abstinence is achieved.

  1. Effects of Hydro Alcoholic Extraction of Valeriana on Astrocyte Raphe Magnus in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sajad Hatami joni

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Oral administration of hydro alcoholic extract of valerian increases astrocytes number and decreases their size in nucleus of raphe Magna, which indicated the effect of this extraction on proliferation of astrocytes increasing.

  2. The effect of Alcoholic garlic (Allium sativum extract on ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekpour-Dehkordi Z

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-laden macrophages, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. On the other hand, garlic, Allium sativum, and garlic extracts have been demonstrated to have potential cardiovascular benefits. Moreover, garlic has direct antiatherogenic and antiathersclerotic effects on artery walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1 in macrophages."n"nMethods: Cell viability assay was used in order to detect the cytotoxic dose of alcoholic garlic extract on macrophages. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to study the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1. Macrophage cells were treated by different concentrations of alcoholic garlic extract for 48 h. The total RNA of the treated macrophages were extracted and analyzed by real-time PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed using the Western blotting technique."n"nResults: Alcoholic garlic extract

  3. Dissociable effects of a single dose of ecstasy (MDMA) on psychomotor skills and attentional performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, CTJ; Ramaekers, JG; Muntjewerff, ND; Sikkema, KL; Samyn, N; Read, NL; Brookhuis, KA; Riedel, WJ

    2003-01-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is a psychoactive recreational drug widely used by young people visiting dance parties, and has been associated with poor cognitive function. The current study assessed the influence of a single dose of MDMA 75 mg and alcohol 0.5 g/kg on cognition, p

  4. Effect of low-dose gaseous ozone on pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Belchor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of chronically infected wounds is a challenge, and bacterial environmental contamination is a growing issue in infection control. Ozone may have a role in these situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether a low dose of gaseous ozone/oxygen mixture eliminates pathogenic bacteria cultivated in Petri dishes. Methods A pilot study with 6 bacterial strains was made using different concentrations of ozone in an ozone-oxygen mixture to determine a minimally effective dose that completely eliminated bacterial growth. The small and apparently bactericidal gaseous dose of 20 μg/mL ozone/oxygen (1:99 mixture, applied for 5min under atmospheric pressure was selected. In the 2nd phase, eight bacterial strains with well characterized resistance patterns were evaluated in vitro using agar-blood in adapted Petri dishes (105 bacteria/dish. The cultures were divided into 3 groups: 1- ozone-oxygen gaseous mixture containing 20 μg of O3/mL for 5 min; 2- 100% oxygen for 5 min; 3- baseline: no gas was used. Results The selected ozone dose was applied to the following eight strains: Escherichia coli, oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter baumannii susceptible only to carbapenems, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. All isolates were completely inhibited by the ozone-oxygen mixture while growth occurred in the other 2 groups. Conclusion A single topical application by nebulization of a low ozone dose completely inhibited the growth of all potentially pathogenic bacterial strains with known resistance to antimicrobial agents.

  5. Effect of vanillin and its acid and alcohol derivatives on the diphenolase activity of mushroom tyrosinase

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Bagheri-Kalmarzi; Sajedi, Reza H.; Elham Asadollahi; Nosrat O. Mahmoodi; Reza Haji-Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    For the first time in the present study the effects of vanillin, vanillyl alcohol, vanillic acid, as well as the newly synthesized vanillin derivative, bis-vanillin, were investigated on the oxidation of dopamine hydrochloride by mushroom tyrosinase. Among them, vanillin and bis-vanillin act as activators, while vanillyl alcohol and vanillic acid exhibited inhibitory effects, the IC50 values being estimated 1.5 and 1.0 mM, respectively. These compounds were mixed inhibitors. The presence of a...

  6. Delta and Kappa Opioid Receptor Polymorphisms Influence the Effects of Naltrexone on Subjective Responses to Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Ashenhurst, James R.; Bujarski, Spencer; Ray, Lara A.

    2012-01-01

    Naltrexone, one of four FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence, has shown moderate efficacy in clinical trials. Pharmacogenetic effects have been reported such that allelic variation at the gene encoding the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1, rs1799971) predicts naltrexone-induced blunting of the positively reinforcing effects of alcohol. However, naltrexone also binds, albeit to a lesser degree, to kappa and delta opioid receptors in the brain. This alternate binding presents the poss...

  7. Pulse and integral optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). Similarities and dissimilarities to thermoluminescence (TL) dose dependence and dose-rate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (Tl) are two possible methods to monitor the absorbed radiation in solid samples, and therefore are utilized for dosimetry. For this application, two properties are desirable, namely, linear dose dependence of the measured quantity and dose-rate independence. For Tl, different kinds of super linear dose dependence have been reported in the literature in different materials, and in some cases, dose-rate dependence has also been found. These have been explained as being the result of competition. In OSL, some recent works reported on super linear dose dependence in annealed samples. In the present work, we explain the possible occurrence of these phenomena in OSL by solving numerically the relevant rate equations governing the process during irradiation, relaxation and read-out (heating or light stimulation). The results show that for short pulse OSL, quadratic dose dependence can be expected when only one trapping state and one kind of recombination center are involved and when the excitation starts with empty traps and centers. With the short pulse OSL, the calculation also reveals a possible dose-rate effect. Under the same circumstances, the area under the OSL curve depends linearly on the dose. The dependence of the whole area under the OSL curve on the dose is shown to be super linear when a disconnected trapping state or radiationless center take part in the process. Also, dose-rate effect can be expected in these cases, although no experimental effect of this sort has been reported so far. In pulse OSL, the analogy is made between the measured intensity and the initial rise range of non-first order Tl, whereas for the total area OSL, there is a nearly full analogy with the dose behavior of the Tl maximum. (Author)

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation on alcoholic fermentation of cassava by saccharomyces cerevisiae and kluyveromyces marxianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study to examine the influence of gamma irradiation (Co60) on the production of alcohol from cassava by two yeast cultures, S. cerevisiae and a thermotolerant K. marxianus was carried out. Irradiation doses used were 0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 7 kGy. Two enzymes thermamyl and amyloglucosidase were used for liquifaction and saccharification, respectively. A part of the cassava substrate was enriched with NH4H2PO4 as nitrogen source. Irradiated yeast suspension (+-108 cells/ml) was inoculated to the medium to a final concentration of 5% (v/v). Incubation period was 3 days at a temperature of 30oC for S. cerevisiae and 37oC for K. marxianus. Results showed that gamma irradiation had a significant effect on the number of both yeast colonies. It decreased the number of yeast colonies, but not the content of ethanol produced by its fermentation. The yeast still viable after irradiation probably had an increased activity. Adding nitrogen to S. cerevisiae caused a decrease in the content of ethanol, but no significant effect was found on the number of colonies of both yeasts as affected by added nitrogen. (author). 10 refs

  9. Effect of low doses of seed irradiation on plant growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stimulation effect has often been discussed in research papers. There were the results of Russian work which showed greater yield after seed irradiation, and other research which showed no significant stimulating effect of seed irradiation on plant growth. These different results may be due to varying conditions like temperature, rainfall, variety, etc., under which the experiments were carried out. In the present work of this establishment the effect of radiation at different growing periods is being studied to obtain more information on the stimulating effect of small doses of radiation. These studies cover: (1) Germination speed. In these experiments the breakthrough of the primary root is investigated in relation to time and dose. (2) Development of young plants. After a growing period of 14 d the length of the plants and their dry and fresh weight are measured. (3) Radiation effect on yield. In pot and field experiments several agricultural plants, such as barley, wheat, potatoes and maize, are investigated at harvest time. The total yield, and the yield in grain and straw, are then determined separately. The first experiments have shown that the effect depends very much on the variety of plant, the growing temperature and the water content of the seeds at the time of irradiation. 10 figs, 1 tab

  10. Effect Size Estimates in Chemical Aversion Treatments of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Steven

    1985-01-01

    Reports that aggregate studies on alcohol aversion therapy tended to support a moderate level of treatment impact that may have noteworthy practical import. Emetics appeared to generate fairly consistent findings; a paralysis-inducing chemical may produce variable results. (Author/NRB)

  11. The Effect of Nutritional Therapy on Rehabilitation of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Ruth M.

    In this study, nutrition therapy was found to be an important variable in the successful treatment of alcoholism. Traditional treatment methods, such as psychological and institutional approaches, social and group therapy, and chemotherapy, are noted. Research on nutritional needs of individuals has led to an orthomolecular concept which holds…

  12. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…

  13. Effect of different doses of glyphosate in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Gomes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Brazil ranks second in production of conventional soybeans and third in production of transgenic soybeans. The main advantage of transgenic soybean is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but the continued use of exaggeration and even of the same herbicide on soybean can significantly decrease acquired resistance. This work aimed to evaluate the effects of different doses of glyphosate can result in soybean. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse on the Campus of UFMT in Sinop-MT, and evaluated five doses of glyphosate in transgenic soybeans intercropped with two conventional soybeans. The characters were evaluated for phytotoxicity scores and length of the root system. It was found that, regardless of the amount of glyphosate applied occur symptoms of phytotoxicity in conventional and transgenic soybean. Whereas the most damage will be in conventional soybean, and transgenic soybean little affected by the action of the herbicide.Key words: Glycine max, glyphosate, phytotoxicity

  14. Ionizing Dose Effect of Thermal Oxides Implanted with Si+ Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; LUO Hong-Wei; ZHANG Zheng-Xuan; ZHANG En-Xia; YANG Hui; TIAN Hao; WANG Ru; YU Wen-Jie

    2007-01-01

    Total ionizing dose effects of Si+ ion implanted thermal oxides are studied by 10keV x-ray irradiation. Photo-luminescence (PL) method is engaged to investigate nanostructures of samples. Ar+ implanted samples are also studied by the same way to provide a comparison. The results show that Si+ implantation following with high temperature annealing can significantly reduce the radiation induced Hatband shift, which is caused by net positive charge accumulation in oxides. This reduction is attributed to the formation of Si nanoscale structures. Ar+ implantation is also found to reduce the radiation induced Satband shift, while it is different that the reduction with Si+ implantation shows little dependence on implant dose of Ar+ ions. This is explained by possible increase of recombination centres.

  15. The effect of alcohol hangover on the ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Mindiashvili, Nona; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Malczyk, Axel; Daldrup, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the effects of alcohol on the ability to ride a bicycle, practical cycling tests were carried out at different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). For this purpose, various alcoholic beverages could be consumed from around 2 p.m. until 11 p.m. Afterwards, the test persons spent the night on the trial site and were provided with dormitory sleeping accommodation. On the following morning, beginning at around 8 a.m., a final cycling test was performed. The performances of those test persons who had returned to state of soberness and of those with residual blood alcohol levels were compared to the performances on the day before. The practical ability to ride a bicycle was significantly reduced in the postalcoholic state compared to the rides of the day before. The relative cycling performance in the postalcoholic state was comparable to the rides under the influence of BAC of around 0.30 g/kg. There were no remarkable differences between the groups with and without residual blood alcohol levels regarding the rides on the next morning. Therefore, it can be assumed that the direct influence of residual blood alcohol levels plays a minor role for the ability to ride a bicycle in the postalcoholic state. Instead, the side effects of the high amounts of alcohol that were consumed the night before are crucial. PMID:25940454

  16. DRD4 polymorphism moderates the effect of alcohol consumption on social bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasey G Creswell

    Full Text Available Development of interpersonal relationships is a fundamental human motivation, and behaviors facilitating social bonding are prized. Some individuals experience enhanced reward from alcohol in social contexts and may be at heightened risk for developing and maintaining problematic drinking. We employed a 3 (group beverage condition ×2 (genotype design (N = 422 to test the moderating influence of the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4 VNTR polymorphism on the effects of alcohol on social bonding. A significant gene x environment interaction showed that carriers of at least one copy of the 7-repeat allele reported higher social bonding in the alcohol, relative to placebo or control conditions, whereas alcohol did not affect ratings of 7-absent allele carriers. Carriers of the 7-repeat allele were especially sensitive to alcohol's effects on social bonding. These data converge with other recent gene-environment interaction findings implicating the DRD4 polymorphism in the development of alcohol use disorders, and results suggest a specific pathway by which social factors may increase risk for problematic drinking among 7-repeat carriers. More generally, our findings highlight the potential utility of employing transdisciplinary methods that integrate genetic methodologies, social psychology, and addiction theory to improve theories of alcohol use and abuse.

  17. Ameliorative effects of low dose/low dose-rate irradiation on reactive oxygen species-related diseases model mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Living organisms have developed complex biological system which protects themselves against environmental radiation, and irradiation with proper dose, dose-rate and irradiation time can stimulate their biological responses against oxidative stress evoked by the irradiation. Because reactive oxygen species are involved in various human diseases, non-toxic low dose/low dose-rate radiation can be utilized for the amelioration of such diseases. In this study, we used mouse experimental models for fatty liver, nephritis, diabetes, and ageing to elucidate the ameliorative effect of low dose/low dose-rate radiation in relation to endogenous antioxidant activity. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. The irradiation increases hepatic anti-oxidative system involving glutathione and glutathione peroxidase, suggesting that endogenous radical scavenger is essential for the ameliorative effect of low dose radiation on carbon tetrachloride-induced fatty liver. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy ameliorates ferric nitrilotriacetate-induced nephritis. The irradiation increases catalase and decreases superoxide dismutase in kidney. The result suggests that low dose radiation reduced generation of hydroxide radical generation by reducing cellular hydroperoxide level. Single irradiation at 0.5 Gy at 12 week of age ameliorates incidence of type I diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice through the suppression of inflammatory activity of splenocytes, and resultant apoptosis of β-cells in pancreas. The irradiation activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, which coordinately diminish intracellular reactive oxygen species. Continuous irradiation at 0.70 mGy/hr from 10 week of age elongates life span, and suppresses alopecia in type II diabetesmice. The irradiation improved glucose clearance without affecting insulin-resistance, and increased pancreatic catalase activity. The results suggest that continuous low dose-rate irradiation protect

  18. UV dose-effect relationships and current protection exposure standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we have attempted to quantify the health effects in man of uv-radiation exposure of wavelengths from 240 nm to 320 nm. Exposure to uv in this region could result in the formation of skin cancer or premature aging in man. The induction of cancer by uv radiation results from changes in genetic material. We have used the DNA action spectrum coupled with the uv skin cancer data available in the literature to derive the dose-effect relationships. The results are compared against the current uv protection standards

  19. Committed equivalent organ doses and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed equivalent doses to individual organs for intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu m AMAD particles of 359 nuclides by infants aged 3 months, by children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and by adults. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on the way committed doses increase with the integration period is given in NRPB-M289. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  20. Review of low dose-rate epidemiological studies and biological mechanisms of dose-rate effects on radiation induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection system adopts the linear non-threshold model with using dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor (DDREF). The dose-rate range where DDREF is applied is below 100 mGy per hour, and it is regarded that there are no dose-rate effects at very low dose rate, less than of the order of 10 mGy per year, even from the biological risk evaluation model based on cellular and molecular level mechanisms for maintenance of genetic integrity. Among low dose-rate epidemiological studies, studies of residents in high natural background areas showed no increase of cancer risks at less than about 10 mGy per year. On the other hand, some studies include a study of the Techa River cohort suggested the increase of cancer risks to the similar degree of Atomic bomb survivor data. The difference of those results was supposed due to the difference of dose rate. In 2014, International Commission on Radiological Protection opened a draft report on stem cell biology for public consultations. The report proposed a hypothesis based on the new idea of stem cell competition as a tissue level quality control mechanism, and suggested that it could explain the dose-rate effects around a few milligray per year. To verify this hypothesis, it would be needed to clarify the existence and the lowest dose of radiation-induced stem cell competition, and to elucidate the rate of stem cell turnover and radiation effects on it. As for the turnover, replenishment of damaged stem cells would be the important biological process. It would be meaningful to collect the information to show the difference of dose rates where the competition and the replenishment would be the predominant processes. (author)

  1. Proton dose distribution measurements using a MOSFET detector with a simple dose-weighted correction method for LET effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Ryosuke; Hotta, Kenji; Matsuura, Taeko; Matsubara, Kana; Nishioka, Shie; Nishio, Teiji; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Ogino, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally evaluated the proton beam dose reproducibility, sensitivity, angular dependence and depth-dose relationships for a new Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) detector. The detector was fabricated with a thinner oxide layer and was operated at high-bias voltages. In order to accurately measure dose distributions, we developed a practical method for correcting the MOSFET response to proton beams. The detector was tested by examining lateral dose profiles formed by protons passing through an L-shaped bolus. The dose reproducibility, angular dependence and depth-dose response were evaluated using a 190 MeV proton beam. Depth-output curves produced using the MOSFET detectors were compared with results obtained using an ionization chamber (IC). Since accurate measurements of proton dose distribution require correction for LET effects, we developed a simple dose-weighted correction method. The correction factors were determined as a function of proton penetration depth, or residual range. The residual proton range at each measurement point was calculated using the pencil beam algorithm. Lateral measurements in a phantom were obtained for pristine and SOBP beams. The reproducibility of the MOSFET detector was within 2%, and the angular dependence was less than 9%. The detector exhibited a good response at the Bragg peak (0.74 relative to the IC detector). For dose distributions resulting from protons passing through an L-shaped bolus, the corrected MOSFET dose agreed well with the IC results. Absolute proton dosimetry can be performed using MOSFET detectors to a precision of about 3% (1 sigma). A thinner oxide layer thickness improved the LET in proton dosimetry. By employing correction methods for LET dependence, it is possible to measure absolute proton dose using MOSFET detectors. PMID:21587191

  2. The impact of treatment condition and the lagged effects of PTSD symptom severity and alcohol use on changes in alcohol craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Alpert, Elizabeth; Foa, Edna B

    2016-04-01

    Given the high rates of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), we investigated an integrated treatment for these disorders. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence were randomized to receive naltrexone or placebo, with or without prolonged exposure (PE). All participants also received BRENDA (supportive counseling). The naltrexone plus PE group showed a greater decline in alcohol craving symptoms than those in the placebo with no PE group. The PE plus placebo and the naltrexone without PE groups did not differ significantly from the placebo with no PE group in terms of alcohol craving. No treatment group differences were found for percentage of drinking days. Alcohol craving was moderated by PTSD severity, with those with higher PTSD symptoms showing faster decreases in alcohol craving. Both PTSD and alcohol use had a lagged effect on alcohol craving, with changes in PTSD symptoms and percentage of days drinking being associated with subsequent changes in craving. These results support the relationship between greater PTSD symptoms leading to greater alcohol craving and suggest that reducing PTSD symptoms may be beneficial to reducing craving in those with co-occurring PTSD/SUD.

  3. Effect of Alcohol on Interaction of Model Biological Membrane with Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Marco; Mura, Manuela; Famili, Marjan; Zhou, Yuhua; Zvelindovsky, Andrei

    2014-03-01

    The effect of alcohol in the lipid bilayer changes the gel-phase structure of the lipid bilayer. Interactions between the alcohol molecules and the lipid bilayer were investigated using molecular dynamics. Alcohols such as ethanol and methanol are often used in drug delivery application. Ethanol is used to dissolve hydrophobic steroidal drugs such as Beclamethasone dipropionate, Fluticasone propionate and Prednisone. All the systems considered were equilibrated at 310K and ran for 100ns in the presence of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer. In addition the simulations were performed to investigate the behaviour of anti-asthma drugs such as Beclamethasone dipropionate in the water environment and 2.5% of ethanol.

  4. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil;

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  5. The effectiveness of different approaches to media literacy in modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chun Yvonnes

    2013-01-01

    Fearing the negative effect that alcohol advertising might have on adolescents' receptiveness to the consumption of alcohol, health educators have used media literacy as an effective strategy to mitigate the effect of these messages in the media. The present study applied parental mediation to the design and evaluations of a media literacy curriculum that targets alcohol decision-making processes illustrated in the message interpretation process model. The authors conducted a pretest-posttest quasi-experiment of 171 adolescents to examine the effect of a negative evaluative approach and a balanced evaluative approach (a combination of negative and positive evaluative strategies) to media literacy on modifying adolescents' responses to alcohol messages. Results showed that different media literacy approaches had varying degrees of effectiveness on adolescent boys and girls. After receiving a negative media literacy lesson, adolescent boys regarded television characters as less realistic and believed that drinking alcohol had negative consequences. In contrast, adolescent girls benefited more from a balanced evaluative approach as their media skepticism attitude was enhanced. Results suggest that health educators should choose tailored pedagogical approaches that are based on gender to improve decision making regarding alcohol consumption.

  6. Measurement of Entrance Skin Dose and Calculation of Effective Dose for Common Diagnostic X-Ray Examinations in Kashan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliasgharzadeh, Akbar; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Masoumbeigi, Mahboubeh; Salimian, Morteza; Mohseni, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the radiation dose received by the patient during the radiological examination is essential to prevent risks of exposures. The aim of this work is to study patient doses for common diagnostic radiographic examinations in hospitals affiliated to Kashan University of Medical sciences, Iran. The results of this survey are compared with those published by some national and international values. Entrance surface dose (ESD) was measured based on the exposure parameters used for the actual examination and effective dose (ED) was calculated by use of conversion coefficients calculated by Monte Carlo methods. The mean entrance surface dose and effective dose for examinations of the chest (PA, Lat), abdomen (AP), pelvis (AP), lumbar spine (AP, Lat) and skull (AP, Lat) are 0.37, 0.99, 2.01, 1.76, 2.18, 5.36, 1.39 and 1.01 mGy, and 0.04, 0.1, 0.28, 0,28, 0.23, 0.13, 0.01 and 0.01 mSv, respectively. The ESDs and EDs reported in this study, except for examinations of the chest, are generally lower than comparable reference dose values published in the literature. On the basis of the results obtained in this study can conclude that use of newer equipment and use of the proper radiological parameter can significantly reduce the absorbed dose. It is recommended that radiological parameter in chest examinations be revised. PMID:26156930

  7. Effects of L-glutamine supplementation on maternal and fetal hemodynamics in gestating ewes exposed to alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, Onkar B.; Ramadoss, Jayanth; Hankins, Gary D.; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Not much is known about effects of gestational alcohol exposure on maternal and fetal cardiovascular adaptations. This study determined whether maternal binge alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation could affect maternal-fetal hemodynamics and fetal regional brain blood flow during the brain growth spurt period. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to one of four groups: saline control, alcohol (1.75–2.5 g/kg body weight), glutamine (100 mg/kg body weight) or alcohol + glutamine. A ...

  8. Comparing the Effects of Alcohol Mixed with Artificially-Sweetened and Carbohydrate Containing Beverages on Breath Alcohol Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of alcohol mixed with artificially sweetened or carbohydrate containing beverages on breath alcohol concentration s (BrAC) under various levels of hydration status. Two groups of males participated in 3 experimental trials where alcohol was consumed under three different levels of hydration status. One group…

  9. The Effect of Pubertal and Psychosocial Timing on Adolescents' Alcohol Use: What Role Does Alcohol-Specific Parenting Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Burk, William J.

    2011-01-01

    In scientific literature, early pubertal timing emerges as a risk factor of adolescents' drinking, whereas alcohol-specific rules (the degree to which parents permit their children to consume alcohol in various situations) showed to protect against adolescents' drinking. This study investigated whether alcohol-specific rules mediate and/or…

  10. There’s alcohol in my soap: portrayal and effects of alcohol use in a popular television series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Jong, de Menno D.T.; Fennis, Bob M.; Gosselt, Jordy F.

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported addressing the media influences on adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviours. A content analysis was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol portrayal in a Dutch soap series. The coding scheme covered the alcohol consumption per soap character, drinkin

  11. Effect of Dose Rate Variation on Dose Distribution in IMRT with a Dynamic Multileaf Collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate dose distribution differences when the dose rates are randomly changed in intensity-modulated radiation therapy using a dynamic multileaf collimator. Two IMRT treatment plans including small-field and large-field plans were made using a commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Each plan had three sub-plans according to various dose rates of 100, 400, and 600 MU/min. A chamber array (2D-Array Seven729, PTW-Freiburg) was positioned between solid water phantom slabs to give measurement depth of 5 cm and backscattering depth of 5 cm. Beam deliveries were performed on the array detector using a 6 MV beam of a linear accelerator (Clinac 21EX, Varian, Palo Alto, CA) equipped with 120-leaf MLC (Millenium 120, Varian). At first, the beam was delivered with same dose rates as planned to obtain reference values. After the standard measurements, dose rates were then changed as follows: 1) for plans with 100 MU/min, dose rate was varied to 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 MU/min, 2) for plans with 400 MU/min, dose rate was varied to 100, 200, 300, 500 and 600 MU/min, 3) for plans with 600 MU/min, dose rate was varied to 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 MU/min. Finally, using an analysis software (Verisoft 3.1, PTW-Freiburg), the dose difference and distribution between the reference and dose-rate-varied measurements was evaluated. For the small field plan, the local dose differences were -0.8, -1.1, -1.3, -1.5, and -1.6% for the dose rate of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 MU/min, respectively (for 100 MU/min reference), +0.9, +0.3, +0.1, -0.2, and -0.2% for the dose rate of 100, 200, 300, 500, 600 MU/min, respectively (for 400 MU/min reference) and +1.4, +0.8, +0.5, +0.3, and +0.2% for the dose rate of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 MU/min, respectively (for 600 MU/min reference). On the other hand, for the large field plan, the pass-rate differences were -1.3, -1.6, -1.8, -2.0, and -2.4% for the dose rate of 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 MU/min, respectively (for 100

  12. The effect of intimate exposure to alcohol abuse on the acquisition of knowledge about drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainer, J P

    1994-01-01

    This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further

  13. Protective effect of alcohol consumption for fatty liver but not metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahide Hamaguchi; Takao Kojima; Akihiro Ohbora; Noriyuki Takeda; Michiaki Fukui; Takahiro Kato

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of alcohol on the metabolic syndrome (MS) and fatty liver in Japanese men and women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical health checkup program at a general hospital. This study involved 18 571 Japanese men and women, 18-88 years of age, with a mean body mass index of 22.6 kg/m2. A standardized questionnaire was administered. The total amount of alcohol consumed per week was calculated, and categorized into four grades. Fatty liver was examined by ultrasound modified criteria of the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ and the new International Diabetes Federation. RESULTS: The prevalence of fatty liver decreased in men and women with light to moderate alcohol consumption, whereas the prevalence of MS was not so changed. The prevalence of fatty liver of any grade in men was lower than that in those with no or minimal alcohol consumption. In women with light to moderate alcohol consumption, prevalence of fatty liver was lower than that in women with no or minimal alcohol consumption. By logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for MS in women with light alcohol consumption was decreased to < 1.0, but this change was not clear in men. The OR for fatty liver was clearly < 1.0 in men with any level of alcohol consumption and in women with light to moderate consumption. CONCLUSION: Light to moderate alcohol consumption has a favorable effect for fatty liver, but not for MS in Japanese men and women.

  14. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011-2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h-1) with the dose rate reconstructed for adult birds of each species (from 0.3 to 97 μGy h-1), we confirmed that the overall bird abundance at Fukushima decreased with increasing total doses. This relationship was directly consistent with exposure levels found in the literature to induce physiological disturbances in birds. Among the 57 species constituting the observed bird community, we found that 90% were likely chronically exposed at a dose rate that could potentially affect their reproductive success. We quantified a loss of 22.6% of the total number of individuals per increment of one unit log10-transformed total dose (in Gy), over the four-year post-accident period in the explored area. We estimated that a total dose of 0.55 Gy reduced by 50% the total number of birds in the study area over 2011-2014. The data also suggest a significant positive relationship between total dose and species diversity. (authors)

  15. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire; Métivier, Jean-Michel; Ritz, Christian; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Pape Møller, Anders

    2015-11-01

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011-2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h-1) with the dose rate reconstructed for adult birds of each species (from 0.3 to 97 μGy h-1), we confirmed that the overall bird abundance at Fukushima decreased with increasing total doses. This relationship was directly consistent with exposure levels found in the literature to induce physiological disturbances in birds. Among the 57 species constituting the observed bird community, we found that 90% were likely chronically exposed at a dose rate that could potentially affect their reproductive success. We quantified a loss of 22.6% of the total number of individuals per increment of one unit log10-tansformed total dose (in Gy), over the four-year post-accident period in the explored area. We estimated that a total dose of 0.55 Gy reduced by 50% the total number of birds in the study area over 2011-2014. The data also suggest a significant positive relationship between total dose and species diversity.

  16. Radiological dose reconstruction for birds reconciles outcomes of Fukushima with knowledge of dose-effect relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Beaugelin-Seiller, Karine; Della-Vedova, Claire;

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the radiological dose for birds observed at 300 census sites in the 50-km northwest area affected by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant over 2011-2014. Substituting the ambient dose rate measured at the census points (from 0.16 to 31 μGy h(-1)) with the dos...

  17. Alcoholism and Intimate Partner Violence: Effects on Children’s Psychosocial Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Klostermann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b the effects of children’s exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions.

  18. Effect of alcohol on internally deposited Am-241 in the baboon: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficacy of ethyl alcohol in enhancing the excretion of Am-241 from the baboon has been tested. Alcohol enhances Am-241 excretion via the fecal route by a factor of about 2.5. However, there is a corresponding increase in fecal volume, and no significant change in the concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Other cathartics tested caused increased fecal volumes with no change in amount of activity excreted leading to a decreased concentration of the nuclide in the feces. Alcohol is not as effective as DTPA in removing Am-241 from the body. Preliminary results suggest that alcohol has little or no enhancement effect on the decorporation capability of DTPA

  19. The effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structures and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squeglia, Lindsay M; Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the neurocognitive and neuroimaging literature regarding the effect of alcohol use on human adolescent brain structure and function. Adolescents who engage in heavy alcohol use, even at subdiagnostic levels, show differences in brain structure, function, and behavior when compared with non-drinking controls. Preliminary longitudinal studies have helped disentangle premorbid factors from consequences associated with drinking. Neural abnormalities and cognitive disadvantages both appear to predate drinking, particularly in youth who have a family history of alcoholism, and are directly related to the neurotoxic effect of alcohol use. Binge drinking and withdrawal and hangover symptoms have been associated with the greatest neural abnormalities during adolescence, particularly in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. PMID:25307592

  20. Effects of coffee, smoking, and alcohol on liver function tests: a comprehensive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Eun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver function tests (LFTs can be affected by many factors and the proposed effects of coffee on LFT require a comprehensive evaluation. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether drinking coffee, smoking, or drinking alcohol have independent effects on LFTs in Korean health-check examinees. Methods We used the responses of 500 health-check examinees, who had participated in a self-administered questionnaire survey about coffee, alcohol drinking, and smoking habits. Results Coffee consumption was closely related to male gender, high body mass index (BMI, alcohol drinking, and smoking. On univariable and multivariable analyses, drinking coffee lowered serum levels of total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferases (AST. On multivariable analyses, smoking raised serum γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT level and decreased serum protein and albumin levels, while alcohol drinking raised GGT level after adjustment for age, gender, regular medication, BMI, coffee and alcohol drinking amounts, and smoking. Conclusions Coffee consumption, smoking, and alcohol drinking affect the individual components of LFT in different ways, and the above 3 habits each have an impact on LFTs. Therefore, their effects on LFTs should be carefully interpreted, and further study on the mechanism of the effects is warranted.

  1. Hepatotherapeutic effect of Aloe vera in alcohol-induced hepatic damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, W A; Akhigbe, R E; Ishola, O S; Ashamu, E A; Olayemi, O T; Adeleke, G E

    2011-07-15

    There is a lack of reliable hepatotherapeutic drugs in modern medicine in the management of alcohol/drug-induced liver damage. Aloe vera extract has been used in folklore medicine for its medicinal values. This study evaluates the hepatotherapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups; the negative control, positive control and the extract-treated groups. The negative control received only distilled water daily. The positive control received alcohol, while the extract-treated group received aqueous extract of Aloe vera and alcohol. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the positive control and extract-treated rats with alcohol. The hepatotherapeutic effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate and alanine transaminases and liver histopathology. Alanine transaminase activities were comparable in all groups. Alcohol treatment alone significantly (p Aloe vera extract. Histopathological examination revealed that alcohol induced hepatic damage. Aloe vera treatment maintained hepatic architecture similar to that seen in the control. This study shows that aqueous extract of Aloe vera gel is hepatotherapeutic and thus lends credence to the use of the plant in folklore medicine in the management of alcohol-induced hepatic dysfunction.

  2. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerberg, B; Tomlinson, T M; Glaser, J; Beckstead, J W

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of impairments in neonatal state regulatory systems. Since prenatal alcohol exposure causes thermoregulatory deficits in response to both heat and cold stress in rats, body temperature set-point might be altered in alcohol-exposed offspring. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior in a thermocline was investigated in 10-, 15-, and 125-day-old male and female rats from three prenatal treatment conditions: alcohol liquid diet, pair-fed liquid diet control, or standard control. Subjects were placed in the thermocline in the cold, hot, or middle start positions and observed for 60 min. Subjects exposed to alcohol prenatally had a wider "preference zone" than control subjects at 10 and 15 days of age, but did not as adults. This widening of the temperature set-point in young subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol may represent a developmental lag in the development of body temperature set-point or a central compensatory process allowing the animal to adapt to alternating experiences of heat and cold stress.

  3. The interactive effects of emotion regulation and alcohol intoxication on lab-based intimate partner aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David; Maldonado, Rosalita C

    2015-09-01

    This study draws on Finkel and Eckhardt's (2013) I³ framework to examine the interactive effects of 2 emotion regulation strategies-anger rumination (an impellance factor) and reappraisal (an inhibition factor), and alcohol intoxication (a disinhibition factor)-on intimate partner aggression (IPA) perpetration as measured with an analogue aggression task. Participants were 69 couples recruited from a large Midwestern university (total N = 138). Participants' trait rumination and reappraisal were measured by self-report. Participants were randomized individually to an alcohol or placebo condition, then recalled an anger event while using 1 of 3 randomly assigned emotion regulation conditions (rumination, reappraisal, or uninstructed). Following this, participants completed an analogue aggression task involving ostensibly assigning white noise blasts to their partner. Participants in the alcohol condition displayed greater IPA than participants in the placebo condition for provoked IPA, but not unprovoked IPA. Results also revealed interactions such that for those in the alcohol and rumination group, higher trait reappraisal was related to lower unprovoked IPA. For provoked IPA, higher trait rumination was related to greater IPA among those in the alcohol and rumination condition and those in the placebo and uninstructed condition. In general, results were consistent with I³ theory, suggesting that alcohol disinhibits, rumination impels, and trait reappraisal inhibits IPA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed in the context of current knowledge about the influence of alcohol intoxication and emotion regulation strategies on IPA perpetration. PMID:25844831

  4. Effect of chronic alcohol ingestion on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fisher-344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Ricardo Biasoli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Understand the effect of chronic alcohol on the progression of periodontitis induced in Fischer-344 rats.Methods: For the study, 22 Fischer-344 rats, two months old were used, divided into groups: alcohol (n=8, ligature (n=7 and control (n=7. On the first day, the animals in the alcohol group were exposed to ingestion of a water solution containing 20% alcohol (size/size, up to day 90. After thirty days from the beginning of the experiment, the animals in the alcohol group and the ligature group were submitted to the placement of a silk thread around the right maxillary second molar. Nothing was performed on the left side, serving as control. All the groups were submitted to euthanasia 60 days after ligature placement. To assess the destruction of periodontitis, a radiographic exam was used to measure the destruction of bone height. Results: The results of the study showed that on the side in which periodontitis was induced, the group that ingested alcohol suffered an increase in destruction, with statistical differences when compared with the ligature and control groups and increased bone destruction in the ligature group when compared to control. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it was concluded that chronic alcohol consumption by Fischer-344 rats led to greater progression of induced periodontitis.

  5. Health Effects of Exposure to Low Dose of Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human beings are exposed to natural radiation from external sources include radionuclides in the earth and cosmic radiation, and by internal radiation from radionuclides, mainly uranium and thorium series, incorporated into the body. Living systems have adapted to the natural levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources enhance these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Biological effects of ionizing radiation are the outcomes of physical and chemical processes that occur immediately after the exposure, then followed by biological process in the body. These processes will involve successive changes in the molecular, cellular, tissue and whole organism levels. Any dose of radiation, no matter how small, may produce health effects since even a single ionizing event can result in DNA damage. The damage to DNA in the nucleus is considered to be the main initiating event by which radiation causes damage to cells that results in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. It has also been indicated that cytogenetic damage can occur in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure, known as bystander effects. This paper reviews health risks of low dose radiation exposure to human body causing stochastic effects, i.e. cancer induction in somatic cells and hereditary disease in genetic cells. (author)

  6. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Ledgaard Holm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost

  7. No effect of oral testosterone treatment on sexual dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Wantzin, P; Eriksen, J

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence and course of sexual dysfunction was evaluated in 221 alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment on liver disease. At entry, 67% (95% confidence limits, 61%-74%) complained of sexual dysfunction....... In conclusion, oral testosterone treatment does not significantly influence the type or course of sexual dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhotic men. However, sexual function improved after reduction of ethanol consumption in these patients....

  8. Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Alcohol Exposure during Development on the Processing of Social Cues

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Sandra J.; Leggett, Darnica C.; Cronise, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The study used an animal model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to investigate the impact of alcohol exposure during a period equivalent to all three trimesters in humans on social recognition memory. It was hypothesized that the effects on specific aspects of social recognition memory would be sexually dimorphic. Methods: This study exposed rats to ethanol during both the prenatal and early postnatal periods. Two control groups included a group exposed to the administration p...

  9. Alcohol use in adolescence : A longitudinal study of its effect on cognitive functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Boelema, Sarai

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the adolescent brain is particularly vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol because significant maturation of brain structure and corresponding cognitive control function takes place over the course of adolescence. However, research on this subject has remained inconclusive thus far due to numerous methodological pitfalls. Therefore, there is a need for a large longitudinal study on the precursors and outcomes of alcohol use related to cognitive and behavio...

  10. Peer effects, unobserved factors and risk behaviours: an analysis of alcohol abuse and truancy among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Rosa; Escario, José-Julián; Molina, José Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the factors which affect alcohol abuse and truancy among adolescents. We propose a new theoretical specification in which alcohol abuse and truancy appear as derived demands, given that they condition peer group and family acceptance, and we introduce unobserved individual effects that can influence both behaviours. Empirically, our paper develops an analysis where, after controlling for the existence of unobserved individual factors affecting both de...

  11. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Mellingen; Torbjørn Torsheim; Frode Thuen

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS) throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumpti...

  12. Dose, time and volume effects in interstitial radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the main features and uncertainties of interstitial therapy and was undertaken to examine whether differences could be found in different clinical situations treated by interstitial implants with removable sources, that were not simply related to dose. In chapter 2, dating from 1978, continuous low dose rate irradiation is discussed from the radiobiological point of view together with some points related to variation in dose rate. A benefit of continuous low dose rate irradiation could be surmised in a few situations with special cell-kinetic properties. The problem of dose specification, the sharp dose gradient and other volume characteristics are discussed in chapter 3. Possible adjustments to variations in dose rate are discussed in chapter 4. The clinical material is reviewed in chapter 5, including aspects of dose specification, dose fall-off and variation in dose rate. The general discussion and conclusions are given in chapter 6. (Auth.)

  13. Evaluation of organ doses and specific k effective dose of 64-slice CT thorax examination using an adult anthropomorphic phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, S.; Karim, M. K. A.; Bakar, K. A.; Sabarudin, A.; Chin, A. W.; Saripan, M. I.; Bradley, D. A.

    2016-09-01

    The magnitude of radiation dose in computed tomography (CT) depends on the scan acquisition parameters, investigated herein using an anthropomorphic phantom (RANDO®) and thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Specific interest was in the organ doses resulting from CT thorax examination, the specific k coefficient for effective dose estimation for particular protocols also being determined. For measurement of doses representing five main organs (thyroid, lung, liver, esophagus and skin), TLD-100 (LiF:Mg, Ti) were inserted into selected holes in a phantom slab. Five CT thorax protocols were investigated, one routine (R1) and four that were modified protocols (R2 to R5). Organ doses were ranked from greatest to least, found to lie in the order: thyroid>skin>lung>liver>breast. The greatest dose, for thyroid at 25 mGy, was that in use of R1 while the lowest, at 8.8 mGy, was in breast tissue using R3. Effective dose (E) was estimated using three standard methods: the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-103 recommendation (E103), the computational phantom CT-EXPO (E(CTEXPO)) method, and the dose-length product (DLP) based approach. E103 k factors were constant for all protocols, ~8% less than that of the universal k factor. Due to inconsistency in tube potential and pitch factor the k factors from CTEXPO were found to vary between 0.015 and 0.010 for protocols R3 and R5. With considerable variation between scan acquisition parameters and organ doses, optimization of practice is necessary in order to reduce patient organ dose.

  14. Effect of particulate adjuvant on the anthrax protective antigen dose required for effective nasal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Dulce; Staats, Herman F; Borges, Olga

    2015-07-17

    Successful vaccine development is dependent on the development of effective adjuvants since the poor immunogenicity of modern subunit vaccines typically requires the use of potent adjuvants and high antigen doses. In recent years, adjuvant formulations combining both immunopotentiators and delivery systems have emerged as a promising strategy to develop effective and improved vaccines. In this study we investigate if the association of the mast cell activating adjuvant compound 48/80 (C48/80) with chitosan nanoparticles would promote an antigen dose sparing effect when administered intranasally. Even though the induction of strong mucosal immunity required higher antigen doses, incorporation of C48/80 into nanoparticles provided significant dose sparing when compared to antigen and C48/80 in solution with no significant effect on serum neutralizing antibodies titers. These results suggest the potential of this novel adjuvant combination to improve the immunogenicity of a vaccine and decrease the antigen dose required for vaccination. PMID:26087299

  15. Influence of standing positions and beam projections on effective dose and eye lens dose of anaesthetists in interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More and more anaesthetists are getting involved in interventional radiology procedures and so it is important to know the radiation dose and to optimise protection for anaesthetists. In this study, based on Monte Carlo simulations and field measurements, both the whole-body doses and eye lens dose of anaesthetists were studied. The results showed that the radiation exposure to anaesthetists not only depends on their workload, but also largely varies with their standing positions and beam projections during interventional procedures. The simulation results showed that the effective dose to anaesthetists may vary with their standing positions and beam projections to more than a factor of 10, and the eye lens dose may vary with the standing positions and beam projections to more than a factor of 200. In general, a close position to the bed and the left lateral (LLAT) beam projection will bring a high exposure to anaesthetists. Good correlations between the eye lens dose and the doses at the neck, chest and waist over the apron were observed from the field measurements. The results indicate that adequate arrangements of anaesthesia device or other monitoring equipment in the fluoroscopy rooms are useful measures to reduce the radiation exposure to anaesthetists, and anaesthetists should be aware that they will receive the highest doses under left lateral beam projection. (authors)

  16. Predicting the effect of naltrexone and acamprosate in alcohol-dependent patients using genetic indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ooteman; M. Naassila; M.W.J. Koeter; R. Verheul; G.M. Schippers; H. Houchi; M. Daoust; W. van den Brink

    2009-01-01

    Acamprosate and naltrexone are effective medications in the treatment of alcoholism. However. effect sizes are modest. Pharmacogenomics may improve patient-treatment-matching and effect sizes. It is hypothesized that naltrexone exerts its effect through genetic characteristics associated with the do

  17. Effects of ethanol on offspring of C57BL/6J mice alcoholized during gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinfeld Hermann

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of chronic alcohol consumption during pregnancy were analysed in the gestation and offspring of alcoholized mice. Female C57BL/6J mice were placed overnight with stud males and the presence of a sperm plug in the next morning indicated the onset of gestation. Pregnant mice were distributed in two weight-matched groups. In the alcoholized group, the mice received a high protein liquid diet ad libitum containing 27.5% of ethanol-derived calories (5.28% v/v from gestation day 5 to 19. The control group received the same volume of diet containing isocaloric amounts of maltose-dextrin substituted for ethanol. After postnatal day zero, the dams received food pellets and tap water ad libitum. On postnatal day 6 the pups were counted and weighed at variable intervals up to the 60th day of life. The majority of the pregnant dams that have received ethanol completed the gestational period, and the chronic consumption of alcohol did not interfere with the number of dams that gave birth. The alcoholized and control dams gained an equivalent weight and consumed an equivalent volume of diet throughout the gestation. The number of pups from alcohol diet dams was 46,26% smaller compared with the control group. There were less male than female pups in the offspring of alcoholized mice. Teratogeny like gastroschisis and limb malformation were present in the offspring of alcoholized dams. The body weight of the offspring of alcoholized mice increased from the 18th to the 36th postnatal day.

  18. A consideration of low dose radiation effects on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake categorized as 9 Mw occurred off the northeast coast of Japan. The subsequent destructive tsunami disabled emergency units of Fukushima Dai'ichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused partial meltdown of reactors and explosions. Resulting radiation releases forced large evacuations, bore concerns about food and water and fears against human health. In this manuscript, we described the effect of radiation, especially low dose radiation below 100 mSv, on cancer risk, focusing on fetuses and children. (author)

  19. THE EFFECT OF BORON DOSES ON PARICA (Schizolobium amazonicum Herb.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião Ferreira de Lima; Rodrigo Luz da Cunha; Janice Guedes de Carvalho; Carlos Alberto Spaggiari Souza; Fernando Luiz de Oliveira Corrêa

    2003-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in order to evaluate the effects of boron on parica growth and on concentration and contents of macro and micronutrients indry matter of shoots and roots. Six treatments constituted by boron doses of 0.0; 0.1; 0.3; 0.9;1.5 and 2.1 mg/dm3 in four replications were used. It was evaluated the characteristics:visual diagnostic, plants height and diameter, dry matter production of shoots and roots,concentration and contents of nutrients in dry matter of ...

  20. Are the effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) treatment partly physiological in alcohol dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameisen, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in alcohol dependence could be related to ethanol-mimicking action of the drug and that GHB could reduce alcohol craving, intake and withdrawal by acting as a "substitute" of the alcohol in the central nervous system. Nevertheless, alcohol being the strongest trigger of craving and intake, it is difficult to ascribe reduction of craving and intake to ethanol-mimicking activity of GHB. I have recently proposed that alcohol/substance dependence could result from a GHB-deficiency-related dysphoric syndrome in which alcohol/substances would be sought to "substitute" for insufficient GHB effect. GHB is the sole identified naturally occurring gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA (B)) receptor agonist. Here, I propose that exogenous GHB might in fact "substitute" for deficient endogeneous GHB and represent true substitutive treatment for GHB-deficiency. And that baclofen and GHB could both compensate for deficient effect of the physiological GABA (B) receptor agonist(s).

  1. Hairpin Ribozyme Genes Curtail Alcohol Drinking: from Rational Design to in vivo Effects in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapag, Amalia; Irrazábal, Thergiory; Lobos-González, Lorena; Muñoz-Brauning, Carlos R; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske

    2016-07-12

    Ribozyme genes were designed to reduce voluntary alcohol drinking in a rat model of alcohol dependence. Acetaldehyde generated from alcohol in the liver is metabolized by the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) such that diminishing ALDH2 activity leads to the aversive effects of blood acetaldehyde upon alcohol intake. A stepwise approach was followed to design genes encoding ribozymes targeted to the rat ALDH2 mRNA. In vitro studies of accessibility to oligonucleotides identified suitable target sites in the mRNA, one of which fulfilled hammerhead and hairpin ribozyme requirements (CGGUC). Ribozyme genes delivered in plasmid constructs were tested in rat cells in culture. While the hairpin ribozyme reduced ALDH2 activity 56% by cleavage and blockade (P < 0.0001), the hammerhead ribozyme elicited minor effects by blockade. The hairpin ribozyme was tested in vivo by adenoviral gene delivery to UChB alcohol drinker rats. Ethanol intake was curtailed 47% for 34 days (P < 0.0001), while blood acetaldehyde more than doubled upon ethanol administration and ALDH2 activity dropped 25% in liver homogenates, not affecting other ALDH isoforms. Thus, hairpin ribozymes targeted to 16 nt in the ALDH2 mRNA provide durable and specific effects in vivo, representing an improvement on previous work and encouraging development of gene therapy for alcoholism.

  2. Effective dose and organ doses estimation taking tube current modulation into account with a commercial software package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) versus using the average mAs in estimating organ and effective dose (E) using commercial software. Forty adult patients (24 females, 16 males) with normal BMI underwent chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) performed with TCM at 120 kVp, reference mAs of 110 (chest) and 200 (abdomen). Doses to fully irradiated organs (breasts, lungs, stomach, liver and ovaries) and E were calculated using two versions of a dosimetry software: v.2.0, which uses the average mAs, and v.2.2, which accounts for TCM by implementing a gender-specific mAs profile. Student's t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences between organ doses calculated with the two versions. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found for E on chest and abdomen CT, with E being lower by 4.2 % when TCM is considered. Similarly, organ doses were also significantly lower (p < 0.001): 13.7 % for breasts, 7.3 % for lungs, 9.1 % for the liver and 8.5 % for the stomach. Only the dose to the ovaries was higher with TCM (11.5 %). When TCM is used, for the stylized phantom, the doses to lungs, breasts, stomach and liver decreased while the dose to the ovaries increased. (orig.)

  3. Effective dose and organ doses estimation taking tube current modulation into account with a commercial software package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rendon, X. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, H.; Zanca, F. [KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Division of Medical Physics and Quality Assessment, Herestraat 49, box 7003, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Oyen, R. [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate the effect of including tube current modulation (TCM) versus using the average mAs in estimating organ and effective dose (E) using commercial software. Forty adult patients (24 females, 16 males) with normal BMI underwent chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) performed with TCM at 120 kVp, reference mAs of 110 (chest) and 200 (abdomen). Doses to fully irradiated organs (breasts, lungs, stomach, liver and ovaries) and E were calculated using two versions of a dosimetry software: v.2.0, which uses the average mAs, and v.2.2, which accounts for TCM by implementing a gender-specific mAs profile. Student's t-test was used to assess statistically significant differences between organ doses calculated with the two versions. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) was found for E on chest and abdomen CT, with E being lower by 4.2 % when TCM is considered. Similarly, organ doses were also significantly lower (p < 0.001): 13.7 % for breasts, 7.3 % for lungs, 9.1 % for the liver and 8.5 % for the stomach. Only the dose to the ovaries was higher with TCM (11.5 %). When TCM is used, for the stylized phantom, the doses to lungs, breasts, stomach and liver decreased while the dose to the ovaries increased. (orig.)

  4. Low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses for endocrine active chemicals: Science to practice workshop: Workshop summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beausoleil, Claire; Ormsby, Jean-Nicolas; Gies, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    A workshop was held in Berlin September 12–14th 2012 to assess the state of the science of the data supporting low dose effects and non-monotonic dose responses (“low dose hypothesis”) for chemicals with endocrine activity (endocrine disrupting chemicals or EDCs). This workshop consisted...... no consensus was reached the robust discussions were helpful to inform both basic scientists and risk assessors on all the issues. There were a number of important ideas developed to help continue the discussion and improve communication over the next few years....

  5. SU-E-T-280: Reconstructed Rectal Wall Dose Map-Based Verification of Rectal Dose Sparing Effect According to Rectum Definition Methods and Dose Perturbation by Air Cavity in Endo-Rectal Balloon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dosimetric effect and discrepancy according to the rectum definition methods and dose perturbation by air cavity in an endo-rectal balloon (ERB) were verified using rectal-wall (Rwall) dose maps considering systematic errors in dose optimization and calculation accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) for prostate cancer patients. Methods: When the inflated ERB having average diameter of 4.5 cm and air volume of 100 cc is used for patient, Rwall doses were predicted by pencil-beam convolution (PBC), anisotropic analytic algorithm (AAA), and AcurosXB (AXB) with material assignment function. The errors of dose optimization and calculation by separating air cavity from the whole rectum (Rwhole) were verified with measured rectal doses. The Rwall doses affected by the dose perturbation of air cavity were evaluated using a featured rectal phantom allowing insert of rolled-up gafchromic films and glass rod detectors placed along the rectum perimeter. Inner and outer Rwall doses were verified with reconstructed predicted rectal wall dose maps. Dose errors and extent at dose levels were evaluated with estimated rectal toxicity. Results: While AXB showed insignificant difference of target dose coverage, Rwall doses underestimated by up to 20% in dose optimization for the Rwhole than Rwall at all dose range except for the maximum dose. As dose optimization for Rwall was applied, the Rwall doses presented dose error less than 3% between dose calculation algorithm except for overestimation of maximum rectal dose up to 5% in PBC. Dose optimization for Rwhole caused dose difference of Rwall especially at intermediate doses. Conclusion: Dose optimization for Rwall could be suggested for more accurate prediction of rectal wall dose prediction and dose perturbation effect by air cavity in IMRT for prostate cancer. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea

  6. ALCOHOL AND ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the questions of the relationship between the amount of the consumed alcohol, the type of alcoholic beverage, pattern of alcohol consumption and the blood pressure level. The article presents data on the positive effect of alcohol intake restrictions and recommendations for permissible limits of alcohol consumption. New possibilities of drug therapy aimed at limiting alcohol consumption are being reported.

  7. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  8. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction.

  9. Suppression of Alcohol Dependence Using Baclofen: A 2-Year Observational Study of 100 Patients

    OpenAIRE

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of baclofen in a large cohort of alcohol-dependent patients compliant to baclofen treatment. Methods: A hundred patients with alcohol dependence, resistant to usual treatments, were treated with escalating doses of baclofen (no superior limit). Alcohol consumption (in grams) and craving for alcohol were assessed before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Assessments were simply based on patients’ statements. The outcom...

  10. Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2010-08-01

    The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

  11. Analytical models for total dose ionization effects in MOS devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Bogdan, Carolyn W.

    2008-08-01

    MOS devices are susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation due to charge buildup in gate, field and SOI buried oxides. Under positive bias holes created in the gate oxide will transport to the Si / SiO{sub 2} interface creating oxide-trapped charge. As a result of hole transport and trapping, hydrogen is liberated in the oxide which can create interface-trapped charge. The trapped charge will affect the threshold voltage and degrade the channel mobility. Neutralization of oxidetrapped charge by electron tunneling from the silicon and by thermal emission can take place over long periods of time. Neutralization of interface-trapped charge is not observed at room temperature. Analytical models are developed that account for the principal effects of total dose in MOS devices under different gate bias. The intent is to obtain closed-form solutions that can be used in circuit simulation. Expressions are derived for the aging effects of very low dose rate radiation over long time periods.

  12. Population effective collective dose from nuclear medicine examination in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to estimate the effective collective dose imparted to the population of Camagueey-Ciego de Avila territory (Cuba)), we have made use of the statistics from nuclear medicine examinations given to a population of 1.1 million inhabitants for the years 1995-1999. The average annual frequency of examinations was estimated to be 3.82 per 1000 population. The results show that nuclear medicine techniques of thyroid imaging with 43.73% and thyroid uptake with 43.36% are the main techniques implicated in the relative contribution to the total annual effective collective dose, which averaged 54.43 man Sv for the studied period. Radiation risks for the Camagueey-Ciego de Avila population caused by nuclear medicine examinations in the period studied were calculated: the total number of fatal and non-fatal cancers was 16.33 and the number of serious hereditary disturbance was 3.54 as a result of 21,073 nuclear medicine procedures, corresponding to a total detriment of one case per thousand examinations. (authors)

  13. Effects of Total Ionizing Dose on Bipolar Junction Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee F. Pien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The amount of ionizing radiation that Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT devices encounter during their lifecycle degrades both of their functional and electrical parameter performances. The different radiation environments either in space, high energy physics experiments, nuclear environment or fabrication process as well as for standard terrestrial operation possess an impact on the devices. Approach: In this research, analytical studies of the effects of ionizing radiation introduced in Commercial-Off-The Shelf (COTS NPN BJTs by 60Co gamma (γ rays had been performed. Results: It was observed that exposure of BJTs to 60Co caused ionizing radiation damage. Ionizing radiation damage was caused mainly by excess charges trapped on or near the surfaces of their insulating layers and interfaces. This phenomenon reduced the minority carrier lifetime and thus, leading to a decrease in the current gain of the BJTs. Conclusion: This ionizing radiation effect was found to arouse either a permanent or temporarily damage in the devices depending on their current drives and also the Total Ionizing Dose (TID absorbed. The performance and degradation of selected BJT devices during irradiation with respect to total dose 60Co were presented in this study.

  14. Effects of developmental alcohol and valproic acid exposure on play behavior of ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol and valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal valproate syndrome, respectively. Altered social behavior is a hallmark of both these conditions and there is ample evidence showing that developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA affect social behavior in rodents. However, results from rodent models are somewhat difficult to translate to humans owing to the substantial differences in brain development, morphology, and connectivity. Since the cortex folding pattern is closely related to its specialization and that social behavior is strongly influenced by cortical structures, here we studied the effects of developmental alcohol and VPA exposure on the play behavior of the ferret, a gyrencephalic animal known for its playful nature. Animals were injected with alcohol (3.5g/kg, i.p.), VPA (200mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (i.p) every other day during the brain growth spurt period, between postnatal days 10 and 30. The play behavior of pairs of the same experimental group was evaluated 3 weeks later. Both treatments induced significant behavioral differences compared to controls. Alcohol and VPA exposed ferrets played less than saline treated ones, but while animals from the alcohol group displayed a delay in start playing with each other, VPA treated ones spent most of the time close to one another without playing. These findings not only extend previous results on the effects of developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA on social behavior, but make the ferret a great model to study the underlying mechanisms of social interaction. PMID:27208641

  15. Effects and action mechanisms of Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) on alcohol detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kim, An Keun; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2012-11-01

    Korean pear (Pyrus pyrifolia cv. Shingo) has been used as a traditional medicine for alleviating alcohol hangover. However, scientific evidence for its effectiveness or mechanism is not clearly established. To investigate its mechanism of alcohol detoxification, both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed with an aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) alternated animal model. The pear extract (10 mL/kg bw) was administered to Aldh2 normal (C57BL/6) and deficient (Aldh2 -/-) male mice. After 30 min, ethanol (1 g or 2 g/kg bw) was administered to the mice via gavage. Levels of alcohol and acetaldehyde in blood were quantified by GC/MS. First, it was observed that the pears stimulated both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and ALDH activities by 2∼3-  and 1.3-fold in in vitro studies, respectively. Second, mouse PK data (AUC(∞) and C(max) ) showed that the pear extract decreased the alcohol level in blood regardless of ALDH2 genotype. Third, the pear increased the acetaldehyde level in blood in Aldh2 deficient mice but not in Aldh2 normal mice. Therefore, the consistent in vitro and in vivo data suggest that Korean pears stimulate the two key alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. These stimulations could be the main mechanism of the Korean pear for alcohol detoxification. Finally, the results suggest that polymorphisms of human ALDH2 could bring out individual variations in the effects of Korean pear on alcohol detoxification. PMID:22451246

  16. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  17. Effects of oral doses of fluoride on nestling European starlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.; Schuler, C.A.; Bunck, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nestling European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), raised and fed by free-living adults, were given daily oral doses of either distilled water, 193 mg sodium as Na2CO3 per kg of body weight (sodium control group), or 6, 10, 13, 17,23, 30, 40, 80, 160 mg of the fluoride ion as NaF in distilled water per kg of body weight (mg/kg). Dosing began when nestlings were 24-48 hr old and continued for 16 days. The 24-hr LD50 of fluoride for day-old starlings was 50 mg/kg. The 16-day LD50 was 17 mg/kg. The sodium control group did not differ from the water control group with respect to any of the measured variables. Growth rates were significantly reduced in the 13 and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups; weights of birds given higher dose levels were omitted from growth comparisons because of high, fluoride-induced mortality. Although pre-fledging weights for the 10, 13, and 17 mg of fluoride/kg groups averaged 3.6 to 8.6% less than controls at 17 days, this difference was not significant. Feather and bone growth of the fluoride and control groups were not different, except for keel length measured at 17 days of age which averaged less in the fluoride groups. Liver and spleen weights were not affected by fluoride treatments. No histological damage related to fluoride treatments was found in liver, spleen, or kidney. The logarithm of bone fluoride and magnesium concentration increased with the logarithm of increasing fluoride treatment levels and were significantly correlated with each other. Fluoride treatments had no effect on percent calcium or phosphorus in bone or plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. Oral doses of fluoride appear to be more toxic than equivalent dietary levels. Most birds probably acquire fluoride through their diet. Therefore, the results of the study may overestimate the potential effects of fluorides on songbirds living in fluoride-contaminated environments.

  18. Reducing Children's Susceptibility to Alcohol Use: Effects of a Home-Based Parenting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Ennett, Susan T; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Hayes, Kim A; Dickinson, Denise M; Choi, Seulki; Bowling, J Michael

    2016-07-01

    This 4-year efficacy trial tested whether a home-based, self-administered parenting program could have a long-term effect on children's cognitive susceptibility to alcohol use, and it tested hypothesized moderators and mediators of any such program effect. Using a two-group randomized controlled design, 1076 children (540 treatment; 536 control; mean age of 9.2 years at baseline) completed telephone interviews prior to randomization and follow-up interviews 12, 24, 36, and 48 months post-baseline. Mothers of children randomized to treatment received a 5-month-long parenting program during year 1, followed by two 1-month-long boosters in years 2 and 3. Exposure to the program was significantly inversely associated with susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline (b = -0.03, p = .04), with no variation in program effects by parental alcohol use or mother's race/ethnicity or education, suggesting broad public health relevance of the parenting program. Path analyses of simple indirect effects through each hypothesized mediator showed that program exposure positively influenced parental communication to counter pro-drinking influences in the family and media domains and parental rule setting 36 months post-baseline; these variables, in turn, predicted reduced susceptibility to alcohol use 48 months post-baseline. Parallel (multiple) mediation analysis showed that the program had a significant indirect effect on susceptibility through parental rule setting. Together, the findings indicate that internalization of protective alcohol-related expectancies and intentions is possible among children whose mothers provide early exposure to alcohol-specific socialization. Additional research is needed to link alcohol-specific socialization during childhood with adolescent drinking outcomes. PMID:27154767

  19. Effect of plumbagin free alcohol extract ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. root on reproductive system of female Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gupta Sandeep; Ahirwar Dheeraj; Sharma Neeraj Kumar; Jhade Deenanath; Ahirwar Bharti

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the effect of plumbagin-free alcohol extract (PFAE) ofPlumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae) (P. zeylanica) root, on female reproductive system and fertility of adult female wistar rats.Methods: After the oral acute toxicity study, thePFAE was administered at two dose levels to perform the estrous cycle study, anti-implantation and abortifacient activity and hormonal analysis. However, the estrogenic/antiestrogenic activity was evaluated at only one most effective dose.Results:LD50cut-off was5 000 mg/kg body weight. The extract exhibited significant anti-implantation and abortifacient activity at the tested dose levels (300 and500 mg/kg,p.o.) (P<0.01). The extract dose-dependently decreased the levels of serum progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, while a dose-dependent increase was observed in the concentration of serum prolactin. The extract did not show any significant changes in structure and function of uterus when given alone, but when given along with ethinyl estradiol, it exhibited significant antiestrogenic activity in immature overiectomized female rats(P<0.001). Biochemical parameters in the serum/blood and haematological parameters did not show appreciable changes throughout and after the course of investigation. However, all the altered parameters returned to normalcy within30 days following withdrawal of treatment. Conclusions: All findings suggest that the antifertility activity of extract could possibly be through the changes in the implantation site, altered hormonal levels, prolonged estrous cycle and anti-estrogenic activity. Hence, the extract possesses reversible antifertility activity without adverse toxicity in female rats.

  20. Alcohol and Student Performance: Estimating the Effect of Legal Access. NBER Working Paper No. 17637

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Jason M.; Swensen, Isaac D.; Waddell, Glen R.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of legal access to alcohol on student achievement. We first estimate the effect using an RD design but argue that this approach is not well suited to the research question in our setting. Our preferred approach instead exploits the longitudinal nature of the data, identifying the effect by measuring the extent to which a…