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Sample records for alcohol consumption affect

  1. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-12-01

    An eight-variable model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption in a sample of 289 African American women is evaluated using a structural equation methodology. We found that life events, physical health problems, and internalized racialism played important roles in accounting for variance in alcohol consumption. Marital status did not have the predicted inverse effect on alcohol consumption. While religious orientation did not have the expected inverse effect on alcohol consumption, it had an unexpected direct effect on internalized racialism, which had a direct effect on alcohol consumption. We found that the effects of socioeconomic status and developmental status on alcohol consumption were mediated through other variables specified in the model. Overall the model, which provided partial to complete support for five of eight hypotheses, provided a statistically adequate fit. PMID:2094681

  2. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the extent to which a general model for understanding and predicting Black mental health problems accounts for the particular problem of alcohol consumption in an urban sample of 289 African American women. The general model consists of eight variables: life events, social support, religious orientation, internalized racialism, physical health problems, marital status, socioeconomic status, and developmental status. In Part I expected interrelationships among variables are presented, from which a structural equation model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption is formulated. Methods for evaluating the model are described in Part II (International Journal of the Addictions, Vol. 25, No. 12). PMID:2090628

  3. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  4. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theatres affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; D.J. Anschutz; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  5. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between

  6. Protective role of taurine in developing offspring affected by maternal alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Pilant; Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Yutthana; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption is known to affect offspring growth and development, including growth deficits, physical anomalies, impaired brain functions and behavioral disturbances. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is essential during development, and continually found to be protective against neurotoxicity and various tissue damages including those from alcohol exposure. However, it is still unknown whether taurine can exert its protection during development of central nervous syste...

  7. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  8. Do personal beliefs and peers affect the practice of alcohol consumption in university students in Lebanon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamé, J; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is frequent among university students in Lebanon as elsewhere in the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lebanon's public and private universities between October 2009 and September 2010 using a standardized questionnaire to assess personal beliefs about alcohol consumption, peers' behaviours and opinions and history of and current drinking practices. Of 1235 students, 199 (16.1%) had an AUDIT score>or=8. Older age, male sex, Christian religion, attending a private university, studying a non-health specialty and residing in Beirut or Mount Lebanon were associated with a higher risk of harmful drinking. Beliefs concerning alcohol consumption and peers' opinions and behaviours were factors significantly associated with harmful drinking, especially: ignoring the dangers of alcohol consumption; higher frequency of consumption with friends; and a higher proportion of friends who drank regularly. University students' alcohol drinking behaviour was mostly influenced by peers' behaviour, and a peer education programme is recommended to decrease the risk of harmful drinking. PMID:23882959

  9. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ida N; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen H;

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys.......Prenatal exposure to alcohol can adversely affect the fetus. We investigated the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and cryptorchidism (undescended testis) among newborn boys....

  10. Drinking and flying: does alcohol consumption affect the flight and echolocation performance of phyllostomid bats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara N Orbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the wild, frugivorous and nectarivorous bats often eat fermenting fruits and nectar, and thus may consume levels of ethanol that could induce inebriation. To understand if consumption of ethanol by bats alters their access to food and general survival requires examination of behavioural responses to its ingestion, as well as assessment of interspecific variation in those responses. We predicted that bats fed ethanol would show impaired flight and echolocation behaviour compared to bats fed control sugar water, and that there would be behavioural differences among species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We fed wild caught Artibeus jamaicensis, A. lituratus, A. phaeotis, Carollia sowelli, Glossophaga soricina, and Sturnira lilium (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae sugar water (44 g of table sugar in 500 ml of water or sugar water with ethanol before challenging them to fly through an obstacle course while we simultaneously recorded their echolocation calls. We used bat saliva, a non-invasive proxy, to measure blood ethanol concentrations ranging from 0 to >0.3% immediately before flight trials. Flight performance and echolocation behaviour were not significantly affected by consumption of ethanol, but species differed in their blood alcohol concentrations after consuming it. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The bats we studied display a tolerance for ethanol that could have ramifications for the adaptive radiation of frugivorous and nectarivorous bats by allowing them to use ephemeral food resources over a wide span of time. By sampling across phyllostomid genera, we show that patterns of apparent ethanol tolerance in New World bats are broad, and thus may have been an important early step in the evolution of frugivory and nectarivory in these animals.

  11. Alcohol consumption in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Plevová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the level of alcohol consumption in a selected group of adolescents. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods: The data were obtained using a part of the standardized ESPAD questionnaire for assessing consumption of alcoholic beverages. The sample comprised 422 students from seven secondary schools of different types in the city of Ostrava. For statistical analysis, the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test (for n ≤ 5 were used. The data were processed using Stata v. 10. Results: More than half of respondents first tried alcohol before the age of 15. The most frequent alcohol-related problems were unprotected sex, decreased school performance and problems with parents or friends. Incomplete families were found to be an important factor in adolescents preferring and more frequently drinking beer. Conclusion: The study confirmed results reported by the Europe-wide survey ESPAD, namely that adolescents start to drink alcohol as early as before they turn fifteen.

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Advertising Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine the relationship between alcohol advertising bans and alcohol consumption. Most prior studies have found no effect of advertising on total alcohol consumption. A simple economic model is provided which explains these prior results. The data set used in this study is a pooled time series of data from 20 countries over 26 years. The empirical model is a simultaneous equations system which treats both alcohol consumption and alcohol advertising...

  13. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  14. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you drink, you increase your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) level, which is the amount of alcohol present in your bloodstream. The higher your BAC, the more impaired you become by alcohol’s effects. ...

  15. Elderly Abuse and Alcohol Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusac, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the exposure of the elderly to family violence are in close connection. They represent both a general and social problem from a legal, medical and social aspect. The objectives of this study were to 1) test the frequency of alcohol consumption in older persons with respect to certain social and demographic characteristics; and 2) test the correlation between alcohol consumption and family violence towards the elderly. The sample used in this study was constructed as probabilistic with a random selection of participants in order to ensure representativeness for the City of Zagreb population over 65 years. The study included 1000 persons older than 65, among which 38% were male (N = 380) and 62% female (N = 620). The results showed a significantly more frequent consumption of alcohol among older men aged between 65 and 74, elderly people with life partners (unmarried), and financially independent older persons. A correlation between alcohol consumption frequency and exposure to violence was also established, as well as that older persons who consume alcohol are more likely to commit acts of violence. Further research is needed on the risk and protective factors for specific forms of family violence so as to detect the causes of violence within families as well as mechanisms that al- leviate coping with violence. PMID:26987154

  16. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    regarding per capita consumption of wine among the European countries. Also for the total consumption of alcohol, i.e. the per capita consumption of beer, wine and spirits, the hypothesis of convergence seems to hold. In the same time span the number of alcohol related diseases as e.g. liver diseases, have...... changed significantly in the same direction as the developments in alcohol consumption. The changes in the consumption levels of alcohol in general -- and wine in particular -- are influenced by many factors of which health arguments may have played a crucial role. The alcohol policies of the European...... countries have become more restrictive during the last decades. Using data on alcohol consumption, alcohol related diseases and alcohol policies of 16 European countries we discuss the questions of whether the intake of alcohol is associated with (liver) diseases. Our empirical analysis provides us...

  17. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  18. Milk Consumption during Adolescence Decreases Alcohol Drinking in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Early of onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trai...

  19. Biomonitoring for Improving Alcohol Consumption Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess alcohol consumption levels in large populations, researchers often rely on self-report measures. However, these approaches are associated with several limitations, particularly underreporting. Use of noninvasive biomonitoring approaches may help validate self-report alcohol consumption measurements and thus improve their accuracy. Two such devices currently are available, the WrisTAS™ and SCRAM™ devices, both of which measure alcohol vapors emitted through the skin after alcohol con...

  20. Longer opening hours, alcohol consumption and health

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin Peter; Hollingsworth, Bruce Philip; Navarro Paniagua, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Two related issues in public policy with respect to alcohol are how increased availability influences consumption and what effect excess consumption has on individual health outcomes. This paper examines one particular source of variation in availability, bar opening hours, and how this influences alcohol consumption, physical and mental health. We focus on the extension of opening hours in England and Wales that occurred in 2005. We demonstrate a marked increase in consumption, which appears...

  1. Alcohol content variation in the assessment of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C S; Nirenberg, T D

    1991-01-01

    Most investigators have not adequately accounted for the alcohol content of different beverages when assessing alcohol consumption. Considerable research has assessed consumption in terms of the number of standard drinks. A problem with standard drink measures is that different distilled spirits, wines, and malt beverages vary considerably in alcohol content. State-to-state and brand-to-brand variations in the strength of different malt beverage brands are provided, as malt beverage alcohol contents are not contained on labels due to federal and state regulations. Ignoring alcohol content variation when estimating consumption can produce a large amount of error. Alcohol consumption should be assessed in terms of the number, size, and alcohol content of beverages. PMID:1801580

  2. Adolescent intake of caffeinated energy drinks does not affect adult alcohol consumption in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Meridith T; DeFriel, Julia N; van Rijn, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The rise in marketing and mass consumption of energy drink products by adolescents poses a largely unknown risk on adolescent development and drug reward. Yet, with increasing reports of acute health issues present in young adults who ingest large quantities of energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol, the need to elucidate these potential risks is pressing. Energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and sucrose; therefore, exposure to energy drinks may lead to changes in drug-related behaviors since caffeine and sucrose consumption activates similar brain pathways engaged by substances of abuse. With a recent study observing that adolescent caffeine consumption increased cocaine sensitivity, we sought to investigate how prolonged energy drink exposure in adolescence alters alcohol use and preference in adulthood. To do so, we utilized three different energy drink exposure paradigms and two strains of male mice (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) to monitor the effect of caffeine exposure via energy drinks in adolescence on adult alcohol intake. These paradigms included two models of volitional consumption of energy drinks or energy drink-like substances and one model of forced consumption of sucrose solutions with different caffeine concentrations. Following adolescent exposure to these solutions, alcohol intake was monitored in a limited-access, two-bottle choice between water and increasing concentrations of alcohol during adulthood. In none of the three models or two strains of mice did we observe that adolescent 'energy drink' consumption or exposure was correlated with changes in adult alcohol intake or preference. While our current preclinical results suggest that exposure to large amounts of caffeine does not alter future alcohol intake, differences in caffeine metabolism between mice and humans need to be considered before translating these results to humans. PMID:27565749

  3. Student estimations of peer alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Mcalaney, John; Pischke, Claudia;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Social Norms Approach, with its focus on positive behaviour and its consensus orientation, is a health promotion intervention of relevance to the context of a Health Promoting University. In particular, the approach could assist with addressing excessive alcohol consumption. AIM......: This article aims to discuss the link between the Social Norms Approach and the Health Promoting University, and analyse estimations of peer alcohol consumption among European university students. METHODS: A total of 4392 students from universities in six European countries and Turkey were asked to report...... their own typical alcohol consumption per day and to estimate the same for their peers of same sex. Students were classified as accurate or inaccurate estimators of peer alcohol consumption. Socio-demographic factors and personal alcohol consumption were examined as predictors for an accurate estimation...

  4. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  5. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    AYGEN, Bilge

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of hypertension and lowering blood pressure with non-pharmacological treatment and lifestyle changes may reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol while they also play an important role in reducing the cost of medical treatment. Reduction of alcohol consumption is one of the recommended lifestyle changes in the JNC VII report. Excessive amounts of alcohol consumption leads to an increase in blood pressure in both normotensive and hypertensive individuals...

  6. Cardiovascular risks and benefits of moderate and heavy alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Solà, Joaquim

    2015-10-01

    The heart and vascular system are susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. Alcohol is an active toxin that undergoes widespread diffusion throughout the body, causing multiple synchronous and synergistic effects. Alcohol consumption decreases myocardial contractility and induces arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy, resulting in progressive cardiovascular dysfunction and structural damage. Alcohol, whether at binge doses or a high cumulative lifetime consumption-both of which should be discouraged-is clearly deleterious for the cardiovascular system, increasing the incidence of total and cardiovascular mortality, coronary and peripheral artery disease, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, epidemiological, case-control studies and meta-analyses have shown a U-type bimodal relationship so that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption (particularly of wine or beer) is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular events and mortality, compared with abstention. Potential confounding influences-alcohol-dose quantification, tobacco use, diet, exercise, lifestyle, cancer risk, accidents, and dependence-can affect the results of studies of both low-dose and high-dose alcohol consumption. Mendelian methodological approaches have led to doubts regarding the beneficial cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and the overall balance of beneficial and detrimental effects should be considered when making individual and population-wide recommendations, as reductions in alcohol consumption should provide overall health benefits. PMID:26099843

  7. Alcohol consumption and Helicobacter pylori infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenner, H; Berg, Gabriele; Lappus, N;

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18-88 i...... an indication of a recent change of alcohol consumption were excluded from the analysis. These findings support the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may facilitate spontaneous elimination of H. pylori infection among adults.......Alcohol has strong antimicrobial activity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Alcohol consumption may therefore compromise the living conditions of Helicobacter pylori in the stomach. We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption with H. pylori infection among 1,785 participants ages 18-88 in...... the German National Health and Nutrition Survey. Detailed information on dietary and lifestyle habits was obtained in personal interviews using a standardized food frequency questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...

  8. Mortality from alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To examine the relationship of alcohol consumption, alcohol use disorder and mortality. METHOD: A cohort of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel participating in telephone survey and medical examination in middle age (mean age 38.3 years) in 1985-1986 was used. Alcohol...... consumption was reported in face-to-face interview on medical history and information on DSM-III alcohol use disorder was obtained from structured psychiatric interview (using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule). Mortality hazard during 15 years of follow-up was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression...... modeling. RESULT: A total of 4251 individuals participated in the psychiatric interview and the medical history interview. Of these 998 were abstainers, and for the remaining 3253 we calculated weekly average consumption and monthly frequency of binge drinking. A total of 1988 had alcohol dependence, abuse...

  9. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  10. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurr...

  11. Preoperative Alcohol Consumption and Postoperative Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Grønkjær, Marie; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To systematically review and summarize the evidence of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications elaborated on complication type. BACKGROUND:: Conclusions in studies on preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications have...... been inconsistent. METHODS:: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on a search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO citations. Included were original studies of the association between preoperative alcohol consumption and postoperative complications occurring within 30 days of the operation....... In total, 3676 studies were identified and reviewed for eligibility, and data were extracted. Forest plots and pooled relative risks (RRs), including 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated for several complication types. RESULTS:: Fifty-five studies provided data for estimates. Preoperative alcohol...

  12. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V;

    1983-01-01

    An epidemiological study of the association between alcohol consumption, tobacco use and subfecundity is presented. Study subjects were recruited for a case-control study whose primary objective was to examine the association between occupational exposures and subfecundity. All 1069 women treated...... occupational exposures and smoking and drinking habits were collected by mailed questionnaires. A response rate of 87% was obtained for both case and control groups. Use of tobacco and alcohol was significantly higher in cases compared to controls. A within-group comparison of alcohol consumption among...... of this finding, along with further analyses, the authors suggest that the statistical association between smoking and subfecundity may be real and ought to be studied further. Moderate alcohol consumption does not seem to play a role in the development of subfecundity. The paper provides a systematic review...

  13. Alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    countries - covering the period 1970-2006 - where both alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis seem best described as trend-stationary variables. Therefore a fixed effects model including individual trends is applied in the analysis but also a more flexible non-linear functional form with fewer restrictions......Empirical evidence gives strong support to a close association between liver cirrhosis mortality and the intake of alcohol and most often a log-linear relationship is assumed in the econometric modeling. The present analysis investigates for unit roots in a panel data set for sixteen European...... on the relationship between liver cirrhosis mortality and alcohol consumption is included. The conclusion is that the total level of alcohol consumption as well as the specific beverages - beer, wine and spirits - contributes to liver cirrhosis mortality, but the present study also reveals that directly addressing...

  14. Increased alcohol consumption in relaxin-3 deficient male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Takahira; Aoki, Miku; Watanabe, Ryuji; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-01-26

    Relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide expressed in the brainstem, and predominantly localized in the gray matter of the midline dorsal pons termed the nucleus incertus. Relaxin-3-expressing neurons densely project axons rostrally to various forebrain regions including the septum, hippocampus, and lateral hypothalamus. Several relaxin-3 functions have been reported including food intake, stress responses, neuroendocrine function, emotion, and spatial memory. In addition, recently relaxin-3 and its receptor, RXFP3, were shown to regulate alcohol intake using an RXFP3 antagonist and RXFP3 gene knockout mice. In the present study, we investigated alcohol consumption in relaxin-3 knockout mice, and found that male but not female mice significantly drank more alcohol than wild-type mice in the two-bottle choice test. However, after chronic alcohol vapor exposure, wild-type and mutant mice did not show this difference in alcohol intake, although both genotypes exhibited increased alcohol consumption compared with non-alcohol-exposed control mice. There was no genotype difference in sucrose or quinine preference. These results suggest that the relaxin-3 neuronal system modestly affects alcohol preference and consumption. PMID:26687275

  15. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that alcohol consumption, both observational (self-reported) and estimated by genetic instruments, is associated with a risk of atrial fibrillation and to determine whether people with high cardiovascular risk are more sensitive towards...... alcohol than people with low risk. METHODS: We used data for a total of 88,782 men and women from the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 and 2001-2003 and the Copenhagen General Population Study 2003-2010. Information on incident cases of atrial fibrillation was obtained from a validated nationwide...... register. As a measure of alcohol exposure, both self-reported consumption and genetic variations in alcohol metabolizing genes (ADH1B/ADH1C) were used as instrumental variables. The endpoint was admission to hospital for atrial fibrillation as recorded in a validated hospital register. RESULTS: A total...

  16. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    OpenAIRE

    Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a hangover were recorded. Hangover severity was scored using the Acute Hangover Scale. No significant correlation between caffeine use and hangover severity was found. Subjects who mixed alcohol with cola...

  17. Alcohol consumption among patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mathilde L; Larsen, Julie R; Glümer, Charlotte;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate alcohol consumption among Danish adults with diabetes and to investigate whether certain comorbidities are related to a high alcohol intake. METHODS: A total of 162,283 participants responded to the Danish National Health Survey 2013 (questionnaire study, response rate 54.......0%). Variables on the participants were extracted from the survey and 6.5% of respondents reported having diabetes. High alcohol consumption was defined as >21 (men) or >14 (women) standard drinks per week. RESULTS: High alcohol consumption was reported by 11.2 % of men and 4.3% of women with diabetes. In the...... problematic alcohol intake (men OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.86, p<0.0001; women OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.49-0.64, p<0.0001) compared with participants without diabetes. A larger proportion of participants with diabetes had not consumed alcohol within the last year (men 13.5%; women 28.2%) compared with participants...

  18. Caffeinated drinks, alcohol consumption and hangover severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a hango

  19. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  20. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  1. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  2. The High Price of Excessive Alcohol Consumption

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-17

    This podcast is based on the October 2011 release of a report estimating the economic cost of excessive drinking. Excessive alcohol consumption cost the U. S. $223.5 billion in 2006, or about $1.90 per drink. Over three-quarters (76%) of these costs were due to binge drinking, defined as consuming 4 or more alcoholic beverages per occasion for women or 5 or more drinks per occasion for men.  Created: 10/17/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 10/17/2011.

  3. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  4. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    The single-distribution theory of alcohol consumption and the derived prevention strategy, the control-of-consumption approach, are conceptualized as three probabilistic relationships between four variables, collectively called "the Ledermann string": availability, average consumption, proportion...

  5. A prospective study of alcohol consumption and bone mineral density.

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, T L; Barrett-Connor, E.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the effects of alcohol consumption on bone mineral density in a defined population. DESIGN--Prospective study of bone mineral density, measured during 1988-91, in a cohort who had given baseline data on alcohol intake in the previous week and in the previous 24 hours and other factors affecting bone mineral density during 1973-5. SETTING--Rancho Bernardo, California. SUBJECTS--182 men and 267 women aged 45 and over at baseline, half having been randomly selected and half ...

  6. Alcohol consumption and hangover patterns among migraine sufferers

    OpenAIRE

    Yair Zlotnik; Ygal Plakht; Anna Aven; Yael Engel; Neta Bar Am; Gal Ifergane

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol hangover is a poorly understood cluster of symptoms occurring following a heavy consumption of alcohol. The term "delayed alcohol-induced headache" is often used synonymously. Our objective was to compare alcohol hangover symptoms in migraine sufferers and nonsufferers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, university students were asked to fill structured questionnaires assessing headache history, alcoholic consumption, and hangover symptoms (using the Hangover ...

  7. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  8. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Mangion Jonathan; Pravenec Michal; Hübner Norbert; Heinig Matthias; Bell Richard L; Kechris Katerina; Richardson Heather N; Koob George; Goldman David; Hodgkinson Colin; Flodman Pam; Printz Morton; Saba Laura; Tabakoff Boris; Legault Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping...

  9. Does energy consumption affect growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Saten Kumar; Don J. Webber; Antonio Paradiso

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals discrepancies between estimates of the impact of energy consumption on output and growth. This paper highlights the importance of underlying theoretical concerns, extends a neoclassical growth model to include energy consumption, applies panel data cointegration methods that deal with cross-sectional dependence and structural breaks to a sample of thirteen high energy consuming countries, and provides empirical estimates of the impact of energy consumption o...

  10. Perceived benefits and negative consequences of alcohol consumption in women living with HIV: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Robert L.; Cook, Christa L.; Karki, Manju; Weber, Kathleen M.; Thoma, Kathleen A.; Loy, Chelsea M.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Rahim-Williams, Bridgett

    2016-01-01

    Background Women living with HIV have increased prevalence of medical and psychological comorbidities that could be adversely affected by alcohol consumption. Little is known about their unique motivations for drinking or perceptions of HIV-related consequences. In preparation for an alcohol intervention study, we sought to better understand reasons for drinking and perceived consequences of alcohol consumption among a sample of women living with HIV. Methods Four focus groups, with a total o...

  11. Alcohol consumption increases post-operative infection but not mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2015-01-01

    alcohol consumption and mortality was found. Meta-analyses of RCTs showed that interventions reduce infections butnot mortality in patients with alcohol abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of more than two units of alcohol per day increases post-operative non-surgical site infections. Alcohol......BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption causes multiple comorbidities with potentially negative outcome after operations. The aims are to study the association between alcohol consumption and post-operative non-surgical site infections and mortality and to determine the impact of peri......-operative interventions. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were searched systematically. Observational studies reporting patients with a defined amount of alcohol consumption and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) aimed at reducing outcomes were included. Meta-analyses were performed separately for...

  12. Alcohol consumption and hangover patterns among migraine sufferers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Zlotnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Alcohol hangover is a poorly understood cluster of symptoms occurring following a heavy consumption of alcohol. The term "delayed alcohol-induced headache" is often used synonymously. Our objective was to compare alcohol hangover symptoms in migraine sufferers and nonsufferers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, university students were asked to fill structured questionnaires assessing headache history, alcoholic consumption, and hangover symptoms (using the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS. Subjects were classified as suffering from migraine with or without aura and nonsufferers according the International Classification of Headache Disorders 2 nd Edition (ICHD-II. The 13 hangover symptoms were divided by the researches into migraine-like and other nonmigraine-like symptoms. Results: Hangover symptoms among 95 migraine sufferers and 597 nonsufferers were compared. Migraine sufferers consumed less alcohol compared with the nonsufferers (mean drinks/week 2.34 ± 4.11 vs. 2.92 ± 3.58, P = 0.038 and suffered from higher tendency to migraine-like symptoms after drinking (mean 2.91 ± 3.43 vs. 1.85 ± 2.35, P = 0.002 but not to other hangover symptoms (mean 5.39 ± 6.31 vs. 4.34 ± 4.56, P = 0.1. Conclusions: Migraine sufferers consume less alcohol, especially beer and liquors, and are more vulnerable to migraine-like hangover symptoms than nonsufferers. The finding that the tendency to develop migraine attacks affects the hangover symptomatology may suggest a similarity in pathophysiology, and possibly in treatment options.

  13. Effects of alcohol consumption on health and mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Theobald, Holger

    2001-01-01

    During the last 25 years, alcohol consumption has become a widely debated issue, especially due to research results, in which the beneficial effects of alcohol on health and mortality have been maintained. Research has primarily focused on two issues: the association between low consumption of alcohol and decreased mortality, mediated through decreased risks for cardiovascular diseases, and the association between wine consumption and health. This thesis deals with both of t...

  14. A brief psychological intervention that reduces adolescent alcohol consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, Christopher J.; Rowe, Richard; Arden, Madelynne; Harris, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption in adolescence is associated with problem drinking in later life, and there is a need to develop evidence-based interventions to reduce adolescent alcohol consumption. The aims of the present study were to test the ability of a very brief intervention based on self-affirmation theory to reduce alcohol consumption in a sample of adolescents and to examine potential mediators of the effects. Method: 67 adolescents were randomly allocated either to form a self-affi...

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Consumption in Romania: A Blueprint for Measuring Alcohol (mis)Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Moll, Marit

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the issues of adolescent alcohol (mis)use in Romanian cities and to develop local alcohol prevention policies comprised of interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol related problems, information on the prevalence of alcohol use and relevant related topics is

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REASONS FOR DRINKING ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: AN INTERACTIONAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Smith, Mary Jo; SCOTT, RICHARD O.

    1993-01-01

    Two motives for alcohol consumption have been emphasized in the etiological and the reasons-for-drinking literature: (a) people drink alcohol to cope with stress, and (b) people drink alcohol because of social influences. There is support for both of these hypotheses, but the results are usually modest and most authors agree that more complex theories of alcohol consumption are needed. This study examined the interactional effects of reasons for drinking alcohol and situational factors on alc...

  17. Alcohol consumption and burden of disease in the Americas: implications for alcohol policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm, J.; M. MONTEIRO

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe patterns of alcohol consumption in the Americas, to estimate the burden of disease attributable to alcohol in the year 2000, and to suggest implications for policies to reduce alcohol-related disease burden. METHODS: Two dimensions of alcohol exposure were included in this secondary data analysis: average volume of alcohol consumption and patterns of drinking. There were two main outcome measures: mortality (number of deaths) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) ...

  18. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathw

  19. Alcohol consumption and blood lipids in elderly coronary patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de H.J.I.; Goede, de J.; Oude Griep, L.M.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol may have a beneficial effect on coronary heart disease (CHD) that could be mediated by elevation of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Data on alcohol consumption and blood lipids in coronary patients are scarce. We studied whether total ethanol intake and consumption of specific t

  20. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Insulin Sensitivity: Observations and Possible Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiologic studies, like our analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study, suggest that moderate alcohol consumption is also associated with a reduced risk of

  1. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  2. [Prevalence and psychosocial patterns of alcohol consumption in Cantabria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez Manrique, J F; Peña Martín, C; García Usieto, E; Vázquez Barquero, J L; Lequerica Puente, J; Alonso Sánchez, M

    1991-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional community survey directed to investigate aspects related ot the alcohol consumption of 1,816 persons, of 16-65 years of age, representative of the population of Cantabria. It was found, among other things, that 7% of the male and 23% of the female were abstinent, being the prevalence for excessive alcohol consumption of 14.36% for males and of 0.22% for females. We also found, especially among the younger age groups, a growing female incorporation into the masculine patterns of alcohol consumption. It was also analyzed in the study the characteristics of the patterns of alcohol consumption. We found, in this respect, for the different socio-demographic groups of this community, specific profiles of alcohol consumption. PMID:1807100

  3. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  4. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  5. The effect of alcohol consumption on periodontitis in older Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hach, M; Holm-Pedersen, P; Adegboye, A R A;

    2015-01-01

    alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis and to assess the effect of long-term alcohol consumption on periodontitis. RESULTS: The results show that heavy drinkers in 1981-1983 had a higher odds ratio for having periodontitis compared to light drinkers (OR = 4.64 95% CI......OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of alcohol consumption measured at different points in time and periodontitis at 20 years follow-up and to investigate whether long-term alcohol consumption is related to periodontitis in old age. DESIGN: Participants aged 65 years or older in 2003, from...... the longitudinal study Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), were invited to participate in the Copenhagen Oral Health Senior Study. METHODS: Clinical periodontal attachment loss was calculated to determine the progress of periodontitis. Alcohol consumption was measured at CCHS follow-ups in 1981-1983, 1991...

  6. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Gillham, Karen E; Kennedy, Vanessa J; Ramsden, Robyn L; Colbran, Richard W; Weir, Sarah; Wiggers, John H

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol managemen...

  7. Examining the Associations among Severity of Injunctive Drinking Norms, Alcohol Consumption, and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences: The Moderating Roles of Alcohol Consumption and Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Geisner, Irene Markman; LEE, CHRISTINE M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Atkins, David C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined a range of injunctive norms for alcohol use and related consequences from less severe behaviors (e.g., drinking with friends) to more severe behaviors (e.g., drinking enough alcohol to pass out), and their relationship with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students. In addition, this research aimed to determine if these relationships between injunctive norms and consequences were moderated by alcohol consumption and level o...

  8. Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, W.M.; Salinas, C.A.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Stanford, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal milieu and contains chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), which may alter tumor cell growth. Data from a population-based case-control study in King County, WA, were ut

  9. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil; Nielsen, Niels H; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...

  10. Effect of Alcohol References in Music on Alcohol Consumption in Public Drinking Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engels, R.C.M.E.; Slettenhaar, H.G.J.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs

  11. Effects of MAOA-Genotype, Alcohol Consumption, and Aging on Violent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. Methods This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. Results The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Conclusions Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype. PMID:19120058

  12. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  13. Bottled memories: on how alcohol affects eyewitness recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagsand, Angelica; Hjelmsäter, Emma Roos Af; Granhag, Pär Anders; Fahlke, Claudia; Söderpalm-Gordh, Anna

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated how different doses of alcohol affected eyewitness recall. Participants (N = 126) were randomly assigned to three groups with different blood alcohol concentration (BAC), either a control group (mean BAC 0.00%, N = 42), a lower alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.04%, N = 40), or a higher alcohol dose group (mean BAC 0.06%, N = 44). After consumption, participants witnessed a movie of a mock crime and were interviewed one week later. The main results showed that witnesses with the higher intoxication level recalled fewer details compared to witnesses with the lower intoxication level. The amount of alcohol consumed did not have an impact on the accuracy rate. No sex differences were found. The results are discussed in the light of past research. We conclude that more studies are needed before recommendations can be made to an applied setting. PMID:23384077

  14. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangion Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume

  15. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women...

  16. Alcohol consumption in a rural area of Cantabria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Castanedo, S; Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Gaite, L; Diez Manrique, J F; Peña, C; Garcia Usieto, E

    1996-06-01

    A two-stage cross-sectional survey was performed in a representative rural sample of the autonomous community of Cantabria, to investigate the social, medical and psychopathological factors associated with alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption was investigated by means of a specific questionnaire. Mental and physical health was evaluated in the first-stage sample using: (1) the General Health Questionnaire, (2) the Cornell Medical Index. In the second stage all members of the sample were interviewed at home using the 140-item version of the Present State Examination (PSE-9). We found that 25.4% of males and 0.6% of females were consuming more than 63 alcohol units per week. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with different social variables. Although it was possible to detect an increase in weekend drinking, especially in the heavy alcohol users, daily alcohol consumption, mainly around meals, was the predominant drinking pattern. We also found a significant inverse association between excessive alcohol consumption and the presence of physical or mental illness. Excessive alcohol use tended to be associated in males with depression and in females, with anxiety. PMID:8766467

  17. [Biochemical markers for acute and chronic alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Zaba, Czesław

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the fact, that ethyl alcohol is a legal and socially accepted recreational drug its abuse may cause numerous problems for the individual and society. Casualties of car accidents caused by drunk drivers, aggressive behavior, family problems and effective less work are the main problems connected with alcohol abuse. The easiest and most effective way of proving recent alcohol consumption is confirming its presence in biological samples taken from the individual. However, the main disadvantage of this method is a short window detection for ethanol, because of its high speed of elimination process. Nowadays, in order to prevent and have a better control of alcohol abuse, markers that could provide a better view of short and long term ethanol consumption are in frequent use. Ethyl alcohol present in the body cause many qualitative and quantitative disturbances in biochemical metabolites that could be used as markers of its consumption. In practice markers of ethanol consumption are usually divided into acute (tests confirm single alcohol intake) and chronic (confirm long term alcohol consumption or lack of teetotalism). Markers of ethanol consumption are valuable alternative and complementation to customary examinations performed in medical practice and forensic medicine. PMID:23421117

  18. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women : a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Bakker, M.; Hendriks, J.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein

  19. Alcohol consumption and quality of embryos obtained in programmes of in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Wdowiak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Infertility is defined as a state when a couple fails to conceive a pregnancy after one year of regular intercourse without the use of contraception. Alcohol consumption is one of the main stimulants which negatively affect the female and male reproductive system. objective. The objective of the study was analysis of the effect of alcohol consumption by the examined women on the quality of embryos obtained during in vitro fertilization programmes. material and methods. The study covered 54 women who received treatment due to infertility. The database and statistical analyses were performed using computer software STATISTICA 7.1 (StatSoft, Poland. results. The study showed that 42.59% from among 100% of the women in the study consumed alcohol. In the group of women who consumed alcohol, class A embryos constituted 4.35%, class B embryos – 86.96%, while embryos of class C – 8.69%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the classes of embryos and alcohol consumption by the women examined (p=0.001. In addition, a statistically significant relationship was found between the amount of alcohol consumed and the classes of embryos (p=0.005. A significantly larger number of class B embryos came from women who consumed more than 25 grams of ethyl alcohol daily (72.72%, compared to those who consumed alcohol sporadically (44.44%, or those who abstained entirely from alcohol (30.00%. conclusions. Alcohol consumption causes the development of poorer quality embryos. Significantly more embryos of class B came from oocytes of women who consumed alcohol, compared to class A. An active campaign against alcohol consumption should be carried out among women at reproductive age to safeguard their fertility and future motherhood.

  20. Effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of nickel sensitization and contact sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Menné, Torkil;

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that stimulants such as alcohol and tobacco have an effect on the immune system, but little is known about how these lifestyle factors affect the prevalence of contact sensitization. This study investigated whether smoking and alcohol consumption were associated with contact...... sensitization and nickel sensitization. A random sample of adults (n=3460) from the general population of Copenhagen was invited to participate in a general health examination including patch-testing. Alcohol consumption was not associated with nickel sensitization, whereas a significant trend (p...

  1. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  2. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: an observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; D.J. Anschutz; R.B. van Baaren; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2011-01-01

    Aims This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design A two (sex) × two (movie: alcoh

  3. Effects of alcohol portrayals in movies on actual alcohol consumption: An observational experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Baaren, R.B. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims - This study uses an experimental design to assess the effects of movie alcohol portrayal on alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Gender, weekly alcohol use and identification with the movie actor/character were assessed as moderators. Design - A two (sex) x two (movie: a

  4. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The presen

  5. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Koordeman; D.J. Anschutz; R.C.M.E. Engels

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers’ consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The presen

  6. Is social interaction associated with alcohol consumption in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Kasirye, Rogers; Nansubuga, Elizabeth

    2009-07-01

    Little is documented about the association of alcohol consumption and social interaction in Uganda, a country with one of the highest per capita alcohol consumptions in the world. This paper describes the pattern of social interaction by sex and establishes the relationship between social interaction and alcohol consumption with and without the consideration of confounders. The data used had 1479 records and were collected in a survey in 2003. The study was part of a multinational study on Gender, Alcohol, and Culture International Study (GENACIS). Each question on social interaction had been pre-coded in a way that quantified the extent of social interaction. The sum of responses on interaction questions gave a summative score which was used to compute summary indices on social interaction. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the best combination of variables for a social interaction index. The index was computed by a prediction using a PCA model developed from the selected variables. The index was categorised into quintiles and used in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of alcohol consumption and social interaction. The stronger the social interaction the more the likelihood of taking alcohol frequently (chi(trend)(2)=4.72, psex, age group and education level (p=0.008). The strength of relationship between social interaction and heavy consumption of alcohol gets weak in multivariate analysis. Communication messages meant to improve health, well-being and public order need to incorporate dangers of negative influence of social interaction. PMID:19406589

  7. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency. PMID:26437317

  8. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  9. College Student Employment and Drinking: A Daily Study of Work Stressors, Alcohol Expectancies, and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Adam B.; Dodge, Kama D.; Faurote, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hou...

  10. [Benefits in reducing alcohol consumption: how nalmefene can help].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendimerad, P; Blecha, L

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol consumption represents a significant factor for mortality in the world: 6.3% in men and 1.1% in women. Alcohol use disorder is also very common: 5.4% in men, 1.5% in women. Despite its high frequency and the seriousness of this disorder, only 8% of all alcohol-dependents are ever treated. Recent meta-analyses have shown that if we can increase current figures by 40%, we could decrease alcohol-related morality rates by 13% in men and 9% in women. Thus, it is important to motivate both physicians and patients to participate in treatment in alcohol use disorder. Recent epidemiological data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) are currently challenging the notion of alcohol use disorder as a fixed entity. Among a cohort of 4422 subjects initially diagnosed as having alcohol dependency, only 25% of these could still be diagnosed as alcohol-dependent one year later. Among the others, 27% were in partial remission, 12% had risk use, 18% low risk use and 18% were abstinent. Stable remission rates were observed in 30% of these subjects at 5 years. This study also argues in favour of the newer dimensional approach elaborated in the DSM 5. One potentially interesting treatment option is oriented toward reducing alcohol intake. In a study by Rehm and Roerecke (2013), they modelled the impact of reduced consumption in a typical alcoholic patient who drinks 8 glasses of alcohol per day (92 g of pure alcohol). If he decreases his alcohol intake by just one glass per day (12 g of alcohol per day), his one-year mortality risk falls from 180/100,000 to 120/100,000; if he decreases his intake by two glasses per day (24 g), this risk falls to 95/100,000, roughly half his baseline risk. These observations have resulted in integrating reduced consumption as an option into the treatment guidelines of several national institutions such as the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE, UK), European Medicines Agency, as well as

  11. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schonlau

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents’ addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent’s home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent’s census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  12. Alcohol consumption in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hannes Hagstr(o)m; Per St(a)l; Knut Stokkeland; Annika Bergquist

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the alcohol drinking patterns in a cohort of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) patients and the possible influence on the development of fibrosis.METHODS:Ninety-six patients with PSC were evaluated with a validated questionnaire about a patient's lifetime drinking habits:the lifetime drinking history (LDH) questionnaire.In addition,clinical status,transient elastography and biochemistry values were analysed and registered.Patients were defined as having either significant or non-significant fibrosis.Significant fibrosis was defined as either an elastography value of ≥ 17.3 kPa or the presence of clinical signs of cirrhosis.Patients were divided into two groups depending on their alcohol consumption patterns; no/low alcohol consumption (one drink or unit/d) and moderate/high alcohol consumption (≥ 1 drink or unit/d).LDH data were calculated to estimate lifetime alcohol intake (LAI),current alcohol intake,drinks per year before and after diagnosis of PSC.We also calculated the number of episodes of binge-drinking (defined as consuming ≥ 5 drinks per occasion) in total,before and after the diagnosis of PSC.RESULTS:The mean LAI was 3882 units of alcohol,giving a mean intake after onset of alcohol consumption of 2.6 units per week.Only 9% of patients consumed alcohol equal to or more than one unit per day.Current alcohol intake in patients with significant fibrosis (n =26) was less than in patients without significant fibrosis (n =70),as shown by lower values of phosphatidylethanol (B-PEth) (0.1 μmol/L vs 0.33 μmol/L,respectively,P =0.002) and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT)(0.88% vs 1.06%,respectively,P =0.02).Self-reported LAI was similar between the two groups.Patients with significant fibrosis reduced their alcohol intake after diagnosis from 103 to 88 units per year whereas patients without fibrosis increased their alcohol intake after PSC diagnosis from 111 to 151 units/year.There were no correlations between elastography

  13. Associations of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption With Disease Activity and Functional Status in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing; Rho, Young Hee; Cui, Jing; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Frits, Michelle L.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Shadick, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted a prospective study consisting of 662 RA patients followed up to 7 years from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study. Smoking and alcohol consumption were assessed through yearly questionnaires. The disease activity and functional status were measured by the Disease Activity Score examined in 28 commonly affected joints (DAS28-CRP3) and Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) assessed annually. Linear mixed models were developed to assess the longitudinal effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on DAS28-CRP3 and MHAQ after adjustment for potential confounders. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (HLA-SE) by smoking and alcohol interactions were also evaluated in the analysis. Results The median follow-up time of the cohort was 4 years. Current smoking was not associated with DAS28-CRP3 in this study, but was associated with a higher MHAQ than non-smokers in seropositive RA (p=0.05). Alcohol consumption showed an approximate J-shaped relationship with MHAQ, with the minima occurring at 5.1–10.0 grams/day. Compared to no alcohol use, alcohol consumption of 5.1–10.0 grams/day was associated with a significant decrease of MHAQ (P=0.02). When stratified by HLA-SE, the effect of alcohol consumption appeared to be stronger in HLA-SE positive RA than HLA-SE negative RA. Conclusion We found that current smoking was associated with a worse functional status, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a better functional status in RA. Replications of these findings in other prospective studies are needed. PMID:24293566

  14. Punishment sensitivity and tension reduction: Exploring the potential influence of genetics on South Korean alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Mahoney

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2*2 (ALDH2*2 is a genetically mutated enzyme that affects the liver’s ability to break down acetaldehyde, resulting in immediate negative physical effects following alcohol consumption. This usually leads to reduced lifetime alcohol dependence rates among those with ALDH2*2. Paradoxically, while around 30% of South Koreans have ALDH2*2, they still maintain both high levels of alcohol consumption and dependence. Therefore, how the negative reactions to alcohol experienced by those with ALDH2*2 interact with the expected effects of alcohol and sensitivity to punishment is of interest. Four hundred and sixty South Korean university students were tested for the ALDH2 gene type and completed alcohol expectancy and sensitivity to reward/punishment measures. The results indicated that there are different predictors of alcohol consumption depending on gene type, with ALDH2*2 heavy drinkers exhibiting lower levels of SP and higher levels of tension reduction expectancy. These findings suggest that ALDH2*2 plays a central role in differences in motivation for alcohol consumption among South Koreans.

  15. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems. PMID:25219790

  16. Biomarkers for detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staufer, Katharina; Yegles, Michel

    2016-04-14

    Alcoholic liver disease is an established, yet controversial, indication for liver transplantation. Although an abstinence period of up to 6 mo prior to transplantation is mandatory, alcohol relapse after transplantation is a common event. In case of recurrence of heavy drinking, graft survival is significantly impaired. Guidelines on detection and surveillance of alcohol consumption in this patient cohort are lacking. This review summarizes the challenge of patient selection as well as the current knowledge on established and novel alcohol biomarkers with special focus on liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27076757

  17. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  18. Chronic periadolescent alcohol consumption produces persistent cognitive deficits in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, M Jerry; Taffe, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Although human alcoholics exhibit lasting cognitive deficits, it can be difficult to definitively rule out pre-alcohol performance differences. For example, individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at increased risk for alcoholism and are also behaviorally impaired. Animal models of controlled alcohol exposure permit balanced group assignment, thereby ruling out the effects of pre-existing differences. Periadolescent male rhesus macaques (N = 5) consumed alcohol during 200 drinking sessions (M-F) across a 10-month period (mean daily alcohol consumption: 1.38 g/kg/day). A control group (N = 5) consumed a fruit-flavored vehicle during the same period. Spatial working memory, visual discrimination learning and retention and response time behavioral domains were assessed with subtests of the Monkey CANTAB (CAmbridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). Spatial working memory performance was impaired in the alcohol group after 120 drinking sessions (6 mo) in a manner that depended on retention interval. The chronic alcohol animals were also impaired in retaining a visual discrimination over 24 hrs when assessed 6-8 weeks after cessation of alcohol drinking. Finally, the presentation of distractors in the response time task impaired the response time and accuracy of the chronic alcohol group more than controls after 6 months of alcohol cessation. Chronic alcohol consumption over as little as 6 months produces cognitive deficits, with some domains still affected after acute (6-8 wks) and lasting (6 mo) discontinuation from drinking. Animals were matched on alcohol preference and behavioral performance prior to exposure, thus providing strong evidence for the causal role of chronic alcohol in these deficits. PMID:25018042

  19. Increased alcohol consumption as a cause of alcoholism, without similar evidence for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Orsted, David Dynnes; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased alcohol consumption has been associated with depression and alcoholism, but whether these associations are causal remains unclear. We tested whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with depression and alcoholism. METHODS: We included 78 154 men and women aged 20...... randomization design with antidepressant medication use and hospitalization/death, with depression and alcoholism as outcomes. RESULTS: In prospective analyses, the multifactorially adjusted hazard ratio for participants reporting >6 drinks/day vs participants reporting 0.1-1 drinks/day was 1.28 (95% confidence...... interval, 1.00-1.65) for prescription antidepressant use, with a corresponding hazard ratio of 0.80 (0.45-1.45) for hospitalization/death with depression and of 11.7 (8.77-15.6) for hospitalization/death with alcoholism. For hospitalization/death with alcoholism, instrumental variable analysis yielded a...

  20. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  1. Differences in neurocognitive functioning associated with alcohol consumption in a multiethnic rural cohort: A Project FRONTIER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew Edward

    2016-01-01

    The current study assessed if a neuroprotective effect on cognition from mild alcohol consumption occurs in multiethnic rural communities and if effect differences occur due to gender or ethnicity. Participants were drawn from Project FRONTIER (Facing Rural Obstacles to healthcare Now Through Intervention, Education & Research), a community-based participatory research study assessing aging in a rural, West Texas, multiethnic cohort of participants aged 40 years and older. Alcohol consumption patterns were determined from Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test responses. Cognitive measures included the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. Because few participants had greater than a mild alcohol consumption pattern, only abstinent participants and those with mild consumption were compared (N = 1,004 1st observation; N = 256 2nd observation). Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed main effects for alcohol consumption pattern, gender, and ethnicity. Attention was most affected by alcohol consumption pattern followed by verbal memory. Mild alcohol consumption was associated with better performance in these areas. Gender and ethnicity had broad effects on cognitive abilities but inconsistent attention effects. Overall, mild alcohol consumption was associated with better attentional and other abilities compared with abstinence in a rural multiethnic sample. These findings are consistent with previous research and suggest ethnicity and gender are uninvolved in any alcohol neuroprotective effects. PMID:26979422

  2. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth T...

  3. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Gorska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Dyr, Wanda; Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2015-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that lamotrigine, similarly to other antiepileptic drugs, may be useful in the therapy of alcohol dependence. The rationale for using lamotrigine in the treatment of alcohol addiction is based on its multiple mechanisms of action which include inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, modulation voltage-gated calcium currents and transient potassium outward current. However, the known mechanism of lamotrigine does not fully explain its efficacy in alcohol addiction therapy. For this reason we have decided to examine the effect of lamotrigine on the opioid system. Our previous studies showed that topiramate and levetiracetam (antiepileptic drugs) as well as the most effective drugs in alcohol addiction therapy i.e. naltrexone and acamprosate, when given repeatedly, all increased plasma beta endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) level, despite operating through different pharmacological mechanisms. It is known that low beta-endorphin level is often associated with alcohol addiction and also that alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. This study aims to assess the effect of repeated treatment with lamotrigine on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma level in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw high preferring (WHP) rats). We observed a decrease in alcohol consumption in rats treated with lamotrigine. However we didn't observe significant changes in beta-endorphin level during withdrawal of alcohol, which may indicate that the drug does not affect the opioid system. We suppose that lamotrigine may be useful in alcohol dependence therapy and presents a potential area for further study. PMID:25449391

  4. The influence of guides on alcohol consumption among young tourists at a nightlife resort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutenges, Sébastien; Jæger, Mads Meier; Hesse, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess how participation in party activities with guides affects alcohol consumption among young tourists at an international nightlife resort. Methods: Prospective survey of 112 Danish tourists in Sunny Beach, Bulgaria, who were asked about their drinking......: Participating in party activities with guides increases drinking among young tourists who are already drinking large amounts of alcohol during their vacation. Further studies are needed to measure, describe and change the role played by guides at nightlife resorts....

  5. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON PERFORMANCE AMONG OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by both alcohol and aging. Compromises in cognitive efficiency (i.e. the ability to respond both quickly and accurately) have previously been identified in both elderly and acutely intoxicated individuals. Methods The present study employed a visual-spatial, two-choice reaction time task to evaluate the interactive effects of aging and alcohol on cognitive efficiency. Our primary outcome measure was an efficiency ratio derived from each participant’s response accuracy (ACC) and mean reaction time (RT) (%correct/RT). Younger (25 – 35; n=22) and older (55 – 74; n=37) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or moderate alcohol dose intended to produce a peak BrAC of 0.04%. Participants performed the task at peak alcohol levels. Results: A significant interaction between age group and dose assignment was observed (F3,55=4.86, p=.03) for the efficiency ratio. Younger participants who received alcohol performed significantly better than did their older counterparts regardless of alcohol condition and despite no differences in performance between the two age groups in the placebo condition. Additional correlation analyses between ACC and RT suggested that moderately intoxicated older adults become more accurate as response times increase. This relationship was not observed in older adults in the placebo condition. Conclusions These data suggest that healthy individuals exhibit a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol depending on their age. Unfortunately, due to the presumed safety of moderate alcohol doses and a lack of studies investigating the interactive effects of acute alcohol

  6. Women's knowledge and attitudes regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peadon Elizabeth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol exposure in pregnancy is a common and modifiable risk factor for poor pregnancy and child outcomes. Alcohol exposure in pregnancy can cause a range of physical and neurodevelopmental problems in the child including the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD. In order to improve prevention strategies, we sought to describe the knowledge and attitudes of women of childbearing age regarding alcohol consumption during pregnancy and its effects on the fetus. Methods We conducted a national cross-sectional survey via computer assisted telephone interview of 1103 Australian women aged 18 to 45 years. Participants were randomly selected from the Electronic White Pages. Pregnant women were not eligible to participate. Quotas were set for age groups and a minimum of 100 participants per state to ensure a national sample reflecting the population. The questionnaire was based on a Health Canada survey with additional questions constructed by the investigators. Descriptive statistics were calculated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations with participants' knowledge and attitudes. Results Of women surveyed, 61.5% had heard about effects of alcohol on the fetus and 55.3% had heard of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Although 92.7% agreed alcohol can affect the unborn child, 16.2% did not agree that the disabilities could be lifelong. Most women agreed that pregnant women should not drink alcohol (80.2% and 79.2% reported having negative feelings towards pregnant women drinking alcohol. Women with higher education levels were more likely to know the effects of alcohol consumption in pregnancy (adjusted OR 5.62; 95% CI 3.20 to 9.87 but education level and knowledge were not associated with attitude. Conclusions There was a disjunction between knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol consumption in pregnancy. These findings will assist in developing effective health promotion campaigns to reduce fetal alcohol exposure

  7. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Andersen, A; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol intake is causally associated with cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus and liver. In all five Nordic countries, alcohol consumption increased substantially between 1965 (6.5 litres per adult per year) and 1975 (10 litres), but remained at about 10 litres between 1975 and...... alcohol drinking were eliminated. This corresponds to about 29% of all alcohol-related cancers, i.e. in the oesophagus (37%), oral cavity and pharynx (33%), larynx (29%) and liver (15%). About 2% of all cancers in men and 1% in women in the Nordic countries around the year 2000 will be caused by the...... 1985. The daily consumption of men during the period was substantially higher than that of women, and that of both men and women was higher in Denmark than in the other Nordic countries. In about 2000, an annual total of almost 1,300 cancer cases (1,000 in men and 300 in women) would be avoided if...

  8. A typology of alcohol consumption among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Cronin, M; Perry, I.J.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances; O'Connor, Karl

    total, 13 studies were eligible for inclusion: 11 quantitative, one qualitative and one mixed methods. Six classes of drinkers were formed within this typology. Abstainers reported no alcohol consumption. Light drinkers reported drinking small amounts of alcohol infrequently. In comparison, social and...... hedonistic drinkers drank most in social situations and to have fun. Heavy and harmful consumers reported increased volume and frequency of consumption including harmful consequences. Conclusion Currently, policy makers are attempting to combat the high levels of harmful alcohol consumption among young....... MEDLINE, PsychInfo and CINAHL were systematically searched for relevant articles published between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2014. Included papers were critically appraised. A narrative synthesis approach was employed based on guidance from the UK Economic and Social Research Council. Results In...

  9. Addiction and the Interaction between Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Pierpaolo Pierani; Silvia Tiezzi

    2005-01-01

    This paper adopts a multi-commodity habit formation model to study whether unhealthy behaviours are related, i.e. whether there are contemporaneous and inter temporal complementarities in Italian consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Own and crossprice elasticities, as well as the income elasticities, are calculated from the parameters of a semi-reduced system estimated on aggregate annual time series for alcohol and tobacco expenditures over the period 1960-2002. Own price elasticities are neg...

  10. Associations between personality, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the associations between personality traits, alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey of 196 male and female undergraduate students at Edinburgh University, aged 17-28 years old. Participants completed the International Personality Item Pool Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1993), as well as instruments to assess Sensation Seeking, Impulse Control and self-esteem. Self-reported alcohol consump...

  11. Prospective Effects of Possible Selves on Alcohol Consumption in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.; Park, Chang G.; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents’ alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade pred...

  12. Measuring alcohol consumption for genomic meta-analyses of alcohol intake: opportunities and challenges12345

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Neal D Freedman; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Lin, Peng; Shaffer, John R.; Sun, Qi; Taylor, Kira; Yaspan, Brian,; Cole, John W; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Rebecca S. DeSensi; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Heiss, Gerardo; Kang, Jae H; O'Connell, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Whereas moderate drinking may have health benefits, excessive alcohol consumption causes many important acute and chronic diseases and is the third leading contributor to preventable death in the United States. Twin studies suggest that alcohol-consumption patterns are heritable (50%); however, multiple genetic variants of modest effect size are likely to contribute to this heritable variation. Genome-wide association studies provide a tool for discovering genetic loci that contribute to vari...

  13. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  14. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs. PMID:26668039

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk reduction: open issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Costanzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The inverse relationship between low to moderate alcohol consumption and several favorable health outcomes has been well established in many epidemiological studies and meta-analyses. However, several questions still remain controversial.

    Aims: To discuss a number of open questions relating to the healthy effect of a moderate intake of alcohol (especially wine on cardiovascular disease and total mortality. This will be based on findings from the literature, with a particular emphasis on meta-analyses.

    Results and Conclusion: The role of different alcoholic beverages, age and sex, confounding, former drinkers and study design has been discussed. Whether wine is better than beer or spirits, though suggestive, remains to be established. Cardiovascular morbidity and total mortality is significantly reduced both in men and women who are regular drinkers of low amounts of alcohol; however, the predicted protection in women disappears at lower doses than in men. The primary protection of alcohol decreases after adjustment for known variables, thus confirming the importance of confounding in assessing drinking effects, but it remains significant and of undoubted public health value. As the cardiovascular protection by moderate alcohol consumption might have been unduly overestimated by inclusion in control groups of former drinkers, we compared studies that used as a reference group the category of no alcohol intake and/or formally excluded former drinkers with studies which did not: the protection was indeed somewhat lower in the former than in the latter studies, but was still statistically significant. We conclude that the dose-response relationship between alcohol intake and cardiovascular risk or total mortality, consistently described by J-shaped curves, can be reasonably attributed to a combination of both real beneficial (at lower doses and harmful (at higher doses

  16. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Alaa M G; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bolla, Manjeet K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. METHODS: A MEDLINE...... with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-negative disease. IMPACT: Considering the totality of the evidence, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a major adverse effect on the survival of women with breast cancer.......BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. METHODS: A MEDLINE...... published studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption was not associated with overall survival [HR, 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.05], but there was some evidence of better survival associated with prediagnosis consumption (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0...

  18. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    , and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women...... 375 mg or more caffeine per day were 4.84 (2.87-8.16) and 2.21 (1.53-3.18), respectively. Women who smoked 10-19 cigarettes and 20 or more cigarettes per day did not have significantly increased ORs for having spontaneous abortions, after adjusting for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: Consumption of 5...... or more units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neafsey EJ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Edward J Neafsey, Michael A CollinsDepartment of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: We reviewed 143 papers that described the relationship between moderate drinking of alcohol and some aspect of cognition. Two types of papers were found: (1 those that provided ratios of risk between drinkers and nondrinkers (74 papers in total and (2 those that, although they did not provide such ratios, allowed cognition in drinkers to be rated as “better,” “no different,” or “worse” than cognition in nondrinkers (69 papers in total. The history of research on moderate drinking and cognition can be divided into two eras: 1977–1997 and 1998–present. Phase I (1977–1997 was the era of neuropsychological evaluation involving mostly young to middle-aged (18–50 years old subjects. Although initial studies indicated moderate drinking impaired cognition, many later studies failed to confirm this, instead finding no difference in cognition between drinkers and nondrinkers. Phase II (1998–present was and is the era of mental status exam evaluation involving mostly older (≥55 years old subjects. These studies overwhelmingly found that moderate drinking either reduced or had no effect on the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment. When all the ratios of risk from all the studies in phase II providing such ratios are entered into a comprehensive meta-analysis, the average ratio of risk for cognitive risk (dementia or cognitive impairment/decline associated with moderate “social” (not alcoholic drinking of alcohol is 0.77, with nondrinkers as the reference group. The benefit of moderate drinking applied to all forms of dementia (dementia unspecified, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia and to cognitive impairment (low test scores, but no significant benefit against cognitive decline (rate of decline in test scores was found. Both light and moderate

  20. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya; Rizov, Marian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of health. A dynamic panel data model is used to estimate demand functions for fat, protein, alcohol, cigarettes and diversity of the diet. The results suggest the existence of strong habits in drinking and smoking, and the absence of habits in fat and protein consumption. We also found evidence of habit formation for food diversity. Comparing nutritional behavior of younger and older consumers, we find significant differences in the demand for fat and cigarettes. Older consumers seem to be more persistent in their drinking and smoking behavior. Similarly, men show higher habit persistence for alcohol and cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that among individual determinants, especially education, income and employment have statistically significant impacts on consumption behavior. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, economic growth is negatively related to protein consumption, while regional unemployment rate is negatively affecting the demand for protein and food diversity. Finally, Russian consumers react to the price changes of alcohol, cigarettes, fat and protein as suggested by theory. Consumer demand for food diversity responds negatively to price changes of alcohol and cigarettes, but positively to the price of fat. PMID:23562250

  1. Alcohol consumption patterns, diet and body weight in 10 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieri, S.; Krogh, V.; Saieva, C.; Grobbee, D. E.; Bergmann, M.; Rohrmann, S.; Tjonneland, A.; Ferrari, P.; Chloptsios, Y.; Dilis, V.; Jenab, M.; Linseisen, J.; Wallstrom, P.; Johansson, I.; Chirlaque, M. D.; Sanchez, M. J.; Niravong, M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Welch, A. A.; Allen, N. E.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Sacerdote, C.; Panico, S.; Parr, C. L.; Braaten, T.; Olsen, A.; Jensen, M. K.; Bingham, S.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background/objectives: Europe has the highest level of alcohol consumption in the world. As drinking patterns are important determinants of the beneficial and harmful effects of alcohol consumption, we investigated alcohol consumption in relation to nutrient intake, place of consumption, education a

  2. Liver cirrhosis mortality, alcohol consumption and tobacco consumption over a 62 year period in a high alcohol consumption country: a trend analysis

    OpenAIRE

    John, Ulrich; Hanke, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality has been revealed by data from several different countries. However, the impact of tobacco smoking on liver cirrhosis has not been considered. The aim of this study was to estimate trends in liver cirrhosis mortality and alcohol and tobacco consumption from 1952 to 2013 as well as more recent trends in substance use disorder treatments and hospital treatments of liver diseases in Germany. Methods Data from t...

  3. Is alcohol consumption associated with poor academic achievement in university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption showed negative associations with motivation for and subjectively achieved academic performance. University alcohol prevention activities might have positive impact on students′ academic success.

  4. Police officer job satisfaction in relation to mood,well-being, and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Andrea; O'Connor, Brian P

    2002-05-01

    The authors examined job satisfaction, job stress, and thoughts of quitting in relation to positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and alcohol consumption among police officers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that 2 dimensions, positive affect and negative affect, provided a clear family-tree organizational framework for representing the otherwise confusing pattern of associations between job and well-being variables. Job satisfaction was primarily associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, and self-esteem; job stress was primarily associated with negative affect and alcohol consumption; thoughts of quitting had moderate loadings on both factors. The 2-dimensional framework may prove useful as a guide in reviewing research in this field and in selecting constructs and measures for inclusion in future research. PMID:12206279

  5. Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhaus Albert

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this cross-sectional study the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects (52.7% response. Methods Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption (≹ 10 items/day, high-risk alcohol consumption (men > 20 g pure alcohol/day, women > 10 g pure alcohol/day, binge drinking, problem drinking according to CAGE and regular medical drug intake (at least weekly. Results Intense psychosocial stress is a risk factor for binge drinking and for regular drug use. High demoralization values are associated with tobacco consumption, problem drinking and regular drug intake. The probability of a high demoralization value increased with intense psychosocial stress. Practicing veterinarians are more frequently affected by psychosocial stress and have a greater risk of alcohol or drug consumption than veterinarians working in a non-clinical area of work (e.g. Department of Veterinary Services, Industry. Conclusion The findings support the hypothesis of complex interrelationships between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in the veterinary profession and underscore the need of further research.

  6. Alcohol Consumption Among Scholarized Adolescents: A Socio-Communitarian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Villarreal-González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationships that the individual, family, social and school variables have with the risk of alcohol consumption among adolescents. This is an explanatory causal study. The sample consisted of 1,245 adolescents of both sexes drawn from two secondary level and two pre-university level educational institutions, and were all aged between 12 and 17 years old. Stratified probability sampling was used, taking into account the proportion of students in each grade, level, group and timetable. To analyze the data, a structural equation model was calculated that explained 66% of the variance. The results showed that community social support and family functioning were indirectly related to alcohol consumption. The former was positively and significantly related, through friends’ support and also alcohol use by family and friends, while the latter was related through two paths: firstly, a positive and significant relationship, with family support and alcohol use by family and friends and, secondly, positively through school adjustment and school self-esteem which was negatively related with alcohol consumption. A significant and positive relationship was also observed between family functioning and social support. The results are discussed in terms of the most relevant studies on the subject of this research and the methodological limitations of this study are also considered.

  7. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  8. Alcohol consumption and risk type 2 diabetes among older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study aimed to investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes among older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Between 1993 and 1997, 16,330 women aged 49–70 years and free from diabetes were enrolled in one of the Dutch Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective Stud

  9. The control-of-consumption approach to alcohol abuse prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    1987-01-01

    Key empirical studies of the postulates of the single-distribution theory and the associated control-of-consumption approach are reviewed. The review is organized in terms of the six links possible between the four variables of the "Ledermann string" (availability, average consumption, proportion...... of heavy consumers, and prevalence of damage) presented in Part I. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available evidence is too inconsistent to support the control-of-consumption approach and that a more comprehensive understanding of alcohol abuse and prevention is needed....

  10. Alcohol Consumption in Thailand: A Study of the Associations between Alcohol, Tobacco, Gambling, and Demographic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Changpetch, Pannapa; Haughton, Dominique; Le, Mai; Ly, Sel; Nguyen, Phong; Thach, Tien

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a thorough study of alcohol consumption in Thailand in terms of the relationships between this activity and tobacco consumption, gambling consumption, and demographic factors. Three statistical models and data-mining techniques—logistic regression, Treenet, and directed acyclic graphs—are used to analyze datasets drawn from socioeconomic surveys of 43,844 Thai households conducted in 2009. From logistic regression, we find that the region where the household is located, ur...

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AMONG VISITORS OF TOMSK HEALTH CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Kobyakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the data of visitors ofTomskhealth centers in order to assess the use of alcohol as a risk factor for NCD in the period from 2010 to 2012.Material and methods. During the period 2010–2012 examination at the health centers was lead with 9302 people, including 7466 women and 1836 men aged 18 to 88, the average age of visitors was 49.2 ± 15.6. The generated sample statistically dominated by women. Contacting the center each visitor filled “Medical card of the health center”. Everyone was interviewed by the nature of alcohol (patient chooses one answer: casual, small, often, do not drink alcohol and strengthen of alcoholic beverages (spirits or alcoholic beverages, the fact of smoking.Results: information about alcohol use was reported in 8730 people among 9302 visitors of health centers in the analyzed period. Maximum prevalence of alcohol consumption was recorded in the age groups 20–29 and 30–39 (85.4 and 85.5% and decreased in accordance with age, reaching a minimum value in a group of users 70 years and older. Regular alcohol consumption reported in the group of significantly younger people (46.8 ± 14.86 vs 54.01 ± 15.9; p < 0.05. The analysis of the consumed beverages’ for-tress shows that most residents consume alcoholic beverages (5068 peoples, 71.9%, while hard liquor is preferred by only one of three visitors (2191 peoples, 31.1%. It should be noted that younger people prefer low-alcohol drinks and older – strong (46.65 ± 15.26 vs 50.72 ± 13.95; p < 0.05. Urban residents consumed alcohol significantly more often (77.7% than rural (72.3% (OR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.15–1.54. Alcohol consumption among workers was 82.7%, which was significantly more frequent (OR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.47–1.88 as compared to non-performing – 73.4%. The frequency of alcohol consumption was significantly higher among those with higher education and amounted to 80.87% as compared to visitors who do not have higher

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and waiting time to pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Grønbæk, Morten; Olsen, Jørn

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research indicates that even a moderate consumption of alcohol in women trying to become pregnant is associated with longer waiting time to pregnancy. The findings, though, are based upon few observations. METHODS: Self-reported data on alcohol intake and waiting time to...... pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and >12 months) was used for 39 612 pregnant women, recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort within the first 24 weeks of pregnancy from 1997 to 2000. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (OR) for a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy according to alcohol intake. RESULTS: In...... nulliparous women neither moderate nor high alcohol intake was related with longer waiting time to pregnancy compared with a low intake. In parous women, a modest association was seen only among those with an intake of >14 drinks per week (subfecundity OR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7). Women who...

  13. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) NCI, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  14. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de L.; Haan, de H.A.; Palen, van der J.A.M.; Olivier, B.; Verster, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumpt

  15. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  16. Alcohol Consumption among Pregnant Women in Northern Tanzania 2000-2010: A Registry-Based Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksen, Alexander Blaauw; Østbye, Truls; Mmbaga, Blandina Theophil; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol can be harmful to the development of the foetus. In most developed countries, pregnant women are recommended to abstain from alcohol, however in developing countries, women are less likely to receive these recommendations. With respect to pregnant women in Northern Tanzania, this study aims to 1) describe time trends in level of alcohol consumption, 2) assess socio-demographic predictors of alcohol consumption, and 3) describe associations between alcohol consumption and h...

  17. Effect of television advertising of alcohol on alcohol consumption and intentions to drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, J; Vardanega, A T; Callan, V J

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol consumption of 120 male and female college students was measured as they viewed a 90-min videotape of popular prime-time television programmes. Independent measures were the sex of the student, their drinker classification (light or moderate-heavy) and the number of alcohol advertisements (0, 6, 12) shown during the screening of the television programmes. Dependent measures were the number of drinks consumed, and the intentions of students to drive a motor vehicle after viewing the videotaped programmes. As predicted, males consumed more alcohol than females, and moderate-heavy drinkers consumed more than light drinkers. Male and female students who viewed six alcohol advertisements consumed more alcohol than students shown no alcohol advertisements or 12 alcohol advertisements. Analysis of intentions to drive after viewing the programmes revealed that the number of drinks consumed was not a significant covariate of driving intentions. Rather light drinkers of both sexes were less likely to intend to drive than moderate-heavy drinkers. Males exposed to alcohol advertisements were less likely to intend to drive than males who did not view alcohol advertisements. Different levels of exposure to alcohol advertisements did not influence the driving intentions of college females. PMID:16840063

  18. Alcohol Use Disorders, Tips to Reduce Consumption | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Tips You Can Try to Reduce Alcohol Consumption Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Small changes can make a big difference in reducing your chances of having alcohol-related ...

  19. The association between alcohol consumption and contact sensitization in Danish adults: the Glostrup Allergy Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Nielsen, N.H.; Linneberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Population-based epidemiological studies have indicated that alcohol consumption is associated with IgE-mediated immune diseases (i.e. allergic rhinitis, asthma and urticaria). These studies have been strongly supported by several immunological studies. Furthermore, an inhibitory effect...... of alcohol consumption on the development of delayed-type hypersensitivity has been shown in healthy controls. However, a possible association between contact sensitization and alcohol consumption in a general population has never been reported. Objectives To investigate whether alcohol consumption...

  20. Graves' hyperthyroidism and moderate alcohol consumption: evidence for disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, A.; Bülow Pedersen, I.; Knudsen, N.; Perrild, H.; Ovesen, L.; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Jørgensen, T.; Laurberg, P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a considerable reduction in the risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism, similar to findings in other autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. We aimed to study a possible...... Graves' hyperthyroidism. For each patient, we recruited four age-sex-region-matched controls with normal thyroid function (n=1,088). MEASUREMENTS: Participants gave detailed information on current and previous alcohol intake as well as other factors to be used for analyses. The association between...

  1. Cytokine concentrations after heavy alcohol consumption in people with and without a hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raasveld, S.J.; Hogewoning, A.; Van De Loo, A.J.A.E.; De Zeeuw, R.; Bosma, E.R.; Bouwmeester, N.H.; Lukkes, M.; Brookhuis, K.A.; Knipping, K.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: After an evening of heavy alcohol consumption, next day alcohol hangovers are commonly experienced. However, about 20 to 25% of the people claim not to have a hangover, despite heavy alcohol consumption [1]. It has been suggested that not experiencing alcohol hangovers may increase the risk

  2. Is Alcohol Consumption Associated with Poor Academic Achievement in University Students?

    OpenAIRE

    Walid El Ansari; Christiane Stock; Claire Mills

    2013-01-01

    Background: We assessed associations between educational achievement and alcohol consumption. Methods: We employed five alcohol consumption measures (length of time of and amount consumed during most recent drinking occasion, frequency of alcohol consumption, heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking); and three educational achievement indicators (students′ subjective importance of achieving good grades, students′ appraisal of their academic performance in comparison with peers, students′...

  3. Alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease : the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Hofman, A.; Meijer, W.T.; Rooij, van F.J.A.; Grobbee, D.E.; Witteman, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Data on alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis are scarce. To determine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study (199

  4. Alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease - The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R; Geleijnse, JM; Hofman, A; Meijer, WT; van Rooij, FJA; Grobbee, DE; Witteman, JCM

    2002-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Data on alcohol consumption and atherosclerosis are scarce. To determine the association between alcohol consumption and risk of peripheral arterial disease, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study (199

  5. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda;

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society....

  6. Antecedents and Covariates of Alcohol Consumption among Swiss Male Conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Vetter

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption frequency in a sample of Swiss conscripts (n=25,611 in order to identify factors that predispose for frequent consumption. A self-report of drinking frequencies, as well as socio-demographic and psychosocial variables, was collected at psychiatric baseline screening. Based on univariate analyses, relevant variables were included in a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Six percent were abstainers, 15% reported rarely drinking, 53% occasional drinking, 24% regular drinking and 2% daily drinking. Except for substance use, most associations followed a “J”-shaped curve across the categories of alcohol frequency. Abstinence and frequent drinking can be perceived as deviations from the social norm. Both behaviors are associated with more psychosocial stressors and might be therefore special targets for further studies and new prevention programs.

  7. Adolescent alcohol use reflects community-level alcohol consumption irrespective of parental drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Pernille; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann;

    2013-01-01

    Risk factors for adolescent alcohol use are typically conceptualized at the individual level, and school- and community-level risk factors have received little attention. Based on the theoretical understanding of youth alcohol consumption as a reflection of community social practice, we analyzed...... whether adolescent drunkenness was related to community-level adult alcohol use (AAC), when taking individual and school-level risk factors for drunkenness into account. Furthermore, we investigated whether the association between community-level AAC and adolescent drunkenness was attenuated after...

  8. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to

  9. Ethnography in an emergency room: Evaluating patients with alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Mondragón B.; Martha Romero M; Guilherme Borges

    2008-01-01

    Objective. To present an ethnographic description of the treatment of patients with excessive alcohol consumption in an emergency room, how they are evaluated by doctors, and the various contextual aspects surrounding this condition. Materials and Methods. The ethnographic work was carried out over a period of two months, with researchers working 24 hours a day, seven days a week from January 9 to March 15, 2002 in the emergency room (ER) at General Hospital, Mexico City. Results. Patients th...

  10. Ethnography in an emergency room: Evaluating patients with alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Mondragón B.; Martha Romero M; Guilherme Borges

    2008-01-01

    To present an ethnographic description of the treatment of patients with excessive alcohol consumption in an emergency room, how they are evaluated by doctors, and the various contextual aspects surrounding this condition. Materials and Methods. The ethnographic work was carried out over a period of two months, with researchers working 24 hours a day, seven days a week from January 9 to March 15, 2002 in the emergency room (ER) at General Hospital, Mexico City. Results. Patients that had cons...

  11. Dependence Induced Increases in Intragastric Alcohol Consumption (IGAC) in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, Tara L.; Powers, Matthew S.; Ramirez, Jason J.; Crane, Andrew; Mulgrew, Jennifer; Smitasin, Phoebe; Cunningham, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments used the Intragastric Alcohol Consumption (IGAC) procedure to examine effects of variations in passive ethanol exposure on withdrawal and voluntary ethanol intake in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2). Experimental treatments were selected to induce quantitative differences in ethanol dependence and withdrawal severity by: (a) varying the periodicity of passive ethanol exposure (3, 6 or 9 infusions/day), (b) varying the dose per infusion (Low, Medium or ...

  12. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tabakoff, B.; Saba, L.; Printz, M.; Flodman, P.; Hodgkinson, C.; Goldman, D.; Koob, G.; Richardson, H.N.; Kechris, K.; Bell, R.L.; Hübner, N.; Heinig, M.; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, J.; Legault, L.; Dongier, M.; Conigrave, K.M.; Whitfield, J.B.; Saunders, J.; Grant, B.; Hoffman, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 7, - (2009), s. 70-70. ISSN 1741-7007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520 Grant ostatní: Howard Hughes Medical Institute(US) 55005624 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : alcohol consumption * rat * gene expression profiles Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.636, year: 2009

  13. The effect of job stress on smoking and alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Azagba, Sunday; Sharaf, Mesbah F

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of job stress on two key health risk-behaviors: smoking and alcohol consumption, using data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey. Findings in the extant literature are inconclusive and are mainly based on standard models which can model differential responses to job stress only by observed characteristics. However, the effect of job stress on smoking and drinking may largely depend on unobserved characteristics such as: self control, stress-coping...

  14. Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. Mark; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    To date, 16 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. Using state-level data, we examine the relationship between medical marijuana laws and a variety of outcomes. Legalization of medical marijuana is associated with increased use of marijuana among adults, but not among minors. In addition, legalization is associated with a nearly 9 percent decrease in traffic fatalities, most likely to due to its impact on alcohol consumption. Our estimates pro...

  15. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Linda M Bartoshuk; Mennella, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches inc...

  16. Overcoming mixed messages on alcohol consumption: a teaching strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsher, Kerre A

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this discussion paper is to outline the teaching of nursing students using a health promotion approach to guide young people on issues involving alcohol consumption. Health promotion uses a holistic approach involving the individual, attempts to understand complexities of human behaviour and attempts to address environmental and social issues which impact upon health. There are several models of health promotion but the health assessment tool chosen was HEEADSSS which focuses upon assessment of the Home environment, Education and Employment, eating disorders, peer related activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression and Safety from injury or violence . Society's approach to alcohol consumption is considered ambiguous therefore it is essential to teach health promotion. Research based on demographic and epidemiological information and anecdotal media reports indicates a high incidence of binge drinking among young people on the Eyre Peninsula. The plan was to develop and provide developmentally appropriate health promotion using the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Recommendations on alcohol consumption and the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council Competencies for the Registered Nurse. PMID:20181532

  17. Alcohol consumption patterns of shiftworkers compared with dayworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, Jillian; Skinner, Natalie

    2012-06-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption are well documented. There is some evidence that shiftworkers consume more alcohol than dayworkers as a sleep aid to compensate for sleep difficulties associated with work schedules. This study investigated drinking patterns between shiftworkers and dayworkers using the 2006 and 2007 waves from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Survey. A subset of workers who were not in full-time study and had a single job were selected; participants who did not drink alcohol (n = 2090) were excluded. Using the 2001 Australian Government alcohol guidelines, alcohol consumption for risk of short-term harm (7+ standard drinks for men, 5+ for women) was investigated. The number of workers who drank alcohol "nearly every day" or "every day" was also examined. Some 13% of shiftworkers and 10% of those on standard schedules reported consuming alcohol at levels risky for short-term harm. Having a child less than 17 yrs (odds ratio [OR] = .39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .22-.69), higher job demands (OR = .71, 95% CI = .58-.86), being female (OR = .45, 95% CI=. 26-.79), and being older (OR = .89, 95% CI = .87-.92) significantly reduced, whereas being a shiftworker (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.08-4.12) significantly increased, the odds of drinking alcohol in short-term risky levels. Nearly 10% of shiftworkers and 8% of those on standard schedules reported consuming alcohol in short-term risky levels at least weekly. Having a child less than 17 yrs (OR = .40, 95% CI = .22-.74), higher job demands (OR = .69, 95% CI = .56-.86), being female (OR = .28, 95% CI = .15-.53), and being older (OR = .92, 95% CI = .89-.94) were associated with a significant reduction in the odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels at least weekly. Being a shiftworker was not associated with a significant increase in the odds of consuming alcohol at such risky levels at least weekly, but a trend was evident (OR = 1.47, 95

  18. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages and its effects on overall alcohol consumption among UK students

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sean J.; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C.; Stewart, Karina

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. METHODS: The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and motivations for consumption when mixed with energy drinks (AMED) and mixed with other non-alcoholic beverages (AMOB) using a within-subject design. RESULTS: The most frequent neutral motives reported f...

  19. Evaluating the influence of alcohol advertising on alcohol consumption among the youth in the Vaal Region / Leshata Peter Ledwaba

    OpenAIRE

    Ledwaba, Leshata Peter

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among the youth in the Vaal triangle, south of Gauteng. The study was conducted in four high schools under Sedibeng West District of the Gauteng Department of Education. A quantitative approach in the form of a questionnaire was used to conduct the research. Results obtained indicated that there is no significant correlation between alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption among th...

  20. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r+ = .62), followed by subjective norms (r+ = .47) and perceived behavioural control (PBC; r+ = .31). Self-efficacy (SE) had a stronger relationship with intentions (r+ = .48) compared with perceived control (PC; r+ = -.10). Intention had the strongest relationship with alcohol consumption (r+ = .54), followed by SE (r+ = .41). In contrast, PBC and PC had negative relationships with alcohol consumption (r+ = -.05 and -.13, respectively). All moderators affected TPB relationships. Patterns of consumption with clear definitions had stronger TPB relations, females reported stronger attitude-intention relations than males, and adults reported stronger attitude-intention and SE-intention relations than adolescents. Recommendations for future research include targeting attitudes and intentions in interventions to reduce alcohol consumption, using clear definitions of alcohol consumption in TPB items to improve prediction and assessing SE when investigating risk behaviours. PMID:25089611

  1. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Ledgaard Holm; Lennert Veerman; Linda Cobiac; Ola Ekholm; Finn Diderichsen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advert...

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertis...

  3. Ceftriaxone, a Beta-Lactam Antibiotic, Reduces Ethanol Consumption in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Youssef; Sakai, Makiko; Weedman, Jason M.; Rebec, George V.; Bell, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Changes in glutamatergic transmission affect many aspects of neuroplasticity associated with ethanol and drug addiction. For instance, ethanol- and drug-seeking behavior is promoted by increased glutamate transmission in key regions of the motive circuit. We hypothesized that because glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the removal of most extracellular glutamate, up-regulation or activation of GLT1 would attenuate ethanol consumption. Methods: Alcohol-preferring (P) rats w...

  4. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; BRANDT, THOMAS

    2013-01-01

    Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case–con...

  5. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Renske eKoordeman; Doeschka J. eAnschutz; Rutger C. M. E. eEngels

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers...

  6. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers ...

  7. Studies in youth, drug and alcohol consumption at Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolind, Torsten; Demant, Jakob; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    move beyond the applied perspective into a more social science analytical approach. Aim: The article investigates the relationship developments between drug and alcohol research and youth research in Denmark in general, with a special focus on research conducted at CRF. Specifically, we will focus on......Background: During the 90 s and especially in the beginning of the 00 s research in youth, drug and alcohol consumption increased markedly in Denmark. Much of this research was applied and placed in a dilemma between reproducing existing social problem characterizations of youthful behaviors or...... providing genuine contribution to the sociological analysis and understanding of youth cultures. From the mid-00 s and forward however, a range of analytical tools were developed at Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research (CRF) in order to understand the relationship between youth, drug and alcohol use and to...

  8. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lydia de Haan,1 Hein A de Haan,2,3 Job van der Palen,4,5 Berend Olivier,1 Joris C Verster11Utrecht University, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht, 2Tactus Addiction Treatment, Deventer, 3Nijmegen Institute for Scientist-Practitioners in Addiction, Nijmegen, 4Medical School Twente, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede, 5Department of Research Methodology, Measurement, and Data Analysis, University of Twente, Enschede, The NetherlandsBackground: The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks.Methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED. The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days.Results: A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively, and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4, significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5, and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female/five (male alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9. The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5 in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7. Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours. Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were

  9. Effects of ostracism and sex on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Amy K; Cranford, Alexi N; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2015-09-01

    Drinking to cope with negative affect is a drinking pattern that leads to problematic alcohol use both in college and after graduation. Despite theory and correlational evidence to this effect, establishing a link between stress and alcohol consumption among college students in the laboratory has yielded both a limited number of studies and, at times, inconsistent results. The present study attempts to resolve these issues through investigating the effects of an ecologically relevant stressor-ostracism-on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting. Social drinking college students (N = 40; 55% female) completed a 5-min game of Cyberball and were randomly assigned either to be included or excluded in the virtual ball-toss game. The amount (in ml) of beer consumed in a subsequent mock taste test served as our primary dependent variable, with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) as a secondary dependent variable. Results indicated that excluded participants reported a trend toward an increase in negative affect from pre- to post-Cyberball, and endorsed significantly lower self-esteem, belonging, control, and belief in a meaningful existence compared to included participants. A significant Sex × Condition effect indicated that excluded women consumed less beer than both included women and excluded men, supported by a nonsignificant trend in BrAC. Men did not differ in their consumption of beer as a result of Cyberball condition. Implications of sex and social context on alcohol use are discussed, as well as ostracism as a method for investigating relationships between social stress and alcohol use. PMID:25642585

  10. The effect of cigarette and alcohol consumption on birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    behaviors, most importantly prenatal alcohol consumption. Second, it uses prenatal maternal reports on inputs and objective administrative data on child outcomes. Both features of the data reduce the threat of recall bias and measurement error. Third, the paper identifies the effect of health behaviors...... by exploiting variation between siblings. The results of the paper confirm and extend earlier findings. Maternal smoking decreases birth weight and fetal growth, with smaller effects in sibling models. The negative alcohol effect on birth outcomes is pronounced and remains intact in sibling models. Both effects......This paper uses Danish survey and register data to examine the effect of maternal inputs on child health at birth. The paper adds to the literature in several ways: First, while previous studies mainly have focused on maternal smoking, this paper factors in a larger number of maternal health...

  11. Consumo de alcohol y otras drogas en el medio laboral Consumption of alcohol and other drugs in the occupational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Ochoa Mangado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol y otras drogas tiene una elevada prevalencia en la sociedad en general, y también entre la población trabajadora, repercutiendo sobre el medio laboral. La repercusión del consumo de estas sustancias en el medio laboral es muy importante (enfermedades, accidentes laborales, absentismo, incapacidades laborales, disminución de la productividad…. Se valora la necesidad de una política en el medio laboral encaminada a prevenir o minimizar los riesgos laborales derivados del consumo de estas sustancias, con programas de prevención y apoyo que aporten información básica de referencia y orienten al abordaje asistencial de los trabajadores afectados.The consumption of alcohol and other drugs has high prevalencia in the society in general, and in the population of workers especially, affecting on the occupational area. The repercussion of the consumption of these substances in the working enviroment is very important (diseases, occupational accidents, absenteeism, occupational disabilities, decrease of the productivity…. They are necessary political measurements in the occupational area to prevent and to minimize the risks derived from the consumption of these substances. There should be included programs of prevention and support, which offer basic information and orientation to the medical aproach of the affected workers.

  12. EFFECT OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN PREGNANCY ON PUP QUALITY, EXPLORATORY BEHAVIOUR, MEMORY RETENTION IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitha K.V

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to alcohol can affect both prenatal and postnatal neurogenesis in the developing brain and impair brain function in their early life. Aim: Our study was aimed to assess the effect of prenatal alcoholic exposure on memory retention and exploratory behavior in young adult rats. We also studied the effect of maternal alcohol intake on pup quality, mortality rate and post natal weight gain of the pups during their weaning period. Methods: Female rats were divided into control and alcohol fed group. Rats in alcoholic group were orally fed (force feeding with 30% alcohol at a dose of 5g/kg /day. Treatment was started 14 days before mating, continued throughout their gestation period and weaning period. Control group was administrated with equivalent volume of water. Offspring from each group were divided into male and female group. Birth weight, crown-rump length, litter size were taken from the day of delivery, whereas cognitive function test were done from 75th day of post natal life. Statistics: Data obtained from the tests were analyzed by applying independent T test. Results: Single dose of 5g/kg/day maternal ethanol treatment decreased the memory retention (p=0.003, decreased the weight gain during weaning period (p=0.000, increased the locomotor activities (p=0.05 and increased the mortality rate of pups during weaning period. No significant change was observed in the pup quality between control mother and alcoholic mother. Conclusion: The present study showed that maternal alcohol consumption could affect mortality rate of the pups and their post natal weight gain during weaning period. It also affects their cognitive behaviour and locomotor activities in their later life.

  13. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  14. Influence of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional and physical well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieks, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: Moderate alcohol consumption has been suggested to contribute to emotional well-being. However, the effects of moderate alcohol consumption on emotional well-being in common drinking situations and the influence of alcohol on physical we

  15. Does Alcohol Advertising Effect Young People’s Alcohol Consumption? – A Systematic Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Clift, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To explore the claim that alcohol advertising has an effect on young people’s levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Studies were identified using a systematic search from September 2010 to December 2011. Wiley Interscience, Science Direct, Pubmed, Ovid Online and Google scholar were used to search studies that that were no older than 15years of age, participant age from 10 to 26years old and were of primary research design. Results: Six studies that followed up 9,750 young peopl...

  16. A typology of alcohol consumption among young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Cronin, M; Perry, I.J.;

    2016-01-01

    information from studies that produced types of alcohol consumption among young people. Method Quantitative and qualitative literature investigating the different types of drinkers among young people [aged 12–24 years], published in peer reviewed journals, were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review....... MEDLINE, PsychInfo and CINAHL were systematically searched for relevant articles published between January 1st 2000 and December 31st 2014. Included papers were critically appraised. A narrative synthesis approach was employed based on guidance from the UK Economic and Social Research Council. Results In...

  17. Correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in older adults with depression : the NESDO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Julia F.; Kok, Rob M.; van Marwijk, Harm W. J.; van der Mast, Roos C.; Naarding, Paul; Oude Voshaar, Richard C.; Stek, Max L.; Verhaak, Peter F. M.; de Waal, Margot W. M.; Comijs, Hannie C.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare alcohol use between depressed and nondepressed older adults, and to investigate correlates of alcohol abstinence and at-risk alcohol consumption in depressed older adults. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO). PARTICI

  18. Behavior restructuring and social activation as self-control strategies facing alcohol consumption in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Obando-Posada

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption remains a world major problem because it affects more than a half of the world population and it is associated with multiple physical and psychological illnesses, domestic violence, traffic accidents, financial, labor and academic problems, among others. The purpose of this study is to assess the effect of behavior restructuring and social activation as self-control techniques, in three male adults of 21, 39 and 42 years old, who reported problems related with substance use. An intrasubject temporary series A-B-A-BC design was conducted. Results indicate that intervention aimed to modify behavioral patterns based on the suggested techniques, had a positive effect. In monitoring phase, all participants showed a decrease in consumed grams of alcohol and invested time on consumption, compared with the assessment phase.

  19. Interventions in sports settings to reduce risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wiggers, John H; Vashum, Khanrin P.; Hodder, Rebecca K; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated levels of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm have been reported for sportspeople and supporters compared to non-sporting populations. Limited systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions targeting such behaviours. Methods A review was undertaken to determine if interventions implemented in sports settings decreased alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies were included that implemented interventions within sports settin...

  20. Interventions in sports settings to reduce alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm: a systematic review protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption is a primary cause of physical, psychological and social harm to both the user and others. At both the professional and non-professional level, sports players and fans report consuming alcohol at greater levels than people not involved in sports. Limited systematic reviews have been conducted assessing interventions targeting alcohol consumption behaviour and related harms in the sporting context. Methods and analysis The review aims to determine if interventi...

  1. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAmlung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks (APTs that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink in a sample of ninety-one young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p < .01, although absolute consistency was high for both versions (>95%. Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  2. Alcohol consumption and pregnancy in the Mexican national addiction survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges Guilherme

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, the General Directorate of Epidemiology and the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry conducted the first National Addiction Survey (ENA, providing regional and national data on alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. The ENA providing a subsample of women who have been pregnant at some time in their lives. There were 5,234 affirmative responses. Women were asked if they had suffered any of three adverse outcomes during their last pregnancy: spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and congenital abnormalities. Prevalence of spontaneous abortion was 3.8%, stillbirth 1.2%, and congenital abnormalities 1.1 %. Multiple logistic-regression models were used to analyze the effect of alcohol consumption on these problems. Consumption during pregnancy was related only with the prevalence of congenital abnormalities, with prevalence odds of 3.4. Among habitual users during the last 12 months, oniy women in the highest use category showed an important relationship with the three problems mentioned. Follow-up studies on the Mexican population are recommended in order to obtain more conclusive findings.

  3. Alcohol consumption and pregnancy in the Mexican national addiction survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Borges

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1988, the General Directorate of Epidemiology and the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry conducted the first National Addiction Survey (ENA, providing regional and national data on alcohol, tobacco, and drug use. The ENA providing a subsample of women who have been pregnant at some time in their lives. There were 5,234 affirmative responses. Women were asked if they had suffered any of three adverse outcomes during their last pregnancy: spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and congenital abnormalities. Prevalence of spontaneous abortion was 3.8%, stillbirth 1.2%, and congenital abnormalities 1.1 %. Multiple logistic-regression models were used to analyze the effect of alcohol consumption on these problems. Consumption during pregnancy was related only with the prevalence of congenital abnormalities, with prevalence odds of 3.4. Among habitual users during the last 12 months, oniy women in the highest use category showed an important relationship with the three problems mentioned. Follow-up studies on the Mexican population are recommended in order to obtain more conclusive findings.

  4. Alcohol consumption and risk of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms: Results of the Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinen, M.M.; Verhage, B.A.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Schouten, H.C.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2013-01-01

    Results from epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol drinkers have a decreased risk of lymphoid neoplasms, whereas results for myeloid neoplasms are inconsistent. However, most of these studies have used retrospective data. We examined prospectively whether alcohol consumption decreases the ris

  5. An Analysis of Social Campaigns Aimed at Reducing Alcohol Consumption: the Case of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Hernik, Dana-Nicoleta Lascu

    2012-01-01

    Poland is currently grappling with a challenging situation: as salaries are increasing and more consumers can afford to purchase alcohol, alcoholic consumption in Poland is among the highest in the European Union. Specifically, the market for vodka alone currently stands at $347 million, and beer at $465.2 million. In response to these developments, the Polish government has levied high taxes on alcohol consumption and enacted some of the most stringent advertising laws for alcoholic products...

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL CAMPAIGNS AIMED AT REDUCING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: THE CASE OF POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Hernik; Dana-Nicoleta Lascu

    2012-01-01

    Poland is currently grappling with a challenging situation: as salaries are increasing and more consumers can afford to purchase alcohol, alcoholic consumption in Poland is among the highest in the European Union. Specifically, the market for vodka alone currently stands at $347 million, and beer at $465.2 million. In response to these developments, the Polish government has levied high taxes on alcohol consumption and enacted some of the most stringent advertising laws for alcoholic products...

  7. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances;

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus, this...... literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom....

  8. Psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and medical drugs by veterinarians

    OpenAIRE

    Nienhaus Albert; Schablon Anja; Strehmel Petra; Harling Melanie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In this cross-sectional study the association between psychosocial stress, demoralization and the consumption of psychotropic substances in veterinarians was examined using data from a sample of 1,060 subjects (52.7% response). Methods Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine risk factors for psychosocial stress, demoralization, tobacco consumption (≹ 10 items/day), high-risk alcohol consumption (men > 20 g pure alcohol/day, women > 10 g pure alcohol/day)...

  9. Primary hyperhidrosis: Implications on symptoms, daily life, health and alcohol consumption when treated with botulinum toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Alexander; Boman, Jens; Janlert, Urban; Brulin, Christine; Nylander, Elisabet

    2016-08-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 3% of the population and reduces quality of life in affected persons. Few studies have investigated the symptoms of anxiety, depression and hazardous alcohol consumption among those with hyperhidrosis and the effect of treatment with botulinum toxin. The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary hyperhidrosis on mental and physical health, and alcohol consumption. Our second aim was to study whether and how treatment with botulinum toxin changed these effects. One hundred and fourteen patients answered questionnaires regarding hyperhidrosis and symptoms, including hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS), visual analog scale (VAS) 10-point scale for hyperhidrosis symptoms, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) and short-form health survey (SF-36) before treatment with botulinum toxin and 2 weeks after. The age of onset of hyperhidrosis was on average 13.4 years and 48% described heredity for hyperhidrosis. Significant improvements were noted in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis regarding mean HDSS, VAS 10-point scale, HADS, SF-36 and sweat-related health problems 2 weeks after treatment with botulinum toxin. Changes in mean AUDIT for all participants were not significant. Primary hyperhidrosis mainly impairs mental rather than physical aspects of life and also interferes with specific daily activities of the affected individuals. Despite this, our patients did not show signs of anxiety, depression or hazardous alcohol consumption. Treatment with botulinum toxin reduced sweat-related problems and led to significant improvements in HDSS, VAS, HADS and SF-36 in our patients. PMID:26875781

  10. Baboon alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes: phenotypic changes in liver following chronic consumption of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R S; VandeBerg, J L

    1987-01-01

    According to the nomenclature of Vallee and Bazzone [1983] for mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes, baboon ADHs comprise three major classes of activity, which were distinguished according to the following properties: Class I ADHs. These isozymes exhibited low-Km characteristics with ethanol as substrate, high isoelectric points (8.5-9.3), and sensitivity to 5 mM 4-methyl pyrazole inhibition, and were the major liver (ADH-2) and kidney (ADH-1) isozymes in the baboon. Class II ADHs. These isozymes showed high-Km values for ethanol, neutral isoelectric points (7.7 for the liver ADH-4 [pi-ADH] and 7.2 for the major stomach ADH [ADH-3], respectively), and were insensitive to inhibition with 5 mM 4-methyl pyrazole. Class III ADH. This enzyme was characterized by its inactivity with ethanol as substrate (up to 0.5 M), insensitivity to 4-methyl pyrazole inhibition, preference for medium-chain-length alcohols as substrate (trans-2-hexen-1-ol was routinely used in this study), and an isoelectric point (6.5) similar to that of the human liver chi-ADH (pI 6.4). Major activity variation of the liver pi-ADH (ADH-4) isozyme was observed among the 114 liver samples examined, with 34 percent exhibiting a null (or low-activity) phenotype. An electrophoretic variant phenotype for the major class II stomach isozyme (ADH-3) was also found in the population studied. The baboon was used as a model for studying alcohol-induced changes in liver ADH phenotype following chronic alcohol consumption. Prepuberal male baboons were pair-fed nutritionally adequate liquid diets containing ethanol (50 percent of calories) or isocaloric carbohydrates, and liver ADH isozyme patterns from biopsy samples were monitored for 20 weeks. Dramatic decreases in class II liver ADH activity (ADH-4, or pi-ADH) were observed within 4 weeks after the start of alcohol feeding, and a shift in liver class I isozymes was found during the later stages of alcohol consumption. These changes during chronic

  11. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  12. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs. PMID:25712038

  13. Consumption Of Counterfeit Alcohol In Contemporary Russia: The Role Of Cultural And Structural Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Kotelnikova

    2014-01-01

    The majority of Russians believe that counterfeit alcohol may cause death. Nevertheless, alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in contemporary Russia as are branded clothes, accessories and audio products. This paper aims to reveal whether counterfeit alcohol consumers are distinctive in terms of structure and culture. It investigates the prevalence and structure of counterfeit alcohol purchasing and consumption; attitudes and beliefs about counterfeit alcohol; and predictors of counte...

  14. An empirical analysis of the relationship between the consumption of alcohol and liver cirrhosis mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Smith, Valdemar

    The question whether intake of alcohol is associated with liver cirrhosis mortality is analyzed using aggregate data for alcohol consumption, alcohol related diseases and alcohol policies of 16 European countries. The empirical analysis gives support to a close association between cirrhosis morta...... mortality and intake of alcohol - and the latter also concerns each of the specific beverages, i.e. spirits, wine and beer, where other studies usually only find evidence of spirits and wine related to liver cirrhosis mortality.  ...

  15. Stability of alcohol consumption among youth: a National Longitudinal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, B F; Harford, T C; Grigson, M B

    1988-05-01

    The present study draws upon the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Labor Market Experience in Youth (ages 17-24) to describe alcohol use patterns over a 2-year period during the transition years between adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, turnover in current (using any amount of alcohol in any frequency during the past month) and heavier (drinking six or more drinks on at least 2-3 occasions during the past month) drinking levels among panel members was examined by charting incidence, remission, chronicity, and abstinence between 1982 and 1983. The prevalence of each consumption level increased between the ages of 17 and 22 but declined thereafter for each sex until the age of 24. Changes in prevalence from 1982 to 1983 were shown to be a function of changes in drinking level status. The analysis of turnover in current and heavier drinking levels indicated that there was continuity in drinking behavior over time. Sex differences observed in these trends were examined and their implications to internal and external age- and sex-appropriate constraints and paradigmatic development were explicated. PMID:3374139

  16. The impact of alcohol consumption on patterns of union formation in Russia 1998-2010: an assessment using longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Katherine; Kenward, Michael G; Grundy, Emily; Leon, David A

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey, 1998-2010, we investigated the extent to which patterns of alcohol consumption in Russia are associated with the subsequent likelihood of entry into cohabitation and marriage. Using discrete-time event history analysis we estimated for 16-50 year olds the extent to which the probabilities of entry into the two types of union were affected by the amount of alcohol drunk and the pattern of drinking, adjusted to allow for social and demographic factors including income, employment, and health. The results show that individuals who did not drink alcohol were less likely to embark on either cohabitation or marriage, that frequent consumption of alcohol was associated with a greater chance of entering unmarried cohabitation than of entering into a marriage, and that heavy drinkers were less likely to convert their relationship from cohabitation to marriage. PMID:25320843

  17. Histamine is required for H3 receptor-mediated alcohol reward inhibition, but not for alcohol consumption or stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhanen, J; Nuutinen, S; Lintunen, M; Mäki, T; Rämö, J; Karlstedt, K; Panula, P

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Conflicting data have been published on whether histamine is inhibitory to the rewarding effects of abused drugs. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of neuronal histamine and, in particular, H3 receptors in alcohol dependence-related behaviours, which represent the addictive effects of alcohol. Experimental Approach Alcohol-induced conditioned place preference (alcohol-CPP) was used to measure alcohol reward. Alcohol-induced locomotor stimulation, alcohol consumption and kinetics were also assessed. mRNA levels were quantified using radioactive in situ hybridization. Key Results Low doses of H3 receptor antagonists, JNJ-10181457 and JNJ-39220675, inhibited alcohol reward in wild-type (WT) mice. However, these H3 receptor antagonists did not inhibit alcohol reward in histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC KO) mice and a lack of histamine did not alter alcohol consumption. Thus H3 receptor antagonists inhibited alcohol reward in a histamine-dependent manner. Furthermore, WT and HDC KO mice were similarly stimulated by alcohol. The expression levels of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors, STEP61 and DARPP-32 mRNA in striatal subregions were unaltered in HDC KO mice. No differences were seen in alcohol kinetics in HDC KO compared to WT control animals. In addition, JNJ-39220675 had no effect on alcohol kinetics in WT mice. Conclusions and Implications These data suggest that histamine is required for the H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of alcohol-CPP and support the hypothesis that the brain histaminergic system has an inhibitory role in alcohol reward. Increasing neuronal histamine release via H3 receptor blockade could therefore be a novel way of treating alcohol dependence. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23489295

  18. Marcadores del consumo de alcohol en muestras de pelo Markers of alcohol consumption in hair samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jurado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol está aceptado socialmente en la mayoría de los países, sobretodo en los que es una droga lícita, a pesar de las implicaciones que conlleva sobre la salud. Esta situación hace necesarios unos marcadores adecuados que permitan discriminar entre consumo social y excesivo de alcohol, así como también, en algunos casos, verificar la abstinencia después de un periodo de consumo abusivo de alcohol. Existe una gran variedad de marcadores que se pueden analizar en fluidos biológicos, pero ninguno de ellos es definitivo. Los marcadores indirectos en sangre o suero pueden verse alterados por otras causas patógenas; mientras que los marcadores directos tienen un tiempo de detección muy corto en sangre u orina. Este último problema se resolvería usando el pelo debido a la característica única de esta matriz biológica de permitir la acumulación indefinida de los compuestos absorbidos. El objetivo de la presente revisión es demostrar la utilidad del pelo para establecer el consumo excesivo de alcohol durante periodos prolongados de tiempo. Se estudiarán los dos marcadores del consumo de alcohol analizados, hasta el momento, en el pelo, el etil-glucurónido (EtG y los ésteres etílicos de los ácidos grados (FAEE. Después de toda la revisión podemos concluir que ambos marcadores, EtG y FAEE, permiten discriminar entre consumo excesivo, por un lado, y consumo social o abstinencia, por otro, pero en ningún caso permiten diagnosticar el alcoholismo en una persona.Alcohol is perhaps the most widely consumed licit drug in the world. Despite the wide range of health implications associated with alcohol use, its consumption continues to be socially accepted in most countries. This situation leads to a considerable demand for reliable alcohol markers to discriminate between social drinking and alcohol abuse or to verify claims of abstinence after previous harmful drinking. Despite the considerable progress, the situation is

  19. Do cigarette and alcohol affect semen analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeynel Keskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are a number of studies about the effect of cigarette and alcohol on semen parameters in the literature. There is not a consensus on the relationship between use of cigarette and alchol and semen parameters in those studies. The number of studies in which cigarette and alcohol use are evaluated together is limited. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of cigarette and/or alcohol use on semen parameters. Methods: In this prospective study, 762 patients who applied to an hospital urology polyclinic between January 2015 and March 2015 due to infertility, were questioned for alcohol and cigarette use in anamnesis. The remaining 356 patients were included in our study. Then, semen analysis of the patients was performed. The patients were divided into five groups according to cigarette use, into five groups according to alcohol use and into four groups according to cigarette and/or alcohol use. Significant differences were analyzed between the groups in terms of semen volume, semen concentration, total motility, forward motility and morphological (normality, head anomaly, neck anomaly, tail anomaly values. Results: According to cigarette use, only in group 4 (who use more than 20 package-years cigarette semen volume was significantly lower than the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.009. There was no significant difference in any of the other parameters and groups compared with the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p > 0,05 Conclusion:According to our study, using more than 20 package- years cigarette decreases semen volume. The reason of this result might be the fact that the threshold value, from which the effect of cigarette and alcohol use on the semen parameters has to be determined.

  20. Alcohol consumption in elderly people across European countries: Results from the Food in Later Life project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaz De Almeida, Maria Daniel; Davidson, Kate; De Morais, Cecilia;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify social and cultural aspects of alcohol consumption in a sample of older people living in their own homes, in eight different European countries. We explore several aspects of alcohol consumption, establishing comparisons between genders, age groups and living ...

  1. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxie

  2. Hazardous alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland: a cross-sectional study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davoren, Martin P

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence of a cultural shift towards heavier alcohol consumption among university students, especially women. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous alcohol consumption (HAC) among university students with particular reference to gender and to compare different modes of data collection in this population.

  3. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer survival: a prospective patient cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Benner, A.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Study results on the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival are inconsistent, partly due to the use of different survival outcomes. We assessed the association of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption with survival and recurrence in a prospective cohort study in Germany includin

  4. Acquaintance Rape and Alcohol Consumption on College Campuses: How Are They Linked?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Antonia

    1991-01-01

    Explores the links between acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption among college students, two serious problems on campus. Seven explanations for the relationship focus on alcohol consumption by the perpetrator and by the victim. The need to conduct further studies and develop prevention programs is addressed. (Author/SM)

  5. Effects of alcohol consumption on the allergen-specific immune response in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Roursgaard, Martin; Hersoug, Lars-Georg;

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that chronic alcohol consumption impairs the T-helper 1 (Th1) lymphocyte-regulated cell-mediated immune response possibly favoring a Th2 deviation of the immune response. Moreover, a few epidemiological studies have linked alcohol consumption to allergen-specific IgE sensitization....

  6. Even low alcohol concentrations affect obstacle avoidance reactions in healthy senior individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienhuis Bart

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol is a commonly used social drug and driving under influence is a well-established risk factor for traffic accidents1. To improve road safety, legal limits are set for blood alcohol concentration (BAC and driving, usually at 0.05% (most European countries or 0.08% (most US states, Canada and UK. In contrast, for walking there are no legal limits, yet there are numerous accounts of people stumbling and falling after drinking. Alcohol, even at these low concentrations, affects brain function and increases fall risk. An increased fall risk has been associated with impaired obstacle avoidance skills. Low level BACs are likely to affect obstacle avoidance reactions during gait, since the brain areas that are presumably involved in these reactions have been shown to be influenced by alcohol. Therefore we investigated the effect of low to moderate alcohol consumption on such reactions. Thirteen healthy senior individuals (mean(SD age: 61.5(4.4 years, 9 male were subjected to an obstacle avoidance task on a treadmill after low alcohol consumption. Fast stepping adjustments were required to successfully avoid suddenly appearing obstacles. Response times and amplitudes of the m. biceps femoris, a prime mover, as well as avoidance failure rates were assessed. Findings After the first alcoholic drink, 12 of the 13 participants already had slower responses. Without exception, all participants' biceps femoris response times were delayed after the final alcoholic drink (avg ± sd:180 ± 20 ms; p r = 0.6; p Conclusions The present results clearly show that even with BACs considered to be safe for driving, obstacle avoidance reactions are inadequate, late, and too small. This is likely to contribute to an increased fall risk. Therefore we suggest that many of the alcohol-related falls are the result of the disruptive effects of alcohol on the online corrections of the ongoing gait pattern when walking under challenging conditions.

  7. Alcohol consumption by aging adults in the United States: health benefits and detriments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Weems, M K Suzy

    2008-10-01

    The most rapidly growing segment of the US population is that of older adults (> or =65 years). Trends of aging adults (those aged > or =50 years) show that fewer women than men consume alcohol, women consume less alcohol than men, and total alcohol intake decreases after retirement. A U- or J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and mortality exists among middle-aged (age 45 to 65 years) and older adults. Thus, alcohol can be considered either a tonic or a toxin in dose-dependent fashion. Active areas of research regarding the possible benefits of moderate alcohol consumption among aging individuals include oxidative stress, dementia, psychosocial functioning, dietary contributions, and disease prevention. Yet, due to the rising absolute number of older adults, there may be a silent epidemic of alcohol abuse in this group. Dietary effects of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption are reviewed along with mechanisms by which alcohol or phytochemicals modify physiology, mortality, and disease burden. Alcohol pharmacokinetics is considered alongside age-related sensitivities to alcohol, drug interactions, and disease-related physiological changes. International guidelines for alcohol consumption are reviewed and reveal that many nations lack guidelines specific to older adults. A review of national guidelines for alcohol consumption specific to older adults (eg, those offered by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse) suggests that they may be too restrictive, given the current literature. There is need for greater quantification and qualification of per capita consumption, consumption patterns (quantity, frequency, and stratified combinations), and types of alcohol consumed by older adults in the United States. PMID:18926132

  8. An international study of the relationship between alcohol consumption and postmenopausal estradiol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavaler, J S; Love, K; Van Thiel, D; Farholt, S; Gluud, C; Monteiro, E; Galvao-Teles, A; Ortega, T C; Cuervas-Mons, V

    1991-01-01

    Because of the beneficial effect of estrogens on the risk of cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, the factors which influence endogenous postmenopausal estrogen levels are of substantial importance. The major source of postmenopausal estrogen is the aromatization of...... androgens to estrogens. Because alcohol is reported to increase aromatization rates, the relationship between serum estradiol and moderate alcohol consumption was examined in a group of 128 healthy Pittsburgh postmenopausal women, and a significant direct association was found. In order to address the...... estradiol levels seen with moderate alcoholic beverage consumption is not an isolated finding and speculate that moderate alcohol consumption by healthy postmenopausal women may have beneficial effects....

  9. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption. PMID:19836901

  10. What happened to alcohol consumption and problems in the Nordic countries when alcohol taxes were decreased and borders opened?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Room, Robin; Bloomfield, Kim; Gmel, Gerhard;

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The study tests the effects of reductions in alcohol taxation and increases in travellers’ allowances on alcohol consumption and related harm in Denmark, Finland, and southern Sweden. In late 2003 and early 2004, taxes on alcoholic beverages were reduced in Denmark and Finland...... in any site. In Finland, alcohol-attributable harms in register data increased, especially in people with low socio-economic status. Few such effects were found in Denmark and southern Sweden. Neither did results for self-reported alcohol-attributable problems show any general increases in the three...... and increasing availability does not always increase alcohol consumption and harm. Effects are dampened in affluent societies, and other factors may intervene. The results for Finland also suggest some limits for general population surveys in testing for relatively small policy effects....

  11. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  12. Decreased effective connectivity in the visuomotor system after alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchtmann, Michael; Jachau, Katja; Adolf, Daniela; Baecke, Sebastian; Lützkendorf, Ralf; Müller, Charles; Tempelmann, Claus; Bernarding, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows observing cerebral activity not only in separated cortical regions but also in functionally coupled cortical networks. Although moderate doses of ethanol slowdown the neurovascular coupling, the functions of the primary sensorimotor and the visual system remain intact. Yet little is known about how more complex interactions between cortical regions are affected even at moderate doses of alcohol. Therefore the method of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was applied to analyze ethanol-induced effects on the effective connectivity in the visuomotor system. Fourteen healthy social drinkers with no personal history of neurological disorders or substance abuse were examined. In a test/re-test design they served as their own controls by participating in both the sober and the ethanol condition. All participants were scanned in a 3 T MR scanner before and after ingestion of a body-weight-dependent amount of ethanol calculated to achieve a blood alcohol concentration of 1.0‰. PPIs were calculated for the primary visual cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the left and right primary motor cortex using the statistical software package SPM. The PPI analysis showed selective disturbance of the effective connectivity between different cortical areas. The regression analysis revealed the influence of the supplementary motor area on connected regions like the primary motor cortex to be decreased yet preserved. However, the connection between the primary visual cortex and the posterior parietal cortex was more severely impaired by the influence of ethanol, leading to an uncoupled regression between these regions. The decreased effective connectivity in the visuomotor system suggests that complex tasks requiring interaction or synchronization between different brain areas are affected even at moderate levels of alcohol. This finding may have important consequences for determining which components of demanding tasks such

  13. Trends and Social Differences in Alcohol Consumption during the Postcommunist Transition in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994–2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20–64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  14. Global burden of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption in 2004: a novel way of calculating the burden of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shield Kevin D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for injuries; however, international data on this burden are limited. This article presents new methods to quantify the burden of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption and quantifies the number of deaths, potential years of life lost (PYLL, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost from injuries attributable to alcohol consumption for 2004. Methods Data on drinking indicators were obtained from the Comparative Risk Assessment study. Data on mortality, PYLL, and DALYs for injuries were obtained from the World Health Organization. Alcohol-attributable fractions were calculated based on a new risk modeling methodology, which accounts for average and heavy drinking occasions. 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation method. Results In 2004, 851,900 (95% CI: 419,400 to 1,282,500 deaths, 19,051,000 (95% CI: 9,767,000 to 28,243,000 PYLL, and 21,688,000 (95% CI: 11,097,000 to 32,385,000 DALYs for people 15 years and older were due to injuries attributable to alcohol consumption. With respect to the total number of deaths, harms to others were responsible for 15.1% of alcohol-attributable injury deaths, 14.5% of alcohol-attributable injury PYLL, and 11.35% of alcohol-attributable injury DALYs. The overall burden of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption corresponds to 17.3% of all injury deaths, 16.7% of all PYLL, and 13.6% of all DALYs caused by injuries, or 1.4% of all deaths, 2.0% of all PYLL, and 1.4% of all DALYs in 2004. Conclusions The novel methodology described in this article to calculate the burden of injuries attributable to alcohol consumption improves on previous methodology by more accurately calculating the burden of injuries attributable to one’s own drinking, and for the first time, calculates the burden of injuries attributable to the alcohol consumption of others. The burden of injuries attributable to alcohol

  15. Covariations of Emotional States and Alcohol Consumption: Evidence from Two Years of Daily Data Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Schroder, Kerstin; Perrine, Mervyn W

    2007-01-01

    We examined inter- and intra-individual covariations of mood and alcohol consumption in a sample of 171 light, medium, and heavy alcohol consumers aged 21 and over who reported daily about drinking and mood for a period of up to 2 years. The sample was recruited by advertisements in local newspapers and referral from former respondents in Northern Vermont, USA, between July 1997 and September 2000. Participants reported daily alcohol consumption and mood via Interactive Voice Response (IVR) t...

  16. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Pregnant African-American Women in Washington, D.C

    OpenAIRE

    Kiely, Michele; Thornberry, Jutta S.; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the patterns and associated behaviors related to alcohol consumption among a selected sample of pregnant women seeking prenatal care in inner city Washington D.C. Women receiving prenatal care at one of nine sites completed an anonymous, alcohol-screening questionnaire. Questions were from the TWEAK and AUDIT as well as quantity/frequency questions about the amount, type, and pattern of alcohol consumption. Women were determined to be at no, low, mod...

  17. Alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability: a gene × environment interaction study

    OpenAIRE

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C; Corley, Janie; McNeill, Geraldine; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C.; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive ability are often confounded. One approach to avoid confounding is the Mendelian randomization design. Here, we used such a design to test the hypothesis that a genetic score for alcohol processing capacity moderates the association between alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability. Members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed the same test of intelligence at age 11 and 70 years. They were assessed for recent a...

  18. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces:Implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Angela S Attwood; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2014-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with chan...

  19. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1− iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1+CD44hi mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1− immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1− iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1−CD44lo Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A+ iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3+ iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol consumption induces Th1 immune response upon iNKT cell in vivo

  20. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui, E-mail: hzhang@wsu.edu; Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  1. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verster JC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joris C Verster,1,2 Sarah Benson,2 Andrew Scholey21Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaIntroduction: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.Methods: Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages.Results: A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol included "I like the taste" (58.6%, “To keep me awake” (54.3%, “It gives me energy” (44.3%, "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%, "It increases alertness" (28.8%, “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%, and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%. A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group. The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%, “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%, and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%. No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6% reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions.Conclusion: The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol do so because they like the taste

  2. Retinal-Image Quality and Night-Vision Performance after Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI, and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under these conditions. The tear-film volume was also measured. All measurements were made before and after alcohol consumption and patients were classified into two groups depending on their breath alcohol content (BrAC: low-alcohol (BrAC < 0.25 mg/L and high-alcohol content (BrAC ≥ 0.25 mg/L. Results. The VDI was significantly higher after alcohol consumption: the higher the BrAC, the higher the deterioration of the visual discrimination capacity. The pupil size increased significantly for the high-BrAC group. Parameters evaluating optical quality deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusion. The visual performance under low-illumination conditions and the retinal-image quality were deteriorated after alcohol consumption, especially for the high-alcohol group. Furthermore, some physiological changes were observed under effects for high-alcohol contents, such as an increase in the pupil size and disturbances in the tear film, which deteriorated optical quality.

  3. Consumption and drinking frequency of alcoholic beverage among women in Ghana: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Tampah-Naah, Anthony Mwinilanaa; Amoah, Samuel Twumasi

    2015-01-01

    Background The consumption and drinking frequency of alcoholic beverage are identified with various individual factors. The aim of this study was to identify background characteristics of women associated with the consumption and drinking frequency of alcoholic beverage. Methods Data was extracted from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data consisted of women’s (aged 15–49 years) background characteristics and their reported history of consumption and drinking frequency of alc...

  4. EFFECTS OF BEVERAGE-SPECIFIC ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON DRINKING BEHAVIORS AMONG URBAN YOUTH*

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic regression tested the effects of beverage-specific use on consequences (e.g., alcohol use in the past month, week, heavy drinking, and ever drunkennes...

  5. Hepatoprotection of noni juice against chronic alcohol consumption: lipid homeostasis, antioxidation, alcohol clearance, and anti-inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan-Yen; Lin, Yi-Ling; Yang, Deng-Jye; Liu, Chen-Wei; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-11-20

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study explored protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) control, control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) alcohol, alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X, alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X, alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X, alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p < 0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p < 0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only down-regulated (p < 0.05) lipogenesis but also up-regulated (p < 0.05) fatty acid β-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p < 0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p < 0.05) TBARS value and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NFκB P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:24152092

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption may protect against overt autoimmune hypothyroidism: a population-based casecontrol study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Blow; Knudsen, Nils;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Alcohol consumption is an important protective risk factor for many autoimmune diseases. We wished to study the association between alcohol consumption and autoimmune hypothyroidism. DESIGN: Population-based, case-control study, 1997-2001, Denmark. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed...... autoimmune overt hypothyroidism (n=140) were prospectively identified in a population (2 027 208 person-years of observation), and their matched controls with normal thyroid function (n=560) were recruited simultaneously from the same population. Participants gave information on alcohol intake, smoking......, previous diseases, education, and family history of hypothyroidism. The association between alcohol intake and development of hypothyroidism was analyzed in conditional regression models. RESULTS: Hypothyroid cases had reported a lower alcohol consumption than controls (median units of alcohol (12 g) per...

  7. Retinal-image quality and night-vision performance after alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, José J; Pozo, Antonio M; Rubiño, Manuel; Anera, Rosario G; Jiménez Del Barco, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI), and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI) to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under these conditions. The tear-film volume was also measured. All measurements were made before and after alcohol consumption and patients were classified into two groups depending on their breath alcohol content (BrAC): low-alcohol (BrAC VDI was significantly higher after alcohol consumption: the higher the BrAC, the higher the deterioration of the visual discrimination capacity. The pupil size increased significantly for the high-BrAC group. Parameters evaluating optical quality deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusion. The visual performance under low-illumination conditions and the retinal-image quality were deteriorated after alcohol consumption, especially for the high-alcohol group. Furthermore, some physiological changes were observed under effects for high-alcohol contents, such as an increase in the pupil size and disturbances in the tear film, which deteriorated optical quality. PMID:24949202

  8. Factors Associated with Youth Alcohol Consumption: A Review from a Psychosocial and Ecological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abusive alcohol consumption in adolescence is currently an important problem of public health, to the point that prevention has become a priority in health policies. Also, in the field of social intervention, the psychosocial factors involved in that consumption has been studied in the last years. In the present work a revision of those factors is carried out from the ecological perspective, in which psychological, relational and sociocultural variables are integrated. Alcohol consumption is analyzed as part of the youth culture, rejecting explanations of pathological or moralistic content, and following an approach in which alcohol consumption is understood as a mean used by the adolescent in order to achieve adjustment in a society characterized by complexity. First, individual dispositional variables are analysed; following this, variables from the family context are examined, and finally the relationship between alcohol consumption and factors of the sociocultural context are explored.

  9. Changes in alcohol consumption after a natural disaster: a study of Norwegian survivors after the 2004 Southeast Asia tsunami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordløkken Astri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies suggest that disaster exposure is related to a subsequent increase in alcohol consumption. Most of these studies have relied on retrospective self-reports to measure changes in alcohol use. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between disaster exposure and drinking behaviors more closely, analyzing data on both self-perceived changes in alcohol consumption and current drinking habits in groups with different extents of disaster exposure. Methods A sample of Norwegian adults (≥ 18 years who resided in areas affected by the 2004 Southeast Asia tsunami (N = 899 were assessed by a postal questionnaire 6 months after the disaster. Based on detailed questions about experiences with the tsunami, participants were grouped according to their extent of disaster exposure. The Impact of Event Scale-Revised was applied to measure the level of post-traumatic stress. Participants were asked whether they had increased or decreased their alcohol consumption after the disaster. Moreover, weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of intoxication during the past month were used as indicators of current drinking behaviors. Results Severely exposed individuals more often reported changing their alcohol consumption compared with those who were less exposed. Severe exposure to the tsunami was associated with both a self-perceived increase (OR 21.38, 95% CI 2.91–157.28 and decrease in alcohol consumption (OR 7.41, 95% CI 1.74–31.51. The odds ratios decreased and were not significant when adjusting for post-traumatic stress symptoms. Weekly consumption and frequency of intoxication during the past month did not vary with extent of disaster exposure. Conclusions Our findings indicate a polarization effect of severe disaster exposure on self-perceived changes in alcohol consumption; that is, disaster exposure was associated with self-perceived increases and decreases in drinking. However, the absence of

  10. Tobacco and alcohol consumption in relation to oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P. K.; Agrawal, N.; Bariar, L. M.

    2003-01-01

    The present case control study was done on 50 cases of oral cancer and 50 controls These two groups are compared after taking the history in detail with special emphasis on the tobacco and alcohol intake. My various statistical tests, we correlated the strength of association between tobacco/alcohol intake and development of oral cancer. Tobacco only and combined exposure to tobacco and alcohol was found to be strongly related to the development of oral cancer but alcohol alone does not have ...

  11. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  12. Association of Psychological Factors to Alcohol Consumption Behavior among U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladunni Oluwoye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consistent between bothuniversities. These findings have important implications for the selection of appropriateinterventional strategies and health education among college populations.

  13. Alcohol expectancies mediate and moderate the associations between Big Five personality traits and adolescent alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ignacio Ibáñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediation and moderation effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the Five-Factor Model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies, alcohol use during the week and at the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive alcohol expectancies mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and alcohol expectancies to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  14. A cautionary note regarding count models of alcohol consumption in randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitz Richard

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol consumption is commonly used as a primary outcome in randomized alcohol treatment studies. The distribution of alcohol consumption is highly skewed, particularly in subjects with alcohol dependence. Methods In this paper, we will consider the use of count models for outcomes in a randomized clinical trial setting. These include the Poisson, over-dispersed Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated Poisson and zero-inflated negative binomial. We compare the Type-I error rate of these methods in a series of simulation studies of a randomized clinical trial, and apply the methods to the ASAP (Addressing the Spectrum of Alcohol Problems trial. Results Standard Poisson models provide a poor fit for alcohol consumption data from our motivating example, and did not preserve Type-I error rates for the randomized group comparison when the true distribution was over-dispersed Poisson. For the ASAP trial, where the distribution of alcohol consumption featured extensive over-dispersion, there was little indication of significant randomization group differences, except when the standard Poisson model was fit. Conclusion As with any analysis, it is important to choose appropriate statistical models. In simulation studies and in the motivating example, the standard Poisson was not robust when fit to over-dispersed count data, and did not maintain the appropriate Type-I error rate. To appropriately model alcohol consumption, more flexible count models should be routinely employed.

  15. Protective effect of alcohol consumption for fatty liver but not metabolic syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahide Hamaguchi; Takao Kojima; Akihiro Ohbora; Noriyuki Takeda; Michiaki Fukui; Takahiro Kato

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of alcohol on the metabolic syndrome (MS) and fatty liver in Japanese men and women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a medical health checkup program at a general hospital. This study involved 18 571 Japanese men and women, 18-88 years of age, with a mean body mass index of 22.6 kg/m2. A standardized questionnaire was administered. The total amount of alcohol consumed per week was calculated, and categorized into four grades. Fatty liver was examined by ultrasound modified criteria of the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ and the new International Diabetes Federation. RESULTS: The prevalence of fatty liver decreased in men and women with light to moderate alcohol consumption, whereas the prevalence of MS was not so changed. The prevalence of fatty liver of any grade in men was lower than that in those with no or minimal alcohol consumption. In women with light to moderate alcohol consumption, prevalence of fatty liver was lower than that in women with no or minimal alcohol consumption. By logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) for MS in women with light alcohol consumption was decreased to < 1.0, but this change was not clear in men. The OR for fatty liver was clearly < 1.0 in men with any level of alcohol consumption and in women with light to moderate consumption. CONCLUSION: Light to moderate alcohol consumption has a favorable effect for fatty liver, but not for MS in Japanese men and women.

  16. Female suicides and alcohol consumption during perestroika in the former USSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, D; Värnik, A; Eklund, G

    1998-01-01

    During 1984-1990, a decline in suicide rates of 32% for males and 19% for females took place in the former Soviet Union. The observed annual decrease in mortality from suicide was most marked for men in 1984-1986 and for women in 1984-1988. This article illuminates the hypothesis that the restrictive anti-alcohol campaign initiated by Gorbachev on 1 June 1985, in which prices of alcoholic beverages were raised substantially, had an impact on female mortality from suicide in the former Soviet Union. Data regarding alcohol consumption, female violent death (n = 451,537), suicide (n = 94,149), death due to accidental alcohol poisoning (n = 28,078), and undetermined death, whether accidental or self-inflicted (n = 23,982) were analysed for three Slavic (Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine), three Baltic (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) and two Central Asian republics (Kazakhstan and Kirgizia). Regression analyses with alcohol consumption as the independent variable and female suicide rates and female violent-death rates as dependent variables showed that suicide and alcohol consumption, as well as violent death and alcohol consumption, were positively correlated. However, alcohol seems to have a lower explanatory value for female suicides and female violent deaths compared with male suicides and male violent deaths. The attributable fraction of alcohol for female suicides in the whole USSR (27%) is estimated at approximately half of that for male suicides (50%). PMID:9825015

  17. Alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome among Shanghai adults: A randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Gao Fan; Xiao-Bu Cai; Lui Li; Xing-Jian Li; Fei Dai; Jun Zhu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To examine the relations of alcohol consumption to the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Shanghai adults.METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling of Shanghai adults, who were evaluated for alcohol consumption and each component of metabolic syndrome, using the adapted U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Current alcohol consumption was defined as more than once of alcohol drinking per month.RESULTS: The study population consisted of 3953participants (1524 men) with a mean age of 54.3 ± 12.1years. Among them, 448 subjects (11.3%) were current alcohol drinkers, including 405 males and 43 females.After adjustment for age and sex, the prevalence of current alcohol drinking and metabolic syndrome in the general population of Shanghai was 13.0% and 15.3%,respectively. Compared with nondrinkers, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension was higher while the prevalence of abdominal obesity, low serum high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and diabetes mellitus was lower in subjects who consumed alcohol twice or more per month, with a trend toward reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Among the current alcohol drinkers, systolic blood pressure, HDL-C, fasting plasma glucose, and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia tended to increase with increased alcohol consumption.However, Iow-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentration,prevalence of abdominal obesity, low serum HDL-C andmetabolic syndrome showed the tendency to decrease.Moreover, these statistically significant differences were independent of gender and age.CONCLUSION: Current alcohol consumption is associatedwith a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome irrespe-ctive of alcohol intake (g/d), and has a favorable influence on HDL-C, waist circumference, and possible diabetes mellitus. However, alcohol intake increases the likelihoodof hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  19. Dependence induced increases in intragastric alcohol consumption in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Tara L; Powers, Matthew S; Ramirez, Jason J; Crane, Andrew; Mulgrew, Jennifer; Smitasin, Phoebe; Cunningham, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments used the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure to examine the effects of variations in passive ethanol exposure on withdrawal and voluntary ethanol intake in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2). Experimental treatments were selected to induce quantitative differences in ethanol dependence and withdrawal severity by: (1) varying the periodicity of passive ethanol exposure (three, six or nine infusions/day); (2) varying the dose per infusion (low, medium or high); and (3) varying the duration of passive exposure (3, 5 or 10 days). All experiments included control groups passively exposed to water. B6 mice generally self-infused more ethanol than D2 mice, but passive ethanol exposure increased IGAC in both strains, with D2 mice showing larger relative increases during the first few days of ethanol access. Bout data supported the characterization of B6 mice as sippers and D2 mice as gulpers. Three larger infusions per day produced a stronger effect on IGAC than six or nine smaller infusions, especially in D2 mice. Increased IGAC was strongly predicted by cumulative ethanol dose and intoxication during passive exposure in both strains. Withdrawal during the passive exposure phase was also a strong predictor of increased IGAC in D2 mice. However, B6 mice showed little withdrawal, precluding analysis of its potential role. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that dependence-induced increases in IGAC are jointly determined by two processes that might vary across genotypes: (1) tolerance to aversive postabsorptive ethanol effects and (2) negative reinforcement (i.e. alleviation of withdrawal by self-administered ethanol). PMID:21955048

  20. Citric acid reduces the decline in P300 amplitude induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-xing CHEN; Chuan-qin XU; Shao-hua CHEN; Gen-yun XU; Huai-zhuang YE

    2012-01-01

    .05),while there were no significant differences between the latter two treatments.The results of this study suggest that citric acid could reduce the decline in ERP P300 amplitude and cognitive ability induced by acute alcohol consumption.It may also affect some blood biochemical indicators,but the specific mechanisms need further research.

  1. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. Objective The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Design Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993–1994, 1999–2001 and 2005–2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. Results For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Conclusion Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups. PMID:23471142

  2. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  3. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo D.; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revea...

  4. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (pshangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2. PMID:23587660

  5. Influence of smoking and alcohol consumption on admissions and duration of hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Rasmussen, Søren; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have linked smoking and alcohol consumption to a considerable disease burden and large healthcare expenditures. However, findings from studies based on individual level data are sparse and inconclusive. Our objective was to assess the association between alcohol.......80-8.26) in women were observed among smokers of >20 g/day compared to never-smokers. For any admission (excl. smoking-related causes), corresponding ORs were 1.32 (95% CI 1.15-1.51) and 1.80 (95% CI 1.58-2.06), respectively. In men, a U-shaped association between alcohol consumption and risk of admission was...... found, both regarding any admission and admissions due to alcohol-related diseases. Alcohol was associated with alcohol-related admissions in women but not with duration of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was associated with increased risk of hospital admission and duration of hospitalization. A U...

  6. Patterns of alcohol consumption in 10 European countries participating in the EPIC project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieri, S.; Agudo, A.; Kesse, E.;

    2002-01-01

    characterised by widely differing drinking habits and frequencies of alcohol-related diseases. Methods: We collected a single standardised 24-hour dietary recall per subject from a random sample of the EPIC cohort (36 900 persons initially and 35 955 after exclusion of subjects under 35 and over 74 years of age...... total alcohol intake was in the Swedish centres (Umeå, 10.2 g day−1) in men and in Greek women (3.4 g day−1). Among men, the main contributor to total alcohol intake was wine in Mediterranean countries and beer in the Dutch, German, Swedish and Danish centres. In most centres, the main source of alcohol...... for women was wine except for Murcia (Spain), where it was beer. Alcohol consumption, particularly by women, increased markedly during the weekend in nearly all centres. The German, Dutch, UK (general population) and Danish centres were characterised by the highest percentages of alcohol consumption...

  7. Neuroimmune regulation of alcohol consumption: Behavioral validation of genes obtained from genomic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Blednov, Yuri A; Ponomarev, Igor; Geil, Chelsea; Bergeson, Susan; Koob, George F.; Harris, R. Adron

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of mouse brain gene expression, using strains that differ in alcohol consumption, provided a number of novel candidate genes that potentially regulate alcohol consumption. We selected six genes [beta-2-microglobulin (B2m), cathepsin S (Ctss), cathepsin F (Ctsf), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn), CD14 molecule (Cd14) and interleukin 6 (Il6)] for behavioral validation using null mutant mice. These genes are known to be important for immune responses but were not specifically l...

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption does not impair overload-induced muscle hypertrophy and protein synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Gordon, Bradley S.; Lang, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to muscle weakness and atrophy in part by suppressing protein synthesis and mTORC1-mediated signaling. However, it is unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption also prevents overload-induced muscle growth and related anabolic signaling. Hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle was induced by removal of a section of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from one leg of C57BL/6 adult male mice while the contralateral leg remained intact as the sham control. A nutr...

  9. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption ...

  10. Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for sarcopenia - a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Steffl, Michal; Bohannon, Richard W; Petr, Miroslav; Kohlikova, Eva; Holmerova, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle strength and mass, has serious implications for older adults. Some risk factors for sarcopenia are well established. The role of other factors such as alcohol consumption is less certain. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sarcopenia and alcohol consumption in people over 65 years old. Methods Four electronic databases were searched to identify potentially relevant papers. Demographics and information on sarcopenia and al...

  11. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption as a Social Group Indicator in Modern Russian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Yana Roshchina; Petr Martynenko

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the correlation between alcohol consumption patterns in Russian cities and the characteristics of consumers, including their social status. The empirical dataset used in this study was generated from the Russian Target Group Index for 2000–2010 and produced by Synovate Comcon. The methods used in the study include correlation analyses, cluster analyses and correspondence analyses. The results of the study confirm that differences in alcohol consumption patterns are impor...

  12. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Portu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatments did not affect the amino acid composition in wines. The differences observed for certain amino acids were so small that the concentration of total amino acids was not significantly different among wines. Moreover, it was observed that the higher the content of amino acids in the medium, the greater their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation.

  13. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Verster JC; Benson S; Scholey A

    2014-01-01

    Joris C Verster,1,2 Sarah Benson,2 Andrew Scholey21Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaIntroduction: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a ...

  14. A dangerous cocktail: Alcohol consumption increases suicidal ideations among problem gamblers in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S; Salmon, Melissa; Wohl, Michael J A; Young, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined whether alcohol consumption exacerbates suicidal ideations among gamblers in the general population. While prior research suggests problem gambling severity and excessive alcohol consumption are unique predictors of suicidal behaviors, the extant literature as almost exclusively focused on gamblers in treatment. This represents a significant gap in the literature as less than 10% of gamblers seek treatment. Furthermore, gamblers in treatment are not representative of gamblers in the general population, precluding a simple generalization of research findings. We address this gap using data obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.1)--a cross-sectional national survey that assesses health-related information among the Canadian population. To this end, we conducted a moderation analysis with problem gambling severity as the independent variable, weekly alcohol consumption as the moderator variable and suicidal ideations (in the past 12 months) as the dependent variable. The results found that alcohol consumption alone did not reliably predict suicidal ideation among gamblers who did not gamble problematically. However, as predicted, the odds of suicidal ideation were greatest among problem gamblers who frequently consumed alcohol. Thus, it may behoove policy makers to re-visit the availability of alcohol in gambling venues. Moreover, responsible gambling-oriented education initiatives may be advanced by informing gamblers about the increased risk of suicidal ideations when problematic gambling is combined with frequent alcohol consumption. PMID:26790140

  15. The Impact of Advertisement on Alcohol Consumption: A Case Study of Consumers in Bantama Sub-Metro

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Amoateng; Kofi Poku

    2013-01-01

    The general focus of the study was to investigate the impact of advertisement on alcoholic beverage consumption at Bantama Sub-Metro in Kumasi. Objectives were to analyse the nature of advertisement of alcoholic beverages, determine factors that influence the consumption of alcoholic beverages and to examine the influence of advertisement on the consumption of alcoholic beverages. A convenient sampling, which is a non-probability sampling, was used to select 220 respondents for the study. Ins...

  16. Relation of Alcohol Consumption and Coronary Heart Disease in Hypertensive Male Physicians (From the Physicians Health Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Kathryn A.; Gaziano, John Michael; Sesso, Howard D.; Djousse, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol has diverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Moderate drinking is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, and yet increasing amounts of alcohol consumption are known to elevate blood pressure. These opposing effects have led to interest in the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with hypertension. To test the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in p...

  17. Alcohol consumption, genetic variants in alcohol deydrogenases, and risk of cardiovascular diseases: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Drogan

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: First, to investigate and compare associations between alcohol consumption and variants in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH genes with incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD in a large German cohort. Second, to quantitatively summarize available evidence of prospective studies on polymorphisms in ADH1B and ADH1C and CVD-risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Potsdam cohort including a randomly drawn subcohort (n = 2175 and incident cases of myocardial infarction (MI; n = 230 or stroke (n = 208. Mean follow-up time was 8.2±2.2 years. The association between alcohol consumption, ADH1B or ADH1C genotypes, and CVD-risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Additionally, we report results on associations of variants in ADH1B and ADH1C with ischemic heart disease and stroke in the context of a meta-analysis of previously published prospective studies published up to November 2011. RESULTS: Compared to individuals who drank >0 to 6 g alcohol/d, we observed a reduced risk of MI among females consuming >12 g alcohol/d (HR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.10-0.97 and among males consuming >24 to 60 g/d (HR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.33-0.98 or >60 g alcohol/d (HR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.12-0.78. Stroke risk was not significantly related to alcohol consumption >6 g/d, but we observed an increased risk of stroke in men reporting no alcohol consumption. Individuals with the slow-coding ADH1B*1/1 genotype reported higher median alcohol consumption. Yet, polymorphisms in ADH1B or ADH1C were not significantly associated with risk of CVD in our data and after pooling results of eligible prospective studies [ADH1B*1/1: RR = 1.35 (95% CI: 0.98-1.88; p for heterogeneity: 0.364; ADH1C*2/2: RR = 1.07 (95% CI: 0.90-1.27; p for heterogeneity: 0.098]. CONCLUSION: The well described association between alcohol consumption and CVD-risk is not

  18. Alcohol consumption induces global gene expression changes in VTA dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marballi, K; Genabai, N K; Blednov, Y A; Harris, R A; Ponomarev, I

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholism is associated with dysregulation in the neural circuitry that mediates motivated and goal-directed behaviors. The dopaminergic (DA) connection between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens is viewed as a critical component of the neurocircuitry mediating alcohol's rewarding and behavioral effects. We sought to determine the effects of binge alcohol drinking on global gene expression in VTA DA neurons. Alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 hybrid female mice were exposed to a modified drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 3 weeks, while control animals had access to water only. Global gene expression of laser-captured tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive VTA DA neurons was measured using microarrays. A total of 644 transcripts were differentially expressed between the drinking and nondrinking mice, and 930 transcripts correlated with alcohol intake during the last 2 days of drinking in the alcohol group. Bioinformatics analysis of alcohol-responsive genes identified molecular pathways and networks perturbed in DA neurons by alcohol consumption, which included neuroimmune and epigenetic functions, alcohol metabolism and brain disorders. The majority of genes with high and specific expression in DA neurons were downregulated by or negatively correlated with alcohol consumption, suggesting a decreased activity of DA neurons in high drinking animals. These changes in the DA transcriptome provide a foundation for alcohol-induced neuroadaptations that may play a crucial role in the transition to addiction. PMID:26482798

  19. Combined effect of alcohol consumption and lifestyle behaviors on risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that the inverse association between alcohol and type 2 diabetes could be explained by moderate drinkers' healthier lifestyles. Objective: We studied whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with combined low-

  20. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penton-Voak, Ian S; Cooper, Robbie M; Roberts, Rachel E; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether a stimulus face was looking towards or away from them. Gaze direction varied across trials, allowing calculation of a threshold at which participants considered gaze to switch from direct to averted. Target faces varied in both sex and attractiveness. Thirty social drinkers attended three randomized experimental sessions. At each session, participants consumed 0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg alcohol, and completed the gaze perception task. A significant three-way interaction involving target sex, participant sex and alcohol dose indicated that alcohol increased the cone of gaze for females viewing male targets (i.e. females were biased towards making a direct gaze judgement), but decreased the cone of gaze for males viewing male targets. Our data indicate that alcohol consumption influences gaze perception, but that these effects vary across sex of both stimulus and rater. These effects may have important implications for alcohol-related violence. PMID:20937615

  1. Combined effort of alcohol consumption and lifestyle behaviors on risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; A, van der D.L.; Verschuren, W.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Beulens, J.W.J.

    2010-01-01

    ackground: It has been suggested that the inverse association between alcohol and type 2 diabetes could be explained by moderate drinkers’ healthier lifestyles. Objective: We studied whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with combined low-r

  2. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  3. The relationship between alcohol consumption and related harm among young university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group. PMID:26827614

  4. Evaluation and clinical application of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate as biomarkers for recent alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in various biochemical markers for detecting acute and chronic alcohol consumption. Biochemical markers for acute and chronic drinking play important roles in detecting alcohol use, abuse and dependence in hospital settings, work place settings, traffic medicine and in forensic toxicology examinations. The alcohol biomarkers can be distinguished into two main classes: “short-term markers” and “long-term markers”. Short-term mar...

  5. Alcohol consumption in young people between 18 and 24 years according to sociodemographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Belen Villace

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to identify alcohol consumption in young people between 18 and 24 years of age in the province of Córdoba who participated in the National Survey of Risk Factors, according to sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: a quantitative, analytic and cross-sectional study was undertaken in a sample of 240 young people. The alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using bivariate analysis, risk ratio and confidence intervals. RESULTS: the lifetime prevalence of alcohol consumption corresponded to 79.17%, the one-year prevalence to 72.91% and the one-month prevalence to 57.08%, while episodic abuse and regular hazardous consumption corresponded to 25.55% and 24.19%. Consumption levels in the last month were higher among males (p=0.0028, single people (p=0.0001, with a secondary education degree (p=0.0306. CONCLUSION: in the province of Córdoba, drugs use, including alcohol, has not been an area of research interest in recent years, although alcohol abuse is associated with other risk factors, like accidents and violence, and is a factor of comorbidity and early mortality. Therefore, alcohol consumption in young people represents an area of concern and, once characterized, preventive actions should be adopted.

  6. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Blanc

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed.

  7. The relationship between stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption and severe alcohol problems in an urban general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romelsjö, A; Hasin, D; Hilton, M;

    1992-01-01

    -adjusted odds ratios, were positive and some were negative when high alcohol consumption was the endpoint, but there was a clear variation by sex and social class. Generally the positive associations were stronger among male non-manual employees. Among males, there was a clear association between stressful......The relationship between 15 measures of stressful working conditions and high alcohol consumption (35 g 100% ethanol per day or more for men and 25 g or more for women) was studied, using cross-sectional data from a general population survey of 1344 males and 1494 females; the ages 25-64 years in...

  8. Amino acid content in red wines obtained from grapevine nitrogen foliar treatments: consumption during the alcoholic fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Portu; Rosa López; Isabel López-Alfaro; Lucía González-Arenzana; Pilar Santamaría; Teresa Garde-Cerdán

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important element for grapevine and winemaking which affects the development of the plant and yeast, and therefore it is important for wine quality. The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application to vineyard of proline, phenylalanine and urea and two commercial nitrogen fertilizers, without and with amino acids in their formulation, on the wine amino acid content and their consumption during the alcoholic fermentation. The results showed that these treatm...

  9. Alcohol consumption, Wnt/ß-catenin cignaling, and hepatocarcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the mechanisms by which alcohol liver cancer is complex. It has been suggested that ethanol (EtOH) metabolism may enhance tumor progression by increasing hepatocyte proliferation. To test this hypothesis, ethanol (EtOH) feed...

  10. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. PMID:20117579

  11. Awareness of alcohol advertisements and perceived influence on alcohol consumption: a qualitative study of Nigerian university students

    OpenAIRE

    Dumbili, EW; Williams, C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing alcohol marketing activities of the transnational alcohol industries in Nigeria, little research has focused on their effects on Nigerian youths. This study explores students’ awareness of electronic and outdoor alcohol advertisement on campus and around students’ off-campus residential and leisure sites, and the extent to which they perceive it to affect their drinking. Thirty-one in-depth interviews were conducted with male and female undergraduate students (aged 19-23 y...

  12. The Effect of Anxiety Sensitivity on Alcohol Consumption Among Individuals With Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Gillihan, Seth J.; Farris, Samantha G.; Foa, Edna B.

    2011-01-01

    Existing research has shown that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is positively associated with alcohol use and that individuals with high AS use alcohol to avoid or escape negative affect associated with aversive stimuli. The current study investigated the associations between AS and drinking behavior among individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We assessed baseline PTSD symptoms, AS, and drinking behavior among participants (N = 151) who were enrolled...

  13. Modelling alcohol consumption during adolescence using zero inflated negative binomial and decision trees

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Palmer; Jona Roca; Berta Cajal; Elena Gervilla

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is currently the most consumed substance among the Spanish adolescent population. Some of the variables that bear an influence on this consumption include ease of access, use of alcohol by friends and some personality factors. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the predictive value of these variables specifically on alcohol consumption in the adolescent population. The useful sample was made up of 6,145 adolescents (49.8% boys and 50.2% girls) with a mean age of 15.4 ye...

  14. Social Modeling Influences and Alcohol Consumption during the First Semester of College: A Natural History Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Laura L.; Moore, Charity G.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine both the alcohol consumption pattern of freshmen students during their first semester and the degree to which social modeling of peer behavior impacts consumption. A total of 534 students, residing on campus, were prospectively examined at four 30-day intervals. Data were evaluated on the basis of age, gender, and the effects…

  15. Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Bommel, van Roelien; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de Cees

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and

  16. Alcoholic beverage consumption in India, Mexico, and Nigeria: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, L A; Campillo, C; Chandrashekar, C R; Gureje, O

    1998-01-01

    Drinking practices vary substantially among different countries. An understanding of such differences can help researchers, clinicians, and policymakers develop prevention, diagnostic, and treatment measures as well as overall alcohol policies that are appropriate for a given country. Accordingly, researchers have conducted cross-cultural analyses of drinking patterns and practices. Three countries included in such analyses are India, Mexico, and Nigeria. These countries differ substantially in their ethnic and cultural characteristics, including the role that alcohol plays in daily life. To gain a better insight into the attitudes toward alcohol in these countries, researchers have analyzed the alcoholic beverage preferences, gender and age differences in alcohol consumption patterns, drinking contexts and drinking patterns, alcohol-related problems, approaches to prevention and treatment, and drinking indicators in each nation. These analyses demonstrate that no single definition of "normal" drinking, problem drinking, or alcohol dependence can apply equally to all countries or cultures. PMID:15706750

  17. Alcohol consumption and emotional problems related to diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira; Clarissa Cordeiro Alves Arrelias; Ana Carolina Guidorizzi Zanetti; Jefferson Thiago Gonela; Liudmila Miyar; Rosana Cristina Franco

    2014-01-01

    Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el uso de alcohol y los problemas emocionales de pacientes con diabetes. La muestra de conveniencia fue constituida por 82 pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 en dos centros de extensión universitaria, en 2010. Para recogida de datos fueron utilizados los instrumentos Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test y el Problem Areas in Diabetes . Los resultados mostraron que 93,9% de los pacientes presentaron bajo riesgo para uso de alcohol y 21,9% clasificaron lo...

  18. Alcohol consumption, blood alcohol concentration level and guideline compliance in hospital referred patients with minimal, mild and moderate head injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harr, Marianne Efskind; Heskestad, Ben; Ingebrigtsen, Tor;

    2011-01-01

    In 2000 the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee published guidelines for safe and cost-effective management of minimal, mild and moderate head injured patients.The aims of this study were to investigate to what extent the head injury population is under the influence of alcohol, and to evaluate...... whether the physicians' compliance to the guidelines is affected when patients are influenced by alcohol....

  19. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  20. Risks and guidelines for the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Daily average intake of alcohol during pregnancy has consistently been associated with short term adverse outcomes such as miscarriage, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction, a large variety of malformations, as well as long term adverse outcomes such as foetal alcohol syndrome, mental...... not been consistently associated with short and long term adverse outcomes. Health authorities in most countries recommend that pregnant women completely abstain from alcohol. Even so, many health professionals including doctors, midwives and nurses do not provide information to pregnant women in...... accordance with the official recommendations, although a large proportion of women of child bearing age and pregnantwomen drink alcohol, especially before recognition of pregnancy. The discrepancy between guidelines and the information practice of health personnel is likely to continue to exist because...

  1. Alcohol consumption and emotional problems related to diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Regina de Souza Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el uso de alcohol y los problemas emocionales de pacientes con diabetes. La muestra de conveniencia fue constituida por 82 pacientes con diabetes tipo 2 en dos centros de extensión universitaria, en 2010. Para recogida de datos fueron utilizados los instrumentos Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test y el Problem Areas in Diabetes . Los resultados mostraron que 93,9% de los pacientes presentaron bajo riesgo para uso de alcohol y 21,9% clasificaron los problemas emocionales enfrentados como relevantes. Se concluye que el uso de alcohol y los problemas emocionales constituyen variables importantes para la planificación de programa educativo en diabetes.

  2. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Bandera, Elisa V; Terry, Kathryn L;

    2013-01-01

    Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations.......Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations....

  3. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the cur...

  4. The Many Faces of Affect: A Multilevel Model of Drinking Frequency/Quantity and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Wills, Thomas A.; Neal, Dan J.

    2016-01-01

    This research tested a multilevel structural equation model of associations between 3 aspects of affective functioning (state affect, trait affect, and affective lability) and 3 alcohol outcomes (likelihood of drinking, quantity on drinking days, and dependence symptoms) in a sample of 263 college students. Participants provided 49 days of experience sampling data over 1.3 years in a longitudinal burst design. Within-person results: At the daily level, positive affect was directly associated with greater likelihood and quantity of alcohol consumption. Daily negative affect was directly associated with higher consumption on drinking days and with higher dependence symptoms. Between-person direct effects: Affect lability was associated with higher trait negative, but not positive, affect. Trait positive affect was inversely associated with the proportion of drinking days, whereas negative affectivity predicted a greater proportion of drinking days. Affect lability exhibited a direct association with dependence symptoms. Between-person indirect effects: Trait positive affect was associated with fewer dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. Trait negative affect was associated with greater dependence symptoms via proportion of drinking days. The results distinguish relations of positive and negative affect to likelihood versus amount of drinking and state versus trait drinking outcomes, and highlight the importance of affect variability for predicting alcohol dependence symptoms. PMID:24933278

  5. Alcohol consumption and hormonal alterations related to muscle hypertrophy: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Antonino; Thomas, Ewan; Pomara, Francesco; Tabacchi, Garden; Karsten, Bettina; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Detrimental effects of acute and chronic alcohol (ethanol) consumption on human physiology are well documented in the literature. These adversely influence neural, metabolic, cardiovascular, and thermoregulatory functions. However, the side effects of ethanol consumption on hormonal fluctuations and subsequent related skeletal muscle alterations have received less attention and as such are not entirely understood. The focus of this review is to identify the side effects of ethanol consumption...

  6. Alcohol consumption among adolescents: attitudes, behaviors and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flavia Granville-Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to assess the attitudes and behaviors regarding alcohol use and analyze associated factors among schoolchildren in public schools of Campina Grande in the state of Paraíba. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 574 adolescents, with the application of a semi-structured questionnaire. The chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used (5% level of significance. Among the adolescents 54.5% had drunk alcohol and 6.7% of them were heavy drinkers. The majority of them drank alcohol between 11 and 14 years of age (42.8%; 26.3% of the adolescents purchased alcoholic beverages; and beer was the most drink most consumed (43.8%. The risk of alcohol drinking was higher between 16 and 19 years of age (OR = 4.44; p < 0.001, among those without religious affiliation (OR = 4.36; p = 0.002, among those who worked (OR = 2.13; p = 0.012 and among those who had a fair to poor relationship with their father (OR = 2.18; p = 0.010. The results of this study underscore the complexity of this issue and the need to pay particular attention to the adolescent population. Public policies alone are not sufficient. Support from family, school and society is essential to curtail early alcohol use and its consequences.

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with better endothelial function: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Tullio Marco R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moderate alcohol consumption is protective against coronary artery disease. Endothelial dysfunction contributes to atherosclerosis and the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The effects of alcohol consumption on endothelial function may be relevant to these cardiovascular outcomes, but very few studies have examined the effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD of the brachial artery in humans. Methods In the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of lifetime alcohol intake and brachial artery FMD during reactive hyperemia using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound images among 884 stroke-free participants (mean age 66.8 years, women 56.6%, Hispanic 67.4%, black 17.4%, and white 15.2%. Results The mean brachial FMD was 5.7% and the median was 5.5%. Compared to non-drinkers, those who drank >1 drink/month to 2 drinks/day were more likely to have FMD above the median FMD (5.5% (unadjusted OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4, p = 0.005. In multivariate analysis, the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and FMD remained significant after adjusting for multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors, including sex, race-ethnicity, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, Framingham risk score, medication use (adjusted OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.1–3.0, p = 0.03. No beneficial effect on FMD was seen for those who drank more than 2 drinks/day. Conclusion In conclusion, consumption of up to 2 alcoholic beverages per day was independently associated with better FMD compared to no alcohol consumption in this multiethnic population. This effect on FMD may represent an important mechanism in explaining the protective effect of alcohol intake on cardiovascular disease.

  9. Alcohol consumption among men and women with tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sonya S.; Mathew, Trini A.; Yanova, Galina V.; FITZMAURICE, GARRETT M.; Livchits, Viktoriya; Yanov, Sergey A.; Strelis, Aivar K.; Mishustin, Sergey P.; Bokhan, Nicolai A.; Lastimoso, Charmaine S.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hart, Jessica E.; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behavior among Russian women remains poorly described. We analyzed gender differences in alcohol use among 374 tuberculosis patients in Tomsk, Siberia. Twenty-six (28.3%) women had lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with 70.6% of men. Women with alcohol use disorders drank 12.7 ± 14.0 standard drinks per day and 34.6% drank ≥ three days per week. Among individuals with a lifetime alcohol use disorder, age of onset and typical consumption did not differ significantly by ge...

  10. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  11. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Patricia Díaz Heredia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025 and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000. Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops.

  12. Improper Consumption of Alcohol in Spanish Teenagers: Emergent Trends and Perceptions of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Mediterranean culture the young consumption of alcohol represents a practice associated with a recreative culture tied to processes of group interaction and identity. Our aim is to offer a descriptive and differential analysis for levels of age and ingestion realized of the trends of consumption of alcohol, as well as the perceptions of risk and motivations of consumption in a group of 845 Spanish teenagers of the Principado de Asturias. The emergent trends are confirmed on habits of consumption of alcohol and the representative bosses of use/abuse of the style of juvenile leisure, as well as motivations and differential perceptions of risk by virtue of the mentality of the user. There are advanced market lines of prevention based on psychosocial interventions and socio community

  13. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  14. Gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase as markers of alcohol consumption in out-patient alcoholics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Andersen, I; Dietrichson, O;

    1981-01-01

    Serum activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were determined in 316 patients attending an out-patients clinic for treatment of alcoholism. The activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase was raised in 34% and that of aspartate aminotransferase and...... alkaline phosphatase in 18% and 7%. Neither the activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase nor alkaline phosphatase showed any significant (P greater than 0.05) correlation with the history of alcohol consumption. The activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase and aspartate...... aminotransferase were raised significantly more often in patients with recent alcohol consumption than in patients who had abstained for more than 9 days. The concentration of alkaline phosphatase was not significantly (P greater than 0.05) different in these groups. The predictive value of raised and normal...

  15. Alcohol consumption as a risk factor for sexual assault: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Lily; Jones, Alyson

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether there is a correlation between alcohol consumption and reported sexual assaults among young people in the UK. A retrospective analysis of all cases between 01/05/2011 and 30/04/2012 involving complainants between the ages of 12 and 25 was carried out at the Lancashire SAFE Centre. In total 286 cases were included. Case notes were audited for evidence of alcohol consumption by the complainant in the 24 h prior to their assault. Further information regarding amount of alcohol consumed and any other drugs involved was also collected. In total it was found that 70.6% of complainants had consumed alcohol before being assaulted. This percentage was noted to vary with the complainant's age, ranging from 0% (age 12) to 100% (age 24). Of those who had consumed alcohol, complainants in 76.2% of cases had drunk more than the recommended daily alcohol intake, and almost a third had also taken drugs. There was only one case of suspected covert drug administration, and one forcible drug usage; in all other cases alcohol or drugs were taken voluntarily. Stranger rape (including where the complainant had known the assailant only briefly, such as meeting them the same day) was more common in complainants who had consumed alcohol. In summary, alcohol consumption often precedes sexual assaults among young people in the UK. This study therefore recommends the more widespread use of public awareness campaigns to highlight the risk of rape associated with excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:24661707

  16. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold;

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in D...... intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss.......The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in...... conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared with no...

  17. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Kolstad, Henrik; Ernst, Erik; Giwercman, Aleksander; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-10-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in Denmark in 1992-1994, 430 couples without previous pregnancy attempts were enrolled when birth control was discontinued, and they were followed until a clinically recognized pregnancy or for six menstrual cycles. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in monthly questionnaires. Women collected morning urine for 10 days from the first day of vaginal bleeding in each cycle. The authors detected 186 pregnancies: 131 resulted in childbirth, and 55 resulted in spontaneous abortion (34 detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin). Depending on the intake in the cycle of conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared with no intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss. PMID:15383410

  18. Amount of alcohol consumption and risk of developing alcoholism in men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke;

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: It is generally accepted, but not yet documented that the risk of future alcoholism increases with the amount of alcohol consumed. The objective of this study was to investigate this association using the Copenhagen City Heart Study. METHODS: Quantity and frequency of alcohol intake was...

  19. Examining alcohol consumption with the theory of planned behaviour: Do health and alcohol knowledge play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms. PMID:25318009

  20. Effects of school district factors on alcohol consumption: results of a multi-level analysis among Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stock, Christiane; Ejstrud, Bo; Vinther-Larsen, Mathilde;

    2011-01-01

    of housing and land use characteristics. RESULTS: About 40% of all respondents (45.8% males and 35.2% females) had ever drunk more than one glass of alcoholic beverage. Mixed-effects logistic regression showed that significant individual level predictors for drinking initiation were male gender, a lower......BACKGROUND: Area-level socio-economic factors are significantly related to a population's health. This study investigates how school district-level factors affect the initiation of alcohol drinking of Danish adolescents. METHODS: A survey sample of 11,223 female and male pupils in the 7th grade...... performance at school, perceived peer group drinking and the perceived daily drinking of the father. On school district level, adolescents were more likely to initiate alcohol consumption in school districts with higher farming land use and less likely in those with higher proportion of private apartment...

  1. Risks and guidelines for the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    Daily average intake of alcohol during pregnancy has consistently been associated with short term adverse outcomes such as miscarriage, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction, a large variety of malformations, as well as long term adverse outcomes such as foetal alcohol syndrome, menta...... guidelines of abstinence are not clearly evidence-based and not in line with current focus on autonomy and informed choice for patients, and because guidelines do not consider the everyday clinical communication situation....... not been consistently associated with short and long term adverse outcomes. Health authorities in most countries recommend that pregnant women completely abstain from alcohol. Even so, many health professionals including doctors, midwives and nurses do not provide information to pregnant women in...

  2. Modelling alcohol consumption during adolescence using zero inflated negative binomial and decision trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Palmer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is currently the most consumed substance among the Spanish adolescent population. Some of the variables that bear an influence on this consumption include ease of access, use of alcohol by friends and some personality factors. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the predictive value of these variables specifically on alcohol consumption in the adolescent population. The useful sample was made up of 6,145 adolescents (49.8% boys and 50.2% girls with a mean age of 15.4 years (SE= 1.2. The data were analyzed using the statistical model for a count variable and Data Mining techniques. The results show the influence of ease of access, alcohol consumption by the group of friends, and certain personality factors on alcohol intake, allowing us to quantify the intensity of this influence according to age and gender. Knowing these factors is the starting point in elaborating specific preventive actions against alcohol consumption.

  3. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers. PMID:25879475

  4. Presence of Fatty Liver and the Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Markers of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kächele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Local and systemic inflammation represent a major feature of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD and are also linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Studies indicate that NAFLD might be a risk factor for CVD whereas low-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to abstainers and heavy drinkers. We hypothesize that FLD interacts with the effect of alcohol intake on markers of inflammation, and thus potentially on cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results. We evaluated alcohol consumption, markers of inflammation and sonographic criteria of FLD in 515 subjects, representing a subsample of a cross-sectional population based study (Echinococcus multilocularis and Internal Diseases in Leutkirch (EMIL Study. Presence of FLD was markedly reduced in subjects drinking 0–20 g alcohol/d (19%, compared to nondrinkers (35% and heavy drinkers (34–44.9%. Serum concentrations of inflammatory markers were substantially higher in subjects with FLD. However, presence of FLD showed no effect on the association between alcohol consumption and inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusions. Based on data from a population-based sample, there is no evidence for a link between FLD, alcohol consumption, and inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers. However, larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this.

  5. Amount and type of alcohol consumption and missing teeth among community-dwelling older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Karen; Avlund, Kirsten; Holm-Pedersen, Poul;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To study if an association between total weekly intake of alcohol, type-specific weekly alcohol intake, alcoholic beverage preference, and the number of teeth among older people exists. Methods: A cross-sectional study including a total of 783 community-dwelling men and women aged 65...... highest intake of one beverage type compared with two other types), and the number of remaining teeth (=20 versus >20 remaining teeth). Results: The odds ratio (OR) of having a low number of teeth decreased with the total intake of alcohol in women, with ORs for a low number of teeth of 0.40 [95 percent...... among women. Men who preferred beer showed a decreased risk for a low number of teeth compared with men with other alcohol preferences. Conclusion: In this study, alcohol consumption, wine drinking, and wine and spirits preference among women were associated with a higher number of teeth compared with...

  6. Reforming taxes on wine and other alcoholic beverage consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kym Anderson

    2010-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive review of AustraliaÂ’s tax system, the taxes on alcoholic beverages recently came under scrutiny. In its initial response to the review in May 2010, the government chose to not change those taxes, even though the review recommended the wine tax switch from an ad valorem to a volumetric basis and that all beverages be taxed to the same extent per litre of alcohol. This paper introduces a mini-symposium of three other papers aimed at contributing to what will be an on...

  7. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Lung Carcinoma by Histological Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Jose Ramon; Mayne, Susan T; Freedman, Neal D; Shebl, Fatma M; Abnet, Christian C

    2016-01-15

    Alcohol is a carcinogen suspected of increasing lung cancer risk. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma in 492,902 persons from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. We used Cox models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. Between 1995/1996 and December 31, 2006, there were 10,227 incident cases of lung carcinoma, classified as adenocarcinoma (n = 4,036), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,998), small cell carcinoma (n = 1,524), undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 559), and other (n = 2,110). Compared with nondrinking, alcohol consumption was associated with a modest nonlinear reduction in total lung carcinoma risk at lower levels of consumption (for 0.5-drink/day, HR = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.96) but a modest increase in risk in the highest category (for ≥7 drinks/day, HR = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.24). Regarding histological type, alcohol was associated with a nonlinear reduction in squamous cell carcinoma that became attenuated as consumption increased and a modest increase in adenocarcinoma among heavier drinkers. Cubic spline models confirmed these findings. Our data suggest that the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma differs by histological subtype. PMID:26672017

  8. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeniffer Dantas Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL, 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML, and 423 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls’. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19, although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36 and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46 a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03. Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption.

  9. Genetic Deficiency in Neprilysin or Its Pharmacological Inhibition Initiate Excessive Stress-Induced Alcohol Consumption in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Björn Maul; Matthias Becker; Florian Gembardt; Axel Becker; Heinz-Peter Schultheiss; Wolf-Eberhard Siems; Thomas Walther

    2012-01-01

    Both acquired and inherited genetic factors contribute to excessive alcohol consumption and the corresponding development of addiction. Here we show that the genetic deficiency in neprilysin [NEP] did not change the kinetics of alcohol degradation but led to an increase in alcohol intake in mice in a 2-bottle-free-choice paradigm after one single stress stimulus (intruder). A repetition of such stress led to an irreversible elevated alcohol consumption. This phenomenon could be also observed ...

  10. Lifestyle in Curacao - Smoking, alcohol consumption, eating habits and exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, MEC; Halabi, YT; Gerstenbluth, [No Value; Alberts, JF; ONiel, J

    1997-01-01

    The Curacao Health Study was carried out among a randomized sample (n = 2248, response rate = 85%) of the adult non-institutionalized population in order to assess aspects of lifestyle that may pose health risks. Factors examined were tobacco and alcohol use, eating habits and exercise behaviour. Ou

  11. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair to assess excessive alcohol consumption in a student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppolzer, David; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was used to evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption amongst the Portuguese university student population. A total of 975 samples were analysed. For data interpretation, the 2014 guidelines from the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) for the use of alcohol markers in hair for the assessment of both abstinence and chronic excessive alcohol consumption were considered. EtG concentrations were significantly higher in the male population. The effect of hair products and cosmetics was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significant lower concentrations were obtained when conditioner or hair mask was used or when hair was dyed. Based on the analytical data and information obtained in the questionnaires from the participants, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed in order to determine the ideal cut-offs for our study population. Optimal cut-off values were estimated at 7.3 pg/mg for abstinence or rare occasional drinking control and 29.8 pg/mg for excessive consumption. These values are very close to the values suggested by the SoHT, proving their adequacy to the studied population. Overall, the obtained EtG concentrations demonstrate that participants are usually well aware of their consumption pattern, correlating with the self-reported consumed alcohol quantity, consumption habits and excessive consumption close to the time of hair sampling. PMID:26537927

  12. Determinants of Alcohol Consumption of University Student-Athletes: The Case of University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    E.G. Rintaugu; E.D.K. Ngetich; I.M. Kamande

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among university student athletes is a global health issue attracting attention from different stakeholders. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants of alcohol consumption among university-student-athletes in Kenya. It was hypothesized that the reasons and consequences of alcohol consumption are sport- related are mediated by selected demographic factors and Parental Social Economic status (SES). Data was collected through self-administered questionnair...

  13. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) – Research opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    DeRoo, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the ...

  14. Alcohol Consumption: Measuring the Risk of Household Poverty - Case of the Urban District of Toamasina - Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela SARPE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The individual consumer of alcohol, often the household head, loses part of his income to buy alcohol. Excessive consumption of alcohol causes social costs (support costs of illness, family trauma, car accident, job loss and productivity etc.. Its effects on the health of the individual drinker are asymptomatic. If it is the case of a disease of alcoholism, the household must bear the costs of care, and those whose low-income or average income is below the permanent poverty, are confronted with a financial difficulty, drawing their savings and even selling their property to address this shortfall. The accumulation of costs caused by alcohol consumption is then a catastrophic expense for the household. The aim of the study is to show to what point we can calculate the risk of household poverty with an alcoholic individual head of household between the two periods: "disease free" and "appearance of the disease of alcoholism" Having obtained the value of the poverty line, a mathematical modeling of the expense of alcohol was made to derive an orientation axis to minimize the risk of poverty.

  15. ADH1B and ADH1C Genotype, Alcohol Consumption and Biomarkers of Liver Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, Debbie A; Benn, Marianne; Zuccolo, Luisa; De Silva, N Maneka G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of alcohol consumption on liver function is difficult to determine because of reporting bias and potential residual confounding. Our aim was to determine this effect using genetic variants to proxy for the unbiased effect of alcohol. METHODS: We used variants in ADH1B and ADH......1C genes as instrumental variables (IV) to estimate the causal effect of long-term alcohol consumption on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl-transferase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and prothrombin action. Analyses were undertaken on 58,313 Danes (mean age 56). RESULTS: In...... inverse association of alcohol with ALP [-1.5% (-1 .7, -1.3)], which differed from the strong positive effect found in genetic-IV analyses [11.6% (6.8, 16.4)] (p diff<0.0001). In both multivariable and genetic-IV analyses associations with bilirubin and protrombin action were weak and close to the null...

  16. Effects of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal on Stress Responsiveness and Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Howard C Becker

    2012-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between alcohol-drinking behavior and stress. Alcohol has anxiety-reducing properties and can relieve stress, while at the same time acting as a stressor and activating the body’s stress response systems. In particular, chronic alcohol exposure and withdrawal can profoundly disturb the function of the body’s neuroendocrine stress response system, the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis. A hormone, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is produc...

  17. The use of acute and preventive medical services by a general population: relationship to alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Cryer, Colin; Jenkins, Linda M.; Cook, Adam; Ditchburn, James S.; Harris, Colin K.; Davis, Alison R.; Peters, Timothy J

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the hypothesis that increasing alcohol consumption is accompanied by increasing use of acute, but decreasing use of preventative, medical services among the general population. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Health and life-style survey of 41,000 randomly-sampled adults in SE England who self-completed a validated questionnaire covering socio-demographics, alcohol and tobacco usage and use of acute (A&E department and general practitioner) and preventative (dental, optician, ma...

  18. Are psychosocial stressors associated with the relationship of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Esther; Baumert, Jens; Meisinger, Christa; Döring, Angela; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown a protective association of moderate alcohol intake with mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship could be due to misclassification confounding. As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Methods Three cross-sectional MONICA surveys (conducted 1984–1995) including 11,282 ...

  19. Observational study on the consumption of recreational drugs and alcohol by Swiss travelers

    OpenAIRE

    Klunge-de Luze C.; de Vallière S.; Genton B.; Senn N.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies carried out on specific travelers' groups such as students describe an increase in the consumption of alcohol and drugs during travel and vacation time. The present study investigates the risk behaviors (alcohol and drugs) in a general adult population in Switzerland travelling abroad who visited a travel clinic before departure. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in a travel clinic between January 2006 and December 2008. 14,496 patients came to the clinic for...

  20. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2

    OpenAIRE

    Graw, Jan A.; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated wi...

  1. The Role of Alcohol and Drug Consumption in Determining Physical Fights and Weapon Carrying by Teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the question of whether alcohol or drug use causes teenagers to engage in violent behaviors as measured by physical fighting, carrying a gun, or carrying other types of weapons. Simple OLS estimation of the effects of drug and alcohol consumption on violence may be biased because of the possibility that both behaviors are determined by unmeasured individual traits. Two-stage least squares estimates are employed to establish causality. This method first ...

  2. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: A discrete choice experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-01-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alc...

  3. Implications for cancer epidemiology of differences in dietary intake associated with alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, J R; Kabat, G C

    1991-01-01

    Several dietary factors are thought to modify risk for cancers that are known to be associated with alcohol intake. In this study, we sought to identify and describe alcohol-related differences in dietary and nutritional factors that are potential independent predictors of cancer risk or effect modifiers or confounders of alcohol-cancer relationships. Data were obtained from a large hospital-based case-control study that was designed to estimate the cancer risk from various tobacco products. Study subjects consisted of 465 male and 300 female incident lung cancer cases and 870 male and 556 female hospitalized patient controls matched on age (+/- 5 yrs). Nutritional data were analyzed as log-transformed frequencies of 30 food items, 9 factor scores generated to describe overall patterns of dietary intake, and nutrient scores estimating daily intake of fat, vitamin A, fiber, and cholesterol. We observed many more significant differences in nutritional exposures by alcoholic beverage intake than would be expected merely by chance. For males, the most striking relationships included increased meat and egg consumption with increasing alcohol consumption and higher intake of cantaloupe and cold cereal among lighter drinkers. For females, we observed strong inverse relationships between alcohol consumption and reported intake of fruit, cold cereal, and ice cream. We also observed a direct association between alcohol and meat consumption, though it was weaker than that found among men. Findings based on factors and nutrients followed the pattern observed for the individual food items, with highest fat scores and lowest fruit scores among the heaviest drinkers. Implications for nutrient-alcohol interactions and statistical considerations are discussed. PMID:2038565

  4. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk among women in three sub-Saharan African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Qian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol drinking is linked to the development of breast cancer. However, there is little knowledge about the impact of alcohol consumption on breast cancer risk among African women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study among 2,138 women with invasive breast cancer and 2,589 controls in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda from 1998 to 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on alcohol consumption, defined as consuming alcoholic beverages at least once a week for six months or more. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (CI. RESULTS: Among healthy controls, the overall alcohol consumption prevalence was 10.4%, and the prevalence in Nigeria, Cameroon, and Uganda were 5.0%, 34.6%, and 50.0%, respectively. Cases were more likely to have consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.33-1.97. Both past (aOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00 and current drinking (aOR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.30-2.23 were associated with breast cancer risk. A dose-response relationship was observed for duration of alcohol drinking (P-trend <0.001, with 10-year increase of drinking associated with a 54% increased risk (95% CI: 1.29-1.84. CONCLUSION: We found a positive relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk, suggesting that this modifiable risk factor should be addressed in breast cancer prevention programs in Africa.

  5. Alcohol Consumption in University Students: The Relationship Between Personality and Metacognition in Relation to Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Ailsa

    2010-01-01

    There are growing concerns over the heavy drinking found in university students in the UK. Metacognitions; the cognitive processes that oversee, monitor and control, cognition, have been related to alcohol use. The personality dimensions, high Neuroticism, high Extraversion and low Conscientiousness have also been related to heavier alcohol consumption. Furthermore, there is evidence that personality, mainly Neuroticism, might be related to metacognition. In this study we use self-report meas...

  6. Combined effort of alcohol consumption and lifestyle behaviors on risk of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten, M.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; De A; Verschuren, W. M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Beulens, J W J

    2010-01-01

    ackground: It has been suggested that the inverse association between alcohol and type 2 diabetes could be explained by moderate drinkers’ healthier lifestyles. Objective: We studied whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with combined low-risk lifestyle behaviors. Design: We prospectively examined 35,625 adults of the Dutch European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-NL) cohort aged 20–70 y, who were free of di...

  7. Years of life lost (Yll) attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Pérez, Eduardo; Cruz-López, Leonardo; Hernández-Llanes, Norberto Francisco; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Camacho-Solís, Rafael Edgardo; Mendoza-Meléndez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the YLL attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City from 2006 - 2012. Vital statistics on mortality attributable to alcohol consumption from the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) were used to determine YLL as well as the average age of death in relation to different age ranges by sex. A total estimate of 168,607 YLL was obtained, with an average loss of 18.32 years being observed for men and 17.54 years for women. Men accounted for a higher proportion of the YLL than women. According to the ICD-10 (Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases), liver disease attributable to alcohol consumption was found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total YLL. There was a cyclical trend in YLL from 2006 to 2012. The YLL attributable to alcohol suggest that alcohol consumption is a public health problem that involves losses in productivity and economic costs, and the decline in YLL could be explained by the decrease in income caused by the economic crisis of 2008, just as the increase could be explained by economic improvement in 2012. PMID:26816161

  8. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (-1.1%), AB (-1.0%) and NAB (-1.0%). In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na⁺ was reduced (p < 0.05) in W (-3.9%) and AB (-3.7%), plasma K⁺ was increased (p < 0.05) in AB (8.5%), and USG was reduced in W (-0.9%) and NAB (-1.0%). Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise. PMID:27338452

  9. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W, beer (AB or non-alcoholic beer (NAB. Body mass, plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05 in W (−1.1%, AB (−1.0% and NAB (−1.0%. In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na+ was reduced (p < 0.05 in W (−3.9% and AB (−3.7%, plasma K+ was increased (p < 0.05 in AB (8.5%, and USG was reduced in W (−0.9% and NAB (−1.0%. Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na+ and increased plasma K+ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na+ in plasma during exercise.

  10. Pattern of alcoholic beverage consumption and academic performance among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva de Aguiar Nemer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcoholic beverages are widely available in the university environment, particularly at the parties. There are few studies addressing the relationship between alcohol consumption and academic performance among college students. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the behavior of college students regarding the profile of alcohol consumption and its academic consequences. METHODS: The volunteers (343 students answered a questionnaire about their pattern of alcohol consumption and possible related behaviors, especially academic performance. Participants were classified as "non-drinkers" (ND, "non-binge drinkers" (nBD, "binge drinkers" (BD and "heavy drinkers" (HD. RESULTS: 88.1% of the students reported ingesting alcoholic beverages, 44% as BD. Most of the drinker students (75.5% - nBD, BD or HD stated getting intoxicated at least once a month. Binge drinking was the predominant pattern (66.2% of those who drank. HD students presented a risk 9.2 times higher of not being in the ideal period of the course. DISCUSSION: The college students evaluated presented high rates of alcohol abuse. Binge drinking might have interfered in their academic performance. Organic, social and behavioral consequences were also reported.

  11. Integrative epigenetic profiling analysis identifies DNA methylation changes associated with chronic alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Lee, Chau-Shoun; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism has always been a major public health concern in Taiwan, especially in the aboriginal communities. Emerging evidence supports the association between DNA methylation and alcoholism, though very few studies have examined the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the epignome. Since 1986, we have been following up on the mental health conditions of four major aboriginal peoples of Taiwan. The 993 aboriginal people who underwent the phase 1 (1986) clinical interviews were followed up through phase 2 (1990-1992), and phase 3 (2003-2009). Selected individuals for the current study included 10 males from the phase 1 normal cohort who remained normal at phase 2 and became dependent on alcohol by phase 3 and 10 control subjects who have not had any drinking problems throughout the study. We profiled the DNA methylation changes in the blood samples collected at phases 2 and 3. Enrichment analyses have identified several biological processes related to immune system responses and aging in the control group. In contrast, differentially methylated genes in the case group were mostly associated with susceptibility to infections, as well as pathways related to muscular contraction and neural degeneration. The methylation levels of six genes were found to correlate with alcohol consumption. These include genes involved in neurogenesis (NPDC1) and inflammation (HERC5), as well as alcoholism-associated genes ADCY9, CKM, and PHOX2A. Given the limited sample size, our approach uncovered genes and disease pathways associated with chronic alcohol consumption at the epigenetic level. The results offer a preliminary methylome map that enhances our understanding of alcohol-induced damages and offers new targets for alcohol injury research. PMID:25555412

  12. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Sine; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert Dirk;

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association betweenalcohol consumption and mortality in patients recentlydiagnosed with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design: A post hoc analysis study based on a clinicaltrial population. Setting: The data reported were collected as part ofthe Danish Alzheimer’s...

  13. Alcohol consumption patterns among parents of hospitalized children: findings from a brief intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene Berit Lydersen; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Høst, Arne;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to explore parents’ perception and experience of a brief intervention (BI), focusing on their alcohol consumption habits to assess the impact on parents of staff members using motivational interviewing (MI) and to gain knowledge of how to reinforce initiatives regarding......, and perception of, nursing staff addressing issues concerning their use of alcohol. Methods: A qualitative approach by use of phenomenological and hermeneutic methods was applied. Through interviews with 15 parents, their opinions and perceptions of a brief alcohol intervention were explored. Results...

  14. Scoping drug and alcohol consumption in young people on the Isle of Sheppey

    OpenAIRE

    Barshell, K.; J. H. Foster; Meerabeau, E.; West, E.

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary: Scoping Drug and Alcohol Consumption in Young People on the Isle of Sheppey. Introduction: In 2008 the Sheppey Health and Wellbeing Group (SHWG) raised awareness of the need for a project on the Isle of Sheppey with a focus upon drug and alcohol abuse. The SHWG is a network of over 20 local community groups and partners involved in various local public health initiatives. The group had been concerned for some time by regular reports of drugs and alcohol abuse in Sheerne...

  15. ATTENUATION OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION BY MDMA (ECSTASY) IN TWO STRAINS OF ALCOHOL PREFERRING RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol preference and manifestation of alcoholism are thought by many to be associated with serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction in the brain. hus, experiments were performed to determine the effect of acute and sub-chronic administration (s.c.) of (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine...

  16. Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk taking behaviour in travellers to Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided. PMID:21420363

  17. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y; Stewart, Robert B; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L; Chester, Julia A; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21-26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans. PMID:27527158

  18. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Qiu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1 Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2 The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3 Blood alcohol concentration (BAC was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4 Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5 Baseline corticosterone (CORT was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T and rs3800373 (T/G, were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162 from 21–26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT. Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans.

  19. GDNF is a fast-acting potent inhibitor of alcohol consumption and relapse

    OpenAIRE

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Kharazia, Viktor; Jeanblanc, Jerome; Janak, Patricia H.; Ron, Dorit

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the action of the natural alkaloid, ibogaine, to reduce alcohol (ethanol) consumption is mediated by the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here we set out to test the actions of GDNF in the VTA on ethanol-drinking behaviors. We found that GDNF infusion very rapidly and dose-dependently reduced rat ethanol, but not sucrose, operant self-administration. A GDNF-mediated decrease in ethanol consumption was also...

  20. Associations Between Weight Change and Meal Frequency, Breakfast Consumption, and Alcohol Intake in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shepard, Tricia Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine if weight gain in college subjects is associated with meal frequency, breakfast consumption, breakfast type, and alcohol intake over one year of college. Secondary aims were to determine whether BMI and body fat percent are associated with breakfast consumption and type as well as meal frequency. Design: A longitudinal observational study. Health history, work schedule and sleep patterns were recorded. Subjects fasted overnight and height, weight, skin fold...

  1. Chronic alcohol consumption potentiates the development of diabetes through pancreatic β-cell dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji; Yeon; Kim; Dae; Yeon; Lee; Yoo; Jeong; Lee; Keon; Jae; Park; Kyu; Hee; Kim; Jae; Woo; Kim; Won-Ho; Kim

    2015-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is well established as a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes(T2D), which is evidenced by impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. However, the relationships between alcoholconsumption and the development of T2 D remain controversial. In particular, the direct effects of ethanol consumption on proliferation of pancreatic β-cell and the exact mechanisms associated with ethanolmediated β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis remain elusive. Although alcoholism and alcohol consumption are prevalent and represent crucial public health problems worldwide, many people believe that low-tomoderate ethanol consumption may protect against T2 D and cardiovascular diseases. However, the J- or U-shaped curves obtained from cross-sectional and large prospective studies have not fully explained the relationship between alcohol consumption and T2 D. This review provides evidence for the harmful effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the progressive development of T2 D, particularly with respect to pancreatic β-cell mass and function in association with insulin synthesis and secretion. This review also discusses a conceptual framework for how ethanolproduced peroxynitrite contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and metabolic syndrome.

  2. Ethanol Consumption by Wistar Rat Dams Affects Selenium Bioavailability and Antioxidant Balance in Their Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Carreras

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol consumption affects maternal nutrition, the mothers’ antioxidant balance and the future health of their progeny. Selenium (Se is a trace element cofactor of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx. We will study the effect of ethanol on Se bioavailability in dams and in their progeny. We have used three experimental groups of dams: control, chronic ethanol and pair-fed; and three groups of pups. Se levels were measured by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum and hepatic GPx activity was determined by spectrometry. We have concluded that ethanol decreased Se retention in dams, affecting their tissue Se deposits and those of their offspring, while also compromising their progeny’s weight and oxidation balance. These effects of ethanol are caused by a reduction in Se intake and a direct alcohol-generated oxidation action.

  3. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nimer Assy; Faris Nassar; Gattas Nasser; Maria Grosovski

    2009-01-01

    The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagonlike peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased lowdensity lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives.

  4. Health risks of chronic moderate and heavy alcohol consumption: how much is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Bode, Christiane; Nixon, Sara Jo; de Bruin, Eveline A; Bode, J Christian; Seitz, Helmut K

    2005-07-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium held at the meeting of the International Society for Biomedical Research on Alcoholism (ISBRA) in Mannheim, Germany, in October 2004. Most of what we know about the deleterious effects of alcohol in vivo has been gleaned from studies in sober alcoholics recruited from substance abuse treatment programs. Little is known about effects of chronic drinking in the moderate or heavy range encountered in a much larger fraction of modern society. Extrapolation of information on the adverse effects of chronic drinking on organ function from clinical samples to social drinkers in the general population has to be met with great skepticism, as it may lead to wrong conclusions about the chronic effects of alcohol in social drinkers. Several recent studies suggest that moderate alcohol consumption has certain beneficial health effects, whereas heavy social alcohol consumption has recently been associated with organ abnormalities and cognitive deficits. These social drinking effects have attracted great public interest; reports of benefits of moderate drinking have also inspired inappropriate publications by the media, including misleading advertisements by the alcohol producing and distributing industry. Although adverse effects of moderate to heavy drinking on heart, liver, and cancer development have attracted attention by clinicians and researchers for some time, its compromising effects on brain and cognition have only recently been studied. This symposium brought together researchers from different disciplines, who reviewed and presented new data on consequences of social drinking in the areas of clinical neuropsychology and behavior (Drs. Nixon and Meyerhoff), neurophysiology (Dr. Nixon, Ms. De Bruin), neuroimaging (Ms. de Bruin, Dr. Meyerhoff), hepatic disease (Dr. Bode), and cancer (Dr. Seitz). The symposium aimed to clarify both the potential health benefits of moderate alcohol consumption and risks of moderate and

  5. Protective effect of corn peptides against alcoholic liver injury in men with chronic alcohol consumption: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuhong; Pan, Xingchang; Zhang, Shixiu; Wang, Wenxian; Cai, Muyi; Li, Yanrong; Yang, Fan; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    Background Corn peptides (CPs) are a novel food prepared from corn gluten meal, which is a main by-product of the corn starch industry. Recently, significant beneficial effects of CPs on early alcoholic liver injury in rats and on acute alcoholic injury in mice were observed. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report showing that CPs supplementation has beneficial effects on lipid profile, oxidative stress and alcoholic liver injury in men with chronic alcohol consumption. Metho...

  6. Pattern of alcohol consumption among undergraduate nursing students from minas gerais catholic university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti, Willy Moreira Batista Simões, Adriano Ferreira Duarte de Lima

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the pattern of alcohol consumption among undergraduate nursing students. Methodology: this is about a quantitative-descriptive study performed with 393 students in undergraduate courses in nursing at the Catholic University of Minas Gerais. Data were collected from a questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistic. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Catholic University of Minas Gerais (CAAEE 0213.0.213.000-07. Resulted: the students consume alcohol and energy drinks, beer is the most consumed beverage and bars and discos are often used. Events following drinking included: classroom lack, driving vehicles and fights. Women are responsible for diverse consumption of alcoholic beverages and men have less diversification, but consuming more doses per day. Regarding the use of alcohol in the family, students point to the parent as consumer abuse. Conclusion: the significant consumption of alcohol among undergraduate nursing students from Minas Gerais Catholic University is a problem that must be addressed through implementation of preventive and damage reduction program.

  7. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a comparison of approaches for including repeated measures of alcohol consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Wu, Kana; Grønbaek, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In numerous studies, alcohol intake has been found to be positively associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, the majority of studies included only one exposure measurement, which may bias the results if long-term intake is relevant.METHODS: We compared different approaches for...... including repeated measures of alcohol intake among 47,432 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Questionnaires including questions on alcohol intake had been completed in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998. The outcome was incident colorectal cancer during follow-up from 1986 to 2002.RESULTS......: During follow-up, 868 members of the cohort experienced colorectal cancer. Baseline, updated, and cumulative average alcohol intakes were positively associated with colorectal cancer, with only minor differences among the approaches. These results support moderately increased risk for intake >30 g/d and...

  8. Estimating non-response bias in a survey on alcohol consumption: comparison of response waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.M. Lahaut; H.A.M. Jansen (Harrie); H. van de Mheen (Dike); H.F.L. Garretsen (Henk); J.E. Verdurmen; A. van Dijk (Bram)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: According to 'the continuum of resistance model' late respondents can be used as a proxy for non-respondents in estimating non-response bias. In the present study, the validity of this model was explored and tested in three surveys on alcohol consumption. METHODS:

  9. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  10. Decline in age of drinking onset in Ireland, gender and per capita alcohol consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smyth, Bobby P

    2011-01-01

    We sought to examine the fall in age of first drinking in Ireland and to determine whether there were gender differences. We also aimed to determine whether there was a relationship between the per capita alcohol consumption evident when people entered later adolescence and their age of drinking onset.

  11. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  12. Stressful events and continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether

  13. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loerbroks, A.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and endometrial cancer. Methods: In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women. Follow-up for c

  14. Alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of developing chronic kidney disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sarah H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Rimm, Eric B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Joosten, Michel M.

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports of associations between alcohol consumption and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). To investigate this further, we studied 5476 participants aged 28-75 years in the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study, a prospective population-based cohort, who

  15. Alcohol use, cigarette consumption and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op den Velde, W; Aarts, PGH; Falger, PRJ; Hovens, JE; van Duijn, H; de Groen, JHM; van Duijn, MAJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: The relationship between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was studied in 147 male former members of the civilian resistance against the Nazi occupation of Holland during World War II. Methods: The subjects were interviewed at home. Measures inclu

  16. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Parameters of Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Lankhuizen, I.M.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Tol, A. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. One of the main antiatherogenic functions of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport. Three early steps of reverse cholesterol transport are (1) cellular cholesterol efflux, (2) plasma choles

  17. Alcohol consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes among older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Schouw, Y.T. van der; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - This study aimed to investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes among older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Between 1993 and 1997, 16,330 women aged 49-70 years and free from diabetes were enrolled in one of the Dutch Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective

  18. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  19. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Infant Social, Mental, and Motor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carole Williams; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Croninger, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem associated with developmental difficulties in young children. Child developmental and behavioral characteristics were examined from the 9-month data point of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies-Birth Cohort, a prospective nationally representative study. Several…

  20. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  1. School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption increases insulin sensitivity and ADIPOQ expression in postmenopausal women: A randomised, crossover trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, M.M.; Beulens, J.W.J.; Kersten, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: To determine whether 6 weeks of daily, moderate alcohol consumption increases expression of the gene encoding adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and plasma levels of the protein, and improves insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Methods: In a randomised, open-label, crossover trial conduc

  3. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn; Grønbaek, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The authors evaluated the association between amount and type of alcohol consumed during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery and whether the relation differs among very (<32 completed weeks) and moderate (from 32 to <37 completed weeks) preterm delivery. The study is based on data of 40......,892 pregnant women included in the first part of the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women completed a computer-assisted telephone interview between December 12, 1997, and December 31, 2000, and delivered a liveborn singleton. Of these women, 1,880 gave birth preterm. Compared with those who abstained during...... pregnancy, the relative risks for preterm delivery among women who consumed from four to less than seven drinks and seven or more drinks per week during pregnancy were 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.57) and 1.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 3.31), respectively. Below these intake levels of...

  4. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity in lean and overweight men: A diet intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Zoete, E.C.de; Kok, F.J.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type II diabetes. This study investigates the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on adipokines and insulin sensitivity. Subjects: Twenty healthy, lean (body mass index (BMI) 18.5-25 kg/m2; n=11) or overweight (BMI>27

  5. Health warnings on alcoholic beverages:perceptions of the health risks and intentions towards alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Wigg, S.; Stafford, Lorenzo Dante

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then respond...

  6. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Norman Giesbrecht; Jürgen Rehm; Jason Bond; William Kerr; Thomas K. Greenfield; Yu Ye

    2009-01-01

    A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse––family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property––all from another’s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk dr...

  7. An Investigation of the Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Policies on Youth Risky Sexual Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Markowitz; Robert Kaestner; Michael Grossman

    2005-01-01

    The problems of teen pregnancy, HIV/AIDS and the high rates of other sexually transmitted diseases among youth have lead to widespread concern with the sexual behaviors of teenagers. Alcohol use is one of the most commonly cited correlates of risky sexual behavior. The purpose of this research is to investigate the causal role of alcohol in determining sexual activity and risky sexual behavior among teenagers and young adults. This research also addresses the question of whether there are pub...

  8. Alcohol drinking, consumption patterns and breast cancer among Danish nurses: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina S; Johansen, Ditte; Thygesen, Lau C;

    2007-01-01

    -related factors. Data were analysed using Cox's proportional hazard model. RESULTS: During follow-up 457 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. The relative risk of breast cancer was 2.30 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.56-3.39] for alcohol intake of 22-27 drinks per week, compared to 1-3 drinks per week. Among...... alcohol consumers, weekly alcohol intake increased the risk of breast cancer with 2% for each additional drink consumed. Weekend consumption increased the risk with 4% for each additional drink consumed friday through sunday. Binge drinking of 4-5 drinks the latest weekday increased risk with 55...... each additional drink consumed during the week. Weekend consumption and binge drinking imply an additional increase in breast cancer risk....

  9. Pre-college matriculation risk profiles and alcohol consumption patterns during the first semesters of college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Ray, Anne E; Lu, Shou-En

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses, and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation, and alcohol use was measured with five assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled "Anti-Drinking," "Unfavorable," "Mixed," and "Risky." Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs. PMID:23928750

  10. Vague relationship between alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome in nonobese people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kei Nakajima; Masafumi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Fatty liver,including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,is closely associated with metabolic syndrome (MS).Thus,the presence of fatty liver without MS in some conditions may be clinically important.Many studies have shown that compared with no or occasional alcohol intake,moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower prevalence rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes,and lower levels of circulating C-reactive protein,a valuable marker for MS and insulin resistance.Considering these findings,light to moderate alcohol consumption has theoretical benefits on fatty liver and MS.Fatty liver,including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,may be more clinically important than MS,particularly in non-obese individuals,because fatty liver can develop before MS in several conditions,such as regular alcohol consumers.Furthermore,most of the currently used MS criteria are unable to detect "true MS" because of variations in multiple factors such as age,height,medications,and complications.

  11. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  12. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and semen quality in the male offspring: two decades of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Toft, G; Jensen, M S;

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent alcohol exposure has been associated with reduced fecundity, but no studies have estimated the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on male fecundity. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, semen quality and levels...

  13. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26–34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0–110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  14. Whole brain and brain regional coexpression network interactions associated with predisposition to alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Vanderlinden

    Full Text Available To identify brain transcriptional networks that may predispose an animal to consume alcohol, we used weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA. Candidate coexpression modules are those with an eigengene expression level that correlates significantly with the level of alcohol consumption across a panel of BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains, and that share a genomic region that regulates the module transcript expression levels (mQTL with a genomic region that regulates alcohol consumption (bQTL. To address a controversy regarding utility of gene expression profiles from whole brain, vs specific brain regions, as indicators of the relationship of gene expression to phenotype, we compared candidate coexpression modules from whole brain gene expression data (gathered with Affymetrix 430 v2 arrays in the Colorado laboratories and from gene expression data from 6 brain regions (nucleus accumbens (NA; prefrontal cortex (PFC; ventral tegmental area (VTA; striatum (ST; hippocampus (HP; cerebellum (CB available from GeneNetwork. The candidate modules were used to construct candidate eigengene networks across brain regions, resulting in three "meta-modules", composed of candidate modules from two or more brain regions (NA, PFC, ST, VTA and whole brain. To mitigate the potential influence of chromosomal location of transcripts and cis-eQTLs in linkage disequilibrium, we calculated a semi-partial correlation of the transcripts in the meta-modules with alcohol consumption conditional on the transcripts' cis-eQTLs. The function of transcripts that retained the correlation with the phenotype after correction for the strong genetic influence, implicates processes of protein metabolism in the ER and Golgi as influencing susceptibility to variation in alcohol consumption. Integration of these data with human GWAS provides further information on the function of polymorphisms associated with alcohol-related traits.

  15. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0-110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  16. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantza Sanvisens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS. Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR: 26–34 years; EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0–110.6 ng/g. With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g in the majority of samples (79.1%. Only three (6% women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health.

  17. Alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from two Scandinavian case-control studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Källberg, H; Jacobsen, Søren; Bengtsson, C;

    2009-01-01

    citrullinated peptide antigens, alcohol consumption reduced the risk most in smokers carrying HLA-DRB1 SE alleles. CONCLUSIONS: The observed inverse association between alcohol intake and risk of RA and the recent demonstration of a preventive effect of alcohol in experimental arthritis indicate that alcohol......OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and alcohol consumption in combination with smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE). METHODS: Data from two independent case-control studies of RA, the Swedish EIRA (1204 cases and 871 controls) and the Danish...... CACORA (444 cases and 533 controls), were used to estimate ORs of developing RA for different amounts of alcohol consumed. RESULTS: Alcohol consumption was significantly more common in controls (p<0.05) and dose-dependently associated with reduced risk of RA (p for trend <0.001) in both studies. Among...

  18. Cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in Denmark.

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    Astrid Ledgaard Holm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. METHODS: We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. RESULTS: Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. CONCLUSION: Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost

  19. Consumption of alcohol in mental health services in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil

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    Luciane Prado Kantorski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcoholism has been a major concern of public health worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, approximately 76.3 million people presented problems of alcohol abuse in 2004. Therefore, the risks arising from the association of psychiatric disorders with alcohol consumption should also be considered in the context of mental health services. Objective: This study aimed to analyze alcohol consumption by the users of Therapeutic Residential Services- SRT and Psychosocial Care Centers- CAPS in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methodology: The present study is part of a research entitled Rehabilitation Networks - REDESUL, carried out from September to December 2009 in five municipalities of the aforementioned Brazilian state. The total sample comprised 392 users: 143 from the SRT and 270 from the CAPS services, with intersection of 21 members. Results: The results showed that of the 392 care service users, only 29 had consumed alcohol during the four weeks prior to the survey. The majority of these 29 users were between 31 and 59 years old, male, single, and only n = 13 (48.28% reported being aware of their psychiatric disorders, with prevalence of schizophrenia n = 7 (24.13% followed by bipolar disorders n = 3 (10.34%. Conclusion: It is necessary that the mental health teams are also trained to work with alcohol users, regardless of the type of mental health service they work for, and that they develop actions in relation to guidance on alcohol consumption, treatment adherence, rehabilitation, and integration of users to the community.

  20. Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Chiara; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Cycling, being easy, inexpensive and healthy, is becoming one of the most popular means of transport. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users in traffic collisions. The aims of this study were to establish which cyclist and cycling accident characteristics are associated with alcohol consumption and helmet use in Germany and to identify risk factors related to head trauma sustained in cycling accidents. The source used for the present analysis was the database of the German in-depth accident study (GIDAS). All cyclists who had been involved in a road accident between 2000 and 2010 and submitted to an alcohol test were selected. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate various aspects: alcohol consumption, helmet use, head trauma, and cyclist/accident characteristics. Female riders were less likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08-0.66); cyclists who did not wear a helmet were more likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.08-5.38); cyclists who were not responsible for the collision were less likely to have consumed alcohol than those who were partially responsible for the accident (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61). Cyclists involved in collisions with another vehicle, motorised or not, had a lower risk of suffering a head injury compared with those involved in single-vehicle accidents (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62, and OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.22, respectively). The prevention or limiting of alcohol consumption among cyclists and the corresponding testing of cyclists must be improved. Training initiatives on helmet protection should be encouraged. PMID:24448470

  1. Diferencias por género en el consumo de alcohol en la Ciudad de México Gender differences in alcohol consumption in Mexico City

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    Jorge Javier Caraveo-Anduaga

    1999-05-01

    , la población de ambos sexos alcanza su más alto nivel de consumo, mismo que en general tiende a ser excesivo. Asimismo, se hizo evidente un incremento en la ingesta riesgosa de alcohol entre las mujeres (cinco copas o más por ocasión, que es de casi cuatro veces más en un periodo de siete años y con una aparente tendencia al aumento. De la población bebedora, 60% redujo su ingesta antes de los 30 años; sin embargo, el 40% restante ha continuado bebiendo igual o en mayor cantidad, en particular las mujeres. CONCLUSIONES. La edad de inicio en el consumo del alcohol se ha reducido entre las mujeres, y se aprecian tendencias al exceso. Los programas preventivos acerca del abuso en el consumo de alcohol y sus consecuencias deben dirigirse a la población más joven, haciendo énfasis en el sexo femenino.OBJECTIVE. The objectives of the present study were: 1 To corroborate the increase in alcohol consumption in the female population registered by results from the National Surveys on Addictions (ENA, 1988 and 1993; and 2 to determine affected age groups, and obtain basic information on age of onset, amount consumed per event and drunkenness frequency in the adult population of Mexico City, as indicators to orient preventive measures. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A multi-stage, stratified household survey was applied. A total of 1 932 interviews was completed, subjects were between 18 and 65 years of age, with a response rate of 60.4%. The instrument was a modified version of the Composite International Psychiatric Interview (CIDI, which is a highly structured instrument, applicable by non-specialized personnel, although limited training is necessary. The alcohol section included questions on the age of the first drink, the frequency and amount consumed during each event and the drunkenness frequency during the last 12 months, among other variables. Median and percentage were obtained by sex and among age-cohorts. RESULTS. Of the total, 96.5% of men and 81.1% of women have

  2. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Katrine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn; Grønbaek, Morten

    2004-01-01

    pregnancy, the relative risks for preterm delivery among women who consumed from four to less than seven drinks and seven or more drinks per week during pregnancy were 1.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.57) and 1.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.94, 3.31), respectively. Below these intake levels of...... alcohol, no increased risk of preterm delivery was found. Among women who consumed seven or more drinks per week, the relative risk of very preterm delivery was 3.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.80, 13.24) compared with that of nondrinkers. There were no differences in the associations between type of......,892 pregnant women included in the first part of the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women completed a computer-assisted telephone interview between December 12, 1997, and December 31, 2000, and delivered a liveborn singleton. Of these women, 1,880 gave birth preterm. Compared with those who abstained during...

  3. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  4. Determinants of Alcohol Consumption of University Student-Athletes: The Case of University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya

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    E.G. Rintaugu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption among university student athletes is a global health issue attracting attention from different stakeholders. The purpose of this study was to establish the determinants of alcohol consumption among university-student-athletes in Kenya. It was hypothesized that the reasons and consequences of alcohol consumption are sport- related are mediated by selected demographic factors and Parental Social Economic status (SES. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires from 146 subjects (102, 69.9% males and (44, 30.1% females. Resulting data was analyzed thorough chi-square and independent t-test. Findings indicated that student athletes consume alcohol due to relaxation (82.2%, overcoming of boredom (66.4% student-athletes. The consequences of alcohol consumption reported were mainly behavior offending others (32.6%, damaged friendships (29.6% and poor academic performance (26%. However both reasons and consequences of alcohol consumption could not be determined by the selected demographic factors and parental SES with the exception of the place of residence (neighborhood. It is recommended that trainers/coaches need to sensitize the student-athletes’ on their vulnerability to risks associated with alcohol consumption. Intervention measures and procedures to address alcohol consumption should be multi-faceted and involve sport psychologists and counselors. Future studies should be conducted with high school and elite athletes.

  5. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol. PMID:25800078

  6. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  7. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  8. Socioeconomic patterning of excess alcohol consumption and binge drinking: a cross-sectional study of multilevel associations with neighbourhood deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Fone, David L.; Farewell, Daniel M; White, James; Lyons, Ronan A.; Dunstan, Frank D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The influence of neighbourhood deprivation on the risk of harmful alcohol consumption, measured by the separate categories of excess consumption and binge drinking, has not been studied. The study objective was to investigate the effect of neighbourhood deprivation with age, gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on (1) excess alcohol consumption and (2) binge drinking, in a representative population survey. Design Cross-sectional study: multilevel analysis. Setting Wales, UK, adult...

  9. Gut region-dependent alterations of nitrergic myenteric neurons after chronic alcohol consumption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária; Bagyánszki; Nikolett; Bódi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse damages nearly every organ in the body. The harmful effects of ethanol on thebrain, the liver and the pancreas are well documented. Although chronic alcohol consumption causes serious impairments also in the gastrointestinal tract like altered motility, mucosal damage, impaired absorption of nu-trients and inflammation, the effects of chronically consumed ethanol on the enteric nervous system are less detailed. While the nitrergic myenteric neurons play an essential role in the regulation of gastrointestinal peristalsis, it was hypothesised, that these neurons are the first targets of consumed ethanol or its metabolites generated in the different gastrointestinal segments. To reinforce this hypothesis the effects of ethanol on the gastrointestinal tract was investigated in different rodent models with quantitative immunohistochemistry, in vivo and in vitro motility measurements, western blot analysis, evaluation of nitric oxide synthase enzyme activity and bio-imaging of nitric oxide synthesis. These results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption did not result significant neural loss, but primarily impaired the nitrergic pathways in gut region-dependent way leading to disturbed gastrointestinal motility. The gut segment-specific differences in the effects of chronic alcohol consumption highlight the significance the ethanol-induced neuronal microenvironment involving oxidative stress and intestinal microbiota.

  10. NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN OLDER AND YOUNGER SOCIAL DRINKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ben; Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Nearly 40% of adults aged 65 and older in the United States consume alcohol. Research in older adults has largely examined potential health effects of a moderate drinking lifestyle. Examination of acute effects in this population is generally lacking. To investigate alcohol-induced alteration of electrophysiological correlates of attention in this population, we employed a covert attentional task. We hypothesized that moderate alcohol administration as well as older age would reduce P3 amplitude and increase latency. We anticipated an interaction such that, relative to their age-matched controls, older adults receiving alcohol would be more affected than their younger counterparts. Methods Participants included healthy older (aged 50–67; n = 20; 9 men) and younger (aged 25–35; n = 12; 5 men) moderate drinkers. Participants received either a moderate dose of alcohol (breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] ~50 mg/dl) or a placebo beverage. Following absorption, the task was administered and neurophysiological measures were obtained. P3 amplitude and latency were separately subjected to ANOVA across cue conditions using age and dose as independent variables. Results As predicted, P3 amplitude in older adults was significantly lower than younger adults across cue conditions. An age by alcohol interaction was detected, revealing that older adults receiving alcohol showed lower P3 amplitudes than any other group. An age effect for P3 latency was found, with older adults having longer latencies than their younger counterparts. A significant age by alcohol interaction for P3 latency was detected, revealing that older adults receiving alcohol displayed delayed P3 latencies relative to older adults receiving placebo. In contrast, younger adults receiving alcohol had reduced latency compared to those receiving placebo although this effect did not reach significance. Conclusions Results suggest that older adults demonstrated alcohol related shifts in P3

  11. Synergistic Action of Clonorchiasis,HBV Infection and Alcohol Consumption on Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengkui Tan; Xiaoqiang Qiu; Hongping Yu; Xiaoyun Zeng; Zengming Xiao; Lequn Li; Qiuan Zhong

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE It has been recognized that HBV infection and alcohol consumption are two important risk factors for primary hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).Recently,the role of clonorchiasis as a risk factor for HCC is controversial.We aimed to investigate whether these factors increase the risk of HCC in Guangxi,China.METHODS A hospital-based,case-control study of HCC was conducted from July 2005 to July 2007.We enrolled 500consecutive patients with HCC as an experimental group and 500patients without tumor in liver as a control group.nle risk factors that the patients were exposed to were assessed.RESULTS Comparing the risks of developing the HCC,we found out the following results.The risk of developing HCC for the patients with clonorchiasis was 5 folds of that for the patients without clonorchiasis(OR=5.0;95%CI:3.1-8.1),and the risk for the patients with alcohol consumption was 3 folds of that for the patients without drinking alcohol(OR=3.4;95%CI:2.3-4.9),and similarly,the risk for the patients with HBV infection was 21 times of that for the patients without HBV infection (OR=20.6;95% CI:14.3-29.7).According to crossover analysis,there was significant interaction among clonorchiasis,HBV infection and alcohol consumption,with synergistic indices greater than 1.The etiologic fractions attributed to these interactions [EF(A x B)] are 0.7465,0.5789 and 0.5506,respectively.CoNCLUSION Clonorchiasis,HBV infection and heavy alcohol consumption are independent risk factors for developing HCC in our population in Guangxi,and as they can interact synergistically,the risk of developing HCC is increased.Data from this study may indicate new prevention strategies of developing HCC in hish-risk individuals.

  12. Klebsiella pneumoniae Oropharyngeal Carriage in Rural and Urban Vietnam and the Effect of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Trinh Tuyet; Liebenthal, Dror; Tran, Toan Khanh; Ngoc Thi Vu, Bich; Ngoc Thi Nguyen, Diep; Thi Tran, Huong Kieu; Thi Nguyen, Chuc Kim; Thi Vu, Huong Lan; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Community acquired K. pneumoniae pneumonia is still common in Asia and is reportedly associated with alcohol use. Oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. However, little is known regarding K. pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage rates and risk factors. This population-based cross-sectional study explores the association of a variety of demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as alcohol consumption with oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae in Vietnam. Methods and Findings 1029 subjects were selected randomly from age, sex, and urban and rural strata. An additional 613 adult men from a rural environment were recruited and analyzed separately to determine the effects of alcohol consumption. Demographic, socioeconomic, and oropharyngeal carriage data was acquired for each subject. The overall carriage rate of K. pneumoniae was 14.1% (145/1029, 95% CI 12.0%–16.2%). By stepwise logistic regression, K. pneumoniae carriage was found to be independently associated with age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02–1.04), smoking (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.9), rural living location (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.4), and level of weekly alcohol consumption (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.04–2.8). Conclusion Moderate to heavy weekly alcohol consumption, old age, smoking, and living in a rural location are all found to be associated with an increased risk of K. pneumoniae carriage in Vietnamese communities. Whether K. pneumoniae carriage is a risk factor for pneumonia needs to be elucidated. PMID:24667800

  13. Consumo de alcohol y salud laboral: Revisión y líneas de actuación Alcohol consumption and occupational health: Review and lines of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enriqueta Ochoa Mangado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de alcohol tiene una elevada prevalencia en la sociedad en general, y también entre la población trabajadora, repercutiendo sobre el medio laboral. La repercusión del consumo de alcohol en el medio laboral es muy importante (enfermedades, accidentes laborales, absentismo, incapacidades laborales, disminución de la productividad.... Se describen los aspectos fundamentales de la psicofarmacología del alcohol, del diagnóstico de su dependencia y de los tratamientos para la dependencia de alcohol. Se valora la necesidad de una política en el medio laboral encaminada a prevenir o minimizar los riesgos laborales derivados del consumo de alcohol, con programas de prevención y apoyo que aporten información básica de referencia y orienten al abordaje asistencial de los trabajadores afectados.The consumption of alcohol and other drugs has high prevalence in the society in general, and in working population especially, affecting the occupational area. The repercussion of the consumption of these substances in the working environment is very important (diseases, occupational accidents, absenteeism, occupational disabilities, decrease of the productivity.... We describe the fundamental aspects of the psychopharmacology of alcohol, diagnosis of dependence and the treatment for alcohol dependence. Political measurements are necessary in the occupational area to prevent and minimize the risks derived from the consumption of these substances. Programs of prevention and support which offer basic information and orientation to the medical approach of the affected workers should be included.

  14. Effect of retirement on alcohol consumption: longitudinal evidence from the French Gazel cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of retirement on alcohol consumption. The objectives were to examine changes in alcohol consumption following retirement, and whether these patterns differ by gender and socioeconomic status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed alcohol consumption annually from 5 years before to 5 years after retirement among 10,023 men and 2,361 women of the French Gazel study. Data were analyzed separately for men and women, using repeated-measures logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. Five years prior to retirement, the prevalence of heavy drinking was about 16% among men, and not patterned by socioeconomic status. Among women, this prevalence was 19.5% in managers, 14.7% in intermediate occupations, and 12.8% in clerical workers. Around retirement, the estimated prevalence of heavy drinking increased in both sexes. In men, this increase was 3.1 percentage points for managers, 3.2 in intermediate occupations, 4.6 in clerical workers, and 1.3 in manual workers. In women, this increase was 6.6 percentage points among managers, 4.3 in intermediate occupations, and 3.3 among clerical workers. In men the increase around retirement was followed by a decrease over the following four years, not significant among manual workers; among women such a decrease was also observed in the non-managerial occupations. It is difficult to assess the extent to which the results observed in this cohort would hold for other working populations, other conditions of employment, or in other cultural settings. A plausible explanation for the increase in heavy drinking around retirement could be that increased leisure time after retirement provides more opportunities for drinking, and not having to work during the day after may decrease constraints on drinking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of increased consumption around retirement suggest that information about negative effects of alcohol consumption should be

  15. The Relationship of Alcoholism and Alcohol Consumption to All-Cause Mortality in Forty-One-Year Follow-up of the Swedish REBUS Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Andreas; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Halldin, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcoholism, alcohol consumption amount, and alcohol consumption pattern on mortality in a general population sample. METHOD: This study used a 1970 prospective population sample (double-phase random sample) of 2,300 individuals ages...... 18-65 years in Stockholm County, which was also linked to mortality registers. A total of 1,895 individuals participated in a semi-structured, baseline psychiatric interview with a psychiatrist and social worker. Alcoholism and other mental disorders were recorded according to the eighth revision of...... the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-8). Information on the usual amount and frequency of alcohol consumption was collected at the psychiatric interview. Mortality up to year 2011 was assessed with Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: At baseline, there were 65 men and 21...

  16. Consumption of alcoholic beverages, driving vehicles, a balance of dry law, Brazil 2007-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Carvalho Malta; Regina Tomie Ivata Berna; Marta Maria Alves da Silva; Rafael Moreira Claro; Jarbas Barbosa da Silva Júnior; Ademar Arthur Chioro dos Reis

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzes the trend in frequency of adults who drive under the influence of alcohol in major Brazilian cities after the passing of laws, which prohibit drunk driving. Data from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. The frequency of adults who drove after abusive alcohol consumption was reduced by 45.0% during this period (2.0% in 2007 to 1.1% in 2013). Between 2007 and 2008 (-0.5...

  17. The relation of alcohol consumption to cardiovascular risk factors and stroke. The west Birmingham stroke project.

    OpenAIRE

    Shinton, R; Sagar, G; Beevers, G

    1993-01-01

    The disputed relation between recent alcohol consumption and stroke was examined in a community case control study. One hundred and twenty five incident first time stroke patients and 198 controls, aged 35 to 74 years, were recruited over two years from a general practice population. The age and sex adjusted relative risks for stroke by recent weekly "drinks" of alcohol were; 0-1.0 (reference), 1 to 14-0.57, 15 to 29-0.63, and > 29-0.99. Among the controls it was noted that non-drinkers were ...

  18. Risk of Alcohol Consumption in Bladder Cancer: Case-Control Study from a Nationwide Inpatient Database in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Tonooka, Akiko; Takeuchi, Takumi; Homma, Yukio; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is common in Western countries, but not in Japan. Established risk factors are smoking and high-risk jobs such as printing and manufacturing. The risk of alcohol consumption in bladder cancer has been the recent focus; however, available literature on alcohol consumption and bladder cancer has been limited from Japanese population, thought to have a weak genetic tolerance to acetaldehyde. We aimed to determine whether alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for bladder cancer among Japanese. The study was a matched case-control study from the nationwide Japanese clinical database administered by the Rosai Hospital group. We identified 739 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed between 2005 (when the database was established) and 2014 and 7,196 controls matched by sex, age, hospital, and admission period. We estimated the odds ratio of alcohol consumption for bladder cancer adjusted for the amount of smoking, high-risk occupations, and comorbidities (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hyperuricemia, and obesity) with conditional logistic regression. The risk of bladder cancer was significantly higher in ever drinkers than in never drinkers (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.66). Furthermore, the risk threshold for alcohol consumption was more than 15 g of alcohol intake per day (one, 180-mL cup equivalent to 6 ounces of Japanese sake containing 23 grams of alcohol). Among Japanese, alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor for bladder cancer, with a lower risk threshold. PMID:27098227

  19. Self-reported consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages in a German wine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronk P

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Petra Fronk,1 Maria Blettner,2 Heinz Decker1 1Institute for Molecular Biophysics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany; 2Institute for Medical Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany Purpose: To describe the consumption of alcoholic beverages in a German wine area, with special attention to the number of people drinking more than the tolerable upper alcohol intake level (TUAL. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a mailed questionnaire, to investigate the weekly consumption of wine, beer, and spirits during the preceding 12 months in Mainz, the state capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. The analysis included 948 responders aged 20–69 years. Results: A total of 948 respondents, with a mean age of 43.7 years, were included in the analysis. About 85% of the respondents consumed alcoholic beverages, with an average of about 13.5 g alcohol/day. Men drank about twice as much as women. In total, 30% of women and 24% of men reported drinking more than the TUAL, and 9.2% of women and 7.2% of men reported drinking more than twice as much as the TUAL. The highest proportion of persons drinking more than the TUAL was found among elderly people. The preferred beverage was wine, which contributed 74% (for women and 54% (for men to the total alcohol intake. On average, the respondents drank 2.8 glasses of wine per week, 1.4 bottles beer, and negligible amounts of spirits. Conclusion: Wine was the preferred alcoholic beverage in Mainz, which was expected for people living in a wine area. A rather large number of people, especially among the elderly, consumed alcohol in an amount higher than the TUAL which may be harmful to health. Keywords: beer, spirits, TUAL, Mainz

  20. The effect of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on the prevalence of self-reported hand eczema: a cross-sectional population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T;

    2010-01-01

    . It has been debated whether life-style factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with hand eczema. OBJECTIVES: The current study aimed to investigate whether self-reported hand eczema was associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in the general population. METHODS...... smokers (> 15 g daily) but this needs to be reconfirmed. Alcohol consumption was not associated with hand eczema....

  1. Predisposición genética en el consumo de alcohol: el caso de la Alcohol Deshidrogenasa 1C Genetic predisposition to alcohol consumption: The case of Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Francès

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El consumo de alcohol se presenta frecuentemente asociado a determinados delitos, siendo en unas ocasiones atenuante o eximente, y en otras una infracción penal per se. Se han identificado numerosos factores genéticos y ambientales que predisponen al consumo de alcohol. Nuestro objetivo ha sido estudiar la prevalencia del polimorfismo Ile349Val en la alcohol deshidrogenasa 1C que da lugar a la isoforma gamma 2 (metabolizador lento, y estudiar su asociación con el consumo de alcohol así como reflexionar sobre la dimensión de la implicación de estas variantes genéticas en la Medicina Legal. Material y Métodos: Se ha genotipado el polimorfismo Ile 349Val en 869 individuos procedentes de una población mediterránea española. Se ha estimado su prevalencia y su asociación con el consumo de alcohol tanto de manera contínua como categórica. Resultados: La prevalencia de la variante fue: 41%Ile/Ile, 44,5%Ile/Val y 14%Val/Val. En las mujeres Val/Val (homozigotas para la variante gamma 2, el consumo de alcohol fue superior a las portadoras de la variante gamma 1 (Ile; p=0,013. Además, el riesgo de consumo elevado de alcohol en estas mujeres fue estadísticamente significativo (OR 2,59: IC al 95%: 1,01-6,65; p=0,048. Conclusión: En nuestro estudio, la variante Ile349val en el gen de la Alcohol Deshidrogenasa 1C está asociada con el riesgo de mayor consumo de alcohol en las mujeres. Estos datos hacen pensar en la posibilidad futura de valorar el perfil de genes asociados al consumo de alcohol en personas imputadas en determinados actos en estado de ebriedad, pudiendo matizar potencialmente la voluntariedad e imputabilidad de dicho acto ilícito.Introduction: Alcohol consumption is present in several crimes, being an extenuating or exculpating circumstance. In other cases it represents per se a penal infraction. Several genetic and environmental factors predisposing to alcohol consumption have been identified. Our aim is to

  2. Alcohol consumption among students - a cross-sectional study at three largest universities in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnjić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use among university students is increasing in many countries. Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate alcohol consumption and alcohol-related knowledge, attitudes and risky behaviors among Serbian university students. Methods. The cross-sectional study was carried out at the three state universities from January to June in the academic year 2009/2010 and included 2,285 students of both genders. The students filled out a questionnaire consisting of 70 questions with respect to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, their lifestyle habits, styles and attitudes, health assessment, as well as exposure to different risk factors. Results. It was found that 77.7% of students drank alcohol occasionally, 4.6% of them consumed it on a daily basis. Friedman’s test (p<0.001 showed that students prefer drinking beer to all other alcoholic beverages. Students in Belgrade and students of Technical faculties are undisputed champions when it comes to how often they drink six or more drinks on a single occasion. Older students in Serbia drink more and get drunk more frequently. Conclusion. A high percentage of Serbian students consume alcohol, and even though they have their first drink at an early age, they generally drink less than students in many other countries.

  3. Cost of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Bahia, Luciana; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Pepe, Camila Ribeiro; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society. PMID:27305403

  4. Rural, Suburban, and Urban Variations in Alcohol Consumption in the United States: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Alcohol consumption is a major public health problem nationally, but little research has investigated drinking patterns by rurality of residence. Purpose: To describe the prevalence of abstinence, alcohol use disorders, and risky drinking in rural, suburban, and urban areas of the United States. Methods: Analyses of the 2001-2002 National…

  5. The role of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1A1 polymorphisms in harmful alcohol consumption in a Finnish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Penelope A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Liver cystolic aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1A1 has been previously associated with both alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption behaviour, and has been implicated in alcohol-induced flushing and alcohol sensitivity in Caucasians. The present study tested for association between ALDH1A1 and alcohol consumption behaviour and susceptibility to problem drinking or alcohol dependence in Finnish cohorts of unrelated male subjects recruited from alcoholism clinical treatment facilities (n = 104 and from the general population (n = 201. All participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT and were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within or flanking ALDH1A1. To test for association between alcohol consumption behaviour and these polymorphisms, we used generalised linear models and haplotypic analysis. Three SNPs were nominally associated (rs348449, p = 0.043; rs610529, p = 0.013; rs348479, p = 0.025 with the quantitative AUDIT score, which evaluates alcohol consumption behaviour. Two-locus (rs6I0529-rs2288087 haplotype analysis increased the strength of association with AUDIT score (p = 0.00I5. Additionally, rs348449 is highly associated with problem drinking (allelic odds ratio [OR] 7.87, 95 per cent confidence interval [CI] 1.67-37.01 but due to the low minor allele frequency (0.01 and 0.07 in controls and problem drinkers, respectively, more samples are required to validate this observation. Conversely, rs348479 (p = 0.019 and rs6I0529 (allelic OR 0.65, 95 per cent CI 0.43-0.98; genotypic OR 0.32, 95 per cent CI 0.12-0.84 are implicated in alcohol dependence status. This study provides further evidence for a role for ALDH1A1 in alcohol consumption behaviour, including problem drinking and possibly alcohol dependence, in our Finnish population.

  6. A rural and urban cross-sectional study on alcohol consumption among adult Nigerians in Abia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuonye I.I

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The abuse or harmful use of alcohol is a well known risk factor for disability and premature mortality. Aim: The study sought to describe the pattern of alcohol consumption in Abia state, Nigeria. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional and predominantly descriptive study aimed at ascertaining the pattern of alcohol consumption in the state. Participants in the study were recruited from the three senatorial zones in the state. In each of the zones, urban and rural communities were chosen for the study. Data on alcohol consumption and other socio demographic data were collected from the participants by use of a questionnaire. Results: A total of 2977 participants gave data on alcohol consumption. A total of 1549(52.03% of the participants were men, while 1428 were women (47.97%. One thousand, six hundred and sixty three (55.8%, gave history of alcohol consumption, while 1,315 (44.2% had never consumed alcoholic drink. Frequent alcohol consumers were 7.56%, while 30.5 % of the participants were heavy drinkers. Conclusion: The percentage of heavy alcohol consumers in the study is high, and there is need for the various’ authorities to intervene to reduce the health burden associated with heavy drinking. This can be done through health education on the dangers of alcohol misuse at all levels as well as training and retraining of healthcare providers. Taxation on alcohol producing industries and alcohol drinks importation can be increased. High alcohol containing drinks can be banned from entry into the country.

  7. Comparing the Detection of Transdermal and Breath Alcohol Concentrations during Periods of Alcohol Consumption Ranging from Moderate Drinking to Binge Drinking

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Mr. Ashley; John, Samantha; Furr, R. Michael; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Binge drinking is a public health concern due to its association with negative health outcomes as well as increased legal and social consequences. Previous studies have frequently used self-reported alcohol consumption to classify binge drinking episodes; however, these measures are often limited in both detail and accuracy. Some researchers have begun using additional measures such as blood (BAC) and breath (BrAC) alcohol concentrations to supplement self-report data. Transdermal alcohol tes...

  8. Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents Consumo de tabaco y alcohol en la adolescencia Consumo de tabaco e de álcool na adolescência

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Margarida da Silva Reis dos Santos Ferreira; Maria Constança Leite de Freitas Paúl Reis Torgal

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the consumption of alcohol and tobacco among high-school adolescents in the district of Porto, Portugal. The results reveal the following: the majority of respondents do not smoke; smoking starts earlier in the case of girls; smoking increases with age; peer pressure is an important factor influencing smoking; about half of adolescents consume alcohol; boys drink more than girls; the number of those who consume alcohol increases with age; distilled drinks are the choice fo...

  9. Interaction Between Alcohol Consumption Patterns, Antiretroviral Therapy Type, and Liver Fibrosis in Persons Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Lau, Bryan; Lazo, Mariana; McCaul, Mary E; Hutton, Heidi E; Sulkowski, Mark S; Moore, Richard D; Chander, Geetanjali

    2016-05-01

    We examined the longitudinal association between alcohol use and liver fibrosis, measured by FIB-4 Score, among HIV-infected individuals by (1) antiretroviral therapy (ART) class, and (2) the presence of hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection. This was a prospective cohort study of 550 individuals in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort initiating ART between 2000 and 2012. The relationship between alcohol consumption (defined using NIAAA categories of non-, moderate, and hazardous drinkers) and liver fibrosis (FIB-4 score) by ART class was assessed using linear mixed effects models. Additionally, we examined whether the presence of HCV modified and whether viral load mediated the relationship between alcohol use and liver fibrosis. Overall, FIB-4 levels were 15.6% higher in hazardous drinkers compared to moderate drinkers (p = 0.025) after adjusting by age, sex, and race. Hazardous drinkers on PI-based regimens had FIB-4 scores 26.9% higher than moderate drinkers (p = 0.015). However, there was no difference in FIB-4 levels between hazardous drinkers on non-PI-based regimens compared to moderate drinkers (1.83% versus moderate drinkers, p = 0.848). There was no significant difference in FIB-4 between nondrinkers and moderate drinkers, irrespective of ART regimen. These associations were not modified by HCV status or mediated by viral load changes. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption and on PI-based regimens had significantly increased liver fibrosis, as measured by the FIB-4. These data suggest that providers should consider level of alcohol consumption when choosing an ART regimen to minimize detrimental effects on the liver. PMID:27158847

  10. Alcohol consumption and risky sexual practices: the pattern of nursing students from the Spanish University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Gil-García

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of substance abuse and unsafe sexual practices and to analyze the relationship between them, in nursing students at the University of Seville. METHOD: quantitative methodological approach with a descriptive cross-sectional design. The population was composed of first year nursing students in the University of Seville, during the academic year 2010-2011 (N=510, with consecutive opportunistic sampling composed of students who attended class on the scheduled day (n=291. RESULTS: a high prevalence of alcohol consumption, and increased likelihood of not using protective measures during sexual practices when alcohol had been consumed, was present. CONCLUSION: these findings are consistent with those obtained in the same population in Brazil, and highlight the need to strengthen in the nursing curriculum, the transverse axis related to the prevention of substance abuse, especially alcohol.

  11. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellingen, Sonja; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS) throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS. PMID:26740743

  12. Alcohol consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation in men and women: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukamal, KJ; Tolstrup, JS; Friberg, J;

    2005-01-01

    hazard ratio of 1.45 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.04); few women consumed this amount of alcohol. Approximately 5% of cases of atrial fibrillation among men were attributable to heavy alcohol use. Further adjustment for blood pressure and incident coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure did not...... incident atrial fibrillation among 16,415 women and men enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. We ascertained use of beer, wine, and spirits individually at up to 3 study visits with a structured questionnaire. We identified cases of atrial fibrillation by routine study ECGs and a validated...... attenuate the association (hazard ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.31). CONCLUSIONS: Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation, at least among men. This relationship does not appear to be related to the adverse effects of heavy drinking on coronary heart disease or blood...

  13. Patient-physician agreement on tobacco and alcohol consumption: a multilevel analysis of GPs' characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Jean-Laurent; Falcoff, Hector; Favre, Madeleine; Noël, Frédérique; Rigal, Laurent,

    2014-01-01

    Background Data about tobacco and alcohol consumption are essential in many types of studies. These data can be obtained by directly questioning patients or by using the information collected from physicians. Agreement between these two sources varies according to the characteristics of patients but probably also those of physicians. The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of general practitioners (GPs) associated with agreement between them and their patients about the p...

  14. The Role of Peers and Parents in Predicting Alcohol Consumption among Chilean Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This study estimated marginal associations of parent- and peer-related measures to examine the different patterns of lifetime ever-use and frequency of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Santiago, Chile (N=918). Probit and negative binomial models were applied to predict the probability of ever-use and the average number of drinks consumed in the past 30 days. Results supported the profound role of peer-relationships in the development of youth drinking behavior. Particularly, peer pres...

  15. Education and Alcohol Consumption among Older Americans; Black-White Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin eAssari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Purpose: Although the link between education and alcohol consumption is known, limited information exists on racial differences in this link. We conducted the current study to test Black- White differences in the association between education and alcohol consumption among older adults in the United States. Methods: This cross-sectional survey enrolled 1,493 Black (n=734 and White (n=759 older adults (age 66 or more in United States. Data came from the Religion, Aging, and Health Survey, 2001. Race, demographics, socio-economics, and alcohol consumption were measured. Independent variable was education level. Outcome was alcohol consumption. Race was the focal moderator. Logistic regression was used for data analysis. Results: Education was positively associated with ever drinking in the pooled sample. Race, however, interacted with education level on drinking, suggesting a smaller effect of education on drinking for Blacks compared to Whites. Among Whites, high school graduation and college graduation were associated with increased odds of ever drinking, net of covariates. Among Blacks, high school graduation but not college graduation was associated with ever drinking. Conclusion: Blacks and Whites differ in how socio-economic status (i.e. education shapes behaviors health behaviors (i.e. drinking. How race modifies consequences and correlates of social determinants of health is not yet clear. College graduation may result in the same level of change to the social network and income of race group members. Lower effect of education on health of Blacks may be due to the structural role of race and racism that has resulted in lower job availability and pay for Blacks.

  16. Drinking in the last chance saloon: luck egalitarianism, alcohol consumption, and the organ transplant waiting list

    OpenAIRE

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of livers available for transplants forces tough choices upon us. Lives for those not receiving a transplant are likely to be short. One large group of potential recipients needs a new liver because of alcohol consumption, while others suffer for reasons unrelated to their own behaviour. Should the former group receive lower priority when scarce livers are allocated? This discussion connects with one of the most pertinent issues in contemporary political philosophy; the role of p...

  17. Influence of the Flushing Response in the Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Suh, Hae Sun; Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Sung Soo; Jung, Jin Gyu; Yoon, Seok Jun; Ahn, Jae Bum

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between cardiovascular disease risk and alcohol consumption according to facial flushing after drinking among Korean men. Methods The subjects were 1,817 Korean men (non-drinker group, 283 men; drinking-related facial flushing group, 662 men; non-flushing group, 872 men) >30 years who had undergone comprehensive health examinations at the health promotion center of a Chungnam National University Hospital between 2007 and 200...

  18. A Diary Study of Implicit Self-esteem, Interpersonal Interactions and Alcohol Consumption in College Students

    OpenAIRE

    DeHart, Tracy; Tennen, Howard; Armeli, Stephen; Todd, Michael; Mohr, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    A 30-day daily diary study examined the relations among implicit self-esteem, interpersonal interactions, and alcohol consumption in college students. Multilevel analyses revealed that students with low implicit self-esteem drank more on days when they experienced more negative interpersonal interactions. In contrast, students with high implicit self-esteem drank more on days when they experienced more positive interpersonal interactions. Spending time with people who were drinking mediated b...

  19. Retinal-Image Quality and Night-Vision Performance after Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, José J.; Antonio M. Pozo; Manuel Rubiño; Anera, Rosario G; Luis Jiménez del Barco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI), and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI) to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under th...

  20. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.;

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and...... consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE....... The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3. L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews...

  1. How will alcohol sales in the UK be affected if drinkers follow government guidelines?

    OpenAIRE

    Baumberg, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The proportion of alcohol consumption that is above government guidelines ('risky drinking') has been estimated in several countries, suggesting that reductions in risky drinking would lead to significant declines in total alcohol consumption. However, this has not previously been conducted transparently in the UK. Furthermore, existing studies have under-explored the importance of several methodological decisions, as well as not closely examining the meaning of these figures for debate...

  2. Best friends and alcohol consumption in adolescence: a within-family analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelen, Evelien A P; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Der Vorst, Haske; Scholte, Ron H J; Vermulst, Ad A

    2007-05-11

    Although friends and siblings are considered to be important role models in adolescents' peer contexts, these peer influences on adolescent alcohol consumption over time are seldom examined simultaneously in a within-family design. The present study examined the relative impact of alcohol use of the best friend, adolescent sibling and sibling's best friend on the development of alcohol consumption during adolescence. Data reported in this study are part of an ongoing longitudinal questionnaire study among families with two adolescent siblings (N=416). Results from structural equation modeling showed a strong similarity in drinking between best friends and adolescents cross-sectionally. Over time, however, only marginal effects of friends alcohol use on drinking of the youngest sibling, and no effects for the oldest sibling were found. Robust evidence was found for peer-selection processes. In addition, we found a moderate to high relative similarity in drinking within sibling pairs, but no longitudinal effect of sibling's drinking. We also found no support for a possible additional influence of sibling's best friend's drinking on adolescent drinking. Therefore, we tested several potential moderating variables on peer influences, but found no effects of a set of relationship characteristics or individual characteristics on the links between peer and adolescent drinking over time. PMID:17127016

  3. [The representation of alcoholic beverages consumption for adolescents in a Family Health Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Sinara de Lima; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Gomes, Romeu; Souza, Tatiana Costa

    2010-05-01

    Alcoholic beverages consumption by adolescents is a global problem with repercussion on different social sectors. However, the reasons that cause this behavior are still little studied. This qualitative research aimed to understand the socially constructed representations of adolescents about the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in a Family Health Unit in the city of Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, Brazil. Subjects were twenty-one adolescents of both genders. Observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, followed by interpretation of meanings as data analysis. Results showed that this practice represents "to drink much", which is close to the concept of binge drinking and "to be in the group", evidencing the socializing character of drinking. It also means a rite of passage. Among the factors that influence this representation, adults' attitudes to alcohol, especially the father and media, are highlighted. It is concluded that this substance represents a symbolic capital, with contradictions regarding the issue, precariousness of protective factors and existence of vulnerability factors. Rethinking adolescent-targeted and alcohol-related public policies is needed. PMID:20464186

  4. Driving under the influence of alcohol in Cali, Colombia: prevalence and consumption patterns, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Herrera-López, Martha L; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Medina-Murillo, Jhon J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Naranjo-Lujan, Salome; Izquierdo, Edda P; Vanlaar, Ward; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2016-06-01

    This study's goal was to establish the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and alcohol consumption patterns among drivers in Cali, Colombia, in 2013. A cross-sectional study based on a roadside survey using a stratified and multi-stage sampling design was developed. Thirty-two sites were chosen randomly for the selection of drivers who were then tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and asked to participate in the survey. The prevalence of DUI was 0.88% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.26%-1.49%) with a lower prevalence when BAC was increasing. In addition, a higher prevalence was found during non-typical checkpoint hours (1.28, 95% CI -0.001%-0.03%). The overall prevalence is considered high, given the low alcohol consumption and vehicles per capita. Prevention measures are needed to reduce DUI during non-typical checkpoints and ongoing studies are required to monitor the trends and enable the assessment of interventions. PMID:25563805

  5. Smoking and γ-glutamyltransferase: opposite interactions with alcohol consumption and body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz P Breitling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking has recently been suggested to synergistically interact with alcohol intake as a determinant of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT, an emergent powerful predictor of disease and mortality. This study investigated whether this also applies to higher smoking and alcohol exposure ranges and to body mass index (BMI, which likewise is strongly associated with γ-GT. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analyses were based on occupational health examinations of more than 15,000 German male workers aged 16-64 years, predominantly from the construction industry. Sociodemographics and other health-related information were collected during the exam. Joint associations of smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with elevated or log-transformed γ-GT were examined by tabulation and multiple adjusted regression models. Cigarette smoking exerted no effect on γ-GT in teetotalers, but there was a statistically significant effect of smoking among participants with higher alcohol consumption intensity, odds of elevated γ-GT being increased by 24% and 27% per additional 10 cigarettes smoked per day in subjects drinking 61-90 and >90 gram alcohol per day, respectively (P for interaction = 0.039. The interaction was opposite for BMI, where no association was seen in obese subjects, whereas odds of elevated γ-GT were increased by 24% per 10 cigarettes below 25 kg/m(2 (P for interaction = 0.040. This novel interaction was replicable in an independent cohort. CONCLUSION: The evidence for opposite interactions of smoking with alcohol and BMI as determinants of serum γ-GT suggests that different physiological pathways are responsible for the associations between these factors.

  6. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  7. THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENT ON ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: A CASE STUDY OF CONSUMERS IN BANTAMA SUB-METRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Amoateng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The general focus of the study was to investigate the impact of advertisement on alcoholic beverage consumption at Bantama Sub-Metro in Kumasi. Objectives were to analyse the nature of advertisement of alcoholic beverages, determine factors that influence the consumption of alcoholic beverages and to examine the influence of advertisement on the consumption of alcoholic beverages. A convenient sampling, which is a non-probability sampling, was used to select 220 respondents for the study. Instruments used to collect data were questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between advertisement and alcohol consumption, which indicated a highly positive correlation. It was revealed that electronic medium was the biggest vehicle through which adverts of alcoholic beverages reach consumers. Again, consumers were more attracted to adverts that made bare the product functions or performances and musicians made the highest impact on consumption patterns of consumers among the celebrities used in adverts of alcoholic beverages among others. The alcohol brewing industries in order to assert themselves well and widen the scope of their products to their target consumers should endeavour to sponsor public events.

  8. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level. PMID:27188267

  9. Unemployment in the teens and trajectories of alcohol consumption in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Pekka; Lintonen, Tomi; Westerlund, Hugo; Nummi, Tapio; Janlert, Urban; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The unemployed are assumed to adopt unhealthy behaviours, including harmful use of alcohol. This study sought to elucidate the relations between unemployment before age 21 years and consumption of alcohol from 21 to 42 years. The design was based on the conception of youth as a sensitive period for obtaining ‘drinking scars’ that are visible up to middle age. Setting The Northern Swedish Cohort Study has followed up a population sample from 1981 to 2007 with five surveys. Participants All pupils (n=1083) attending the last year of compulsory school in Luleå participated in the baseline survey in classrooms, and 1010 of them (522 men and 488 women) participated in the last follow-up survey that was conducted at classmate reunions or by post or by phone. Outcome measure The trajectory of alcohol consumption from 21 to 43 years, obtained with latent class growth analyses, was scaled. Results Men were assigned to five and women to three consumption trajectories. The trajectory membership was regressed on accumulation of unemployment from 16 to 21 years, with multinomial logistic regression analyses. The trajectory of moderate consumption was preceded by lowest exposure to unemployment in men and in women. With reference to this, the relative risk ratios for high-level trajectory groups were 3.49 (1.25 to 9.79) in men and 1.41 (0.74 to 2.72) in women, but also the trajectories of low-level consumption were more probable (relative risk ratio 3.18 (1.12 to 9.02) in men and 2.41 (1.24 to 4.67) in women). Conclusions High-level alcohol consumption throughout adulthood is, particularly among men, partly due to ‘scars’ from youth unemployment, particularly in men, but there are also groups of men and women where unemployment in the teens predicts a trajectory of low consumption. PMID:27016242

  10. Consumo de álcool entre estudantes universitários Alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Antonio da Silva Pedrosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de álcool é estimulado pela mídia apesar dos riscos inerentes à saúde. Estudantes da área de saúde serão os futuros profissionais a orientar a população ou servir de exemplo. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o consumo de álcool e fatores relacionados nestes estudantes. Participaram 608 estudantes universitários de Maceió, Alagoas, Brasil, de ambos os sexos, mediante a aplicação de um questionário autopreenchível. Foram empregados modelos de regressão de Poisson e logística multinomial. A prevalência de uso na vida de álcool foi de 90,4%. O abuso de álcool teve uma prevalência de 18,3% nos homens e 6,1% nas mulheres. Os que apresentaram maior consumo e abuso de álcool foram os do sexo masculino, de maior idade, naturais de outras cidades, fumantes e os expostos à publicidade do álcool. Os resultados deste estudo indicam uma vulnerabilidade destes jovens para condutas com risco para a saúde. Seu papel social futuro suscita necessidades distintas de formação universitária para que possam atuar profissionalmente nesta área.Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these

  11. Quantifying mediating effects of endogenous estrogen and insulin in the relation between obesity, alcohol consumption, and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Gunter, Marc J; Lange, Theis; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Lane, Dorothy; Farhat, Ghada N; Freiberg, Matthew S; Keiding, Niels; Lee, Jennifer S; Prentice, Ross; Tjønneland, Anne; Vitolins, Mara Z; Wassertheil-Smoller, Silvia; Strickler, Howard D; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2012-01-01

    Increased exposure to endogenous estrogen and/or insulin may partly explain the relationship of obesity, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer. However, these potential mediating effects have not been formally quantified in a survival analysis setting....

  12. [Neurocognitive anomalies associated with the binge drinking pattern of alcohol consumption in adolescents and young people: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Caneda, Eduardo; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Velasquez, Teresa; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is the most common problematic drinking pattern during adolescence and youth. At the same time, it is a period marked by profound structural and functional brain changes, which may be affected by heavy alcohol consumption. In recent years, a considerable number of studies that attempt to characterize the effects of BD on the brain has been published. However, to date there is not any critical review in Spanish language on neurostructural, neurophysiological and cognitive consequences that may result from the maintenance of a BD pattern of alcohol consumption during adolescence and youth. The purpose of this review is to critically summarize the main research results on the effects of BD on the brain. To this end, a literature search in databases Web of Knowledge, PubMed and PsycINFO for the period 2000-2013 was performed. In general, studies agree that BD is associated with 1) lower performance on tasks assessing cognitive processes such as attention, memory and executive functions, 2) structural changes (in white matter and gray matter) in different brain regions and 3) neurophysiological abnormalities (hyper/hypoactivation) linked to different cognitive processes. These results, although still need to be contrasted, warn about important consequences that could result from the persistence of BD on a young and still maturing brain. PMID:25578003

  13. Gene expression in brain and liver produced by three different regimens of alcohol consumption in mice: comparison with immune activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Osterndorff-Kahanek

    Full Text Available Chronically available alcohol escalates drinking in mice and a single injection of the immune activator lipopolysaccharide can mimic this effect and result in a persistent increase in alcohol consumption. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol drinking and lipopolysaccharide injections will produce some similar molecular changes that play a role in regulation of alcohol intake. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of chronic alcohol consumption or lipopolysaccharide insult by gene expression profiling in prefrontal cortex and liver of C57BL/6J mice. We identified similar patterns of transcriptional changes among four groups of animals, three consuming alcohol (vs water in different consumption tests and one injected with lipopolysaccharide (vs. vehicle. The three tests of alcohol consumption are the continuous chronic two bottle choice (Chronic, two bottle choice available every other day (Chronic Intermittent and limited access to one bottle of ethanol (Drinking in the Dark. Gene expression changes were more numerous and marked in liver than in prefrontal cortex for the alcohol treatments and similar in the two tissues for lipopolysaccharide. Many of the changes were unique to each treatment, but there was significant overlap in prefrontal cortex for Chronic-Chronic Intermittent and for Chronic Intermittent-lipopolysaccharide and in liver all pairs showed overlap. In silico cell-type analysis indicated that lipopolysaccharide had strongest effects on brain microglia and liver Kupffer cells. Pathway analysis detected a prefrontal cortex-based dopamine-related (PPP1R1B, DRD1, DRD2, FOSB, PDNY network that was highly over-represented in the Chronic Intermittent group, with several genes from the network being also regulated in the Chronic and lipopolysaccharide (but not Drinking in the Dark groups. Liver showed a CYP and GST centered metabolic network shared in part by all four treatments. We demonstrate common consequences of chronic alcohol

  14. A theory-based behavior-change intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in undergraduate students: Trial protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hagger, Martin S; Wong, Ging Ging; Davey, Simon R

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption on single occasions among undergraduate students is a major health issue as research has shown this pattern of drinking to be related to maladaptive health and psychosocial outcomes. Brief, theory-based interventions targeting motivation and self-control as behavior-change techniques have been identified as effective means to reduce alcohol consumption, but few studies have examined the interactive effects of these components. The aim of the present st...

  15. How well does the theory of planned behaviour predict alcohol consumption? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Richard; Dahdah, Mary; Norman, Paul; French, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify correlations between theory of planned behaviour (TPB) variables and (i) intentions to consume alcohol and (ii) alcohol consumption. Systematic literature searches identified 40 eligible studies that were meta-analysed. Three moderator analyses were conducted: pattern of consumption, gender of participants and age of participants. Across studies, intentions had the strongest relationship with attitudes (r + = .62), followed by subjective norms (r + = .47) and perc...

  16. Social work assessment of underage alcohol consumption: Non-specialised social services comparison between Sweden and Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Guidi Paolo; Placido Matteo Di

    2015-01-01

    AIM - This research contributes to highlighting social work assessment of family situations with underage alcohol consumption and abuse. The comparative study invites reflection on the main features influencing an initial approach to adolescent problematic alcohol consumption outside specialised addiction services. DESIGN - The study is based on a cross-national comparison. A questionnaire including a vignette story of a young girl (“Nadja”) and her family was submitted to thirty-five social ...

  17. Self-medication, substance abuse and alcohol consumption in students attending to La Plata National university, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Gustavo Horacio; Cañás, Martín; Carlson, Soledad; Silvestrini, M. P.; Corva, S. G.; Mestorino, Olga Nora; Errecalde & Gis, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The World Health Organization raises self-care as a strategy for health promotion. Although self-medication is included in self-care strategy, often it is associate to an irrational medicine's usage. This factor associated with illicit drugs and alcohol consumption becomes in a public health problem. In order to establish frequency of self-medication and the prevalence of illicit drugs and alcohol consumption among university students of La Plata, Argentina, was started the presen...

  18. Black Generation Y students' attitudes towards the demarketing of smoking and alcohol consumption / Christiaan Rudolf Quintus Roets

    OpenAIRE

    Roets, Christiaan Rudolf Quintus

    2013-01-01

    As societies across the world are facing grim problems regarding the consumption of tobacco products and alcohol, the Governments of these societies are adapting their strategies to reduce the consumption of these harmful products. These demarketing strategies are implemented to discourage the use of these products and increase the health of consumers. These strategies include a strenuous legal limit when driving under the influence of alcohol, enforcing the placement of warning labels on bot...

  19. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Bortolin Lodi; Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva Marchini; Ana Maria do Espírito Santo; Sigmar de Mello Rode; Leonardo Marchini; Rosilene Fernandes da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided...

  20. Alcohol Drinking does not Affect Postoperative Surgical Site Infection or Anastomotic Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabanzadeh, Daniel Mønsted; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse appears to increase postoperative complications, but clinical trials have reported conflicting results. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to clarify how alcohol drinking affects postoperative surgical site infection and anastomotic leakage and to determine...... the impact of perioperative alcohol intervention....

  1. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Godfrey

    Full Text Available Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total or were given access only to water (control. Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4-desaturase (Degs2, an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels

  2. Alcoholic beverage preference and diet in a representative Dutch population: the Dutch national food consumption survey 2007-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluik, D.; Lee, van L.; Geelen, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The habitual consumption of a specific type of alcoholic beverage may be related to the overall dietary pattern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary intake in The Netherlands. Subjects/Me

  3. Chronic alcohol consumption disrupts myocardial protein balance and function in aged, but not adult, female F344 rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Charles H; Korzick, Donna H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the deleterious effect of chronic alcohol consumption differs in adult and aged female rats. To address this aim, adult (4 mo) and aged (18 mo) F344 rats were fed a nutritionally complete liquid diet containing alcohol (36% total calories) or an isocaloric isonitrogenous control diet for 20 wk. Cardiac structure and function, assessed by echocardiography, as well as myocardial protein synthesis and proteolysis did not differ in either alcohol- v...

  4. Alcohol consumption among patients with hepatitis B infection in northern Portugal considering gender and hepatitis B virus genotype differences

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, A.; Guedes, F.; J. Areias; Pinho, L.; M. Cardoso

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol. 2010 Mar;44(2):149-56. Epub 2010 Jan 29. Alcohol consumption among patients with hepatitis B infection in northern Portugal considering gender and hepatitis B virus genotype differences. Mota A, Guedes F, Areias J, Pinho L, Cardoso MF. SourceInstituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Portugal. Abstract Alcohol abuse is an important public health problem. In Portugal with a population of 10 millions of inhabitants, there are around 10% of alc...

  5. [Alcohol consumption in men punished for intimate partner violence: individual and contextual factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with violence against women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between alcohol and other relevant variables in the intervention with men convicted of intimate partner violence, both at the individual and contextual spheres. Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem, Assumption of responsibility, Intimate support perception, Social rejection perception, Accumulation of stressful life events, Income perception and Social support in community are assessed in a sample of 291 participants in an intervention program for men condemned for intimate partner violence. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations and ANOVAs. Statistically significant differences were obtained among Risk consumers and Not risk consumers in Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem and Attribution of blame to personal context as individual variables and Intimate support perception, Social rejection and Accumulation of stressful life events as contextual variables. Results of previous work are confirmed and the importance of considering social factors in the participants' environment when considering decreasing alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence is demonstrated. New tools for enhancing interventions in rehabilitation programs with men convicted for violence against women is provided. PMID:23487276

  6. Reduced Contextual Discrimination following Alcohol Consumption or MDMA Administration in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Emily M.; García-Gutiérrez, María S.; Moscoso-Castro, María; Manzanares, Jorge; Valverde, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The recreational drugs, alcohol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) have both been shown to cause immune activation in vivo, and they are linked to cognitive impairment and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. The neuronal effects of these drugs in the hippocampal area, an area that has been a focus of studies aiming to explain the mechanisms underlying anxiety related-disorders, remains poorly understood. Therefore we investigated the specific inflammatory impact of alcohol and MDMA on this area of the brain and on a hippocampal-related behavioral task. We centered our study on two inflammatory factors linked to anxiety-related disorders, namely Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We subjected drug-consuming mice to a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate general activity, anxiety-like and depressive-live behaviors. We then introduced them to a contextual fear discrimination task and immune-related effects were examined by immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Our results suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of immune activated pathways by voluntary alcohol consumption and a high-dose MDMA. Furthermore, the ability of mice to perform a contextual fear discrimination task was impaired by drug consumption and we report long term inflammatory alterations in the hippocampus even several weeks after drug intake. This information will be helpful for discovering new selective drug targets, and to develop treatments and preventive approaches for patients with anxiety-related disorders. PMID:26566284

  7. Trait-based Affective Processes in Alcohol-Involved Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Wray, Tyler B.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Gaher, Raluca M.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model of alcohol use, markers of extreme intoxication, and risk behavior as a function of trait affect, distress tolerance, and affect-based behavior dysregulation. Positive affective pathways to risk behavior were primarily expected to be indirect via high levels of alcohol use, while negative affect paths were expected to be more directly associated with engagement in risk behavior. In addition, we expected trait affectivity and distress tolerance would prima...

  8. Brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in accident and emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin eWojnar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of alcohol abuse among patients treated in accident and emergency departments (A&E is considered substantial. This paper is a narrative review of studies investigating the effectiveness of brief interventions (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption in A&E. A&E departments in hospitals (and other health care infrastructures are commonly the place where serious consequences of alcohol drinking are seen and need to be tackled, supporting the suggested theoretical usefulness of delivering brief interventions in this environment. Available research shows that brief interventions (BI may be considered a valuable technique for dealing with alcohol-related problems. However, it is suggested that the usefulness of BI may depend significantly on the target population to be dealt with. BI have proved to be beneficial for male individuals and those patients who do not abuse other psychoactive substances. In contrast, evidence indicates that brief interventions in A&E settings are not effective at all when dealing with men admitted as a consequence of a violence-related event. In addition, some studies were unable to confirm the effectiveness of BI in female population, in emergency setting. Studies investigating the association between drinking patterns and the effectiveness of brief interventions also present inconsistent results. Most studies assessing the effectiveness of BI in A&E settings only adopted a short perspective (looking at the impact up to a maximum of twelve months after the BI was delivered. When assessing the effects of BI, both the amount of alcohol consumed as well as expected reductions in alcohol consequences, such as injuries, can be taken into account. Evidence on the implementation of brief intervention in emergency departments remains inconclusive as to whether there are clear benefits. A variety of outcome measures and assessing procedures were used in the different studies, which have investigated this

  9. The Effects of Recession on Finnish Alcohol Consumption : Concentration on brewery industry in comparison to the recession in Finland 1990 - 1993

    OpenAIRE

    Leps, Eneli

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find and answer to a question: How will the economic slowdown affect the Finnish brewery industry and can the results of the recession in the beginning of the 90’s apply today? Finland faced a deep recession in the beginning of the 90’s and as a result the consumption of medium beers and wines increased, even though the total consumption of 100% alcohol by volume decreased. Both qualitative and quantitative research methodology was utilised in this study. ...

  10. Computed tomography of the brain, hepatotoxic drugs and high alcohol consumption in male alcoholic patients and a random sample from the general male population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) of the brain was performed in a random sample of a total of 195 men and 211 male alcoholic patients admitted for the first time during a period of two years from the same geographically limited area of Greater Stockholm as the sample. Laboratory tests were performed, including liver and pancreatic tests. Toxicological screening was performed and the consumption of hepatotoxic drugs was also investigated. The groups were then subdivided with respect to alcohol consumption and use of hepatotoxic drugs: group IA, men from the random sample with low or moderate alcohol consumption and no use of hepatotoxic drugs; IB, men from the random sample with low or moderate alcohol consumption with use of hepatotoxic drugs; IIA, alcoholic inpatients with use of alcohol and no drugs; and IIB, alcoholic inpatients with use of alcohol and drugs. Group IIB was found to have a higher incidence of cortical and subcortical changes than group IA. Group IB had a higher incidence of subcortical changes than group IA, and they differed only in drug use. Groups IIN and IIA only differed in drug use, and IIB had a higher incidence of brian damage except for anterior horn index and wide cerebellar sulci indicating vermian atrophy. Significantly higher serum levels of bilirubin, GGT, ASAT, ALAT, CK LD, and amylase were found in IIB. The results indicate that drug use influences the incidence of cortical and subcortical aberrations, except anterior horn index. It is concluded that the groups with alcohol abuse who used hepatotoxic drugs showed a picture of cortical changes (wide transport sulci and clear-cut of high-grade cortical changes) and also of subcortical aberrations, expressed as an increased widening on the third ventricle

  11. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P.;

    2016-01-01

    ), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol...... consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE...

  12. Consumo de alcohol y drogas en estudiantes de Pachuca, Hidalgo Alcohol and drug consumption among students from Pachuca, Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Rojas-Guiot

    1999-07-01

    y los consumidores de otras drogas, a diferencia de lo que sucede con los abstemios, presentaron más problemas al destinar su tiempo libre a actividades como irse a beber con amigos, exhibir más conductas antisociales y tener un distanciamiento de la familia que se refleja en la baja participación en actividades compartidas, en el desinterés por cumplir con sus normas y en la percepción de conflictos al interior de la misma.OBJECTIVE. To determine the prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and its relationship to sociodemographic variables, leisure activities, antisocial behavior, family norms and conflicts, among others. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Data derive from a representative survey of 1 929 students of junior high and high school, conducted in 1996 in the city of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Of these, 44.9% were boys and 52.5% were girls; mean age was 14. A self-applied questionnaire, prepared by the WHO together with some countries, among them Mexico, was completed by the studied subjects, and included indicators of alcohol and drug consumption. RESULTS. Of the total sample, 47.9% had tried alcohol, and 12.6% had drunk large quantities -5 drinks or more per sitting- during the month previous to the survey. Preferred drinks are beer and "coolers", which they buy at shops where no identification is required and drink at home or at friend's homes. With respect to drugs, 5.1% had tried illegal or medical drugs without prescription, in particular inhalants, marihuana and tranquilizers. More boys consumed illegal drugs, and more girls medical drugs without prescription. Boys, who are also older, more frequently consumed alcohol and drugs and were more often employed during the previous year at part-time jobs. High alcohol level and drug consumers were characterized by their frequent report of being bored in their free time, drinking with friends and enrolling in antisocial behavior. With respect to family norms, they follow them less and show less interest in

  13. Novel QTL at chromosome 6p22 for alcohol consumption: Implications for the genetic liability of alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Mark Z; Glahn, David C; Carless, Melanie A; Olvera, Rene; McKay, D Reese; Quillen, Ellen E; Gelernter, Joel; Chen, Xiang-Ding; Deng, Hong-Wen; Kent, Jack W; Dyer, Thomas D; Göring, Harald H H; Curran, Joanne E; Duggirala, Ravi; Blangero, John; Almasy, Laura

    2014-06-01

    Linkage studies of alcoholism have implicated several chromosome regions, leading to the successful identification of susceptibility genes, including ADH4 and GABRA2 on chromosome 4. Quantitative endophenotypes that are potentially closer to gene action than clinical endpoints offer a means of obtaining more refined linkage signals of genes that predispose alcohol use disorders (AUD). In this study we examine a self-reported measure of the maximum number of drinks consumed in a 24-hr period (abbreviated Max Drinks), a significantly heritable phenotype (h(2)  = 0.32 ± 0.05; P = 4.61 × 10(-14)) with a strong genetic correlation with AUD (ρg  = 0.99 ± 0.13) for the San Antonio Family Study (n = 1,203). Genome-wide SNPs were analyzed using variance components linkage methods in the program SOLAR, revealing a novel, genome-wide significant QTL (LOD = 4.17; P = 5.85 × 10(-6)) for Max Drinks at chromosome 6p22.3, a region with a number of compelling candidate genes implicated in neuronal function and psychiatric illness. Joint analysis of Max Drinks and AUD status shows that the QTL has a significant non-zero effect on diagnosis (P = 4.04 × 10(-3)), accounting for 8.6% of the total variation. Significant SNP associations for Max Drinks were also identified at the linkage region, including one, rs7761213 (P = 2.14 × 10(-4)), obtained for an independent sample of Chinese families. Thus, our study identifies a potential risk locus for AUD at 6p22.3, with significant pleiotropic effects on the heaviness of alcohol consumption that may not be population specific. PMID:24692236

  14. Mutual support groups to reduce alcohol consumption by pregnant women: marketing implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M A; Coleman, N C; Murray, J P

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of social support and alcohol consumption of 153 women during pregnancy. The majority of women changed their alcohol intake patterns during pregnancy because of concern for the health of the fetus. Most women decreased the amount and frequency of drinking and changed their beverage of choice. Social support was found to be significantly related to reduction in alcohol use during pregnancy. Social support came from relationships with specific individuals and groups of individuals. Health care providers may be able to extend the range of their work by designing specific prevention strategies targeted toward the development and implementation of mutual support groups for pregnant women. The marketing discipline has identified certain characteristics of the mutual benefit association, an organization which exists exclusively for the benefit of its members. The authors propose that the mutual support group, often used to promote health-related behaviors, is a special case of the mutual benefit association; further, that appropriate application of established marketing principles and practices will be effective in promulgating the mutual support group. The authors offer a marketing strategy for the mutual support of pregnant women, a strategy which should be effective in further reducing the alcohol intake of pregnant women. PMID:10105907

  15. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy as risk factors for sudden infant death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell-Naughton, M

    2012-04-01

    A population based case control study was conducted to examine alcohol consumption and maternal smoking during pregnancy and the risk of SIDS in an Irish population. Each SIDS case (n = 287) was compared with control infants (n = 832) matched for date and place of birth for infants born from 1994 to 2001. Conditional logistic regression was used to investigate differences between Cases and Controls establishing Odds Ratio\\'s (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Mothers who smoked were 3 times more likely to have a SIDS Case, and a dose response effect was apparent, with mothers smoking 1-10 cigarettes\\/day OR 2.93 (CI 1.50-5.71), and those smoking > 10 cigarettes\\/day OR 4.36 (CI 2.50-7.61). More Case mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy than Control mothers and, within drinkers, the amount of alcohol consumed was also greater (p < 0.05). A dose response with frequency of drinking was apparent. The adjusted odds ratio for those consuming alcohol in all three trimesters was 3.59 (CI:1.40-9.20). Both of these risk factors are modifiable and need to be incorporated into antenatal education from a SIDS point of view.

  16. The Role of Peers and Parents in Predicting Alcohol Consumption among Chilean Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    This study estimated marginal associations of parent- and peer-related measures to examine the different patterns of lifetime ever-use and frequency of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Santiago, Chile (N=918). Probit and negative binomial models were applied to predict the probability of ever-use and the average number of drinks consumed in the past 30 days. Results supported the profound role of peer-relationships in the development of youth drinking behavior. Particularly, peer pressure seemed more important in predicting alcohol ever-use than the frequency of drinking. Simultaneously, parents, especially fathers, played a crucial protective role. Policies aimed at preventing various drinking patterns may be more effective if they not only focus on the targeted adolescents, but also reach out to peers and parents. PMID:24489979

  17. Consumption of alcoholic beverages, driving vehicles, a balance of dry law, Brazil 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the trend in frequency of adults who drive under the influence of alcohol in major Brazilian cities after the passing of laws, which prohibit drunk driving. Data from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey (VIGITEL between 2007 and 2013 were analyzed. The frequency of adults who drove after abusive alcohol consumption was reduced by 45.0% during this period (2.0% in 2007 to 1.1% in 2013. Between 2007 and 2008 (-0.5% and between 2012 and 2013 (-0.5%, significant reductions were observed in the years immediately after the publication of these laws that prohibit drunk driving. These improvements towards the control of drunk driving show a change in the Brazilian population’s lifestyle.

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  19. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P Christian women (OR 4.87 P Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon. PMID:21286816

  20. Maternal Alcohol Consumption During the Perinatal and Early Parenting Period: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2016-02-01

    Objectives Despite potential health risks for women and children, one in five women report alcohol use during pregnancy and a significant proportion of those who quit during pregnancy return to drinking post-delivery. This study seeks to understand the longitudinal patterns of alcohol consumption before, during pregnancy and post-delivery, and the role of maternal characteristics for purposes of informing prevention design. Methods General growth mixture models were used to describe the average developmental patterns of maternal weekly drinking quantity at six time points, from preconception through child entering kindergarten, as well as heterogeneity in these patterns among 9100 mothers from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study representing the 2001 US national birth cohort. Results Four distinct classes of mothers were defined by their longitudinal alcohol consumption patterns: Low Probability Drinkers (50.3 %), Escalating Risk Drinkers (12.0 %), Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (27.4 %), and Early Parenting Quitters (10.2 %). Heterogeneous covariate associations were observed. For example, mothers who gave birth after age 36 were twice as likely to be Escalating Risk Drinkers and Escalating Low Risk Drinkers (vs Low Probability Drinkers), but not more likely to be Early Parenting Quitters, when compared to mothers who gave birth between the ages of 26 and 35. Conclusions for practice There is significant heterogeneity in maternal longitudinal alcohol use patterns during the perinatal period. Baseline maternal characteristics and behavior associated with these heterogeneous patterns provide valuable tools to identify potential risky drinkers during this critical time period and may be synthesized to tailor pre- and postnatal clinical counseling protocols. PMID:26520156

  1. An alternative to standard drinks as a measure of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, L A; Graves, K

    2000-01-01

    Despite the field's longstanding concern with underreporting of alcohol consumption, traditional survey questions encourage error because respondents often must calculate their number of drinks based on standard drink sizes that often do not match their own drinking style. This study considered how often respondents' self-defined drink sizes matched a 'standard' drink size based on approximately 12 g of ethanol for six different beverages. We also studied whether respondents could accurately judge the size of their drinks. Subjects were recruited and interviewed at urban prenatal clinics, health clinics, and via snowball referrals and community outreach in Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area. Because of the urgency of accurate measurement of consumption during pregnancy, urban pregnant women from the groups most at risk for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Native Americans (n = 102) and African Americans (185), were targeted. A small comparison group of urban pregnant white women (n = 34) was included. One-hour in-person interviews were conducted. Self-defined drink sizes were determined for each beverage consumed, using models and photographs of vessels. Frequent drinkers and the majority of women who reported drinking higher alcohol content beverages reported drinking larger-than-standard drink sizes. The median size of a malt liquor drink among the daily drinkers was almost three times as large as the standard, their fortified wine drinks were four times the standard, and their spirits drinks were six times the standard size. The majority of drinkers of each beverage were unable to accurately judge the size of their drinks, underestimating the number of fluid ounces by about 30%. Although the vessels methodology used here must be refined and tested further on other populations (e.g., men, nonpregnant women, and all ethnic groups), results suggest that determination of risk levels should be based on survey data that takes into consideration the beverage mix and the

  2. A model for lesbian, bisexual and queer-related influences on alcohol consumption and implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Ruth; Pennay, Amy; Hughes, Tonda; Brown, Rhonda; Leonard, William; Lubman, Dan I

    2016-04-01

    Research consistently reports higher rates of problematic drinking among lesbian, bisexual and queer women than among heterosexual women, but relatively little research has identified underlying factors. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to qualitatively explore the sociocultural influences on alcohol consumption among lesbian, bisexual and queer women in Australia. An ethnographic study including in-depth interviews and 10 sessions of participant observation was conducted with 25 Australian lesbian, bisexual and queer women. Analysis of transcripts and fieldnotes focused on lesbian, bisexual and queer-related influences on alcohol consumption. Three lesbian, bisexual and queer-related factors were identified that influenced alcohol use: (1) coping, (2) connection and (3) intersections with lesbian, bisexual and queer identity. Most participants reported consuming alcohol to cope with discrimination or to connect with like-minded others. Alcohol use had positive influences for some women through facilitating social connection and wellbeing. Women with a high lesbian, bisexual and queer identity salience were more likely to seek lesbian, bisexual and queer community connection involving alcohol, to publicly identify as lesbian, bisexual and queer and to experience discrimination. National policies need to address underlying causes of discrimination against lesbian, bisexual and queer women. Alcohol policies and clinical interventions should acknowledge the impact of discrimination on higher alcohol consumption amongst lesbian, bisexual and queer women compared with heterosexual women, and should utilise health promotion messages regarding safe drinking that facilitate lesbian, bisexual and queer social connection. PMID:26466746

  3. Impact of maternal negative affectivity on light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Torgersen, Leila; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy.......To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity, a tendency to frequent negative emotions and views, is associated with light alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy....

  4. Urocortin 1 microinjection into the mouse lateral septum regulates the acquisition and expression of alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Yoneyama, Naomi; Tanchuck, Michelle A.; Mark, Gregory P.; Finn, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies using genetic and lesion approaches have shown that the neuropeptide Urocortin 1 (Ucn1) is involved in regulating alcohol consumption. Ucn1 is a corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-like peptide that binds CRF1 and CRF2 receptors. Perioculomotor urocortin-containing neurons (pIIIu), also known as the non-preganglionic Edinger-Westphal nucleus, are the major source of Ucn1 in the brain and are known to innervate the lateral septum. Thus, the present study tested whether Ucn1 c...

  5. Drinking in the last chance saloon: luck egalitarianism, alcohol consumption, and the organ transplant waiting list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of livers available for transplants forces tough choices upon us. Lives for those not receiving a transplant are likely to be short. One large group of potential recipients needs a new liver because of alcohol consumption, while others suffer for reasons unrelated to their own...... behaviour. Should the former group receive lower priority when scarce livers are allocated? This discussion connects with one of the most pertinent issues in contemporary political philosophy; the role of personal responsibility in distributive justice. One prominent theory of distributive justice, luck...

  6. The prevalence of alcohol consumption among the students newly enrolled at a public university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Silva Toledo Brandão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Alcohol is the number one toxic substance consumed by people of all age groups, which makes its use a public health problem. The overall trend shows that university students are those who suffer the most pressure. Objective : To assess the prevalence of alcohol use among students newly enrolled at a public university in Alagoas, Brazil. Materials and Methods : We conducted an analytical sectional study at the Federal University of Alagoas, with 1435 (44% of total newly enrolled students of all courses in 2006. They answered a questionnaire based on the CAGE. Some points such as sex, age, marital status, course, housing, family characteristics and how drugs fit into in the student life were studied with the resources of EpiInfo version 3.3.2. The survey was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Federal University of Alagoas (number 000878/2005-17. Results : Of the group studied, 95.9% lived with family and 87.6% reported ever drinking alcohol at some time in their life. Of all the respondents, 55.4% of men reported having the habit of drinking with friends or colleagues (Odds = 0.71; CI = 0.58-0.88; P -value = 0.00088. Among all respondents, 17.7% of male students and 9.8% females skipped class after using alcohol (Odds = 0.52; CI = 0.38-0.72; P -value = 0.000023. The transition from adolescence to youth and study time at university is marked by greater vulnerability to alcohol abuse. The family is decisive for the initiation of alcohol use, and the university is a factor that increases the possibility of maintaining the practice. The fact that not all students were present in the classroom at the time of the application questionnaire may have limited the search because this was a sectional study. Conclusion : Alcohol consumption in this university is similar to that in other higher education institutions in the world, which is a cause for concern, since the external lesions are accentuated with the practice of using

  7. Alcohol consumption among Brazilian Adolescents according to the National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among Brazilian students and identify the sociodemographic factors associated alcohol consumption in the last 30 days. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a cluster sample of 109,104 9th grade students in Brazilian public and private schools in 2012. The prevalence and 95% confidence intervals of the indicators of alcohol consumption were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the students analyzed, 50.3% (95%CI 49.0 - 51.6 experimented one dose of alcoholic beverages or more. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was 26.1% (95%CI 24.5 - 27.7, and there was no difference in prevalence between students from public and private schools. Drunkenness episodes were reported by 21.8% (95%CI 21.1 - 22.5 of the students. The perception of students about the negative reaction of their family if they came home drunk occurred in 89,7% (95%CI 89,6 - 89,9 of cases, and 10% (95%CI 8.9 - 11.1 of them reported having problems with their families or friends because they had been drinking. Among adolescents aged less than 14 years old, the first alcoholic drink intake was predominantly at 12 to 13 years old. The most common way to get a drink was at parties, with friends, buying in them in supermarkets, stores or bars and at home. The consumption of alcohol in the last 30 days was less frequent among boys, increasing with age. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates the extension of alcohol as a problem, making it important to advance in measures such as the improvement of protective legislation for children and adolescents and stricter enforcement in alcohol sales.

  8. Alcohol consumption and the risk of morbidity and mortality for different stroke types - a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roerecke Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Observational studies have suggested a complex relationship between alcohol consumption and stroke, dependent on sex, type of stroke and outcome (morbidity vs. mortality. We undertook a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies assessing the association between levels of average alcohol consumption and relative risks of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes separately by sex and outcome. This meta-analysis is the first to explicitly separate morbidity and mortality of alcohol-attributable stroke and thus has implications for public health and prevention. Methods Using Medical Subject Headings (alcohol drinking, ethanol, cerebrovascular accident, cerebrovascular disorders, and intracranial embolism and thrombosis and the key word stroke, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science databases between 1980 to June 2009 was performed followed by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles. From twenty-six observational studies (cohort or case-control with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes the relative risk or odds ratios or hazard ratios of stroke associated with alcohol consumption were reported; alcohol consumption was quantified; and life time abstention (manually estimated where data for current abstainers were given was used as the reference group. Two reviewers independently extracted the information on study design, participant characteristics, level of alcohol consumption, stroke outcome, control for potential confounding factors, risk estimates and key criteria of study quality using a standardized protocol. Results The dose-response relationship for hemorrhagic stroke had monotonically increasing risk for increasing consumption, whereas ischemic stroke showed a curvilinear relationship, with a protective effect of alcohol for low to moderate consumption, and increased risk for higher exposure. For more than 3 drinks on average/day, in general women had

  9. Effect of voluntary alcohol consumption on Maoa expression in the mesocorticolimbic brain of adult male rats previously exposed to prolonged maternal separation. : Maoa,ELS and alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Bendre, Megha; Comasco, Erika; Nylander, Ingrid; Nilsson, Kent W.

    2015-01-01

    Discordant associations between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and high alcohol drinking have been reported in human and non-human primates. Environmental influences likely moderate genetic susceptibility. The biological basis for this interplay remains elusive, and inconsistencies call for translational studies in which conditions can be controlled and brain tissue is accessible. The present study investigated whether early life stress and subsequent adult episodic alcohol consumption a...

  10. Maternal alcohol consumption in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa – Research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. DeRoo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a valuable resource for the study of the effects of maternal alcohol consumption. MoBa’s strengths include a population-based sample of over 107,000 pregnancies, concurrent and retrospective assessment of maternal prenatal and postnatal alcohol consumption, and prospective follow-up for pregnancy and child outcomes. Direct questions were asked on the frequency, dose and timing of maternal alcohol consumption. Screening tools including the T-ACE and partial Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index were used to identify women at risk for drinking during pregnancy. Comprehensive information on potential confounders was collected including maternal medical history, reproductive history, smoking, and other substance use. The detailed alcohol data allow the differentiation between non-binge and binge-level drinking, important for studying different thresholds of exposure. The availability of maternal and infant DNA enables the study of genetic differences in alcohol metabolism. Besides conventional analyses, sibship studies of differentially exposed siblings can be conducted among the offspring of over 15,000 women who participated in the study for more than one pregnancy. Although there are low levels of social disadvantage in Norway (poverty increases the risk of harms from prenatal drinking, binge drinking is a common pattern of consumption and previous studies found that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is not uncommon. Here, I provide a brief review of prenatal alcohol literature and measurement issues, describe MoBa alcohol variables, and discuss how MoBa can contribute to maternal alcohol research within the context of Norway.

  11. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  12. Production Increasing and Consumption Reducing for Low Pressure Alcoholization and Alkylation Unit%低压醇烃化系统提产降耗优化措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳

    2013-01-01

    The problems affect normal operation and high consumption of the unit during trial production , w hich include low methanol production , the alcoholization and alkylation unit not being able to maintain autothermal equilibrium and the high content trace organic impurities to cause the ammonia plant operation fluctuation etc . After analyzing the reasons and taking optimization measures , the production is increased and consumption is reduced in the alcoholization and alkylation unit .%基于试生产过程中出现的甲醇产量低、醇烃化系统不能维持自热平衡、出口微量高导致合成氨系统波动大等影响系统正常运行且消耗高的问题,分析其原因,制定优化措施,从而降低了能耗,提高了产量。

  13. The effect of alcohol consumption on the adolescent brain: A systematic review of MRI and fMRI studies of alcohol-using youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W. Feldstein Ewing

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption during adolescence was associated with significant differences in structure and function in the developing human brain. However, this is a nascent field, with several limiting factors (including small sample sizes, cross-sectional designs, presence of confounding factors within many of the reviewed studies, meaning that results should be interpreted in light of the preliminary state of the field. Future longitudinal and large-scale studies are critical to replicate the existing findings, and to provide a more comprehensive and conclusive picture of the effect of alcohol consumption on the developing brain.

  14. Risk Factors of Alcohol Consumption among Portuguese Adolescents and Young Adults: Data from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre P

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the literature regarding the risks for alcohol abuse, particularly at young ages. The current study aimed to contribute to this topic by assessing the role of the relevant predictors on alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults. The sample comprised 364 participants (202 female that were assessed with the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS - alcohol module, which addresses individual, family and social/environmental risk and protective factors on alcohol consumption. The outcome was defined as alcohol consumption severity in the last 30 days, assessed through a particular item of the GSHS. The regression analyses showed that the strongest predictors that may explain alcohol consumption were earlier onset of alcohol abuse and get into trouble because of alcohol abuse, although other risk factors related to exposure to Internet advertisements about alcohol might also explain alcohol consumption in young ages. The role of peers, particularly as regards to accepting drinks from friends was also a relevant predictor of alcohol consumption. Given these results, we consider that is important to ensure that alcohol advertising does not become available to children and adolescents, especially over the Internet. The results highlight also the importance of parents in supervising their children’s behaviour mainly at a young age where alcohol initiation could have greater impact.

  15. Emergency room visits due to external causes and alcohol consumption - Capitals and the Federal District, Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to describe the profile and factors related to alcohol consumption among emergency room visits by external causes. It is a cross-sectional study with data from the Survey of Violence and Injuries in Emergency between September and October 2011, in 24 state capitals and the Federal District. Statistical analysis were performed for all cases treated in selected services, comparing the characteristics of the victims, according to the statement of alcohol consumption. 33,289 visits to emergency rooms by external causes in the population above 18 years of age were included. The prevalence of self-reported statement of alcohol consumption among these services was 14.9% for the 24 capitals and the Federal District, and was significantly higher among visits by violent causes than by accidents. For both accidents and violence the associated causes were victims male, black/brown, less educated, members of specific populations, occurrences on public roads. The results support global discussions on the importance of establishing policies and legal measures to restrict the consumption of alcohol and vehicular direction, control advertising of alcoholic beverages, and laws normalizing the functioning of sales points of alcoholic beverages.

  16. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood samples from "driving under the influence" cases as indicator for prolonged excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Alexandra; Hernández Redondo, Ana; Martin Fabritius, Marie; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is considered as specific biomarker of alcohol consumption. Due to accumulation after repeated drinking, PEth is suitable to monitor long-term drinking behavior. To examine the applicability of PEth in "driving under the influence of alcohol" cases, 142 blood samples with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranging from 0.0-3.12‰ were analyzed for the presence of PEth homologues 16:0/18:1 (889 ± 878 ng/mL; range analysis, PEth thresholds were evaluated to differentiate moderate and excessive alcohol consumption with acceptable sensitivity and specificity in accordance with the 1.6‰ BAC limit. With a threshold of 700 ng/mL for PEth 16:0/18:1, prolonged excessive alcohol consumption was detected in 65.9% of drunk drivers with a BAC ≥ 1.6‰ and in 31.6% of the samples with a BAC habits in 88.7% of blood samples. These results show the possibility to detect prolonged excessive alcohol consumption, even if the BAC is below the legal threshold of 1.6‰ for driving aptitude assessment. As a consequence, concentrations of PEth 16:0/18:1 ≥ 700 ng/mL and of PEth 16:0/18:2 ≥ 300 ng/mL may be considered as indicators for the necessity of driving aptitude assessment in addition to BAC. PMID:26671597

  17. β-endorphin regulates alcohol consumption induced by exercise restriction in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Colleen E; Nentwig, Todd B; Wilson, Diane E; Rhinehart, Erin M; Grisel, Judith E

    2016-06-01

    Animal models have long been used to study the mechanisms underlying the complex association between alcohol and stress. Female mice prevented from running on a home-cage activity wheel increase voluntary ethanol consumption. β-endorphin is an endogenous opioid involved in negatively regulating the stress response and has also been implicated in the risk for excessive drinking. The present study investigates the role of β-endorphin in moderating free-choice consumption of ethanol in response to a blocked activity wheel. Female, transgenic mice with varying levels of the opioid peptide were given daily 2-h access to 20% ethanol with rotations on a running wheel blocked on alternate days. Subjects with low β-endorphin exhibited enhanced stress sensitivity by self-administering larger quantities of ethanol on days when wheel running was prevented. β-endorphin levels did not influence voluntary activity on the running wheel. There were genotypic differences in plasma corticosterone levels as well as corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA content in multiple brain regions associated with the stress response in these free drinking and running subjects. Susceptibility to stress is enhanced in female mice with low levels of β-endorphin, and better understanding of the role for this opioid in mitigating the response to stressors may aid in the development of interventions and treatments for excessive use of alcohol in women. PMID:27286936

  18. On-line randomized controlled trial of an internet based psychologically enhanced intervention for people with hazardous alcohol consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wallace

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interventions delivered via the Internet have the potential to address the problem of hazardous alcohol consumption at minimal incremental cost, with potentially major public health implications. It was hypothesised that providing access to a psychologically enhanced website would result in greater reductions in drinking and related problems than giving access to a typical alcohol website simply providing information on potential harms of alcohol. DYD-RCT Trial registration: ISRCTN 31070347. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A two-arm randomised controlled trial was conducted entirely on-line through the Down Your Drink (DYD website. A total of 7935 individuals who screened positive for hazardous alcohol consumption were recruited and randomized. At entry to the trial, the geometric mean reported past week alcohol consumption was 46.0 (SD 31.2 units. Consumption levels reduced substantially in both groups at the principal 3 month assessment point to an average of 26.0 (SD 22.3 units. Similar changes were reported at 1 month and 12 months. There were no significant differences between the groups for either alcohol consumption at 3 months (intervention: control ratio of geometric means 1.03, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.10 or for this outcome and the main secondary outcomes at any of the assessments. The results were not materially changed following imputation of missing values, nor was there any evidence that the impact of the intervention varied with baseline measures or level of exposure to the intervention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Findings did not provide support for the hypothesis that access to a psychologically enhanced website confers additional benefit over standard practice and indicate the need for further research to optimise the effectiveness of Internet-based behavioural interventions. The trial demonstrates a widespread and potentially sustainable demand for Internet based interventions for people with hazardous alcohol consumption

  19. Alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer in Brazil: A study involving 203,506 cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Raquel Ferreira; Bergmann, Anke; de Aguiar, Suzana Sales; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of developing the most common types of cancer in the Brazilian population. It is a case-control study in which the most common types of cancer were considered as cases and non-melanoma skin cancers as controls. Data were routinely obtained by hospital-based cancer registrars. Individuals between 18 and 100 years old, diagnosed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2009, with information regarding alcohol consumption, were included. The odds ratio (OR) for each type of cancer was calculated, adjusting for confounding variables. The etiologic fraction (EF) was calculated in cases with statistically significant results. The study included 203,506 individuals (110,550 women and 92,956 men), with an average age of 59 years. A statistically significant association was found between alcohol consumption and increased risk of cancers of the respiratory and digestive systems, prostate, and female breast. The association between alcohol consumption and cancers of the urinary tract, male genital organs, and other neoplasias was not statistically significant. Consumption of alcoholic beverages increased the risk of developing cancer of the nasal cavity, pyriform sinus, oral cavity, oropharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, lung, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, breast, prostate, colon and rectum, and anus and anal canal. PMID:26298519

  20. Relationship between alcohol consumption and clinical manifestation of patients with fatty liver:a single-center study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-FangWang; MinYue

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fatty liver is a common chronic liver disease worldwide. It is associated with an increasing morbidity in China in recent years. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of drinking alcohol on the hemoglobin and biochemical values of patients with fatty liver. METHODS: We investigated the clinical and laboratory data of 669 patients with fatty liver. Of the 669 patients, 166 consumed alcohol more than 60 g per week for at least 2 years, and 503 did not have a history of long-term alcohol consumption. We further analyzed the relationship between alcohol consumption and clinicalcharacteristicsofthesepatients. RESULTS: The values of aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and hemoglobin in the long-term consumption group were significantly higher than those in the non long-term consumption group (P CONCLUSION: Alcohol consumption is associated with significantly increased values of AST, GGT, and hemoglobin in patients with fatty liver, suggesting their potential roles in hepatic steatosis.

  1. Characteristics of family mealtimes affecting children's vegetable consumption and liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Claire; McGowan, Laura; Croker, Helen; Cooke, Lucy

    2011-02-01

    Research has documented an association between family mealtimes and higher dietary quality in school-aged children and adolescents. However, there is little understanding of the specific characteristics of mealtimes that are beneficial and a lack of research with preschool-aged children. This cross-sectional study conducted in the United Kingdom in 2008 examined associations between mealtime characteristics and preschoolers' vegetable consumption and liking. Four hundred and thirty-four primary caregivers of children aged 2 to 5 years reported on children's vegetable intake and liking and completed a questionnaire on frequency of family meals, food preparation, and the social and environmental context of family mealtimes. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses assessed mealtime variables and children's vegetable intake and liking. Multiple regression analysis revealed children's vegetable consumption was predicted by eating approximately the same food as their parents (β=.14; P ≤ 0.01), using ready-made sauces (β=-.12; P ≤ 0.05), and cooking from scratch (β=.11; P ≤ 0.05), accounting for 21% of the variance (with covariates). Children's liking for vegetables was predicted by eating approximately the same food as their parents (β=.15; P ≤ 0.01) and use of preprepared dishes (β=-.15; P ≤ 0.01), accounting for 8% of the variance (with covariates). Frequency of family mealtimes was unrelated to children's vegetable consumption or liking in this sample. This contrasts with findings in older children and adolescents, where frequency of family mealtimes is related to dietary quality and intake. In preschool-aged children, it seems emphasis should be placed on encouraging parents to provide home-cooked meals that mirror those eaten by the adults in the family to improve vegetable intake. PMID:21272701

  2. The Influence of Alcohol Consumption in Conjunction with Sex Hormone Deficiency on Ca/P Ratio in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira da Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Rode, Sigmar de Mello; Marchini, Leonardo; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of sex hormones and excessive alcohol consumption are factors that have been related to alterations in the pattern of bone mineralization and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible alterations in the calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) ratio in the femur of rats subjected to sex hormone deficiency and/or alcohol consumption. Methods. Female and male Wistar rats (n = 108) were divided into ovariectomized (Ovx), orchiectomized (Orx), or sham-operated groups and subdivided according to diet: alcoholic diet (20% alcohol solution), isocaloric diet, and ad libitum diet. The diets were administered for 8 weeks. The Ca/P ratio in the femur was analyzed by energy dispersive micro-X-ray spectrometer (μEDX). Results. Consumption of alcohol reduced the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. The isocaloric diet reduced the Ca/P ratio in females. In groups with the ad libitum diet, the deficiency of sex hormones did not change the Ca/P ratio in females or males. However, the combination of sex hormone deficiency and alcoholic diet presented the lowest values for the Ca/P ratio in both females and males. Conclusions. There was a reduced Ca/P ratio in the femur of rats that consumed alcohol, which was exacerbated when combined with a deficiency of sex hormones. PMID:27073396

  3. Common late-onset subcortical cerebral hemorrhage following excessive alcohol consumption: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 50 year old male patient who was suffering from cooperation disorder and bilaterally blindness was admitted to our emergency service. He was addicted to alcohol and had excessive alcohol consumption the day before. Cranial nonenhanced CT was normal. T2 weighed MR imaging performed at 1,5 T unit showed high signal intensity in bilateral putaminal foci. In this localization diffusion-weighed images (DWI) were hyperintense due to restricted diffusion and low ADC values. After two weeks, drowsiness and confusion were appeared suddenly. Cranial nonenhanced CT was showed extensive subcortical white matter and basal ganglia abnormalities consistent with edema and hemorrhagic changes. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit and died after one day. In methanol intoxication, cerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebellar necrosis, diffuse cerebral edema, bilateral subcortical white matter necrosis and edema were defined It should also be known that 2 or 3 weeks after ingestion of methyl alcohol, the deterioration of the patient's general situation is responsible for cerebral subcortical hemorrhage. We have also thought that patients' mortality and morbidity can be reduced with radiological imaging due to early diagnosis

  4. First-Trimester Maternal Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Infant Oral Clefts in Norway: A Population-based Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa A. DeRoo; Wilcox, Allen J.; Drevon, Christian A.; Lie, Rolv Terje

    2008-01-01

    Although alcohol is a recognized teratogen, evidence is limited on alcohol intake and oral cleft risk. The authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and oral clefts in a national, population-based case-control study of infants born in 1996–2001 in Norway. Participants were 377 infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate, 196 with cleft palate only, and 763 controls. Mothers reported first-trimester alcohol consumption in self-administered questionnaires com...

  5. Personalized feedback based on a drink-pouring exercise may improve knowledge of, and adherence to, government guidelines for alcohol consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Background Although most people are aware of government guidelines for alcohol consumption, few have accurate knowledge of these and fewer still use these guidelines to monitor their drinking. Most people also lack accurate knowledge of the alcohol content of the drinks they consume. The aim of the study reported here was to examine whether or not personalized feedback on alcohol consumption based on performance in a drink-pouring task and self-reported alcohol intake would improve univer...

  6. ANALYSIS OF REVENUE FROM THE excise duty on alcoholic beverages and costs associated with the negative effects of its consumption in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Smrčka, Ondřej

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis will focus on the relationship between revenue to the state budget of the excise duty on alcoholic beverages and as a result of the consumption of alcoholic beverages arise. This is a topic, whereas the consumption of alcoholic beverages, particularly in certain age and social groups is increasing. In the theoretical part of the work I will deal with tax theories, to analyze the available literature in terms of revenue from excise duty on alcoholic beverages in the state bud...

  7. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, Kaidy; Brown, Kyle G.; King, Sarah E.; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Methods Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised,...

  8. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Stautz, K.; Brown, K G; King, S. E.; Shemilt, I.; Marteau, T M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. METHODS: Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomise...

  9. Association between alcohol consumption and cancers in the Chinese population--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide and is associated with numerous cancers. This systematic review examined the role of alcohol in the incidence of cancer in the Chinese population. METHODS: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI and VIP were searched to identify relevant studies. Cohort and case-control studies on the effect of alcohol use on cancers in Chinese were included. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Data were independently abstracted by two reviewers. Odds ratios (OR or relative risks (RR were pooled using RevMan 5.0. Heterogeneity was evaluated using the Q test and I-squared statistic. P<.01 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Pooled results from cohort studies indicated that alcohol consumption was not associated with gastric cancer, esophageal cancers (EC or lung cancer. Meta-analysis of case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was a significant risk factor for five cancers; the pooled ORs were 1.79 (99% CI, 1.47-2.17 EC, 1.40 (99% CI, 1.19-1.64 gastric cancer, 1.56 (99% CI, 1.16-2.09 hepatocellular carcinoma, 1.21 (99% CI, 1.00-1.46 nasopharyngeal cancer and 1.71 (99% CI, 1.20-2.44 oral cancer. Pooled ORs of the case-control studies showed that alcohol consumption was protective for female breast cancer and gallbladder cancer: OR 0.76 (99% CI, 0.60-0.97 and 0.70 (99% CI, 0.49-1.00 respectively. There was no significant correlation between alcohol consumption and lung cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, cancer of the ampulla of Vater, prostate cancer or extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Combined results of case-control and cohort studies showed that alcohol consumption was associated with 1.78- and 1.40-fold higher risks of EC and gastric cancer but was not significantly associated with lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Health programs focused on limiting alcohol intake may be important for cancer control in China. Further studies are needed to examine the

  10. Hepatitis B and alcohol affect survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda L. Wong; Whitney M. Limm; Naoky Tsai; Richard Severino

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In the USA, Hawaii has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a diverse population.It is an ideal place to characterize HCC in the context of ethnicity/risk factors.METHODS: A total of 262 cases of HCC (1992-2003) were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, ethnicity, birthplace, viral hepatitis, alcohol use, diabetes, smoking and risk factors for viral hepatitis such as intravenous drug abuse (IVDA), transfusions, tattoos and vertical transmission. Tumor stage, Child's class, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, α-fetoprotein level, treatment and survival were recorded.RESULTS: Gender, age, viral hepatitis, alcohol, IVDA, and diabetes differed significantly in Asians, non-Asians and Pacific Islanders. There were also specific differences within Asian subgroups. Alpha-fetoprotein, smoking, transfusions, stage and resectability did not differ between groups. Asians were more likely to have hepatitis B, while non-Asians were more likely to have hepatitis C. Factors that decreased survival included hepatitis B, alcohol, elevated alpha-fetoprotein, CLIP >2 and increased Child's class. When Asians were combined with Pacific Islanders, median survival (1.52 years vs 3.54 years), 1- and 3-year survival was significantly worse than those for non-Asians. After Cox regression analysis for hepatitis B and alcohol, there was no difference in survival by ethnicity.CONCLUSION: Various ethnicities have different risk factors for HCC. Hepatitis B, alcohol, and α-fetoprotein are more important factors for survival than ethnicity.

  11. The effectiveness of community action in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harm: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shakeshaft

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization, governments, and communities agree that community action is likely to reduce risky alcohol consumption and harm. Despite this agreement, there is little rigorous evidence that community action is effective: of the six randomised trials of community action published to date, all were US-based and focused on young people (rather than the whole community, and their outcomes were limited to self-report or alcohol purchase attempts. The objective of this study was to conduct the first non-US randomised controlled trial (RCT of community action to quantify the effectiveness of this approach in reducing risky alcohol consumption and harms measured using both self-report and routinely collected data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a cluster RCT comprising 20 communities in Australia that had populations of 5,000-20,000, were at least 100 km from an urban centre (population ≥ 100,000, and were not involved in another community alcohol project. Communities were pair-matched, and one member of each pair was randomly allocated to the experimental group. Thirteen interventions were implemented in the experimental communities from 2005 to 2009: community engagement; general practitioner training in alcohol screening and brief intervention (SBI; feedback to key stakeholders; media campaign; workplace policies/practices training; school-based intervention; general practitioner feedback on their prescribing of alcohol medications; community pharmacy-based SBI; web-based SBI; Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services support for SBI; Good Sports program for sports clubs; identifying and targeting high-risk weekends; and hospital emergency department-based SBI. Primary outcomes based on routinely collected data were alcohol-related crime, traffic crashes, and hospital inpatient admissions. Routinely collected data for the entire study period (2001-2009 were obtained in 2010. Secondary outcomes based on pre

  12. Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration

    OpenAIRE

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E.; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sect...

  13. Tracking Biases: An Update to the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Estimating Population Consumption in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Audrey; Robinson, Mark; McAdams, Rachel; McCartney, Gerry; Beeston, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Purchase of the sales data was funded by the Scottish Government as part of the wider Monitoring and Evaluating Scotland's Alcohol Strategy portfolio of studies. Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this article was provided by NHS Health Scotland. Aims: To highlight the importance of monitoring biases when using retail sales data to estimate population alcohol consumption. Methods: Previously, we identified and where possible quantified sources of bias that may lead to u...

  14. Liver enzymes: interaction analysis of smoking with alcohol consumption or BMI, comparing AST and ALT to γ-GT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz P Breitling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT, routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI. Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001 and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001. The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. CONCLUSION: The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury.

  15. Consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in Brandenburg and Saxony (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kugler Joachim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients regard health care professionals as role models for leading a healthy lifestyle. Health care professionals' own behaviour and attitudes concerning healthy lifestyle have an influence in counselling patients. The aim of this study was to assess consumption of alcohol, cigarettes and illegal substances among physicians and medical students in two German states: Brandenburg and Saxony. Methods Socio-demographic data and individual risk behaviour was collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Physicians were approached via mail and students were recruited during tutorials or lectures. Results 41.6% of physicians and 60.9% of medical students responded to the questionnaire; more than 50% of the respondents in both groups were females. The majority of respondents consumed alcohol at least once per week; median daily alcohol consumption ranged from 3.88 g/d (female medical students to 12.6 g/d (male physicians. A significantly higher percentage of men (p Conclusion More than one third of the medical students and health care professionals showed problematic alcohol-drinking behaviour. Although the proportion of non-smokers in the investigated sample was higher than in the general population, when compared to the general population, medical students between 18-24 reported higher consumption of illegal substances. These results indicate that methods for educating and promoting healthy lifestyle, particularly with respect to excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use and abuse of illegal drugs should be considered.

  16. Alcohol affects the emotional mod ulation of cognitive control: An event-related brain potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Euser (Anja); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractObjective The present study aimed to determine whether alcohol affects the emotional modulation of cognitive control and its underlying neural mechanisms, which is pivotal to an understanding of the socially maladaptive behaviors frequently seen in alcohol-intoxicated individuals. Method

  17. Alcohol consumption in Polish middle and high school pupils – has this rapidly increased during 2009–11?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojtyła-Buciora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction.[/b] The dynamic rise of alcohol consumption in adolescents is a matter of serious concern, requiring frequently updated monitoring. By such means, it is possible to optimise preventative measures for dealing with this problem. [b]Objective[/b]. To estimate the magnitude/amount and frequency of alcohol consumed by middle and high school pupils in Poland, including the circumstances when alcohol was first drunk. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. A randomised survey was performed throughout Poland on middle school (junior high school pupils, (n=9360 in 2009, followed by both middle and high school pupils in 2011 (n=7971. The questionnaire was devised by the Polish Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS. [b]Results[/b]. A strikingly sharp increase in alcohol consumption (29% was observed in subjects between 2009 – 2011. In the latter year, 1 month prior to survey, respectively, 50% and 71% of middle school and high school pupils drank alcohol, and correspondingly, 36% and 63% of these pupils ever became intoxicated/drunk. [b]Conclusions[/b]. 1 Adolescent alcohol consumption increases with age and is highest in girls. Monitoring as well as in-depth analysis thus becomes necessary. 2 Systematic monitoring and analysis of changing healthy lifestyle behaviour should be used for taking the necessary corrective action. This should happen concurrently and consist of planned health education programmes, including health promotion.

  18. Drinking in transition: trends in alcohol consumption in Russia 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption is widespread in Russia, but studying changes in drinking during the transition from Communism has been hampered previously by the lack of frequent data. This paper uses 1-2 yearly panel data, comparing consumption trends with the rapid concurrent changes in economic variables (notably around the "Rouble crisis", shortly preceding the 1998 survey round), and mortality. Methods Data were from 9 rounds (1994-2004) of the 38-centre Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Respondents aged over 18 were included (>7,000 per round). Trends were measured in alcohol frequency, quantity per occasion (by beverage type) and 2 measures of potentially hazardous consumption: (i) frequent, heavy spirit drinking (≥80 g per occasion of vodka or samogon and >weekly) (ii) consuming samogon (cheap home-distilled spirit). Trends in consumption, mean household income and national mortality rates (in the same and subsequent 2 years) were compared. Finally, in a subsample of individual male respondents present in both the 1996 and 1998 rounds (before and after the financial crash), determinants of changes in harmful consumption were studied using logistic regression. Results Frequent, heavy spirit drinking (>80 g each time, ≥weekly) was widespread amongst men (12-17%) throughout, especially in the middle aged and less educated; with the exception of a significant, temporary drop to 10% in 1998. From 1996-2000, samogon drinking more than doubled, from 6% to 16% of males; despite a decline, levels were significantly higher in 2004 than 1996 in both sexes. Amongst women, frequent heavy spirit drinking rose non-significantly to more than 1% during the study. Heavy frequent male drinking and mortality in the same year were correlated in lower educated males, but not in women. Individual logistic regression in a male subsample showed that between 1996 and1998, those who lost their employment were more likely to cease frequent, heavy drinking; however, men

  19. Alcohol Consumption among HIV-Infected Persons in a Large Urban HIV Clinic in Kampala Uganda: A Constellation of Harmful Behaviors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie Wandera; Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye; Joaniter Immaculate Nankabirwa; Andrew Ddungu Kambugu; Rosalind Parkes-Ratanshi; David Kaawa Mafigiri; Saidi Kapiga; Sethi, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use by persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) negatively impacts the public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Using a standardized alcohol assessment tool, we estimate the prevalence of alcohol use, identify associated factors, and test the association of alcohol misuse with sexual risk behaviors among PLWHA in Uganda. Methods A cross-section of PLWHA in Kampala were interviewed regarding their sexual behavior and self-reported alcohol consumption in the prev...

  20. Genetic deficiency in neprilysin or its pharmacological inhibition initiate excessive stress-induced alcohol consumption in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Maul

    Full Text Available Both acquired and inherited genetic factors contribute to excessive alcohol consumption and the corresponding development of addiction. Here we show that the genetic deficiency in neprilysin [NEP] did not change the kinetics of alcohol degradation but led to an increase in alcohol intake in mice in a 2-bottle-free-choice paradigm after one single stress stimulus (intruder. A repetition of such stress led to an irreversible elevated alcohol consumption. This phenomenon could be also observed in wild-type mice receiving an orally active NEP inhibitor. We therefore elucidated the stress behavior in NEP-deficient mice. In an Elevated Plus Maze, NEP knockouts crossed more often the area between the arms, implicating a significant stronger stress response. Furthermore, such animals showed a decreased locomotor activity under intense light in a locomotor activity test, identifying such mice to be more responsive in aversive situations than their wild-type controls. Since the reduction in NEP activity itself does not lead to significant signs of an altered alcohol preference in mice but requires an environmental stimulus, our findings build a bridge between stress components and genetic factors in the development of alcoholism. Therefore, targeting NEP activity might be a very attractive approach for the treatment of alcohol abuse in a society with increasing social and financial stress.