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Sample records for albumin excretion rate

  1. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were measured with sensitive radioimmunoassays in 14 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The duration of SLE ranged from 0.5 to 18 years, mean 10 years. The mean age was 37 years. All patients except 5 received...

  2. Genome-wide association study of urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An abnormal urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) is often the first clinically detectable manifestation of diabetic nephropathy. Our aim was to estimate the heritability and to detect genetic variation associated with elevated AER in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: The di...

  3. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker...... candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program. SETTING: 309 secondary care centers. PATIENTS: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1...... and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Most were normotensive, and all had normoalbuminuria (median urinary albumin excretion rate, 5.0 microg/min). INTERVENTION: Candesartan, 16 mg/d increasing to 32 mg/d, versus placebo. Assignment was done centrally using an interactive voice-response system. Patients...

  4. Urinary albumin excretion rate is correlated with severity of coronary artery disease in elderly type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li-xin; MA Jing; CHENG Yang; ZHANG Li-na; LI Ming

    2012-01-01

    Background Coronary heart disease is the main complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus; its incidence is closely related to microalbuminuria.The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the urinary albumin excretion rate and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.Methods A total of 612 hospitalized type 2 diabetes mellitus patients aged 60 years or older,who were given coronary angiography for diagnosis of possible coronary heart disease,participated.Their urinary albumin excretion rate was measured,and the severity of coronary artery stenosis was quantified with the Gensini scoring system to analyze the incidence of coronary heart disease and the severity of coronary artery stenosis.The optimal urinary albumin excretion rate predictive value for coronary heart disease incidence in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was determined.Results The incidence of coronary heart disease,the number of patients with coronary vascular disease and the Gensini scores were significantly different between the microalbuminuria group and the normal albuminuria group (P <0.05).The urinary albumin excretion rate was independently correlated with the occurrence of coronary heart disease in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (odds ratio (OR) =1.058,P <0.0001,95% confidence interval (CI): 1.036-1.080).Urinary albumin excretion rate and the Gensini score were independently correlated in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (β=0.476,P <0.0001).The best predictive value of urinary albumin excretion rate was 10.45 μg/min for elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.The area under the curve was 0.764,with a sensitivity and specificity of 70.0% and 72.2%,respectively.Conclusions The occurrence of coronary heart disease in elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with microalbuminuria was higher than that in patients with normal albuminuria,and the severity of the disease also

  5. Predominantly vegetarian diet in patients with incipient and early clinical diabetic nephropathy: effects on albumin excretion rate and nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibani, M M; Bloodworth, L L; Foden, E; Griffiths, K D; Galpin, O P

    1991-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary protein quality may be an important determinant in the natural history of renal disease. We have therefore studied the effects of a predominantly vegetarian diet in eight patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and an albumin excretion rate (AER) in excess of 30 micrograms min-1. The AER was measured after an 8-week run-in period on the patient's usual diet, and again after 8 weeks of a predominantly vegetarian diet in which the proportion of vegetable protein was supplemented in order to minimize the reduction in total dietary protein intake. The median fractional albumin clearance fell during the study from an initial value of 188 x 10(-+) (range 58-810 x 10(-4)) at the end of the run-in period to 87 x 10(-4) (23-829 x 10(-4)) at the end of the period on low animal protein diet (difference 79 x 10(-4) (95% Cl 9-149 x 10(-4)), p less than 0.05). The AER then returned to values similar to those obtained at the beginning of the study after a further 8 weeks in those patients returning to their usual diet. No significant changes in blood glucose control or in arterial pressure were observed. A predominantly vegetarian diet may therefore have important beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy without the need for a heavily restricted total protein intake.

  6. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...

  7. Impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Hansen, Henrik Post; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Low-dose treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely recommended to type 2 diabetic patients as primary prevention against cardiovascular disease. High-dose treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduces urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in type 1 diabetic patients with micro...

  8. Urinary albumin excretion rate: a risk factor for retinal hard exudates in macular region in type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shaocheng; Lin Siyong; Cao Xi; Zheng Yuezhong; Wang Jinyang; Lu Na; Yang Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    Background The various risk factors for retinal hard exudates are still poorly understood in type 2 diabetic patients.The aim of this study was to determine the association between urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and hard exudates in macular region in north Chinese patients.Methods A total of 272 patients (272 eyes) were enrolled for this study,including 154 subjects from group 1 (mild hard exudates),91 subjects from group 2 (moderate hard exudates) and 27 subjects from group 3 (severe hard exudates) confirmed using colour fundus photography,optical coherence tomography (OCT) as well as slit-lamp biomicroscopy with 78 diopter (D) lens.Each participant underwent a comprehensive assessment that included biochemical,clinical characteristics test and detailed ophthalmic evaluation.One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and chi-square test were performed to analyze the fasting blood glucose (FBG),glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c),total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein (LDL),high density lipoprotein (HDL),triglycerides (TG),full blood counts,urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER),blood creatinine (CREA),duration of diabetes,body mass index (BMI),systolic blood pressures (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) between groups.Ordinal logistic regression analysis was further performed in order to eliminating the possible confounding factors.Results Three groups were matched in terms of age and gender.Risk factors which showed significant difference between groups include FBG (P <0.001),HbA1c (P <0.001),LDL (P <0.001),UAER (P <0.001),duration of diabetes (P=0.001),TC (P=0.005),SBP (P=0.026),CREA (P=0.004) and haemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.012).There was no significant difference between groups for the TG,HDL,DBP,platelet,total white blood cells and BMI.Using ordinal Logistic regression analyses,of all the variables,HbA1c,LDL and UAER which were independent risk factor for hard exudates showed a significantly odds ratio of 1.25,3.07,and 1.39,respectively

  9. Why 24-h urine albumin excretion rate method still is used for screening of diabetic nephropathy in Isfahan laboratories?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Teimoury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step in diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is measurement of albumin in a spot urine sample. The aim of this study was assessment of the accuracy of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR in random urine specimens (RUS for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria screening in Iranian diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated to our study. 24 h timed urine specimens followed by RUS were collected. 24-h urine albumin excretion (24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE and UACR in RUS were measured. Data were analyzed by Pearson′s correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and McNemar test. Results: A total of 165 patients finalized the study. Pearson′s correlation of coefficient for 24-h UAE versus UACR was 0.64. The area under ROC curve for UACR was 0.83 in microalbuminuria and 0.91 in macroalbuminuria. The cutoff point of 30 mg/g in UACR method had 86% sensitivity and 60% specificity for microalbuminuria screening and cut-off point of 300 mg/g had 75% sensitivity and 99% specificity for macroalbuminuria screening respectively. Conclusions: UACR in RUS showed acceptable performance as a screening test for diagnosis of both micro and macroalbuminuria in Iranian diabetic patients.

  10. The Relationship Between Daytime, Nighttime and 24-Hour Heart Rate with Urinary Albumin and Protein Excretion in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış AFŞAR

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Autonomic nervous system dysfunction (ASD has been widely observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP and heart rate measurements have been found to associate with ASD in patient with Type 2 diabetes. Since albumin excretion is also related with ASD in type 2 diabetes; in the current study, the relationships between daytime, nighttime and 24- hour heart rates with 24 hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE and 24-hour urinary protein excretion (UPE were analyzed in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL and METHODS: All patients underwent following procedures: history taking, physical examination, BP measurement, 12 lead electrocardiographic evaluations, routine urine analysis, biochemical analysis, 24-hour urine collection to measure UAE, UPE and creatinine clearance. 24-hour ABP and heart rate monitoring were performed for all patients. RESULTS: In total 80 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were included. Stepwise linear regression revealed that logarithmically converted 24-hour UAE were independently related with 24- hour ambulatory SBP, (P:0.001 and heart rate (night (P<0.0001. Stepwise linear regression revealed that logarithmically converted 24-hour UPE were independently related with age (P:0.032, with averaged fasting blood glucose (P:0.023, with 24-hour ambulatory SBP, (P:0.002 and with heart rate (night (P:0.001. CONCLUSION: Nighttime heart rate, but not daytime and 24-hour heart rate was related with both 24-hour UAE and UPE in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  11. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjects......, Redmond, WA), and UAER was determined through three overnight urine samples. The subjects with parental type 2 diabetes had significantly lower heart rate variation in all three bedside tests (P diabetes. The prevalence of autonomic neuropathy in the nondiabetic...... offspring with parental type 2 diabetes (6.7%) was significantly (P neuropathy was associated with a higher fasting insulin level (P

  12. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  13. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study....... Subjects with any positive dipstick analysis had significantly higher UAER than subjects with a negative analysis: 4.9 (4.4-5.3) (geometric mean (95% confidence interval)) vs 3.0 (2.9-3.1) mg 24 h(-1) (p

  14. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik;

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...... levels are associated with low frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD) and good prognosis. The underlying causes of poor prognosis in patients with elevated NT-proBNP are not known; thus, we investigated the role of putative asymptomatic CAD in type 2 diabetic patients with UAER >30 mg/24 h...... and elevated P-NT-proBNP and/or CCS....

  15. Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillege, HL; Fidler, [No Value; Diercks, GFH; van Gilst, WH; de Zeeuw, D; van Veldhuisen, DJ; Gans, ROB; Janssen, WMT; Grobbee, DE; de Jong, PE

    2002-01-01

    Background-For the general population, the clinical relevance of an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is still debated. Therefore, we examined the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and all-cause mortality and mortality caused by cardiovascular (CV) disease and non-CV disease in t

  16. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  17. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic. Subje

  18. Relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate and renal histology in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: with reference to the clinical significance of microalbuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inomata, S; Nakamoto, Y; Inoue, M; Itoh, M; Ohsawa, Y; Masamune, O

    1989-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) and renal structural changes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) without clinical proteinuria. Resting AER in 30 control subjects and 67 NIDDM patients were 10.4 +/- 4.8 (mean +/- SD) micrograms/min (range 4.3-21.1 micrograms/min) and 26.4 +/- 32.3 micrograms/min (range 0.4-155 micrograms/min), respectively. Persistent normoalbuminuria (less than 20 micrograms/min) and microalbuminuria (20-200 micrograms/min) were found in 43 (Group A) and 24 (Group B) diabetics. There were significant differences in age, diabetes duration, and frequency of retinopathy (background and proliferative) as well as that of proliferative retinopathy between Groups A and B, but not in the other clinical parameters such as body mass index, HbA1, Ccr, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP). When compared with 11 normoalbuminuric patients of similar age and equal diabetes duration to those in Group B, the sole difference in clinical parameters was the existence of proliferative retinopathy in Group B. Renal structural changes were investigated by light microscopy in 14 people in Group A and 13 people in Group B, and additionally in 5 NIDDM patients with both macroalbuminuria (greater than or equal to 200 micrograms/min) and normal or nearly normal renal function (Group C). The diffuse glomerular lesion (Gellman's classification) was grade I or II in A, II or III in B, and III in C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. 补充叶酸对妊娠期尿微量白蛋白排泄率的影响%Effect of folate supplementation on urinary albumin excretion rate in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of folate supplementation on urinary albumin excretion rate of pregnant women in pregnancy. Methods 100 pregnant women with persral folate and 100 pregnant women without persral folate were randomly selected in our hospital. To select 3h morning urine with special sampling tube, to test the urinary albumin excretion rate with radioimmunoassay. Results The positive rate of urinary albumin excretion of pregnant women without persral folate was obviously higher than which of pregnant women with persral folate. Conclusion Folate supplementation in pregnancy could reduce the positive rate of urinary albumin excretion, could keep enough folate in blood, could reduce the accumulation of homocysteine which is metabolic intermediate of low methionine, could avoid the injury of vascular endothelial cells, could reduce the occurrence of complication in obstetrics department.%目的:观察孕期口服叶酸对孕妇尿微量白蛋白排泄率的影响。方法在来我院孕检的孕妇中随机抽取孕期有口服叶酸的孕妇100例与孕期从未口服叶酸的孕妇100例。分别收集3h晨尿并用专门的试管取样,用放射免疫分析法检测孕妇尿微量白蛋白的排泄率。结果孕期未口服叶酸的孕妇其尿微量白蛋白排泄率的阳性率较孕期有口服叶酸的孕妇其尿微量白蛋白排泄率明显增高。结论孕期补充叶酸可降低尿微量白蛋白排泄率的阳性率,提示孕期口服叶酸可保持血液中有足够的叶酸,可以降低蛋氨酸代谢的中间产物同型半胱氨酸在体内的堆积,避免血管内皮细胞的损伤,减少产科一些并发症的发生。

  20. High sensitive C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and urine albumin excretion rate in Chinese coronary artery disease patients with different glucose tolerance status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin levels and urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) are probably associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the three markers in coronary artery disease (CAD) subjects with different glucose tolerance status in a Chinese population and further explore the levels of the three markers in these subjects and the possible association of these markers with CAD risk factors and the severity of CAD as well. Methods A total of 242 subjects with angiographically documented CAD were recruited, and then assigned to three groups: the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) + CAD group, including 100 CAD patients with NGT; the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) + CAD group, 40 CAD patients with IGT; the type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) + CAD group, 102 CAD patients with T2DM. Serum hs-CRP, adiponectin levels as well as UAER were measured in all subjects. Results Serum hs-CRP levels were increased in the T2DM + CAD group compared with the NGT + CAD group (4.71±2.59) vs (3.60±2.46) mg/L, P=0.037. Serum adiponectin levels were gradually decreased from the NGT + CAD to IGT + CAD to T2DM + CAD groups, (5.99±1.84), (5.82±1.72) and (4.65±1.71) mg/L, P=0.002 and 0.040 for NGT + CAD and IGT + CAD groups vs T2DM + CAD group, respectively. While the UAER was gradually increased from the NGT + CAD to IGT + CAD to T2DM + CAD groups, (6.42±2.51), (6.89±2.94) and (15.03±4.22) pg/min (P<0.001) for NGT + CAD and IGT + CAD groups vs T2DM + CAD group. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that waist-hip ratio (WHR) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were the significant determinants of serum hs-CRP levels; triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), age, WHR, T2DM, 2-hour serum insulin (2hlNS), sex, and apolipoprotein B were the significant determinants of serum adiponecUn levels; and systolic blood pressure (SBP), T2DM, and hemoglobin Alc

  1. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T;

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU ...

  2. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Fangwen; Wessel, Jennifer; Wen, Gen;

    2007-01-01

    Albumin excretion marks early glomerular injury in hypertension. This study investigated heritability of albumin excretion in twin pairs and its genetic determination by adrenergic pathway polymorphism. Genetic associations used single nucleotide polymorphisms at adrenergic pathway loci spanning...... biosynthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase), catabolism (monoamine oxidase A), storage/release (chromogranin A), receptor target (dopamine D1 receptor), and postreceptor signal transduction (sorting nexin 13 and rho kinase). Epistasis (gene-by-gene interaction) occurred between alleles at rho kinase, tyrosine...... hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and sorting nexin 13. Dopamine D1 receptor polymorphism showed pleiotropic effects on both albumin and dopamine excretion. These studies establish new roles for heredity and environment in albumin excretion. Urinary excretions of albumin and catecholamines are highly heritable...

  3. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LINOLEIC-ACID-ENRICHED DIET ON ALBUMINURIA AND LIPID-LEVELS IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETIC-PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED URINARY ALBUMIN EXCRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; BEUSEKAMP, BJ; MEIJER, S; HOOGENBERG, K; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; SLUITER, WJ

    1992-01-01

    We conducted a 2-year prospective randomised study to investigate the effects of a linoleic-acid-enriched diet on albuminuria and lipid levels in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion (overnight urinary albumin excretion rate between 10 and 200-mu-g/min

  4. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin in hypertensive patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1993-01-01

    . The systemic blood pressure and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin were measured in the following groups after 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment: Group 1--eleven healthy control subjects. Group 2--ten Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin......Diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (incipient or clinical nephropathy) also have an increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin. This study was designed to clarify whether this is caused by a general vascular dysfunction or by elevated systemic blood pressure...... excretion rate: 30-300 mg/24 h) and normal blood pressure. Group 3--eleven non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Group 4--nine Type 1 diabetic patients with hypertension but normal urinary albumin excretion (diabetic patients with nephropathy (urinary...

  5. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, A V; Brooks, B A; Fisher, E J; Molyneaux, L M; Yue, D K

    1998-11-01

    The important role of ascorbic acid (AA) as an anti-oxidant is particularly relevant in diabetes mellitus where plasma concentrations of AA are reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with AA or an aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, on AA metabolism and urinary albumin excretion in diabetes. Blood and urine samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from 20 diabetic subjects who were randomized into two groups to receive either oral AA 500 mg twice daily or placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HbA1c, plasma lipids, urinary albumin, and total glycosaminoglycan excretion were measured at all time points, and heparan sulphate (glycosaminoglycan) was measured at 0 and 12 months. The same parameters, as well as urinary AA excretion, were determined at 0 and 3 months for 16 diabetes subjects receiving 200 mg tolrestat/day. AA treatment increased plasma AA (ANOVA, F ratio = 12.1, p = 0.004) and reduced albumin excretion rate (AER) after 9 months (ANOVA, F ratio = 3.2, p = 0.03), but did not change the other parameters measured. Tolrestat lowered plasma AA (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications.

  6. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect...

  7. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1986-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate, intravascular mass and outflux of albumin were measured in 75 Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. The groups were defined as: group 1: normal urinary albumin excretion, less than 30 mg/24 h (n = 21); group 2: microalbuminuria, 30-300 mg/24 h (n = 36); group...

  8. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions...... onboard the MIR station and on the ground (control). Mission duration before first urine collection in the four astronauts was 4, 26, 26, and 106 days, respectively. On the ground, data were collected 2 months before mission in two astronauts, 6 months after in the other astronauts. A total of twenty......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...

  9. What predicts progression and regression of urinary albumin excretion in the nondiabetic population?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsma, Auke H.; Atthobari, Jarir; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; de Zeeuw, Dick; de Jong, Paul E.; Gansevoort, Ronald T.

    2007-01-01

    An increase or decrease in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with, respectively, a higher or lower risk for renal and cardiovascular disease, independent of widely known cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to identify factors that are associated with changes in UAE in the nondi

  10. Urinary albumin excretion and the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. M. A.; Voors, A. A.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic and hypertensive patients, but also in the general population. Moreover, several reports suggest that reduction of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with improvement of cardiova

  11. Normal urinary albumin excretion in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, B; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B;

    1989-01-01

    The urinary excretion of albumin and retinol binding protein were measured in 51 recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 control subjects, matched for age and sex. The diabetic patients, admitted consecutively to the Steno Memorial Hospital, were all studied 3 to 6 months after the ons...

  12. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B;

    1998-01-01

    Microalbuminuria, a subclinical rise in the urinary albumin excretion, is a risk indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary albumin excretion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and to correlate this with known atherosclerotic...... risk factors. One-hundred-and-twenty-six patients and 56 healthy controls matched for age and sex were studied. The albumin/creatinine concentration ratio in morning urine specimens was calculated as an index of the albumin excretion. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio above 1 mg/mmol. Urinary albumin excretion (0.88 [95% confidence interval 0.69-1.11] versus 0.51 [0.40-0.63] mg/mmol; p = 0.001) and frequency of microalbuminuria (33 [95% confidence interval 25-41] versus 16 [9-23]%; p = 0.03) were higher in patients than controls. This difference...

  13. Urinary albumin excretion and 24-hour blood pressure as predictors of pre-eclampsia in Type I diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, P; Damm, P; Nøgaard, K;

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.......To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus....

  14. Monitoring and managing urinary albumin excretion: practical advice for primary care clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George L; Kuritzky, Louis

    2009-07-01

    Albuminuria has a strong, continuous, direct, linear relationship with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. Even at levels below the accepted upper limit of what is considered "normal" daily albumin excretion (albumin excretion level and adverse CV events is evident. Primary care clinicians (eg, physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) are usually the first point of contact for patients at risk for CV and kidney disease. Hence, identifying and treating problematic albuminuria levels are important in primary care. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) endorse routine annual screening for microalbuminuria (small amounts of albumin in the urine). Once excess albumin excretion is detected, clinicians must employ aggressive CV risk reduction. To optimize outcomes, treatment of microalbuminuria often requires the combined skills of experts in primary care, cardiology, metabolic disease, and nephrology. Although blood pressure reduction usually improves microalbuminuria, agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are most efficacious. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors) may confer CV and kidney advantages in high-risk patients. Their effects on microalbuminuria reduction are greater than those associated with attaining guideline-recommended blood pressure goals. Effective RAAS blockade sometimes induces transient changes in creatinine and potassium, which merit consistent monitoring for the first 2 to 3 months of their use, but rarely necessitate discontinuation. This article also presents an approach to managing increases in creatinine and potassium that should fit comfortably in the hands of primary care clinicians.

  15. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo;

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  16. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chin; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE) before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was present in 66 patients (64.7%). The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and β2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ≥ 500 mg) was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002). Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies.

  17. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Hong Chen

    Full Text Available Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM. Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day was present in 66 patients (64.7%. The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and β2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ≥ 500 mg was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002. Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (<2.8 vs. ≥ 2.8, hazard ratio = 0.486, p = 0.029. Using the A-DPE staging system, there was a significant survival difference among patients with stage I, II, and III MM (p < 0.001. Initial serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies.

  18. Comparison of Acarbose and Metformin on Albumin Excretion in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qingrong; Xu, Yuan; Yang, Ning; Gao, Xia; Liu, Jia; Yang, Wenying; Wang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion in diabetes not only signals nephropathy but also serves as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. The data of MARCH (Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as the initial Hypoglycaemic treatment) trial demonstrated that acarbose and metformin were similarly efficacious at lowering blood glucose and blood pressure, as well as improving insulin sensitivity in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of acarbose and metformin therapy on albumin excretion in MARCH study.Baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) of 762 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was measured. Included patients were randomized to receive either acarbose or metformin and followed for 48 weeks. In addition to change in ACR, the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were also assessed.Elevated ACR levels (≥30 mg/g) were present at baseline in 21.9% of all participants. A significant decline in urine ACR was observed in both the acarbose and metformin groups at week 24 and 48 (all P metformin (P = 0.01). Both acarbose and metformin significantly decreased the frequency of MetS at week 24 and 48 (both P metformin decreased urine ACR levels and reduced the frequency of elevated ACR and MetS in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus without affecting eGFR. After 48 weeks' intervention, acarbose therapy resulted in a greater reduction in urine ACR compared with metformin.

  19. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Pattern of urinary albumin excretion in normotensive young and adolescent Indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ashraf Ganie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a clinically heterogeneous endocrine disorder affecting up to 4-8% of women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of microalbuminuria in women with PCOS and study its correlation with the various metabolic, clinical, and hormonal parameters. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 69 PCOS women was carried out in a tertiary care center hospital. The diagnosis of PCOS was made according to the Rotterdam criteria. Blood samples were collected in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and analyzed for fasting luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP, total testosterone (T, glucose, insulin, and lipid profile. Urinary albumin was measured in the first void spot urine sample. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 22.0 ± 4.1 years and 21.8 ± 4.7 years in normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric groups, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion (UAE varied from 5 mg/l to 100 mg/ml, with a median of 5 mg/l. Microalbuminuria was observed in 17/69 (24.6% of subjects. The mean UAE was 3.65 ± 4.44 mg/l in the normoalbuminuria group versus 45.29 ± 22.74 mg/l in the microalbuminuria group. Upon univariate analysis, hip circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose showed significant correlations with urinary albumin concentration (r = 0.264, 0.264, and 0.551, respectively; P = 0.028, 0.029, and 0.000, respectively. No association between UAE and the usual cardiovascular risk factors could be found upon regression analysis. Conclusion: About 24.6% of women with PCOS showed presence of microalbuminuria in the first void spot urine sample. Screening for the presence of microalbuminuria can help in early identification of a subset of PCOS women with a high risk for future CVD, who can be subjected to preventive strategies at the earliest. However, further studies are

  1. Urinary albumin excretion and history of acute myocardial infarction in a cross-sectional population study of 2,613 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B;

    1997-01-01

    infarction, in a major population sample. METHODS: The study was performed as a part of the 3rd Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark, 1992-1994, and included 2,613 participants aged 30-70 years, and without diabetes mellitus, renal or urinary tract disease or haematuria. The study programme included...... measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate, acquisition of information regarding previous acute myocardial infarction (verified by the Danish Hospital Register) and tobacco and alcohol consumption, 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, and measurement of blood pressure, body mass index, waist:hip ratio...

  2. Influence of glycemic excursion on urinary albumin excretion and inflammatory factor in early diabetes kidney disease patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Cao; Ding-Ping Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To research the influence of glycemic excursion on the level of urinary albumin excretion and inflammatory factor in early diabetes kidney disease patients.Methods:From January to December in 2015, 96 confirmed cases of early diabetes kidney disease were collected. Continuous Glucose Monito Ring System CGMS, produced by American MiniMed Inc) was used to monitor 72 h blood glucose. The influence of MAGE on the level of urinary albumin excretion, IGF-1, FKN, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP and inflammatory indexes was compared.Results:Compared cases of stable blood sugar (MAGE<5.0 mmol/L) with unstable ones (MAGE≥5.0 mmol/L), the difference of UAER and 1,5-AG had statistical significance, while HbA1c and FA had no significant difference. Pearson correlation analysis between MAGE and UAER resulted in strong correlation. And also the front inflammatory factor including IGF-1, FKN, IL-6, TNF-α, hs-CRP all showed lower level than the cases of MAGE≥5.0 mmol/L.Conclusion:Glycemic excursion may accelerate development of kidney injury through inflammatory factors.

  3. Palmitate binding to serum albumin, measured by rate of dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Andersen, S

    1988-01-01

    with binding of the unsaturated acids is less pronounced. Chloride ions compete with binding of palmitate. Reserve albumin concentration in serum samples from 33 male adults was 420 +/- 59 microM (mean +/- SD), and in 33 females, 351 +/- 50 microM. Umbilical cord sera from ten newborn infants averaged 172......Dialysis experiments were performed with an acetylcellulose membrane between two identical sample solutions; a trace amount of radiolabelled palmitate was added on one side and the rate of dialytic equilibration of the label was measured. By comparison with rates measured in standard experiments......, using pure albumin solutions, we obtained the reserve albumin concentration for binding of palmitate, previously defined as the concentration of a pure standard albumin which binds the labelled ligand as tightly as it is bound in the sample. Two techniques were developed, one for 1-ml sample volumes...

  4. Effect of Spironolactone on 24h Urine Albumin Excretion Rate in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%螺内酯对2型糖尿病大鼠24小时尿白蛋白排泄率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周香然; 韩刚; 孙侃; 常向云; 李军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]观察螺内酯对2型糖尿病大鼠肾功能的影响.[方法]48只大鼠用高脂高糖饲料喂养2个月后,腹腔注射 30 mg/kg链脲佐菌素制备糖尿病大鼠模型.随机分为糖尿病组 (DM组,n =24)、螺内酯治疗组(R组,n =24),另选同批普通饲养大鼠15只作为正常对照组 (C组,n=15),检测第16周末血清中血糖(FBG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、钾(K+)、24 h尿白蛋白排泄率(UAER)、尿素氮(U-BUN)、肌酐(Cr)、甘油三酯(TG).并用He染色的方法观察16周后大鼠肾脏的病理学变化.[结果]第16周的血糖水平DM组和 R组相近,无显著差别( P >0.05),但DM组和 R组的血糖水平均显著高于A组( P <0.01);UAER水平DM组和 R组显著高于C组( P <0.01),且R组UAER水平显著低于DM组( P <0.01).[结论] 螺内酯能通过降低糖尿病大鼠UAER,改善糖尿病大鼠的肾功能从而发挥保护肾脏的作用.%[Objective] To observe the effect of spironolactone on renal function in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). [Methods]The rat model of T2DM was prepared by intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin(STZ) 30mg/kg after feeding high-sugar and fat diet for 2 months. The rats were assigned to diabetic group(group DM, n =24) and spironolactone treatment groupCgroup R, n =24). Other 15 rats fed with normal diet were selected as normal control group (group C, n =15). Blood glucose(FBG) , glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c) , kalium(K+) , 24h urine albumin excretion rate(UAER) , urea nitrogen(U-BUN) , creatinine(Cr) and triglyceride(TG) at the end of 16th week were detected. HE staining was used to observe the pathological change of kidney in rats after 16 weeks. [Results] At the end of 16th week, BG level in group DM was similar to that in group R, and there was no significant difference( P >0. 05). BG level in group DM and group R were significantly higher than that in group C( P <0. 01). UAER level in group DM and group R were significantly higher than that in group C( P

  5. Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 2 dibetes mellitus%2型糖尿病患者非酒精性脂肪肝与尿白蛋白排泄率的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张育仁; 吴静; 李春燕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate( UAER )and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease( NAFLD )in patients with type 2 dibetes mellitus( T2DM ). Methods Two hundred twenty eight patients were investigated respectively. The patients were divided into two groups( NAFLD group and non-NAFLD group )by liver ultrasonography and disease history, forty heathy persons who were matched for age and sex were served as control, then their clinical data were collected and compared in order to find the differences of biochemical indicators and UAER. Results NAFLD group had higher levels of body mass index( BMI ), triglyceride ( TG),fast insulin and C peptide level, uric acid, homeostasis model assessment HOMA-IR )than those of without NAFLD( P < 0. 05 ). Results of the Chi-square test showed that the mobility of trace albuminuria and mass albuminuria was higher in NAFLD group than that of without NAFLD( x2 = 23. 905, P = 0. 001 ). Logistic analysis showed that BMI( OR = 4. 66 , P = 0. OOf ), TG( OR = 8. 46, P = 0. 000 )and UAER( OR = 3. 73 , P = 0. 003 )were important risk factors for T2DM complicated with NAFLD. Conclusions NAFLD is closely related with higher BMI, TG and UAER in T2DM patients. The mobility of diabetic nephropath)' is significantly higher in T2DM complicated with NAFLD than that of without NAFLD.%目的 探讨合并非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)的2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者尿白蛋白排泄率(UAER)的变化特点及其相关性.方法 T2DM患者228例,根据是否合并NAFLD分为糖尿病合并NAFLD组(135例)和糖尿病无NAFLD组(93例),另选年龄、性别匹配的40例健康受试者为对照组,比较两组患者体重指数(BMI)、空腹血糖(FPG)、血脂、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、空腹C肽、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、24h UAER的差异,用卡方检验分析两组间正常、微量和大量UAER的分布差异,进一步以T2DM合并NAFLD为应变量,以各临床生化指标为自变量,用单因素和多因

  6. Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients during urinary diluting and concentrating tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, B; Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Kornerup, H J; Knudsen, F; Mogensen, C E; Nielsen, A H

    1986-11-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was measured in nine hypertensive and nine normotensive renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy control subjects before and after an oral water load of 20 ml (kg body weight)-1 (study 1) and in eight hypertensive and 11 normotensive renal transplant recipients and 11 healthy control subjects during 24-h water deprivation (study 2). In both studies 1 and 2 urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients that in the normotensive patients and the control subjects (levels before loading; hypertensives: 23.9 micrograms/min (median), range 7.5-58.7; normotensives: 3.4 micrograms/min, range 1.0-49.3; controls: 2.9 micrograms/min, range 1.3-10.3). Urinary albumin excretion was significantly positive correlated to both systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (for mean blood pressure: rho = 0.625, n = 18, p less than 0.01) in transplanted patients. Albumin excretion tended to increase after water loading and to decrease during water deprivation in all groups. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion was approximately the same in all groups in both studies 1 and 2 and was not correlated to blood pressure. During a follow-up period of at least 18 months, none of the renal transplant recipients developed signs of chronic graft failure. Increased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients thus appears to be caused by increased glomerular permeability that may be due to glomerular damage induced by arterial hypertension corresponding to the findings in essential hypertension.

  7. Urinary albumin excretion and its relation with C-reactive protein and the metabolic syndrome in the prediction Of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantsma, AH; Bakker, SJL; Hillege, HL; De Zeeuw, D; De Jong, PE; Gansevoort, RT

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To investigate urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and its relation with C-reactive protein (CRP) and the metabolic syndrome in the prediction of the development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We used data from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End Stage Disease (PREVEN

  8. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension : results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized stu

  9. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized stu

  10. Total protein, albumin and low-molecular-weight protein excretion in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Lucy J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease is common in HIV positive patients and renal tubular dysfunction has been reported in those receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Tenofovir (TFV in particular has been linked to severe renal tubular disease as well as proximal tubular dysfunction. Markedly elevated urinary concentrations of retinal-binding protein (RBP have been reported in patients with severe renal tubular disease, and low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWP such as RBP may be useful in clinical practice to assess renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV. We analysed 3 LMWP as well as protein and albumin in the urine of a sample of HIV positive patients. Methods In a cross-sectional fashion, total protein, albumin, RBP, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL were quantified in random urine samples of 317 HIV positive outpatients and expressed as the ratio-to-creatinine (RBPCR, CCR and NGALCR. Exposure to cART was categorised as none, cART without TFV, and cART containing TFV and a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (TFV/NNRTI or TFV and a protease-inhibitor (TFV/PI. Results Proteinuria was present in 10.4 % and microalbuminuria in 16.7 % of patients. Albumin accounted for approximately 10 % of total urinary protein. RBPCR was within the reference range in 95 % of patients while NGALCR was elevated in 67 % of patients. No overall differences in urine protein, albumin, and LMWP levels were observed among patients stratified by cART exposure, although a greater proportion of patients exposed to TFV/PI had RBPCR >38.8 μg/mmol (343 μg/g (p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses, black ethnicity (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77 and eGFR 2 (OR 3.54, 95 % CI 1.61, 7.80 were independently associated with upper quartile (UQ RBPCR. RBPCR correlated well to CCR (r2 = 0.71, but not to NGALCR, PCR or ACR. Conclusions In HIV positive patients, proteinuria was predominantly of

  11. Is it time to change the definition of normal urinary albumin excretion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Olsen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    This Practice Point commentary discusses a recent study by Forman et al. that examined the association between baseline urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and the risk of developing hypertension among 2,179 women in the first and second Nurses' Health Studies who did not have hypertension or diabetes...... at baseline and had normoalbuminuria by conventional definitions. The study showed that quartiles of albuminuria beyond the lowest quartile were increasingly predictive of subsequent hypertensive disease, even at levels well below what is conventionally considered to be the normal range. This commentary...... highlights the importance of evaluating albuminuria as an indicator of target organ damage and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients without hypertension, diabetes or other cardiovascular diseases who have albuminuria should be considered at risk of cardiovascular disease and should undergo...

  12. Increased metabolic turnover rate and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in long-term juvenile diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Rossing, N; Sander, E

    1975-01-01

    smaller than 0.05). The previously reported decrease in the intravascular albumin mass in long-term diabetics was thus confirmed by an average of 59.0 g/m2 surface area, compared with a normal value of 71.7 g/m2-(minus18%) (P smaller than 0.005). The albumin metabolic rate was increased, the fractional...

  13. The association between ambulatory blood pressure rhythm and urinary albumin excretion rate in type 2 diabetes with sleep disorder patients%2型糖尿病睡眠障碍患者动态血压节律与尿白蛋白排泄率的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任惠珠; 陈莉明; 郑妙艳; 杨菊红; 王颖; 单春艳; 常宝成

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between ambulatory blood pressure rhythm and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in type 2 diabetes with sleep disorder patients. Methods Three hundred and seventy three in⁃patients with type 2 diabetes treated from May 2012 to May 2014 in Metabolic Disease Hospital of Tianjin Medical Universitywere divided into two groups according to Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index(PSQI):patients without sleep disorder (267) and patients with sleep disorder (106). The groups were further divided into normoalbuminuria group, microalbuminuria group and macroalbuminuria group by UAER. The changes of the average blood pressure, the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, the smoothness index of blood pressure and blood pressure variation were analyzed between the two groups and each subgroup. The regression analysis were performed between sleep disorder as well as UAER and other indicators.One⁃way ANOVA was used to analyze data among multiple groups. LSD⁃t test was used to analyze data between two groups. Results (1)The average blood pressure as well as coefficient variations of blood pressure was significant higher and the decreasing percentage of blood pressure at night and smoothness index of blood pressure was significant lower in patients with sleep disorder than those in patients without sleep disorder(t=2.9924⁃5.3979,all P<0.05).(2)The average blood pressure and coefficient variation of blood pressure increased and the decreasing percentage of blood pressure at night and smoothness index of blood pressure decreased in all with and without sleep disorder subgroup patients with the increasing UAER. Significant changes of the above indicators were in sleep disorder subgroup(t=2.0073⁃4.0395,all P<0.05). (3)sleep disorder was positively related to 24 h systolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure at night and UAER,whereas was negatively related to the decreasing percentage of systolic blood pressure at night( Wald=4

  14. Elevated albumin excretion and retinal changes in children with type 1 diabetes are related to long-term poor blood glucose control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Storm, Birgit Kjærside; Graae, M;

    1989-01-01

    All diabetic children (n = 113) under 19 years old and with more than 2 years of diabetes attending the Steno Memorial Hospital in 1987 were studied. Normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg 24 h-1) was found in 96 patients (85%), 15 had microalbuminuria (30-300 mg 24 h-1) (13%), and 2.......2 +/- 1.3% (+/- SD), 2p less than 0.05). Children with retinopathy had an HbA1c of 9.9 +/- 1.7 vs 9.0 +/- 1.2% in patients without retinopathy (2p less than 0.01)....... patients were proteinuric (greater than 300 mg 24 h-1) (2%). Retinal morphology was evaluated by colour fundus photography. Background retinopathy was more frequent in the group with elevated albumin excretion (71%) than in a matched normoalbuminuric group (20%, 2p less than 0.001). Long-term blood glucose...

  15. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  16. Transcapillary escape rate and relative metabolic clearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kverneland, A;

    1987-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate and relative plasma disappearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin were measured in 25 male Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients using a double tracer technique. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their urinary albumin excretion......: group 1, normal albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h) (n = 8); group 2, microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h) (n = 9); and group 3, clinical nephropathy (greater than 300 mg/24 h) (n = 8). Six male age-matched non-diabetic persons served as control subjects. The transcapillary escape rate of glycated...... albumin was similar in group 1 and control subjects (4.7 +/- 2.1 versus 5.1 +/- 1.7%), but significantly increased in group 2 (7.0 +/- 1.7%, p less than 0.05) and in group 3 (7.9 +/- 3.1%, p less than 0.05). The transcapillary escape rate of glycated albumin was slightly lower than that of non-glycated...

  17. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  18. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Nicolli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females. Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine.

  19. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein......). Excretion rates of exosome-related urinary proteins including apical membrane transporters were determined by proteomics-based methods. ResultsIn patients, baseline renal vascular conductance was reduced (-44%, P...

  20. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated......, and 73%, 97%, and 73% for Ualb/Ucreat, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that measurement of the albumin/creatinine concentration ratio is a specific and quite sensitive alternative to measurement of the urinary albumin excretion rate in timed collections, when screening for microalbuminuria....

  1. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist, NIP-222, reduces urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic mice independent of PPARgamma activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsumoto, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Matsuda, Maho; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo

    2003-12-01

    NIP-222 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist. This study provides evidence that NIP-222 decreases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic mice independent of its PPARgamma activation. We compared the effect of NIP-222 and another PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, on UAE, plasma glucose level, blood pressure, and creatinine clearance (C(cr)) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Treatment for 3 weeks with NIP-222 (30 mg/kg) was associated with a significant decrease in UAE without any change in blood pressure, creatinine clearance, or plasma glucose level. In contrast, UAE did not decrease in mice treated with troglitazone (300 mg/kg). These results indicate that NIP-222 has PPARgamma independent effects on UAE in diabetic mice and suggest that this agent may have potential to minimize the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  2. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the N

  3. Measurement of uptake rates of internal organs including thyroid gland and daily urinary excretion rates for adult Korean males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Whang, Joo Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Geun [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, uptake rates of internal organs and daily urinary excretion rates were measured to get more reliable estimation results for Korean. Radioactive iodine({sup 131}I) of 100{mu}Ci was administered by ingestion to 28 adult males for the experiment and then the radioactivity in thyroid gland, liver, stomach, small intestine, kidneys, and urine was measured after time intervals of 2, 4, 6 and 24 hours. Uptake rates of each organ and daily urinary excretion rates were calculated on the basis of these experimental results. As a result, uptake rates of 19.70% for thyroid and daily urinary excretion rates of 71.12%, on the average, were indicated. The maximum of uptake rates and daily urinary excretion rates were recorded after 2 hours of administration of {sup 131}I, but those rates were decreased gradually later. It was also found that uptake rates were the highest in stomach, followed by the left kidney, liver, small intestine and right kidney except for thyroid gland. In this experiment, the calculated uptake change rate in thyroid gland after 24 hours of administration of {sup 131}I was different from that of ICRP-54/67(30%) and ICRP-78(25%). Thus, it is necessary to apply more reliable approach, reflecting the characteristic of Korean physiology and to obtain the basic data of results using this approach for calculation of the internal adsorbed dose. In the future, this approach can be helpful for the internal dose assessment of radiation workers in a nuclear power plant or in a hospital.

  4. Increased extravasation and lymphatic return rate of albumin during diuretic treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schlichting, P

    1981-01-01

    During steady state the overall lymphatic return rate of albumin equals the transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to the extravascular space per unit time] provided local back-transport is negligible, as previously...

  5. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  6. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesa...

  7. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin and right atrial pressure in chronic congestive heart failure before and after treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, B; Parving, H H; Lund-Jacobsen, H;

    1976-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), i.e., the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit of time, was determined from the disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labeled human serum albumin during the first 60 minutes after injec...

  8. The effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on albumin extravasation rate in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Parving, H H; Christiansen, Lasse

    1981-01-01

    Overall transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to the extravascular space per unit time] was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Patients with tense ascites due to liver cirrhos...

  9. Urinary excretion rates of natural estrogens and androgens from humans, and their occurrence and fate in the environment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activities at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. For sewage of municipal wastewater treatment plants in cities, one of the most important sources of EDCs are natural estrogens and natural androgens (NEAs) excreted from humans. Therefore, estrogenic/androgenic potencies or relative binding affinity of the NEAs were first outlined from different sources, and data of urinary excretion rates of NEAs were summarized. To evaluate their estrogenic activities, their excretion rates of estrogen equivalent (EEQ) or testosterone (T) equivalent (TEQ) were also calculated. Based on our summary, the total excretion rates of EEQ by estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) only accounted for 66-82% of the total excretion rate of EEQ among four different groups, and the other corresponding natural estrogens contributed 18-34%, which meant that some of the other natural estrogens may also exist in wastewater with high estrogenic activities. Based on the contribution ratio of individual androgens to the total excretion rate of TEQ, five out of 12 natural androgens, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AD), 5beta-androstanediol (beta-ADL), and androstenediol (ANL) were evaluated as the priority natural androgens, which may exist in wastewater with high androgenic activities. Published data on occurrence and fate of the NEAs including natural estrogen conjugates in the environment were also summarized here.

  10. Determination of albumin transport rate between plasma and peritoneal space in decompensated cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ring-Larsen, H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    the abdominal puncture may lead to overestimation of TERperit.space, whereas systematic understimation seems less likely. This may besides differences in patient selection and unsteady state, account for the discrepancy between the present relatively low value and earlier reports on much higher values.......10-0.59). The transport rate of albumin from ascitic fluid back to plasma was measured in eight patients by plasma sampling after intraperitoneal injection of 131I-labelled serum albumin. After correction for tracer re-extravasation this back transport (median 0.31, range 0.07-0.44% IVM/h-1) was not significantly...

  11. Albuminuria and overall capillary permeability of albumin in acute altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of proteinuria at high altitude is unclear. Renal function and urinary excretion rate of albumin (Ualb) at rest and during submaximal exercise and transcapillary escape rate of 125I-labeled albumin (TERalb) were investigated in 12 normal volunteers at sea level and after rapid and p...

  12. Effect of losartan on urinary albumin excretion in experimental diabetic rats%氯沙坦对实验性糖尿病大鼠尿白蛋白排泄的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅; 钟惠菊; 周敏

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of losartan on urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin diabetic rats.Methods The following groups of rats were studied:normal control rats(NC),diabetic control rats (DC),diabetic rats treated with losartan 〔20mg/(kg*d)〕(DL) and diabetic rats treated with perindopril (2mg/(kg*d)〕(DP).Urinary albumin was observed at the 4th、8th、12th and 16th week.Results Urinary albumin excretion of diabetic rats treated with losartan or perindopril were significantly lower than that of diabetic untreated group (P<0.01).The effect was not different between losartan treated and perindopril treated rats.Conclusion The results suggested that losartan can reduce urinary albumin excretion in diabetic rats.%目的观察血管紧张素受体拮抗剂氯沙坦(losartan)对糖尿病大鼠尿白蛋白排泄的影响。方法雄性SD大鼠分为正常对照组(NC)、糖尿病对照组(DC)、糖尿病氯沙坦治疗组(DL)和糖尿病培哚普利治疗组(DP)。检测各组第4、8、12、16周尿白蛋白排泄的变化。结果 DL组较DC组尿白蛋白排泄显著下降(P<0.01),和DP组比较无显著性差异。结论血管紧张素受体拮抗剂氯沙坦能有效降低糖尿病大鼠尿白蛋白的排泄。

  13. Reduction in urinary albumin excretion with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-month intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimoto H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hajime Haimoto,1 Tae Sasakabe,2 Hiroyuki Umegaki,3 Kenji Wakai41Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, 2Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Kasugai, 3Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, JapanIntroduction: Urinary albumin excretion (UAE is a marker of the early phase of diabetic nephropathy. Although a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD has been shown to effectively improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM, its effects on UAE remain unknown.Patients and methods: A total of 124 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 61.6 ± 9.2 years with T2DM were instructed to consume a moderate LCD (1734 ± 416 kcal/d; % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 38:37:19 for 12 months. We measured the levels of UAE, hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin (IRI, and the serum lipid profiles in the patients and recorded their dosages of antidiabetic drugs during this 12-month period.Results: Of the 124 patients, 68 were normoalbuminuric, 50 were microalbuminuric, and six were macroalbuminuric at baseline. The patients had relatively good compliance with the moderate LCD diet. After 12 months, the mean levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, IRI, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, and the body mass index of all participants significantly decreased (P = 0.003 for IRI and P < 0.001 for the other parameters. Among the microalbuminuric patients (n = 50, remission to normoalbuminuria was frequently achieved (52% and the geometric mean UAE significantly decreased by 53% (95% confidence interval: 43, 62 over 12 months (P < 0.001. After patients taking an angiotensin 2 receptor blocker were excluded, the UAE significantly decreased by 41% (n = 26, 95% confidence interval: 25, 54; P < 0.001. Moreover, the reduction in UAE was significantly and

  14. Microalbuminuria reflects a generalized transvascular albumin leakiness in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Jensen, G;

    1995-01-01

    1. In epidemiological studies microalbuminuria, i.e. slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate, predicts increased atherosclerotic vascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that microalbuminuria in clinically healthy subjects is associated with a systemic...... excretion rate was 6.6 micrograms/min. Twenty-seven patients with persistent microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion rate 6.6-150 micrograms/min), and 56 age- and sex-matched control subjects with persistent normoalbuminuria (UAER ...% confidence interval 0.1-0.7; n = 83), r = 0.29, P microalbuminuria is an independent marker...

  15. Plasma volume, intravascular albumin and its transcapillary escape rate in patients with extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Worm, A M; Rossing, N

    1976-01-01

    less than 0-001). The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb) was significantly elevated, mean 8-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, as compared to normal subjects, mean 5-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, (+54%, P less than 0-001). The same patients were studied again after a 1-week treatment with prednisone...

  16. Creatinine excretion rate, a marker of muscle mass, is related to clinical outcome in patients with chronic systolic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, Jozine M.; Damman, Kevin; Hillege, Hans L.; Bakker, Stephan J.; Anker, Stefan D.; Navis, Gerjan; Voors, Adriaan A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims In chronic heart failure (CHF), low body mass as a reflection of low muscle mass has been associated with poor outcome. Urinary creatinine excretion rate (CER) is an established marker of muscle mass, but has not been investigated in CHF. This study aims to evaluate urinary CER as a marker of m

  17. 吡格列酮对糖尿病肾病尿白蛋白排泄和CRP的影响%The Influence of Pioglitazone on Urinary Albumin Excretion and C-reactive Protein in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周斌; 刘辉文; 谭万寿; 封芬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy and mechanism of pioglitazone for the treatment of early diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods 92 patients with DN were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was given repaglinide for treatment, the treatment group was given repaglinide and pioglitazone (30mg/d)for treatment, for 16 weeks. The fasting insulin(FINS), insulin sen-sitivity index (ISI), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours blood glucose (2hBG), C-reactive protein (CRP), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, fibrinogen (Fib), 24 h urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), liver and kidney function of two groups were compared before and after treatment. Results After the treatment, compared with the control group, the level of FBG, HbA1c, FINS, CRP, TG, LDL-C, Fib of the treatment group was obviously lower (P<0.05), the level of 2hBG and UAER was also significantly lower (P<0.01), while the level of HDL-C and ISI higher (P<0.05). Conclusion Pioglitazone can reduce the level of blood sugar, regu-late lipid, improve the sensitivity of insulin, decrease CRP, ameliorate inflammatory reaction and urinary albumin excretion.%吡格列酮治疗糖尿病早期肾病的疗效观察,分析其可能的作用机制。方法92例糖尿病早期肾病患者随机分成两组,对照组给予瑞格列奈治疗,治疗组给予瑞格列奈和吡格列酮(30 mg/d)治疗,共16周。比较两组处理前后空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)、糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、空腹血糖(FBG)、餐后2 h 血糖(2hBG)、C 反应蛋白(CRP)、甘油三脂(TG)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、24 h尿白蛋白排泄率(UAER)、肝功能、肾功能的变化。结果治疗组较对照组治疗后FBG、HbA1c、FINS、CRP、TG、LDL-C、Fib水平明显降低差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),并显著降低2hBG和UAER(P<0.01),同时提高HDL-C水平和ISI差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。

  18. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A;

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found betwee...... in the 'lymph-imbalance' theory of ascites formation, whereas a 'fluid equilibrium' theory seems to be too simple, especially with respect to explain protein sequestration in the peritoneal cavity....

  19. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Ring-Larsen, Helmer; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found between...... (plasma minus ascitic fluid) oncotic pressure (rlin = 0.74, P less than 0.001) but significantly higher than that (P less than 0.005), indicating a 'non-equilibrium' in the splanchnic Starling forces. The results point to a multivariate genesis and perpetuation of cirrhotic ascites as laid down...

  20. ESTIMATES OF AGE-SPECIFIC URINARY EXCRETION RATES FOR CREATININE AMONG CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study suggest that naïve adjustment by creatinine concentration, without consideration of the age-dependence of the physiological mechanisms controlling its excretion, may introduce sizeable error and is inappropriate when comparing metabolite concentrations a...

  1. Urinary albumin excretion in a population based sample of 1011 middle aged non-diabetic subjects. The Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1993-01-01

    in the non-diabetic population. Among 1011 30-70-year-old subjects without diabetes mellitus or urinary tract infection, who were invited to participate in a population based epidemiological study, the albumin concentration was measured in an overnight urine sample. The measurement was performed by an ELISA...

  2. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  3. The estimated GFR, but not the stage of diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion, is associated with the carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Hidenori

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the relationship between the intima-media thickness (IMT of the carotid artery and the stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and diabetic nephropathy graded by the urinary albumin excretion (UAE in the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 338 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The carotid IMT was measured using an ultrasonographic examination. Results The mean carotid IMT was 1.06 ± 0.27 mm, and 42% of the subjects showed IMT thickening (≥ 1.1 mm. Cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease were frequent in the patients with IMT thickening. The carotid IMT elevated significantly with the stage progression of CKD (0.87 ± 0.19 mm in stage 1, 1.02 ± 0.26 mm in stage 2, 1.11 ± 0.26 mm in stage 3, and 1.11 ± 0.27 mm in stage 4+5. However, the IMT was not significantly different among the various stages of diabetic nephropathy. The IMT was significantly greater in the diabetic patients with hypertension compared to those without hypertension. The IMT positively correlated with the age, the duration of diabetes mellitus, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities (baPWV, and negatively correlated with the eGFR. In a stepwise multivariate regression analysis, the eGFR and the baPWV were independently associated with the carotid IMT. Conclusions Our study is the first report showing a relationship between the carotid IMT and the renal parameters including eGFR and the stages of diabetic nephropathy with a confirmed association between the IMT and diabetic macroangiopathy. Our study further confirms the importance of intensive examinations for the early detection of atherosclerosis and positive treatments for hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, as well as hyperglycaemia are necessary when a reduced eGFR is found in diabetic patients.

  4. Evaluation of Nasal Mucociliary Transport Rate by99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin Rhinoscintigraphy in Woodworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Dostbil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodworkers in the furniture industry are exposed to wood dust in their workplaces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of occupational wood dust exposure on the nasal mucociliary transport rates (NMTRs in woodworkers. Twenty five woodworkers and 30 healthy controls were included in this study. Wood dust concentration in workplaces was measured using the sampling device. 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (99mTc-MAA rhinoscintigraphy was performed, and NMTR was calculated in all cases. In statistical analysis, an independent samples t-test was used to compare NMTR of woodworkers and control subjects. We found that the mean NMTR of the woodworkers was lower than that of the healthy controls. However, there was not a statistically significant difference between them (=0.066. In conclusion, our findings suggested that wood dust exposure may not impair nasal mucociliary transport rate in woodworkers employed in joinery workshops.

  5. Questões atuais relativas à dosagem e à descrição da excreção urinária de albumina Current issues in measurement and report of urinary albumin excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Greg Miller

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: A excreção urinária de albumina indica lesão nos rins e é reconhecida como fator de risco para a progressão das doenças renal e cardiovascular. A dosagem da albumina urinária chama a atenção sobre a necessidade clínica de relatos de resultados precisos e claramente descritos. O National Kidney Disease Education Program e a Federação Internacional de Química Clínica e Medicina Laboratorial (IFCC reuniram-se para avaliar o estado atual das questões pré-analíticas, analíticas e pós-analíticas que afetam as dosagens da albumina na urina e para identificar as áreas que necessitam de melhorias. CONTEÚDO: A química da albumina na urina não é completamente compreendida. Diretrizes atuais recomendam a utilização da relação albumina/creatinina (RAC como substituta para a coleta de amostras cronometradas de urina, frequentemente inadequadas. Os resultados da RAC são afetados pela preparação do paciente, pela hora do dia da coleta das amostras e não é padronizada. Foram relatadas consideráveis diferenças intermétodos para a dosagem tanto de albumina quanto de creatinina, mas a verdade é desconhecida, porque não existem procedimentos de referência para a dosagem de albumina e não há materiais de referência para qualquer um desses analitos na urina. Os intervalos de referência recomendados para a RAC não consideram as grandes diferenças intergrupos na excreção da creatinina (por exemplo, relacionadas com diferenças em idade, sexo e etnia, nem o aumento contínuo no risco relacionado com a excreção de albumina. DISCUSSÃO: Necessidades clínicas foram identificadas para a padronização de (a métodos de coleta da urina, (b dosagens de albumina e de creatinina na urina com base em um sistema de referência completo, (c relatórios dos resultados dos testes e (d intervalos de referência para a RAC.BACKGROUND: Urinary excretion of albumin indicates kidney damage and is recognized as a risk factor

  6. The effect of heat exposure on cortisol and catecholamine excretion rates in workers in glass manufacturing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangelova, K; Deyanov, Ch; Velkova, D; Ivanova, M; Stanchev, V

    2002-12-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of long term repeated heat exposure on the excretion rates of stress hormones of workers in glass manufacturing unit. Sixteen operators, exposed to heat, were studied during the hot period and compared to a control group of 16 subjects, working in the same manufacturing unit. Both groups had moderate work load. The microclimate components and the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature were used for defining the heat exposure. The excretion rates of cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed during the early morning shifts on three hour intervals using RIA and fluoriphotometric methods. Heart rate was followed, too. The psychosocial factors were measured by the "My job" questionnaire. Highly significantly higher cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline values were measured in the heat exposed operators compared to the control group, while significant differences of the psychosocial factors between the two groups lacked. Even if the heart rate was in the safe limits, the found alterations in the stress system are considerable and indicate heat stress. The work in conditions of overheat is associated with considerable heat stress and the possible health implications need to be clarified.

  7. Vitamin D levels and asymptomatic coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Christel; Reinhard, Henrik; Schmedes, Anne;

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. Severe vitamin D deficiency has been shown to predict cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic patients.......Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. Severe vitamin D deficiency has been shown to predict cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic patients....

  8. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A;

    1982-01-01

    Transvascular escape rate of albumin (TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to (or during steady state returning from) the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the initial disappearance rate of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin.......05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs...

  9. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B;

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... of 65 ml/min (median) was reduced to a nadir of 46 ml/min (p less than 0.01) during the first 2 h after infusion of cimetidine. GFR remained unchanged, and thus the fractional clearance of creatinine (CCr/CTh) was reduced from 1.43 (median) to 1.03 (p less than 0.01). CNa and the fractional excretion...... of sodium decreased throughout the study (p less than 0.05); CLi was unchanged. In conclusion cimetidine, when measured during 1-h clearance periods, interferes with tubular creatinine secretion in the denervated kidney of transplant recipients without affecting the glomerular filtration rate or proximal...

  10. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  11. A global database of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Metabolic Theory of Eco...

  12. Metabolism and Excretion Rates of Parent and Hydroxy-PAHs in Urine Collected after Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon for Native American Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E.; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 hours. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 hr post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 hr for retene to 3.3 hr for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 hr for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 hr for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 hr post-consumption. PMID:25659315

  13. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    .05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs...... being essential for a filtrative-convective transvascular albumin transport. Increased lymph drainage may contribute to the therapeutic effect of diuretic treatment in oedema and ascites....

  14. Comparison of methods for urinary albumin determination in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Khawali

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available We tested the correlation of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (A/C in an early-morning urine sample, measured with a commercial kit (DCA 2000®, with the conventional immunoturbidimetric determination in the laboratory and with overnight albumin excretion rate (reference method. Fifty-five type 1 diabetic adolescents had their first-morning urine collected on the 1st and 8th day of the period. Urinary albumin and creatinine were determined immediately using the DCA 2000® kit. Samples were also stored for laboratory analysis. To evaluate the correlation between early-morning urinary A/C ratio and overnight albumin excretion rate, 16 subjects had a timed overnight urine collection. A/C ratios determined with the DCA 2000® kit and by the laboratory method were 13.1 ± 20.5 and 20.4 ± 46.3 mg/g, respectively. A/C results by both methods proved to be strongly correlated (r = 0.98, P<0.001. DCA 2000®-determined A/C showed 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity when compared to the reference method. Spot urinary A/C of the subset of 16 subjects significantly correlated with their overnight albumin excretion rate (r = 0.98, P<0.001. Intraindividual variation ranged from 17 to 32% and from 9 to 63% for A/C and overnight albumin excretion rate, respectively. In conclusion, an early-morning specimen should be used instead of timed overnight urine and the A/C ratio is an accurate, reliable and easily determined parameter for the screening of diabetic nephropathy. Immediate measurement of the A/C ratio is feasible using the DCA 2000® kit. Intraindividual variability indicates the need for repeated determinations to confirm microalbuminuria and the diagnosis of incipient diabetic nephropathy.

  15. Biodeposition, respiration, and excretion rates of an introduced clam Mercenaria mercenaria in ponds with implications for potential competition with the native clam Meretrix meretrix in Shuangtaizi estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anguo; Yuan, Xiutang; Hou, Wenjiu; Li, Xiaodong; Zhao, Kai; Chen, Weixin; Su, Xiurong

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential impacts of an introduced clam Mercenaria mercenaria on estuarine ecosystem, and implications for the niche competition with a native clam Meretrix meretrix. The biodeposition, respiration, and excretion rates of M. mercenaria were determined seasonally using a sediment trap and a closed respirator in field. The biodeposition rates of M. mercenaria were 0.06-0.37 g/ (ind.·d), and the respiration rates were 0.31-14.66 mg/(ind.·d). The ammonia and phosphate excretion rates were 0.18-36.70 and 1.44-14.87 μg/(ind.·d), respectively. The hard clam M. mercenaria may discharge dry deposits up to 2.1×105 t, contribute 18.3 t ammonia and 9.0 t phosphate to culture ponds, and consume 7.9×103 t O2 from ponds annually. It suggested that the hard clam M. mercenaria might play an important role in pelagic-benthic coupling in pond ecosystem through biodeposition and excretion. A comparison of the key physiological parameters of the introduced clam M. mercenaria and the native clam Meretrix meretrix suggested that M. mercenaria had a niche similar to that of Meretrix meretrix in Shuangtaizi estuary and might have a potential competition with Meretrix meretrix for habitat and food if M. mercenaria species escaped from the culture pond or artificially released in estuarine ecosystem.

  16. Cubilin is an albumin binding protein important for renal tubular albumin reabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, H; Fyfe, J C; Jacobsen, C; Mounier, F; Verroust, P J; Orskov, H; Willnow, T E; Moestrup, S K; Christensen, E I

    2000-05-01

    Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show that previously identified low-molecular-weight renal albumin binding proteins are fragments of cubilin. In addition, we find that mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin show altered urinary excretion, and reduced tubular reabsorption, of albumin. Because cubilin has been shown to colocalize and interact with megalin, we propose a mechanism of albumin reabsorption mediated by both of these proteins. This process may prove important for understanding interstitial renal inflammation and fibrosis caused by proximal tubule uptake of an increased load of filtered albumin.

  17. 代谢综合征与尿微量清蛋白及肾小球滤过率的相关性研究%Associations of Metabolic Syndrome with Urinary Albumin and Glomerular Filtration Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕华; 朱义革; 陈蕊华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of the metabolic syndrome with urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate. Methods From October 2008 to March 2010,452 subjects without diabetes mellitus, glomerular disease and medication intaking was enrolled in this study. (125 female,327 male,mean age was 52±1. 9 years and mean BMI was 23. 8 ±0. 8 kg/m2). Subjects was divided into metabolic syndrome group (n=58,mail/female=44/14) ,and control group (n= 394,mail/female=282/112) according to IDF (International Association of endocrine surgeons) standard. Data of smoking history,waistline,blood pressure,lipids,fasting glucose,serum creatinine,glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urinary albumin was collect and analyzed. Results Urinary albumin excretion increased significantly ( P<0. 05) and glomerular filtration rate showed insignificant decrease (P<0. 05) in patients with metabolic syndrome. Of all the 5 metabolic syndrome components and other clinical characteristics, systolic blood pressure was the independent determinant for the urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration rate(OR=l. 13,95% CI:1. 11 — 1. 15,P<0. 01). Conclusion Metabolic syndrome could be a clinical syndrome which is associated with vascular dysfunction. But it showed a negative relationship with glomerular filtration rate in the people without diabetes, glomerular disease and medication consumption.%目的 研究代谢综合征与尿微量清蛋白排泄量及肾小球滤过率的相关性.方法 2008年10月~2010年3月入组452例无糖尿病,无肾小球疾病及不服药的健康体检者(女性125例,男性327例,平均年龄52±1.9岁,平均体重指数23.8±0.8 kg/m2).根据IDF(国际内分泌协会)标准分为代谢综合征组和正常对照组.收集并比较研究对象的吸烟史、腰围、血压、血脂、空腹血糖、血肌酐和尿微量清蛋白情况.结果代谢综合征组的吸烟率、腰围、收缩压、三酰甘油、低密度脂蛋白、空腹

  18. An orally active adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, FK838, increases renal excretion and maintains glomerular filtration rate in furosemide-resistant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, Christine G; Merz, Emily; Brooks, David P

    2003-01-01

    Loop and thiazide diuretics are common therapeutic agents for the treatment of sodium retention and oedema. However, resistance to diuretics and decreases in renal function can develop during diuretic therapy. Adenosine causes renal vasoconstriction, sodium reabsorption, and participates in the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanism for the regulation of glomerular filtration rate.We tested the hypothesis that the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist FK838 is orally active and causes diuresis and natriuresis, but maintains glomerular filtration rate in normal rats or in rats with furosemide resistance.In normal male Sprague – Dawley rats, FK838 dose-dependently increased urine flow and sodium and chloride excretion while sparing potassium. In combination with furosemide, FK838 enhanced the diuretic and natriuretic actions of furosemide to the same extent as hydrochlorothiazide and did not increase the potassium loss in normal rats. In furosemide-resistant rats, FK838 increased urine flow and electrolyte excretion to a greater extent than hydrochlorothiazide. In addition, hydrochlorothiazide significantly decreased glomerular filtration rate, whereas FK838 maintained glomerular filtration rate in furosemide-resistant rats.This study shows that the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist FK838 is orally active and causes potent diuresis and natriuresis and maintains glomerular filtration rate in normal or furosemide-resistant rats. Adenosine A1 receptor antagonists may be novel therapeutics for the treatment of oedema in normal or otherwise diuretic-resistant patients. PMID:12922924

  19. Impaired autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, Helge; Smidt, U M;

    1984-01-01

    served as controls. Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate (single bolus 51Cr-EDTA technique) and urinary albumin excretion rate (radial immunodiffusion). The study was performed twice within 2 weeks, with the subjects receiving an intravenous injection of either clonidine (225...... arterial blood pressure in all three groups (16-18 mmHg). While glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion rate remained unchanged in both control groups after clonidine injection, glomerular filtration rate diminished from 78 to 71 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (p les than 0.01), and urinary albumin...... excretion declined from 1707 to 938 micrograms/min (p less than 0.01) in the patients with diabetic nephropathy. Our results suggest that an intrinsic vascular (arteriolar) mechanism underlying the normal autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate, i.e. the relative constancy of glomerular filtration rate...

  20. Cubilin is an albumin binding protein important for renal tubular albumin reabsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Birn, H.; J. C. Fyfe; Jacobsen, C.; Mounier, F.; Verroust, P. J.; Orskov, H; Willnow, T.E.; Moestrup, S K; Christensen, E I

    2000-01-01

    Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show ...

  1. Influence of surface charge on the rate, extent, and structure of adsorbed Bovine Serum Albumin to gold electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beykal, Burcu; Herzberg, Moshe; Oren, Yoram; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-12-15

    The objective of this work is to investigate the rate, extent, and structure of amphoteric proteins with charged solid surfaces over a range of applied potentials and surface charges. We use Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring (E-QCM-D) to investigate the adsorption of amphoteric Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) to a gold electrode while systematically varying the surface charge on the adsorbate and adsorbent by manipulating pH and applied potential, respectively. We also perform cyclic voltammetry-E-QCM-D on an adsorbed layer of BSA to elucidate conformational changes in response to varied applied potentials. We confirm previous results demonstrating that increasing magnitude of applied potential on the gold electrode is positively correlated with increasing mass adsorption when the protein and the surface are oppositely charged. On the other hand, we find that the rate of BSA adsorption is not governed by simple electrostatics, but instead depends on solution pH, an observation not well documented in the literature. Cyclic voltammetry with simultaneous E-QCM-D measurements suggest that BSA protein undergoes a conformational change as the surface potential varies.

  2. Velocidad de la onda de pulso y la excreción urinaria de albumina en pacientes hipertensos tratados con Perindopril Pulse wave velocity and urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients treated with perindopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Tobilli

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica y la excreción urinaria de albúmina (EUA han sido reconocidas como predictores de riesgo cardiovascular. Además, los trastornos de la compliance arterial (CA evaluados mediante la velocidad de la onda de pulso elevada (VOP están estrechamente relacionados con los cambios de la presión arterial y correlacionados con la mortalidad cardiovascular y la presencia de ateroesclerosis. El objetivo primario de este estudio ha sido determinar la relación entre la VOP y la EUA en un grupo de pacientes no fumadores con hipertensión esencial y secundariamente evaluar los cambios producidos por un inhibidor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (perindopril sobre estas dos variables. En el estudio participaron setenta pacientes (33 hombres y 37 mujeres hipertensos no fumadores, sin tratamiento previo, de 50 ± 7 años (entre 35-69. La VOP de todos los pacientes fue estudiada por medio de un dispositivo computarizado (Complior en el período basal y a los seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril. También se determinó la EUA por el método de inmunodifusión radial al inicio del tratamiento y luego de seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril (4.6 ± 1.4 mg/día. Al finalizar el estudio se observó una reducción significativa de la presión arterial sistólica (PAS (160.2 ± 10.6 vs. 131.9 ± 7.1 mmHg, pSystolic and diastolic blood pressures and urinary albumin excretion (UAE have been recognized as predictors for cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, arterial compliance (AC disorders assessed by increased aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV are closely related to changes in blood pressure and strongly correlated with cardiovascular mortality and presence or extent of atherosclerosis. Our purpose in the present study was to determine a relationship between AC using PWV and UAE in a group of non-smoking patients with essential hypertension, and the level of interaction of ACE inhibition on

  3. Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Different Urinary Albumin Excretion Rates and Their Correlation with Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-qin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the pathogenetic mechanism of DN has not been elucidated, an inflammatory mechanism has been suggested as a potential contributor. This study was designed to explore the relationship between low-grade inflammation and renal microangiopathy in T2DM. A total of 261 diabetic subjects were divided into three groups according to UAE: a normal albuminuria group, a microalbuminuria group, and a macroalbuminuria group. A control group was also chosen. Levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, uMCP-1, SAA, SCr, BUN, serum lipid, blood pressure, and HbA1c were measured in all subjects. Compared with the normal controls, levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, uMCP-1, and SAA in T2DM patients were significantly higher. They were also elevated in the normal albuminuria group, P<0.05. Compared with the normal albuminuria group, levels of these inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in the microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria group, P<0.01. The macroalbuminuria group also showed higher levels than the microalbuminuria group, P<0.01. Also they were positively correlated with UAE, SBP, DBP, LDL-C, and TC. We noted no significance correlated with course, TG, or HDL-C. Only TNF-α; was positively correlated with HbA1c. This study revealed the importance of these inflammatory cytokines in DN pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to fully establish the potential of these cytokines as additional biomarkers for the development of DN.

  4. Detection of carrier heterogeneity by rate of ligand dialysis: medium-chain fatty acid interaction with human serum albumin and competition with chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1988-01-01

    Binding equilibria for decanoate, octanoate, and hexanoate to defatted human serum albumin were investigated by dialysis exchange rate determinations in 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C. The binding isotherms for decanoate and octanoate could not be fitted by the general binding......(5) M-1, respectively, for decanoate; 1.6 X 10(6) and 3.5 X 10(4) for octanoate; and 7.1 X 10(4) and 8.0 X 10(2) M-1 for hexanoate. The high-affinity albumin component binds 1 mol decanoate, 1 mol octanoate, or 2 mol hexanoate more than is bound to the low-affinity component. Chloride ions compete...

  5. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B;

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... of sodium decreased throughout the study (p less than 0.05); CLi was unchanged. In conclusion cimetidine, when measured during 1-h clearance periods, interferes with tubular creatinine secretion in the denervated kidney of transplant recipients without affecting the glomerular filtration rate or proximal...

  6. Short-term lower-leg growth rate and urine cortisol excretion in children treated with ciclesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    ) in randomized order once daily in the evening. Each 2-week treatment period was followed by a 2-week washout period. Knemometry was performed at the beginning and end of each treatment period. Cortisol levels in 12-hour overnight urine were measured at the end of each treatment period. RESULTS: No statistically...... of the novel inhaled corticosteroid ciclesonide on lower-leg growth rate and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in children with asthma. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-period crossover study, 24 children aged 6 to 12 years sequentially received ciclesonide (40, 80, and 160 microg...... significant differences were seen in lower-leg growth rates between any of the ciclesonide treatments and placebo. Lower-leg growth rates were 0.412 mm/wk for placebo, 0.425 mm/wk for 40 microg of ciclesonide, 0.397 mm/wk for 80 microg of ciclesonide, and 0.370 mm/wk for 160 microg of ciclesonide...

  7. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.;

    2001-01-01

    -blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid......Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double...... 6 months. Results: Neither transcapillary escape rate of albumin (7.4 (median) (5.0-9.8) (range) % vs. 7.0 (4.6- 10.6) %) nor prothrombin fragment 1+2 (0.97 (0.72-2.40)nmol/L vs. 1.01 (0.59-3.11)nmol/L) changed after 12 months of fish oil supplementation. Conclusion: Increased transcapillary escape...

  8. Effects of Salinity and Light on Oxygen Consumption Rate and Ammonia Excretion Rate of Tegillarca granosa%盐度和光照对泥蚶耗氧率和排氨率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊安安; 袁星; 汪先进; 林; 黄建荣; 黎祖福

    2015-01-01

    为了解盐度对泥蚶(Tegillarca granosa)生理活动的影响,探究其昼夜活动节律,在室内实验条件下,控制水温25℃,采用静水养殖法,以耗氧率和排氨率分别作为呼吸和排泄的生理指标,研究了20、24、28、30、32共计5个盐度梯度下泥蚶的呼吸和排泄强度,同时对泥蚶在光照条件和暗处理下的呼吸与排泄强度进行了测定。结果表明,泥蚶耗氧率和排氨率随着盐度的升高均先上升、后下降,耗氧率为0.33~0.48 mg/(g·h),排氨率为0.044~0.067 mg/(g·h);泥蚶在盐度28的环境下呼吸和排泄强度最高,且不同盐度下耗氧率之间、排氨率之间差异显著(P <0.05)。暗处理下泥蚶的耗氧率在0.42~0.53 mg/(g·h),排氨率在0.049~0.057 mg/(g·h);光照条件下泥蚶的耗氧率在0.40~0.44 mg/(g·h),排氨率为0.042~0.051 mg/(g·h);暗处理条件下呼吸与排泄强度比光照条件下的更高,但2种状态下耗氧率和排氨率差异均不显著(P >0.05);表明实验条件下泥蚶对光照和暗处理反应不明显,即泥蚶不存在明显的昼夜节律现象。%Tegillarca granosa,also called the blood clam,is an important species in traditional shellfish farming, high in nutrient content and economic value.Respiration and excretion rates are typically used to indicate their lev-el of physiological activity.To better understand the metabolic intensity and circadian rhythms of T.granosa under different environmental conditions,we investigated the effects of salinity and light on the physiological activity of T. granosa and the results provide a theoretical basis for scientific culture.Physiological indices of respiration and ex-cretion were expressed by oxygen consumption rate and ammonia excretion rate.In August,2014,healthy blood clams were randomly assigned to five groups,acclimated to and then tested in

  9. LORRY DRIVERS WORK STRESS EVALUATED BY CATECHOLAMINES EXCRETED IN URINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERBEEK, AJ; MEIJMAN, TF; FRINGSDRESEN, MHW; KUIPER, JI

    1995-01-01

    Objectives-To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. Methods-The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline o

  10. Plasma levels of free metanephrines and 3-methoxytyramine indicate a higher number of biochemically active HNPGL than 24-h urinary excretion rates of catecholamines and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corssmit, E. P. M.; de Jong, W. H. A.; Brookman, D.; Kema, I. P.; Romijn, J. A.; van Duinen, N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: A substantial number of patients with head and neck paragangliomas (HNPGLs) have biochemically active tumors, evidenced by increased urinary excretion of catecholamines and metabolites, including 3-methoxytyramine (3MT). It is unclear whether plasma levels of these parameters are more sensi

  11. Distribution and degradation of albumin in extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Anne-Marie; Taaning, E; Rossing, N;

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and degradation of albumin were determined in twelve patients with extensive skin disease and in ten control subjects by measuring the metabolic turnover and transcapillary escape of 132 I-labelled albumin. The ratio of intravascular to total mass of albumin was normal. Thus the ...... catabolic rate of albumin supports the concept of a causal relationship between these parameters....

  12. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  13. Pre-symptomatic increase in urine-orosomucoid excretion in pre-eclamptic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Camilla Skovhus; Allen, Jim; Vittinghus, Erik;

    2007-01-01

    , 32 women developed pre-eclampsia, and 5 controls for every case of pre-eclampsia were found. Blood samples were collected 4 times and urine samples 6 times from the 18/19th week and throughout pregnancy. Orosomucoid and albumin in plasma were analysed by standard methods, and in urine by sandwich...... in orosomucoid. In the plasma samples, orosomucoid was significantly higher late in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (>or=36th week, p=0.0275). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-eclampsia is associated with a pre-symptomatic increase in the urine excretion of orosomucoid, and orosomucoid excretion precedes that of albumin. Orosomucoid...... excretion can probably be used as a prognostic tool in combination with other screening methods, and seems to be a more sensitive marker for evolving pre-eclampsia than albumin. Plasma orosomucoid is significantly increased late in pre-eclampsia. Thus, the increased excretion of orosomucoid must primarily...

  14. 盐度对双齿围沙蚕耗氧率和排氨率的影响%Effects of salinity on oxygen consumption rate and ammonia-N excretion rate of Perinereis aibuhitensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东亿; 阎希柱

    2014-01-01

    为优化双齿围沙蚕养殖条件,促进沙蚕资源的合理开发和利用,作者探讨了不同盐度下(8、16、24、32、40、45)双齿围沙蚕(Perinereis aibuhitensis)耗氧率和排氨率的情况。结果表明:盐度对双齿围沙蚕的耗氧率和排氨率均有显著性影响(P<0.05)。在盐度为8~32时,耗氧率随着盐度的升高呈先下降后上升的趋势;在盐度为24时耗氧率最低(0.22 mg /(g·h)±0.01 mg/(g·h));在盐度为32时耗氧率达到最大值(0.37 mg/(g·h)±0.05 mg/(g·h))。在盐度为8~40条件下,沙蚕的排氨率随着盐度的升高呈先降低后上升的趋势;在盐度为24时,双齿围沙蚕的排氨率最低(0.10µmol/(g·h)±0.02µmol/(g·h));当盐度为40时排氨率达到最大值(0.94µmol/(g·h)±0.11µmol/(g·h))。盐度为8~40时,沙蚕的O︰N比值随着盐度的上升呈先升高后降低的趋势,在盐度24和32时,沙蚕的 O︰N 比值分别为130.84和126.47,且变化较小,当盐度40时, O︰N比值急剧下降到13.3,然后再度上升。综合上述结果,双齿围沙蚕生活的最适盐度为24~32。%The oxygen consumption rate and ammonia-N excretion rate of Perinereis aibuhitensis were determined at different salinity (8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 45) in order to optimize P. aibuhitensis farming conditions and promote the rational development and utilization of Nereis resources. The results showed that (1) The oxygen consumption rate and ammonia-N excretion rate were significantly affected by salinity (P<0.05); (2) oxygen consumption rate first decreased and then increased with the increase of salinity at the range of 8 to 32, which was the lowest (0.22±0.01 mg /g·h) at the salinity of 24, and reached the maximum value (0.37±0.05 mg /(g·h)) at 32; (3) ammonia-N excretion rate first decreased and then increased with the increase of salinity at the range of 8 to 40. At salinity of 24, ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest, and reached the maximum value at the salinity of 40

  15. Changes in urinary potassium excretion in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Ueda

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that urinary potassium excretion decreased with reductions in renal function. Furthermore, urinary potassium excretion was mainly affected by urinary sodium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate in patients with CKD, whereas the presence of diabetes mellitus and use of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors were not associated with urinary potassium excretion in this study.

  16. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol) and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Stefania; Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites), we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  17. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  18. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  19. Excreting and non-excreting grasses exhibit different salt resistance strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moinuddin, Muhammad; Gulzar, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Zaheer; Gul, Bilquees; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na+ ratio than non-excreting grasses. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ψs and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na+ uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses. PMID:24996428

  20. Ammonia distribution and excretion in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Wright, P A

    1987-05-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning ammonia production, storage and excretion in fish. Ammonia is the end product of protein catabolism and is stored in the body of fish in high concentrations relative to basal excretion rates. Ammonia, if allowed to accumulate, is toxic and is converted to less toxic compounds or excreted. Like other weak acids and bases, ammonia is distributed between tissue compartments in relation to transmembrane pH gradients. NH3 is generally equilibrated between compartments but NH4 (+) is distributed according to pH. Ammonia is eliminated from the blood upon passage through the gills. The mechanisms of branchial ammonia excretion vary between different species of fish and different environments, and primarily involves NH3 passive diffusion and NH4 (+)/Na(+) exchange. Water chemistry near the gill surface may also be important to ammonia excretion, but a more accurate measurement of the NH3 gradient across the gill epithelium is required before a more detailed analysis of NH3 and NH4 (+) excretion can be made.

  1. Rapidly reversible albumin and beta 2-microglobulin hyperexcretion in recent severe essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer

    1983-01-01

    by conventional methods and serum creatinine was normal. A pronounced but quite variably elevated albumin excretion 440 +/- 448 micrograms/min (mean +/- s.d.) and a moderately increased beta 2-microglobulin excretion 3.06 +/- 3.29 micrograms/min was noted before treatment. The abnormal albumin excretion...... to arterial pressures in all patients. Thus glomerular and to some extent tubular protein handling were both affected in untreated patients, but rapidly reversible during initial antihypertensive treatment. The data indicate that the beta 2-microglobulin hyperexcretion is secondary to enhanced filtration...

  2. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides {sup 230}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, I. [Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Rossendorf Inc. D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Seitz, G. [Institution for statutory accident insurance and prevention in the precision engineering and electrical industry, D-50941 Koeln (Germany); Hartmann, M. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, D-10318 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  3. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone and inhibi...

  4. Excretion rates of 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, uric acid and microalbuminuria as glycemic control indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cong; Sheng, Junqin; Liu, Zhiwen; Guo, Minghao

    2017-01-01

    1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), uric acid and urinary proteins are excreted into the urine with increasing glucosuria. In the present retrospective study we analyzed whether these factors could be used as indicators for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) glucose control in 6,766 (T2DM) patients. There were 3,988 cases (58.9%) with HbA1c ≤ 6.5%, 853 cases (12.61%) with HbA1c levels ranging from 6.5% to 7% and 1,925 cases (28.5%) with HbA1c > 7%. HbA1c percentages were correlated with age, MA and 1,5-AG serum concentrations (P 10 mg/L. With a derived receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a 1,5-AG cut-off value of 11.55 mg/L for hyperglycemia could be diagnosed with a specificity of 71.2 (69.7–72.6) and a sensitivity of 75.3 (73.6–76.9). The serum 1,5-AG concentration is a marker for hyperglycemia and may be particularly useful as an indicator for short-term glycemic excursions in order to improve treatments in T2DM patients. PMID:28281675

  5. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...... extravasation rate (137 +/- 52 mumol/h). Albumin flux from the peritoneal cavity into the plasma was substantially lower (0.22 +/- 0.07 mumol/h, P peritoneal accumulation of the albumin from plasma over 4 h was 14 +/- 3.2 mumol, which was significantly lower than the intraperitoneal albumin...

  6. Influence of Passive Smoking on Urine Albumin Excretion in Women Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus%被动吸烟对女性2型糖尿病患者尿清蛋白排泄率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘清蓉; 张伟; 徐援

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨被动吸烟对不吸烟的女性2型糖尿病患者尿清蛋白排泄率(UAE)的影响.方法 对2009年6月-2011年4月在我院住院的521例不吸烟的女性2型糖尿病患者进行被动吸烟的调查,比较被动吸烟暴露者和非被动吸烟暴露者的基本资料、胰岛功能、血脂水平、炎症标志物[C反应蛋白(CRP)、纤维蛋白原、白细胞计数]和8 h UAE.被动吸烟暴露的定义是与吸烟的家人或同事接触至少5年.结果 不吸烟的女性2型糖尿病患者中,294例(56.4%)为被动吸烟暴露者(暴露组),227例(43.6%)为非被动吸烟暴露者(非暴露组).暴露组患者受教育年限显著短于非暴露组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),血CRP、纤维蛋白原水平和8 h UAE均显著高于非暴露组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而血高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)水平则显著低于非暴露组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多元逐步回归分析显示,糖尿病病程、收缩压、CRP、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)和被动吸烟累积量是不吸烟的女性2型糖尿病患者8 h UAE的独立影响因子.结论 被动吸烟会增加女性2型糖尿病患者的UAE、血CRP及纤维蛋白原水平,并加重血脂代谢紊乱.%Objective To investigate the influence of passive smoking on urine albumin excretion ( UAE ) in non -smoking women patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ( T2DM ). Methods Survey of passive smoking was conducted in 521 non - smoking women patients with T2DM hospitalized in our department from June 2009 to April 2011. Basic information, pancreatic function, blood lipid, inflammation marker ( CRP, fibrinogen and leukocyte count ) and 8 h UAE were compared between passive smoking exposure group and passive smoking non — exposure group. Passive smoking was defined as exposure to smoking family members or colleagues for at least five years. Results Among the non - smoking women patients with T2DM, 294 cases ( 56. 4% ) were exposed to passive

  7. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor and Tamm-Horsfall protein in three rat models with increased renal excretion of urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Jørgensen, P E; Torffvit, O

    1997-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) are synthesized in the kidneys by the distal tubular cells and excreted into urine. The urinary excretion of these peptides has been suggested as a potential index for distal tubular function. The urinary excretion rates of EGF and THP...

  8. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  9. Relationship of serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage in patients with early diabetic nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Yang; Ji Zhang; Li-Ping Tang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the relationship of serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage in patients with early diabetic nephropathy.Methods: A total of 76 patients with early diabetic nephropathy were included in observation group and 80 healthy subjects were included in control group. Differences in retinol-binding protein (RBP), non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and chemokine Fractalkine (FKN) content in serum as well as urinary protein excretion indexes and glomerular filtration function indexes were compared between the two groups immediately after admission, and the correlation of RBP, NEFA and FKN content with the disease was further analyzed.Results:Serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content of observation group were higher than those of control group; 24 h total urine volume, 24 h urinary albumin and urinary albumin excretion rate as well as urine-specific proteins Kim-1, NGAL, L-FABP and CysC content of observation group were higher than those of control group and positively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content; GFR level of observation group was lower than that of control group and negatively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content while serum Cr, BUN, VF, LP-a,β2-MG and HA content were higher than those of control group and positively correlated with serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content.Conclusions:Serum RBP, NEFA and FKN content significantly increase in patients with early diabetic nephropathy and are correlated with urinary protein excretion and glomerular filtration function damage.

  10. A nation-wide cross-sectional study of urinary albumin excretion rate, arterial blood pressure and blood glucose control in Danish children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H B; Marinelli, K; Nørgaard, K

    1990-01-01

    than 20 to 150 micrograms min-1 were compared with those for 569 diabetic adolescents with AER less than or equal to 20 micrograms min-1 and duration of diabetes more than 2 years. The group with AER greater than 20 to 150 micrograms min-1 had significantly higher mean age (16.5 years) than the group...

  11. 温度对条石鲷幼鱼代谢率、排泄率及窒息点的影响%Impacts of temperature on metabolic, excretion rate and asphyxiation point of juvenile Oplegnathus fasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宣雄; 徐善良; 沈庞幼; 谷江稳; 颜付云; 邵波

    2012-01-01

    采用静水密闭式呼吸仪,分别测定了13,18,23,28和33℃5个水温梯度下条石鲷Oplegnathus asciatus幼鱼的代谢率、排泄率及窒息点.结果表明:(1)不同温度条件下,条石鲷幼鱼的代谢率和排泄率差异显著(p<0.05);当温度由13℃升高至28℃时,条石鲷幼鱼的代谢率和排泄率均随之升高;当水温为28℃时,其代谢率和排泄率达最大值,分别为(16.33±0.45) J/(g·h)和(1.03±0.04) J/(g·h),是13℃实验组的6.69倍和5.15倍;与28℃实验组相比,33℃实验组的代谢率和排泄率分别降低了19.04%和15.53%,33℃已超出了条石鲷幼鱼生长的最高适温.(2)实验温度下,条石鲷幼鱼的蛋白质供能比值为37.94%~72.24%,蛋白质是其主要能源物质.(3)条石鲷幼鱼的窒息点为(3.17~3.64) mg/L,并随水温升高而升高.(4)Q10值和蛋白质供能比值的变化特征表明,18~28℃是条石鲷幼鱼的适宜生长温度.%The metabolic, excretion rates and asphyxiation point of juvenile Oplegnathus fasciatus of an average body mass of (0. 61±0.14) g were measured at five different water temperatures(13, 18, 23, 28 and 33 ℃)with hydrostatic-closed breathing apparatus. The results showed that: (1) The metabolic and excretion rates have significant difference at different water temperatures(p<0. 05); The metabolic and excretion rates increased by 6. 69 times and 5. 15 times with the water temperature rising from 13 ℃ to 28 ℃, and the maximum value at 28 ℃ is (16. 33±0. 45) J/(g · H) and (1. 03±0. 04) J/(g · H) respectively, but they decreased by 19. 04% and 15. 53% at high water temperature of 33 ℃ compared with those at 28 TZ, which shows that 33 ℃ has exceed the optimum temperature for juvenile O. Fasciatus which leads to the decrease of metabolic rate and then the excretion rate. (2)The change regularity of the Q10 values reflectes the optimum temperature range for the juvenile O. Fasciatus, from 13 ℃ to 33 ℃ the value of Q

  12. 温度和盐度对岱衢族大黄鱼排氨率和耗氧率的影响%Effects of temperature and salinity on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu stock large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭念岗; 吴雄飞; 沈伟良

    2014-01-01

    采用静水封闭的实验方法研究了温度(8℃、14℃、20℃、26℃、31℃)和盐度(5、15、25、35)对体质量353.2 g岱衢族大黄鱼( Pseudosciaena crocea)排氨率和耗氧率的影响,同时测定其在不同温度下浮头点和窒息点。结果显示,随着温度升高,排氨率和耗氧率均先增大后减小,在26℃时两者达到最大值,温度对两者存在显著影响( P<0�05);随着盐度的升高,排氨率和耗氧率均先增大后减小,盐度25时两者达到最大值,盐度对两者存在显著影响( P<0.05);浮头点和窒息点随着温度上升呈现先降低后升高趋势,在14℃达最小值,温度对浮头点和窒息点存在显著影响(P<0.05)。研究认为,在温度26℃、盐度25的环境条件下,岱衢族大黄鱼代谢旺盛,是其比较适合的生长条件;14℃可以作为苗种运输时的温度。%The effects of temperature ( 8 ℃, 14 ℃, 20 ℃, 26 ℃, 31 ℃) and salinity ( 5, 15, 25, 35 ) on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu stock large yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena crocea) with average body weight of 353.2 g were determined by sealed-still water experimental methods, and the floating point and the suffocation point at different temperatures were measured as well. The results showed that both of the ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate of Dai-qu large yellow croaker were both increased first and then decreased with temperature rose, and they reached to the maximum value of 26 ℃. Water temperature had significant effects on ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate ( P<0.05) . Ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption of the fish increased first and then reduced with salinity rose, and they reached to the maximum value of salinity 25. Salinity had significant effects on the ammonia excretion rate and oxygen consumption rate (P<0.05). With the temperature rose, the floating

  13. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding.

  14. RENAL ENDOGENOUS ET-1 AND URINARY SODIUM EXCRETION AND MICROALBUMINURIA IN HUMAN SALT-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the urinary endothelin-1 (ET-1) excretion and urinary sodium excretion,microalbuminuria and ambulatory blood pressure(ABP) in salt-sensitive(SS) hypertension patients. Methods Twenty-one cases of normotensive subjects and 32 cases of uncomplicated hypertensive patients were recruited in this study. Salt sensitivity was determined by acute venous saline loading test. Before saline loading, 24-hour ABP measurements were performed. Urine samples were collected to assay ET-1 ,urinary sodium excretion and urinary albumin excretion(UAF). Results Compared to slat-resistant(SR) subgroup, SS showed low urinary ET-1 excretion in normotensive group (P<0.05) or hypertensive group (P<0.01) ,regardless of saline loading or not. The nighttime MAP of SS was higher than SR subgroup in normotensive or hypertensive group. Urinary sodium excretion during 4h of saline loading was significantly lower in SS than that in SR hypertensive patients (P<0. 05). Twenty-four-hour UAE of SS patients was higher than SR group (P<0.01). Results of further correlation analysis indicated that the urinary ET-1 excretion was positively related to urinary sodium content and negatively to ABP and UAE. Conclusion Urinary ET-1 is low in SS normotensives or hypertension patients,which may play a role in renal sodium retention and renal impairment of SS hypertension patients.

  15. Increase in urinary growth hormone excretion in puberty.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, D A; Addison, G. M.; Herbert, E D

    1990-01-01

    During the pubertal years the overnight urinary excretion rate of growth hormone (hGHu) increases to three to four times the prepubertal rate, reaching a peak in girls at 13 years and in boys at 15 years. After puberty the mean rate of overnight hGHu is twice that before puberty.

  16. Serum albumin: touchstone or totem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margarson, M P; Soni, N

    1998-08-01

    A decrease in serum albumin concentrations is an almost inevitable finding in disease states, and is primarily mediated in the acute phase by alterations in vascular permeability and redistribution. This change is not disease specific but marked changes that persist are generally associated with a poorer prognosis. Critical appraisal of long-standing practices and the availability of alternative colloid solutions have led to a reduction in albumin replacement therapy, and a widespread tolerance of lower albumin concentrations in patients. The factors determining serum albumin concentrations, their measurement and the implications of hypoalbuminaemia are reviewed. The clinical value of serum albumin measurement is discussed.

  17. EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON OXYGEN CONSUMPTION AND AMMONIA EXCRETION BY SOLENAIA OLEIVORA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The respiration metabolismand excretion of marinebivalves were studied by different researchers[1—6].Themetabolic rate of bivalves is influenced by a number ofvariables,includingtemperature,body size,oxygen ten-sion,food concentration,reproductive state,activityleveland physiological condition.The excreted metabolites ofbivalves include ammonia,urea,uric acid and others,with ammonia comprising70%of the total excretion.Solenaia oleivorais a proper freshwater bivalve in China.For the consumer it has the follo...

  18. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  19. Cubilin maintains blood levels of HDL and albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A; Wilkerson, Brent A; Argraves, Kelley M; Remaley, Alan T; Argraves, W Scott

    2014-05-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL.

  20. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced /sup 131/I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs.

  1. Urinary carnitine excretion in surgical patients on total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanphaichitr, V; Lerdvuthisopon, N

    1981-01-01

    Urinary free and total carnitine excretions were measured in 41 normal adults and seven surgical patients on fat-free total parenteral nutrition for 8 to 45 days. The means (+/-SEM) of urinary free and total carnitine excretion in normal adults were 162 +/- 19 and 328 +/- 28 micrometers/days, respectively. All of the patients exhibited protein-calorie malnutrition with a mean carnitine intake of 11.6 +/- 1.5 micrometers/day. Under this stringent carnitine economy with the adequate supply of lysine and methionine, urinary total carnitine excretion significantly reduced to 127 to 162 micrometers/day. This probably reflects the carnitine biosynthetic rate. However, during the periods of operation and/or infection, urinary total carnitine excretion significantly increased 2- to 7-fold that of normal levels. Significant positive correlation was found between the two forms of urinary carnitine and total nitrogen excretions. Serum free and total carnitine levels in patients were significantly higher than normal adults. Such findings can be explained by the endocrine responses to the stress phenomenon and indicate a catabolic response of skeletal muscle in which most of the body carnitine resides. This can impair their carnitine status.

  2. Plasma disappearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kverneland, Arne;

    1993-01-01

    The fractional plasma escape rates of glycated and non-glycated albumin have earlier been measured in groups of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and control subjects. The escape of non-glycated albumin was similar in control subjects and normoalbuminuric patients, but elevated...... in patients with micro or macroalbuminuria. In all groups the escape rate of glycated albumin was lower than that of non-glycated albumin. Glycation increases the anionic charge of albumin. To assay for charge-dependent alterations of transport a selectivity index (non-glycated albumin/glycated albumin...... transport ratio) was determined from the disappearance data. The index was high in control subjects (1.021 +/- 0.0057 (SEM)). This reflects a mean difference between the two escape rates of 2.1% per hour (for comparison the mean of the fractional escape rate of non-glycated albumin of the normal control...

  3. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  4. Effects of water deprivation on renal hydroelectrolytic excretion in chronically Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Rosa

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an 8 hour-period of water deprivation on fluid and electrolyte renal excretion was investigated in male Wistar rats infected with the strain São Felipe (12SF of Trypanosoma cruzi, in comparison with age and sex matched non-infected controls. The median percent reductions in the urinary flow (-40% v -63% and excretion ofsodium (-57% v-79% were smaller in chagasic than in control rats, respectively. So, chagasic rats excreted more than controls. On the other hand, the median percent decrement in the clearance of creatinine was higher in chagasic (-51% than in controls (-39%. Thus, chagasic rats showed some disturbed renal hydroelectrolytic responses to water deprivation, expressed by smaller conservation, or higher excretion of water and sodium in association with smaller glomerularfiltration rate. This fact denoted an elevation in the fractional excretion of sodium and water.

  5. Synergism between maggot excretions and antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Pawiroredjo, Janity S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-01-01

    Maggots are successfully used to treat severe, infected wounds. This study investigated whether maggot excretions/secretions influence the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined of gentamicin and flucloxacillin for Staphylococcus aureus, of penicillin for Streptococcus pyogenes, of amoxicillin and vancomycin for Enterococcus faecalis, of gentamicin for Enterobacter cloacae, and of gentamicin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa by checkerboard titration. A range of concentrations of antibiotics in combination with excretions/secretions was examined to investigate the potential of maggot excretions/secretions to affect antibacterial activity. The results showed a dose-dependent increase of the antibacterial effect of gentamicin in the presence of excretions/secretions on S. aureus. Minimal concentrations and MBC of gentamicin decreased, respectively, 64- and 32-fold. The MBC of flucloxacillin and excretions/secretions against S. aureus were also decreased. The other antibiotic and excretions/secretions combinations exerted an indifferent effect. Excretions/secretions alone did not have any antibacterial effect. The synergism between gentamicin and maggot excretions/secretions could be of direct importance in clinical practice, because it could allow the use of lower doses of gentamicin and thus minimize the risk of gentamicin-related side effects.

  6. Mercury excretion and intravenous ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, M J; Davis, D R; Cheraskin, E; Jackson, J A

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intravenous ascorbic acid increases urinary excretion of mercury in subjects with low mercury levels from dental amalgam, food, and other sources. From 89 adult volunteers we selected 28 subjects with the highest mercury excretions (2 to 14 micrograms/24 h). We administered intravenous infusions of 500 ml lactated Ringer's solution with and without addition of 750 mg of ascorbic acid/kg body weight, up to 60 g ascorbic acid. Average mercury excretion during the 24 h after infusion of ascorbic acid was 4.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms (mean +/- SEM), which was not significantly more than after infusion of Ringer's solution alone (3.7 +/- 0.5 micrograms). Lead excretion was similarly unaffected. If ascorbic acid administered intravenously benefits some persons with suspected adverse reactions to mercury, the benefit in subjects similar to ours appears unrelated to short-term enhanced excretion of mercury or lead.

  7. Effect of diethyl ether on the biliary excretion of acetaminophen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Siegers, C P; Klaassen, C D

    1984-10-01

    The biliary and renal excretion of acetaminophen and its metabolites over 8 hr was determined in rats exposed to diethyl ether by inhalation for 1 hr. Additional rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg ip) while control animals were conscious throughout the experiment (surgery was performed under hexobarbital narcosis: 150 mg/kg ip; 30-min duration). The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid was decreased 80% in livers from ether-anesthetized rats but was not reduced in urethane-treated animals when compared to that in control rats. The concentration of reduced glutathione was not affected by either urethane or diethyl ether. Basal bile flow was not altered by the anesthetic agents. Bile flow rate after acetaminophen injection (100 mg/kg iv) was increased slightly over basal levels for 2 hr in hexobarbital-treated control rats, was unaltered in urethane-anesthetized animals, and was decreased throughout the 8-hr experiment in rats exposed to diethyl ether for 1 hr. In control and urethane-anesthetized animals, approximately 30-35% of the total acetaminophen dose (100 mg/kg iv) was excreted into bile in 8 hr, while only 16% was excreted in rats anesthetized with diethyl ether. Urinary elimination (60-70% of the dose) was not altered by exposure to ether. Separation of metabolites by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that ether decreased the biliary elimination of unchanged acetaminophen and its glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates by 47, 40, 49, and 73%, respectively, as compared to control rats. Excretion of unchanged acetaminophen and the glutathione conjugate into bile was depressed in urethane-anesthetized animals by 45 and 66%, respectively, whereas elimination of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates was increased by 27 and 50%, respectively. These results indicate that biliary excretion is influenced by the anesthetic agent and that diethyl ether depresses conjugation with sulfate and glutathione as well as glucuronic

  8. Excretion of laccase by sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Effects of a copper deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bligny, R; Gaillard, J; Douce, R

    1986-07-15

    Copper-deprived sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells do not excrete molecules of active laccase in their culture medium. In the range of 2-100 micrograms of copper initially present per litre of nutrient solution, the total laccase activity measured in the cell suspensions at the end of the exponential phase of growth was closely proportional to the amount of added copper. However, copper-deprived cells excreted the laccase apoprotein (laccase without copper) at the same rate as copper-supplied cells excreted the active, copper-containing, laccase. When the culture medium was initially supplied with limiting amounts of copper, the active laccase was excreted until all copper molecules were metabolized. Thereafter, the laccase apoprotein was excreted. Consequently, at the end of the exponential phase of growth, the cell supernatants contained a mixture of apoprotein and copper-containing laccase. After purification and concentration, this mixture of copper-containing laccase (blue) and laccase apoprotein (slightly yellow) showed a yellow-green colour. Under copper-limiting culture conditions an equivalent decrease of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 Cu2+ was observed. Addition of copper to copper-deficient enzyme solutions does not result in a recovery of the enzyme activity. However, when added to copper-deficient sycamore-cell suspensions, copper induced a recovery of the excretion of active enzyme, at a normal rate, within about 10 h. The first molecules of active laccase were excreted after 3-4 h.

  9. Endothelial haemostatic factors are associated with progression of urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G;

    1999-01-01

    ), whereas no changes in UAER were seen in subjects with vWF and tPA below the medians. Subjects with high tPA were also characterized by an excess of other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline. No significant differences in these risk factors were present between subjects with high or low vWF. High...... of endothelial dysfunction, predicts a subsequent increase of UAER in patients with diabetes. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that high concentrations of vWF as well as other haemostatic factors predict progression of UAER in clinically healthy subjects. UAER was measured together with selected...... markers of haemostatic function-vWF, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor, factor VII and fibrinogen-in healthy volunteers aged 40-65 years. After a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 64 of 74 agreed to a re-examination including re-measurement of UAER. Baseline vWF and tPA were...

  10. Spironolactone diminishes urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S E; Persson, F; Frandsen, E

    2012-01-01

    Adding aldosterone receptor blockade to standard renoprotective treatment may provide additional renoprotection in patients with overt nephropathy. We expected an impact of spironolactone in early diabetic nephropathy, and for this hypothesis we studied the effect on markers of glomerular...... and tubular damage in patients with Type 1 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria....

  11. Genes unlinked to the leptin receptor influence urinary albumin excretion in obese Zucker rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, K.; Warden, C.H.; Griffey, S.M.; Vilches-Moure, J.G.; Hansen, S.; Cuppen, E.; Nijman, I.J.; Chiu, S.; Stern, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that 90% of outbred obese Zucker Lepr(fa/fa) rats die prematurely of renal disease. Thus, renal disease in obese Zucker Lepr(fa/fa) rats may be caused by the LEPR mutation on chromosome 5, by the obesity, or it may be influenced by Zucker susceptibility alleles of genes on o

  12. The preparation of albumin as a biological drug from human plasma by fiber filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Hosseini K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In recent years, consumption of whole-blood for the treatment of patients has decreased but use of biological plasma-derived medicines such as albumin, immunoglobulin and coagulation factors have increased instead. Paying attention to albumin molecular structure is important for its isolation from human plasma. Albumin is a single-chain protein consisting of about 585 amino acids and a molecular weight of 66500 Daltons. Albumin is a stable molecule and it is spherical in shape. There are different methods for human albumin preparation. Considering the large consumption of this biological drug in clinical settings, methods with fewer steps in production line are of big advantage in saving time and manufacturing more products."n "nMethods: In this project, we prepared human albumin using hollow fiber cartridges in order to omit the rework on fraction V+VI. Human albumin is usually produced by the application of cold ethanol method, where albumin is obtained from fraction V by doing a rework on fraction V+VI to separate fraction V."n "nResults: In the current work, human albumin was prepared from fraction V+VI by the help of hollow fiber cartridges. With a concentration of 20%, the obtained albumin had 96.5% of monomer and 3.5% of polymer and polymer aggregate."n "nConclusion: Comparing the obtained human albumin with a number of commercial human albumin samples by the use of SDS-page, the results were satisfactory regarding the 3.5 percent polymer and aggregate rate for the prepared albumin.

  13. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  14. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Km. Neelofar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €- amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA, the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an

  15. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  16. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, I David; Leader, John P; Bedford, Jennifer J; Verlander, Jill W; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J

    2014-12-01

    Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid-base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long-term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium-treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium-treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium-treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium-treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium-treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg.

  17. LC-MS/MS法测定我国健康受试者48h内伊伐布雷定和去甲伊伐布雷定的尿排泄率%LC-MS/MS determination of 48-h urine excretion rates of ivabradine and N-desmethylivabradine in healthy Chinese volunteers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鹿成韬; 陈敏纯; 贾艳艳; 宋颖; 杨静; 丁莉坤; 李雪晴; 周伦; 文爱东

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine urine excretion properties of ivabradine and N-desmethylivabradine in healthy Chinese volunteers after single and multiple doses of ivabradine hydrochloride tablets.Methods: Ten volunteers were orally administered with a single and multiple 5 mg doses of ivabradine hydrochloride tablets, respectively.Urine samples were collected pre-dose and at the different post-dose intervals during 48 h.The volume of u-rine was recorded.The urine concentrations of ivabradine and N-desmethylivabradine were detected by a LC-MS/ MS method, and the urine excretion rate was calculated.Results: The mean cumulative urinary excretion rates of ivabradine and N-desmethylivabradine up to 48 h were (14.03 ±4.65)% and (2.02 ± 0.44 ) % after single doses, and (22.63 ±4.01)% and (3.60 ± 1.12)% after multiple doses.Conclusion: The LC-MS/MS method is simple, accurate, sensitive and specific for determination of ivabradine and its active metabolite N-desniethylivabra-dine in human urine.After taking orally, there was less than 30% urine excretion of ivabradine and N-desmethyliv-abradine in healthy volunteers.%目的:研究健康受试者单次和多次口服盐酸伊伐布雷定片后,伊伐布雷定和其活性代谢产物去甲伊伐布雷定的尿排泄特征.方法:10例健康受试者单次和多次口服盐酸伊伐布雷定片5 mg.在服药前以及服药后48 h内分不同时间段采集尿样,记录尿液体积,用LC-MS/MS检测尿液中伊伐布雷定和去甲伊伐布雷定的浓度,计算伊伐布雷定和去甲伊伐布雷定的平均累计排泄率.结果:受试者单次口服盐酸伊伐布雷定片后,尿液中伊伐布雷定48 h的平均累积排泄率为(14.03±4.65)%;去甲伊伐雷定的平均累积排泄率为(2.02±0.44)%.受试者多次口服盐酸伊伐布雷定片,尿液中伊伐布雷定48 h的平均累积排泄率为(22.63±4.01)%;去甲伊伐雷定的平均累积排泄率为(3.60±1.12)%.结论:本研究所建立的LC-MS/MS方

  18. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  19. Depletion of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreases the biliary excretion of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Hepatic levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) in rats decreased substantially (greater than 80%) 40 min after galactosamine (GAL) (600 mg/kg i.p.) or after 1 hr of diethyl ether (DE) narcosis. Biliary excretion of several cholephils requiring glucuronidation before excretion was reduced by GAL 76, 62, 92, 90 and 97% for bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid, phenolphthalein and valproic acid, respectively. GAL treatment caused delayed plasma clearances of the parent compounds and reductions in plasma concentrations and biliary excretions of glucuronide conjugates. The degree of this reduction was related to the maximal excretion rate of the individual compounds. For phenolphthalein glucuronide and phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate, which do not undergo conjugation, GAL had no effect on their biliary excretion. DE-induced UDPGA depletion had no effect on phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion but reduced that of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate 25%. DE did not affect the plasma elimination or biliary secretion of phenolphthalein. Of the other cholephils requiring conjugation, DE reduced the excretion of bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid and valproic acid by 41, 29, 76 and 28%, respectively. DE decreased the plasma elimination of the parent compounds and the appearance of the conjugates in both plasma and bile. Reduction of glucuronide excretion into bile was less pronounced at higher doses of the cholephilic anions. Neither treatment reduced in vitro hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward these substrates or substantially altered extrahepatic UDPGA concentrations. Thus, both GAL and DE decreased UDPGA to similar concentrations, but the biliary excretion of compounds requiring glucuronidation before secretion was depressed to a greater extent by GAL.

  20. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin (Human). 640.80 Section 640.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.80 Albumin (Human). (a)...

  1. Ammonium and phosphate excretion in three common echinoderms from Philippine coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dy; Yap

    2000-08-30

    The ammonium and phosphate excretion and oxygen consumption of three species of echinoderms (Tripneustes gratilla, Protoreaster nodosus and Ophiorachna incrassata) commonly encountered in Philippine coral reefs were investigated in relation to time of day (i.e. daytime between 10:00 and 12:00 h vs. nighttime between 22:00 and 24:00 h) and their recent feeding history (i.e. recently-collected vs. short-term starvation for 3+/-1 days). The experiment used whole organism incubations and followed a nested hierarchical design. Ammonium excretion rates were 1447+/-310 nmolg(-1) DWh(-1) (mean+/-S.E., n=24) for T. gratilla, 361+/-33 for O. incrassata and 492+/-38 for P. nodosus. Ammonium excretion differed significantly among species, time of incubation and recent feeding history. Interaction between species and recent feeding history was also significant. The organisms excreted more ammonium during daytime except for starved specimens of O. incrassata. In addition, animals that were starved in the laboratory for a few days had a tendency to excrete more ammonium than recently-collected specimens. Phosphate excretion rates were 25+/-13 nmolg(-1) DWh(-1) for T. gratilla, 10+/-2 for O. incrassata and 4+/-1 for P. nodosus. There were no significant differences in phosphate excretion among the three species of echinoderms, their recent feeding history and time of day. Oxygen consumption rates were 286+/-24 µg O(2)g(-1) DWh(-1) for T. gratilla, 64+/-3 for O. incrassata and 54+/-3 for P. nodosus. Oxygen consumption differed significantly among species and recent feeding history but differed only slightly with time of incubation. There was a significant correlation between oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion (r=0.48, P=0.018), and between oxygen consumption and phosphate excretion (r=0.41, P=0.047) for T. gratilla. The nutrient excretion by tropical echinoderms is another pathway by which inorganic nutrients are regenerated in coral reef communities. However, the quantity

  2. Recent Topics in Chemical and Clinical Research on Glycated Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The measuring method for glycated albumin (GA) has been developed as a new glycemic control marker since the beginning of the 21st century. Since GA has an advantage in reflecting glycemic status over a shorter period than hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), much research and many reviews have been reported. However, so far there have been few reports on glycation sites based on the tertiary structure of human serum albumin (HSA) and the comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c in detail. The p...

  3. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Laubach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3 emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 subsequent days. Daily-integrated emission rates peaked on Day 3 of the experiment (last day of cattle presence and declined steadily for five days thereafter. Urine patches were the dominant sources for these emissions. On Day 9, a secondary emissions peak occurred, with dung pats likely to be the main sources. This interpretation is based on simultaneous observations of the pH evolution in urine patches and dung pats created next to the circular plot. Feed and dung samples were analysed to estimate the amounts of nitrogen (N ingested and excreted. Total N volatilised as NH3 was 19.8 (± 0.9% of N intake and 22.4 (± 1.3% of N excreted. The bimodal shape of the emissions time series allowed to infer separate estimates for volatilisation from urine and dung, respectively, with the result that urine accounted for 88.6 (± 2.6% of the total NH3 emissions. The emissions from urine represented 25.5 (± 2.0% of the excreted urine-N, while the emissions from dung amounted to 11.6 (± 2.7% of the deposited dung-N. Emissions from dung may have continued after Day 13 but were not resolved by the measurement technique. A simple resistance model shows that the magnitude of the emissions from dung is controlled by the resistance of the dung crust.

  4. Waste nitrogen metabolism and excretion in zebrafish embryos: effects of light, ammonia, and nicotinamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucking, Carol; Lemoine, Christophe M R; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Bony fish primarily excrete ammonia as adults however the persistence of urea cycle genes may reflect a beneficial role for urea production during embryonic stages in protecting the embryo from toxic effects of ammonia produced from a highly nitrogenous yolk. This study aimed to examine the dynamic scope for changes in rates of urea synthesis and excretion in one such species (zebrafish, Danio rerio) by manipulating the intrinsic developmental rate (by alteration of light:dark cycles), as well as by direct chemical manipulation via ammonia injection (to potentially activate urea production) and nicotinamide exposure (to potentially inhibit urea production). Continuous dark exposure delayed development in embryos as evidenced by delayed appearance of hallmark anatomical features (heartbeat, eye pigmentation, body pigmentation, lateral line, fin buds) at 30 and 48 hr post-fertilization, as well by a lower hatching rate compared to embryos reared in continuous light. Both ammonia and urea excretion were similarly effected and were generally higher in embryos continuously exposed to light. Ammonia injection resulted in significant increases (up to fourfold) of urea N excretion and no changes to ammonia excretion rates along with modest increases in yolk ammonia content during 2-6 hr post-injection. Nicotinamide (an inhibitor of urea synthesis in mammals) reduced the ammonia-induced increase in urea excretion and led to retention of ammonia in the yolk and body of the embryo. Our results indicate that there is a relatively rapid and large scope for increases in urea production/excretion rates in developing embryos. Potential mechanisms for these increases are discussed.

  5. Effect of insulin on albumin production and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal liver cells from normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1975-01-01

    the immunologically determined increment in the incubation medium was 1.7 +/- 0.2 mug albumin/min per g liver wet wt. This is about 30% of the rate of production in the perfused liver. Addition of insulin (10(-6)-10(-10) M) enhanced albumin production (50-17%), and incorporation of 14C-leucine both into albumin (50......Parenchymal rat liver cells were isolated by a modification of the collagenase method of Quistorff, Bondesen and Grunnet. The cells secreted albumin into the medium and incorporated 14C-leucine both into cell proteins and proteins secreted into the medium. Albumin production measured from......-8%), secreted proteins (40-9%) and cell proteins (20-8%). Insulin does not increase the production of albumin by depleting the cells. The effect of insulin on albumin production is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis as the specific activity of albumin is unaffected by addition of insulin....

  6. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s(-1)) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms.

  7. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... will not have negative consequences for this group. FUNDING: The Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  8. Effect of glucagon on cyclic AMP, albumin metabolism and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal rat liver cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1976-01-01

    wet wt. This is about the rate found in the perfused liver, Glucagon (10(-8-10(-6) M) inhibited albumin secretion and the incorporation of 14C-leucine into albumin, into total proteins in the medium and into total proteins in the cell suspension. The effect of glucagon on albumin secretion...

  9. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    with chronic nephropathy. Four groups of patients with moderate to severely reduced renal function were studied: glomerulonephritis (n = 10), diabetic nephropathy (n = 11), tubulointerstitial nephropathy (n = 13), and polycystic kidney disease (n = 8). The renal function was evaluated by glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  10. Improved metabolic control does not alter the charge-dependent glomerular filtration of albumin in uncomplicated type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kverneland, A; Welinder, B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B;

    1988-01-01

    The selectivity index, i.e. clearance of non glycated albumin/clearance of glycated albumin was studied in fourteen patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion. The index was increased above one in all patients, and correlated significantly to HbA1c. It ...... but not reversible during twelve weeks of strict metabolic control. This indicates a slow turnover of the components responsible for the increased charge selectivity in uncomplicated diabetes.......The selectivity index, i.e. clearance of non glycated albumin/clearance of glycated albumin was studied in fourteen patients with Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion. The index was increased above one in all patients, and correlated significantly to HbA1c....... It was, however, unaffected by 12 weeks of improved metabolic control with a mean decline in HbA1c of 1.9% in seven patients. We conclude that the increased electronegative charge of the glomerular filtration barrier observed in uncomplicated diabetes is related to long term metabolic control...

  11. Effects of Microorganism Fermentation Feed on Intestinal Flora and Excretion Rate of N and P of Laying Hens%微生物发酵饲料对蛋鸡肠道菌群和氮磷排泄率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕月琴; 孙汝江; 肖发沂; 姜柏翠; 陈克卫

    2012-01-01

    480 Hy-line variety brown laying hens of 42-week-old were randomly allotted into 4 groups, each group assigned 5 replications. The control group A were fed with the basic feed, group B, C, D fed with every 100 kg the basic diet added with 5, 10, 15 kg microorganism fermentation feed. The period was divided into two phases, including 14 days of pre--experiment and 42 days of experiment The results showed that:①In the laying hens which were supplemented with microorganism fermentation feed, the concentration of lactobacilli was significantly increased (P〈0.05), and that of E. coil was decreased (P〈0.05);②Compared with the control group, the excretion rate of Nitrogen was significantly decreased (P〈0.05), and there was no significant difference in the excretion rate of Phosphorus among the treatments (P〉0.05). The best amount is every 100 kg the basic diet added with 10 kg microorganism fermentation feed.%选择42周龄海兰褐蛋鸡480只,随机分为4组,每组设5个重复。对照A组饲喂基础日粮;试验B、C、D组分别为每100kg基础日粮中添加微生物发酵饲料5kg、10kg、15kgo预试期为14d,正试期为42d。试验结果表明:①各试验组肠道中乳酸杆菌数量显著提高(P〈0.05),大肠杆菌数量显著降低(P〈0.05);②各试验组的氮排泄率均有下降,其中C组下降最明显(P〈0.05),磷排泄率均有下降的趋势,但差异不显著(P〉0.05)。以上结果表明,微生物发酵饲料可以明显改善蛋鸡的肠道微生态平衡,降低氮磷排泄率;添加量以每100kg基础日粮中添加微生物发酵饲料lOkg为最佳。

  12. Urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi; Franke, Adrian A; Jin, Fan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hebert, James R; Custer, Laurie J; Cheng, Jiarong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2002-09-01

    Although the majority of ecological and experimental studies have suggested a potential role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer prevention, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Part of the inconsistencies may be attributable to the difficulty in measuring intake levels of phytoestrogens. Overnight urine samples from 250 incident breast cancer cases and their individually matched controls were analyzed for urinary excretion rates of isoflavonoids, mammalian lignans, and citrus flavonoids. The study subjects were a subset of the participants in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a large population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai from 1996-1998. To minimize potential influence of treatment on the exposure of interest, urine samples from breast cancer cases were collected before cancer therapy. Urinary excretion of total isoflavonoids and mammalian lignans was substantially lower in breast cancer cases than in controls. The median excretion rate of total isoflavonoids was 13.97 nmol/mg creatinine in cases and 23.09 in controls (P = 0.01), and the median excretion rate of total lignans was 1.77 in cases and 4.16 in controls (P rate of both total lignans and isoflavonoids compared with those with a low excretion of both groups of phytoestrogens. No association was observed with citrus flavonoids. The results from this study suggest that high intake of certain phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  13. Urinary excretion of bile acid glucosides and glucuronides in extrahepatic cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietholtz, H; Marschall, H U; Reuschenbach, R; Matern, H; Matern, S

    1991-04-01

    Recently the formation of bile acid glucosides has been described as a novel conjugation mechanism in vitro and in vivo. In 10 patients with extrahepatic cholestasis caused by carcinoma of the head of the pancreas we investigated excretion rates and profiles of urinary bile acid glucosides. Urinary bile acid glucosides and, for comparison, bile acid glucuronides were extracted and characterized according to established methods. In controls total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.22 +/- 0.03 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- S.E.M.)-in the range of bile acid glucuronide excretion (0.41 +/- 0.06 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- S.E.M.). A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-characterized trihydroxy bile acid glucoside of still-unknown hydroxyl positions accounted for 65% of total urinary bile acid glucosides. In extrahepatic cholestasis total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.52 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- SEM), yet significantly lower than bile acid glucuronide excretion (1.53 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001). In cholestasis the primary bile acid derivatives cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid glucosides amounted to 90%, whereas the trihydroxy bile acid glucoside had decreased to 5% of total bile acid glucoside excretion, indicating its alteration during enterohepatic circulation. The data establish the composition and quantity of urinary bile acid glucosides in healthy controls and cholestasis and constitute a quantitative comparison with another glycosidic conjugation reaction, bile acid glucuronidation.

  14. Urinary excretion of Iopamidol following intrathecal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrè, D; Zingales, M F; Trevisan, C

    1983-01-01

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro "300". The compound was neither metabolized nor altered in its optical configuration and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection.

  15. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  16. Renal function, aldosterone, and vasopressin excretion following repeated long-distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C E; Dressendorfer, R H; O'Brien, J C; Claybaugh, J R

    1981-04-01

    Renal and endocrine responses were studied in 10 male runners during a 20-day 500-km race. Overnight urine and prerun blood samples were taken prior to running on days 1, 2, 5, 8, 14, 17, and 20. Day 13 followed 70 h of rest. Urine flow rate, osmotic clearance, tubular free water reabsorption, urinary vasopressin excretion rate, and body weight were not significantly changed. Creatinine clearance was constant except for an elevation on day 5. Plasma osmolality was elevated on days 2, 14, and 17. Plasma sodium was increased (P less than 0.05) on days 2 and 13 but reduced on day 20. The percentage of filtered sodium excreted was significantly reduced on all nights following running and elevated on recovery day 13. Urinary aldosterone excretion rate was significantly elevated 162, 117, and 97% on days 5, 8, and 20 and returned to control levels on day 13 after 70 h of rest. These data suggest that in response to repeated long-distance running normal fluid balance is regained within 12 h. However, it is necessary to conserve sodium for at least 24 h after exercise as evidenced by the decrease in the percent filtered sodium excreted and continued elevation of aldosterone excretion.

  17. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Boesjes, Marije; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Boverhof, Renze; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan A; van Deursen, Jan M; Oude Elferink, Ronald P J; Moschetta, Antonio; Kremoser, Claus; Verkade, Henkjan J; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is increasingly recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) cont

  18. Human microglial cells synthesize albumin in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Ahn

    Full Text Available Albumin, an abundant plasma protein with multifunctional properties, is mainly synthesized in the liver. Albumin has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD since it can bind to and transport amyloid beta (Abeta, the causative agent of AD; albumin is also a potent inhibitor of Abeta polymerization. Despite evidence of non-hepatic transcription of albumin in many tissues including kidney and pancreas, non-hepatic synthesis of albumin at the protein level has been rarely confirmed. In a pilot phase study of Human Brain Proteome Project, we found evidence that microglial cells in brain may synthesize albumin. Here we report, for the first time, the de novo synthesis of albumin in human microglial cells in brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the synthesis and secretion of albumin from microglial cells is enhanced upon microglial activation by Abeta(1-42- or lipopolysaccharide (LPS-treatment. These data indicate that microglial cells may play a beneficial role in AD by secreting albumin that not only inhibits Abeta polymerization but also increases its clearance.

  19. Campylobacter Immunity and Quantitative Excretion Rates in Thai Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    isolates Fecal RBC 58 50 59 50 were group 2 aerotolerant Camp)’lobacter species (now re- Diarrhea for ឈ h 42 30 50 20 ferred to as Arcobacter but:leri...Intern Sled 1979,9 1: 179-85. of the emendcd genus Arcobacter with Arcobacter but~leri comb. nov. 16. Blaser NIJ. Hardesty HI_ Powers B. Wang WLL...Survival of Campy/c. and Arcobacter skirrowii sp. nov.. an aerocolerant bacterium isolated bacter fetus subsp. jejuni in biological milieus. J Clin

  20. Excretion of polyamines by children with Beckwith's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the polyamines--putrescine, spermidine, and spermine--was measured in 7 children with Beckwith's syndrome. Putrescine excretion was raised and spermidine excretion reduced. The raised putrescine and the low spermidine ratios were highly significant. These results are consistent with a disturbance in a metabolic pathway under growth hormone-like regulation.

  1. Urinary iron excretion test in iron deficiency anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura,Ikuro

    1980-02-01

    Full Text Available A urinary iron excretion test was carried out in 22 patients with iron deficiency anemia. The iron excretion index was significantly higher in patients with intractable iron deficiency anemia compared with normal subjects and anemic patients who were responsive to iron therapy. The findings suggest that iron excretion may be a factor that modulates the response of patients to iron therapy.

  2. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  3. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin.

  4. Preparation and characterization of microspheres of albumin-heparin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres have been prepared as a new drug carrier. A soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized by forming amide bonds between human serum albumin and heparin. After purification the albumin-heparin conjugate was crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion to form albumin-hepar

  5. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  6. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  7. ALBUMIN AS PROGNOSTIC VALUE IN HOSPITALISED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakrapani Alavala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In cases of a pathological state, there might be a low formation of the albumin in liver or high degradation of the albumin. In either of the ways, the serum albumin will be lowered. Stress and strain is also known to cause hypoalbuminemia i.e. low serum level of albumin. Since albumin is a protein, it has to be transcribed from the genes and studies have shown that TNF-alpha supresses this transcription process. The TNF-alpha is known to increase in any inflammation and thus forms a cascade. In case of hospitalised patients, the stress and strain in pre-surgical patients and chronically hospitalised patients, the serum albumin levels are known to be less than normal. In chronically hospitalised patients, the nutritional cause can also be taken into consideration for lower serum albumin levels. Early detection of these low levels of serum albumin levels helps the surgeons and the physicians to intervene and thus cut off the progression of the disease. A sincere effort has been made in this study to understand the relations of the serum albumin level and its effects on the prognosis of the disease and outcome of the surgery if the patient is undergoing any. This study is intended to help the physician, surgeon, and general practitioners to understand and intervene in the event and thus help the patient to recover earlier and in a better way. METHODS Aim of the study is to estimate the mean serum albumin levels in hospitalised patients to estimate the mean serum albumin levels in patients undergoing surgery and to correlate the serum albumin levels and the prognosis of the patient. The study has been done in the Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Nizamabad. The study was done from October 2013 to November 2014. The study is a cross-sectional study. The study is also double blinded and randomised. The study is a multi-level study. The sample size included one hundred patients. One hundred patients were identified in the

  8. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  9. Contribution to biorhythm of mercury-excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, H.; Damrau, J.; Franzen, E.; Henkel, W.

    1988-07-01

    The timed urinary mercury-excretion was investigated in 27 formerly exposed. The interval since their last exposure, their age, state of health and duration of exposure differed considerably. Nevertheless a clear circadian rhythm was found by adjustment of mercury to the timed substance-quantity, less to specific gravity, but really not to creatinin. These relations should be considered in biomonitoring. The differences of biorhythm in healthy and mercury-injured persons are discussed.

  10. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  11. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  12. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of /sup 15/N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state.

  13. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  14. Urinary excretion of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is associated with albuminuria and renal dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Okazaki

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is expressed in not only adipocytes and macrophages but also peritubular capillaries in the normal kidney. We recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of FABP4, but not FABP1 known as liver FABP (L-FABP, in the glomerulus is associated with progression of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. However, urinary excretion of FABP4 has not been investigated.Subjects who participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, in 2011 (n = 392, male/female: 166/226 were enrolled. Urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR were measured. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was followed up one year later.In 93 (23.7% of the 392 subjects, U-FABP4 level was below the sensitivity of the assay. Subjects with undetectable U-FABP4 were younger and had lower UACR and higher eGFR levels than subjects with measurable U-FABP4. U-FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure and levels of serum FABP4 (S-FABP4, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, urinary FABP1 (U-FABP1 and UACR (r = 0.360, p<0.001. Age, S-FABP4, U-FABP1 and UACR were independent predictors of U-FABP4. On the other hand, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and U-FABP4 were independently correlated with UACR. Reduction in eGFR after one year was significantly larger in a group with the highest tertile of baseline U-FABP4 than a group with the lowest tertile.Urinary FABP4 level is independently correlated with level of albuminuria and possibly predicts yearly decline of eGFR. U-FABP4 would be a novel biomarker of glomerular damage.

  15. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption of albumin and fibrinogen onto PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and glass surfaces and how pre-adsorption of albumin onto these surfaces can affect the adsorption of later added fibrinogen. For materials and devices being exposed to blood, adsorption...... of fibrinogen is often a non-wanted event, since fibrinogen is part of the clotting cascade and unspecific adsorption of fibrinogen can have an influence on the activation of platelets. Albumin is often used as blocking agent for avoiding unspecific protein adsorption onto surfaces in devices designed to handle...... energies, the adsorption of both albumin and fibrinogen has been monitored simultaneously on the same sample. Information about topography and coverage of adsorbed protein layers has been obtained using AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) analysis in liquid. Our studies show that albumin adsorbs in a multilayer...

  16. Metabolism and excretion of novel pulmonary-targeting docetaxel liposome in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Zhonghong

    2017-01-01

    Our study aims to determine the metabolism and excretion of novel pulmonary-targeting docetaxel liposome (DTX-LP) using the in vitro and in vivo animal experimental models. The metabolism and excretion of DTX-LP and intravenous DTX (DTX-IN) in New Zealand rabbits were determined with ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found DTX-LP and DTX-IN were similarly degraded in vitro by liver homogenates and microsomes, but not metabolized by lung homogenates. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified two shared DTX metabolites. The unconfirmed metabolite Mun differed structurally from all DTX metabolites identified to date. DTX-LP likewise had a similar in vivo metabolism to DTX-IN. Conversely, DTX-LP showed significantly diminished excretion in rabbit feces or urine, approximately halving the cumulative excretion rates compared to DTX-IN. Liposomal delivery of DTX did not alter the in vitro or in vivo drug metabolism. Delayed excretion of pulmonary-targeting DTX-LP may greatly enhance the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the systemic toxicity in the chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. The identification of Mun may further suggest an alternative species-specific metabolic pathway. PMID:28066140

  17. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Said Arellano-Buendía

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD; additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, and oxidized protein (OP were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL, osteopontin (uOPN, and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes.

  18. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  19. Cubilin is essential for albumin reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsellem, Sabine; Gburek, Jakub; Hamard, Ghislaine; Nielsen, Rikke; Willnow, Thomas E; Devuyst, Olivier; Nexo, Ebba; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Kozyraki, Renata

    2010-11-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This process involves two interacting receptors, megalin and cubilin, which form a complex with amnionless. Whether these proteins function in parallel or as part of an integrated system is not well understood. Here, we report the renal effects of genetic ablation of cubilin, with or without concomitant ablation of megalin, using a conditional Cre-loxP system. We observed that proximal tubule cells did not localize amnionless to the plasma membrane in the absence of cubilin, indicating a mutual dependency of cubilin and amnionless to form a functional membrane receptor complex. The cubilin-amnionless complex mediated internalization of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complexes, but megalin considerably increased the uptake. Furthermore, cubilin-deficient mice exhibited markedly decreased uptake of albumin by proximal tubule cells and resultant albuminuria. Inactivation of both megalin and cubilin did not increase albuminuria, indicating that the main role of megalin in albumin reabsorption is to drive the internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. In contrast, cubulin deficiency did not affect urinary tubular uptake or excretion of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), which binds cubilin and megalin. In addition, we observed cubilin-independent reabsorption of the "specific" cubilin ligands transferrin, CC16, and apoA-I, suggesting a role for megalin and perhaps other receptors in their reabsorption. In summary, with regard to albumin, cubilin is essential for its reabsorption by proximal tubule cells, and megalin drives internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. These genetic models will allow further analysis of protein trafficking in the progression of proteinuric renal diseases.

  20. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...... of different activity by comparing it to serum GH, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and clinical activity. There were highly significant, positive correlations between urinary GH and serum GH, serum IGF-I as well as clinical activity score (p

  1. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  2. KADAR ALBUMIN SERUM DAN FAAL GINJAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kosnadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin concentration (Sa is one of the determinants of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Hypoalbuminemia is frequently encountered in our country due to protein calory malnutrition, liver function disorders and others. The renal function or glomerular filtration rate (GFR measurement in children suffering from renal diseases would be able to provide information regarding the extent of the renal damage. The aim of this study was to know the interaction between Sa and GFR in children. GFR was measured by standard inulin clearance (Cin and conventional endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr in 112 children hospitalized with renal diseases. Standard renal function status test, namely IKA-1984 was utilized for the renal function measurement. Result of this study showed a positive correlation between : Sa, Cin and Ccr in pediatric patients with decreased renal function : Cin = 5,23 + 12,14 Sa (r = 0,50; p = 0,007; n = 26 and Cr = 7,10 + 14,47 Sa (r = 0,53; p = 0,005; n = 26, so that the lower Sa level, usually will indicate the lower renal function and the more severe the renal failure.

  3. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term course of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria in order to identify patients with stable or declining kidney function over a 5-year study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Forty normotensive (129 +/- 11/80 +/- 8 mmHg) IDDM...... patients with persistent microalbuminuria (mean urinary albumin excretion [UAE] 84 mg/24 h [range 30-300]) were followed prospectively for 5 years of clinical examinations that included the measurement of GFR (51Cr-labeled EDTA clearance) at least once a year. The mean GFR at baseline was 120 +/- 18 ml x...... min-1.1 x 73 m-2. RESULTS: Using multiple regression analysis, the rate of decline in GFR was independently correlated to onset of diabetic nephropathy (P

  4. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...

  5. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; García-Espinosa, Gary

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/ Mexico/2007 is atypical.

  6. Determination of human albumin in serum and urine samples by constant-energy synchronous fluorescence method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Bagheri, Habibollah; Afkhami, Abbas

    2015-08-01

    A sensitive spectrofluorimetric method using constant-energy synchronous fluorescence technique is proposed for the determination of human albumin without separation. In this method, no reagent was used for enhancement of the fluorescence signal of albumin in the solution. Effects of some parameters, such as energy difference between excitation and emission monochromators (ΔE), emission and excitation slit widths and scan rate of wavelength were studied and the optimum conditions were established. For this purpose factorial design and response surface method were employed for optimization of the effective parameters on the fluorescence signal. The results showed that the scan rate of the wavelength has no significant effect on the analytical signal. The calibration curve was linear in the range 0.1-220.0 µg mL(-1) of albumin with a detection limit of 7.0 × 10(-3)  µg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD) for six replicate measurements of albumin were calculated as 2.2%, 1.7% and 1.3% for 0.5, 10.0 and 100.0 µg mL(-1) albumin, respectively. Furthermore the proposed method has been employed for the determination of albumin in human serum and urine samples.

  7. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  8. Renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, F A; Jacobson, G

    1979-01-01

    The renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin was studied in patients with acute pancreatitis. The data were compared with results obtained from patients with glomerular proteinuria and from patients with tubular proteinuria. Initially during acute pancreatitis, the clearance ratio (clearance protein/clearance creatinine) for beta-2-microglobulin was increased dramatically (77-fold) compared to normals. After four to seven days this ratio had fallen and was elevated only 7-fold. The corresponding figures for amylase were 3.3 and 1.8 times and for albumin 9 and 5 times respectively. In glomerular disease, the clearance ratios for beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin were increased 6, 1.1, and 154 times and in tubular disease 448, 1.1, and 28 times, respectively. The electrophoretic pattern of the urinary proteins during pancreatitis was mostly normal. In a few cases, slight tubular proteinuria was noticed. Amylase activity in serum and urine from patients with pancreatitis was found to sediment, (S20,W = 4.6) in a sucrose gradient, identical to amylase from normal serum and urine. The marked increase in the excretion of beta-2-microglobulin probably reflects interference of the kidney function at the proximal tubular level. Determinations of this protein in urine may be of value in studies of kidney dysfunction that can accompany pancreatitis.

  9. A review of albumin binding in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijers, Björn K I; Bammens, Bert; Verbeke, Kristin; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2008-05-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is associated with excess mortality in patients with kidney disease. Albumin is an important oxidant scavenger and an abundant carrier protein for numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Several specific binding sites for anionic, neutral, and cationic ligands were described. Overall, the extent of binding depends on the ligand and albumin concentration, albumin-binding affinity, and presence of competing ligands. Chronic kidney disease affects all these determinants. This may result in altered pharmacokinetics and increased risk of toxicity. Renal clearance of albumin-bound solutes mainly depends on tubular clearance. Dialytic clearance by means of conventional hemodialysis/hemofiltration and peritoneal dialysis is limited. Other epuration techniques combining hemodialysis with adsorption have been developed. However, the benefit of these techniques remains to be proved.

  10. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  11. Cytostatic drugs are without significant effect on digitoxin plasma level and renal excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J; Wilke, J; Rietbrock, N

    1982-11-01

    In three patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.5 mg digitoxin before and 24 hr after combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured 0 to 168 hr after digitoxin and the areas under plasma concentration-time curves *(AUCs) were calculated. In 10 patients receiving 0.1 mg digitoxin, daily plasma glycoside concentration and daily renal excretion were measured before and after COPP, COP, or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, cytosine-arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP) treatment schemes. In contrast to previous reports on digoxin, cytostatic drug therapy does not lead to a reduction in steady-state digitoxin plasma levels and daily renal excretion. During cytostatic therapy attainment of peak digitoxin level was delayed after a single dose, showing that the rate of digitoxin absorption was reduced, but that the AUCs and renal excretion of digitoxin (parameters of the extent of digitoxin absorption) were not diminished. Since the absorption rate is not clinically relevant in patients on long-term glycoside therapy, our results indicate that digitoxin is preferable to digoxin in such patients.

  12. Profile of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio in bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Zahidah Irfan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of serum total protein concentration and main fractions (albumin and globulin can be used as an important diagnostic tool in clinical biochemistry. Several factors can affect the concentration of total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio (A/G. The aim of this study is to obtain serum protein profiles, albumin, globulin and A/G ratio based on breed, age and BCS (body condition score. Blood samples from 160 bulls were collected. Blood chemistry were analyzed by photometer principle using a commercial kit. There were significant (P<0.001 breed variation on total protein, albumin, globulin and albumin globulin ratio. Significant age differences were observed on total protein and albumin concentration (P<0.001, while globulin concentration and A/G ratio were also significant (P<0.05. Amongs groups of BCS, significant difference was verified only in the albumin concentration (P<0.05. The concentration of total proteins, albumins and globulins in the serum of the bulls are higher than standard values for cattle, while A/G ratio is lower.

  13. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  14. Foaming properties of guar foaming albumin

    OpenAIRE

    細見, 典子; Hosomi, Noriko; 原田, 麻子; Harada, Asako; 下山, 亜美; Shimoyama, Ami; 土居, 幸雄; Doi, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    From guar meal we recently isolated an albumin fraction with a high foaming ability, named guar foaming albumin (GFA) . Here, we further characterized the foaming activity, foam stability and surface tension of GFA solutions. Foaming activity and foam stability were estimated by measuring the conductivity of foam using a glass column with a conductivity cell. Surface tension was measured by the drop weight method using a stalagmometer. GFA showed higher foaming activity than casein at any pro...

  15. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, F. V.; Lapsley, M.; Sansom, P. A.; Cohen, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. METHODS: Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. RESULTS: All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive

  16. Review: Glycation of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Matsuda, Ryan; Barnaby, Omar S; Hoy, K S; Wa, Chunling; DeBolt, Erin; Koke, Michelle; Hage, David S

    2013-10-21

    Glycation involves the non-enzymatic addition of reducing sugars and/or their reactive degradation products to amine groups on proteins. This process is promoted by the presence of elevated blood glucose concentrations in diabetes and occurs with various proteins that include human serum albumin (HSA). This review examines work that has been conducted in the study and analysis of glycated HSA. The general structure and properties of HSA are discussed, along with the reactions that can lead to modification of this protein during glycation. The use of glycated HSA as a short-to-intermediate term marker for glycemic control in diabetes is examined, and approaches that have been utilized for measuring glycated HSA are summarized. Structural studies of glycated HSA are reviewed, as acquired for both in vivo and in vitro glycated HSA, along with data that have been obtained on the rate and thermodynamics of HSA glycation. In addition, this review considers various studies that have investigated the effects of glycation on the binding of HSA with drugs, fatty acids and other solutes and the potential clinical significance of these effects.

  17. Influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural durante a liofilização da albumina bovina Influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Tattini Jr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A liofilização é o método mais comumente utilizado para a preparação de proteínas desidratadas, as quais devem apresentar estabilidade adequada por longo período de armazenagem em temperaturas ambientes. Entretanto, estudos recentes com espectroscopia no infravermelho têm documentado que os problemas relacionados com o congelamento e a desidratação induzidos pela liofilização podem levar ao desdobramento molecular da proteína. Através de análises por espectroscopia Raman, associadas com análise térmica por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, estudou-se a influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural da albumina sérica bovina submetida ao processo de liofilização. Observou-se que a albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 2,5 °C/min apresentou maior alteração estrutural quando comparada à albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 30 °C/min, a qual apresentou menores oscilações espectrais nas regiões da amida I, III e pontes de dissulfeto, favorecendo a manutenção da conformação estrutural da proteína.Lyophilization (freeze-drying is the most commonly method used to prepare dehydrated proteins, which should have the desired long-term stability at ambient temperatures. However, recent infrared spectroscopic studies have documented that the acute freezing and dehydration stresses of lyophilization can induce protein unfolding. Through Raman spectroscopy associated with thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, it was studied the influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin. It was observed that bovine serum albumin (BSA lyophilized under slow freezing (2.5 ºC/min presented higher structure damage than the BSA lyophilized under fast freezing (30 ºC/min However, the lyophilization process using cooling rate of 30 ºC/min presented fewer spectra alterations on the Amide I

  18. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, A.B.; den Hollander, W.; Straub, J.; Nauta, J.J.; Thijs, L.G. (Free Univ. Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1990-03-01

    We studied the therapeutic effects of continuously infused N-acetylcysteine, an O2 radical scavenger (N, n = 6), and terbutaline, a beta 2-agonist (T, n = 6), versus dextrose (controls C, N = 6) on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. After instrumentation, injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, and baseline measurements, pigs received a 90 min infusion of 11 +/- 9 X 10(8).kg-1 live Escherichia coli bacteria. Thereafter, therapy was started, and 131I human serum albumin was injected. Images were obtained hourly using a gamma camera and a computer until 5 hours after baseline. Regions of interest were drawn in the 99mTc images, yielding regional 131I/99mTc radioactivity ratios, with blood samples as reference. From these ratios, an albumin leak index, a rate constant of transvascular albumin transport, was calculated. Control pigs developed pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypotension, hemoconcentration, and lactic acidemia. In spite of tachycardia and unchanged filling pressures, cardiac output fell. In arterial blood, white cell count, PO2, albumin level, and colloid osmotic pressure fell. The albumin leak index (X10(-3).min-1) measured 1.56 +/- 0.59 over the lungs and 2.87 +/- 1.19 over the abdomen in C, confirming previously found increased albumin flux in both lung and abdomen, the latter exceeding the former. Neither N nor T significantly affected hemodynamic and biochemical changes. The drugs neither decreased the regional albumin leak index nor attenuated the formation of albumin-rich ascites found at autopsy. However, the lung albumin index obtained at autopsy was significantly reduced with N (P less than .01 vs. C), at similar gravimetrically determined extravascular lung water (EVLW). EVLW positively correlated with pulmonary albumin extravasation in C and T but not in N.

  19. In vitro inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by oleic acid albumin formulations from derivatized cotton wound dressings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Cohen, I Kelman

    2004-10-13

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is elevated in chronic wounds. Oleic acid albumin formulations that inhibit HNE may be applicable to treatment modalities for chronic wounds. Oleic acid/albumin formulations with mole ratios of 100:1, 50:1, and 25:1 (oleic acid to albumin) were prepared and found to have dose response inhibition properties against HNE. The IC50 values for inhibition of HNE with oleic acid/albumin formulations were 0.029-0.049 microM. Oleic acid/albumin (BSA) formulations were bound to positively and negatively charged cotton wound dressings and assessed for elastase inhibition using a fiber bound formulation in an assay designed to mimic HNE inhibition in the wound. Cotton derivatized with both carboxylate and amine functional groups were combined with oleic acid/albumin formulations at a maximum loading of 0.030 mg oleic acid + 0.14 mg BSA/mg fiber. The IC50 values for inhibition of HNE with oleic acid/albumin formulations bound to derivatized cotton were 0.26-0.42 microM. Release of the oleic acid/albumin formulation from the fiber was measured by measuring oleic acid levels with quantitative GC analysis. Approximately, 35-50% of the fiber bound formulation was released into solution within the first 15 min of incubation. Albumin was found to enhance the rate of elastase hydrolysis of the substrate within a concentration range of 0.3-50 g/L. The acceleration of HNE substrate hydrolysis by albumin required increased concentration of inhibitor in the formulation to obtain complete inhibition of HNE. Oleic acid formulations prepared with albumin enable transport, solubility and promote dose response inhibition of HNE from derivatized cotton fibers under aqueous conditions mimicking the chronic wound.

  20. Relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine if a urinary excretion method, previously described for salbutamol, could also indicate the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation from a metered dose inhaler. Method Inhaled (INH), inhaled+oral charcoal (INHC), oral (ORAL) and oral+oral charcoal (ORALC) 20 mg doses of sodium cromoglycate were given via a randomised cross-over design to 11 healthy volunteers trained on how to use a metered dose inhaler. Urine samples were collected at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and up to 24 h post dosing and the sodium cromoglycate urinary concentration was measured using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Results No sodium cromoglycate was detected in the urine up to 24 h following ORALC dosing. A mean (s.d.) of 3.6 (4.3) μg, 10.4 (10.9) μg and 83.7 (71.1) μg of the ORAL dose was excreted, in the urine, during the 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h post dose collection periods, respectively. Following INH dosing, the renal excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 32.9 (14.5) μg, 61.2 (28.3) μg and 305.6 (82.3) μg excreted, respectively. The SCG excreted at 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h collection periods following INHC dosing were 26.3 (8.4) μg, 49.3 (18.1) μg and 184.9 (98.4) μg, respectively. There was no significant difference between the excretion rate of sodium cromoglycate following INHC when compared with INH dosing in the first 0.5 and 1.0 h. Conclusions The urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 0.5 h post inhalation can be used to compare the relative lung deposition of two inhaled products or of the same product using different inhalation techniques. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation. Similar 24 h urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate can be use to compare the total dose delivered to the body from two different inhalation products/inhalation methods. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the body

  1. Long-term albumin infusion improves survival in patients with cirrhosis and ascites: An unblinded randomized trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Giulio Romanelli; Paolo Gentilini; Giacomo Laffi; Giorgio La Villa; Giuseppe Barletta; Francesco Vizzutti; Fabio Lanini; Umberto Arena; Vieri Boddi; Roberto Tarquini; Pietro Pantaleo

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of long-term albumin administration on survival, recurrence of ascites and onset of other complications.METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients admitted for first-onset ascites were randomized to receive diuretics plus human albumin 25 g/wk in the first year and 25g every two wk thereafter (group 1) or diuretics alone (group 2). The primary endpoint was survival without liver transplantation. Secondary endpoints were recurrence of ascites and occurrence of other complications.RESULTS: Median follow-up was 84 (2-120) mo. Albumin-treated patients had significantly greater cumulative survival rate (Breslow test= 7.05, P= 0.0078) and lower probability of ascites recurrence (51% versus 94%,P<0.0001). Chronic albumin infusion resulted in a mean increase in survival of 16 mo.CONCLUSION: Long-term albumin administration after first-onset ascites significantly improves patients' survival and decreases the risk of ascites recurrence.

  2. Kidney Modelling for FDG Excretion with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiting Qiao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to detect the physiological process of FDG's filtration from blood to urine and to establish a mathematical model to describe the process. Dynamic positron emission tomography scan for FDG was performed on seven normal volunteers. The filtration process in kidney can be seen in the sequential images of each study. Variational distribution of FDG in kidney can be detected in dynamic data. According to the structure and function, kidney is divided into parenchyma and pelvis. A unidirectional three-compartment model is proposed to describe the renal function in FDG excretion. The time-activity curves that were picked up from the parenchyma, pelvis, and abdominal aorta were used to estimate the parameter of the model. The output of the model has fitted well with the original curve from dynamic data.

  3. 真武汤对糖尿病肾病患者血管内皮生长因子及尿蛋白排泄率的影响%The Effects of Spleen-Yang Strengthening Decoction on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Urinary Protein Excretion Rate in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾伟平; 徐孝容; 柳清

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the impact of Spleen-yang Strengthening Decoction on vascular endothelial growth factor and uri-nary protein excretion rate in patients with diabetic nephropathy.Methods:Seventy cases of patients with Type 2 Diabetic nephrop-athy who were received and treated in our hospital were randomly divided into the control group (35 cases)and the observation group (35 cases)according to admission order,both of the two groups received Diabetes Education,Diabetic diet,internal medi-cine oral hypoglycemic agents or subcutaneous injections of insulin (the dose were set according to blood glucose levels of the pa-tients);the patients who combined with hypertension were added nifedipine sustained release tablets,10 ~20 mg,2 times/day. The patients who combined with hyperlipidemia were added Simvastatin,20 mg/day.The observation group used Self-prepared kidney invigorating decoction on the basis of the control group.Both groups had 8 weeks for a course of treatment,urinary protein excretion rate (uAER)and the protein and mRNA change of VEGF in the two groups were compared before and after the treat-ment.Results:1)uAER improved in the two groups after treatment compared to before the treatment,the range of improvement in the observation group was more obvious (P <0.05).This illustrated that Self-prepared kidney invigorating decoction can obviously significantly improve uAER of the patients with diabetic nephropathy,inhibited the progression of diabetic nephropathy in a certain extent.2)after treatment,protein and mRNA expression of VEGF in the two groups decreased,the downward trend in the obser-vation group were more obvious than the control group (P <0.05),illustrated the combine use of prescription could suppress the VEGF in the protein and gene levels.3)uAER and VEGF levels were in abnormal distribution,correlation analysis were proceed on relevant parameters by the method of Spearman,the results found that uAER had positive correlation with the expression

  4. Urinary growth hormone (U-GH) excretion and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Grønbaek, M; Main, K;

    1993-01-01

    Basal serum growth hormone (GH) levels are elevated and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations in serum are suppressed in patients with chronic liver disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary GH (U-GH) excretion and IGF-1 concentrations in patients with cirrhosis...... and to correlate these both to clinical and biochemical characteristics and survival rate. Urinary GH excretion, IGF-1, and other biochemical parameters were measured in 36 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, while in the control group of 34 healthy individuals only U-GH excretion was measured. U-GH excretion...... was significantly higher in patients than in the healthy controls (p U-GH excretions were found in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (p

  5. Octanoate in Human Albumin Preparations Is Detrimental to Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Way-Wua Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies hold great promise as the next major advance in medical treatment. To enable safe, effective ex vivo culture whilst maintaining cell phenotype, growth media constituents must be carefully controlled. We have used a chemically defined mesenchymal stromal cell culture medium to investigate the influence of different preparations of human serum albumin. We examined two aspects of cell culture, growth rate as measured by population doubling time and colony forming ability which is a representative measure of the stemness of the cell population. Albumin preparations showed comparative differences in both of these criteria. Analysis of the albumin bound fatty acids also showed differences depending on the manufacturing procedure used. We demonstrated that octanoate, an additive used to stabilize albumin during pasteurization, slows growth and lowers colony forming ability during ex vivo culture. Further to this we also found the level of Na+/K+ ATPase, a membrane bound cation pump inhibited by octanoate, is increased in cells exposed to this compound. We conclude that the inclusion of human serum albumin in ex vivo growth media requires careful consideration of not only the source of albumin, but also the associated molecular cargo, for optimal cell growth and behavior.

  6. pH and redox sensitive albumin hydrogel: A self-derived biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, S Thirupathi Kumara; Thiruselvi, T; Mandal, Asit Baran; Gnanamani, A

    2015-11-03

    Serum albumin can be transformed to a stimuli (pH and redox) responsive hydrogel using the reduction process followed by oxidative refolding. The preparation of albumin hydrogel involves a range of concentrations (75, 150, 300, 450, 600 and 750 μM) and pH (2.0-10.0) values and the gelation begins at a concentration of 150 μM and 4.5-8.0 pH value. The hydrogel shows maximum swelling at alkali pH (pH > 9.0). The increase in albumin concentration increases hydrogel stability, rheological property, compressive strength, proteolytic resistance and rate of in vivo biodegradation. Based on the observed physical and biological properties of albumin hydrogel, 450 μM was determined to be an optimum concentration for further experiments. In addition, the hemo- and cytocompatibility analyses revealed the biocompatibility nature of albumin hydrogel. The experiments on in vitro drug (Tetracycline) delivery were carried out under non reducing and reducing conditions that resulted in the sustained and fast release of the drug, respectively. The methodology used in the preparation of albumin hydrogel may lead to the development of autogenic tissue constructs. In addition, the methodology can have various applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery.

  7. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    . A fishmeal-based diet served as control against three test diets in which 30 % of each of the oilseed by-products was included. Diets were randomly assigned to triplicate groups of fish (similar to 1 kg bulk weight) for the digestibility trials which spanned a total of 9 days. The partial inclusion...... of oilseed meals did not significantly affect apparent protein digestibility, although lipid, ash and dry matter digestibilities were significantly affected (p Fish fed the soybean meal diets significantly reduced their feed intake and showed lower growth and feed utilization efficiencies over...... the trial period. The inclusions of the plant proteins caused a reduction in ammonia excretion rates with the palm kernel meal diet recording the lowest mean excretion rates of 117 mg kg(-1) day(-1) which was twofold lower than the highest mean daily ammonia excretion rate of the fish group fed the fishmeal...

  8. Urinary, biliary and faecal excretion of rocuronium in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, JH; Eriksson, LI; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH

    2000-01-01

    The excretion of rocuronium and its potential metabolites was studied in 38 anaesthetized patients, ASA I-III and 21-69 yr old. Rocuronium bromide was administered as an i.v. bolus dose of 0.3 or 0.9 mg kg(-1). in Part A of the study, the excretion into urine and bile, and the liver content were stu

  9. Reduced fecal sterol excretion in subjects with familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Harchaoui, Karim; Franssen, Remco; Hovingh, G. Kees; Bisoendial, Radjesh J.; Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion are the obligate endpoints of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway (RCT). In studies in mice, no evidence was found for a relation between HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) levels and fecal sterol excretion. In this study, we have evaluated this re

  10. Loss of albumin and megalin binding to renal cubilin in rats results in albuminuria after total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammani, Raghunatha R; Sharma, Mukut; Seetharam, Shakuntla; Moulder, John E; Dahms, Nancy M; Seetharam, Bellur

    2002-08-01

    The role of the renal apical brush-border membrane (BBM) endocytic receptors cubilin and megalin in the onset of albuminuria in rats exposed to a single dose of total body irradiation (TBI) has been investigated. Albuminuria was evident as immunoblot (IB) analysis of the urine samples from TBI rats revealed excretion of large amounts of albumin. IB analysis of the BBM proteins did not reveal any significant changes in cubilin or megalin levels, but (125)I-albumin binding to BBM from TBI rats declined by 80% with a fivefold decrease (from 0.5 to 2.5 microM) in the affinity for albumin. IB analysis of cubilin from the BBM demonstrated a 75% loss when purified using albumin, but not intrinsic factor (IF)-cobalamin (Cbl) ligand affinity chromatography. Immunoprecipitation (IP) of Triton X-100 extract of the BBM with antiserum to cubilin followed by IB of the immune complex with an antiserum to megalin revealed a 75% loss of association between megalin and cubilin. IP studies with antiserum to cubilin or megalin and IB with antiserum to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II-receptor (CIMPR) revealed that CIMPR interacted with both cubilin and megalin. In addition, TBI did not disrupt the association of CIMPR with either cubilin or megalin in BBM. These results suggest that albuminuria noted in TBI rats is due to selective loss of albumin and megalin, but not CIMPR or IF-Cbl binding by cubilin. Furthermore, these results also suggest that albumin and IF-Cbl binding to cubilin occur at distinct sites and that in the rat renal BBM, CIMPR interacts with both cubilin and megalin.

  11. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  12. Bioavailability and poultry fecal excretion of phosphorus from soybean-based diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Almeida Brandão Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and four 1-day-old Cobb broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 18 treatments and fed a semi-purified basal diet (4 g/kg total phosphorus supplemented with 2 levels of supplemental P (0.5 or 1 g/kg during 21 days to evaluate performance and bone mineralization; to assess the relative bioavailability of P (RBP in wheat meal (WM and roasted (RS or extruded soybean meal (ES, with or without phytase (0 or 750 ftu/kg diet, using dicalcium phosphate (DC as standard; and to estimate phosphorus excretion. Weight gain (WG, feed intake (FI, feed to gain ratio (FG, and tibia ash weigh (AW were assessed. For each source, the RBP was calculated by the slope ratio method, when tibia ash weight was regressed on P ingested. Ingested and fecal P was determined to calculate P intake, and P excretion and excretion rate. Phytase addition increased overall FI, WG, and FG ratio by 3.3, 2.6 and 0.8%, respectively, but differences were not significant. Overall AW was increased by 10.8% after the enzyme inclusion in the diets. The relative bioavailability of phosphorus values of tested WM, RS, and ES were increased by 6.32, 64.32, 76.99%, respectively, in response to supplementation of phytase in diets containing WM, RS, and ES, respectively. Phytase reduced P excretion by 12.7% and the excretion rate by 15.0%, regardless of the phosphorus source or level.

  13. How albumin administration for cirrhosis impacts on hospital albumin consumption and expenditure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Federica Mirici-Cappa; Paolo Caraceni; Marco Domenicali; Ernesto Gelonesi; Barbara Benazzi; Giacomo Zaccherini; Franco Trevisani; Cristina Puggioli; Mauro Bernardi

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of guidelines for albumin prescription in an academic hospital, which is a referral center for liver diseases. METHODS: Although randomized trials and guidelines support albumin administration for some complications of cirrhosis, the high cost of albumin greatly limits its use in clinical practice. In 2003, a multidisciplinary panel at Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital (Bologna, Italy) used a literature-based consensus method to list all the acute and chronic conditions for which albumin is indicated as first- or second-line treatment. Indications in hepatology included prevention of post-paracentesis circulatory dysfunction and renal failure induced by spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and treatment of hepatorenal syndrome and refractory ascites. Although still debated, albumin administration in refractory ascites is

  14. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  15. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Muniz da Silva Fragoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA and bovine serum albumin (BSA through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08 × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20 × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01 × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04 × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  16. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    nucleic acids and lipid) being excreted. Oddly, the highest quality food resources (low C:N and C:P ratios) lead to the greatest excretion of N and P nutrients in healthy organisms with high metabolic rates. This suggestion is borne out by the spatial distribution of QM excretion rates in transects across seamount-like bathymetric features in south-central Lake Michigan. On the upstream side and plateaus of Northeast and Sheboygan Reefs, where freshly advected bottom water flows across mussel communities, excretion rates in summer 2013 varied around 0.8 and 30 nmol/animal/hr (HPO4= and NH4+ respectively) for robust young adult mussels 15-20mm in length. On the downstream slope, where particles are likely reprocessed several times, nutritional quality and excretion rates were lower, especially for NH4+. Inshore shallow stations have similar rates to upstream nutrient-sufficient populations. Excretion size spectrum regressions combined with population size frequency analyses enable estimation of areal flux. N:P excretion ratios (30-40) are greater than Redfield, and consistent with growing animals nearing their late summer spawning effort. Several years of trophic gradient transects for mussel excretion, and pre- vs. post-QM porewater profiles will support these conclusions.

  17. Imidazole binding to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, M C; Ceballos, A; Mariño, E; Cachaza, J M; Domínguez-Gil, A; Kuemmerle, H P

    1988-06-01

    Imidazole is a substance released by the organism when a new salicylate derivative, imidazole salicylate is administered. A study was made of the binding of imidazole to human serum albumin by an in vitro assay employing an ultrafiltration technique. For the concentration range that imidazole was found in plasma following administration of the drug to healthy volunteers, the mean binding percentages were: 12.1 +/- 1.8 and 19.7 +/- 3.1 at 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, respectively. The results obtained in the study follow a model entailing three equal and independent binding sites of imidazole to serum albumin and the values of the corresponding constants were determined. Apparently, the presence in the plasma samples of sodium salicylate at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml does not affect the binding of imidazole to human serum albumin.

  18. Association Between Sodium Intake and Change in Uric Acid, Urine Albumin Excretion, and the Risk of Developing Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forman, John P.; Scheven, Lieneke; de Jong, Paul E.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Curhan, Gary C.; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2012-01-01

    Background-A high-sodium diet has little short-term effect on blood pressure in nonhypertensive individuals but, for unclear reasons, is associated with hypertension if consumed long term. We hypothesized that a chronically high sodium intake would be associated with increases in biomarkers of endot

  19. Creatinine clearance, urinary excretion of glomerular basement membrane antigens and renal histology in congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, N P

    1977-04-01

    The endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary excretion rate of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens were followed from 2 to 19 months in fifteen patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNF). The quantitative examination of renal morphology was made on fourteen of these patients. Creatinine clearance increased during the first few months of life and thereafter gradually decreased. The urinary excretion rate of GBM antigens rose during the course of the disease. The creatinine clearance did not correlate significantly with glomerular fibrosis but it did correlate with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The urinary excretion of GBM antigens correlated significantly with glomerular and interstitial fibrosis and with tubular atrophy. It is concluded that there is a clear progress in the disease and the renal histological changes probably are caused by accumulation of GBM material in glomeruli.

  20. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rocio IR Macias; Jose JG Marin; Maria A Serrano

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with thekidney, constitute the main routes for the eliminationof several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds intobile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterinelife the biliary route of excretion for cholephiliccompounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, isvery poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem.

  1. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  2. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0.......0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u...... in nanograms per gram creatinine did not diminish the observed variation and blunted the pubertal increase in u-GH excretion. In conclusion, (1) u-GH excretion depends significantly on age, sex and pubertal maturation as does the day/night ratio of u-GH excretion. (2) The interindividual variation in u...

  3. Lamprey parasitism of sharks and teleosts: high capacity urea excretion in an extant vertebrate relic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Michael P; Turnbull, Steven; Bird, Jonathan; Wang, Yuxiang S; Claude, Jaime F; Youson, John H

    2004-08-01

    We observed 10 sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) parasitizing basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), the world's second largest fish, in the Bay of Fundy. Due to the high concentrations of urea in the blood and tissues of ureosmotic elasmobranchs, we hypothesized that sea lampreys would have mechanisms to eliminate co-ingested urea while feeding on basking sharks. Post-removal urea excretion rates (J(Urea)) in two lampreys, removed from separate sharks by divers, were initially 450 ( approximately 9000 micromol N kg-1 h-1) and 75 times ( approximately 1500 micromol N kg-1 h-1) greater than basal (non-feeding) rates ( approximately 20 micromol N kg-1 h-1). In contrast, J(Urea) increased by 15-fold after parasitic lampreys were removed from non-ureosmotic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Since activities of the ornithine urea cycle (OUC) enzymes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPSase III) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) were relatively low in liver and below detection in intestine and muscle, it is unlikely that the excreted urea arose from de novo urea synthesis. Measurements of arginase activity suggested that hydrolysis of dietary arginine made a minor contribution to J(Urea.). Post-feeding ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) were 15- to 25-fold greater than basal rates in lampreys removed from both basking sharks and rainbow trout, suggesting that parasitic lampreys have a high capacity to deaminate amino acids. We conclude that the sea lamprey's ability to penetrate the dermal denticle armor of sharks, to rapidly excrete large volumes of urea and a high capacity to deaminate amino acids, represent adaptations that have contributed to the evolutionary success of these phylogenetically ancient vertebrates.

  4. Oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion of Meretrix meretrix in different temperature and salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Effects of temperatures and salinities on oxygen consumption and ammonia-N excretion rate of clam Meretrix meretrix were studied in laboratory from Oct. 2003 to Jan. 2004. Two schemes were designed in incremented temperature at 10, 15, 20, 25℃ at 31.5 salinity and in incremented salinity at l6.0, 21.0, 26.0, 31.5,36.0, and 41.0 at 20℃, all for 8-10 days. From 10 to 25℃, both respiration and excretion rate were increased.One-way ANOVA analysis demonstrated significant difference (P<0.01) in physiological parameters in this temperature range except between 15 and 20℃. The highest Q10 thermal coefficient value (12.27) was acquired between 10 and 15℃, and about 1 between 15 and 20℃, indicating M. meretrix could well acclimate to temperature changes in this range. Salinity also had significant effects on respiration and excretion rate (P<0.05).The highest values of respiration and excretion rate of M. meretrix were recorded at 16.0 salinity (20℃). These two physiological parameters decreased as salinity increased until reached the minimum Q10 value at 31.5 (20℃),then again, these parameters increased with increasing salinity from 31.5 to 41.0. M. meretrix can catabolize body protein to cope with osmotic pressure stress when environmental salinity is away from its optimal range.No significant difference was observed between 26.0 and 36.0 in salinity (P>0.05), suggesting that a best metabolic salinity range for this species is between 26.0 and 36.0.

  5. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements.

  6. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  7. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L;

    2010-01-01

    Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100....../d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...

  8. Evaluation of solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus excretion models for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, M; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D

    2008-03-01

    , respectively; 182 g/d was presumably volatilized. All models of N excretion appeared to underestimate N excretion. Volatilization rate of N amounted to 18.1%/h for the 6-h flush interval. Measured outflow of manure-P from the facility was similar to excretion predictions. Presentation of excreted solids as both total solids and DM is warranted. We conclude that using excretion prediction equations is useful for predicting excretion and outflow of P in a lactating cow facility, but N excretion predictions exhibited bias and have to be used prudently for predicting N outflow and N volatilization.

  9. HEPATIC ENDOCYTOSIS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF MANNOSE-TERMINATED ALBUMINS - WHAT IS IMPORTANT, SUGAR RECOGNITION, NET CHARGE, OR THE COMBINATION OF THESE FEATURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RW; MOLEMA, G; CHING, TL; HARMS, G; MOOLENAAR, F; HARDONK, MJ; MEIJER, DKF

    1991-01-01

    We synthesized several para-aminophenyl (pap-) mannose-terminated albumins with varying sugar density (Man7-HSA, Man22-HSA, and Man40-HSA) and compared hepatic uptake with (thio-)mannose-terminated bovine serum albumin (Man-43-AI-BSA) The rate of uptake in isolated perfused rat livers was found to b

  10. Comparison of normal saline, hypertonic saline albumin and terlipressin plus hypertonic saline albumin in an infant animal model of hypovolemic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Urbano

    Full Text Available In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model.Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS 30 ml/kg (n = 13, 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS 15 ml/kg (n = 13 or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS (n = 13 over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared.After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS.In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not produce better results than AHS.

  11. Structural basis of transport of lysophospholipids by human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shihui; Shi, Xiaoli; Yang, Feng; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Bian, Chuanbing; Huang, Mingdong; (UAH); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2010-10-08

    Lysophospholipids play important roles in cellular signal transduction and are implicated in many biological processes, including tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, immunity, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, cancer and neuronal survival. The intracellular transport of lysophospholipids is through FA (fatty acid)-binding protein. Lysophospholipids are also found in the extracellular space. However, the transport mechanism of lysophospholipids in the extracellular space is unknown. HSA (human serum albumin) is the most abundant carrier protein in blood plasma and plays an important role in determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. In the present study, LPE (lysophosphatidylethanolamine) was used as the ligand to analyse the interaction of lysophospholipids with HSA by fluorescence quenching and crystallography. Fluorescence measurement showed that LPE binds to HSA with a K{sub d} (dissociation constant) of 5.6 {micro}M. The presence of FA (myristate) decreases this binding affinity (K{sub d} of 12.9 {micro}M). Moreover, we determined the crystal structure of HSA in complex with both myristate and LPE and showed that LPE binds at Sudlow site I located in subdomain IIA. LPE occupies two of the three subsites in Sudlow site I, with the LPE acyl chain occupying the hydrophobic bottom of Sudlow site I and the polar head group located at Sudlow site I entrance region pointing to the solvent. This orientation of LPE in HSA suggests that HSA is capable of accommodating other lysophospholipids and phospholipids. The study provides structural information on HSA-lysophospholipid interaction and may facilitate our understanding of the transport and distribution of lysophospholipids.

  12. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  13. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  14. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because...

  15. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV;

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  16. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Poór

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrinin (CIT is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3 and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I. In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  17. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  18. [Urinary electrolyte excretion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, V; Iordanova, P; Penkova, S

    1991-01-01

    In 33 patients with autosomal dominant renal polycystosis the urine excretion of the electrolytes sodium and potassium was examined and analyzed in relation to the renal function and the arterial pressure. The clearances, the urine ratio and the excreted fractions of both electrolytes were calculated. It was established that by normal renal function and without arterial hypertension there were no significant differences in the parameters studied between the patients and the healthy controls. In the patients with arterial hypertension and preserved renal function the sodium clearance and urine excretion were lower, but the differences with the normotensive patients were not statistically significant. In the patients with chronic renal failure (when diuretic was applied) higher mean values of the excreted fractions of sodium and potassium were established. The results support the thesis that hypertension in renal polycystosis is of volumetric character.

  19. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination with iod......OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181...

  20. Preparation and characterization of albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, H.F.M.; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Verrijk, R.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; Feijen, J.

    1994-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres were prepared by a two-step process which involved the preparation of a soluble albumin-heparin conjugate, followed by formation of microspheres from this conjugate or by a double cross-linking technique involving both coupling of soluble albumin and heparin and microsph

  1. Release of macromolecules from albumin-heparin microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Cremers, Harry; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1992-01-01

    Hydrophilic microspheres based on albumin-heparin conjugates have been prepared as a macromolecular delivery system. The soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized and crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion with glutaraldehyde to form microspheres in the same manner as for albumin microsphere

  2. Binding of disodium cromoglycate to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa de Aspuru, Eduardo; Zatón, Ana M. L.

    1998-07-01

    The binding of several benzopiranone derivatives to human serum albumin was determined. The antiallergic drug disodium cromoglycate binds weakly to serum albumin. However, its precursors, chromones of smaller size, were able to bind in a hydrophobic pocket in the protein, and are carried by serum albumin in blood.

  3. Drug Delivery Vehicles Based on Albumin-Polymer Conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanyan; Stenzel, Martina

    2016-06-01

    Albumin has been a popular building block to create nanoparticles for drug delivery purposes. The performance of albumin as a drug carrier can be enhanced by combining protein with polymers, which allows the design of carriers to encompass a broader spectrum of drugs while features unique to synthetic polymers such as stimuli-responsiveness are introduced. Nanoparticles based on polymer-albumin hybrids can be divided into two classes: one that carries album as a bioactive surface coating and the other that uses albumin as biocompatible, although nonbioactive, building block. Nanoparticles with bioactive albumin surface coating can either be prepared by self-assembly of albumin-polymer conjugates or by postcoating of existing nanoparticles with albumin. Albumin has also been used as building block, either in its native or denatured form. Existing albumin nanoparticles are coated with polymers, which can influence the degradation of albumin or impact on the drug release. Finally, an alternative way of using albumin by denaturing the protein to generate a highly functional chain, which can be modified with polymer, has been presented. These albumin nanoparticles are designed to be extremely versatile so that they can deliver a wide variety of drugs, including traditional hydrophobic drugs, metal-based drugs and even therapeutic proteins and siRNA.

  4. Albumin stimulates renal tubular inflammation through an HSP70-TLR4 axis in mice with early diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Fen Jheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased urinary albumin excretion is not simply an aftermath of glomerular injury, but is also involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs are incriminated in the renal inflammation of DN, whether and how albumin is involved in the TLR-related renal inflammatory response remains to be clarified. Here, we showed that both TLR2 and TLR4, one of their putative endogenous ligands [heat shock protein 70 (HSP70] and nuclear factor-κB promoter activity were markedly elevated in the kidneys of diabetic mice. A deficiency of TLR4 but not of TLR2 alleviated albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation induced by diabetes. The protection against renal injury in diabetic Tlr4−/− mice was associated with reduced tubular injuries and preserved cubilin levels, rather than amelioration of glomerular lesions. In vitro studies revealed that albumin, a stronger inducer than high glucose (HG, induced the release of HSP70 from proximal tubular cells. HSP70 blockade ameliorated albumin-induced inflammatory mediators. HSP70 triggered the production of inflammatory mediators in a TLR4-dependent manner. Moreover, HSP70 inhibition in vivo ameliorated diabetes-induced albuminuria, inflammatory response and tubular injury. Finally, we found that individuals with DN had higher levels of TLR4 and HSP70 in the dilated tubules than non-diabetic controls. Thus, activation of the HSP70-TLR4 axis, stimulated at least in part by albumin, in the tubular cell is a newly identified mechanism associated with induction of tubulointerstitial inflammation and aggravation of pre-existing microalbuminuria in the progression of DN.

  5. Selenium absorption, distribution, and excretion in white sturgeon orally dosed with l-selenomethionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashjian, Diran H; Hung, Silas S O

    2006-10-01

    The usefulness of a newly developed, combined technique consisting of esophageal intubation, dorsal aortic cannulation, and urinary catheterization to deliver Se orally and to monitor Se uptake, accumulation, and excretion in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was explored. Groups of five yearling sturgeon (1-2 kg) each were intubated with 0 (sham), 250, 500, or 1,000 microg Se/kg body weight in the form of L-selenomethionine, an ecologically relevant organic form of Se. Selenium concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and red blood cells did not change in the sham group but began to rise within 2 h postintubation in the other groups, and levels remained near maximum concentrations throughout the 48-h sampling period. Average urinary Se excretion rates over the entire 48-h period were 0.05, 0.46, 0.61, and 2.15 microg Se/kg/h in sturgeon intubated with 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 microg Se/kg, respectively. Selenium excretion rates were highest within the first 6 h in all treatment groups except the sham group. Selenium concentrations in the liver were positively correlated with the intubated Se dosage.

  6. Bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure under laboratory conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. The wheat bran fed to Tenebrio molitor larvae was spiked with racemic myclobutanil at two dose levels of 20 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg (dry weight). The results showed that there was a significant trend of enantioselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-myclobutanil in 20 mg/kg dose exposure, but it was not obviously observed in the 2 mg/kg dose group. A kinetic model considering enantiomerization between the two enantiomers based on first-order reactions was built and the rate constants were estimated to discuss the kinetic reason for the different concentrations of individual enantiomers in the larvae. The approximations implied an inversion between the two enantiomers with a relatively higher rate of the inversion from (-)-myclobutanil to (+)-myclobutanil. Meanwhile, analysis of data of excretion samples suggested the active excretion is probably an important pathway for the insect to eliminate myclobutanil rapidly with nonenantioselectivity as a passive transport process, which was consistent with the low accumulation efficiency of myclobutanil measured by BAF (bioaccumulation factor).

  7. Net acid excretion during first week of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L L; Balfe, J W; Exeni, R; Cifuentes, R F; Bryan, M H; Atkinson, S A

    1981-03-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs frequently in newborns. Net acid excretion (NAE) in 34 preterm and 12 term infants was measured during the first week of life. Twenty preterm infants received breast milk or formula; the remaining infants received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) -- synthetic amino acids or casein hydrolysate solution. NAE for breast milk vs formula fed infants was 5.4 +/- 0.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 muEq/min/m2 (mean +/- SEM). The corresponding values for the two TPN solutions in preterm infants were significantly higher at 12.5 +/- 1.4 and 19.4 +/- 3.5 muEq/min/m2. Term infants produced even greater amount of net acid, 20.6 +/- 2.9 and 35 +/- 3.7 muEq/min/m2 respectively for the two TPN solutions. Milk fed infants are less prone to acidosis because of base generated from milk consumption. Due to its inherent acidogenic effect, TPN solutions induce acidosis more readily. Infants receiving TPN are therefore required to generate a higher NAE rate to maintain acid-base homeostasis compared to milk fed infants.

  8. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    OpenAIRE

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; García-Espinosa, Gary

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactio...

  9. Human albumin use at hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Guacira Corrêa de; Rozenfeld, Suely; Martins, Monica

    2010-05-01

    The study analyzes the use of human albumin in hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using inpatient data from the information system of Brazil's health system between 1999 and 2001. Death was the main outcome as patients died in 32% of admissions in which human albumin was used as compared with 4% of all admissions in the same period and region. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was included for risk adjustment. Human albumin was used in 10,111 in-patients more than 1 year old. 87,774 50-ml bottles of 20% human albumin were consumed at a cost of US$ 1,755. The main diagnoses were neoplasms (29.1%), diseases of the digestive system (17.5%) and circulatory system (16%). Death rate increased with age, public ownership of the hospital, clinical services (as opposed to surgical services), length of stay and use of intensive care. Death was associated with use of more than four bottles of human albumin (PR: 1.30; 99%CI: 1.23-1.37), adjusted for severity and speciality. The results are cause for concern as they may be related to poor compliance with guidelines, excess of risk to patients and unnecessary expenses for the public health system.

  10. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion is not related to impaired renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at 5-years of follow-up. To further explore UOER in relation to local renal physiological phenomena, we studied renal glomerular and tubular functions in patients ...

  11. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume...... significantly; intravenous noradrenaline at 0.5 microgram/min had no effect on packed cell volume, whereas packed cell volume increased significantly at 3 micrograms of noradrenaline/min. No significant change in packed cell volume was found during saline infusion. 3. During adrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms...... in packed cell volume, plasma volume, intravascular mass of albumin and transcapillary escape rate of albumin during hypoglycaemia may be explained by the combined actions of adrenaline and insulin....

  12. Albumin modulates lateral assembly of fibrin polymers: evidence of enhanced fine fibril formation and of unique synergism with fibrinogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanakis, D.K.; Lane, B.P.; Simon, S.R.

    1987-04-21

    The authors identified a new property of human albumin. It enhances formation of fine fibril (or leptofibril) structure during fibrin gelation, and by nephelometric and electron microscopic measurements, this property is independent of and synergistic with that of fibrinogen. They examined fibrin aggregation using physiologic temperatures and pH and albumin:fibrin concentration ratios below those at which the known accelerating effect on fibrin aggregation occurs. An albumin concentration dependent decrease in gel turbidity maxima was consistently demonstrable in buffers containing or lacking (2-5 mM) CaCl/sub 2/. Electron microscopic measurements of cross-sectional fibril widths, performed on sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed gels, disclosed differences between albumin-containing and control gels which were significant. Spin-labeled albumin displayed no change in electron (para) magnetic spin resonance spectral measurements during its inhibition of fibrin, indicating no perturbation on albumin conformation in the vicinities of Cys-34 and of fatty acid binding sites. Certain fibrinogen:albumin ratios designed to induce maximal inhibition yet permit gelation in the presence of either alone prevented gelation of buffer-diluted fibrin monomers. Aliquots from these which were dried and negatively stained on formvar-coated grids disclosed strands of 5-17 nm width, most displaying a 60-250-nm approximate length. The amounts of /sup 131/I-labeled coagulable fibrin which remained soluble in fibrinogen solutions were increased by albumin. They conclude that albumin enhances formation of leptofibril-rich gel domains when other plasma factors favor formation of such structures. Available evidence indicating decreased permeability implies that such gel domains limit efflux rates from the intrathrombus environment and from intra- to extravascular space.

  13. Reduced transcapillary escape of albumin during acute blood pressure-lowering in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, J; Smidt, U M

    1985-01-01

    The effect of acute arterial blood pressure lowering upon albumin extravasation was studied in 10 patients with nephropathy and retinopathy due to long-standing Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The following variables were measured: transcapillary escape rate of albumin (initial disappearance...... induced the following changes: arterial blood pressure decreased from 134/87 to 107/73 mmHg (p less than 0.01), transcapillary escape rate of albumin declined from 8.1 to 6.7% of the intravascular mass of albumin/h (p less than 0.01), albuminuria diminished from 1434 to 815 micrograms/min (p less than 0.......01), and plasma volume raised slightly from 2916 to 2995 ml (p less than 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that the enhanced albumin passage through the wall of the microvasculature characteristically found in long-term Type 1 diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy is pressure-dependent to a large extent...

  14. New horizon in dialysis depuration: Characterization of a polysulfone membrane able to break the 'albumin wall'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoghi, A; Caiazzo, M; Monari, E; Bellei, E; Bergamini, S; Sereni, L; Aucella, F; Loschiavo, C; Atti, M; Tomasi, A

    2015-05-01

    The uremic syndrome is attributed to the progressive retention of a large number of toxins, which under normal conditions are excreted by the healthy kidneys. Standard dialytic membranes do not purify middle-high molecular weight toxins. Haemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion coupled with a highly permeable membrane could break the limit of the 'albumin wall' improving the dialytic depuration without loss of important nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new polysulfone membrane, Synclear 0.2, to remove uremic molecules. Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight was employed to evaluate the proteomic profile of ultrafiltrate and Electrospray Ionization-Quadruple-ToF coupled with on-chip elution was used for proteins identification. A high and specific permeability for middle-high molecular weight molecules was revealed by mass spectrometry for the investigated membrane. The identified proteins are mostly uremic toxins: their relative abundance, estimated in the ultrafiltrate by exponentially modified protein abundance index, showed a high purification efficiency of the new membrane when compared with conventional ones. In conclusion, Synclear 0.2, used as convective membrane in hemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion treatment, permits to break the 'albumin wall', clearing middle-high molecular weight uremic toxins, improving the dialytic treatment purification efficiency.

  15. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  17. Effect of a Karate Competition on Urinary Excretion of Proteins with High Molecular Weight (Glomerular proteinuria in Young Male Karatekas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Kohanpour

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a karate competition on the urinary excretion of proteins with high molecular weight and urinary creatinine to protein ratio in young male karate as. Ten young male karate as with the age range of 25±2.63 years, height of 175.7±5.15 cm and weight of 71.5±8.61 kg voluntarily took part in this study and participated in a karate competition. Before and 20 min after the competition, the urinary sample was collected and the levels of albumin, total protein, creatinine and urinary creatinine to protein ratio were measured and calculated. To investigate the changes of urinary proteins caused by competition, the student’s t-test for dependent groups was used. Glomerular proteinuria increased after the competition; however, it was only significant for albumin and creatinine (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively. Although total protein increased after the competition, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.184 and the creatinine to protein ratio did not make any significant changes (p = 0.532. Creatinine to protein ratio was less than 0.1 for the samples before and after the competition; therefore, proteinuria had a physiological range which was very far from nephritic and pathological proteinuria ranges; thus, it was not harmful.

  18. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation of...... of proteases. The generation of protein-derived radicals also results in an enhancement of photobleaching of the porphyrin, suggesting that protein radical generation is linked to porphyrin photooxidation....

  19. Effects of cytostatic drugs on plasma level and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J; Zilly, W; Wilke, J

    1981-10-01

    Mucosal defects decrease digoxin absorption in patients with malabsorption syndromes. Since the intestinal mucosa can be damaged by cytostatic drugs, we investigated their effects on digoxin plasma levels and urinary digoxin excretion. In six patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin before and 24 hr after treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma digoxin concentrations were measured 0 to 8 hr after the dose and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were calculated. In 15 patients on 0.3 mg of beta-acetyldigoxin daily, plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured daily before and after COPP, COP, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, cytosine-arabinosine, and prednisone (COAP), or adriamycin, bleomycin, and prednisone (ABP) treatment schemes. The diminished steady-state glycoside plasma concentrations and daily renal glycoside excretion during the 24 to 168 hr after the cytostatic drug established reversible impairment of digoxin absorption. The delayed time to peak after a single dose of digoxin during cytostatic drug therapy shows that extent and rate of digoxin absorption are reduced. To maintain adequate control of digoxin therapy in patients treated with cytostatic drugs, plasma levels should be monitored.

  20. Renal excretion profiles of psilocin following oral administration of psilocybin: a controlled study in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Felix; Bourquin, Daniel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2002-09-01

    In a clinical study eight volunteers received psilocybin (PY) in psychoactive oral doses of 212+/-25 microg/kg body weight. To investigate the elimination kinetics of psilocin (PI), the first metabolite of PY, urine was collected for 24 h and PI concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Sample workup included protection of the unstable PI with ascorbic acid, freeze-drying, and extraction with methanol. Peak PI concentrations up to 870 microg/l were measured in urine samples from the 2-4 h collection interval. The PI excretion rate in this period was 55.5+/-33.8 microg/h. The limit of quantitation (10 microg/L) was usually reached 24 h after drug administration. Within 24 h, 3.4+/-0.9% of the applied dose of PY was excreted as free PI. Addition of beta-glucuronidase to urine samples and incubation for 5 h at 40 degrees C led to twofold higher PI concentrations, although 18+/-7% of the amount of unconjugated PI was decomposed during incubation. We conclude that in humans PI is partially excreted as PI-O-glucuronide and that enzymatic hydrolysis extends the time of detectability for PI in urine samples.

  1. Effect of a prostacyclin analogue, iloprost, on urinary aquaporin-2 excretion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, Michele; Di Pasquale, Giuseppe; Ruello, Antonella; Floccari, Fulvio; Aloisi, Carmela; Latassa, Giuseppe; Corsonello, Andrea; Sturiale, Alessio; Corica, Francesco; Frisina, Nicola

    2002-06-01

    The regulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel excretion in the collecting duct depends mainly on the action of vasopressin (AVP). Recently, however, other regulatory factors have been identified: atrial natriuretic factor, oxytocin and prostaglandins. In healthy volunteers (5 males, 5 females; mean age 23 +/- 3 years) we therefore evaluated the effect of a stable analogue of prostacyclin-2 (PGI(2)), iloprost, on renal function and on the urinary excretion of AQP2 (U-AQP2). After 6 h of iloprost infusion, U-AQP2 increased from 0.8 +/- 0.15 to 1.8 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg creatinine (p < 0.001), while the urinary flow rate increased from 1.4 +/- 0.2 to 1.8 +/- 4 (p < 0.01). No significant change was found in the AVP serum concentration, with a basal value of 3.17 +/- 0.12 vs. 3.15 +/- 0.12 pg/ml after 6 h of prostacyclin infusion. All the values returned to pre-study levels after a recovery period of 6 h. In conclusion, the PGI(2) analogue, iloprost, can induce U-AQP2 excretion independent of AVP.

  2. Tritium excretion after intravenous administration of tritium labelled adrenaline and noradrenaline and digital vascular reactivity to adrenaline and noradrenaline in normotensive and labile hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guia, D; Mendlowitz, M; Vlachakis, N D; Gitlow, S E; Nissenbaum, M

    1980-01-01

    1. The 24-h urinary excretion of tritium after tritiated adrenaline administration and digital vascular reactivity to exogenously administered adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured in ten normotensive and in twenty-eight labile essential hypertensive subjects. Tritiated noradrenaline excretion and apparent noradrenaline secretion rate were also measured in ten and eleven of these subjects, respectively. 2. Despite overlapping, the mean 24-h tritium excretion after 3H-adrenaline administration as well as reactivity to adrenaline were significantly greater in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects, whether or not they had increased responsiveness to noradrenaline. Significant correlation, however, was observed between tritium excretion of adrenaline and reactivity to adrenaline in both labile hypertensive and normotensive subjects. These measurements were also both significantly correlated with percentage variability in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the labile hypertensive subjects. 3. No significant correlation was observed between adrenaline as against noradrenaline measurements, whether physiological or biochemical, in either hypertensive or normotensive subjects.

  3. Control of sodium excretion by angiotensin II: intrarenal mechanisms and blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J E

    1986-06-01

    Angiotensin II (ANG II) is one of the body's most powerful regulators of Na excretion, operating through extrarenal mechanisms, such as stimulation of aldosterone secretion, as well as intrarenal mechanisms. Considerable evidence suggests that the intrarenal actions of ANG II are quantitatively more important than changes in aldosterone secretion in the normal day-to-day regulation of Na balance and arterial pressure. ANG II at physiological concentrations increases proximal tubular reabsorption, but further studies are needed to determine whether ANG II also has an important effect on more distal tubular segments. ANG II also markedly constricts efferent arterioles, tending to increase Na reabsorption by altering peritubular capillary physical forces and also helping to prevent excessive decreases in glomerular filtration rate. ANG II may also decrease Na excretion and increase urine concentrating ability by reducing renal medullary blood flow. Regulation of Na excretion by ANG II is closely linked with arterial pressure control and volume homeostasis through the renal pressure natriuresis mechanism. Under many physiological conditions, such as changes in Na intake, ANG II greatly multiplies the effectiveness of the pressure natriuresis mechanism to prevent fluctuations in body fluid volume and arterial pressure. In circumstances associated with circulatory depression, such as decreased cardiac function, reductions in blood pressure and increased ANG II formation cause Na retention until arterial pressure is restored to normal. However, in pathophysiological conditions in which ANG II is inappropriately elevated, increased arterial pressure (hypertension) is required for the kidney to "escape" the potent antinatriuretic actions of ANG II and to return Na excretion to normal via the pressure natriuresis mechanism.

  4. Comparison of urinary excretion of Deoxypiridinoline and value of serum Osteocalcin within the Knee Osteoarthritis grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Isbagio

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The identification of molecular markers, which reflects differences in disease progression rates in Osteoarthritis (OA, would greatly facilitate clinical studies. Urinary Deoxypyridinoline (UDPD and serum osteocalcin (OC had been widely used for marker of bone metabolism, but the use for molecular marker in OA was lack of data. Recent studies show that there were conflicted results between urinary excretion of DPD and serum OC value within knee OA grading. The aim of this study is to compare of urinary excretion of DPD and the level of serum OC as destructive parameter of cartilage within the knee OA grading. This cross sectional study comprise of 69 patients with OA of knee joints. Kellgren and Lawrence scale was use for grading of OA. Group of patients with knee OA grade 2 call as group of early OA and group of patients with knee OA grade 3 and 4 calls as group of late OA. DPD in urine was measured using Immuno-chemilunescence, serum osteocalcin was measured using Elisa method. The mean value of urinary concentrations of DPD in OA patients was higher than normal value (9.79 ± 7.28 nM DPD/mM Creatinin, and the mean value of serum OC within normal value (8.49 ± 4.68 ng/mL. There were no significant differences of age, body mass index (BMI, duration of illness, urinary excretion of UDPD and serum OC level between early and late OA. In conclusion, there is no significant difference of urinary excretion of DPD and serum OC level within knee OA grading. The use of urinary DPD and serum OC as molecular markers of progression of OA needed to be explored by other longitudinal study. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 96-101 Keywords: Knee osteoarthritis, deoxypiridinoline, osteocalcin

  5. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanúa, D; Acevedo, P; Höfle, U; Rodríguez, O; Gortázar, C

    2006-09-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken.

  6. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  7. Carnitine ester excretion in pediatric patients receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Sommerfeld, E; Penn, D; Bieber, L L; Kerner, J; Rossi, T M; Lebenthal, E

    1990-08-01

    Carnitine plasma concentrations and the excretion of carnitine and individual carnitine esters were determined in 25 children and adolescents with gastrointestinal diseases receiving carnitine-free parenteral nutrition for at least 1 mo using radiochemical and radioisotopic exchange HPLC methods. Children less than 12-y-old usually had carnitine plasma concentrations less than -2 SD from the normal mean for age, whereas patients greater than 12-y-old had carnitine plasma concentrations within the normal range. Age was the only variable to correlate significantly with plasma carnitine concentrations during parenteral nutrition. Free carnitine (FC) excretion was closely correlated with plasma FC concentrations and minimal at values less than 25 mumols/L. The excretion of FC and short-chain acylcarnitines was reduced by an order of magnitude in younger compared with older patients and controls, but the excretion of "other" acylcarnitines was less affected. Some of the latter were tentatively identified using gas-liquid chromatographic and mass spectroscopic techniques as unsaturated and/or branched medium-chain carnitine esters with a carbon chain of C8-C10. The results suggest that FC and short-chain acylcarnitine are conserved by the kidney in nutritional carnitine deficiency but that there may be an obligatory renal excretion of other carnitine esters that contributes to the development of hypocarnitinemia in the younger age group.

  8. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  9. Biliary excretion of acetaminophen-glutathione as an index of toxic activation of acetaminophen: effect of chemicals that alter acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhu, C.; Gregus, Z.; Klaassen, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    Acetaminophen (AA) is converted, presumably by cytochrome P-450, to an electrophile which is conjugated with glutathione (GS). AA-GS is excreted into bile, therefore the biliary excretion rate of AA-GS may reflect the rate of activation of AA in vivo. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of agents capable of altering the activation of AA including cytochrome P-450 inducers and inhibitors, cobaltous chloride which decreases the amount of P-450, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (indomethacin and naproxen), antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid palmitate) and other chemicals known to decrease AA hepatotoxicity (dimethylsulfoxide and cysteamine), on the biliary excretion of AA-GS was studied in hamsters, the species most sensitive to AA-induced hepatotoxicity. The biliary excretion of AA-GS increased linearly up to 1 mmol/kg of AA i.v., but at higher dosages exhibited saturation kinetics. Dosages above 0.5 mmol/kg lowered hepatic GS concentration. Of the cytochrome P-450 inducers, 3-methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, increased the biliary excretion of AA-GS (2.9- and 3.2-fold, respectively) whereas ethanol and isoniazid did not affect it, and pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile tended to decrease it (43%). Phenobarbital tended to increase the biliary excretion of AA-GS, but not in a statistically significant manner. Several cytochrome P-450 inhibitors (metyrapone, 8-methoxypsoralen, 2-(4,6-dichloro-biphenyloxy) ethylamine, alpha-naphthoflavone and cimetidine) decreased the biliary excretion of AA-GS, although SKF 525-A and piperonyl butoxide did not. Cobaltous chloride decreased dramatically the biliary excretion of AA-GS.

  10. [Studies on the metabolic fate of gomisin A (TJN-101). II. Absorption and excretion in CCl4 treated rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Y; Matsuzaki, T; Ono, H; Koguchi, S; Takeda, S; Takeda, S; Funo, S; Aburada, M; Hosoya, E; Oyama, T

    1991-09-01

    The absorption and excretion of gomisin A (TJN-101) in rats whose livers were injured by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were investigated. After intravenous administration of TJN-101 at a dose of 5 mg/kg, the terminal elimination half-life was 1.5 h in the CCl4-treated rats, which was two times that in normal rats. The mean area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) value of TJN-101 in the CCl4-treated rats was twice that in normal rats, and this difference was significant (p less than 0.05). Therefore, the total body clearance of TJN-101 in the CCl4-treated rats decreased less than half of that in normal rats. Similar results were observed when it was administered orally. In the CCl4-treated rats, the serum concentration of Met. B, which was identified as a demethylenated substance and one of major metabolites, tended to decrease more than that in normal rats. On the other hand, the cumulative biliary excretion ratio of TJN-101 in 24 h after dosing in the CCl4-treated rats was 2.5 times that in normal rats. The excretion rate of Met. B in the bile in the CCl4-treated rats tended to be delayed. However, the quantitative variance of biliary excretion of Met. B was not found in both groups. The urinary excretion of TJN-101 or Met. B in 72 h after dosing in the CCl4-treated rats was lower than that in normal rats. Similar results were also observed in excretion in the feces.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  12. Insulin Pump Therapy Is Associated with Lower Rates of Retinopathy and Peripheral Nerve Abnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabeen, Bedowra; Craig, Maria E.; Virk, Sohaib A.; Pryke, Alison; Chan, Albert K. F.; Cho, Yoon Hi; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z.; Hing, Stephen; Donaghue, Kim C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI). Research Design and Methods Prospective cohort of 989 patients (aged 12–20 years; diabetes duration >5 years) treated with CSII or MDI for >12 months. Microvascular complications were assessed from 2000–14: early retinopathy (seven-field fundal photography), peripheral nerve function (thermal and vibration threshold testing), autonomic nerve abnormality (heart rate variability analysis of electrocardiogram recordings) and albuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio/timed overnight albumin excretion). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the relationship between treatment and complications rates, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) and known risk factors including HbA1c and diabetes duration. Results Comparing CSII with MDI: HbA1C was 8.6% [70mmol/mol] vs. 8.7% [72 mmol/mol]) (p = 0.7), retinopathy 17% vs. 22% (p = 0.06); microalbuminuria 1% vs. 4% (p = 0.07), peripheral nerve abnormality 27% vs. 33% (p = 0.108) and autonomic nerve abnormality 24% vs. 28% (p = 0.401). In multivariable GEE, CSII use was associated with lower rates of retinopathy (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45–0.95, p = 0.029) and peripheral nerve abnormality (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.95, p = 0.026), but not albuminuria (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10–2.17, p = 0.33). SES was not associated with any of the complication outcomes. Conclusions In adolescents, CSII use is associated with lower rates of retinopathy and peripheral nerve abnormality, suggesting an apparent benefit of CSII over MDI independent of glycemic control or SES. PMID:27050468

  13. Insulin Pump Therapy Is Associated with Lower Rates of Retinopathy and Peripheral Nerve Abnormality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedowra Zabeen

    Full Text Available To compare rates of microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII versus multiple daily injections (MDI.Prospective cohort of 989 patients (aged 12-20 years; diabetes duration >5 years treated with CSII or MDI for >12 months. Microvascular complications were assessed from 2000-14: early retinopathy (seven-field fundal photography, peripheral nerve function (thermal and vibration threshold testing, autonomic nerve abnormality (heart rate variability analysis of electrocardiogram recordings and albuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio/timed overnight albumin excretion. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to examine the relationship between treatment and complications rates, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES and known risk factors including HbA1c and diabetes duration.Comparing CSII with MDI: HbA1C was 8.6% [70mmol/mol] vs. 8.7% [72 mmol/mol] (p = 0.7, retinopathy 17% vs. 22% (p = 0.06; microalbuminuria 1% vs. 4% (p = 0.07, peripheral nerve abnormality 27% vs. 33% (p = 0.108 and autonomic nerve abnormality 24% vs. 28% (p = 0.401. In multivariable GEE, CSII use was associated with lower rates of retinopathy (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.95, p = 0.029 and peripheral nerve abnormality (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95, p = 0.026, but not albuminuria (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10-2.17, p = 0.33. SES was not associated with any of the complication outcomes.In adolescents, CSII use is associated with lower rates of retinopathy and peripheral nerve abnormality, suggesting an apparent benefit of CSII over MDI independent of glycemic control or SES.

  14. The excretion and environmental effects of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline residues in layer chicken manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ping-cai; Wang, Yan; Liu, Long-yong; Zou, Yong-de; Liao, Xin-di; Liang, Juan-boo; Wu, Yin-bao

    2016-05-01

    The excretion rates and ecological risk to the environment of three commonly used veterinary antibiotics (VAs), amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline, in layer hen manure during the application and withdrawal periods were investigated in a study consisting of a control group fed with VA-free basal diet and nine treatment groups consisted of three levels (200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg) of amoxicillin (AMX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), or doxycycline (DOC). Each treatment group was replicated seven times with three layer hens per replication. Results of the study showed that the average excretion rates of AMX in the 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg groups were 67.88, 55.82, and 66.15%, respectively, while those for CIP and DOC were 47.84, 51.85, and 44.87% and 82.67, 94.39, and 95.72%, respectively. The concentrations of the above veterinary drugs in manure decreased sharply in the withdrawal period (7, 28, and 10 d, respectively), for AMX, DOC, and CIP. Neither AMX nor DOC was detected in the manure after the withdrawal period. In contrast to AMX and DOC, the excretion rate of CIP was significantly lower and thus had a longer residence time. Ecological risk study, estimated using hazard quotient values, showed that AMX in the 100 and 50 mg/kg groups posed no risk to the environment after d 1 of withdrawal, while CIP in the 50 mg/kg group posed no risk to the environment from d 5 of withdrawal. CIP in the 200 and 100 mg/kg groups required 10 d withdrawal in order to pose no risk to the environment. In contrast, DOC residue during withdrawal in the manure posed no risk to the environment, thus making it more environmentally safe.

  15. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  16. The effect of growth conditions on production and excretion of extracellular antigens by three ascomycetous yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelhoven, W J; Slingerland, R J; Notermans, S

    1988-01-01

    Ascomycetous yeasts produce extracellular antigens that are almost specific for the species. The antigen production by Hansenula wickerhamii and Stephanoascus ciferrii was independent of the carbon source and was proportional to the final cell density of the cultures. The same was true of chemostat cultures of Stephanoascus ciferrii, irrespective of the dilution rate and whether glucose or ammonia was the limiting nutrient. In cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, however, antigen excretion mainly took place in the late exponential growth phase. Large amounts of antigen were extracted from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A small amount was detected in the cytoplasm.

  17. The effects of temperature on specific dynamic action and ammonia excretion in pikeperch (Sander lucioperca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Michael; Steffensen, John Fleng; Skov, Peter Vilhelm

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude and kinetics of the postprandial metabolic response are strongly affected by temperature. From an aquaculture perspective, it is of interest to determine the temperature at which the lowest digestive energy expenses occur. We have previously demonstrated that the optimal aerobic scope...... for pikeperch ranges between 11°C and 27°C. The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermal biology of pikeperch, by examining how specific dynamic action (SDA) and total ammonia nitrogen excretion (TAN) are affected by temperature, within this optimal temperature range.From oxygen consumption rate...

  18. Interaction of Nicotine and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The binding of nicotine to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by UV absorption, fluorescence, and 1H NMR methods. With the addition of nicotine, the absorption band of BSA at about 210 nm decreased gradually, moved to longer wavelengths, and narrowed. BSA fluorescence of tryptophan residue was quenched by nicotine. The 1H NMR peaks of nicotine moved to downfield by the addition of BSA. The experimental results showed that nicotine was capable of binding with BSA to form a 1:1 complex. BSA's high selectivity for nicotine binding suggests a unique role for this protein in the detoxification and/or transport of nicotine.

  19. Solution structure of allergenic 2 S albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Uceda, D; Bruix, M; Santoro, J; Rico, M; Monsalve, R; Villalba, M

    2002-11-01

    The NMR solution structures at different levels of refinement of three different 2 S albumin seed proteins, the recombinant pronapin precursor from Brassica napus, the recombinant RicC3 from Ricinus communis and the methionine-rich protein from sunflower ( Helianthus annuus ), are described. The resulting common structure consists of a bundle of five alpha-helices, folded in a right-handed superhelix. The structure is very similar to that of other plant proteins: the hydrophobic protein from soybean, non-specific lipid transfer proteins and amylase/trypsin inhibitors. Analogies and differences in the structures of these families, as well as their possible relationship to allergenicity, are discussed.

  20. Cubilin Maintains Blood Levels of HDL and Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Argraves, Kelley M.; Remaley, Alan T.; Argraves, W Scott

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and...

  1. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  2. The importance of excretion by Chironomus larvae on the internal loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small eutrophic urban reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry

    Full Text Available Measurements of ammonium and phosphate excretion by the Chironomus larvae were conducted in order to evaluate the importance of these chironomids for the internal loads of a small eutrophic urban reservoir. Ammonium and phosphate excretion rates by Chironomus larvae of small size (6-10 mm total length were significantly higher than those of the Chironomids having medium (9-11 mm and large (11-16 mm sizes. A dependence in relation to temperature was recorded for the ammonium and phosphate excretions that was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 20 and 15 °C. Through a linear relation between biomass (dry weight and total length and, between excretion and biomass and, data on chironomids densities, after an intense sampling in 33 sites distributed all along the reservoir bottom, the mean phosphate and ammonium excretion rates corresponded to 2,014 ± 5,134 µg.m-2/day and 1,643 ± 3,974 µg.m-2/day, respectively. Considering the mean biomass (34 mg.m-2 of Chironomus, the lake area (88,156 m² and the mean excretion rates, the contribution of benthic chironomids to the internal loads would be 181 KgP and 147 KgN. for the sampling months (October-November 1998. These values showed that the internal loads by excretion from Chironomus larvae correspond to approximately 33% of the external loads of phosphorus in the lake and, in the case of nitrogen, to only 5%.

  3. Molecular regulation of copper excretion in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmenga, C; Klomp, LWJ

    2004-01-01

    Cu is an essential nutrient that is required for a broad range of cellular and molecular processes. Mammals have efficient systems to control Cu homeostasis that operate at the level of controlling uptake, distribution, sequestration and excretion of Cu. The study of diseases associated with disturb

  4. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  5. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straalen, van W.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was

  6. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  7. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  8. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  9. Ammonia emissions from cattle urine and dung excreted on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubach, J; Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Gibbs, S J;

    2013-01-01

    Twelve cattle were kept for three days in a circular area of 16 m radius on short pasture and fed with freshly-cut pasture. Ammonia (NH3) emissions from the urine and dung excreted by the cattle were measured with a micrometeorological mass-balance method, during the cattle presence and for 10 su...

  10. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples p

  11. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  12. Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher; Mamutse, Godwin; Korchazhkina, Olga; Pye, Eleanor; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Hawkins, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of as yet unknown aetiology. A consensus of opinion has suggested that the disorder is the result of an interplay between environmental factors and susceptibility genes. We have used a battery of analytical techniques to determine if the urinary excretion of i) markers of oxidative damage; ii) iron and iii) the environmental toxin aluminium and its antagonist, silicon, are altered in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Urinary concentrations of oxidative biomarkers, MDA and TBARS, were not found to be useful indicators of inflammatory disease in MS. However, urinary concentrations of another potential marker for inflammation and oxidative stress, iron, were significantly increased in SPMS (P0.05). Urinary concentrations of aluminium were also significantly increased in RRMS (Paluminium excretion in the former were similar to those observed in individuals undergoing metal chelation therapy. The excretion of silicon was lower in MS and significantly so in SPMS (Paluminium excretion similar to those seen in aluminium intoxication suggested that aluminium may be a hitherto unrecognized environmental factor associated with the aetiology of MS. If aluminium is involved in MS then an increased dietary intake of its natural antagonist, silicon, might be a therapeutic option.

  13. Albumin synthesis in humans increases immediately following the administration of endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barle, Hans; Januszkiewicz, Anna; Hållström, Lars; Essén, Pia; McNurlan, Margaret A; Garlick, Peter J; Wernerman, Jan

    2002-11-01

    In order to investigate the immediate (i.e. within 3 h) response of albumin synthesis to the administration of endotoxin, as a model of a moderate and well controlled catabolic insult, two measurements employing L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine were performed in 16 volunteers. One group ( n =8) received an intravenous injection of endotoxin (4 ng/kg; lot EC-6) immediately after the first measurement of albumin synthesis, whereas the other group received saline. A second measurement was initiated 1 h later. In the endotoxin group, the fractional synthesis rate of albumin was 6.9+/-0.6%/day (mean+/-S.D.) in the first measurement. In the second measurement, a significant increase was observed (9.6+/-1.2%/day; P <0.001). The corresponding values in the control group were were 6.6+/-0.6%/day and 7.0+/-0.6%/day respectively (not significant compared with first measurement and P <0.001 compared with the second measurement in the endotoxin group). The absolute synthesis rates of albumin were 148+/-35 and 201+/-49 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) before and after endotoxin ( P <0.01). In the control group, the corresponding values were 131+/-21 and 132+/-20 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) (not significant compared with the first measurement and P <0.01 compared with the second measurement in the endotoxin group). In conclusion, these results indicate that albumin synthesis increases in the very early phase after a catabolic insult, as represented by the administration of endotoxin.

  14. Metabolic enzyme activities and drug excretion in the small intestine and in the liver in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almási, A; Bojcsev, Sz; Fischer, T; Simon, H; Perjési, P; Fischer, Emil

    2013-12-01

    The aim of these experiments was the investigation of the correlation between the metabolic enzyme activities and the intestinal and hepatic excretion of p-nitrophenol (PNP) and its metabolites (PNP-glucuronide: PNP-G and PNP-sulfate: PNP-S) in the same group of rats (n = 10). A jejunal loop was perfused with isotonic medium containing PNP in a concentration of 500 μM. The samples were obtained from the luminal perfusion medium and from the bile. For enzyme assays tissue samples were obtained from the liver and jejunum at the end of experiments. Significant differences were calculated by the Student's t-test. The activity of UDP-glucuronyltransferase and sulfotransferase was about three times higher in the liver than in the small intestine. The activity of the ß-glucuronidase was about six times higher, the activity of the arylsulfatase was approximately seven times greater in the liver than in the jejunum. No significant difference was found between the luminal appearance and the biliary excretion of PNP-G. Contrary to these findings, the biliary excretion of PNP-S was significantly higher than the luminal appearance of PNP-sulfate. It can be concluded that no direct correlation exists between the activity of metabolic enzymes and the excretion rate of PNP-metabolites in the liver and in the jejunal segment of the small intestine.

  15. Effect of inducers and inhibitors of glucuronidation on the biliary excretion and choleretic action of valproic acid in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J B; Klaassen, C D

    1982-02-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) induces an immediate choleresis in the rat which may be attributable to the osmotic properties of VPA-glucuronic acid conjugates in bile. The influence of inducers and inhibitors of glucuronidation of VPA on the biliary excretion and choleretic effect of VPA was studied. Hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity toward VPA was determined in vitro. Pretreatment with phenobarbital (75 mg/kg/day for 4 days) enhanced VPA glucuronidation; borneol (750 mg/kg) decreased VPA conjugation; 3-methylcholanthrene (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) and galactosamine (600 mg/kg) had no effect on glucuronidation of VPA in vitro. Hepatic UDP-glucuronic acid content was decreased by borneol and galactosamine administration and was enhanced by phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene pretreatment. The enzyme inducers increased the plasma disappearance of VPA in vivo but did not augment its biliary excretion or choleretic effect. Borneol and galactosamine, which inhibited the conjugation and plasma disappearance of VPA, decreased its biliary excretion and inhibited the VPA-induced increase in bile flow. Thus, the bile flow rate after VPA administration is closely related to the excretion of VPA-glucuronic acid. These data support the conclusion that the choleretic effect of VPA is due to the osmotic activity of VPA conjugates in bile.

  16. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  17. Kidney ageing and renal excretion of amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brohée, D; Rondelez, L; Bain, H; de Maertelaer, V

    1982-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) was determined in 180 patients, age range 18-93 years. An inverse correlation was found between ACCR and creatinine clearance (r = -0.40, p less than 0.001) in keeping with the known inverse relationship between the sieving fraction of macromolecules and the glomerular filtration rate. The fractional clearance of amylase was not significantly affected by amylasemia nor by age when the creatinine clearance was also considered in a multiple regression analysis. No increase in ACCR was observed in patients with low molecular weight proteinuria or with induced urine dilution. The authors assume that the tubular reabsorption of amylase is minimal and that the enhancement of ACCR in the elderly mainly reflects modifications in the glomerular filtration dynamics.

  18. Schistosome albumin is of host, not parasite, origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Ricardo; Mathieson, William; Dillon, Gary P; Wilson, R Alan

    2007-09-01

    Recent work has implicated schistosome albumin as part of a mechanism for neutralizing the oxidative assault by host immune defenses and suggested that the gene had been acquired by horizontal transfer from the mammalian host. In the course of proteomic analyses of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm vomitus and eggs recovered from mice, we identified numerous peptides, largely derived from murine rather than parasite albumin. We therefore conjectured that the supposed S. mansoni albumin sequence deposited on GenBank might be the result of contamination rather than horizontal gene transfer. Based on phylogenetic analysis the most likely source was the Syrian (golden) hamster Mesocricetus auratus. Proteomic analysis of Syrian hamster albumin generated peptide identities to S. mansoni as the top hit, with a high ion score >1,500 and 63% coverage of the translated cDNA sequence. RT-PCR using specific primers permitted amplification of the M. auratus albumin transcript, which is identical to the deposited S. mansoni albumin sequence. PCR amplification of a fragment of the M. auratus albumin gene from genomic DNA suggests a homologous structure to the Mus musculus albumin gene. We were unable to find the S. mansoni albumin gene sequence by in silico searching on either version 3 of the S. mansoni genome assembly or the >3 million shotgun DNA reads. Finally, Southern blotting detected the albumin gene in M. auratus but not in S. mansoni genomic DNA, even when the latter was present in a 10-fold excess. Collectively, our data make the strongest case that the schistosome albumin protein described in previous reports is of host origin and all nucleotide-derived data are the result of contamination with host material. By analogy, we suggest that other reported examples of horizontal gene transfer to schistosomes might similarly be explained by complementary/genomic DNA contamination.

  19. The influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on sodium regulation and nitrogenous waste excretion in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Reasi, Hassan A; Smith, Scott D; Wood, Chris M

    2016-08-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is both ubiquitous and diverse in composition in natural waters, but its effects on the branchial physiology of aquatic organisms have received little attention relative to other variables (e.g. pH, hardness, salinity, alkalinity). Here, we investigated the effects of four chemically distinct DOM isolates (three natural, one commercial, ranging from autochthonous to highly allochthonous, all at ∼6 mg C l(-1)) on the physiology of gill ionoregulation and nitrogenous waste excretion in zebrafish acclimated to either circumneutral (7.0-8.0) or acidic pH (5.0). Overall, lower pH tended to increase net branchial ammonia excretion, net K(+) loss and [(3)H]PEG-4000 clearance rates (indicators of transcellular and paracellular permeability, respectively). However, unidirectional Na(+) efflux, urea excretion and drinking rates were unaffected. DOM sources tended to stimulate unidirectional Na(+) influx rate and exerted subtle effects on the concentration-dependent kinetics of Na(+) uptake, increasing maximum transport capacity. All DOM sources reduced passive Na(+) efflux rates regardless of pH, but exerted negligible effects on nitrogenous waste excretion, drinking rate, net K(+) loss or [(3)H]PEG-4000 clearance, so the mechanism of Na(+) loss reduction remains unclear. Overall, these actions appear beneficial to ionoregulatory homeostasis in zebrafish, and some may be related to physico-chemical properties of the DOM sources. They are very different from those seen in a recent parallel study on Daphnia magna using the same DOM isolates, indicating that DOM actions may be both species and DOM specific.

  20. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K Saba

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2 concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill by conducting a CO(2 perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2 levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP. Under elevated CO(2 conditions (∼672 ppm, ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1 d(-1 and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2 concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2 treatment than at ambient CO(2 concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2 treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, were consistently higher in the high CO(2 treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  1. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Grace K; Schofield, Oscar; Torres, Joseph J; Ombres, Erica H; Steinberg, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2) concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) by conducting a CO(2) perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2) levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Under elevated CO(2) conditions (∼672 ppm), ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1) d(-1) and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2) concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2) treatment than at ambient CO(2) concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2) treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were consistently higher in the high CO(2) treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  2. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  3. Ciprofloxacin Loaded Bovine Serum Albumin Microspheres: Prepa-ration and Drug Release Characterization In Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiFengqian; HuJinhong; LuBin; ZhuQuangang; SunHuajun

    2001-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin loaded microspheres were prepared by spray drying technique, with bovine serum albumin as the natural biodegradable wall materials. The obtained microspheres, using aqueous system, were organic solvent-free. The diameters of the spherical microspheres were in the range of 1-5 1:4. The drug entrapment of microspheres, formulated with different ciprofloxacin/albumin ratios as 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4, were 46.93%, 32.96% and 20.56% (n=3). And the encapsulation efflciencies for ciprofloxacin during spray drying were higher than 90%. Thermal denaturation programs at different temperatures (100-120℃) for different time intervals (3-6-12 h) were further processed to stabilize the spray-dried microspheres. The higher the extent for thermal denaturation, the slower the rate of ciprofloxacin released from microspheres in vitro. So the release rate of ciprofloxacin from microspheres can be controlled by modifing the conditions of thermal denaturation.

  4. Humant serum-albumin som proteinkilde ved dyrkning af humane oocytter, spermatozoer og praeembryoer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C Y; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Byskov, A G;

    1991-01-01

    In the treatment of infertility employing in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer (IVF-EF), oocytes, spermatozoa and pre-embryos are cultured for 48 hours outside the woman's body before they are introduced into the uterus. In addition to the necessary salts, the media in which this culture...... patient serum as source of protein in the culture of oocytes, spermatozoa and pre-embryos in IVF-ET treatment. The pregnancy rate per transplantation was increased from 30% in the serum group (21 pregnant out of 69 transplantations) to 39% in the albumin group (26 pregnant out of 66 transplantations......) but the difference is not significant. On the other hand, the quality of the pre-embryos as assessed by morphological criteria became significantly better and the implantation rate per transplanted pre-embryo was found to be significantly increased in the albumin group. On the basis of this investigation, h...

  5. Palmitate and stearate binding to human serum albumin. Determination of relative binding constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Fisker, K; Honoré, B

    1997-01-01

    Multiple binding equilibria of two apparently insoluble ligands, palmitate and stearate, to defatted human serum albumin were studied in a 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C, by determination of dialytic exchange rates of ligands among identical equilibrium solutions. The expe......Multiple binding equilibria of two apparently insoluble ligands, palmitate and stearate, to defatted human serum albumin were studied in a 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C, by determination of dialytic exchange rates of ligands among identical equilibrium solutions...... that cooperativity is absent while the stoichiometric equation is valid even when cooperativity is present. It was found with palmitate as well as with stearate that the two equations fitted the data equally well, and it was concluded that the observations were compatible with absence of cooperativity. The relative...

  6. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobi...

  7. Effects of glycation on meloxicam binding to human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trynda-Lemiesz, Lilianna; Wiglusz, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    The current study reports a binding of meloxicam a pharmacologically important new generation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to glycated form of the human serum albumin (HSA). The interaction of the meloxicam with nonglycated and glycated albumin has been studied at pH 7.4 in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 M NaCl, using fluorescence quenching technique and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Results of the present study have shown that the meloxicam could bind both forms of albumin glycated and nonglycated at a site, which was close to the tryptophan residues. Similarly, how for native albumin glycated form has had one high affinity site for the drug with association constants of the order of 10 5 M -1. The glycation process of the HSA significantly has affected the impact of the meloxicam on the binding of other ligands such as warfarin and bilirubin. The affinity of the glycated albumin for bilirubin as for native albumin has been reduced by meloxicam but observed effect was weaker by half (about 20%) compared with nonglycated albumin. In contrast to the native albumin meloxicam binding to glycated form of the protein only slightly affected the binding of warfarin. It seemed possible that the effects on warfarin binding might be entirely attributable to the Lys 199 modification which was in site I.

  8. Albumin storage in neoplastic astroglial elements of gangliogliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Ann Kristin; Grote, Alexander; Raabe, Anna; Urbach, Horst; Friedman, Alon; von Lehe, Marec; Becker, Albert J.; Niehusmann, Pitt

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Low-grade neuroepithelial tumors are frequent neuropathological findings in patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Little is known regarding epileptogenic mechanisms in this group of neoplasms with gangliogliomas (GG) as the most common entity. Presence of hemosiderin deposits in GG points to impairment of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Therefore, we hypothesized a potential role of BBB dysfunction and astrocytic albumin uptake as potential epileptogenic factor in GG. Methods Prussian blue staining and fluorescent double-immunohistochemistry with antibodies against albumin, GFAP, CD34 and GLUT-1 were used to analyze hemosiderin deposits and astroglial albumin accumulation in tumor and adjacent pre-existing brain tissue of GG (n = 10) and several control groups, i.e. dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT; n = 5), focal cortical dysplasia with balloon cells (FCD IIb; n = 10), astrocytomas WHO grade II (n = 5) and clear renal cell carcinoma brain metastases (RCCM, n = 6). Results Our results revealed strong hemosiderin deposits in GG. Intriguingly, we noted substantial albumin uptake exclusively in neoplastic glial cell components of GG and DNT, whereas no significant albumin was present in perilesional reactive astrocytes. Strikingly, we did not observe substantial albumin uptake in further controls. Conclusion Glial albumin uptake was restricted to long-term epilepsy associated, vasculature-containing tumors. Intratumoural BBB dysfunction in concert with subsequent accumulation of albumin by neoplastic glial cell elements represent a new putatively epileptogenic mechanism for long-term epilepsy-associated tumors. PMID:23182422

  9. Excretion of Four Catechins in Tea Polyphenols in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate excretion profiles of the four major anti-oxidant active catechins, (-) epigallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), (-) epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin (EC) in tea polyphenols (TP) in rats in order to provide experimental data for clinical uses and development of TP as a novel drug. Methods The above four catechins in urine, bile, and feces were simultaneously determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet absorption detector (HPLC-UV) assay with a binary gradient elution. The samples were extracted by ethyl acetate prior to HPLC. The quantification was carried out by peak area internal standard method. Following iv dosing TP 100 mg/kg to rats, the samples were collected at different time intervals up to 8 h (urine and bile) and 24 h (feces). Results The urinary Ae, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion amount over 8 h) of EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC were, on the average, 150.83, 30.75, 116.69, and 254.56 μg, corresponding to fe, 0-8 h (cumulative excretion fraction of dose over 8 h) of 1.45%, 0.84%, 7.88%, and 10.73%, respectively; the biliary Ae, 0-8 h were 12.61, 42.64, 6.61, and 1.24 μg, corresponding to the fe, 0-8 h of 0.12%, 1.16%, 0.45%, and 0.053%,respectively. For fecal excretion, only EGCG and EGC were detected with Ae, 0-24 h of 7.38 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 0.07%) and 157 μg (fe, 0-24 h of 9.99 %), respectively. The fe, total (the total fe of 3 excretory routes) were 18.32%, 10.78%, 2.00%, and 1.64% for EGC, EC, ECG, and EGCG, respectively. Conclusion EGCG and EC are mainly excreted in urine, ECG in bile, and EGC in feces by reference to their Ae and fe. The excretion of the four catechins based on fe, total is ranked in order of EGC > EC > ECG > EGCG. Only small amount of four catechins are recovered in urine, bile, and feces, indicating an extensive metabolic conversion of catechins in the rat body.

  10. Protein-thiol substitution or protein dethiolation by thiol/disulfide exchange reactions: the albumin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Domenico; Spiga, Ottavia; Bernini, Andrea; Venditti, Vincenzo; Priora, Raffaella; Frosali, Simona; Margaritis, Antonios; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Niccolai, Neri; Di Simplicio, Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Dethiolation experiments of thiolated albumin with thionitrobenzoic acid and thiols (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine) were carried out to understand the role of albumin in plasma distribution of thiols and disulfide species by thiol/disulfide (SH/SS) exchange reactions. During these experiments we observed that thiolated albumin underwent thiol substitution (Alb-SS-X+RSHAlb-SS-R+XSH) or dethiolation (Alb-SS-X+XSHAlb-SH+XSSX), depending on the different pK(a) values of thiols involved in protein-thiol mixed disulfides (Alb-SS-X). It appeared in these reactions that the compound with lower pK(a) in mixed disulfide was a good leaving group and that the pK(a) differences dictated the kind of reaction (substitution or dethiolation). Thionitrobenzoic acid, bound to albumin by mixed disulfide (Alb-TNB), underwent rapid substitution after thiol addition, forming the corresponding Alb-SS-X (peaks at 0.25-1 min). In turn, Alb-SS-X were dethiolated by the excess nonprotein SH groups because of the lower pK(a) value in mixed disulfide with respect to that of other thiols. Dethiolation of Alb-SS-X was accompanied by formation of XSSX and Alb-SH up to equilibrium levels at 35 min, which were different for each thiol. Structures by molecular simulation of thiolated albumin, carried out for understanding the role of sulfur exposure in mixed disulfides in dethiolation process, evidenced that the sulfur exposure is important for the rate but not for determining the kind of reaction (substitution or dethiolation). Our data underline the contribution of SH/SS exchanges to determine levels of various thiols as reduced and oxidized species in human plasma.

  11. Current position of vasoconstrictor and albumin infusion for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhasnee; Sobhonslidsuk

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis(SBP),refractory ascites,hepatorenal syndrome(HRS),hyponatremia and hepatic encephalopathy are complicationswhich frequently happen during a clinical course of decompensated cirrhosis.Splanchnic and peripheral vasodilatation,increased intrarenal vasoconstriction and impaired cardiac responsive function are pathological changes causing systemic and hemodynamic derangement.Extreme renal vasoconstriction leads to severe reduction of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate,which finally evolves into the clinical feature of HRS.Clinical manifestations of type 1 and type 2 HRS come to medical attention differently.Patients with type1 HRS present as acute kidney injury whereas those with type 2 HRS will have refractory ascites as the leading problem.Prompt diagnosis of type 1 HRS can halt the progression of HRS to acute tubular necrosis if the combined treatment of albumin infusion and vasoconstrictors is started timely.HRS reversal was seen in 34%-60%of patients,followed with decreasing mortality.Baseline serum levels of creatinine less than5 mg/dL,bilirubin less than 10 mg/dL,and increased mean arterial pressure of over 5 mmHg by day 3 of the combined treatment of vasoconstrictor and albumin are the predictors of good response.Type 1 HRS can be prevented in some conditions such as albumin infusion in SBP,prophylactic antibiotics for upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage,albumin replacement after large volume paracentesis in cirrhotic patients with massive ascites.The benefit of albumin infusion in infection with primary source other than SBP requires more studies.

  12. Reduction in porphyrin excretion as a sensitive indicator of lead toxicity in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Vega, B; Hernandez, A; Mendoza-Figueroa, T

    1996-12-01

    Alterations of specific metabolic pathways can be used as sensitive indicators of toxicity by chemicals and can give valuable information on the mechanism(s) involved. Short-term effects of lead on hepatic haem biosynthesis were studied in an in vitro system. Primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were exposed for 24-48 hr to lead (0.024-3.6 mm), and excreted and intracellular porphyrins were measured in untreated and lead-treated cultures. Cytotoxicity, as estimated by enzyme leakage, and morphological alterations were also evaluated. Control hepatocytes produced porphyrins at a rate of 387 pmol/mg cellular protein/day. Most of the released and intracellular porphyrins were protoporphyrins, although uro- and coproporphyrins were also detected in lower amounts. After 24 hr of exposure to 0.1-3.6 mm Pb(2+) , excreted porphyrins decreased by 24-92% and intracellular porphyrins by 36-60%, while 48 hr of exposure to 0.024-3.6 mm Pb(2+) caused a progressive reduction of 77-97% in porphyrin excretion and of 49-67% in intracellular porphyrins. Lead exposure also produced a differential decrease of proto-, copro- and uro-porphyrin excretion. These lead effects can be explained mainly by inhibition of the enzyme 5-aminolaevulinate dehydratase, resulting in a decreased monopyrrole supply for porphyrin biosynthesis, and probably by inhibition of the enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. Morphological alterations and enzyme leakage were detected only after 24 hr of exposure to 2.4 mm and 48 hr of exposure to 3.6 mm Pb(2+), respectively. The results show that changes in porphyrin production, and particularly in their excretion, in cultured rat hepatocytes are useful indicators of lead toxicity, since they are more sensitive than enzyme leakage and can give preliminary information on the enzyme(s) that could be affected. They also suggest the potential benefits of the use of this method for the evaluation of compounds that alter haem biosynthesis.

  13. Osmotic and osmotic-loop diuresis in brain surgery. Effects on plasma and CSF electrolytes and ion excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettini, A; Stahurski, B; Young, H F

    1982-05-01

    In 22 patients to be operated on for brain tumors or cerebral aneurysms, the effect of osmotic diuresis was compared with that of osmotic-loop diuresis on plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) electrolytes, and water and ion excretion. Mannitol or mannitol plus furosemide were used to reduce brain bulk. After treatment with thiopental and hyperventilation, patients received randomly a rapid infusion of mannitol (1.4 gm/kg), or mannitol (1.4 gm/kg) plus furosemide (0.3 mg/kg). Brain shrinkage was considerably greater and more consistent with mannitol plus furosemide than with mannitol alone. However, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and hyperosmolality were also more marked (p less than 0.05) with mannitol plus furosemide than with mannitol. The rate of water and ion excretion was even more striking. At 30 minutes after absorption of mannitol alone, water excretion peaked at 17 ml/min, and gradually decreased to 3.8 ml/min 70 minutes later. With mannitol plus furosemide, during an identical time course, initial water excretion was 30 ml/min, followed by a further rise to 42 ml/min and then a decline to 17 ml/min. At peak diuresis after mannitol, Na+ and Cl- excretion average 0.57 and 0.62 mEq/min, respectively. This compares with mean values of 3.7 and 4.12 mEq/min for Na+ and Cl-, respectively, after mannitol plus furosemide. Although optimum brain shrinkage is achieved with osmotic-loop diuresis, the rapid electrolyte depletion (Na+ and Cl-) must be corrected to avoid altered sensorium during the patients' postoperative course.

  14. Mechanism of Excretion of a Bacterial Proteinase: Demonstration of Two Proteolytic Enzymes Produced by a Sarcina Strain (Coccus P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SARNER, NITZA Z; BISSELL, MINA J; GIROLAMO, MARIO Di; GORINI, LUIGI

    1970-06-29

    A Sarcina strain (Coccus P) produces two proteolytic enzymes. One is found only extracellularly, is far more prevalent, and is actively excreted during exponential growth. It is the enzyme responsible for the known strong proteolytic activity of the cultures of this strain. A second protease is, however, produced which remains associated with the intact cells but is released by the protoplasts. The two enzymes appear unrelated in their derivation. Calcium ions play an essential role in preventing autodigestion of the excreted enzyme. Bacterial proteins are found outside the cell boundary as a consequence either of passive processes such as leakage or lysis or of active excretion. Under conditions in which leakage and lysis do not occur, as during exponential growth, the cell boundary is a barrier causing a complete separation of the bulk of the intracellular proteins from the one or very few extracellular proteins, with no trace of either type being detectable on the wrong side of the boundary. Since in bacteria there is no evidence of protein being produced other than internally, the separation into intraand extracellular proteins should occur after peptide chain formation. The question arises as to whether the structure of the cell boundary or that of the excreted proteins themselves determines this separation. Coccus P, a Sarcina closely related to Micrococcus lysodeikticus (3), produces an extracellular proteinase during the exponential phase of growth so that the process appears to be active excretion. The organism grows exponentially in a defined synthetic medium (12) to relatively high cell density (10{sup 9} cells/ml); therefore the mechanism of excretion can be studied over an extended period of time without the difficulties of changing growth rates. Coagulation of reconstituted skim milk provides a simple and sensitive assay for enzyme activity (I 1). The extracellular proteinase has also been purified and partially characterized (6-8). It has been shown

  15. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  16. Impaired renal function and increased urinary isoprostane excretion in Ghanaian women with pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetteh PW

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Winston Tetteh,1,4 Charles Antwi-Boasiako,1 Ben Gyan,3 Daniel Antwi,1 Festus Adzaku,1 Kwame Adu-Bonsaffoh,1,2 Samuel Obed21Department of Physiology, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 3Department of Immunology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana; 4Hubrecht Institute for Developmental Biology and Stem Cell Research, Uppsalalaan 8, Utrecht, The NetherlandsBackground: The cause of pre-eclampsia remains largely unknown, but oxidative stress (an imbalance favoring oxidant over antioxidant forces has been implicated in contributing to the clinical symptoms of hypertension and proteinuria. Assessment of oxidative stress in pre-eclampsia using urinary isoprostane has produced conflicting results, and it is likely that renal function may affect isoprostane excretion. The aim of this study was to determine the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia and to assess the effect of renal function on isoprostane excretion in pre-eclampsia in the Ghanaian population.Methods: This was a case-controlled study, comprising 103 pre-eclamptic women and 107 normal pregnant controls and conducted at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital between December 2006 and May 2007. The study participants were enrolled in the study after meeting the inclusion criteria and signing their written informed consent. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant capacity using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Renal function was assessed by calculating the estimated glomerular filtration rate using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula.Results: The pre-eclampsia group had significantly (P = 0.0006 higher urinary isoprostane excretion (2.81 ± 0.14 ng/mg creatinine than the control group (2.01 ± 0.18 ng/mg creatinine and a significantly (P = 0.0008 lower total antioxidant power (1

  17. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  18. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  19. Proteomic analysis of Taenia solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Bjorn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Gabriël, Sarah; Polman, Katja; Deckers, Nynke; Dorny, Pierre; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-06-01

    The metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium is the causal agent of a zoonotic disease called cysticercosis. The disease has an important impact on pork trade (due to porcine cysticercosis) and public health (due to human neurocysticercosis). In order to improve the current diagnostic tools and to get a better understanding of the interaction between T. solium metacestodes and their host, there is a need for more information about the proteins that are released by the parasite. In this study, we used protein sequences from different helminths, 1DE, reversed-phase LC, and MS/MS to analyze the excretion-secretion proteins produced by T. solium metacestodes from infected pigs. This is the first report of the T. solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteome. We report 76 proteins including 27 already described T. solium proteins, 17 host proteins and 32 proteins likely to be of T. solium origin, but identified using sequences from other helminths.

  20. Efficient production of ectoine using ectoine-excreting strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-hua; Lang, Ya-jun; Nagata, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    Halophilic bacteria strain Halomonas salina DSM 5928 was found to excrete ectoine, suggesting its potential in the development of a new method of ectoine production. We performed HPLC and LC-MS analyses that showed that Halomonas salina DSM 5928 excreted ectoine under constant extracellular osmolarity. Medium adopting monosodium glutamate as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen was beneficial for ectoine synthesis. The total concentration of ectoine was not affected by NaCl concentration in the range 0.5-2 mol l(-1). The total concentration of ectoine and productivity in a 10-l fermentor with 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl were 6.9 g l(-1) and 7.9 g l(-1) d(-1), respectively. These findings show that Halomonas salina DSM 5928 efficiently produces ectoine at relatively low NaCl concentration. This research also indicates the potential application of free or immobilized cells for continuous culture to produce ectoine.

  1. Altered amino acid excretion in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Craig; Dunstan, R Hugh; Rothkirch, Tony; Roberts, Tim K; Reichelt, Karl L; Cosford, Robyn; Deed, Gary; Ellis, Libby B; Sparkes, Diane L

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a complex and life-long behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology. Recent reports have indicated the involvement of digestive tract dysfunction and possible complications from inadequate nutrition. In this study, 34 autistic children (12 untreated and 22 receiving therapeutic treatments related to digestive function and nutritional uptake) and 29 control subjects (all 5-15 years of age) were investigated to determine whether there were any anomalies in the urinary excretion of amino acids, glucose, sucrose, arabinose and tartaric acid using GC/FID and GC/MS analysis techniques. Significantly lower relative urinary levels of essential amino acids were revealed for both the untreated (mean +/- SEM, 32.53 +/- 3.09%) and treated (31.98 +/- 2.87%) autistic children compared with the controls (37.87 +/- 1.50%). There were no significant differences in measured excretions of sugars or tartaric acid. It was concluded that the untreated autistic children had evidence of altered metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  3. Ammonia Production, Excretion, Toxicity, and Defense in Fish: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen K Ip; Chew, Shit F.

    2010-01-01

    Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH 4 + transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia thr...

  4. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of trans-mission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Hetera...

  5. Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultcrantz, R.; Angelin, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.E.; Ewerth, S.; Einarsson, K.

    1989-06-01

    The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis.

  6. Effects of magnesium infusion on renal calcium excretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafik, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of acute I.V. infusion of Mg on Ca excretion was investigated. Mg infusion resulted in a significantly increased urinary Ca excretion compared to the control group. The hypercalciuric effect of Mg was not accompanied by diuresis or natriuresis but was associated with significantly increased urinary Ca concentration suggesting a specific effect of Mg on urinary Ca excretion. The effect of 4mM MgCl/sub 2/ infusion on plasma Ca concentrations was also investigated. A comparable calciuric effect was again observed in the Mg infused group and was found to be associated with a significantly reduced whole kidney filtered load and absolute and fractional reabsorption of Ca. Intratubular microinjection experiments were performed to investigate the direct effects of raising Mg concentration on the unidirectional reabsorptive flux of (/sup 45/Ca). The unidirectional reabsorption of Ca injected into PCT was measured during four experimental conditions; with an d without Mg in the injectate solution during either saline or Mg infusion. Raising the intraluminal Mg significantly decreased unidirectional reabsorption of (/sup 45/Ca).

  7. Stopped-flow studies of spectral changes in human serum albumin following an alkaline pH jump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B

    1987-01-01

    A stopped-flow technique was used to study the spectral changes occurring in albumin following a pH jump from 11.3 to 11.8 at 25 degrees C. Ultraviolet difference spectra between various albumin species participating in the process are reported. These spectra are similar in shape to the difference....... During the third (3.4 +/- 2.8 s-1) and following transitions (less than 0.3 s-1), which could not be reproducibly separated, 0.7 tyrosine residues deprotonate. The rates of deprotonation are inconsistent with simple diffusional dissociation of protons from the tyrosine residues and reflect exposure...

  8. Bilirubin-albumin binding, bilirubin/albumin ratios, and free bilirubin levels: where do we stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulzebos, Christian V; Dijk, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    Treatment for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is predominantly based on one parameter, i.e., total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Yet, overt kernicterus has been reported in preterm infants at relatively low TSB levels, and it has been repeatedly shown that free unconjugated bilirubin (freeUCB) levels, or bilirubin/albumin (B/A) ratios for that matter, are more closely associated with bilirubin neurotoxicity. In this article, we review bilirubin-albumin binding, UCBfree levels, and B/A ratios in addition to TSB levels to individualize and optimize treatment especially in preterm infants. Methods to measure bilirubin-albumin binding or UCBfree are neither routinely performed in Western clinical laboratories nor incorporated in current management guidelines on unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. For bilirubin-albumin binding, this seems justified because several of these methods have been challenged, and sufficiently powered prospective trials on the clinical benefits are lacking. Technological advances in the measurement of UCBfree may provide a convenient means for integrating UCBfree measurements into routine clinical management of jaundiced infants. A point-of-care method, as well as determination of UCBfree levels in various newborn populations, is desirable to learn more about variations in time and how various clinical pathophysiological conditions affect UCBfree levels. This will improve the estimation of approximate UCBfree levels associated with neurotoxicity. To delineate the role of UCBfree in the management of jaundiced (preterm) infants, trials are needed using UCBfree as treatment parameter. The additional use of the B/A ratio in jaundiced preterms has been evaluated in the Bilirubin Albumin Ratio Trial (BARTrial; Clinical Trials: ISRCTN74465643) but failed to demonstrate better neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants bilirubin toxicity. Yet, different methodologies for estimating these parameters exist, and sufficiently powered, prospective clinical

  9. Improving the efficiency of feed utilization in poultry by selection. 2. Genetic parameters of excretion traits and correlations with anatomy of the gastro-intestinal tract and digestive efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvoix Séverine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poultry production has been widely criticized for its negative environmental impact related to the quantity of manure produced and to its nitrogen and phosphorus content. In this study, we investigated which traits related to excretion could be used to select chickens for lower environmental pollution. The genetic parameters of several excretion traits were estimated on 630 chickens originating from 2 chicken lines divergently selected on apparent metabolisable energy corrected for zero nitrogen (AMEn at constant body weight. The quantity of excreta relative to feed consumption (CDUDM, the nitrogen and phosphorus excreted, the nitrogen to phosphorus ratio and the water content of excreta were measured, and the consequences of such selection on performance and gastro-intestinal tract (GIT characteristics estimated. The genetic correlations between excretion, GIT and performance traits were established. Results Heritability estimates were high for CDUDM and the nitrogen excretion rate (0.30 and 0.29, respectively. The other excretion measurements showed low to moderate heritability estimates, ranging from 0.10 for excreta water content to 0.22 for the phosphorus excretion rate. Except for the excreta water content, the CDUDM was highly correlated with the excretion traits, ranging from -0.64 to -1.00. The genetic correlations between AMEn or CDUDM and the GIT characteristics were very similar and showed that a decrease in chicken excretion involves an increase in weight of the upper part of the GIT, and a decrease in the weight of the small intestine. Conclusion In order to limit the environmental impact of chicken production, AMEn and CDUDM seem to be more suitable criteria to include in selection schemes than feed efficiency traits.

  10. Association between urinary sodium, creatinine, albumin, and long-term survival in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Traynor, Jamie P; Taylor, Alison H; Freel, E Marie; Fox, Jonathan G; Jardine, Alan G; Mark, Patrick B

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk in the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease, sodium intake has been associated with progressive renal disease, but not independently of proteinuria. We studied the relationship between urinary sodium (UNa) excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio and mortality or requirement for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease. Adult patients attending a renal clinic who had ≥1 24-hour UNa measurement were identified. Twenty-four-hour UNa measures were collected and UNa to creatinine ratio calculated. Time to renal replacement therapy or death was recorded. Four hundred twenty-three patients were identified with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 48 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Ninety patients required renal replacement therapy and 102 patients died. Mean slope decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.8 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Patients who died or required renal replacement therapy had significantly higher UNa excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio, but the association with these parameters and poor outcome was not independent of renal function, age, and albuminuria. When stratified by albuminuria, UNa to creatinine ratio was a significant cumulative additional risk for mortality, even in patients with low-level albuminuria. There was no association between low UNa and risk, as observed in some studies. This study demonstrates an association between UNa excretion and mortality in chronic kidney disease, with a cumulative relationship between sodium excretion, albuminuria, and reduced survival. These data support reducing dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but additional study is required to determine the target sodium intake.

  11. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Animal]. E-mails: icsbueno@cena.usp.br; abdalla@cena.usp.br; dovitti@cena.usp.br; Furtado, Carlos Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cefurtado@uem.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most polluting nutrients because of high husbandry concentrations in restricted areas. The present study compiles data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different P levels in diets for horses. Database consisted of results from two experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), using horses fed different levels of P (n=28). True absorption of phosphorus was determined by isotopic dilution technique, using {sup 32}P as tracer. All parameters (P{sub ING}: ingested P; P{sub ABS}: absorbed P; P{sub FECTOT}: total faecal P excretion; P{sub FECENDO}: endogenous faecal P; P{sub URI}: total urinary excretion; and P{sub RET}: retained P) were normalized according to body weight (BW) and linear and quadratic regressions between P{sub ING} and the other parameters were tested. No quadratic effect was observed. P{sub ING} ranged from 41 to 264 mg/kg BW. Faecal P excretion was affected by intake, analysing by total (P{sub FECTOT} = 0.888 (S.E. 0.058) P{sub ING} - 29.40 (S.E. 8.14) (P<0.0001; RMSE=20.37; R{sup 2}=0.90) or by endogenous fraction (P{sub FECENDO} = 0.095 (S.E. 0.029) P{sub ING} + 12.10 (S.E. 4.16) (P=0.0034; RMSE=10.41; {sup R}2=0.29). Urinary P excretion was not affected by intake (P=0.35), although ranging from 0.06 to 59.20 mg/kg BW. The same occurred for P{sub RET} (P=0.25) ranging from -13.69 to 88.78 mg/kg BW. P absorption also was affect by P intake (P{sub ABS} = 0.195 (S.E. 0.060) P{sub ING} + 42.19 (S.E. 8.45) (P=0.0031; RMSE=21.15; R{sup 2}=0.29). The present study showed that only a small part of ingested P was absorbed, i.e. most of ingested P was excreted via faeces, contributing for environmental pollution. (author)

  12. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian J. Wiedermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review.

  13. [Results of a drug use investigation of nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel for breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Seigo; Iwata, Hiroji; Funato, Yuya; Ito, Kunio; Ito, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    A drug use investigation of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel was conducted based on conditions for approval. A total of 963 patients were enrolled in this study from September 24, 2010 to February 14, 2011. Twenty-nine patients were excluded, and a total of 934 patients were evaluated for determining the safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. Adverse drug reactions were observed in 92.8%of the patients, and major adverse drug reactions included myelosuppression and peripheral sensory neuropathy, both of which are characteristic adverse reactions of paclitaxel treatment. Both adverse drug reactions were observed at a high frequency after the second course of treatment, resulting in these reactions being primary causes for discontinuation. Increase in the rates of continuous drug administration may be accomplished by carrying out laboratory tests and noting the medical history in order to prevent myelosuppression from becoming serious and to perform earlier countermeasures for peripheral sensory neuropathy, leading to improved therapeutic effects.

  14. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion by carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, T; Aoki, S; Kojima, M; Harada, H

    1990-01-01

    1. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion were studied for carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). 2. The concentrations of these pesticides in muscle and viscera of the carp reached plateaus in 12-48 hr exposure. 3. The average values of bioconcentration factors (BCF) for diazinon were 20.9 in muscle, 60.0 in liver, 111.1 in kidney and 32.2 in gallbladder over the 168 hr exposure period. Similarly, those values were 4.3-26.7 for IBP, 2.7-17.3 for malathion, and 36.0-157.1 for fenitrothion. 4. The excretion rate constants of malathion (hr-1) were 0.13 for muscle, 0.12 for liver, 0.08 for kidney and 0.06 for gallbladder. Those of diazinon, IBP and fenitrothion (g.ng-1.hr-1) were 0.002-0.024 for muscle, 0.001-0.020 for liver, 0.0004-0.004 for kidney and 0.002-0.023 for gallbladder, respectively.

  15. Effect of penicillin on fatty acid synthesis and excretion in Streptococcus mutans BHT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissette, J.L.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1985-03-01

    Treatment of exponentially growing cultures of Streptococcus mutans BHT with growth-inhibitory concentrations (0.2 microgram/ml) of benzylpenicillin stimulates the incorporation of (2-/sup 14/C) acetate into lipids excreted by the cells by as much as 69-fold, but does not change the amount of /sup 14/C incorporated into intracellular lipids. At this concentration of penicillin cellular lysis does not occur. The radioactive label is incorporated exclusively into the fatty acid moieties of the glycerolipids. During a 4-hr incubation in the presence of penicillin, the extracellular fatty acid ester concentration increases 1.5 fold, even though there is no growth or cellular lysis. An indication of the relative rate of fatty acid synthesis was most readily obtained by placing S. mutans BHT in a buffer containing /sup 14/C-acetate. Under these nongrowing conditions free fatty acids are the only lipids labeled, a factor which simplifies the assay. The addition of glycerol to the buffer causes all of the nonesterified fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipid. The cells excrete much of the lipid whether glycerol is present or not. Addition of penicillin to the nongrowth supporting buffer system does not stimulate the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-acetate into fatty acids.

  16. Metabolism, excretion, and mass balance of the HIV-1 integrase inhibitor dolutegravir in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellino, Stephen; Moss, Lee; Wagner, David; Borland, Julie; Song, Ivy; Chen, Shuguang; Lou, Yu; Min, Sherene S; Goljer, Igor; Culp, Amanda; Piscitelli, Stephen C; Savina, Paul M

    2013-08-01

    The pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and excretion of dolutegravir, an unboosted, once-daily human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase inhibitor, were studied in healthy male subjects following single oral administration of [(14)C]dolutegravir at a dose of 20 mg (80 μCi). Dolutegravir was well tolerated, and absorption of dolutegravir from the suspension formulation was rapid (median time to peak concentration, 0.5 h), declining in a biphasic fashion. Dolutegravir and the radioactivity had similar terminal plasma half-lives (t1/2) (15.6 versus 15.7 h), indicating metabolism was formation rate limited with no long-lived metabolites. Only minimal association with blood cellular components was noted with systemic radioactivity. Recovery was essentially complete (mean, 95.6%), with 64.0% and 31.6% of the dose recovered in feces and urine, respectively. Unchanged dolutegravir was the predominant circulating radioactive component in plasma and was consistent with minimal presystemic clearance. Dolutegravir was extensively metabolized. An inactive ether glucuronide, formed primarily via UGT1A1, was the principal biotransformation product at 18.9% of the dose excreted in urine and the principal metabolite in plasma. Two minor biotransformation pathways were oxidation by CYP3A4 (7.9% of the dose) and an oxidative defluorination and glutathione substitution (1.8% of the dose). No disproportionate human metabolites were observed.

  17. [Functional status of the bile excretion system and upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razarenova, T G; Koshel', A P; Klokov, S S; Dibina, T V

    2010-01-01

    The research of functional condition of biliary tract in 35 patients suffered from gastroduodenal ulcers compared with 30 almost healthy patients was conducted. Disorders of motor function were found out in 13.2% patients in control group. The motor-evacuative function of biliary tract conformed to average scores of healthy patients group in only 8.6% cases. The accelerated gallbladder empting (11.4%), the hypermotoric biliary dyskinesia with the absence of latent period of biliary excretion (17.1%), the hypomotoric dysfunction of biliary tract (34.3%) were found out in the rest cases. The separate group of patients were patients with distortion of biliary excretion that was consisted in periodic increase and decrease of gall bladder volume during the contraction. We concluded that motor-evacuative function of biliary tract doesn't depend on the type of pathological process in the stomach or duodenum but correlates with gastric evacuation contents, the rate of cholagogic meal advancement along the duodenum and acid-productive function of the stomach.

  18. Association between consumption of cruciferous vegetables and condiments and excretion in urine of isothiocyanate mercapturic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Martijn; van den Berg, Robin; Freidig, Andreas P; van Bladeren, Peter J; Vaes, Wouter H J

    2006-07-26

    A high intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This protective effect has been linked to isothiocyanates, enzymatic hydrolysis products of glucosinolates. In this study, the metabolic fate of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates after ingestion of 19 different cruciferous vegetables was studied in three male subjects. After the consumption of 13 cruciferous vegetables (glucosinolate content, 0.01-0.94 mmol/kg) and six condiments (isothiocyanate content, 0.06-49.3 mmol/kg), eight different isothiocyanate mercapturic acids were determined in urine samples. Excretion levels after the consumption of raw vegetables and condiments were higher (bioavailability, 8.2-113%) as compared to cooked vegetables (bioavailability, 1.8-43%), but the excretion rate was similar (t1/2=2.1-3.9 h). Isothiocyanates in urine remain longer at a nonzero level after the consumption of glucosinolates from cooked vegetables, as compared to raw vegetables and condiments, and maximal levels in urine were reached about 4 h later. Isothiocyanate mercapturic acids can be used as a biomarker to reflect the active dose of isothiocyanates absorbed.

  19. O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascenzi, Paolo, E-mail: ascenzi@uniroma3.it [Interdepartmental Laboratory of Electron Microscopy, University Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 79, I-00146 Roma (Italy); National Institute for Infectious Diseases I.R.C.C.S. ' Lazzaro Spallanzani' , Via Portuense 292, I-00149 Roma (Italy); Gullotta, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo [Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via Montpellier 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Interuniversity Consortium for the Research on the Chemistry of Metals in Biological Systems, Piazza Umberto I 1, I-87100 Bari (Italy); Fasano, Mauro [Department of Structural and Functional Biology, and Center of Neuroscience, University of Insubria, Via Alberto da Giussano 12a, I-21052 Busto Arsizio, VA (Italy)

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. {yields} O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. {yields} Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10{sup -5} and 8.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, and h = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} and 8.5 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 {sup o}C. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O{sub 2} does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

  20. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  1. Interaction of indomethacin with adult human albumin and neonatal serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R; Robertson, A

    1983-01-01

    The binding of indomethacin to albumin was investigated at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. The first stoichiometric binding constant is 2.5 X 10(5) M-1. Indomethacin utilizes both the bilirubin and diazepam binding functions equally. The effect on bilirubin binding to albumin is negligible at therapeutic i...... no significant correlation of the reserve binding to the albumin level. This methodology may be useful in studying the variable response of infants with patent ductus arteriosus to indomethacin. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-null...

  2. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  3. Fecal bile acid excretion and messenger RNA expression levels of ileal transporters in high risk gallstone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Juan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol gallstone disease (GS is highly prevalent among Hispanics and American Indians. In GS, the pool of bile acids (BA is decreased, suggesting that BA absorption is impaired. In Caucasian GS patients, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporters are decreased. We aimed to determine fecal BA excretion rates, mRNA levels for ileal BA transporter genes and of regulatory genes of BA synthesis in Hispanic GS patients. Results Excretion of fecal BA was measured in seven GS females and in ten GS-free individuals, all with a body mass index 2O3 (300 mg/day for 10 days, and fecal specimens were collected on the last 3 days. Chromium was measured by a colorimetric method, and BA was quantitated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Intake of calories, nutrients, fiber and cholesterol were similar in the GS and GS-free subjects. Mean BA excretion levels were 520 ± 80 mg/day for the GS-free group, and 461 ± 105 mg/day for the GS group. Messenger RNA expression levels were determined by RT-PCR on biopsy samples obtained from ileum during diagnostic colonoscopy (14 GS-free controls and 16 GS patients and from liver during surgery performed at 8 and 10 AM (12 GS and 10 GS-free patients operated on for gastrointestinal malignancies, all with a body mass index Conclusion Hispanics with GS have fecal BA excretion rates and mRNA levels of genes for ileal BA transporters that are similar to GS-free subjects. However, mRNA expression levels of Cyp7A1 are increased in GS, indicating that regulation of BA synthesis is abnormal in Hispanics with GS.

  4. Excretion of radioactivity following the intraperitoneal administration of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDD, /sup 14/C-DDE and /sup 14/C-DDMU to the rat and Japanese Quail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, S.C. (Univ. of Surrey, Guildford, England); Bunyan, P.J.; Huson, L.W.; King, L.J.; Stanley, P.I.

    1981-09-01

    A study in progress to examine the metabolic fate of DDT in birds and mammals is discussed. The first phase of the study, which is reported in this article, has been to establish the rate of excretion of ratioactivity following the intraperitoneal administrations of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDE, /sup 14/C-DDD, and /sup 14/C-DDMU to male rats and male Japanese quail. The mean values from the three animals in each experimental group for the amount of radioactivity excreted daily are given, and it was found that the rats excreted the radioactivity administered as DDT, DDD, and DDE substantially faster than did the quail. DDMU was excreted relatively rapidly and at similar rates. This finding suggests that apparent differences in the rates of excretion of DDT by birds and mammals probably arise from differences in the conversion of DDT to DDD or DDE or in the degradation of these metabolites to DDMU. The Japanese quail differ from the rats in excreting substantial amounts of unchanged DDT, DDE, and DDD, which probably reflects the inability of the Japanese quail to readily metabolise these compounds.

  5. Renin-Angiotensin System Genes and Exercise Training-Induced Changes in Sodium Excretion in African American Hypertensives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer M.; Park, Jung-Jun; Johnson, Jennifer; Vizcaino, Dave; Hand, Brian; Ferrell, Robert; Weir, Matthew; Dowling, Thomas; Obisesan, Thomas; Brown, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes could predict changes in urinary sodium excretion in response to short-term aerobic exercise training (AEX). Design Longitudinal intervention. Setting The study was conducted at the University of Maryland at College Park and at Baltimore, and the University of Pittsburgh General Clinical Research Center. Participants 31 (age 53 ± 2 years) sedentary, hypertensive (146 ± 2/88 ± 2 mm Hg) African Americans. Intervention Aerobic exercise training (AEX) consisted of seven or eight consecutive days, 50 minutes per day, at 65% of heart rate reserve. Participants underwent a 24-hour period of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring and urine collection at baseline and 14–18 hours after the last exercise session. Main Outcome Measures Angiotensiongen (AGT) M235T and ACE I/D genotype and sodium excretion and ambulatory BP. Results Average sodium excretion for the entire group independent of genotype increased after AEX (108 ± 9 vs 143 ± 12 mEq/day, P=.003). Sodium excretion significantly increased after exercise training in the ACE II (114 ± 22 vs 169 ± 39 mEq/day, P=.04), but not in the ID (100 ± 8 vs 133 ± 17 mEq/day, P=.12) or DD (113 ± 18 vs 138 ± 11 mEq/day, P=.13) genotype groups. In the II genotype group, the increase in sodium excretion was significantly and inversely correlated with decreases in 24-hour diastolic (r=−.88, P=.02) and mean (r=−.95, P=.004) BP. The AGT TT and MT+MM genotype groups similarly increased their sodium excretion by 34 ± 16 (P=.05) and 37 ± 17 (P=.05) mEq/day respectively. Conclusions These results suggest that African American hypertensives with the ACE II genotype may be more susceptible to sodium balance and BP changes with exercise training compared with those with the ID and DD genotypes. PMID:16937603

  6. Interaction between Xanthoxylin and Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Maogui; TIAN Jianniao; HUANG Yonglin; BIAN Hedong; CHEN Zhengfeng; LIANG Hong

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between xanthoxylin (XT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under simulative physiological conditions has been analyzed in detail by various spectroscopic techniques including fluorescence, circular dichro- ism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Fluorescence quenching data revealed that the quenching constants (K) were 3.31×105, 2.03×105 and 0.94×105 L·mol-1 at 286, 298 and 310 K, respectively. Based on the fluorescence results, the fluorescence quenching mechanism of the interaction between XT and BSA has been found to be combined static and dynamic quenching. Thermodynamic parameters △H0, △S0 and △G0 sug- gested that the hydrophobic force played a main role in binding of XT to BSA. The effect of XT on the conforma- tion of BSA was analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy and quantitatively calculated from CD spectroscopy with reduc- tion of α-helical content by about 3.9%. In addition, the effect of common ions on the binding constant was also dis- cussed.

  7. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

  8. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  9. [Immunohistochemical study on the mechanism of excretion of methamphetamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajitani, A; Kaiho, M; Mori, A; Okada, Y; Mukaida, M; Ishiyama, I

    1989-06-01

    Many methods of analysis are available to the forensic toxicologist for determining the amount of methamphetamine within human tissues, but few have the potential of histochemistry for enabling the precise site of excretion of methamphetamine to be defined. We have established a method for the demonstration of methamphetamine by immunohistochemistry, and applied this method for showing morphologically the disposition of methamphetamine. The following cells in the tissues of methamphetamine-intoxicated mice gave a strong positive reaction of the localization, which was thought to be the histological evidence of excretion of this drug: epithelial cells of the distal part of the renal tubule and of the collecting tubule, transitional epithelial cells of the bladder, liver parenchymal cells, epithelial cells of the striated duct of the salivary gland, parietal cells of the gastric gland, part of epithelial cells of the distal portion of the large intestine, secretory cells and part of epithelial cells of the ductal portion of the sweat gland, alveolar cells of the mammary gland, secretory cells of the sebaceous gland and hair medulla and cortex. These results indicated passive diffusion of methamphetamine across membranes of the cells of the distal tubule and collecting tubule of the kidney, of the bladder and of the striated duct of the salivary gland. In the parietal cells of the gastric gland, part of epithelial cells of the distal portion of the large intestine and secretory cells of the sweat gland, methamphetamine was thought to be stored and subsequently released. In the mammary gland, methamphetamine was found to be combined with casein and excreted by exocytosis. Accumulation of methamphetamine in the hair was supposed to be chiefly due to the penetration of this drug derived from tissue fluid and sebum.

  10. [Metabolism, Distribution and Excretion of Recombinant Human Thrombopoietin in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiu-Wen; Tang, Zhong-Ming; Song, Hai-Feng; Dou, Gui-Fang

    2001-12-01

    The metabolism, distribution and excretion profiles of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO) in mice were studied by means of (125)I-labeled rhTPO ((125)I-rhTPO) combined with size exclusive high performance liquid chromatography (SHPLC) or trichloroacetic acid (TCA) precipitation analysis. (125)I-rhTPO was prepared by iodogen method. Purification was performed on Sephacryl S-200 HR gel. Radioactive-purity of (125)I-rhTPO identified by SHPLC was (96.9 +/- 1.5)% (n = 3). The proliferation effect of TPO dependent cell line (TD-3) and the increase of peripheral platelet counts in mouse by (125)I-rhTPO demonstrated that (125)I-labeled protein maintained the biological activities of TPO both in vitro and in vivo. SHPLC analysis of serum and urine samples taken after sc 1 micro g/mouse (345 kBq/mouse) of (125)I-rhTPO revealed that there were two lower molecular weight (125)I-degradation metabolites ((125)I-MI and (125)I-MII) other than parent molecule. (125)I-MI was mainly found in urine, and (125)I-MII was detected both in serum and in urine. The maximal concentration of (125)I-rhTPO was reached at 2 hours after injection. The terminal half-life was 10.8 hours, which was much longer than those of other peptides. TCA precipitable radioactivity in tissue showed that the radioactivity in bone marrow was rather high. The highest level was found in urinary system. Levels in adrenals, lymph nodes, and fat were near to that in serum. Lowest was found in brain. The main excretion route was urinary system and (98 +/- 5.6)% of (125)I-rhTPO was excreted within 72 hours after dosing.

  11. Transport of nitrated albumin across continuous vascular endothelium

    OpenAIRE

    Predescu, Dan; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B.

    2002-01-01

    Because modification of plasma albumin on tyrosine residues generates nitrated albumin (NOA) that may function as a mechanism of nitrogen monoxide clearance from microcirculation, we investigated biochemicaly and morphologically the cell surface binding and the transendothelial transport of NOA. An electron microscopic study was carried out with mouse lungs and hearts perfused in situ with NOA and NOA-Au complexes. The results indicate that NOA-Au can bind to the endothelial cell surface, and...

  12. Modelling of nitrogen flow and excretion in dairy cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Straalen, van, N.M.

    1995-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the dairy husbandry is held responsible for a major part of the N-pollution of the environment. The objective of this thesis was to develop a model that predicts N flow in the animal and N excretion in faeces, urine and milk in order to reduce unnecessary N losses. The model was based on the concepts of modern protein evaluation systems, using data from nylon bag incubations in the rumen and intestine. Protein evaluation systems from different countries were compared and v...

  13. Sup(123)I excretion in breast milk - additional data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawes, S.C. (Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-07-01

    A woman with a suspected sublingual thyroid was referred for thyroid imaging with {sup 123}I-sodium iodide. On attending it was ascertained that she was currently breastfeeding her 3-month-old baby. Reference to the available literature showed little information regarding the excretion of {sup 123}I-sodium iodide in human breast milk apart from one single case. It was felt therefore that this would be an ideal opportunity to collect some useful data. Originally the presence of impurities in the radiopharmaceutical administered had been discounted as being of little significance. However, after consideration, a review of the contribution of any impurity was undertaken. (author).

  14. Albumin adsorption on oxide thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Bermudez, P., E-mail: suriel21@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CU, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Thin films of tantalum, niobium, zirconium and titanium oxides were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and their wettability and surface energy, optical properties, roughness, chemical composition and microstructure were characterized using contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The purpose of the work was to correlate the surface properties of the films to the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption, as a first step into the development of an initial in vitro test of the films biocompatibility, based on standardized protein adsorption essays. The films were immersed into BSA solutions with different protein concentrations and protein adsorption was monitored in situ by dynamic ellipsometry; the adsorption-rate was dependent on the solution concentration and the immersion time. The overall BSA adsorption was studied in situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry and it was found to be influenced by the wettability of the films; larger BSA adsorption occurred on the more hydrophobic surface, the ZrO{sub 2} film. On the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2} films, hydrophilic surfaces, the overall BSA adsorption increased with the surface roughness or the polar component of the surface energy.

  15. Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Gispert, M P; Martins, M C L; Brogueira, P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2006-09-01

    The orthopedic prosthesis used to substitute damaged natural joints are lubricated by a pseudosynovial fluid that contains biological macromolecules with potential boundary lubrication properties. Proteins are some of those macromolecules whose role in the lubrication process is not yet completely understood. In a previous work, we investigated the influence of the presence of albumin, the major synovial protein, upon the tribological behavior of three of the most used pairs of artificial joint materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against counterfaces of alumina, CoCrMo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. Albumin was found to cause a significant decrease in the friction coefficient when the counterfaces were metallic because transfer of UHMWPE was avoided, but this effect was much weaker in the case of alumina. The objective of the present work was to look for an explanation for these differences in tribological behavior in terms of albumin adsorption. With this goal, studies on adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the counterface materials, from a biological model fluid (Hanks' balanced salt solution), were carried out using radiolabeled albumin ((125)I-BSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The conclusion from all techniques is that the driving force for albumin adsorption is higher on the metals than on alumina. These results confirm that the greater the amount of protein adsorbed on the counterface, the more efficient is the protection against the transfer of polymeric film to the counterface.

  16. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  17. The Relationship between Albumin-Binding Capacity of Recombinant Polypeptide and Changes in the Structure of Albumin-Binding Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormotova, E A; Gupalova, T V

    2015-07-01

    Many bacteria express surface proteins interacting with human serum albumin (HSA). One of these proteins, PAB from anaerobic bacteria, contains an albumin-binding domain consisting of 45 amino acid residues known as GA domain. GA domains are also found in G proteins isolated from human streptococcal strains (groups C and G) and of albumin-binding protein isolated from group G streptococcal strains of animal origin. The GA domain is a left-handed three-helix bundle structure in which amino acid residues of the second and third helixes are involved in albumin binding. We studied the relationship between HSA-binding activity of the recombinant polypeptide isolated from group G streptococcus of animal origin and structure of the GA domain is studied. Structural changes in GA domain significantly attenuated HAS-binding capacity of the recombinant polypeptide. Hence, affinity HSA-binding polypeptide depends on stability of GA domain structure.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Albumin Conjugates as pH-Sensitive Biodegradable Hydrogels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-shan; LI Jian-zheng; JING Xia-bin; CHEN Xue-si; HUANG Yu-bin

    2011-01-01

    A new kind of biodegradable pH-sensitive drug delivery system was developed via chitosan-albumin conjugate hydrogel. Through changing the feeding modes of reactants, two types of hydrogels(comb-type and reticular-type) were synthesized by amidation reactions between 6-O-succinoylated N-phthaloyl chitosan and albumin. The structures and morphologies of the hydrogels were characterized by SEM. And their water swelling capacity, drug loading and releasing properties at different pH values were also investigated. It was found that the comb-type of hydrogels with looser space construction had better water swelling ratio(more than 400% of its original mass) than the reticular-type of ones did(about 180% of its original mass). In vitro release experiments of Rifampicin show that the hydrogels provided the controlled release of the entrapped drug for more than 50 h. The drug release rates of both types of hydrogels under acidic condition were lower than those under neutral or basic condition. The introduction of albumin not only improved the hydrophilicity of chitosan, but also provided the possibility of the carrier system combining other biologically active materials more easily to fulfill the delivery and therapy functions.

  19. Low doses of terlipressin and albumin in the type I hepatorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pulvirenti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hepatorenal syndrome is a pre-renal like dysfunction that generally onsets in cirrhotic patients presenting ascites. MATERIALS AND METHODS We investigated the improvement of renal function in subjects with hepatorenal syndrome after terlipressin administration and the survival times after this treatment. 30 patients affected by cirrhosis, with diagnosis of type I hepatorenal syndrome were treated with intravenous terlipressin plus albumin (group A or with albumin alone (group B. Liver function, renal function, sodium plasma level and plasma renin activity were monitored. RESULTS Patients of group A showed a significant improvement (p < 0.001 of renal function valued by creatinine rate compared with the results obtained in group B. The probability of survival was higher in the group A (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS Our results seem to confirm that the administration of terlipressin plus albumin improves renal function in patients with cirrhosis and type I hepatorenal syndrome and that a reversal of hepatorenal syndrome is strongly associated with an improved survival.

  20. Influence of diet and ration level on benzo[a]pyrene metabolism and excretion in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C J; Higgs, Dave; Tierney, Keith

    2004-10-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fasted or fed one of three isoenergetic diets varying in protein and lipid content at full satiation levels or half rations for up to 9 weeks. At 3, 6, and 9 weeks, fish in each treatment group were dosed intraperitoneally with 10 mg tritiated benzo[a]pyrene [3H]-B[a]P/kg (B[a]P) to examine the effects of diet composition and energy intake on xenobiotic biotransformation and excretion. The percent dose eliminated during the experiment did not differ among fish receiving the different diet compositions or rations (range 73% to 84%). However, it was significantly decreased (to 53%) in the group that was fasted for 9 weeks. Examination of fish fasted for 6 and 9 weeks showed a significant increase in the proportion of phase I metabolites and a concomitant decrease in the proportion of phase II metabolites found in bile compared with all other groups. Also, fish that were fasted for 9 weeks produced proportionately less 9,10-dihydroxy-benzo[a]pyrene-trans-9,10-diol, more 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene and 9-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene, and more glucuronic acid conjugates compared with all other groups. Thus, dietary protein and lipid concentration did not appear to affect either the rate of B[a]P metabolism or its excretion; however, prolonged fasting resulted in a shift in metabolite profiles and decreased excretion.

  1. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  2. Studies on kinetics of albumin in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: evidence of interstitial albumin wash-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, H A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1983-01-01

    filtration of albumin in microcirculatory beds with permeable capillaries (splanchnic organs), in between the haemodialysis treatment, and filtration of protein-poor fluid in areas with 'tight' capillaries (skeletal muscle, cutis) resulting in interstitial space protein depletion here. As the patients were...... considered to be in steady state during the measurements, the increased TERalb indicates increased lymph flux of albumin. The interstitial space protein 'wash-down' and increased lymph drainage probably serve as oedema prevention....

  3. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zaloga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEONLA-BSA, which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEONLA-BSA particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v. Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEONLA-BSA changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  4. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  5. Retention and excretion of 95Zr-95Nb in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, K S

    1995-12-01

    This note describes the retention and excretion of 95Zr-95Nb in humans based on a recent CANDU experience and a literature survey of reported cases. Two data bases, QUEST and INIS were used for the survey. Three reported cases were discovered: two for occupational exposures and one for public exposure from nuclear weapons fallout. Human lung retention from these three cases, plus whole body retention and some limited fecal excretion data from a recently occurred exposure at a CANDU station, were reviewed and tested against predictions based on ICRP Publication 30 model. Based on the fits of this model to the reported data it seems that the three occupational exposures exhibit class Y behavior while the public exposure exhibits class W behavior. For only one case is the chemical compound known with certainty: ZrO2. Zirconium oxides are currently classified as class W in ICRP Publications 30 and 54. This work confirms a suggestion that oxides of zirconium be classified as class Y and should be taken into account by the ICRP in its future publications.

  6. Red Yeast Rice Increases Excretion of Bile Acids in Hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KA-YING MA; ZE-SHENG ZHANG; SHU-XIN ZHAO; QI CHANG; YIN-MEI WONG; SAI YING VENUS YEUNG; YU HUANG; ZHEN-YU CHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of red yeast rice (RYR) and its underlying mechanism. Methods Three groups of hamsters were fed either the control diet or one of the two experimental diets containing by weight 0.1% RYR (0.1RYR) or 0.3% RYR (0.3RYR). Blood (0.5 mL) was collected from the retro-orbital sinus into a heparinized capillary tube at the end of week 0,3, and 6.Plasma lipoproteins were measured using enzymatic kits, while fecal neutral and acidic sterols were quantified using a gas-liquid chromatography. Results Plasma total cholesterol was reduced by 12% in 0.1RYR group and by 18% in 0.3RYR group compared with the control value. Similarly, plasma triacylglycerol was decreased by ll% in 0.1RYR group and by 24% in 0.3RYR group. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that RYR had no effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein 2, liver X receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA reductase, LDL receptor, and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. HPLC analysis confirmed that RYR contained 0.88% monacolin K.It was recently found that RYR supplementation increased excretion of fecal acidic sterols by 3-4 folds compared with the control value. Conclusion Hypocholesterolemic activity of RYR is mediated at least partially by enhancement of acidic sterol excretion.

  7. Excretion technique of radioactive materials in vivo by complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaya, Haruo; Uchiumi, Akira; Takatsu, Akiko [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    To establish an excretion technique of RI metals ({sup 63}Ni, {sup 109}Cd and {sup 210}Pb) in vivo, many kinds of complexing agents were developed. The performance evaluation of these agents was carried out by mouse in vivo. They are various kinds of carbohydrate formazan derivatives with deduced uni-saccharide (D-glucose, D-mannose and D-galactose) or disaccharide (maltose) and functional group (-COOH, -NH, -OH, -N=N- and pyridyl group). For example of synthesis method of, formazan derivative with maltose was described. 100 mouse with 8 to 10 g were classified to four groups. 1 group get 0.1 ml of nickel ion hemoperitoneum injection once (control). 2 group had 0.1 ml nickel ion hemoperitoneum injection at one time a day and then 0.1 ml eccritic hypodermic injection during 5 days. 3 group get 0.1 ml cadmium ion hemoperitoneum injection once (control). 4 group had 0.1 ml cadmium ion hemoperitoneum injection and then 0.1 ml eccritic hypodermic injection at one time a day for 5 days. Decay of residue was measured. PCF-maltose showed the best chemical protector against radiation in these agents. Especially, this eccritic can excrete {sup 63}Ni and {sup 109}Cd without effect on the essential metals such as calcium, magnesium and iron. (S.Y.)

  8. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  9. Preparation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles by desolvation using a membrane contactor: a new tool for large scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedomon, B; Fessi, H; Charcosset, C

    2013-11-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are attractive drug delivery systems as they can be prepared under soft conditions and incorporate several kinds of molecules. The aim of this study was to upscale the desolvation process for preparing Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles using a membrane contactor. At a first step, the BSA nanoparticles were prepared at small scale using a syringe pump. BSA nanoparticles of 139 nm in size, with a polydispersity index of 0.046, were obtained at the optimal conditions: pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution (2 mL), and 1 mL min(-1) flow rate of ethanol addition (8 mL). The upscaling with a membrane contactor was achieved by permeating ethanol through the pores of a Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG Technology Co., Japan) membrane and circulating the aqueous phase tangentially to the membrane surface. By increasing the pressure of the ethanol from 1 to 2.7 bars, a progressive decrease in nanoparticle size was obtained with a high nanoparticles yield (around 94-96%). In addition, the flow rate of the circulating phase did not affect the BSA nanoparticle characteristics. At the optimal conditions (pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution, pressure of ethanol 2.7 bars, flow rate of the circulating phase 30.7 mL s(-1)), the BSA nanoparticles showed similar characteristics to those obtained with the syringe pump. Large batches of BSA nanoparticles were prepared up to 10 g BSA. The BSA nanoparticles were stable at least during 2 months at 4 °C, and their characteristics were reproducible. It was then concluded that the membrane contactor technique could be a suitable method for the preparation of albumin nanoparticles at large scale with properties similar to that obtained at small scale.

  10. Biliary excretion of diazepam in rats: influence of the route of administration and dosage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R; Plaa, G L

    1981-01-01

    The biliary excretion of diazepam metabolites was found in rats. Equivalent dosages of diazepam were administered orally and intraperitoneally. The biliary excretion was dose-dependent and was greater following intraperitoneal administration. After intravenous administration, a greater percentage of the diazepam dosage administered was excreted into the bile. Repetitive intravenous administrations yielded results which approached those observed after intraperitoneally administered dosages given as a bolus.

  11. Passage marker excretion in red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Ruminants are characterized by an efficient particle-sorting mechanism in the forestomach (FRST) followed by selective rechewing of large food particles. For the nonruminating foregut fermenter pygmy hippo it was demonstrated that large particles are excreted as fast as, or faster than, the small particles. The same has been suggested for other nonruminating foregut fermenters. We determined the mean retention time of fluids and different-sized particles in six red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), seven collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and three colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii). We fed Co-EDTA as fluid and mordanted fiber as particle markers (Cr, Ce). Mean (+ or - SD) total tract retention time for fluids, small and large particles was 14 + or - 2, 29 + or - 10 and 30 + or - 9 hr in red kangaroos, 26 + or - 2, 34 + or - 5 and 32 + or - 3 hr in collared peccaries and 57 + or - 17, 55 + or - 19 and 54 + or - 19 hr in colobine monkeys, respectively. Large and small particles were excreted simultaneously in all species. There was no difference in the excretion of fluids and particles in the colobine monkeys, in contrast to the other foregut fermenters. In the nonprimate, nonruminant foregut fermenters, the difference in the excretion of fluids and small particles decreases with increasing food intake. On the contrary, ruminants keep this differential excretion constant at different intake levels. This may be a prerequisite for the sorting of particles in their FRST and enable them to achieve higher food intake rates. The functional significance of differential excretion of fluids and particles from the FRST requires further investigations.

  12. Relationship between urinary prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha excretion and plasma arginine vasopressin during renal concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, P; Danielsen, H; Eiskjaer, H; Jespersen, B; Knudsen, F; Kornerup, H J; Leyssac, P P; Nielsen, A H; Sørensen, S S

    1987-10-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were determined during urinary concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients and control subjects. During the concentrating test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha remained unchanged in the renal transplant recipients, whereas both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were significantly reduced in the control subjects. During the diluting test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha increased in both groups but, contrary to PGF2 alpha, PGE2 was significantly higher in all periods in the transplant recipients compared to the controls. However, the prostaglandin excretion rates per kidney were significantly higher in the renal transplant recipients than control subjects, for all periods during both the concentrating and the diluting test. Arginine vasopressin was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than control subjects during basal conditions, increased to a significantly higher level in the transplant recipients after thirst, but was reduced to the same levels in the two groups during the diluting test. It is concluded that the increased excretion of prostaglandins in renal transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon representing an adaptation to a reduced renal mass in order to maintain adequate renal water excretion. Although a direct relationship between the prostaglandin excretions of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and AVP does not seem to exist, it is possible that the higher prostaglandin excretion in the renal transplant recipients may be a counterbalancing mechanism to the higher AVP level, which most likely is secondary to a decreased responsiveness to vasopressin of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidney.

  13. Effect of intracerebroventricularly injected insulin on urinary sodium excretion by cerebroventricular streptozotocin-treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Macedo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that insulin may influence many brain functions. It is known that intracerebroventricular (icv injection of nondiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin (STZ can damage insulin receptor signal transduction. In the present study, we examined the functional damage to the brain insulin receptors on central mechanisms regulating glomerular filtration rate and urinary sodium excretion, over four periods of 30 min, in response to 3 µl insulin or 0.15 NaCl (vehicle injected icv in STZ-treated freely moving Wistar-Hannover rats (250-300 g. The icv cannula site was visually confirmed by 2% Evans blue infusion. Centrally administered insulin (42.0 ng/µl increased the urinary output of sodium (from 855.6 ± 85.1 to 2055 ± 310.6 delta%/min; N = 11 and potassium (from 460.4 ± 100 to 669 ± 60.8 delta%/min; N = 11. The urinary sodium excretion response to icv insulin microinjection was markedly attenuated by previous central STZ (100 µg/3 µl administration (from 628 ± 45.8 to 617 ± 87.6 delta%/min; N = 5 or by icv injection of a dopamine antagonist, haloperidol (4 µg/3 µl (from 498 ± 39.4 to 517 ± 73.2 delta%/min; N = 5. Additionally, insulin-induced natriuresis occurred by increased post-proximal tubule sodium rejection, despite an unchanged glomerular filtration rate. Excluding the possibility of a direct action of STZ on central insulin receptor-carrying neurons, the current data suggest that the insulin-sensitive response may be processed through dopaminergic D1 receptors containing neuronal pathways.

  14. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  15. Influence of curcumin on cyclosporin-induced reduction of biliary bilirubin and cholesterol excretion and on biliary excretion of cyclosporin and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deters, M; Siegers, C; Hänsel, W; Schneider, K P; Hennighausen, G

    2000-06-01

    We investigated the ability of curcumin, which can be extracted from different Curcuma species, to prevent cyclosporin-induced reduction of biliary bilirubin and cholesterol excretion, and its influence on biliary excretion of cyclosporin (CS) and its metabolites in the bile fistula model in rats. I.v. injection of curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) after 30 min increased dose-dependently basal bile flow (30 microliters/kg/min) up to 200%, biliary bilirubin excretion (3000 pmol/kg/min) up to 150%, and biliary cholesterol excretion (22 nmol/kg/min) up to 113%. CS (30 mg/kg) reduced bile flow to 66% and biliary excretion of bilirubin and of cholesterol to 33% of the basal value 30 min after i.v. injection. I.v. administration of curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) 30 min after CS increased bile flow dose dependently again to 130% for 1 hour and biliary excretion of cholesterol and of bilirubin to 100% of the basal value for 30 and 150 min, respectively. Injection of curcumin 15 min before CS prevented the CS-induced drop of bile flow at 50 mg/kg and reduction of biliary bilirubin excretion already at 25 mg/kg until the end of the experiment (180 min). The CS-induced reduction of biliary cholesterol excretion, however, was not prevented by curcumin. Finally, the biliary excretions of CS (1200 ng/kg/min) and its metabolites (1200 ng/kg/min) were slightly reduced by curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg (to 83% of the initial values). The clinical importance of these controversial effects remains to be shown.

  16. Effect of albumin on brushite transformation to hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Riley, C; Chittur, K

    2001-12-05

    Brushite (CaHPO(4) x 2H(2)O) is a precursor to hydroxyapatite [HA, Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH]. It has been shown that a modified form of brushite, with potassium substituting for calcium at specific sites, demonstrated accelerated transformation to HA when exposed to nonproteinaceous Hanks' balanced aqueous salt solutions (HBSS). The biocompatibility of a transforming material is related to cellular response to the process, which is initiated by protein adsorption. The effect of adsorbed protein on the kinetics and chemistry of brushite transformation to HA, when exposed to HBSS containing bovine serum albumin (BSA), was examined using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectrometry techniques. The effect of solution pH was also studied. Results show that, in the presence of a protein-free environment, transformation is faster in buffered medium than in nonbuffered medium. Moreover, curve fitting and second derivatives of the IR spectra show that some bands shift depending on whether the brushite transforms in a buffered or nonbuffered medium. Therefore, variation in pH affects both transformation rate and the associated chemistry. The presence of BSA in either buffered or nonbuffered medium retards the transformation in comparison to the corresponding BSA-free medium. The extent of this retardation increases with the increase in bulk concentration of BSA but does not alter the transformation chemistry. This suggests the retardation on the transformation rate is due to BSA adsorption coverage on the calcium phosphate ceramic. This may be due to the shielding of Ca(2+) and PO(4)(-3) sites, preventing their interaction with the HBSS.

  17. Cholesterol absorption and excretion in ileostomy subjects on high- and low-dietary-cholesterol intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegård, L; Bosaeus, I

    1994-01-01

    Six healthy ileostomy subjects were given [3H]cholesterol and [14C]beta-sitosterol in a single meal together with two controlled diets containing 150 or 450 mg cholesterol/d. Each diet was eaten for 3 d. Cholesterol absorption and excretion of cholesterol, bile acids, fat, energy, and nitrogen were analyzed. Fractional cholesterol absorption increased from 44 +/- 2.6% (mean +/- SE) to 61 +/- 3.4% (P effluent, or excretion of energy, nitrogen, fat, and bile acids did not differ between periods. Endogenous cholesterol excretion remained unchanged whereas net cholesterol excretion (output minus intake) was 37% higher (P < 0.05) on low compared with high cholesterol intake.

  18. Binding of furosemide to albumin isolated from human fetal and adult serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Silvestri, D; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum from 58 placentas obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma from 8 individuals. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The electrophoresis on SDS-polyacrylamide gels showed only one spot that comigrated with commercial human albumin. Binding to albumin was measured by equilibrium dialysis of an aliquot of albumin solution (0.7 ml) against the same volume of 0.13 M sodium orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.4). At a total concentration of 2 micrograms/ml (therapeutic range), the unbound fraction of furosemide was 2.71% (fetal albumin) and 2.51% (adult albumin). Two classes of binding sites for furosemide were observed in fetal and adult albumin. The number of binding sites (moles of furosemide per mole of albumin) was 1.22 (fetal albumin) and 1.58 (adult albumin) for the high-affinity site and 2.97 (fetal albumin) and 3.25 (adult albumin) for the low-affinity site. The association constants (M-1) were 3.1 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 2.6 X 10(4) (adult albumin) for the high-affinity set of sites and 0.83 X 10(4) (fetal albumin) and 1.0 X 10(4) (adult albumin) low-affinity site. The displacement of furosemide from albumin was studied with therapeutic concentrations of several drugs. Valproic acid, salicylic acid, azapropazone and tolbutamide had the highest displacing effects which were significantly higher with fetal than with adult albumin.

  19. Revisiting the effects of crowding and feeding in the gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta: the role of Rhesus glycoproteins in nitrogen metabolism and excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodela, Tamara M; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Weihrauch, Dirk; Veauvy, Clémence M; McDonald, M Danielle; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Walsh, Patrick J

    2012-01-15

    Models of branchial transport in teleosts have been reshaped by the recent discovery of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins, a family of proteins that facilitate the movement of NH(3) across cell membranes. This study examines the effects of crowding and feeding on ammonia excretion in gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) within the context of Rh glycoproteins and the ammonia-fixing enzyme, glutamine synthetase (GS). Four Rh isoforms (Rhag, Rhbg, Rhcg1 and Rhcg2) were isolated from toadfish. Tissue distributions showed higher levels of mRNA expression in the gills and liver, moderate levels in the intestine and lower levels in the stomach. Crowding significantly lowered branchial Rh expression and ammonia excretion rates in fasted toadfish. A comparison of Rh expression in the digestive tract revealed relatively low levels of Rhcg1 and Rhcg2 in the stomach and high mRNA abundance of Rhbg, Rhcg1 and Rhcg2 in the intestine of fasted, crowded toadfish. We speculate that these trends may reduce secretion and enhance absorption, respectively, to minimize the amount of ammonia that is lost through gastrointestinal routes. By contrast, these patterns of expression were modified in response to an exogenous ammonia load via feeding. Post-prandial ammonia excretion rates were elevated twofold, paralleled by similar increases in branchial Rhcg1 mRNA, gastric Rhcg1 mRNA and mRNA of all intestinal Rh isoforms. These changes were interpreted as an attempt to increase post-prandial ammonia excretion rates into the environment owing to a gradient created by elevated circulating ammonia concentrations and acidification of the digestive tract. Overall, we provide evidence that toadfish modulate both the expression of Rh isoforms and urea synthesis pathways to tightly control and regulate nitrogen excretion.

  20. EVALUATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVELS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Serum albumin levels are inversely related with age, smoking, blood pressure and obesity. It is not clear whether low serum albumin level is a nonspecific , prognostic variable, a marker of subclinical disease, or whether it is a part of causal mechanism leading to death due to cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported an inverse association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality but oth ers have not . 1 The association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality remains controversial. This study was done to evaluate the serum albumin levels in patients with ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI over a period of three days from the date of admission and whether the changes had any relationship with the prognosis of the patient. AIM: to associate changes in serum albumin levels in AMI patients over a period of three days i.e., day zero - at the time of admission, day+1 - the following day(12 to 30hrs after collecting first sample, day +2(32 to 54 hrs after collecting first sample with the clinical prognosis of the patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Prospective follow up study in patents admitted with AMI in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 30 pati ents admitted with STEMI were included in the study and serum albumin levels were estimated in them on admission and for two days thereafter. Statistical analysis used. The data was analysed using SPSS 15.0, STATA 8.0, MEDLAC 9.0.1, And SYSTAT 11 softwares. Repeated measures analysis of variance and student t test was used to find the significance in changes of serum albumin levels and prognosis of the patient on different days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study found that there was fall in serum albumin le vels in patients with AMI in the course of three days compared with the day of admission and it was significantly associated with bad prognosis.

  1. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo.

  2. Biocompatibility of electrospun human albumin: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk, B H; Kowalczyk, T; Łyżniak, M; Zembrzycki, K; Mikułowski, G; Wysocki, J; Kawiak, J; Pojda, Z

    2015-03-02

    Albumin is rarely used for electrospinning because it does not form fibres in its native globular form. This paper presents a novel method for electrospinning human albumin from a solution containing pharmaceutical grade protein and 25% polyethylene oxide (PEO) used as the fibre-forming agent. After spontaneous cross-linking at body temperature, with no further chemicals added, the fibres become insoluble and the excess PEO can be washed out. Albumin deposited along the fibres retains its native characteristics, such as its non-adhesiveness to cells and its susceptibility for degradation by macrophages. To demonstrate this we evaluated the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and biodegradability of this novel product. After subcutaneous implantation in mice, albumin mats were completely resorbable within six days and elicited only a limited local inflammatory response. In vitro, the mats suppressed cell attachment and migration. As this product is inexpensive, produced from human pharmaceutical grade albumin without chemical modifications, retains its native protein properties and fulfils the specific requirements for anti-adhesive dressings, its clinical use can be expedited. We believe that it could specifically be used when treating paediatric patients with epidermolysis bullosa, in whom non-healing wounds occur after minor hand injuries which lead to rapid adhesions and devastating contractures.

  3. Reduction of nitrogen in the excretion on Japanese flounder using Ulva and Capitellid; Anaaosa to itogokai ni yoru hirame haisetsubutsuchu no chisso shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, H.; Kikuchi, K.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    To develop the culture residue treatment technique using aquatic organisms, the ammonia and nitrate uptake rates of seaweed Ulva and the nitrogen reduction rate of polychaeta annelid Captella sp. with organic sediment predaceous ability were examined in the excretion of Japanese flounder. Nitrogen uptake rate of Ulva was affected by water temperature. It was highest at 20degC, followed at 15degC and 25degC in the order. It was not affected by light intensity between 1500 and 6000 lux. Ammonia and nitrate uptake rates by Ulva were estimated to be 28.2 and 14.6 {mu}g-N/g/h at 20degC under 3000 lux, respectively. Proportion of feces excreted from Capitellid to ingested sediments was 0.38. At 25degC, Capitellid population of one thousand individuals ingested-N at the rate of 24 mg-N/day, and excreted the feces-N of Capitellid at the rate of 7 mg-N/day. About 70% of nitrogen in the sediment was reduced through this process. 15 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. Bone resorption and mineral excretion in rats during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, C. E.; Adachi, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    Bone resorption was measured directly in flight and synchronous control rats during COSMOS 1129. Continuous tracer administration techniques were used, with replacement of dietary calcium with isotopically enriched Ca-40 and measurement by neutron activation analysis of the Ca-48 released by the skeleton. There is no large change in bone resorption in rats at the end of 20 days of spaceflight as has been found for bone formation. Based on the time course of changes, the measured 20-25 percent decrease in resorption is probably secondary to a decrease in total body calcium turnover. The excretion of sodium, potassium, and zinc all increase during flight, sodium and potassium to a level four to five times control values.

  5. Excretion of ciprofloxacin in sweat and multiresistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiby, N; Jarløv, J O; Kemp, M;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis develops resistance to ciprofloxacin rapidly. That this antibiotic is excreted in apocrine and eccrine sweat of healthy individuals might be the reason for the development of such resistance. We assessed whether S epidermidis isolated from the axilla and nasal...... flora of healthy people could develop resistance to ciprofloxacin after a 1-week course of this antibiotic. METHODS: The concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat was measured in seven volunteers after oral administration of 750 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily for 7 days, and the development of resistance...... in S epidermidis from axilla and nostrils was monitored during and 2 months after the treatment. Genotyping of S epidermidis was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. FINDINGS: The mean concentration of ciprofloxacin in sweat increased during the 7 days of treatment-from 2.2 micrograms/mL 2...

  6. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects.

  7. Feeding measures to reduce nitrogen excretion in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campeneere, Sam; De Boever, Johan L; Vanacker, José M; Messens, Winy; De Brabander, Daniël L

    2009-04-01

    Feeding measures with a potential to improve N efficiency in dairy cattle husbandry were studied at two levels of undegradable protein balance (OEB). In each of the two experiments, two simultaneous Latin squares were conducted, each with three treatments and three lactating Holstein cows. Decreasing the OEB of the diet improved N efficiency and resulted in lower N excretion per kg milk. To avoid a negative effect of the decreased OEB on the production results, spreading the concentrate intake (as TMR or in five meals) seemed to be most promising, although only few significant effects were found. The use of protected protein sources or the addition of clinoptilolite were not successful in improving N-efficiency. The rather well balanced mixed basal diet and the large variation between animals seem to have hampered the assessment of such significant influences.

  8. Effect of human serum albumin upon the permeabilizing activity of sticholysin II, a pore forming toxin from Stichodactyla heliantus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón, Gloria; González, Gustavo; Gulppi, Felipe; Pazos, Fabiola; Lanio, María E; Alvarez, Carlos; Calderón, Cristian; Montecinos, Rodrigo; Lissi, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    Sticholysin II (St II) is a haemolytic toxin isolated from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. The high haemolytic activity of this toxin is strongly dependent on the red cell status and the macromolecule conformation. In the present communication we evaluate the effect of human serum albumin on St II haemolytic activity and its capacity to form pores in the bilayer of synthetic liposomes. St II retains its pore forming capacity in the presence of large concentrations (up to 500 μM) of human serum albumin. This effect is observed both in its capacity to produce red blood cells haemolysis and to generate functional pores in liposomes. In particular, the capacity of the toxin to lyse red blood cells increases in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA). Regarding the rate of the pore forming process, it is moderately decreased in liposomes and in red blood cells, in spite of an almost total coverage of the interface by albumin. All the data obtained in red cells and model membranes show that St II remains lytically active even in the presence of high HSA concentrations. This stubbornness can explain why the toxin is able to exert its haemolytic activity on membranes immersed in complex plasma matrixes such as those present in living organisms.

  9. LOW FRACTIONAL EXCRETION OF UREA IN HYPOTHYROIDISM INDUCED HYPONATREMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algranati L

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:El hipotiroidismo puede causar alteraciones del metabolismo del agua, los electrolitos, la hemodinamia e histología renales, siendo la hiponatremia y la reducción del filtrado glomerular sus consecuencias más significativas, pero poco prevalentes. Todos estos cambios son corregibles con el suministro de hormona tiroidea exógena.La excreción fraccional de urea (EFU es un índice útil en la evaluación de la hiponatremia, pero no se ha descripto aun el valor que este índice alcanza en la hiponatremia inducida por hipotiroidismo. En el presente reporte mostramos que la EFU y excreción fraccional de sodio (EFNa fueron baja (EFU: 29% y alta (EFNa: 2.2% respectivamente en un paciente que padecía hipotiroideo severo. El tratamiento con hormona tiroidea normalizó el valor de ambos índices.ABSTRACTHypothyroidism can cause disturbance of renal hemodinamics, kidney histology, water and electrolyte metabolism, being hyponatremia and glomerular filtration reduction their low prevalent but most significant consequences. All these changes are largely corrected by substitution of exogenous thyroid hormone.Fractional excretion of urea (FEU is a useful index in the evaluation of hyponatremia. However, it was not still reported in the literature the FEU value in hyponatremia induced by hypothyroidism. Because of that we presented a case report showing that the value of FEU and fractional excretion of sodium (FENa were low (FEU: 29% and high (FENa: 2.2 % respectively in a severe hypothyroid patient. Treatment based on thyroid hormone normalized both indeces.

  10. Ammonia production, excretion, toxicity, and defense in fish: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Y K Ip

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fishes are ammonotelic but some species can detoxify ammonia to glutamine or urea. Certain fish species can accumulate high levels of ammonia in the brain or defense against ammonia toxicity by enhancing the effectiveness of ammonia excretion through active NH4+ transport, manipulation of ambient pH, or reduction in ammonia permeability through the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Recent reports on ammonia toxicity in mammalian brain reveal the importance of permeation of ammonia through the blood-brain barrier and passages of ammonia and water through transporters in the plasmalemma of brain cells. Additionally, brain ammonia toxicity could be related to the passage of glutamine through the mitochondrial membranes into the mitochondrial matrix. On the other hand, recent reports on ammonia excretion in fish confirm the involvement of Rhesus glycoproteins in the branchial and cutaneous epithelia. Therefore, this review focuses on both the earlier literature and the up-to-date information on the problems and mechanisms concerning the permeation of ammonia, as NH3, NH4+ or proton-neutral nitrogenous compounds, across mitochondrial membranes, the blood-brain barrier, the plasmalemma of neurons, and the branchial and cutaneous epithelia of fish. It also addresses how certain fishes with high ammonia tolerance defend against ammonia toxicity through the regulation of the permeation of ammonia and related nitrogenous compounds through various types of membranes. It is hoped that this review would revive the interests in investigations on the passage of ammonia through the mitochondrial membranes and the blood-brain barrier of ammonotelic fishes and fishes with high brain ammonia-tolerance, respectively.

  11. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  12. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis.

  13. Does Replacing Sodium Excreted in Sweat Attenuate the Health Benefits of Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Martin J; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-08-01

    International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86-100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40-60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20-90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5-1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20-90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3-10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. "Salty sweaters" may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their "salty sweat" condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

  14. [Effect of dietary fiber on fecal excretion and liver distribution of PCDF in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, K; Matsueda, T; Iida, T

    1995-05-01

    Forty male rats (126 g body weight) consisting of four rats a group were housed and rats of each group were given a treatment diets containing cellulose, rice-bran fiber, spinach fiber, burdock fiber, cabbage fiber, soybean fiber, Japanese-radish fiber, carrot fiber and corn fiber for five days. The remaining four rats were fed a non-fiber diet as controls. The animals were orally administered with 0.5 ml of the rice-bran oil used by Yusho patients and kept on the same diets for five days. The rice-bran oil was contaminated with 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2, 3, 7, 8-T4CDF, 458.7 ng/ml), 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2, 3, 4, 7, 8-P5CDF, 802.4 ng/ml) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-hexachlorodibenzofuran (1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-H6CDF, 752.3 ng/ml). PCDF in feces and liver were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The fecal excretion of 2, 3, 7, 8-T4CDF in the group fed rice-bran fiber and spinach fiber was significantly (p < 0.01) stimulated 11.3 and 6.8 times, respectively, as compared with controls. Moreover, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-P5CDF and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-H6CDF were excreted in stool at the rate of 4.1 and 3.4 times, respectively and 2.1 and 2.2 times, respectively, as compared with controls. These results suggest that administration of dietary fiber is useful for a new approach to therapy of Yusho patients.

  15. Anionic Calixarene-Capped Silver Nanoparticles Show Species-Dependent Binding to Serum Albumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony W. Coleman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The anionic calixarenes para-sulphonatocalix[4]arene and 1,3-di-Ophosphonatocalix[ 4]arene, have been used to cap silver nanoparticles. The binding of these functional particles with regard to various serum albumins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, porcine serum albumin and sheep serum albumin has been studied by variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching of the fluorescence of the proteins was shown to vary as a function of the anionic calixarene capping molecule and also as a function of the origin of the serum albumin. It is thus possible to discriminate between the different species.

  16. Anionic calixarene-capped silver nanoparticles show species-dependent binding to serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauran, Yannick; Brioude, Arnaud; Kim, Beomjoon; Perret, Florent; Coleman, Anthony W

    2013-05-21

    The anionic calixarenes para-sulphonatocalix[4]arene and 1,3-di-O-phosphonatocalix[ 4]arene, have been used to cap silver nanoparticles. The binding of these functional particles with regard to various serum albumins (bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, porcine serum albumin and sheep serum albumin) has been studied by variable temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. The quenching of the fluorescence of the proteins was shown to vary as a function of the anionic calixarene capping molecule and also as a function of the origin of the serum albumin. It is thus possible to discriminate between the different species.

  17. Renal catabolism of albumin – current views and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Gburek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the main protein of blood plasma, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid. The protein assists in many important body functions, including maintenance of proper colloidal osmotic pressure, transport of important metabolites and antioxidant action. Synthesis of albumin takes place mainly in the liver, and its catabolism occurs mostly in vascular endothelium of muscle, skin and liver as well as in the kidney tubular epithelium. Renal catabolism of albumin consists of glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption. The tubular processes include endocytosis via the multiligand scavenger receptor tandem megalin and cubilin-amnionless complex. Possible ways of further catabolism of this protein are lysosomal proteolysis to amino acids and short peptides, recycling of degradation products into the bloodstream and tubular lumen or transcytosis of whole molecules. The article discusses the molecular aspects of these processes and presents the controversies arising in the light of the last decade of research.

  18. On-Chip Immunoassay for Determination of Urinary Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisorn Tuantranont

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An immunoassay performed on a portable microfluidic device was evaluated for the determination of urinary albumin. An increase in absorbance at 500 nm resulting from immunoagglutination was monitored directly on the poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchip using a portable miniature fibre-optic spectrometer. A calibration curve was linear up to 10 mg L–1 (r2 = 0.993, with a detection limit of 0.81 mg L–1 (S/N = 3. The proposed system showed good precision, with relative standard deviations (RSDs of 5.1%, when evaluated with 10 mg L–1 albumin (n = 10. Determination of urinary albumin with the proposed system gave results highly similar to those determined by the conventional spectrophotometric method using immunoturbidimetric detection (r2 = 0.995; n = 15.

  19. Effects of socking [sic] density on ammonia excretion and the growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M.S.; Stead, S. M.; Houlihan, D F

    2006-01-01

    The effects of stocking density (10, 15, 50 & 75 fish in 65L tank) and ammonia excretion on the growth of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (12.19 ± 1.21 g) were investigated. Increasing stocking density of Nile tilapia from 15 fish/tank (2.81 g fish/L) to 75 fish/tank (14.07 g fish/L) resulted in associated increase in ammonia level (1.48 ± 0.87 mg/L to 26.44 ± 11.4 mg/L) and significantly lower growth rates. Significantly better feed conversion ratios were found for fish reared at lower (...

  20. Effect of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Mochidzuki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Hiraide, Hatsue; Wang, Xiaofen; Cui, Zongjun

    2013-06-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was added to filter paper during the hydrolysis of cellulase. Adding BSA before the addition of the cellulase enhances enzyme activity in the solution, thereby increasing the conversion rate of cellulose. After 48 h of BSA treatment, the BSA adsorption quantities are 3.3, 4.6, 7.8, 17.2, and 28.3 mg/g substrate, each with different initial BSA concentration treatments at 50 °C; in addition, more cellulase was adsorbed onto the filter paper at 50 °C compared with 35 °C. After 48 h of hydrolysis, the free-enzyme activity could not be measured without the BSA treatment, whereas the remaining activity of the filter paper activity was approximately 41 % when treated with 1.0 mg/mL BSA. Even after 96 h of hydrolysis, 25 % still remained. Meanwhile, after 48 h of incubation without substrate, the remaining enzyme activities were increased 20.7 % (from 43.7 to 52.7 %) and 94.8 % (from 23.3 to 45.5 %) at 35 and 50 °C, respectively. Moreover, the effect of the BSA was more obvious at 35 °C compared with 50 °C. When using 15 filter paper cellulase units per gram substrate cellulase loading at 50 °C, the cellulose conversion was increased from 75 % (without BSA treatment) to ≥90 % when using BSA dosages between 0.1 and 1.5 mg/mL. Overall, these results suggest that there are promising strategies for BSA treatment in the reduction of enzyme requirements during the hydrolysis of cellulose.

  1. Radiation-modified albumin in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Gorbenko

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetes mellitus has been one of the most crippling diseases that man has seen, and its prevalence has risen dramatically over the past two decades. Currently, there are over 150 million diabetics worldwide and this number is likely to increase to 300 million or more by the year 2025. Diabetes mellitus increases the risk of many disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the molecular properties of diabetic progression is a big challenge in the system biology era. The aim of this study is to determine association in albumin modifications between Chernobyl clean-up workers with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed in Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. In this study several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with diabetes mellitus in relation to the group of workers without diabetes mellitus and people having no professional contact with radioactivity were determined. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 effective and total albumin concentration in blood plasma; and (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence. Results: Screening of individuals with diabetes mellitus 25-26 years after their work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional properties of membrane. The revealed structural modifications of membrane are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. Conclusion: ABM is a sensitive probe of albumin alterations; it can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between the control group (donors and that of diabetics and non

  2. Direct intestinal cholesterol secretion contributes significantly to total fecal neutral sterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Van den Oever, Karin; Kunne, Cindy; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kljipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Hepatobiliary secretion is generally believed to be an integral step in the pathway of cholesterol excretion from the body. Here we have investigated the validity of this paradigm in mice. Methods: Cholesterol balance was assessed by measuring intake, excretion, and biliary output

  3. Separation of pair housed roosters is associated with transient increased corticosteroid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Carlsson, H E; Royo, F

    2009-01-01

    the second day after separation indicating that the separation and relocation is associated with an activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The excretion of ICCM in droppings was not correlated to the concentration of ICCM in droppings. It is thus important that excretion of ICCM be expressed...

  4. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  5. Dietary strategies to reducing N excretion from cattle: implications for methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Oenema, O.; Bannink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Ruminants turn human inedible into human edible products, but at a cost of excretion of various pollutants. Implications of dietary measures for cattle to reduce faecal and urinary nitrogen losses on methane emissions are reviewed. Reducing the dietary protein content decreases nitrogen excretion in

  6. The impact of gender and puberty on reference values for urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jarden, M; Angelo, L

    1994-01-01

    . Short collection periods (related to low values for U-GH excretion (nanograms per night; P related to creatinine output, there was a decrease in U-GH excretion during prepuberty, a blunting...... of the pubertal peak, and lower values in adults than in prepubertal children (P relating U-GH to creatinine. We...

  7. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion predicts preeclampsia in pregnant women with pregestational type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes.......We evaluated the urinary orosomucoid excretion (UOE) as a biomarker of preeclampsia and preterm delivery in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes....

  8. African swine fever virus excretion patterns in persistently infected animals: A quantitative approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Ferreira, de H.C.; Weesendorp, E.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Bouma, A.; Quak, S.; Stegeman, J.A.; Loeffen, W.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    The continuing circulation of African swine fever (ASF) in Russia and in the Trans-Caucasian countries has led to increased efforts in characterizing the epidemiology of ASF. For a better insight in epidemiology, quantitative data on virus excretion is required. Until now, excretion data has mainly

  9. Urinary estrogen excretion and concentration of serum human placental lactogen in pregnancies following legally induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, E B; Madsen, Mette

    1980-01-01

    Feto-placental function was assessed by 24-hour excretion of estrogen in urine and by the concentration of human Placental Lactogen (hPL) in serum in pregnant women whose previous pregnancy was terminated by legally induced abortion. The mean 24-hour excretion of estrogens in urine and the mean c...

  10. Modelling and sensitivity analysis of urinary platinum excretion in anticancer chemotherapy for the recovery of platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folens, Karel; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Baeten, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) based antineoplastics are important in cancer therapy. To date the Pt which is urinary excreted by the patients ends up in wastewater. This is disadvantageous from both an economic as from an ecological point of view because Pt is a valuable material and the excretion products are t...

  11. Production and excretion of secondary metabolites by plant cell cultures of Tagetes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    In this thesis, the results are presented of several approaches to improve the production and excretion of thiophenes by cell cultures or hairy roots of Tagetes spp.In chapter one, most of the techniques to improve the production and/or excretion of secondary metabolites with plant cell cultures are

  12. Longitudinal study of the excretion patterns of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in young pet dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Pedersen, Karl; Wainø, Michael;

    2004-01-01

    .7% Campylobacter coli, and 2.8% Campylobacter spp. Isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to elucidate the strain excretion pattern. All study dogs excreted Campylobacter spp. during the study period. At 3 months of age, 60% of the dogs carried Campylobacter, increasing to nearly 100...

  13. Preparation and characterization of 125 I labeled bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Ashwitha Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer ( 125 I-BSA with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125 I-BSA with high integrity.

  14. Stabilization of Tyrosinase-Bovine Serum Albumin Crystals by Glutaraldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Norouzian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosinase and bovine serum albumin were co-crystallized by saturated ammonium sulfate solution(65% and 20% polyethylene glycol ( PEG 6000 and n-propanol as co-solvents .The obtained crystals were cross linked by glutaraldehyde solution(1% v/v.Polyethylene glycol 6000 was found to be better co-solvent than n-propanol. The developed biocatalyst could be recycled 6 times without further loss of tyrosinase activity. No loss of activity of cross linked tyrosinase -bovine serum albumin crystals was observed upon storage of the developed CLECs at refrigerator for six months.

  15. How does airway exposure of aflatoxin B1 affect serum albumin adduct concentrations? Evidence based on epidemiological study and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xianwei; Lai, Hao; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Jun; He, Ke; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) airway inhalation represents an additional route of exposure to this toxin. However, the association between AFB1 inhalation and serum AFB1 albumin adducts remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the association between airway exposure to AFB1 and serum AFB1 albumin adduct concentrations via an epidemiological study, as well as in an AFB1 airway exposure animal model. Our epidemiological study was conducted in a sugar factory in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of China. In order to examine fungal contamination, air samples were obtained in the workshop and areas outside the workshop, such as the office and nearby store. Dust samples were also collected from the bagasse warehouse and presser workshop, and were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, blood samples were collected from a total of 121 workshop workers, and a control group (n = 80) was comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks or other work outside the workshop. The animal experiment was conducted in the laboratory animal center of Guangxi Medical University, where a total of 60 adult male rabbits were involved in this study. By intubation, AFB1 was administered in three groups of rabbits daily, at dose rates of 0.075, 0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg/day for a period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected on day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 21, and the measurements of the AFB1 albumin adducts in the serum were performed by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. The epidemiological study showed that serum albumin adducts were detected in 67 workshop workers (55.37%), and the values ranged 6.4 pg/mg albumin to 212 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 51 ± 4.62 pg/mg albumin). In contrast, serum albumin adducts were detected in only 7 control group participants, with the values ranging from 9 pg AFB1/mg albumin to 59 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 20 ± 13.72 pg/mg albumin). The animal experiment revealed that the rabbits had detectable

  16. Effect of the diet traditional and non-traditional on the respiration and excretion in larvae of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Medina-Jasso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. It was studied the respiration and ammoniacal excretion of zoeas and mysis of Litopenaeus vannamei fed with the diet used traditionally (of microalgae and nauplios of artemia and another alternative (not traditional of microalgae with rotifers. Materials and methods. After four hours the oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in BOD bottles with 60 larvae (closed respirometers was estimated. The concentrations of O2 and NH4 + were measured with an electrode polarográfico in the first case and with the indophenol blue technique for the second. Results. In zoea, oxygen consumption increased with development and showed statistical differences (p=0.023. In mysis, the oxygen consumption were significance in the traditional diet, whereas no differences were alternative (p=0.003. In both stages for the ammoniacal excretion increased development stage and there were detected statistical difference (p<0.001, although to the diets were not noticed significant differences. Conclusions. A higher energy absorption for zoea (I, II y III what mysis (I, II y III larvae was obtained, this is likely an interaction between rates of respiration and excretion caused by variations in the efficiency of absorption by the larvae. The weights obtained in both larvae were not supplied with differences between diets.

  17. Influence of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normal, electrolytes depleted and aldosterone treated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, M; Szczepańska-Sadowska, E; Krzymień, J; Kozłowski, S; Czyzyk, A

    1987-10-01

    Effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium were compared in conscious dogs 1) maintained in water and electrolytes balance (Series 1, 10 dogs), 2) depleted of electrolytes by repeated i.v. loading with 20% mannitol (Series 2, 10 dogs), and 3) aldosterone treated (0.8 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 i.v., Series 3, 10 dogs). In each Series intravenous infusion of insulin at a rate of 0.05 U.kg-1.h-1 elicited transient increase in plasma sodium concentration and prolonged hypokalemia. Repeated loading with mannitol in Series 2 elicited significant elevation of plasma sodium, ADH and aldosterone concentrations, as well as decrease in extracellular fluid volume. Infusion of insulin in this Series elicited smaller decrease in plasma potassium concentration and longer lasting hypernatremia than in dogs in water-electrolytes balance. Aldosterone infusion in Series 3 did not change hypokalemic effect of insulin but attenuated hypernatremia. Infusion of insulin in Series 1 elicited increase of sodium excretion and decrease in potassium excretion. These effects were absent in Series 2 and 3. The results indicate that depletion of electrolytes and blood aldosterone elevation modify the effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium.

  18. Circadian Variations in Performance, Psychological Ratings, Catecholamine Excretion and Urine Flow During Prolonged Sleep Deprivation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    rhythms in a number of biochemical and psychological variables under controlled conditions. (b) changes in these variables with the duration of sleep ... deprivation . (c) temporal interrelationships between the biochemical and psychological variables. In all the above respects, the first experiment was an exploratory study, the results being further tested in the second.

  19. The Effect of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract (GSPE on Urinary Sodium Excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsum Ozkan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: While various hormones and mediators reduce the urinary excretion of Na, other mediators such as nitric oxide (NO increase Na excretion. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE is a molecule that has an antioxidant effect by increasing NO levels. Our study was intended to evaluate the effect of GSPE on Na excretion. Material and Method: Fourteen rats were divided into control and GSPE groups. The control group was given 1 cm3 milk by gavage for one week, while the GSPE group was given 100 mg/kg GSPE. Seventh-day urines were collected from rats monitored over 24 h in a metabolic cage. Urinary Na excretion at the end of 24 h was investigated and the experiment concluded. Results: There was no difference between the control and GSPE groups in terms of weight, solid and liquid food intake and urine volumes. 24-hour urinary Na excretion was higher in the GSPE group (1.43±0.30 g/day compared to the control group (1.37±0.29 g/day, although the difference was not statistically significant. Na excretion was positively correlated with solid food intake (p=0.029, r=0.583  and urine volume (p<0.001, r=0.806. Discussion: Our study shows, for the first time in the literature, that GSPE increases  urinary Na excretion in healthy rats,  though not to a statistically significant extent, and that solid food intake and urine volume affect Na excretion. We think that it will be useful for the effect of GSPE on urinary Na excretion in hypertensive rats with impaired Na excretion and balance to be evaluated in future studies.

  20. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Edson

    Full Text Available Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410 had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436. The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral, identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous

  1. Routes of Hendra Virus Excretion in Naturally-Infected Flying-Foxes: Implications for Viral Transmission and Spillover Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Daniel; Field, Hume; McMichael, Lee; Vidgen, Miranda; Goldspink, Lauren; Broos, Alice; Melville, Deb; Kristoffersen, Joanna; de Jong, Carol; McLaughlin, Amanda; Davis, Rodney; Kung, Nina; Jordan, David; Kirkland, Peter; Smith, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Pteropid bats or flying-foxes (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae) are the natural host of Hendra virus (HeV) which sporadically causes fatal disease in horses and humans in eastern Australia. While there is strong evidence that urine is an important infectious medium that likely drives bat to bat transmission and bat to horse transmission, there is uncertainty about the relative importance of alternative routes of excretion such as nasal and oral secretions, and faeces. Identifying the potential routes of HeV excretion in flying-foxes is important to effectively mitigate equine exposure risk at the bat-horse interface, and in determining transmission rates in host-pathogen models. The aim of this study was to identify the major routes of HeV excretion in naturally infected flying-foxes, and secondarily, to identify between-species variation in excretion prevalence. A total of 2840 flying-foxes from three of the four Australian mainland species (Pteropus alecto, P. poliocephalus and P. scapulatus) were captured and sampled at multiple roost locations in the eastern states of Queensland and New South Wales between 2012 and 2014. A range of biological samples (urine and serum, and urogenital, nasal, oral and rectal swabs) were collected from anaesthetized bats, and tested for HeV RNA using a qRT-PCR assay targeting the M gene. Forty-two P. alecto (n = 1410) had HeV RNA detected in at least one sample, and yielded a total of 78 positive samples, at an overall detection rate of 1.76% across all samples tested in this species (78/4436). The rate of detection, and the amount of viral RNA, was highest in urine samples (>serum, packed haemocytes >faecal >nasal >oral), identifying urine as the most plausible source of infection for flying-foxes and for horses. Detection in a urine sample was more efficient than detection in urogenital swabs, identifying the former as the preferred diagnostic sample. The detection of HeV RNA in serum is consistent with haematogenous spread, and with

  2. Synthesis of Micron-size Functional Polystyrene Fluorescent Micro- spheres and their Adsorbability to Human Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Di Qiang WANG; He LI; Jie HU; Xian Feng LIAO; Bai Ling LIU

    2004-01-01

    Polystyrene microspheres with sulfo- or aldehyde- surface were synthesized through dispersion polymerization. Functional polystyrene fluorescent microspheres were prepared by the way of adding 2, 5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) into the reaction system directly and dying the blank microspheres in the ethanol solution of PPO. The influence of preparing matters on the encapsulating rate of PPO, and the influence of functional groups on the adsorbability to human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated.

  3. The importance of microalbuminuria as a cardiovascular risk indicator : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diercks, GFH; van Boven, AJ; Hillege, JL; de Jong, PE; Rouleau, JL; van Gilst, WH

    2002-01-01

    The present review describes the knowledge of microalbuminuria as a cardiovascular risk indicator. Microalbuminuria is usually defined as a urinary albumin excretion rate of 30 to 300 mg, in a 24 h urine collection, or as a urinary albumin excretion rate of 20 to 200 mg/min in a timed overnight urin

  4. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...

  5. Combined fluorescence and electrochemical investigation on the binding interaction between organic acid and human serum albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-Min; GUO Liang-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a plasma protein responsible for the binding and transport of fatty acids and a variety of exogenous chemicals such as drugs and environmental pollutants. Such binding plays a crucial role in determining the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) and bioavailability of the pollutants. We report investigation on the binding interaction between HSA and acetic acid (C2), octanoic acid (C8) and dodecanoic acid (C12) by the combination of site-specific fluorescent probe, tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence and tyrosine electrochemistry. Two fluorescent probes, dansylamide and dansyl-L-proline, were employed in the displacement measurement to study fatty acid interaction with the two drug-binding sites on HSA. Intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan in HSA was monitored upon addition of the fatty acids into HSA. Electrocatalyzed response of the tyrosine residues in HSA by a redox mediator was used to investigate the binding interaction. Qualitatively, observations made by the three approaches are very similar. HSA did not show any change in either fluorescence or electrochemistry after mixing with C2, suggesting there is no significant interaction with the short-chain fatty acid. For C8, the measured signal dropped in a single-exponential fashion, indicative of independent and non-cooperative binding. The calculated association constant and binding ratio is 3.1×106 L/mol and 1 with drug binding Site I, 1.1×107 L/mol and 1 with Site II, and 7.0×104 L/mol and 4 with the tryptophan site. The measurement with C12 displayed multiple phases of fluorescence change, suggesting cooperativity and allosteric effect of C12 binding. These results correlate well with those obtained by the established methods, and validate the new approach as a viable tool to study the interactions of environmental pollutants with biological molecules.

  6. Near-infrared dye bound albumin with separated imaging and therapy wavelength channels for imaging-guided photothermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Wang, Chao; Zhan, Zhixiong; He, Weiwei; Cheng, Zhenping; Li, Youyong; Liu, Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Development of theranostic agent for imaging-guided photothermal therapy has been of great interest in the field of nanomedicine. However, if fluorescent imaging and photothermal ablation are conducted with the same wavelength of light, the requirements of the agent's quantum yield (QY) for imaging and therapy are controversial. In this work, our synthesized near-infrared dye, IR825, is bound with human serum albumin (HSA), forming a HSA-IR825 complex with greatly enhanced fluorescence under 600 nm excitation by as much as 100 folds compared to that of free IR825, together with a rather high absorbance but low fluorescence QY at 808 nm. Since high QY that is required for fluorescence imaging would result in reduced photothermal conversion efficiency, the unique optical behavior of HSA-IR825 enables imaging and photothermal therapy at separated wavelengths both with optimized performances. We thus use HSA-IR825 for imaging-guided photothermal therapy in an animal tumor model. As revealed by in vivo fluorescence imaging, HSA-IR825 upon intravenous injection shows high tumor uptake likely owing to the enhanced permeability and retention effect, together with low levels of retentions in other organs. While HSA is an abundant protein in human serum, IR825 is able to be excreted by renal excretion as evidenced by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In vivo tumor treatment experiment is finally carried out with HSA-IR825, achieving 100% of tumor ablation in mice using a rather low dose of IR825. Our work presents a safe, simple, yet imageable photothermal nanoprobe, promising for future clinical translation in cancer treatment.

  7. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations: a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imhoff, D.E. van; Dijk, P.H.; Weykamp, C.W.; Cobbaert, C.M.; Hulzebos, C.V.; Liem, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  8. Measurements of neonatal bilirubin and albumin concentrations : a need for improvement and quality control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; Dijk, Peter H.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Cobbaert, Christa M.; Hulzebos, Christian V.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and precise bilirubin and albumin measurements are essential for proper management of jaundiced neonates. Data hereon are lacking for Dutch laboratories. We aimed to determine variability of measurements of bilirubin and albumin concentrations typical for (preterm) neonates. Aqueous, human

  9. Water-phase palmitate concentrations in equilibrium with albumin-bound palmitate in a biological system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Inge Norby; Bojesen, Eigil

    1992-01-01

    Biokemi, erythrocyte ghosts, pamitate, bovine serum albumin, long-chain fatty acids, equilibrium constants......Biokemi, erythrocyte ghosts, pamitate, bovine serum albumin, long-chain fatty acids, equilibrium constants...

  10. Effects of perindopril on expression of kidney aquaporin-2 and urine aquaporin-2 excretion in chronic heart failure rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳邵

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the expression of kidneyaquaporin-2(AQP2) and urine AQP2 excretion in chronic heart failure(CHF) rats and investigate effects of perindopril on the expression and excretion of AQP2.Methods

  11. The effect of sex, height and time of day on the excretion of glycosaminoglycans and the consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, J H; Vaeth, M

    1982-02-01

    A diurnal rhythm in the excretion of glycosaminoglycan-derived uronic acid with an increased excretion during daytime has been found in adults. Due to this rhythm a 24-h excretion was established as the optimum measurement of glycosaminoglycan turnover in tissue. Neither the excretion of uronic acid nor the uronic acid/creatinine ratio in the morning urine could predict the 24-h excretion of glycosaminoglycans as estimated by a statistical model. This model may also be of general interest in similar clinical problems. Compared with males, females had a lower excretion of glycosaminoglycans. Part of this discrepancy reflected a sex-difference in height, which was shown to be positively correlated with the excretion. On the other hand, the uronic acid/creatinine ratio was not influenced by height or sex. Body mass, age and urine output did not influence the ratio or the excretion of uronic acid.

  12. Why mammals more susceptible to the hepatotoxic microcystins than fish: evidences from plasma and albumin protein binding through equilibrium dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liang, Gaodao; Wu, Laiyan; Tuo, Xun; Wang, Wenjing; Chen, Jun; Xie, Ping

    2013-08-01

    To elucidate the interspecies variation of susceptibility to microcystins (MCs), fresh plasma and purified albumin from six kinds of mammals and fish were used in toxins-substances binding test. Protein contents in the test plasma were analyzed and the binding characteristics to MCs were compared. Two kinds of widely observed MCs, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) were tested and data were collected through the method of equilibrium dialysis. It was found that total plasma protein and albumin content in mammals were nearly two times and four times higher than that in fish, respectively. In the test range of 0-100 μg/mL, binding rates of fish plasma to MCs were considered significant lower (p mammals. And human plasma demonstrated the highest binding rate in mammals. In all the test species, plasma protein binding rates of MC-RR were significantly higher than MC-LR (p 0.05). From the view of protein binding, it is concluded that both the variation of plasma protein composition and albumin binding characteristic could influence the existing form of MCs in circulation, change MCs utilization, alter MCs half-life and further contribute to the difference of susceptibility between mammals and fish.

  13. Conjugation of Chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil with Bovine Serum Albumin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Min WANG; Jing Feng SONG; Yu Feng HE; Juan Juan MAO; Yan LI

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between chitooligosaccharide-5-fluorouracil (COS-5FU) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that an energy transfer between COS-5FU and BSA had been occurred. The binding constants were calculated,between the donor and acceptor, the distance between BSA and COS-5FU was determined.

  14. Binding of straight-chain saturated dicarboxylic acids to albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsgard, J H; Mendelson, S A; Meredith, S C

    1988-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acids are prominent features of several diseases, including Reye's syndrome. Long-chain dicarboxylic acids have profound effects on the function and structure of isolated mitochondria, suggesting that they could contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction in Reye's syndrome. Binding of fatty acids to albumin and the intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins is important in regulating the transport and metabolism of fatty acids and protects against the toxic effects of unbound fatty acids. We studied the binding of dicarboxylic acids to defatted albumin using equilibrium dialysis to assess to what extent dicarboxylic acids are likely to be bound in the plasma of patients. Dicarboxylic acids bind weakly to albumin in a molar ratio of 3.8, 4.2, 1.6, 0.8, and 0.7 to 1 for octadecanedioic, hexadecanedioic, tetradecanedioic, dodecanedioic, and decanedioic acid, respectively. The dissociation constants for long-chain dicarboxylic acids are 100-1,000-fold larger than those of comparable monocarboxylic acids. Oleate competes with dicarboxylic acid and reduces the moles of dicarboxylic acid bound per mol of albumin to less than 1. Octanoate inhibits dicarboxylic acid binding. Our observations indicate that in Reye's syndrome, substantial concentrations of dicarboxylic acids of patients may be free and potentially toxic to mitochondria and other cellular processes.

  15. Isolation of bovine serum albumin from whey using affinity chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to a chromatography resin with immobilised llama antibody fragments as affinity ligands was investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity of the affinity resin was 21.6 mg mL-1 with a Langmuir equilibrium constant of 20.4 mg mg-1. Using packed bed chromat

  16. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system.

  17. Interaction of Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin by Fluorescence Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dong-Il, Kim; Kye-Ryong, Sin

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tannin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined by the fluorescent quenching. The process of elimination between BSA and tannin was the one of a stationary state, and the coupling coefficient was one. The working strength between the tannin and the beef serum was hydrophobic one.

  18. Albumin-heparin microspheres as carriers for cytostatic agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, H.F.M.; Feijen, J.; Kwon, G.; Bae, Y.H.; Kim, S.W.; Noteborn, H.P.J.M.; McVie, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    Much work has been done on adriamycin-loaded albumin microspheres (Alb-MS) for chemoembolization [1–4], the rationale being that site-specific drug delivery may increase the therapeutic efficacy of the drug. Alb-Ms are being investigated because of their biocompatibility and because the degradation

  19. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. A single food bolus stimulates albumin synthesis in growing piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, K; Smolders, HC; Meesterburrie, J; de Sain-van der Velden, M; Voorbij, HAM; Okken, A; Reijngoud, DJ; Kulik, W

    2000-01-01

    Background: A stable isotope tracer method to quantify the synthesis of proteins of hepatic origin in response to feeding is described. The response of albumin synthesis on one mixed meal in a piglet model was investigated and the intragastric and intravenous administration modes of C-13-valine were

  1. Behavior of human serum albumin on strong cation exchange resins: II. model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitl, Agnes; Butté, Alessandro; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2010-08-20

    Experiments with human serum albumin on a strong cation exchange resin exhibit a peculiar elution pattern: the protein elutes with two peaks in a modifier gradient. This behavior is modeled with a general rate model, where the two elution peaks are modeled with two binding conformations, one of which is at equilibrium conditions, while for the other, the adsorption process is rate limited. Isocratic experiments under nonadsorbing conditions were used to characterize the mass transfer process. The isotherm of both adsorption conformations as well as the kinetic of adsorption and desorption for the second conformation are functions of the modifier concentration. They are evaluated with linear modifier gradient experiments and step experiments with various adsorption times. All experimental features are well reproduced by the proposed modified general rate model.

  2. Determination of iron absorption and excretion by whole-body counting; Determination de l'absorption et de l'excretion du fer par la methode de comptage global humain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollard, D.; Benabid, Y.; Berard, M.; Bonnin, J.; Darnault, J.; Millet, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Using a whole-body counter, the authors have studied {sup 59}Fe absorption and loss in 8 normal subjects and in 30 iron deficient patients. Results showed that whole-body counting provided an excellent and simple method for iron retention measurements, obviating many inaccuracies of previous technic. Normal absorption of radio iron with this procedure has ranged from 9 per cent to 20 per cent of the administered tracer in normal subjects, with a mean of 15 per cent. A significant increase in {sup 59}Fe absorption was noted in 21 iron-deficient patients in whom the retention ranged from 40 to 100 per cent. However, 3 iron-deficient patients were found to have low absorption, and their severe iron deficiency could be correlated with this defect in absorption. This method permits also the determination of the rate of iron excretion during the following months and therefore the study of the mechanism of some pathological loss. (authors) [French] L'utilisation de la methode de comptage humain global a permis aux auteurs d'etudier l'absorption et l'excretion du fer-59 chez 8 sujets temoins et 30 sujets hyposideremiques. Les resultats montrent que cette technique simple et directe offre de nombreux avantages sur les methodes employees jusqu'a maintenant pour cette determination. La valeur normale de l'absorption du fer chez les temoins est d'environ 15 pour cent de la dose ingeree. Ce chiffre est tres fortement augmente chez 21 sujets hyposideremiques, pouvant atteindre 100 pour cent de la dose ingeree. Par contre, pour 3 malades, cette absorption est si faible qu'elle suggere une carence par defaut d'absorption. Cette methode permet egalement de suivre l'excretion du fer au cours des mois qui suivent l'examen et de determiner le mecanisme de fuites anormales. (auteurs)

  3. Pharmacokinetics and anti-HIV-1 efficacy of negatively charged human serum albumins in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M E; Swart, P J; Schutten, M; Smit, C; Proost, J H; Osterhaus, A D; Meijer, D K

    1997-01-01

    Negatively charged albumins (NCAs, with the prototypes succinylated human serum albumin (Suc-HSA) and aconitylated human serum albumin (Aco-HSA)), modified proteins with a potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) activity in vitro, were studied for their pharmacokinetic behaviour

  4. Studies on Interactions of Antibiotics with Serum Albumin by Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Characterizing how chemical compounds binding to serum albumin is essential in evaluating drug candidates and is the focus of this study. A surface plasmon resonance biosensor developed in this laboratory was used to determine the binding constants of antibiotics with serum albumin. The binding constants of five antibiotics(azithromycin, spectinomycin, gentamycin, metacycline and kanamycin) with serum albumins were obtained.

  5. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-07

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases.

  6. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of procyanidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Yijun; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Procyanidins (PAs) are polyphenols in plant food that have many health benefits, including cancer prevention, cardiovascular protection and diabetes prevention. PAs have been known to have low oral bioavailability. In this review, we summarize the published results on the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) of PAs in vivo and in vitro. After oral administration, in the stomach the decomposition of PAs is highly dependent on the pH value of gastric juice, which is also affected by food intake. In the small intestine, PA polymers and oligomers with DP > 4 are not directly absorbed in vivo, but minor PA monomers and dimers could be detected in the plasma. Methylated and glucuronidated PA dimers and monomers are the main metabolites of PAs in plasma. In the colon, PAs are catabolized by colonic microflora into a series of low molecular weight phenolic acids, such as phenyl valerolactone, phenylacetic acids and phenylpropionic acids. We reviewed the degradation of PAs in gastric digestion, the absorption of PAs in the small intestine and the metabolic pathway of PAs by colonic microflora. To clearly explain the in vivo pharmacokinetics of PAs, a systematic comparative analysis on previously published data on PAs was conducted.

  7. Assessment of urinary iodine excretion among normal Kuwaiti adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yatama, Fatma I; Al-Bader, Maie D; Al-Mazidi, Zaidan M; Ali, Ameena; Al-Omair, Ali S; Al-Jehma, Nasser A; Mohammed, Fawziah

    2009-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of iodine intake among the Kuwaiti population and its effect on thyroid function. The study group was comprised of 139 females and 86 males with a mean age of 33 and 35 years, respectively. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and serum free T4 (FT4), thyrotropin hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibodies (anti- TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TGAb) were determined. Median UIE was 148 μg/L (within the recommended level by the World Health Organization [WHO]). However, UIE levels of iodine intake, which was reflected in an increased UIE of 590 μg/L. Elevated anti-TPOAb >75 IU/mL and anti-TGAb >150 IU/mL were detected in 15% and 34% of subjects; only 10% of them had elevated levels of both anti-TPOAb and anti-TGAb. Thus, based on the WHO recommendations, the iodine intake for the Kuwaiti population is adequate. However, it is recommended that a national study be conducted by the appropriate authority in order to eliminate any artifacts which may have appeared in this study.

  8. Delayed High-dose Methotrexate Excretion and Influencing Factors in Osteosarcoma Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Qing Zhang; Ting-Ting Zheng; Jian-Cun Zhen; Xiao-Hui Niu

    2016-01-01

    Background:High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) with folinic acid (leucovorin) rescue is "gold standard" therapy for osteosarcoma.Plasma concentrations of methotrexate (MTX) are closely related to its efficacy and toxicity.Delayed excretion of MTX can lead to serious adverse reactions that may result in treatment cessation,irreversible organ damage,and death.This study focused on the incidence of delayed excretion of MTX in Chinese osteosarcoma patients.Methods:A total of 1277 osteosarcoma patients were treated with HD-MTX chemotherapy (4291 cycles) from 2010 to 2015.Factors that could influence delayed excretion of MTX (gender,age,number of chemotherapy cycles,and serum concentration of MTX) were analyzed.Results:The incidence of delayed excretion of MTX (serum concentrations at 24 h [C24 h] >5 μmol/L) and severe delayed excretion of MTX (C24 h >20 μmol/L) were 6.19% and 0.86% per patient,and 2.31% and 0.26% per cycle of treatment,respectively.The incidence of severe delayed excretion of MTX was associated with gender,age,and C24 h.Conclusions:Precaution of delayed excretion of MTX is needed during osteosarcoma treatment using HD-MTX.An optimal individualized rescue strategy can be created with consideration of gender,age,and C24 h.

  9. Evaluation of the impact of alveolar nitrogen excretion on indices derived from multiple breath nitrogen washout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Nielsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF. Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. METHODS: A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC and lung clearance index (LCI measurements. RESULTS: Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8% in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%, and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6-13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24-49%. CONCLUSIONS: Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen.

  10. Organic acid excretion in Penicillium ochrochloron increases with ambient pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVrabl

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite being of high biotechnological relevance, many aspects of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi like the influence of ambient pH are still insufficiently understood. While the excretion of an individual organic acid may peak at a certain pH value, the few available studies investigating a broader range of organic acids indicate that total organic acid excretion rises with increasing external pH.We hypothesized that this phenomenon might be a general response of filamentous fungi to increased ambient pH. If this is the case, the observation should be widely independent of the organism, growth conditions or experimental design and might therefore be a crucial key point in understanding the function and mechanisms of organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi.In this study we explored this hypothesis using ammonium limited chemostat cultivations (pH 2-7, and ammonium or phosphate limited bioreactor batch cultivations (pH 5 and 7. Two strains of Penicillium ochrochloron were investigated differing in the spectrum of excreted organic acids.Confirming our hypothesis, the main result demonstrated that organic acid excretion in P. ochrochloron was enhanced at high external pH levels compared to low pH levels independent of the tested strain, nutrient limitation and cultivation method. We discuss these findings against the background of three hypotheses explaining organic acid excretion in filamentous fungi, i.e. overflow metabolism, charge balance and aggressive acidification hypothesis.

  11. Urinary epidermal growth factor is excreted from the rat isolated perfused kidney in the absence of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Hilchey, S D; Nexø, Ebba;

    1993-01-01

    . Administration of the proteinase inhibitor aprotinin reduced urinary EGF excretion from the rat isolated perfused kidney by approximately 50%. In conclusion, the rat isolated perfused kidney excreted significant amounts of urinary EGF without having access to plasma, and EGF excretion was reduced by aprotinin...

  12. EFFECT OF CASEIN-BASED SEMISYNTHETIC FOOD ON RENAL ACID EXCRETION AND ACID-BASE STATE OF BLOOD IN DOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJLSTRA, WG; LANGBROEK, AJM; KRAAN, J; RISPENS, P; NIJMEIJER, A

    1995-01-01

    Urinary acid excretion and blood acid-base stare were determined in dogs fed a casein-based semi-synthetic food (SSF), to which different amounts of salts had been added, in comparison with feeding normal dog food. Net acid excretion (NAE) and inorganic acid excretion (IAE) increased during SSF feed

  13. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  14. Effect of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Farming Waste on the Growth, Digestion, Ammonium-Nitrogen Excretion of Sea Cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yanfeng; LUO Peng; HU Chaoqun; REN Chunhua

    2015-01-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic con-tainers (70L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  15. Rh versus pH: the role of Rhesus glycoproteins in renal ammonia excretion during metabolic acidosis in a freshwater teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2014-08-15

    Increased renal ammonia excretion in response to metabolic acidosis is thought to be a conserved response in vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins in the kidney of the freshwater common carp, Cyprinus carpio, play a crucial role in regulating renal ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Exposure to water pH 4.0 (72 h) resulted in a classic metabolic acidosis with reduced plasma arterial pH and [HCO3(-)], no change in PCO2 and large changes in renal function. Urine [NH4(+)] as well as [titratable acidity-HCO3(-)] rose significantly over the acid exposure, but the profound reduction (fivefold) in urine flow rates eliminated the expected elevations in renal ammonia excretion. Low urine flow rates may be a primary strategy to conserve ions, as urinary excretion rates of Na(+), Cl(-) and Ca(2+) were significantly lower during the acid exposure relative to the control period. Interestingly, renal Rhcg1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in acid-exposed relative to control groups, along with mRNA levels of several ion transporters, including the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, H(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed a strong apical Rhcg1 signal in distal tubules. Taken together, these data show that renal Rh glycoproteins and associated ion transporters are responsive to metabolic acidosis, but conservation of ions through reduced urine flow rates takes primacy over renal acid-base regulation in the freshwater C. carpio. We propose that an 'acid/base-ion balance' compromise explains the variable renal responses to metabolic acidosis in freshwater teleosts.

  16. Effect of hormone replacement therapy on the bone mass and urinary excretion of pyridinium cross-links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Perovano Pardini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The menopause accelerates bone loss and is associated with an increased bone turnover. Bone formation may be evaluated by several biochemical markers. However, the establishment of an accurate marker for bone resorption has been more difficult to achieve. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT on bone mass and on the markers of bone resorption: urinary excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. DESIGN: Cohort correlational study. SETTING: Academic referral center. SAMPLE: 53 post-menopausal women, aged 48-58 years. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Urinary pyr and d-pyr were measured in fasting urine samples by spectrofluorometry after high performance liquid chromatography and corrected for creatinine excretion measured before treatment and after 1, 2, 4 and 12 months. Bone mineral density (BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA before treatment and after 12 months of HRT. RESULTS: The BMD after HRT was about 4.7% (P < 0.0004; 2% (P < 0.002; and 3% (P < 0.01 higher than the basal values in lumbar spine, neck and trochanter respectively. There were no significant correlations between pyridinium cross-links and age, weight, menopause duration and BMD. The decrease in pyr and d-pyr was progressive after HRT, reaching 28.9% (P < 0.0002, and 42% (P < 0.0002 respectively after 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion decreases early in hormone replacement therapy, reflecting a decrease in the bone resorption rate, and no correlation was observed with the bone mass evaluated by densitometry.

  17. Effect of Human and Bovine Serum Albumin on kinetic Chemiluminescence of Mn (III-Tetrakis (4-Sulfonatophenyl Porphyrin-Luminol-Hydrogen Peroxide System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Yahya Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with an attempt to study the effect of human and bovine serum albumin on kinetic parameters of chemiluminescence of luminol-hydrogen peroxide system catalyzed by manganese tetrasulfonatophenyl porphyrin (MnTSPP. The investigated parameters involved pseudo-first-order rise and fall rate constant for the chemiluminescence burst, maximum level intensity, time to reach maximum intensity, total light yield, and values of the intensity at maximum CL which were evaluated by nonlinear least square program KINFIT. Because of interaction of metalloporphyrin with proteins, the CL parameters are drastically affected. The systems resulted in Stern-Volmer plots with values of 3.17×105 and 3.7×105M−1 in the quencher concentration range of 1.5×10−6 to 1.5×10−5 M for human serum albumin (HSA and bovine serum albumin (BSA, respectively.

  18. Optimalisasi Pengikatan Tanin Daun Nangka dengan Protein Bovine Serum Albumin (Optimalisation Binding of Jackfruit Leaves Tannin with Bovine Serum Albumin Protein)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahidin Teguh Sasongko; Lies Mira Yusiati; Zaenal Bachruddin; (Mugiono), Mugiono

    2012-01-01

    Tannins are high molecular weight polyphenol compounds with ability to bind proteins. Based on the structure, albumin are simple globular molecule protein. Optimalisation binding of jackfruit leave tannins to bovine serum (BSA) albumin was done in two stages. The first stage was to determine levels of tannins and condensed tannins in jackfruit leaves grown in mediterranean soil types. Second research was optimalisation binding of jackfruit leaf tannins with bovine serum albumin. In t...

  19. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Buus Jensen

    Full Text Available Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1, late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D or recycling endosomes (Rab11. Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  20. Effect of modest salt reduction on blood pressure, urinary albumin, and pulse wave velocity in white, black, and Asian mild hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Marciniak, Maciej; Visagie, Elisabeth; Markandu, Nirmala D; Anand, Vidya; Dalton, R Neil; MacGregor, Graham A

    2009-09-01

    A reduction in salt intake lowers blood pressure. However, most previous trials were in whites with few in blacks and Asians. Salt reduction may also reduce other cardiovascular risk factors (eg, urinary albumin excretion, arterial stiffness). However, few well-controlled trials have studied these effects. We carried out a randomized double-blind crossover trial of salt restriction with slow sodium or placebo, each for 6 weeks, in 71 whites, 69 blacks, and 29 Asians with untreated mildly raised blood pressure. From slow sodium to placebo, urinary sodium was reduced from 165+/-58 (+/-SD) to 110+/-49 mmol/24 hours (9.7 to 6.5 g/d salt). With this reduction in salt intake, there was a significant decrease in blood pressure from 146+/-13/91+/-8 to 141+/-12/88+/-9 mm Hg (P<0.001), urinary albumin from 10.2 (IQR: 6.8 to 18.9) to 9.1 (6.6 to 14.0) mg/24 hours (P<0.001), albumin/creatinine ratio from 0.81 (0.47 to 1.43) to 0.66 (0.44 to 1.22) mg/mmol (P<0.001), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity from 11.5+/-2.3 to 11.1+/-1.9 m/s (P<0.01). Subgroup analysis showed that the reductions in blood pressure and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were significant in all groups, and the decrease in pulse wave velocity was significant in blacks only. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, approximately the amount of the current public health recommendations, causes significant falls in blood pressure in all 3 ethnic groups. Furthermore, it reduces urinary albumin and improves large artery compliance. Although both could be attributable to the falls in blood pressure, they may carry additional benefits on reducing cardiovascular disease above that obtained from the blood pressure falls alone.

  1. Mechanism of Excretion of a Bacterial Proteinase: Factors Controlling Accumulation of the Extracellular Proteinase of a Sarcina Strain (Coccus P)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BISSELL, MINA J.; TOSI, ROBERTO; GORINI, LUIGI

    1970-06-29

    It has been known that the extracellular proteinase of Coccus P is found only in cultures grown in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. It is now shown that this cation is required neither for synthesis, excretion, or activation of a zymogen nor as a prosthetic factor necessary for enzymatic activity. The only function of Ca{sup 2+} is to stabilize the active structure of the enzyme molecule, presumably by substituting for absence of S-S bridges. In the absence of Ca{sup 2+} , the excreted proteinase undergoes rapid autodigestion and, instead of the active protein, its hydrolytic products are accumulated in the culture fluid. In minimal medium and under conditions of enzyme stability [presence of Ca{sup 2+} and Ficoll (Pharmacia)], Coccus P accumulates the proteinase at a gradually reduced speed although the rate of cultural growth remains constant. It is shown that this decline in rate of accumulation is caused by the excreted proteinase itself, possibly acting on its own precursor emerging from the cell in a form susceptible to proteolytic attack and not amenable to Ca{sup 2+} protection. A proteinase precursor is actually demonstrable in a calciumless culture at the onset of the enzyme accumulation which follows Ca{sup 2+} addition. It is suggested that excreted proteins require an unfolded (or incompletely folded) structure to cross the cell envelope. The proteinase excreted by a Sarcina strain (Coccus P) is found only in cultures containing Ca{sup 2+} ions (1), a feature common to proteinases of other bacteria (4, 12, 18) and to other excreted enzymes (14). Among the nontoxic divalent cations, Ca{sup 2+} is rather specific in this effect. Other ions such as Mn{sup 2+} or Mg{sup 2+}, the latter being present in all media as an indispensible growth factor, are ineffective. Addition of Ca{sup 2+} to the proteolytically inactive supernatant fluid of a calcium- free culture does not result in the appearance of the missing enzyme activity. The early assumption that Ca{sup 2

  2. Functionality of albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carriers in the Langendorff-heart (†).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobeln, Anna; Schlüter, Klaus D; Linders, Jürgen; Zähres, Manfred; Mayer, Christian; Kirsch, Michael; Ferenz, Katja B

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to prove whether albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based nanoparticles (capsules) can operate as a novel artificial oxygen carrier in a rat Langendorff-heart perfusion model. Hearts perfused with capsules showed increased left ventricular pressure and rate pressure product compared to hearts perfused with pure Krebs-Henseleit (KH)-buffer. The capsules prevented the myocardium from functional fail when in their absence a noxious ischemia was observed. Capsules did not change rheological properties of KH-buffer and could repeatedly reload with oxygen. This albumin-derived perfluorocarbon-based artificial oxygen carrier preserved the function of rat hearts due to the transport of oxygen in a satisfactory manner. Because of these positive results, the functionality of the applied capsules should be verified in living animals.

  3. Binding of diazepam, salicylic acid and digitoxin to albumin isolated from fetal and adult serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viani, A; Cappiello, M; Pacifici, G M

    1991-01-01

    Albumin was isolated from pooled fetal serum obtained at normal delivery at term and from pooled adult plasma. Albumin isolation was carried out by means of PEG precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A 50 and then on SP-Sephadex C 50. The binding of diazepam (1 microM), salicylic acid (2 mM) and digitoxin (6 nM) to albumin (40 g/l) was measured by equilibrium dialysis at 37 degrees C. The unbound fraction (mean +/- SD) for fetal and adult albumin of diazepam was 1.86 +/- 0.24 and 1.82 +/- 0.15% (NS), that of digitoxin was 3.18 +/- 0.27 and 3.36 +/- 0.04% (NS) and that of salicylic acid was 11.65 +/- 0.99 and 9.47 +/- 0.75% (p less than 0.05), respectively. With both fetal and adult albumin, a single class of binding sites was observed for diazepam and digitoxin, whereas two classes of binding sites were observed for salicylic acid. The number of binding sites (n, moles of drug per mole of albumin) for fetal and adult albumin was 0.83 and 1.02 for diazepam and 0.014 and 0.018 for digitoxin, respectively. For salicylic acid, n was 1.45 (fetal albumin) and 1.55 (adult albumin) for the higher affinity site, and 3.06 (fetal albumin) and 3.27 (adult albumin) for the lower affinity site. The association constant (Ka, M-1) for diazepam was 1.36 x 10(5) (fetal albumin) and 1.00 x 10(5) (adult albumin) and that for digitoxin was 4.12 x 10(6) (fetal albumin) and 2.7 x 10(6) (adult albumin). For salicylic acid, Ka was 38.4 x 10(3) (fetal albumin) and 35.8 x 10(3) (adult albumin) for the higher affinity site, and 2.7 x 10(3) (fetal albumin) and 4.3 x 10(3) (adult albumin) for the lower affinity site. This work shows that fetal and adult albumin have similar binding properties and corroborates our previous findings with furosemide.

  4. [Excess mortality in critically ill patients after treatment with human albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, M; Gemke, R J; Henny, C P

    1998-08-15

    According to the results of a systematic review of randomized clinical studies administration of human albumin to critically ill patients is associated with excess mortality, compared with withholding albumin or administration of crystalloid fluids. The study appears to be well done. Also, there are various explanatory pathophysiological mechanisms supporting the association. However, a favourable effect of albumin in certain patient groups cannot be excluded. Alternatives to albumin are available in most clinical situations, but unfortunately, they are not completely without drawbacks. The use of albumin has to be limited; it might only be abolished when a better effect of other fluids, such as synthetic solutions, is demonstrated.

  5. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation.

  6. Progression of glomerular filtration rate reduction determined in conscious Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Allen W; Ryan, Robert P; Kurth, Terry; Skelton, Meredith M; Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Gretz, Norbert

    2013-07-01

    Sequential changes in glomerular filtration rate during development of hypertension in the conscious Dahl salt-sensitive rats were determined using a new method for measurement. Using a miniaturized device, disappearance curves of fluorescein isothiocyanate-sinistrin were measured by transcutaneous excitation and real-time detection of the emitted light through the skin. Rats with implanted femoral venous catheters (dye injection and sampling) and carotid catheters (mean arterial pressure by telemetry) were studied, while maintained on a 0.4% NaCl diet and on days 2, 5, 7, 14, and 21 after switching to 4.0% (high-salt [HS]) diet. A separate group of rats were maintained on 0.4% for 21 days as a time control. Mean arterial pressure rose progressively from the last day of 0.4% (130±2 mm Hg) reaching significance by day 5 of HS and averaged 162±7 mm Hg by day 21. Urine albumin excretion was significantly elevated (×3) by day 7 of HS in Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Glomerular filtration rate reduced on day 14 of HS falling from 1.53±0.06 mL/min per 100 g body weight to 1.27±0.04. By day 21, glomerular filtration rate had fallen 28% to 1.1±0.04 mL/min per 100 g (t(1/2) 28.4±1.1 minute.) No significant reductions of creatinine clearance were observed throughout the study in response to HS demonstrating the insensitivity of creatinine clearance measurements even with creatinine measured using mass spectrometry. We conclude that the observed reduction of glomerular filtration rate was a consequence and not a cause of the hypertension and that this noninvasive approach could be used in these conscious Dahl salt-sensitive rats for a longitudinal assessment of renal function.

  7. Diel variation in metabolism and ammonia excretion of Marphysa sanguinea (Polychaeta: Eunicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dazuo; Chen, Fudi; Zhou, Yibing; Xiu, Zhilong

    2016-11-01

    Polychaetes provide an excellent food resource for fish and represent the dominant zoobenthos in marine ecosystems. Diel variation in the rates of metabolism and ammonia-N excretion of Marphysa sanguinea were studied. The worms were grouped according to their wet body weight into small (S; 1.24±0.06 g), medium (M; 4.00±0.30 g), and large (L; 8.54±1.08 g) categories. Their weight-specific metabolic rates, based on aerobic respiration ( R), were measured at 16°C (±0.2°C) and classed as either routine ( R R) or standard ( R S) rates. Both respiration types decreased with increasing body weight. Respiration was described by R = a W b, where b was -0.400 9 and -0.532 0 for R R and R S, respectively. Diurnal changes in R S for each group was relatively flat, with a slightly increasing trend with time, but was relatively stable as a whole. R R of the diurnal variation of worms was higher than R S, but both had similar overall trends. The peak values of specific dynamic action (SDA) ( R SDA) in the S, M, and L groups were 2.704, 1.149, and 0.682 mg/(g•h), respectively. The durations of SDA were 13, 6, and 6 h, respectively and the energy expenditures of SDA were 377.98, 117.34, and 74.94 J/g, respectively. These data indicate that the metabolic rates were higher in smaller individuals, which is advantageous for their rapid growth.

  8. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of isoflavonoids after soy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Halm, Brunhild M

    2014-10-01

    Soy is the major source of dietary exposure to isoflavonoids (IFLs). Accumulating evidence supports a role for soy and IFLs in the protection against many chronic diseases including cancer. After soy intake we found a biphasic IFL appearance pattern in plasma as well as in urine that we suggest to be due to IFL absorption in the small intestine (ca. 10%) during the first 2h after intake and IFL absorption in the large intestine (ca. 90%) 4-6 h after intake. While each IFL disappears from the circulation at different times excellent correlations between urinary and circulating IFL values were discovered and algorithms to convert urinary excretion values into circulating levels were established. We suggest the term 'apparent bioavailability' when using urinary data to describe IFL exposure. The IFL bioavailability was found to be influenced by gut bacteria, oral antibiotic treatment (OABX), and an individual's age and health status. While daidzein (DE) and genistein start to be absorbed minutes after intake, equol (EQ) appears in plasma only after a minimum of 8h following soy intake owing to the required transit time of DE to the colon where the conversion of DE to EQ takes place by intestinal microbiota. We have also shown that the apparent IFL bioavailability is higher in children than adults, higher in healthy versus non-healthy individuals, and decreased in children but increased in adults during OABX. Finally, we propose to use a urinary EQ/DE ratio of 0.018 with a DE threshold to identify EQ producers. With this cutoff definition we observed that EQ production is inconsistent over time in 5-30% of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  9. (Uncommon) Mechanisms of Branchial Ammonia Excretion in the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Response to Environmentally Induced Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M; Hiroi, Junya; Wilson, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes generally increase ammonia excretion in acidic waters. The new model of ammonia transport in freshwater fish involves an association between the Rhesus (Rh) protein Rhcg-b, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE), and a suite of other membrane transporters. We tested the hypothesis that Rhcg-b and NHE3 together play a critical role in branchial ammonia excretion in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) chronically exposed to a low-pH environment. Carp were exposed to three sequential environmental treatments-control pH 7.6 water (24 h), pH 4.0 water (72 h), and recovery pH 7.6 water (24 h)-or in a separate series were simply exposed to either control (72 h) or pH 4.0 (72 h) water. Branchial ammonia excretion was increased by ∼2.5-fold in the acid compared with the control period, despite the absence of an increase in the plasma-to-water partial pressure NH3 gradient. Alanine aminotransferase activity was higher in the gills of fish exposed to pH 4 versus control water, suggesting that ammonia may be generated in gill tissue. Gill Rhcg-b and NHE3b messenger RNA levels were significantly elevated in acid-treated relative to control fish, but at the protein level Rhcg-b decreased (30%) and NHE3b increased (2-fold) in response to water of pH 4.0. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, NHE3b and Rhcg-b were found to be colocalized to ionocytes along the interlamellar space of the filament of control fish. After 72 h of acid exposure, Rhcg-b staining almost disappeared from this region, and NHE3b was more prominent along the lamellae. We propose that ammoniagenesis within the gill tissue itself is responsible for the higher rates of branchial ammonia excretion during chronic metabolic acidosis. Unexpectedly, gill Rhcg-b does not appear to be important in gill ammonia transport in low-pH water, but the strong induction of NHE3b suggests that some NH4(+) may be eliminated directly in exchange for Na(+). These findings contrast with previous studies in larval zebrafish

  10. Urinary fluoride excretion after application of fluoride varnish and use of fluoride toothpaste in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockner, Frida; Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2017-01-01

    the levels with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste. DESIGN: Fifteen healthy children were enrolled to a randomized crossover trial that was performed in two parts: Part I with twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste and Part II with twice-daily brushing with a non-fluoride toothpaste......: There was a statistically significant increase in the 6-h fluoride excretion after application of both experimental varnishes, with and without parallel use of fluoride toothpaste (P toothpaste was used, the mean fluoride excretion was 0.20 mg/6 h after application of Duraphat and 0.29 mg/6 h...... after application of Profluorid Varnish (P = 0.18). CONCLUSIONS: Topical applications of 0.1 mL of fluoride varnish significantly increased the 6-h fluoride excretion. As some individuals displayed excretion levels exceeding the optimal fluoride exposure, a restricted use of fluoride toothpaste...

  11. Splanchnic and peripheral release of 3-methylhistidine in relation to its urinary excretion in human infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölin, J; Stjernström, H; Henneberg, S;

    1989-01-01

    ) and from the splanchnic region 0.012 +/- 0.013 mumol/min. These releases of 3MH constitute 27% +/- 2% and 8% +/- 6% of the individual urinary excretions, respectively. With increasing degree of catabolism, measured as individual 3MH increase above baseline excretion or as the 3MH to creatinine ratio (3MH......:Cr), the relative contribution to urinary excretion from the leg was increased (individual increase, P = 0.08; 3MH:Cr, P less than 0.01). Since this contribution was not decreased in the more catabolic patients, as would have been expected if the increase in urinary 3MH originated elsewhere, it is concluded...... that skeletal muscle is the source, and these results thus validate the use of urinary 3MH excretion as a marker of myofibrillar protein catabolism in infected patients....

  12. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Lansink, Annemieke Oude; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  13. Insulin Is Required to Maintain Albumin Expression by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O1 Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Lu, Mingjian; Monks, Bobby R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes is accompanied by dysregulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In recent years, much effort has been spent on understanding how insulin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas the effect of insulin on protein metabolism has received less attention. In diabetes, hepatic production of serum albumin decreases, and it has been long established that insulin positively controls albumin gene expression. In this study, we used a genetic approach in mice to identify the mechanism by which insulin regulates albumin gene transcription. Albumin expression was decreased significantly in livers with insulin signaling disrupted by ablation of the insulin receptor or Akt. Concomitant deletion of Forkhead Box O1 (Foxo1) in these livers rescued the decreased albumin secretion. Furthermore, activation of Foxo1 in the liver is sufficient to suppress albumin expression. These results suggest that Foxo1 acts as a repressor of albumin expression.

  14. Analysis of binding ability of two tetramethylpyridylporphyrins to albumin and its complex with bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomonov, Alexey V.; Shipitsyna, Maria K.; Vashurin, Arthur S.; Rumyantsev, Evgeniy V.; Timin, Alexander S.; Ivanov, Sergey P.

    2016-11-01

    An interaction between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(N-methyl-x-pyridyl)porphyrins, x = 2; 4 (TMPyPs) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and its bilirubin (BR) complex was investigated by UV-Viz and fluorescence spectroscopy under imitated physiological conditions involving molecular docking studies. The parameters of forming intermolecular complexes (binding constants, quenching rate constants, quenching sphere radius etc.) were determined. It was showed that the interaction between proteins and TMPyPs occurs via static quenching of protein fluorescence and has predominantly hydrophobic and electrostatic character. It was revealed that obtained complexes are relatively stable, but in the case of TMPyP4 binding with proteins occurs better than TMPyP2. Nevertheless, both TMPyPs have better binding ability with free protein compared to BRBSA at the same time. The influence of TMPyPs on the conformational changes in protein molecules was studied using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that there is no competition of BR with TMPyPs for binging sites on protein molecule and BR displacement does not occur. Molecular docking calculations have showed that TMPyPs can bind with albumin via tryptophan residue in the hydrophilic binding site of protein molecule but it is not one possible interaction way.

  15. Spectroscopic studies of 7, 8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin and its interaction with bovine serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Belal H.M., E-mail: belalhussein102@yahoo.co [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt)

    2011-05-15

    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of 7, 8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (DHMC) in ethanol-water (1:9 v/v) solution at varying pH values were investigated . The interaction between DHMC and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by fluorescence, FT-IR, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (K{sub SV}), the quenching rate constant of the bimolecular reaction (K{sub q}), the binding constant, and number of binding sites (n) of DHMC with BSA were evaluated. The results showed that DHMC quenches the fluorescence intensity of BSA through a static quenching process. Positive value of entropy change ({Delta}S) and negative value of enthalpy change ({Delta}H) of the BSA-DHMC interaction were obtained according to the van't Hoff equation. The interaction between DHMC and BSA was driven mainly by hydrophobic forces. The binding process was spontaneous and exothermic. The binding distance between the tryptophan residue in BSA and the DHMC was found to be about 2.6 nm based on the Foerster theory of non-radiation energy transfer. - Research highlights: {yields} 7,8-dihydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (DHMC) quenched the bovine serum albumin (BSA) fluorescence. {yields} The formation of the DHMC-BSA complex was spontaneous through a static quenching process. {yields} The polarity around the tryptophan residues decreased with the increase of DHMC concentration.

  16. Drug elimination function of rat small intestine: metabolism and intraluminal excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, M; Kurosaki, Y; Kimura, T; Sezaki, H

    1984-10-15

    The metabolic and excretory function of the small intestine was investigated after oral and intravenous administration of drugs having an aromatic amino group to rats. After administration of drugs into the intestinal loop at the initial concentration of 0.1 mM, significant excretion of their N-acetylated forms into the lumen was observed. The amount of N-acetyl forms excreted in the lumen were 39.3 +/- 3.5, 63.5 +/- 20.9 and 18.0 +/- 13.8% of disappeared drugs from the lumen for p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), p-aminosalicylic acid and sulfanilic acid, respectively. The excretion of p-acetamidobenzoic acid (Ac-PABA) after the absorption of PABA was reduced by the coadministration with salicylic acid, benzoic acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Salicylic acid noncompetitively inhibited the acetylation of PABA by the intestinal N-acetyltransferase. A good correlation was found between the intestinal N-acetyltransferase activities for drugs and the intraluminal excretion of N-acetyl derivatives after intestinal absorption of drugs. These results indicate that a drug having a higher susceptibility to intestinal N-acetyltransferase would undergo a greater excretion into the lumen in its N-acetyl form after intestinal absorption. After intravenous administration of PABA at a dose of 100 mumole/kg, 4.02 +/- 0.51% of dose was excreted in the lumen as Ac-PABA in 30 min. On the other hand, a significantly smaller fraction (2.72 +/- 0.68% of dose) was excreted in the lumen after intravenous injection of 100 mumole/kg of Ac-PABA. The larger excretion of Ac-PABA after administration of PABA indicates the contribution of intestinal metabolism on the transfer of PABA not only after oral, but also after intravenous administration.

  17. K+ Excretion: The Other Purpose for Puddling Behavior in Japanese Papilio Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+. PMID:25955856

  18. Urinary sulphate excretion and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrésdóttir, G; Bakker, S J L; Hansen, H P

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy.......Hydrogen sulphide levels are reduced in many disease states, including diabetes and end-stage renal disease. We aimed to determine whether urinary sulphate excretion, as a proxy for hydrogen sulphide, was associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy....

  19. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Weiner, I. David; Leader, John P.; Bedford, Jennifer J.; Verlander, Jill W.; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid–base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long‐term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium‐treated individuals excreted signific...

  20. Tissue distribution and excretion of 125I-lidamycin in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Ping Liu; Quan-Sheng Li; Yu-Rong Huang; Chang-Xiao Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretions of 125I-lidamycin (125I-C-1027) in mice and its biliary excretion in rats.METHODS: The total radioactivity assay (RA method) and the radioactivity assay after precipitation with 200 mL/L trichloroacetic acid (TCA-RA method) were used to dete-rmine the tissue distribution, and the urinary and fecal excretions of 125I-C-1027 in mice and its biliary excretion in rats.RESULTS: Tissue concentrations reached the peak at the fifth minute after administration of 125I-C-1027 to mice. The highest concentration was in kidney, and the lowest in brain at all test-time points. The organs of the concentrations of 125I-C-1027 from high to low were kidney, lung, liver, stomach, spleen, uterus, ovary, intestine, muscle, heart, testis, fat, and brain in mice. The accumulative excretionamounts of 0-24 h, and 0-96 h after administration of125I-C-1027 were 68.36 and 71.64% in urine, and 2.60 and 3.21% in feces of mice, respectively, and the accumulative excretion amount of 0-24 h was 3.57% in bile in rats.CONCLUSION: Our results reflect the characteristics of the tissue distribution, urinary and fecal excretions of 125IC-1027 in mice and the biliary excretion of 125I-C-1027and its metabolites in rats, and indicate that 125I-C-1027and its metabolites are mainly distributed in kidney, and excreted in urine.