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Sample records for albumin excretion rate

  1. Urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Sørensen, S F; Mogensen, C E

    1980-01-01

    prednisone, 5-20 mg/day. None of the patients had proteinuria as judged by the "Albustix" test, and all had normal serum creatinine. The daily urinary albumin and beta 2-microglobulin excretion rates were nearly the same as those previously found by us in 27 adult control subjects with a mean age of 44 years...

  2. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker...... candesartan compared with placebo affects microalbuminuria incidence or rate of change in albuminuria in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: 3 randomized trials of the DIRECT (Diabetic Retinopathy Candesartan Trials) Program. SETTING: 309 secondary care centers. PATIENTS: 3326 and 1905 patients with type 1...... and type 2 diabetes, respectively. Most were normotensive, and all had normoalbuminuria (median urinary albumin excretion rate, 5.0 microg/min). INTERVENTION: Candesartan, 16 mg/d increasing to 32 mg/d, versus placebo. Assignment was done centrally using an interactive voice-response system. Patients...

  3. The impact of hormonal contraceptives on blood pressure, urinary albumin excretion and glomerular filtration rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atthobari, Jarir; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Visser, Sipke T.; de Jong, Paul E.; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.

    Aim In short-term studies, hormonal contraceptives (HC) have been suggested to induce a rise in blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), while the effect of HC in renal function (GFR) is still under debate. Data on long-term and withdrawal effects of HC use on these outcomes are,

  4. Albumin excretion rate is not affected by asymptomatic urinary tract infection: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Cristina; Simó, Rafael

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether asymptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) significantly influences the level of albumin excretion rate (AER) in diabetic patients. We screened prospectively for UTI and AER in 765 type 2 diabetic subjects. AER was determined before and after antimicrobial therapy in those patients in whom an asymptomatic UTI was diagnosed (n = 59). To interpret the clinical significance of AER changes, the coefficient of biological variation (CVb) of the AER (CVb-AER) was assessed in a control group of type 2 diabetic patients without UTI (n = 56). AER did not change after antimicrobial treatment either in the whole group of patients with UTI (pre: 13.8 microg/min [0.1-195] vs. post: 8.5 microg/min [0.1-185]; P = 0.1) or in those patients in whom the infection was eradicated (pre: 11.7 microg/min [0.1-195] vs. post: 7.1 microg/min [0.1-185]; NS). The CVb-AER was 64% in the control group and was inversely correlated with AER (r = -0.44; P = 0.001). The decrease of AER after antimicrobial therapy (55%) did not exceed the biological variation of AER (64%). Finally, UTI did not significantly influence the classification of diabetic patients as normo- or microalbuminuric. Asymptomatic UTI does not increase AER in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, our results suggest that testing for UTI is not necessary when AER is measured in diabetic patients.

  5. Comparison of urinary albumin-creatinine ratio and albumin excretion rate in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Naji; Cleary, Patricia A; Steffes, Michael W; de Boer, Ian H; Molitch, Mark E; Rutledge, Brandy N; Lachin, John M; Dahms, William

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare random urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) with timed urine albumin excretion rate (AER) in patients with type 1 diabetes. A total of 1186 participants in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (DCCT/EDIC) Study provided spot urine specimens concurrent with 4-hour timed urine collections. ACR and AER were compared using Bland-Altman plots, cross-classification of albuminuria status and its change over time, and within-person variability. Despite moderate correlation (r=0.62), ACR levels (mg/g) were lower than AER levels (mg/24 hr). This difference was greatest for men. Gender-specific estimated AER (eAER) values were empirically derived from ACR. Comparing the eAER with measured AER, agreement of prevalent microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria classification was fair to moderate, and classification of change in albuminuria status over time was different. Intraclass correlations were 0.697 for ACR and 0.803 for AER. Effects of DCCT intensive versus conventional diabetes therapy on urine albumin excretion or classification of albuminuria were similar using the eAER versus measured AER, as were the effects of the previous glycosylated hemoglobin. Systematic differences exist between urine ACR and AER, related to gender and other determinants of muscle mass. Use of ACR (or eAER) versus AER yields differences in classification of prevalent albuminuria states and changes in albuminuria states over time. These findings support the use of consistent ascertainment methods over time and further efforts to standardize and optimally interpret measurement of urine albumin excretion.

  6. Epicardial, pericardial and total cardiac fat and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Regitse H.; Von Scholten, Bernt J.; Hansen, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    of 200 patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Methods Cardiac adipose tissue was measured from baseline echocardiography. The composite endpoint comprised incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media......Background We evaluated the association of cardiac adipose tissue including epicardial adipose tissue and pericardial adipose tissue with incident cardiovascular disease and mortality, coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media thickness and inflammatory markers. Design A prospective study...... thickness and inflammatory markers were measured at baseline. Cardiac adipose tissue was investigated as continuous and binary variable. Analyses were performed unadjusted (model 1), and adjusted for age, sex (model 2), body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, glycated haemoglobin...

  7. Impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Hansen, Henrik Post; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-dose treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely recommended to type 2 diabetic patients as primary prevention against cardiovascular disease. High-dose treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduces urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in type 1 diabetic patients...

  8. Elevated NT-proBNP and coronary calcium score in relation to coronary artery disease in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Henrik; Hansen, Peter R; Persson, Frederik

    2011-01-01

    Elevated plasma N-terminal (NT)-proBNP levels and coronary calcium score (CCS) not only predicts myocardial ischaemia and coronary artery stenosis but also adverse cardiovascular events and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients with an increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), whereas low...

  9. Impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Hansen, Henrik Post; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Low-dose treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely recommended to type 2 diabetic patients as primary prevention against cardiovascular disease. High-dose treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduces urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in type 1 diabetic patients with micro- or mac...

  10. Autonomic neuropathy in nondiabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure: the Fredericia Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Anne-Catherine; Vestbo, Else; Frøland, Anders

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of parental type 2 diabetes on the autonomic nervous system and to determine whether autonomic neuropathy is present and associated with changes in 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (AMBP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in nondiabetic subjec...

  11. Impact of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid on kidney function in type 2 diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaede, Peter; Hansen, Henrik Post; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Low-dose treatment with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is widely recommended to type 2 diabetic patients as primary prevention against cardiovascular disease. High-dose treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduces urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) in type 1 diabetic patients with micro...

  12. Early elevation of albumin excretion rate is associated with poor gluten-free diet adherence in young people with coeliac disease and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Short, A; C Donaghue, K; Ambler, G; K Chan, A; Hing, S; Cusumano, J; E Craig, M

    2014-02-01

    There are conflicting data on microvascular complications in coexisting Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease. We compared complications rates in youth with or without coeliac disease and examined the association between gluten-free diet adherence and complications. This was a comparative study of adolescents (2510 without coeliac disease, 129 with coeliac disease); 60 (47%) did not adhere to a gluten-free diet--defined as elevated anti-tissue transglutaminase or endomysial immunoglobulin A titres. Retinopathy was detected using 7-field fundal photography and albumin excretion rate by timed overnight urine collections, with early elevation defined as albumin excretion rate ≥ 7.5 μg/min. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between complications and explanatory variables, including coeliac disease vs. no coeliac disease, gluten-free diet adherence vs. non-adherence, diabetes duration and HbA1c . Median age at last assessment was 16.5 years. Those with coeliac disease vs. those without were younger at diabetes diagnosis (7.1 vs. 8.6 years, P coeliac disease vs. those without (67 vs. 70 mmol/mol, 8.3 vs. 8.6%, P = 0.04) and adherence to a gluten-free diet vs. non-adherence (66 vs. 72 mmol/mol, 8.2 vs. 8.7%, P = 0.003). There were no differences in complication rates between those with coeliac disease vs. those without (retinopathy 22 vs. 23%, elevated albumin excretion rate 31 vs. 28%). Non-adherence to a gluten-free diet was associated with elevated albumin excretion rate (40 vs. 23%, P = 0.04). In multivariable logistic regression, elevated albumin excretion rate was associated with non-adherence to a gluten-free diet (odds ratio 2.37, 95% CI 1.04-5.40, P = 0.04) and diabetes duration (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.25, P = 0.03), but not HbA1c . While glycaemic control is better in patients with coeliac disease, non-adherence to a gluten-free diet is associated with elevated albumin excretion rate. The possible protection of a gluten-free diet

  13. Urinary albumin excretion. An independent predictor of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Strandgaard, S

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that an increased urinary albumin excretion rate is associated with cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to analyze prospectively whether the urinary albumin-to -creatinine (A/C) ratio can independently predict...... ischemic heart disease (IHD) in a population-based cohort. In 1983, urinary albumin and creatinine levels were measured, along with the conventional atherosclerotic risk factors, in 2085 consecutive participants without IHD, renal disease, urinary tract infection, or diabetes mellitus. The participants......, 1.3 to 3.9, P=0.002), and the 10-year disease-free survival decreased from 97% to 91% (P

  14. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  15. Circadian variation of urinary albumin excretion in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, C. E.; van der Post, J. A.; van Acker, B. A.; Boer, K.; Koopman, M. G.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis was tested that circadian variations in urinary albumin excretion of pregnant women in the third trimester of normal pregnancy are different from nonpregnant individuals. DESIGN: Circadian variability in urinary albumin excretion was studied both in pregnant women and in

  16. Sodium intake affects urinary albumin excretion especially in overweight subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J C; Hillege, H L; Burgerhof, J G M; Janssen, W M T; Gansevoort, R T; Navis, G J; de Zeeuw, D; de Jong, P E; Postma, Maarten

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the relationship between sodium intake and urinary albumin excretion, being an established risk marker for later cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Design. Cross-sectional cohort study using linear regression analysis. Setting: University hospital outpatient clinic.

  17. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is more effective than multiple daily insulin injections in preventing albumin excretion rate increase in Type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, G; Bruttomesso, D; Bonomo, M; Dodesini, A R; Costa, S; Meneghini, E; Corsi, A; Nosari, I; Trevisan, R

    2009-06-01

    To compare the effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) on albumin excretion rate (AER) in Type 1 diabetic patients. In a 3-year multicentre retrospective observational study, 110 Type 1 diabetic patients treated with CSII were compared with 110 patients treated with MDI matched at baseline for age, sex, diabetes duration and HbA(1c). At entry, 90 patients in each group had normal AER and 20 persistent microalbuminuria. AER, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), HbA(1c,) lipids and blood pressure were assessed. HbA(1c) was lower in the CSII than in the MDI group (8.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 8.4 +/- 1.3%; P AER [median (95% confidence interval)], similar at baseline [6.0 microg/min (9, 21) in the CSII group vs. 4.4 (8, 16) in the MDI group, NS] was significantly lower in the patients treated with CSII both at year 2 and at year 3 of follow-up [4.7 microg/min (6, 12) vs. 6.4 (13, 29), P therapy may be useful in decreasing the progressive increase in AER in Type 1 diabetic patients.

  18. Current issues in measurement and reporting of urinary albumin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Greg; Bruns, David E; Hortin, Glen L; Sandberg, Sverre; Aakre, Kristin M; McQueen, Matthew J; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Lieske, John C; Seccombe, David W; Jones, Graham; Bunk, David M; Curhan, Gary C; Narva, Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin indicates kidney damage and is recognized as a risk factor for progression of kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. The role of urinary albumin measurements has focused attention on the clinical need for accurate and clearly reported results. The National Kidney Disease Education Program and the IFCC convened a conference to assess the current state of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical issues affecting urine albumin measurements and to identify areas needing improvement. The chemistry of albumin in urine is incompletely understood. Current guidelines recommend the use of the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) as a surrogate for the error-prone collection of timed urine samples. Although ACR results are affected by patient preparation and time of day of sample collection, neither is standardized. Considerable intermethod differences have been reported for both albumin and creatinine measurement, but trueness is unknown because there are no reference measurement procedures for albumin and no reference materials for either analyte in urine. The recommended reference intervals for the ACR do not take into account the large intergroup differences in creatinine excretion (e.g., related to differences in age, sex, and ethnicity) nor the continuous increase in risk related to albumin excretion. Clinical needs have been identified for standardization of (a) urine collection methods, (b) urine albumin and creatinine measurements based on a complete reference system, (c) reporting of test results, and (d) reference intervals for the ACR.

  19. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging : A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    Background: New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in

  20. Renal albumin excretion: twin studies identify influences of heredity, environment, and adrenergic pathway polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Fangwen; Wessel, Jennifer; Wen, Gen

    2007-01-01

    hydroxylase, chromogranin A, and sorting nexin 13. Dopamine D1 receptor polymorphism showed pleiotropic effects on both albumin and dopamine excretion. These studies establish new roles for heredity and environment in albumin excretion. Urinary excretions of albumin and catecholamines are highly heritable...

  1. Endothelial haemostatic factors are associated with progression of urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G

    1999-01-01

    A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER), above 5-10 microgram/min, is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Endothelial dysfunction is an important early feature of atherosclerosis. The plasma concentration of von Willebrand factor (vWF), a potential marker of e...

  2. Treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, reduces increased albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M P; Vasselli, J R; Neuman, R G; Witt, J

    1995-10-01

    1. We examined the effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. 2. Treatment with acarbose for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes prevented the significant increase in UAE observed in untreated diabetic rats relative to nondiabetic controls. 3. Acarbose significantly reduced integrated glycemia, which correlated with albumin excretion rates, and exerts a salutary effect on diabetic renal dysfunction.

  3. Biliary albumin excretion induced by bile salts in rats is a pathological phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, M.; Kitani, K.; Kanai, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bile to plasma 125I-albumin concentration ratio (B/P ratio) was examined before and during various bile salt infusions in male Wistar rats that had previously received iv injection of 125I-albumin. Endogenous rat albumin and IgG concentrations in the bile were also determined by a single radial immunodiffusion method. Taurocholate (TC) infusion (1.0 mumol/min/100 g body wt) significantly increased the bile flow rate in the first hr but the flow began to decline in the second hr. The B/P ratio as well as rat albumin (and IgG) excretion into the bile significantly increased as early as 15 min after the start of TC infusion, and the increase became more pronounced in the second hr, when the bile flow began to decrease. Infusion of taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC, 0.4 mumol/min/100 g) caused a reduction in bile flow 15 min after the start of infusion but the B/P ratio increased 40 times at its peak compared with the basal value before the bile salt infusion. Simultaneous infusion of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC, 0.6 mumol/min/100 g) and TCDC not only abolished the cholestasis induced by TCDC but maintained stable choleresis as long as for 2 hr. During this choleretic period, the B/P ration never exceeded the basal value. The choleresis induced by either taurodehydrocholate (TDHC) or bucolome was not accompanied by enhanced albumin excretion. In rats given TDHC infusion, albumin excretion started to increase only after the bile flow began to decline following the initial choleretic period. The enhanced excretion of albumin induced by TC and TCDC is therefore suggested to be caused not by the choleresis per se but by a possible concomitant increase in the communication between sinusoids and bile canaliculi, which eventually leads to cholestasis

  4. Lower serum albumin level is associated with higher fractional excretion of creatinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Masaru; Imai, Enyu; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2014-06-01

    Creatinine clearance (Ccr) overestimates glomerular filtration rate (GFR) due to the tubular secretion of creatinine. It is known that fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr) increases with decreasing GFR. Association of serum albumin level with the tubular secretion of creatinine was also reported previously. Alteration of FE-Cr may affect the performance of GFR estimating equations based on serum creatinine. Therefore, we analyzed the factors influencing FE-Cr and compared the performance of GFR equations in subjects stratified by serum albumin levels. Seven hundred and fifty-seven Japanese subjects were included. GFR was measured by inulin renal clearance. GFR and Ccr were measured simultaneously. FE-Cr was calculated as the ratio of Ccr to GFR. Multivariate analysis was performed to evaluate the factors influencing FE-Cr. Age, gender, GFR, body mass index (BMI), body weight, height and serum albumin level were analyzed as the parameters. Estimated GFR was calculated by Japanese GFR equations based on serum creatinine (Eq-cr), serum cystatin C (Eq-cys) and 5 variables including serum albumin (Eq-5var). FE-Cr in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR (p serum albumin level (p = 0.004) were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Biases of Eq-cr, Eq-cys and Eq-5var in subjects with serum albumin serum albumin ≥4.0 g/dl were 6.4 ± 18.8, 2.0 ± 18.1 and 3.0 ± 18.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively. Eq-cr significantly underestimated GFR compared with Eq-cys or Eq-5var. GFR and serum albumin level were independent parameters affecting FE-Cr. Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons of the bias of GFR equation based on serum creatinine.

  5. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h), group 2 comprised 10 with incipient diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion 30-300 mg/24 h, and group 3 comprised 10 with clinical diabetic nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion greater than 300 mg/24 h). Ten non-diabetic subjects matched for sex...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  6. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myrup, B.; Hansen, P.M.; Jensen, T.; Kofoed-Enevoldsen, A.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Gram, J.; Kluft, C.; Jespersen, J.; Deckert, T.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU

  7. Effect of low-dose heparin on urinary albumin excretion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Hansen, P M; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the effect of heparin on urinary albumin excretion in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. 39 patients with persistent urinary albumin excretion of 30-300 mg/24 h were randomly treated for 3 months with subcutaneous injections twice daily of isotonic saline, 5000 IU...

  8. Urinary albumin excretion and history of acute myocardial infarction in a cross-sectional population study of 2,613 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies have suggested that microalbuminuria--a slightly increased urinary excretion of albumin--is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether an association exists between urinary excretion of albumin and a history of acute myocardial...... measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate, acquisition of information regarding previous acute myocardial infarction (verified by the Danish Hospital Register) and tobacco and alcohol consumption, 12-lead resting electrocardiogram, and measurement of blood pressure, body mass index, waist:hip ratio......, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and fibrinogen, serum albumin concentration and glomerular filtration rate. RESULTS: Among the participants, 3.6% presented with a history of acute myocardial infarction. There was a positive association between urinary albumin excretion rate...

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Peter Vilhelm; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    UAER. Because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure is a superior predictor of hypertensive target organ involvement, we aimed to investigate blood pressure profile in clinically healthy subjects with elevated UAER. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed with a portable recorder in 27 subjects...... loss of albumin could not be solely related to the higher blood pressure. In conclusion, apparently healthy subjects with elevated UAER had slightly but significantly higher 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in addition to increased blood pressure loads but normal circadian variation......A slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) is a predictor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The mechanism is unknown, but moderate office blood pressure elevation has been demonstrated as part of a clustering of known atherosclerotic risk factors in subjects with elevated...

  10. Normal urinary albumin excretion in recently diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, B; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    of diabetes. Urinary albumin excretion (median and 95% confidence interval) was similar in the diabetic patients and normal control subjects (8 (6-11) vs 8 (6-11) mg 24-h-1, NS). Four diabetic patients had urinary albumin excretion in the microalbuminuric range of 30-300 mg 24-h-1. There was no significant...... difference between the two groups in urinary excretion of retinol binding protein. The distribution among the individuals of both urinary proteins was positively skewed and similar in the two groups. In conclusion, no significant differences in the urinary excretion of albumin and retinol binding protein...... were found between recently diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and normal subjects....

  11. Urine Albumin-Creatinine Ratio Versus Albumin Excretion for Albuminuria Staging: A Prospective Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vart, Priya; Scheven, Lieneke; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; de Jong, Paul E; de Zeeuw, Dick; Gansevoort, Ron T

    2016-01-01

    New guidelines advocate the use of albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a urine sample instead of 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for staging albuminuria. Concern has been expressed that this may result in misclassification for reasons including interindividual differences in urinary creatinine excretion. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. We examined 7,623 participants of the PREVEND and RENAAL studies for reclassified when using ACR instead of 24-hour UAE, the characteristics of reclassified participants, and their outcomes. Albuminuria was categorized into 3 ACR and UAE categories: 300mg/g or mg/24 h, respectively. Baseline ACR and 24-hour UAE. Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality. When using ACR in the early morning void instead of 24-hour UAE, 88% of participants were classified in corresponding albuminuria categories. 307 (4.0%) participants were reclassified to a higher, and 603 (7.9%), to a lower category. Participants who were reclassified to a higher ACR category in general had a worse CV risk profile compared with nonreclassified participants, whereas the reverse was true for participants reclassified to a lower ACR category. Similarly, Cox proportional hazards regression analyses showed that reclassification to a higher ACR category was associated with a tendency for increased risk for CV morbidity and mortality and all-cause mortality, whereas reclassification to a lower ACR category was associated with a tendency for lower risk. Net reclassification improvement, adjusted for age, sex, and duration of follow-up, was 0.107 (P=0.002) for CV events and 0.089 (P<0.001) for all-cause mortality. Early morning void urine collection instead of spot urine collection. Our results indicate that there is high agreement between early morning void ACR and 24-hour UAE categories. Reclassification is therefore limited, but when present, is generally indicative of the presence of CV risk factors and prognosis. Copyright © 2016

  12. Transcapillary escape rate of albumin in hypertensive patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1993-01-01

    . The systemic blood pressure and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin were measured in the following groups after 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment: Group 1--eleven healthy control subjects. Group 2--ten Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin...... excretion rate: 30-300 mg/24 h) and normal blood pressure. Group 3--eleven non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Group 4--nine Type 1 diabetic patients with hypertension but normal urinary albumin excretion (Type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy (urinary......Diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (incipient or clinical nephropathy) also have an increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin. This study was designed to clarify whether this is caused by a general vascular dysfunction or by elevated systemic blood pressure...

  13. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF LINOLEIC-ACID-ENRICHED DIET ON ALBUMINURIA AND LIPID-LEVELS IN TYPE-1 (INSULIN-DEPENDENT) DIABETIC-PATIENTS WITH ELEVATED URINARY ALBUMIN EXCRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DULLAART, RPF; BEUSEKAMP, BJ; MEIJER, S; HOOGENBERG, K; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; SLUITER, WJ

    We conducted a 2-year prospective randomised study to investigate the effects of a linoleic-acid-enriched diet on albuminuria and lipid levels in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion (overnight urinary albumin excretion rate between 10 and

  14. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor therapy in children with Alport syndrome: effect on urinary albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashtan Clifford E

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are routinely prescribed to patients with chronic kidney disease because of their known renoprotective effects. We evaluated the effect of short-term therapy with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, in early Alport syndrome, defined as disease duration less than 10 years and a normal glomerular filtration rate. Methods 11 children with early Alport syndrome were investigated. Two consecutive early morning urine specimens were collected at the start of the study for measurement of urinary creatinine, total protein, albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion. Patients were treated with enalapril, ≅ 0.2 mg/kg/day, once a day for 14 days. Two early morning urine specimens were collected on days 13 and 14 of enalapril treatment and two weeks later for measurement of urinary creatinine, total protein, albumin, TGF-β, and nitrite excretion. Results Prior to treatment, urinary excretion of transforming growth factor-β and nitrite, the major metabolite of nitric oxide, was within normal limits in all patients. Administration of enalapril for 2 weeks did not alter urinary albumin, transforming growth factor-β, or nitrite excretion. Conclusion These findings suggest that early Alport syndrome represents a disease involving exclusively intrinsic glomerular barrier dysfunction. At this stage of the illness, there is no evidence of angiotensin II-mediated proteinuria or increased production of transforming growth factor-β and, therefore, routine treatment with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor may not be warranted.

  15. Low urinary albumin excretion in astronauts during space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiological changes occur in man during space missions also at the renal level. Proteinuria was hypothesized for space missions but research data are missing. METHODS: Urinary albumin, as an index of proteinuria, and other variables were analyzed in 4 astronauts during space missions......-two 24-hour urine collections were obtained in space (n per astronaut = 1-14) and on the ground (n per astronaut = 2-12). Urinary albumin was measured by radioimmunoassay. For each astronaut, mean of data in space and on the ground was defined as individual average. RESULTS: The individual averages of 24...... h urinary albumin were lower in space than on the ground in all astronauts; the difference was significant (mean +/- SD, space and on the ground = 3.41 +/- 0.56 and 4.70 +/- 1.20 mg/24 h, p = 0.017). Dietary protein intake and 24-hour urinary urea were not significantly different between space...

  16. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect...

  17. Urinary albumin excretion and the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Wal, R. M. A.; Voors, A. A.; Gansevoort, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Microalbuminuria has been shown to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic and hypertensive patients, but also in the general population. Moreover, several reports suggest that reduction of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with improvement of

  18. Urinary albumin excretion is associated with renal functional abnormalities in a nondiabetic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Janssen, WMT; Hillege, HL; Navis, G; De Zeeuw, D; De Jong, PE

    2000-01-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is an important early sign of diabetic nephropathy. Hyperfiltration and impaired filtration in relation to albuminuria has been well investigated in diabetic subjects. This study tested the hypothesis that an increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is associated with renal

  19. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B

    1998-01-01

    was independent of blood pressure, body weight, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and thrombolytic treatment. There was a positive correlation between urinary albumin excretion and thickness of the left ventricle wall (R = 0.28; p = 0.001) which was independent of blood pressure. Follow-up examination......Microalbuminuria, a subclinical rise in the urinary albumin excretion, is a risk indicator of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to measure the urinary albumin excretion in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and to correlate this with known atherosclerotic...

  20. Urinary albumin excretion in a population based sample of 1011 middle aged non-diabetic subjects. The Copenhagen City Heart Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1993-01-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) especially in the range of 20-200 micrograms min-1, termed microalbuminuria, has been proposed as a risk marker and predictor for cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic subjects. Thus it would be of importance to describe the distribution of UAER...

  1. Bone mineral metabolism parameters and urinary albumin excretion in a representative US population sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ellam

    Full Text Available Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH and alkaline phosphatase (ALP are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria.We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383 with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR <300 mg/g. Albuminuria was quantified as ACR and fractional albumin excretion (FE(alb.Increasing quintiles of dietary phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb. The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OHD was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb. Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OHD, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% p<0.001 and 17% (8-31% p = 0.001 respectively.In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb.

  2. Urinary albumin excretion and 24-hour blood pressure as predictors of pre-eclampsia in Type I diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, P; Damm, P; Nøgaard, K

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.......To evaluate the value of 24-h blood pressure monitoring compared to office blood pressure and urinary albumin excretion in predicting pre-eclampsia in Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus....

  3. Impaired aerobic work capacity in insulin dependent diabetics with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Richter, Erik; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    1988-01-01

    To assess whether decreased aerobic work capacity was associated with albuminuria in insulin dependent diabetics aerobic capacity was measured in three groups of 10 patients matched for age, sex, duration of diabetes, and degree of physical activity. Group 1 comprised 10 patients with normal...... were not explained by differences in metabolic control or the degree of autonomic neuropathy. Thus the insulin dependent diabetics with only slightly increased urinary albumin excretion had an appreciably impaired aerobic work capacity which could not be explained by autonomic neuropathy...

  4. Synergistic interaction between prolonged increased glycemic exposure and mildly increased urinary albumin excretion on diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Yoo, Hyung-Joon; Ahn, You-Hern; Kim, Gheun-Ho; Yu, Jae Myung; Park, Joon-Sung

    2018-01-01

    The association of mild increase in urinary albumin excretion with diabetic retinopathy (DR) in clinical studies is controversial. The aim of this study is to clarify the interaction between increased glycemic exposure and mild increase in urinary albumin excretion on risk of DR.Data were collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012. Overall, data from 953 participants without microalbuminuria (477 men and 476 women) were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was constructed to evaluate the association between DR and related clinical parameters, including urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR, mg/g creatinine). The biological interaction of glycemic status and UACR on DR was evaluated by 3 indices: RERI, the relative excess risk due to the interaction; AP, the attributable proportion due to the interaction; and S, the additive interaction index of synergy.We found that UACR, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and diabetic duration were deeply associated with increased risk of DR (UACR, odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.07; HbA1c, OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04-1.30; diabetic duration, OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.04-1.07). Furthermore, our interaction analysis demonstrated that synergistic interaction between HbA1c and UACR on development of DR was prominent in participants with diabetic duration of ≥10 years (adjusted RERI = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.10-1.74; adjusted AP = 0.29, 95% CI = -0.82-1.41; adjusted S = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.27-2.25), but not subjects with shorter diabetic duration.These findings imply that there is the interaction between prolonged hyperglycemic exposure and increased urinary albumin excretion may exert additive synergistic effect on vascular endothelial dysfunction in the eye, even before the appearance of overt diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Urinary albumin, protein excretion and circadian blood pressure in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsar, Baris; Burucu, Rukuye

    2013-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with fibromyalgia (FM) have increased oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and autonomic dysfunction. These factors are also shown to be responsible for increased urinary albumin and protein excretion and deranged circadian blood pressure (BP). However, no study has examined the 24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE), 24-h urinary protein excretion (UPE) and 24-h ambulatory BP measurements in FM patients. The sociodemographic, laboratory parameters, depressive symptoms, sleep problems and 24-h ambulatory BPs were measured for all patients. Diagnosis of FM was based on the criteria for the classification of FM by the American College of Rheumatology. After diagnosis of FM, these patients underwent to complete the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). In total, 30 patients with FM and 61 patients without FM were included. Among FM patients, the average number of tender points was 13.1 ± 1.57 and the mean FIQ score was 57.9 ± 8.86. The number of tender points did not show any correlation with office and ambulatory BPs. There were also no correlations between the number of tender points, UPE and UAE. The stepwise linear regression did not show any relation between UPE and FM. However, 24-h UAE was independently correlated with office systolic BP (P 0.008) and the presence of FM (P 0.045). The logistic regression analysis revealed no association between FM and non-dipping status. We suggest that circadian blood pressure and UPE are not independently associated with FM. However, UAE was related with the presence of FM. Studies are needed to confirm our findings and to highlight pathophysiologic mechanisms.

  6. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  7. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is not linked to the angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2000-01-01

    An elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in non-diabetic subjects without renal or cardiovascular disease has been shown to be predictive of ischaemic heart disease. An insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism in the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been identified and the D allel...

  8. Urinary albumin excretion in hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence of microalbuminuria and correlation to left ventricle wall thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskiran, M; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Jensen, G B

    1998-01-01

    was independent of blood pressure, body weight, smoking, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, and thrombolytic treatment. There was a positive correlation between urinary albumin excretion and thickness of the left ventricle wall (R = 0.28; p = 0.001) which was independent of blood pressure. Follow-up examination...

  9. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played...

  10. Measuring morbidity associated with urinary schistosomiasis: assessing levels of excreted urine albumin and urinary tract pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C Sousa-Figueiredo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs. Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar.In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr and 47 adult males (> or =16 yr on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI(95 28.5-45.0% and 46.8% (CI(95 32.1-61.9% (P = 0.14, and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI(95 31.0-48.3% and 64.4% (CI(95 48.8-78.1% (P = 0.006, respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070, but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, P<0.0001. In adults, elevated urine-albumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013. Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as 'gold standard'.This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography.

  11. Fractional excretions of albumin and IgG are the best predictors of progression in primary glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Shakerdi, Loai; Jardine, Alan G; Fox, Jonathan G; Mackinnon, Bruce

    2011-05-01

    Proteinuria is the most sensitive predictor of development of progressive renal insufficiency, with increasing focus on the composition of proteinuria, particularly high molecular weight proteins such as immunoglobulin G (IgG) (molecular weight 150 kDa). Differing methods of assessing excretion of proteinuria molecules have limited interpretation of results. We aimed to assess the utility of available indices of IgG, total proteinuria and albumin excretions as predictors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in patients with primary glomerulonephritis. We recruited 97 patients with primary glomerulonephritis and measured 24-h urinary protein excretion, 24-h urinary albumin excretion, selectivity index, albumin:creatinine ratio, urinary IgG:creatinine ratio, fractional excretion of albumin (FE Alb) and fractional excretion of IgG (FE IgG) at baseline. The composite endpoint was developing stage 5 CKD, requiring RRT or death. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis was used to assess the value of each measure in predicting outcome. From this analysis, high- and low-risk patient groups according to each measure were established. These were then tested using Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analysis. During a median follow-up of 7.07 years, 23 patients developed the primary endpoint. FE IgG and FE Alb were the most sensitive predictive tests. The hazard ratios (HR) of developing the primary endpoint using FE IgG [HR 37.1 (95% CI 8.6-158.8)] and FE Alb [HR 35.2 (95% CI 8.2-150.8)] cut-offs were double those using the other measures. FE IgG and FE Alb are superior to conventional measures of proteinuria in predicting outcome in patients with primary glomerulonephritis, possibly because they are more accurate indicators of impairment of glomerular permselectivity. FE Alb should be used, in conjunction with other measures of proteinuria, in future studies of prediction of CKD progression.

  12. Excretion rates of uranium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, G.

    1998-01-01

    Summarising the results obtained at RB Hanau, the following statements are made: For determination of the contribution of uranium excreted in urine emanating from intake through the diet, a carefully planned measuring programme should be performed with individuals whose examination delivered reliable evidence that they have not been exposed before. The measuring methods of the participating laboratories are to be monitored for comparability and reproducibility of results, for corrections to be made if necessary. In order to eliminate or flatten individual fluctuations in excretion, urine samples collected over two or more subsequent days should be used for monitoring. The highest detection limit to be required for the programme should be at least 1 mBq for one daily sample. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Measuring morbidity associated with urinary schistosomiasis: assessing levels of excreted urine albumin and urinary tract pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Figueiredo, José C; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Khamis, I Simba; Garba, Amadou; Rollinson, David; Stothard, J Russell

    2009-10-06

    Urinary schistosomiasis is responsible for a variety of debilitating conditions; foremost perhaps are urinary tract pathologies (UTPs). Although portable ultrasonography can be used to detect UTPs visually, there is still a need for rapid morbidity assessment (henceforth referred to as RaMA) tools that can be deployed in the field during implementation, monitoring and evaluation of control programmes. We therefore aimed to determine associations between excreted urine-albumin, as measured using a HemoCue photometer, and UTPs, as detected by ultrasonography, in children and adults from an urinary schistosomiasis endemic area in Zanzibar. In a survey of 140 school-children of both sexes (aged 9 to 15 yr) and 47 adult males (> or =16 yr) on the island of Unguja, the prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis was 36.4% (CI(95) 28.5-45.0%) and 46.8% (CI(95) 32.1-61.9%) (P = 0.14), and that of UTPs was 39.4% (CI(95) 31.0-48.3%) and 64.4% (CI(95) 48.8-78.1%) (P = 0.006), respectively. In school-children, raised urine-albumin concentrations (>40 mg/L) were associated, albeit non-significantly, with prevalence of infection (OR = 3.1, P = 0.070), but more specifically and significantly with the prevalence of micro-haematuria (OR = 76.7, Palbumin excretion was associated with UTPs, particularly lesions of the bladder wall (OR = 8.4, P = 0.013). Albuminuria showed promising diagnostic performance, especially in school-aged children with sensitivity of 63.3% and specificity of 83.1% at detecting lower UTPs, i.e. bladder-wall lesions (ultrasonography as 'gold standard'). This study indicates that albuminuria assays could be used as a RaMA tool for monitoring UTP prevalence during control programmes, as well as a tool for selecting those with more chronic bladder-wall lesions without resorting to ultrasonography.

  14. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  15. Equations to Estimate Creatinine Excretion Rate : The CKD Epidemiology Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ix, Joachim H.; Wassel, Christina L.; Stevens, Lesley A.; Beck, Gerald J.; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E.; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    Background and objectives Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants

  16. Kidney volume in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with normal or increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hegedüs, L; Mathiesen, E R

    1991-01-01

    than 0.05). In a multiple linear regression with HbA1c, urinary albumin excretion, age, diabetes duration and mean blood pressure as independent variables, variations in HbA1c could account for 33% of the variations in kidney volume (n = 47, r = 0.57, p less than 0.01). The other variables played.......70, p less than 0.01); metabolic control and function were also correlated (n = 34, r = 0.62, p less than 0.01). The urinary albumin excretion accounted for only 6% of the variation of the kidney volume (NS). In nine patients with microalbuminuria the kidney volume could be reduced during 2 years...

  17. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deckert, T; Yokoyama, H; Mathiesen, E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow...... up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure...... was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg...

  18. Association of a reduction in central obesity and phosphorus intake with changes in urinary albumin excretion: the PREMIER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex; Batch, Bryan C; McGuire, Heather L; Vollmer, William M; Svetkey, Laura P; Tyson, Crystal C; Sanguankeo, Anawin; Anderson, Cheryl; Houston, Jessica; Appel, Lawrence J

    2013-11-01

    Excess adiposity and dietary factors may be important determinants of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Observational analysis of PREMIER, a randomized trial designed to lower blood pressure using behavioral interventions (counseling on weight loss, healthy diet, and exercise). 481 participants with normal kidney function who provided adequate 24-hour urine collections at baseline and 6 months. Change in waist circumference; 24-hour urine sodium, potassium, and phosphorus excretion; and protein intake estimated from urea nitrogen. The primary outcome was change in log-transformed 24-hour UAE over 6 months. After 6 months, the proportion of individuals with UAE ≥10 mg/d decreased from 18.7% to 12.7% (P phosphorus (-27.7 ± 314.1 mg/d), and protein intake (-1.7 ± 19.4 g/d) were observed. After adjustment for relevant covariates, the following variables were associated significantly with reduction in ln(UAE) in separate models: decrease in waist circumference (P = 0.001), decrease in 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion (P urine phosphorus excretion (P = 0.03), but not change in protein intake (P = 0.5), remained associated significantly with reduction in ln(UAE). These associations remained significant even after adjustment for changes in blood pressure and insulin resistance. Baseline UAE and metabolic syndrome modified the relationship of waist circumference with ln(UAE); specifically, individuals with higher UAE and baseline metabolic syndrome experienced greater reductions in ln(UAE) from decreases in waist circumference. Observational study with potential for confounding. In adults with normal kidney function, decreases in waist circumference and 24-hour urine phosphorus excretion are associated with reductions in UAE. These findings support the rationale for clinical trials to determine whether reducing dietary phosphorus intake or waist circumference could prevent chronic kidney disease or slow its progression. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc

  19. Elevated albumin excretion and retinal changes in children with type 1 diabetes are related to long-term poor blood glucose control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, K; Storm, Birgit Kjærside; Graae, M

    1989-01-01

    All diabetic children (n = 113) under 19 years old and with more than 2 years of diabetes attending the Steno Memorial Hospital in 1987 were studied. Normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 30 mg 24 h-1) was found in 96 patients (85%), 15 had microalbuminuria (30-300 mg 24 h-1) (13%), and 2...... patients were proteinuric (greater than 300 mg 24 h-1) (2%). Retinal morphology was evaluated by colour fundus photography. Background retinopathy was more frequent in the group with elevated albumin excretion (71%) than in a matched normoalbuminuric group (20%, 2p less than 0.001). Long-term blood glucose...

  20. Bone Mineral Metabolism Parameters and Urinary Albumin Excretion in a Representative US Population Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E.; Francis, Sheila E.; Chico, Timothy J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Hypothesis Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. Study Population and Measures We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999–2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FEalb. The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FEalb. Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FEalb that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FEalb associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7–28% p<0.001) and 17% (8–31% p = 0.001) respectively. Conclusion In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FEalb. PMID:24505486

  1. Bone mineral metabolism parameters and urinary albumin excretion in a representative US population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Timothy; Fotheringham, James; Wilkie, Martin E; Francis, Sheila E; Chico, Timothy J A

    2014-01-01

    Even within accepted normal ranges, higher serum phosphorus, dietary phosphorus density, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Lower serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) also predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that vascular dysfunction accompanying subtle disturbances of these bone metabolism parameters would result in associations with increased low grade albuminuria. We examined participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999-2010 (N = 19,383) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m² and without severe albuminuria (urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) phosphorus density, serum phosphorus and ALP were not associated with higher ACR or FE(alb). The lowest versus highest quintile of 25(OH)D was associated with greater albuminuria, but not after adjustment for other covariates including cardiovascular risk factors. An association between the highest versus lowest quintile of bone-specific ALP and greater ACR persisted after covariate adjustment, but was not accompanied by an independent association with FE(alb). Increasing quintiles of PTH demonstrated associations with both higher ACR and FE(alb) that were not abolished by adjusting for covariates including age, gender, race, body mass index, diabetes, blood pressure, history of cardiovascular disease, smoking, eGFR, 25(OH)D, season of measurement, lipids, hemoglobin and C-reactive protein. Adjusted increases in ACR and FE(alb) associated with the highest versus lowest quintile of PTH were 19% (95% confidence interval 7-28% p<0.001) and 17% (8-31% p = 0.001) respectively. In this population, of the bone mineral parameters associated with cardiovascular outcomes, only PTH is independently associated with ACR and FE(alb).

  2. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Koester, Juergen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized

  3. The angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan reduces urinary albumin excretion in patients with isolated systolic hypertension: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Liffert; Navis, Gerjan; Köster, Jürgen; Manolis, Athanasios J.; Reid, John L.; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2005-01-01

    To examine the effect of telmisartan or hydrochlorothiazide on the control of urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in patients with isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) unselected for albuminuria in a pre-planned substudy of a large, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study. The

  4. Total protein, albumin and low-molecular-weight protein excretion in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Lucy J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic kidney disease is common in HIV positive patients and renal tubular dysfunction has been reported in those receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. Tenofovir (TFV in particular has been linked to severe renal tubular disease as well as proximal tubular dysfunction. Markedly elevated urinary concentrations of retinal-binding protein (RBP have been reported in patients with severe renal tubular disease, and low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWP such as RBP may be useful in clinical practice to assess renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV. We analysed 3 LMWP as well as protein and albumin in the urine of a sample of HIV positive patients. Methods In a cross-sectional fashion, total protein, albumin, RBP, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL were quantified in random urine samples of 317 HIV positive outpatients and expressed as the ratio-to-creatinine (RBPCR, CCR and NGALCR. Exposure to cART was categorised as none, cART without TFV, and cART containing TFV and a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (TFV/NNRTI or TFV and a protease-inhibitor (TFV/PI. Results Proteinuria was present in 10.4 % and microalbuminuria in 16.7 % of patients. Albumin accounted for approximately 10 % of total urinary protein. RBPCR was within the reference range in 95 % of patients while NGALCR was elevated in 67 % of patients. No overall differences in urine protein, albumin, and LMWP levels were observed among patients stratified by cART exposure, although a greater proportion of patients exposed to TFV/PI had RBPCR >38.8 μg/mmol (343 μg/g (p = 0.003. In multivariate analyses, black ethnicity (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77 and eGFR 2 (OR 3.54, 95 % CI 1.61, 7.80 were independently associated with upper quartile (UQ RBPCR. RBPCR correlated well to CCR (r2 = 0.71, but not to NGALCR, PCR or ACR. Conclusions In HIV positive patients, proteinuria was predominantly of

  5. Urinary excretion of alpha-GST and albumin in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with methotrexate or other DMARDs alone or in combination with NSAIDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, K B; Ellingsen, T; Bech, J N

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of methotrexate (MTX) and other disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) alone or in combination with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on the urinary excretion of alpha-glutathione S-transferase (alpha-GST) and albumin in rheumatoid arthritis......, and none had proteinuria using urine dipstick methods. CONCLUSION: DMARD-treated RA patients with normal serum creatinine had no detectable renal injuries assessed by the urinary excretions of alpha-GST and albumin....... (RA) patients. METHODS: Nineteen RA patients starting treatment with MTX were followed for 1 year with measurements of urinary alpha-GST, urinary albumin, and urinary and plasma creatinine at the start of treatment, and after 16, 28, and 52 weeks. A larger group of RA patients (n = 72) undergoing long......-term treatment with different DMARDs was compared with 79 healthy controls regarding urinary alpha-GST and albumin. alpha-GST was quantified by an enzyme immunoassay. Urine albumin was measured turbidimetrically. RESULTS: The urine-alpha-GST/urine-creatinine ratio and the urine-albumin/urine-creatinine ratio did...

  6. Is it time to change the definition of normal urinary albumin excretion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, K.; Olsen, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    at baseline and had normoalbuminuria by conventional definitions. The study showed that quartiles of albuminuria beyond the lowest quartile were increasingly predictive of subsequent hypertensive disease, even at levels well below what is conventionally considered to be the normal range. This commentary......This Practice Point commentary discusses a recent study by Forman et al. that examined the association between baseline urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and the risk of developing hypertension among 2,179 women in the first and second Nurses' Health Studies who did not have hypertension or diabetes...... highlights the importance of evaluating albuminuria as an indicator of target organ damage and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients without hypertension, diabetes or other cardiovascular diseases who have albuminuria should be considered at risk of cardiovascular disease and should undergo...

  7. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetics and haemodynamic studies were performed in 20 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis in order to improve the knowledge on genesis and perpetuation of hepatic ascites, especially with respect to determinants of intraperitoneal protein. A positive relationship was found between...... the plasma-to-peritoneal transport rate of albumin (index of 'lymph-imbalance') and the mass of intraperitoneal albumin (rlog = 0.82, P less than 0.001), indicating a significant role of 'lymph-imbalance' to sequestration of protein in the peritoneal cavity. Ascitic fluid albumin concentration...

  8. Retinal arteriolar caliber and urine albumin excretion: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awua-Larbi, Stella; Wong, Tien Y; Cotch, Mary Frances; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Jacobs, David R; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Lima, Joao; Liu, Kiang; Kramer, Holly

    2011-11-01

    Changes in retinal microvascular caliber, which occur prior to onset of retinopathy, may indicate presence of kidney damage. This study examined the association between retinal arteriolar [central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE)] and venular caliber [central retinal venule equivalent (CRVE)] and presence of albuminuria (micro- or macroalbuminuria) among participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a cohort of adults aged 45-84 years without baseline clinical cardiovascular disease. During the second MESA exam, digital fundus photography was completed in 5897 participants who provided spot urine specimens. Albuminuria was defined by spot urine albumin/creatinine ratios ≥ 30 mg/g. Multivariable adjusted odds of albuminuria by quintiles of CRAE and CRVE were determined using logistic regression. Analyses were repeated after stratifying by presence of type 2 diabetes. Albuminuria was noted in 11.5% (n = 675) and included 584 subjects with microalbuminuria and 91 with macroalbuminuria. A significant U-shaped pattern was seen with higher prevalence of albuminuria across quintile extremes in CRAE (15.7, 8.8 and 10.6% in CRAE Quintiles 1, 3 and 5, respectively; P <0.0001). After adjustment for covariates, both narrower CRAE [odds ratios (OR) 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.04, Quintile 1 versus 3) and wider CRAE (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.07-1.93, Quintile 5 versus 3) were significantly associated with albuminuria. Associations appeared substantially stronger in adults with than without type 2 diabetes but the interaction term for diabetes and CRAE on presence of albuminuria did not meet statistical significance (P = 0.3). No association was noted between CRVE quintiles and albuminuria. Albuminuria is associated with narrower and wider arteriolar caliber. Future studies should determine whether variation in arteriolar caliber predicts incident albuminuria and whether associations are mediated by hypertension and diabetes. Such information could

  9. Association between urinary albumin excretion and both central and peripheral blood pressure in subjects with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, Anna; García-Ortiz, Luis; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Vigil, Luis; Suarez, Carmen; Gomez-Marcos, Manuel Á; Abad-Cardiel, María; Vazquez, Susana; de la Cruz, Juan J; Franklin, Stanley S; Ruilope, Luis M; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Central blood pressure (cBP) predicts cardiovascular events. Regarding subclinical organ damage, the relationship between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and cBP is rather unknown. We aimed to determine whether cBP is related to UAE, and if this relationship is stronger than that observed with peripheral blood pressure (pBP). Three hundred and twenty-four hypertensives (61% men, aged 65 ± 10 years) with insulin-resistance (77% diabetics; 23% nondiabetics with metabolic syndrome) were studied. Office pBP and cBP (radial applanation tonometry) were determined. UAE (albumin/creatinine) was averaged from three first-morning-void urine samples. Differences between patients with/without microalbuminuria, and the relationship between UAE and both pBP and cBP were analyzed. The strength of such relationship (cBP vs. pBP) was compared using a noninferiority test. Microalbuminuria was detected in 25% of all patients. After age-adjustment and sex-adjustment, both central and peripheral SBP and pulse pressure (PP) (mmHg) were higher in microalbuminurics than in normoalbuminurics [central SBP (cSBP): 130 ± 20 vs. 124 ± 19; peripheral (pSBP): 147 ± 22 vs. 139 ± 20; central pulse pressure (cPP): 52 ± 15 vs. 47 ± 14; peripheral pulse pressure (pPP): 67 ± 16 vs. 62 ± 16, P < 0.05 for all]. Partial correlation coefficients (age-adjusted and sex-adjusted) between blood pressure (BP) and UAE were 0.175 for cSBP, 0.143 for pSBP, 0.124 for cPP (P < 0.05 for all), and 0.092 for pPP (P = 0.117). Neither cBP nor pBP were superior to each other in their association with UAE or with microalbuminuria. Comparisons between cBP and pBP by means of noninferiority tests revealed no differences in the magnitude of correlation coefficients (P = 0.265 for SBP; P = 0.212 for PP), or differences in means between patients with/without microalbuminuria (P = 0.327 for SBP; P = 0.054 for PP). Although cBP is related with UAE, this

  10. Equations to estimate creatinine excretion rate: the CKD epidemiology collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ix, Joachim H; Wassel, Christina L; Stevens, Lesley A; Beck, Gerald J; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E; Zhang, Yaping Lucy; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Participants (n = 2466) from three kidney disease trials were randomly allocated into equation development (2/3) and internal validation (1/3) data sets. CER served as the dependent variable in linear regression to develop new equations. Their stability was assessed within the internal validation data set. Among 987 individuals from three additional studies the equations were externally validated and compared with existing equations. Mean age was 46 years, 42% were women, and 9% were black. Age, sex, race, weight, and serum phosphorus improved model fit. Two equations were developed, with or without serum phosphorus. In external validation, the new equations showed little bias (mean difference [measured - estimated CER] -0.7% [95% confidence interval -2.5% to 1.0%] and 0.3% [95% confidence interval -2.6% to 3.1%], respectively) and moderate precision (estimated CER within 30% of measured CER among 79% [76% to 81%] and 81% [77% to 85%], respectively). Corresponding numbers within 15% were 51% [48% to 54%] and 54% [50% to 59%]). Compared with existing equations, the new equations had similar accuracy but showed less bias in individuals with high measured CER. CER can be estimated with commonly available variables with little bias and moderate precision, which may facilitate assessment of accuracy of timed urine collections.

  11. Factors contributing to the variation in feline urinary oxalate excretion rate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, Judith; Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Everts, Henk; Queau, Yann; Biourge, Vincent; Hendriks, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors (season, animal, and diet) contributing to the variation in urinary oxalate (Uox) excretion rate, Uox concentration, and urine volume in healthy adult cats. A data set (1,940 observations) containing information on Uox excretion rate of 65 cats fed 252 diets

  12. Transcapillary escape rate and relative metabolic clearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kverneland, A

    1987-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate and relative plasma disappearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin were measured in 25 male Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients using a double tracer technique. The patients were divided into three groups on the basis of their urinary albumin excretion......: group 1, normal albumin excretion (less than 30 mg/24 h) (n = 8); group 2, microalbuminuria (30-300 mg/24 h) (n = 9); and group 3, clinical nephropathy (greater than 300 mg/24 h) (n = 8). Six male age-matched non-diabetic persons served as control subjects. The transcapillary escape rate of glycated...... albumin was similar in group 1 and control subjects (4.7 +/- 2.1 versus 5.1 +/- 1.7%), but significantly increased in group 2 (7.0 +/- 1.7%, p less than 0.05) and in group 3 (7.9 +/- 3.1%, p less than 0.05). The transcapillary escape rate of glycated albumin was slightly lower than that of non...

  13. Palmitate binding to serum albumin, measured by rate of dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Andersen, S

    1988-01-01

    with binding of the unsaturated acids is less pronounced. Chloride ions compete with binding of palmitate. Reserve albumin concentration in serum samples from 33 male adults was 420 +/- 59 microM (mean +/- SD), and in 33 females, 351 +/- 50 microM. Umbilical cord sera from ten newborn infants averaged 172......, using pure albumin solutions, we obtained the reserve albumin concentration for binding of palmitate, previously defined as the concentration of a pure standard albumin which binds the labelled ligand as tightly as it is bound in the sample. Two techniques were developed, one for 1-ml sample volumes......, another for 25 microliter. Reserve albumin for binding of palmitate, measured in pure albumin solutions, decreased equally on addition of palmitate and stearate, slightly less with oleate and still less with linoleate, indicating that palmitate and stearate are bound competitively while interaction...

  14. Pulsatile urea excretion in the ureagenic toadfish Opsanus beta: an analysis of rates and routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood; Hopkins; Hogstrand; Walsh

    1995-01-01

    This study focused on the rates and routes of urea-N and ammonia-N excretion in the ureagenic toadfish and on the possibility that urea-N excretion occurs in pulses. Experimental approaches included the following: confinement in small individual containers with automated hourly sampling of water to follow temporal excretion patterns; divided chambers to separate excretion from the anterior and posterior parts of the fish; collection of urine and rectal fluid via chronic indwelling catheters; and gavage with [14C]-labelled polyethylene glycol 4000 to detect regurgitation of gastrointestinal fluids. When a standardized 'crowding' pre-treatment was employed to induce ureotelic behaviour, the fish exhibited significant elevations in the activity of glutamine synthetase in liver, kidney and gills, elevated plasma and bile urea-N levels, but unchanged ammonia-N and urea-N levels in most other body fluids. Unencumbered ureotelic fish confined in small containers excreted 82 % of their waste-N as urea-N and 18 % as ammonia-N; almost all (94 %) of this urea-N excretion occurred in a single pulse of less than 3 h duration about once every 24 h. This daily pulse did not occur by regurgitation of gut fluids, by excretion through prominent pores behind the pectoral fins or by discharge of rectal fluid or urine. Intestinal and urinary excretion accounted for less than 10 % of whole-body urea-N excretion and a negligible fraction of ammonia-N excretion. Pulsatile urea-N excretion occurred at the head end across the gills and/or body surface. Ammonia-N excretion, which was not pulsatile, also occurred largely through the head end. However, once the toadfish had been placed in divided chambers, urea-N excretion became continuous rather than pulsatile, and ammonia-N excretion increased greatly. A severe stress response was indicated by high levels of plasma cortisol, and the skin, which lacks scales, became a significant route of both ammonia-N and urea-N excretion. We speculate

  15. Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USA. This dataset is associated with the following...

  16. Increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Ranek, L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TERalb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, was determined from the disappearance of intravenously injected 125I-labelled human serum albumin during the first 60 min after injection...... was only moderately reduced. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin was significantly elevated in all the cirrhotics, mean 10.2%/h, range 8.8 to 12.3%/h, in comparison to values for twenty-eight normal subjects 5.4%/h, range 3.5-7.2%/h. Our results can best be explained by increased filtration out...

  17. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jung Ahn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS in postmenopausal women without diabetes.MethodsThis study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis.ResultsThe mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR, 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively after adjusting for potential confounding covariates.ConclusionUrinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD.

  18. Detecting microalbuminuria by urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Clausen, P; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin/creatinine concentra......BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria, i.e. a subclinical increase of the albumin excretion rate in urine, may be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor. This study aimed to test whether microalbuminuria can be identified by measurement of urinary albumin concentration or urinary albumin....../creatinine concentration ratio, instead of the usual measurement of the albumin excretion rate in a timed urine collection. METHODS: All 2579 subjects analysed were screened in a population based epidemiological study. Participants with diabetes mellitus, renal disease, haematuria, or urinary tract infection were...... not included. Urinary albumin (Ualb) and creatinine (Ucreat) concentrations were measured in an overnight collected sample by enzyme-linked immunosorbent and colorimetric assays, respectively. Urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and urinary albumin/creatinine concentration ratio (Ualb/Ucreat) were calculated...

  19. Association between sleep duration and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fukuoka diabetes registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Few studies have so far investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients ≥20 years of age were divided into six groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 4.5 hours, 4.5-5.4 hours, 5.5-6.4 hours, 6.5-7.4 hours, 7.5-8.4 hours and more than 8.5 hours. The association between sleep duration and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR was examined cross-sectionally. RESULTS: Both short and long sleep durations were significantly associated with higher UACR levels and higher proportions of patients with albuminuria (≥30 mg/g and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g compared with a sleep duration of 6.5-7.4 hours (P for quadratic trend <0.001. A U-shaped association between sleep duration and UACR remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking habits, former smoking habits, current drinking habits, regular exercise habits, total energy intake, total protein intake, hypnotic use and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, the association remained substantially unchanged after additional adjustment for body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that sleep duration has a U-shaped association with the UACR levels in type 2 diabetic patients, independent of potential confounders.

  20. Association between the extent of urinary albumin excretion and glycaemic variability indices measured by continuous glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-M; Kim, T-H; Oh, S; Baek, J; Joung, J Y; Park, S-M; Cho, Y Y; Sohn, S Y; Hur, K Y; Lee, M-S; Lee, M-K; Kim, J H

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of glycaemic variability to the microvascular complication of diabetes has not been established. We examined whether there is an independent association between indices of glycaemic variability in continuous glucose monitoring and extent of albuminuria. A total of 173 patients with Type 2 diabetes (without insulin therapy, n = 96; with insulin therapy, n = 77) who had unexplained large fluctuations in blood glucose values underwent three-day continuous glucose monitoring. We used a multinomial logistic regression model to determine whether the indices of glycaemic variability independently affected the odds of having a spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 mg/g and ≥ 300 mg/g. Higher standard deviation (P = 0.002), mean of daily differences (P = 0.023) and mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion (P = 0.043) significantly increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g. In multivariable analysis, only higher standard deviation, but not mean amplitude of glycaemic excursion and mean of daily differences, independently increased the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of ≥ 300 mg/g (P = 0.025). Coefficient of variation (sd/mean) was not associated with the odds of having a urine albumin/creatinine ratio of 30-299 or ≥ 300 mg/g. The independent association between standard deviation and the extent of albuminuria was lost when the measures were normalized by mean glucose level. At least in terms of relative measures of glycaemic variability, we failed to demonstrate an independent association between glycaemic variability and albuminuria extent in patients with inadequately controlled Type 2 diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  1. Excretion rate and retention of plutonium 10,000 days after acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Starzyk, P.M.; Sedlet, J.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Robinson, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Three persons who had been injected with known amounts of plutonium in 1945 to 1947, were hospitalized on a metabolic ward in 1973. All excreta were collected for at least eight days and the samples were analyzed for plutonium. For the two subjects who had been injected intravenously with tetravalent 239 Pu as the citrate, the urinary excretion rates were 7.6 and 4.7 pCi/day at approximately 10 4 days after injection; these rates corresponded to 2.52 x 10 -3 percent of the injected doses per day respectively. The fecal excretion rates were about 40 percent of the urinary rates. The third subject received an intramuscular injection of hexavalent 238 Pu as the nitrate, in the left leg, which was amputated four days later. Almost 50 percent of the amount injected was found at the injection site and the urinary excretion rate about 9500 days later was 0.06 pCi/day, corresponding to not less than 1.2 x 10 -4 percent of the initial systemic burden. The excretion rate and retention of 239 Pu up to 10,000 days post-injection were calculated

  2. Phyto-oestrogen excretion and rate of bone loss in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Morton, M.S.; Brüggemann-Rotgans, I.E.M.; Beresteijn, E.C.H. van

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The hypothesis was tested that the rate of postmenopausal bone loss is inversely associated with long-term urinary excretion of phyto-oestrogens, as a marker of habitual dietary intake. Design: Secondary analysis of a 10-year follow-up study (1979-1989) among postmenopausal women in the

  3. Creatinine Excretion Rate and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes and Nephropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinkeler, Steef J.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Shahinfar, Shahnaz; Esmatjes, Enric; de Zeeuw, Dick; Navis, Gerjan; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers

    OBJECTIVE-The creatinine excretion rate (CER) is inversely associated with mortality in the general and renal transplant population. The CER is a marker for muscle mass. It is unknown whether the CER is associated with outcome in diabetes. We therefore investigated whether the CER is a determinant

  4. Effect of urine urea nitrogen and protein intake adjusted by using the estimated urine creatinine excretion rate on the antiproteinuric effect of angiotensin II type I receptor blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Ho Jun; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Jung Hwan; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Suhnggwon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein intake on proteinuria in chronic kidney disease (CKD), as it is presently not conclusive. This is a subanalysis of data from an open-label, case-controlled, randomized clinical trial on education about low-salt diets (NCT01552954). We estimated the urine excretion rate of parameters in a day, adjusted by using the equation for estimating urine creatinine excretion, and analyzed the effect of urine urea nitrogen (UUN), as well as estimating protein intake on the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. Among 174 participants from whom complete 24-h urine specimens were collected, the estimates from the Tanaka equation resulted in the highest accuracy for the urinary excretion rate of creatinine, sodium, albumin, and UUN. Among 227 participants, the baseline value of estimated urine albumin excretion (eUalb) was positively correlated with the estimated UUN (eUUN) or protein intake according to eUUN (P = 0.012 and P = 0.038, respectively). We were able to calculate the ratios of eUalb and eUUN in 221 participants and grouped them according to the ratio of eUUN during 16-wk trial period. The proportion of patients that achieved a decrement of eUalb ≥25% during 16 wk with an angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) medication was 80% (24 of 30) in group 1, with eUUN ratio ≤-25%; 82.2% (111 of 135) in group 2, with eUUN ratio between -25% and 25%; and 66.1% (37 and 56) in group 3, with eUUN ratio ≥25% (P = 0.048). The probability of a decrease in albuminuria with ARB treatment was lower in patients with an increase of eUUN or protein intake during the 16 wk of ARB treatment, as observed in multiple logistic regression analysis as well. The estimated urine urea excretion rate showed a positive association with the level of albuminuria in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease. The increase of eUUN excretion ameliorated the antiproteinuric effect of ARB

  5. Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludens, J H; Clark, M A; Lawson, J A

    1995-06-01

    Effects of a K+ channel blocker on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in conscious rats were observed. Effects of K+ channel modulation on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion were studied using the adenosine-triphosphate- (ATP)-sensitive K+ channel blocker 4-morpholinecarboximidine-N-1-adamantyl-N'-cyclohexylhydr ochloride (U-37883A) in conscious rats previously equipped with catheters for clearance studies. In saline-loaded rats, i.v. doses of U-37883A of 1.7, 5.0 and 15 mg/kg increased absolute and fractional Na+ excretion dose-dependently without changing K+ excretion. The glomerular filtration rate remained constant during diuresis. In water-loaded (hypotonic dextrose) rats, free-water clearance studies revealed that the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker significantly decreased an index of solute reabsorption (free-water clearance adjusted for chloride clearance) in the diluting segment during peak natriuretic activity. In addition, U-37883A significantly decreased the osmolality of renal papillary interstitial fluid, indicative of an effect in the medullary portion of the diluting segment. Together, these findings suggest that ATP-sensitive K+ channels, possibly those located at the apical boarder, play a pivotal role in Na+ reabsorption in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle.

  6. Organ burdens and excretion rates of inhaled uranium - computations using ICRP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abani, M.C.; Murthy, K.B.S.; Sunta, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    Uranium being a highly toxic material, proper estimation of the body burden is very important. During manufacture of uranium fuel, it is likely to enter the body by inhalation. By the body burden and excretion measurements, one should be able to assess whether the intake is within the safe limits or not. This is possible if one performs theoretical calculations and estimates the amount of uranium which builds up in the body as a function of time. Similarly theoretical estimates in case of excretion have to be made. For this purpose, a computer programme has been developed to find out organ burdens and excretion rates resulting from exposure to a radioactive nuclide. ICRP-30 lung model has been used and cases of single instantaneous inhalation of 1 ALI as well as inhalation at a steady rate of ALI/365 per day have been considered. Using this programme, results for uranium aerosols of classes D, W and Y and sizes 0.2, 1 and 5 microns are generated by ND computers in tabular as well as graphical forms. These will be useful in conjunction with body burden measurements by direct counting or excretion analysis. (author). 7 tabs., 56 figs

  7. Plasma volume, intravascular albumin and its transcapillary escape rate in patients with extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Worm, A M; Rossing, N

    1976-01-01

    Plasma volume and plasma concentration and transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, were determined using 125I-labelled human albumin in eight patients with extensive skin disease....... Plasma volume and plasma albumin concentration were reduced (P less than 0-05). Thus the intravascular albumin mass was moderately decreased to an average of 0-55 +/- 0-06 (s.d.) g/cm height compared with a normal mean value of 0-77 +/- 0-07 (s.d.) g/cm. This 29% decrease is statistically significant (P...... less than 0-001). The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb) was significantly elevated, mean 8-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, as compared to normal subjects, mean 5-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, (+54%, P less than 0-001). The same patients were studied again after a 1-week treatment with prednisone...

  8. Genome-wide association study of urinary albumin excretion rate in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholm, Niina; Forsblom, Carol; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri

    2014-01-01

    : The discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) included 1,925 patients with type 1 diabetes and with data on 24 h AER. AER was analysed as a continuous trait and the analysis was stratified by the use of antihypertensive medication. Signals with a p value ... gene were strongly associated with albuminuria (p surrounding genetic region in 48 Finnish and 48...... UK individuals supported the possibility that population-specific rare variants contribute to the synthetic association observed at the common variants in GLRA3. The strongest replication (p = 0.026) was obtained for rs2410601 between the PSD3 and SH2D4A genes. Pathway analysis highlighted natural...

  9. Effect of candesartan on microalbuminuria and albumin excretion rate in diabetes: three randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilous, Rudy; Chaturvedi, Nish; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria in diabetes is strongly predictive of nephropathy, end-stage renal disease, and premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective preventive therapies are therefore a clinical priority. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesa...

  10. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Serum albumin and creatinine clearance rate among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M R; Chakraborty, P K; Paul, U K; Sarkar, S; Akhter, S; Shahidullah, S M; Gautam, B; Sultana, S; Ferdous, N; Samsunnahar, M

    2014-07-01

    This case control study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Mymensingh Medical College in cooperation with the Outpatient Department and Medicine Units of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Fulbaria Upazilla Health Complex, Mymensingh and some DOTS centers of BRAC, a non-government organization during the period of July 2006 to June 2007. The aim of the study was to explore the status of serum albumin & creatinine clearance levels in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients as a means to monitor the possibility of management of these patients as these levels decrease significantly. Serum albumin level was investigated in TB patients for monitoring the nutritional status of TB patients and also for the adjustment of serum calcium level. Creatinine clearance rate was investigated in TB patients for monitoring the impairment of renal function and nutritional depletion in tuberculosis patients. A total of 120 people of different age groups were included in this study. Subjects were divided into two groups- Group I (Control; n=60) - apparently healthy people selected matching by age, sex and socioeconomic status with the cases and Group II (Case; n=60) - people with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Serum albumin was estimated by colorimetric principle. Serum creatinine was also estimated by colorimetric principle & creatinine clearance rate was estimated from serum creatinine by Cockcroft- Gault equation. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS windows package. Among the groups, mean±SD of serum albumin in Group II (3.74±0.44gm/dl) was significantly lower (pcreatinine clearance rate in Group II (35.36±8.29ml/min) was also significantly lower than that in Group I (84.16±20.20ml/min). It is evident from the study that serum albumin & creatinine clearance rate levels significantly decrease in smear positive Bangladeshi pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

  12. Estimated human excretion rates of natural estrogens calculated from their concentrations in raw municipal wastewater and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Lu, Gui-Ning; Yin, Hua; Dang, Zhi

    2015-06-01

    Natural estrogens are important endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), which may pose adverse effects on our environment. To avoid time-consuming sample preparation and chemical analysis, estimation of their concentrations in municipal wastewater based on their human urine/feces excretion rates has been generally adopted. However, the data of excretion rates available are very limited and show significant difference among countries. In the context of increasing reporting on the concentrations of natural estrogens in municipal wastewater around the world, this study presented a simple method to estimate their human excretion rates based on the concentrations of natural estrogens in raw sewage. The estimated human excretion rates of natural estrogens among ten countries were obtained, which totally covered over 33 million population. Among these, Brazilians had the largest excretion rates with estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2) as 236.9 and 60 μg/day/P, respectively, while Iran had the lowest value of 2 μg/day/P for E1 and 0.5 μg/day/P for E2. The average estimated human excretion rates of E1, E2, and estriol (E3) are 17.3, 6.4, and 39.7 μg/day/P, respectively. When the estimated human excretion rates obtained were applied for prediction, the predicted results showed better accuracies than those based on human urinary/feces excretion rates. The method in this study is simple, cost-effective and time-saving, which may be widely applied.

  13. A global database of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Michael J; McIntyre, Peter B; Allen, Dennis; Arnott, Diane L; Benstead, Jonathan P; Berg, David J; Brabrand, Åge; Brosse, Sébastien; Bukaveckas, Paul A; Caliman, Adriano; Capps, Krista A; Carneiro, Luciana S; Chadwick, Nanette E; Christian, Alan D; Clarke, Andrew; Conroy, Joseph D; Cross, Wyatt F; Culver, David A; Dalton, Christopher M; Devine, Jennifer A; Domine, Leah M; Evans-White, Michelle A; Faafeng, Bjørn A; Flecker, Alexander S; Gido, Keith B; Godinot, Claire; Guariento, Rafael D; Haertel-Borer, Susanne; Hall, Robert O; Henry, Raoul; Herwig, Brian R; Hicks, Brendan J; Higgins, Karen A; Hood, James M; Hopton, Matthew E; Ikeda, Tsutomu; James, William F; Jansen, Henrice M; Johnson, Cody R; Koch, Benjamin J; Lamberti, Gary A; Lessard-Pilon, Stephanie; Maerz, John C; Mather, Martha E; McManamay, Ryan A; Milanovich, Joseph R; Morgan, Dai K J; Moslemi, Jennifer M; Naddafi, Rahmat; Nilssen, Jens Petter; Pagano, Marc; Pilati, Alberto; Post, David M; Roopin, Modi; Rugenski, Amanda T; Schaus, Maynard H; Shostell, Joseph; Small, Gaston E; Solomon, Christopher T; Sterrett, Sean C; Strand, Øivind; Tarvainen, Marjo; Taylor, Jason M; Torres-Gerald, Lisette E; Turner, Caroline B; Urabe, Jotaro; Uye, Shin-Ichi; Ventelä, Anne-Mari; Villeger, Sébastien; Whiles, Matt R; Wilhelm, Frank M; Wilson, Henry F; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A; Zimmer, Kyle D

    2017-05-01

    Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES). They also represent an important set of functional traits that may reflect both environmental and phylogenetic influences. Over the past two decades, studies of animal-mediated nutrient cycling have increased dramatically, especially in aquatic ecosystems. Here we present a global compilation of aquatic animal nutrient excretion rates. The dataset includes 10,534 observations from freshwater and marine animals of N and/or P excretion rates. These observations represent 491 species, including most aquatic phyla. Coverage varies greatly among phyla and other taxonomic levels. The dataset includes information on animal body size, ambient temperature, taxonomic affiliations, and animal body N:P. This data set was used to test predictions of MTE and ES, as described in Vanni and McIntyre (2016; Ecology DOI: 10.1002/ecy.1582). © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Effect of gestational age and blood glucose on C-peptide excretion rate and clearance in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Emma R; Soelbeck, Mikkel K; Reith, David M; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Broadbent, Roland S; Medlicott, Natalie J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure urinary C-peptide concentrations, and then calculate C-peptide clearance (Cl), and excretion rate (UER) in neonates. In addition, the effect of gestational age (GA) and blood glucose levels (BGL) on C-peptide UER were investigated. Insulin concentrations in plasma and C-peptide concentrations were measured in plasma and urine, in 20 neonates. Chemiluminescent immunoassays were used for insulin and C-peptide measurements, with urine diluted to 40% with bovine serum albumin 1% in phosphate buffered saline. Urine volume and time of collection were recorded and used to calculate UER and Cl. The mean Cl of C-peptide was 0.309 ± 0.329 mL/min/kg, and UER was 0.0329 ± 0.0342 pmol/min/kg. Correlations between Cl or UER and GA were not significant (P > 0.05). No significant correlation was shown between Cl or UER and BGL (P > 0.05). Both Cl and UER were highly variable in neonates, but were not correlated with GA. Additionally, BGL did not appear to affect C-peptide UER and Cl. As GA and BGL did not appear to affect Cl and UER, urinary C-peptide may provide a non-invasive method of measuring insulin production in neonates. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. U-shaped association between sleep duration and urinary albumin excretion in Korean adults: 2011-2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Yu

    Full Text Available Although sleep duration has been extensively studied in metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in the general population. Among 24,948 adults who participated in the 2011-2014 KNHANES, a total of 19,994 subjects were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into the following five groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and more than 9 h. The association between sleep duration and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR was examined cross-sectionally. Subjects with both short and long sleep durations were significantly associated with higher UACR levels and higher proportions of patients with microalbuminuria (30-299 mg/g and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g compared to those with a sleep duration of 7 hours. The U-shaped association between sleep duration and UACR remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, education, income, exercise, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The U-shaped association is more evident in the subgroup aged 65 or older, or in female subjects. Our findings suggest that both short and long sleep durations have a U-shaped association with UACR levels in the general population, independent of potential confounders.

  16. Variability of excretion rates of 210Pb and 210Po of humans at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Spencer, H.; Ilcewicz, F.H.; Kramer, L.

    1976-01-01

    Variability of the excretion rates of the nuclides 210 Pb and 210 Po at natural levels was studied in a group of samples collected from men maintained under the carefully controlled conditions of a metabolic ward. They consumed only the standard diet of the ward in which they had been resident for at least several months prior to this study. The mean urinary rates were about 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/day for both 210 Pb and 210 Pc, while fecal rates ranged from 1 to 2.7 pCi/day for the two nuclides. Six-day fecal collections exhibited higher variabilities than did the urine, from about 12% to 50% for each of the nuclides. Multi-day collections for 12 subjects showed mean coefficients of variation of about 16% for 210 Pb and 13% for the 210 Po for urine and 21 and 25%, respectively, in fecal collections. These variabilities appear to be due to biological variations and are characteristic of the individuals studied

  17. Selective renal vasoconstriction, exaggerated natriuresis and excretion rates of exosomic proteins in essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M.; Jensen, Pia Hønnerup; Schwämmle, Veit

    2014-01-01

    AimIn essential hypertension (EH), the regulation of renal sodium excretion is aberrant. We hypothesized that in mild EH, (i) abnormal dynamics of plasma renin concentration (PRC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are responsible for the exaggerated natriuresis, and (ii) exosomic protein...... patterns reflect the renal tubular abnormality involved in the dysregulation of sodium excretion. MethodsAfter 2-week drug washout and 4-day diet, systemic and renal hemodynamics, cardio-renal hormones, glomerular filtration and renal excretion were studied in male patients during saline loading (SL...

  18. The effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on albumin extravasation rate in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    Overall transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to the extravascular space per unit time] was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Patients with tense ascites due to liver cirrhosis...... and pigs with posthepatic portal hypertension and intraperitoneally instilled fluid were studied before and after abdominal paracentesis in order to evaluate the effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on the transvascular escape rate of albumin. TERalb of the ascitic patients (n = 6) were on average...... 7.8% IVMalb.h-1, which is somewhat higher but not significantly above normal (mean 5.6% IVMalb.h-1). After paracentesis and removal of the ascitic fluid, TERalb rose significantly to an average of 11.9% IVMalb.h-1 (P less than 0.05). The fraction of IVMalb passing into the peritoneal cavity...

  19. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  20. Blood clearance rates of technetium-99m albumin preparations: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusynowitz, M.L.; Straw, J.D.; Benedetto, A.R.; Dixon, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-labeled human serum albumin (HSA) is extensively used as a cardiac imaging agent. An evaluation of the blood-clearance rates of electrolytically reduced HSA (EHSA) and four stannous-reduced HSA (SnHSA) preparations was conducted in dogs, and was compared with that of radioiodinated HSA (IHSA). The EHSA was found to have a clearance rate only about 1.5 times that of IHSA, whereas the SnHSA agents were cleared at two to five times the rate of IHSA. Thus, EHSA has definite advantages over SnHSA preparations for the purposes of blood-volume determinations required in quantitative cardiac studies and for the reduction of extravascular background in the accurate delineation of cardiac boundaries

  1. Variability of excretion rates of 210Pb and 210Po of humans at environmental levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.; Holtzman, R.B.; Ilcewicz, F.H.; Kramer, L.

    1977-01-01

    Variability of the excretion rates of the nuclides 210 Pb and 210 Po at natural levels was studied in a group of samples collected from men maintained under the carefully controlled conditions of a metabolic ward. They consumed only the standard diet of the ward in which they had been resident for at least several months prior to this study. The mean urinary rates were about 0.1 to 0.5 pCi/day for both 210 Pb and 210 Po, while fecal rates ranged from 1 to 2.7 pCi/day for the two nuclides. For urinary 210 Pb the coefficients of variation (ratio of standard deviation to mean) for three subjects ranged from 19 to 45 percent for eight continuous 24-hr samples compared to 11 to 13 percent for subsequently collected multiday samples (4 to 9 days each) for each subject. However, the standard errors of the means for the one day collections were about equal to the standard deviations of the pooled samples. Similar variability was noted for the 210 Po data. Six day fecal collections from these time periods exhibited higher variabilities than did the urine, from about 12 percent to 50 percent for each of the nuclides. Multiday collections for 12 subjects showed mean coefficients of variation of about 16 percent for 210 Pb and 13 percent for the 210 Po for urine and 21 and 25 percent, respectively, in fecal collections. Since dietary intake was maintained fairly constant, excreta collections were carefully controlled, and the analytical precision was about 5 percent, these variabilities appear to be due to biological variations and are characteristic of the individuals studied. Some possible causes of these effects are discussed

  2. Influence of C-Reactive Protein and Urinary Protein Excretion on Prediction of Graft Failure and Mortality by Serum Albumin in Renal Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, Rutger M.; Gross, Sascha; Zelle, Dorien M.; van der Heide, Jaap J. Homan; Schouten, Jan P.; van Son, Willem J.; Gans, Reinold O. B.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Hypoalbuminemia is an established predictor of poor outcome in renal transplant recipients (RTR). It is considered to reflect inflammation, poor nutritional status, or proteinuria. We explored the roles of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and urinary protein excretion in

  3. The effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on albumin extravasation rate in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    and pigs with posthepatic portal hypertension and intraperitoneally instilled fluid were studied before and after abdominal paracentesis in order to evaluate the effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on the transvascular escape rate of albumin. TERalb of the ascitic patients (n = 6) were on average......, TERalb rose significantly to an average of 24.3% IVMalb.h-1. The increased albumin extravasation rate after removal of ascites is best explained by an increased sinusoidal-tissue pressure difference caused by a decreased hydrostatic fluid pressure in the liver interstitium (portal and subcapsular spaces......) due to the hydrostatic effect of the removed ascitic fluid....

  4. The relationship between the rate of melatonin excretion and sleep consolidation for locomotive engineers in natural sleep settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson Sally

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the role that melatonin production plays in the regulation of sleep consolidation in a population of shiftworkers working and sleeping in their natural environments. Methods 253 locomotive engineers (249 male, 4 female, mean age = 39.7 years participated in the study for a 2-week period whilst working their normal roster patterns. Participants recorded details for all sleep periods in a sleep diary and collected urine samples during each day's main sleep period. The samples were subsequently assayed for the metabolite of melatonin in urine, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s, and the rate of excretion during main sleep periods was calculated. Results Separate one-way factorial ANOVAs revealed a significant effect of time of sleep onset on aMT6s excretion rate, sleep duration, and subjective sleep quality. Generally, the rate of aMT6s excretion was lower, sleep duration was shorter, and sleep quality was lower for sleeps initiated during the daytime than for sleeps initiated at night. Conclusion Combined with previous studies linking melatonin production and sleep propensity, and others demonstrating the relationship between sleep consolidation and melatonin production in forced desynchrony protocols, the current results indicate that low production of melatonin may play a role in the poor consolidation of daytime sleep in natural sleep settings.

  5. Sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion starts after age 10 in healthy children: urinary cortisol metabolite excretion rates during growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudy, Stefan A; Hartmann, Michaela F; Remer, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    Detailed data on the physiological pattern of adrenocortical activity during normal growth are lacking. An established method to determine adrenocortical glucocorticoid secretion is the measurement of 24-h excretion rates of major urinary cortisol metabolites (C21). To test the hypothesis that the frequently reported higher cortisol secretion in men than in women develops during puberty, we examined C21 together with excretions of combined urinary free and conjugated cortisol (F(comb)) in 400 healthy boys and girls aged 3-18 yr using GC-MS. Daily excretion rates of C21, F(comb), and body surface area (BSA)-corrected F(comb) significantly increased with age in both sexes. In contrast, C21/BSA (microgxm(-2).day(-1)) declined from the age of 3-4 yr to 7-8 yr in boys and girls (P activity (allotetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisol) in females compared with males. Our results demonstrate dynamic changes in adrenocortical activity in healthy children resulting in an emerging sexual dimorphism in cortisol secretion after age 11. The latter can be explained, at least partly, by diverging 5alpha-reductase activities in boys and girls. F(comb), a frequently analyzed GC-MS parameter, proved not to reflect dynamic changes in cortisol secretion. In conclusion, the varying metabolic need for cortisol during normal growth may have implications for future improvements in glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

  6. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    Transvascular escape rate of albumin (TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to (or during steady state returning from) the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the initial disappearance rate of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin.......05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs...

  7. Albuminuria and overall capillary permeability of albumin in acute altitude hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of proteinuria at high altitude is unclear. Renal function and urinary excretion rate of albumin (Ualb) at rest and during submaximal exercise and transcapillary escape rate of 125I-labeled albumin (TERalb) were investigated in 12 normal volunteers at sea level and after rapid and p....... The elevated TERalb suggests an overall increase in capillary permeability, including the glomerular endothelium, as the critical factor in high-altitude induced albuminuria....

  8. Survey the Relation between Rice Consumption with Aflatoxin M1 Excretion Rate in Yazd Women of using Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hajimohammadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aflatoxins are usually produced from Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus Parasiticus. This toxin is found in the most of foods, such as rice. The aim of this study was to survey the relation between rice consumption with Aflatoxin M1 excretion rate in women of Yazd using biomarkers. Methods: This was a cross sectional-descriptive study that was done in 2014. Eighty five women were selected among women who referred to health centers of Yazd. ELISA method was used to measure Aflatoxin M1 in urine samples. Results: The results show that from total number of 85 women, 94% were excreted Aflatoxin M1. There was a significant difference between rice consumption (p=0.015 and type of consumed rice (p= 0.023 with excretion of Aflatoxin M1. Conclusion: According to the results it can be concluded that with increasing rice consumption, daily intake of Aflatoxin increases. Therefore the amount of Aflatoxin in rice consumption by women of Yazd is high and a lot of people are exposed to high concentration of Aflatoxin and health hazards related to it.

  9. Degreasing method for the seborrheic areas with respect to regaining sebum excretion rate to casual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Birgitte; Ivens, Ulla; Serup, Jørgen

    2000-05-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sebum excreted from the seborrheic glands keeps the skin surface subtle and moist. Before determining the activity of seborrheic glands, the skin surface must be degreased to remove contamination but without provoking sebum excretion. The purpose of this study was to set up a standardised degreasing procedure for various seborrheic areas in different skin types. The method will take day-to-day variations into account with respect to the kinetics of refatting. METHODS: The Sebumeter(R) from Courage+Khazaka is used to quantify the sebum excretion. Day-to-day variations were measured on the forehead in groups of 12 volunteers on 2 consecutive days. The degreasing procedure was investigated by individual cleaning with alcohol compared to washing with a mild detergent followed by wipes with alcohol on the forehead. The degree of refatting was monitored until 3 h after defatting on seborrheic areas: the forehead, cheek, nose, chin and upper back. RESULTS: There was no statistical significant difference in the variation from day to day (Pskin types was observed. An individual difference in the number of alcoholic wipes needed to degrease the forehead was seen. Washing followed by several repetitions of alcoholic wipes was not sufficient for the forehead, chin and nose (P>0.05). For the cheek and upper back, it was sufficient to wash with soap (Pskin until the sebum output reached the casual level was 2 h (P>0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) indicates that individual skin types return to casual level after defatting. CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant day-to-day variation using the Sebumeter(R). We ended up with different degreasing procedures in different seborrheic areas. Washing gently with a detergent solution and then performing three wipes with alcohol was optimal for degreasing the forehead, nose and chin. For the cheek and upper back, it was sufficient to use a mild soap. Casual level was reached after 2 h in all seborrheic

  10. A global database of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of aquatic animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Met...

  11. Urinary Angiotensinogen and Renin Excretion are Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Juretzko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies sought to identify new biomarkers for chronic kidney disease (CKD. As the renal renin-angiotensin system is activated in CKD, urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may be suitable candidates. We tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion is elevated in CKD and whether these parameters are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We further tested whether urinary angiotensinogen or renin excretion may convey additional information beyond that provided by albuminuria. Methods: We measured urinary and plasma angiotensinogen, renin, albumin and creatinine in 177 CKD patients from the Greifswald Approach to Individualized Medicine project and in 283 healthy controls from the Study of Health in Pomerania. The urinary excretion of specific proteins is given as protein-to-creatinine ratio. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, spearman correlation coefficients and linear regression models were calculated. Results: Urinary angiotensinogen [2,511 (196-31,909 vs. 18.6 (8.3-44.0 pmol/g, *P<0.01] and renin excretion [0.311 (0.135-1.155 vs. 0.069 (0.045-0.148 pmol/g, *P<0.01] were significantly higher in CKD patients than in healthy controls. The area under the ROC curve was significantly larger when urinary angiotensinogen, renin and albumin excretion were combined than with urinary albumin excretion alone. Urinary angiotensinogen (ß-coefficient -2.405, standard error 0.117, P<0.01 and renin excretion (ß-coefficient -0.793, standard error 0.061, P<0.01 were inversely associated with eGFR. Adjustment for albuminuria, age, sex, systolic blood pressure and body mass index did not significantly affect the results. Conclusion: Urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion are elevated in CKD patients. Both parameters are negatively associated with eGFR and these associations are independent of urinary albumin excretion. In CKD patients urinary angiotensinogen and renin excretion may

  12. Increased urine IgM excretion predicts cardiovascular events in patients with type 1 diabetes nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torffvit Ole

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetic nephropathy, a major complication of diabetes, is characterized by progressive renal injury and increased cardiovascular mortality. An increased urinary albumin excretion due dysfunction of the glomerular barrier is an early sign of diabetic nephropathy. An increased urinary excretion of higher molecular weight proteins such as IgM appears with progression of glomerular injury. We aim here to study the prognostic significance of urine IgM excretion in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 diabetic nephropathy. Methods This is an observational study of 139 patients with type1 diabetes mellitus (79 males and 60 females under routine care at the diabetic outpatient clinic at the Lund University Hospital. The median follow-up time was 18 years (1 to 22 years. Urine albumin and urine IgM concentration were measured at time of recruitment. Results Overall 32 (14 male and 18 female patients died in a cardiovascular event and 20 (11 male and 9 female patients reached end-stage renal disease. Univariate analysis indicated that patient survival and renal survival were inversely associated with urine albumin excretion (RR = 2.9 and 5.8, respectively and urine IgM excretion (RR = 4.6 and 5.7, respectively. Stratified analysis demonstrated that in patients with different degrees of albuminuria, the cardiovascular mortality rate and the incidence of end-stage renal disease was approximately three times higher in patients with increased urine IgM excretion. Conclusion An increase in urinary IgM excretion in patients with type 1 diabetes is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality and renal failure, regardless of the degree of albuminuria.

  13. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, G.; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in cross-over design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  14. Dietary and animal-related factors associated with the rate of urinary oxalate and calcium excretion in dogs and cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.; Hagen-Plantinga, E.A.; Everts, H.; Bosch, Guido; Kema, I.P.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cohort study and randomised clinical trial (RCT) in crossover design. In the cohort study, the range of urinary oxalate (Uox) and calcium (Uca) excretion was determined within a sample of the Dutch population of dogs and cats, and dietary and animal-related

  15. Detection of carrier heterogeneity by rate of ligand dialysis: medium-chain fatty acid interaction with human serum albumin and competition with chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1988-01-01

    Binding equilibria for decanoate, octanoate, and hexanoate to defatted human serum albumin were investigated by dialysis exchange rate determinations in 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C. The binding isotherms for decanoate and octanoate could not be fitted by the general bindin......(6) and 1.4 X 10(5) M-1 for decanoate, approximately 0.5 of the mercaptalbumin having high affinity. Udgivelsesdato: 1988-May-15...... equation. It was necessary to assume the presence of two albumin components, one with high affinity and one with low affinity, about 0.65 of the albumin having high binding affinity. The first stoichiometric binding constants for the high- and low-affinity albumin components were 1.1 X 10(7) and 1.4 X 10(5......) M-1, respectively, for decanoate; 1.6 X 10(6) and 3.5 X 10(4) for octanoate; and 7.1 X 10(4) and 8.0 X 10(2) M-1 for hexanoate. The high-affinity albumin component binds 1 mol decanoate, 1 mol octanoate, or 2 mol hexanoate more than is bound to the low-affinity component. Chloride ions compete...

  16. Detection of carrier heterogeneity by rate of ligand dialysis: medium-chain fatty acid interaction with human serum albumin and competition with chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1988-01-01

    Binding equilibria for decanoate, octanoate, and hexanoate to defatted human serum albumin were investigated by dialysis exchange rate determinations in 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C. The binding isotherms for decanoate and octanoate could not be fitted by the general binding...... equation. It was necessary to assume the presence of two albumin components, one with high affinity and one with low affinity, about 0.65 of the albumin having high binding affinity. The first stoichiometric binding constants for the high- and low-affinity albumin components were 1.1 X 10(7) and 1.4 X 10......(5) M-1, respectively, for decanoate; 1.6 X 10(6) and 3.5 X 10(4) for octanoate; and 7.1 X 10(4) and 8.0 X 10(2) M-1 for hexanoate. The high-affinity albumin component binds 1 mol decanoate, 1 mol octanoate, or 2 mol hexanoate more than is bound to the low-affinity component. Chloride ions compete...

  17. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether increased UOER is associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as inflammation...

  18. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0–25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26–40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  19. Impaired autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, Helge; Smidt, U M

    1984-01-01

    served as controls. Renal function was assessed by glomerular filtration rate (single bolus 51Cr-EDTA technique) and urinary albumin excretion rate (radial immunodiffusion). The study was performed twice within 2 weeks, with the subjects receiving an intravenous injection of either clonidine (225...... arterial blood pressure in all three groups (16-18 mmHg). While glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion rate remained unchanged in both control groups after clonidine injection, glomerular filtration rate diminished from 78 to 71 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (p les than 0.01), and urinary albumin...... excretion declined from 1707 to 938 micrograms/min (p less than 0.01) in the patients with diabetic nephropathy. Our results suggest that an intrinsic vascular (arteriolar) mechanism underlying the normal autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate, i.e. the relative constancy of glomerular filtration rate...

  20. Velocidad de la onda de pulso y la excreción urinaria de albumina en pacientes hipertensos tratados con Perindopril Pulse wave velocity and urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients treated with perindopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Tobilli

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La presión arterial sistólica, la presión arterial diastólica y la excreción urinaria de albúmina (EUA han sido reconocidas como predictores de riesgo cardiovascular. Además, los trastornos de la compliance arterial (CA evaluados mediante la velocidad de la onda de pulso elevada (VOP están estrechamente relacionados con los cambios de la presión arterial y correlacionados con la mortalidad cardiovascular y la presencia de ateroesclerosis. El objetivo primario de este estudio ha sido determinar la relación entre la VOP y la EUA en un grupo de pacientes no fumadores con hipertensión esencial y secundariamente evaluar los cambios producidos por un inhibidor de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (perindopril sobre estas dos variables. En el estudio participaron setenta pacientes (33 hombres y 37 mujeres hipertensos no fumadores, sin tratamiento previo, de 50 ± 7 años (entre 35-69. La VOP de todos los pacientes fue estudiada por medio de un dispositivo computarizado (Complior en el período basal y a los seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril. También se determinó la EUA por el método de inmunodifusión radial al inicio del tratamiento y luego de seis meses de tratamiento con perindopril (4.6 ± 1.4 mg/día. Al finalizar el estudio se observó una reducción significativa de la presión arterial sistólica (PAS (160.2 ± 10.6 vs. 131.9 ± 7.1 mmHg, pSystolic and diastolic blood pressures and urinary albumin excretion (UAE have been recognized as predictors for cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, arterial compliance (AC disorders assessed by increased aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV are closely related to changes in blood pressure and strongly correlated with cardiovascular mortality and presence or extent of atherosclerosis. Our purpose in the present study was to determine a relationship between AC using PWV and UAE in a group of non-smoking patients with essential hypertension, and the level of interaction of ACE inhibition on

  1. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B.; Rossing, P.; Jensen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. Methods: A double...... rate of albumin and activity could not be modified during diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy.......-blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid...

  2. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Rossing, P; Jensen, T

    2001-01-01

    6 months. RESULTS: Neither transcapillary escape rate of albumin (7.4 (median) (5.0-9.8) (range) % vs. 7.0 (4.6-10.6) %) nor prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (0.97 (0.72-2.40) nmol/L vs. 1.01 (0.59-3.11) nmol/L) changed after 12 months of fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION: Increased transcapillary...

  3. Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Different Urinary Albumin Excretion Rates and Their Correlation with Clinical Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-qin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the pathogenetic mechanism of DN has not been elucidated, an inflammatory mechanism has been suggested as a potential contributor. This study was designed to explore the relationship between low-grade inflammation and renal microangiopathy in T2DM. A total of 261 diabetic subjects were divided into three groups according to UAE: a normal albuminuria group, a microalbuminuria group, and a macroalbuminuria group. A control group was also chosen. Levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, uMCP-1, SAA, SCr, BUN, serum lipid, blood pressure, and HbA1c were measured in all subjects. Compared with the normal controls, levels of hs-CRP, TNF-α, uMCP-1, and SAA in T2DM patients were significantly higher. They were also elevated in the normal albuminuria group, P<0.05. Compared with the normal albuminuria group, levels of these inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in the microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria group, P<0.01. The macroalbuminuria group also showed higher levels than the microalbuminuria group, P<0.01. Also they were positively correlated with UAE, SBP, DBP, LDL-C, and TC. We noted no significance correlated with course, TG, or HDL-C. Only TNF-α; was positively correlated with HbA1c. This study revealed the importance of these inflammatory cytokines in DN pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to fully establish the potential of these cytokines as additional biomarkers for the development of DN.

  4. Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): Phase I-Quality Assurance of Organ Doses and Excretion Rates From Internal Exposures of Plutonium-239 for the Mayak Worker Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrian, M-D; Birchall, A; Vostrotin, V

    2016-06-20

    The calculation of reliable and realistic doses for use in epidemiological studies for the quantification of risk from internal exposure to radioactive material is fundamental to the development of advice, guidance and regulations for the control and use of radioactive material. Thus, any programme of work carried out which requires the calculation of doses for use by epidemiologists ideally should contain a rigorous program of quality assurance (QA). This paper describes the initial QA (Phase I) implemented by Public Health England (PHE) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI) as part of the work programme on internal dosimetry in the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research Project 2.4 for the 2013 Mayak Worker Dosimetry System. SUBI designed and implemented new software (PANDORA) to include the latest Mayak Worker Dosimetry System and to calculate organ burdens, urinary excretion rates, intakes and absorbed doses, while PHE modified their commercially available IMBA Professional Plus software package. Comparisons of output from the two codes for the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 showed calculated values of absorbed doses, intakes, organ burdens and urinary excretion agreed to within 1%. The 1% discrepancy can be explained by the approximation used in IMBA to speed up dose calculations. © Crown copyright 2016.

  5. Increased extravasation and lymphatic return rate of albumin during diuretic treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Schlichting, P

    1981-01-01

    , range 4.3-7.4, P less than 0.05, one-sided tests). During diuretic treatment TERalb increased to a mean of 13.0% IVMalb.h-1 (range 9.2-22.2), which is significantly higher compared to the untreated state (P less than 0.05) and compared to normals (P less than 0.01). In the untreated condition IVMalb...... was mean 1.24 mmol (range 0.96-1.64), and this value increased by 20% (P less than 0.01) to an average of 1.49 mmol (range 1.36-1.79) during diuretic treatment. The average increase in IVMalb (0.25 mmol) corresponded to 45% of the intraperitoneal mass of albumin in the untreated state (mean 0.59 mmol......), indicating a net transport of albumin from the peritoneal cavity to the plasma during diuretic treatment. The results suggest an increased lymphatic drainage of albumin during diuretic treatment, which may play a role in amelioration of cirrhotic ascites....

  6. Changes in metabolic rate and N excretion in the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus under conditions of environmental hypercapnia: identifying effective acid-base variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbuch, M; Pörtner, H O

    2002-04-01

    Increased CO(2) partial pressures (hypercapnia) as well as hypoxia are natural features of marine environments like the intertidal zone. Nevertheless little is known about the specific effects of CO(2) on metabolism, except for the well-described effects on acid-base variables and regulation. Accordingly, the sediment-dwelling worm Sipunculus nudus was used as an experimental model to investigate the correlation of acid-base-induced metabolic depression and protein/amino acid catabolism, by determining the rates of oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and O/N ratios in non-perfused preparations of body wall musculature at various levels of extra- and intracellular pH, P(CO(2)) and [HCO(3)(-)]. A decrease in extracellular pH from control level (7.9) to 6.7 caused a reduction in aerobic metabolic rate of both normocapnic and hypercapnic tissues by 40-45 %. O/N ratios of 4.0-4.5 under control conditions indicate that amino acid catabolism meets the largest fraction of aerobic energy demand. A significant 10-15 % drop in ammonia excretion, a simultaneous reduction of O/N ratios and a transient accumulation of intracellular bicarbonate during transition to extreme acidosis suggest a reduction in net amino acid catabolism and a shift in the selection of amino acids used, favouring monoamino dicarboxylic acids and their amines (asparagine, glutamine, aspartic and glutamic acids). A drop in intracellular pH was identified as mediating this effect. In conclusion, the present data provide evidence for a regulatory role of intracellular pH in the selection of amino acids used by catabolism.

  7. DIETARY PROTEIN INTAKE IS INDEPENDENTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE URINARY EXCRETION OF PHOSPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dobronravov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Decrease of urinary phosphate (P excretion and P retention triggers activation of phosphotonins and subsequent development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in progressing of chronic kidney disease (CKD. The main source of P is dietary protein. No large studies are presented to-date to evaluate the relationship between dietary protein intake and parameters of P metabolism in CKD patients. This was a goal of the cross-sectional cohort study .11315 CKD patients were entered (males 43%. Median (10th-90th percentile of age and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR were 46 (24-69 and 64 (24-104. The analyzed data were: age, gender, body mass index (BMI serum albumin, creatinine, calcium and phosphate; 24-h urine creatinine, phosphate (P,proteinuria (DP. Estimated parameters includes: eGFR, fractional P excretion (FEP, 24-h P excretion (24-h UP, and P clearance (CP. Dietary protein intake (DPI was based on 24-h urinary urea excretion. No significant differences in serum phosphate were found in groups with various DPI. FEP, 24-h UP and CP were significantly higher in higher DPI range. DPI was positively associated with 24-h UP (β=0,287, p<0.000001 in multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, DP, eGFR, serum P, FEP, BMI, and Ca. Thus, DPI is considered to be the independent factor influencing urinary P excretion and hence contributing to progression of mineral and bone disease in renal dysfunction.

  8. Influence of raising albumin concentration on renin release in isolated perfused rat kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fray, John C. S.; Karuza, Anthony S.

    1980-01-01

    1. Experiments were conducted in isolated perfused rat kidneys to determine the effect of raising perfusate albumin concentration on renin release. 2. Raising albumin concentration in the perfusion fluid from 20 g/l. to 60 g/l. (high albumin concentration) increased renin release and renal perfusate flow rate. The effect was reversible. 3. Ureteral occlusion did not prevent the rise in renin release and renal perfusate flow induced by high albumin concentration. 4. Propranolol (0·28 mM) did not block the renin release stimulated by high albumin concentration, but it inhibited the release stimulated by isoprenaline (2·43 μM). 5. Clonidine (10 μM) and oxymetazoline (10 μM) constricted the renal vasculature and stimulated renin release during high perfusate albumin concentration providing perfusion pressure was kept constant. 6. Low renal perfusion pressure (50 mmHg) and isoprenaline (2·43 μM) stimulated renin release in perfusion experiments with both 20 and 60 g/l., but the rate of renin release was substantially greater with 60 g/l. 7. On the other hand, perfusion fluid deprived of calcium induced a greater increase in renin release in kidneys perfused with 20 g/l. than in those with 60 g/l. 8. We conclude that high albumin concentration stimulates renin release in isolated perfused rat kidneys by a mechanism which does not involve the renal nerve, direct renal vasodilation or sodium excretion. High albumin concentration may increase the sensitivity of the kidney to acute stimulation by a mechanism involving calcium. PMID:6991668

  9. The effects of cimetidine on creatinine excretion, glomerular filtration rate and tubular function in renal transplant recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Ladefoged, S D; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1989-01-01

    The renal clearance of endogenous creatinine (CCr), sodium (CNa) and lithium (CLi) was determined before and after a single intravenous bolus of cimetidine in nine renal transplant recipients. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured with 125I-iothalamate clearance (CTh). The initial CCr...... of sodium decreased throughout the study (p less than 0.05); CLi was unchanged. In conclusion cimetidine, when measured during 1-h clearance periods, interferes with tubular creatinine secretion in the denervated kidney of transplant recipients without affecting the glomerular filtration rate or proximal...

  10. Short-term lower-leg growth rate and urine cortisol excretion in children treated with ciclesonide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurement of short-term lower-leg growth rate in children by means of knemometry has become established as an integral part of the available measures of systemic activity of topical steroids in children. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the effects of clinically effective doses...... of the novel inhaled corticosteroid ciclesonide on lower-leg growth rate and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in children with asthma. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-period crossover study, 24 children aged 6 to 12 years sequentially received ciclesonide (40, 80, and 160 microg...... significant differences were seen in lower-leg growth rates between any of the ciclesonide treatments and placebo. Lower-leg growth rates were 0.412 mm/wk for placebo, 0.425 mm/wk for 40 microg of ciclesonide, 0.397 mm/wk for 80 microg of ciclesonide, and 0.370 mm/wk for 160 microg of ciclesonide...

  11. Lack of effect of fish oil supplementation on coagulation and transcapillary escape rate of albumin in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrup, B; Rossing, P; Jensen, T

    2001-01-01

    -blind, randomized, controlled study was carried out at a tertiary referral centre. The subjects were 29 insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. One year of fish oil supplementation (4.6 g n-3 fatty acids/day) was compared with placebo (olive oil). The main outcome measures were N-3 fatty acid......OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a diet supplementation with fish oil in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy in order to evaluate whether abnormal transcapillary escape rate of albumin and procoagulant activity in these patients could be modified. METHODS: A double...... 6 months. RESULTS: Neither transcapillary escape rate of albumin (7.4 (median) (5.0-9.8) (range) % vs. 7.0 (4.6-10.6) %) nor prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (0.97 (0.72-2.40) nmol/L vs. 1.01 (0.59-3.11) nmol/L) changed after 12 months of fish oil supplementation. CONCLUSION: Increased transcapillary...

  12. Absorption and excretion tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberich, R.

    1988-01-01

    The absorption and excretion of radiopharmaceuticals is still of interest in diagnostic investigations of nuclear medicine. In this paper the most common methods of measuring absorption and excretion are described. The performance of the different tests and their standard values are discussed. More over the basic possibilities of measuring absorption and excretion including the needed measurement equipments are presented. (orig.) [de

  13. Thimerosal changes protein conformation and increase the rate of fibrillation in physiological conditions: Spectroscopic studies using bovine serum albumin (BSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, João César N; da Silva, Isabella M; Braga, Taniris C; de Fátima, Ângelo; Figueiredo, Isis M; Santos, Josué Carinhanha Caldas

    2018-02-21

    The interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and thimerosal (TM), an organomercury compound widely employed as a preservative in vaccines, was investigated simulating physiological conditions and using different spectroscopic techniques. The results, employing molecular fluorescence showed the interaction occurs by static quenching through electrostatic forces (ΔH  0), spontaneously (ΔG = -4.40 kJ mol -1 ) and with a binding constant of 3.24 × 10 3  M -1 . Three-dimensional fluorescence studies indicated that TM causes structural changes in the polypeptide chain of the BSA, confirmed by circular dichroism that showed an increase in α-helix (from 43.9 to 47.8%) content after interaction process. Through synchronized fluorescence and employing bilirubin as a protein site marker, it was confirmed the preferential interaction of TM in the subdomain IB of BSA. The interaction mechanism proposed in this work is based on the reaction of TM with BSA through of free Cys34 residue, forming the adduct BSA-HgEt with the thiosalicylic acid release, which possibly interacts electrostatically with positive side chain amino acids of the modified protein. Finally, it was proven that both TM and EtHgCl accelerate the protein fibrillation kinetics in 42 and 122%, respectively, indicating the toxicity of these compounds in biological systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Increased transvascular escape rate and lymph drainage of albumin in pigs during intravenous diuretic medication. Relations to treatment in man and transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1982-01-01

    in anaesthetized pigs during control conditions and during diuretic medication (furosemide i.v. 20 mg/15 min, total 160-200 mg). During diuretic medication TERalb (mean 17.1% IVMalb X h-1, range 11.5-21, n = 6) increased significantly above the control period (mean 12.3% IVMalb X h-1, range 9.5-16.5, P less than 0.......05). Pressures in artery, right atrium, hepatic and portal veins did not change significantly from control to diuretic period. TERalb equals the lymphatic return rate of albumin provided the transport mechanisms are filtrative-convective (i.e. no local back transport). Additional measurements in five pigs...... with proteins of different molecular size confirmed a dominating filtrative-convective transport. The increased TERalb during diuretic medication is best explained by an increased lymph drainage, which may decrease interstitial fluid pressure and thereby increase the transmural capillary pressure difference...

  15. Determination of correlation times from selective and non-selective spin-lattice relaxation rates and their use in drug-drug and drug-albumin interaction studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinoco Luzineide Wanderley

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the changes in sample concentration on the NMR chemical shifts and on the selective and non-selective spin-lattice relaxation rates (R1S and R1NS of the three isomers of nitrobenzaldeyde guanyl hydrazone (NBGH pure and with bovine serum albumin (BSA were measured in solution. The results wereused to determine the correlation times (tauc, showing that the degree of intermolecular drug-drug association varies with the nitro group position on the ring and that this degree of association interferes with the interaction of these drugs with BSA. The results suggest that the degree of drug-drug and drug-BSA association are related to the in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of these compounds.

  16. Intake and excretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi

    1979-01-01

    Of radioiodine metabolism in man, the relations between intake, thyroidal uptake and excretion are explained. The internal radiation dose to the thyroid for public population is mainly given through the intake of contaminated food in all the ages. In the gestation, the fetus is exposed most to radioiodine immediately before delivery and the dose is estimated to amount a few times higher than the maternal thyroid. Importance of both the cow's milk and the breast milk as the sources of contaminant, is emphasized. Babyhood for 6 months after delivery, in this age are estiperiod as to the thyroidal exposure by radioiodine because the dose in his age are estimated to be over 30 times for 131 I and about 9 times for 129 I as compared with that to the adult. Because of its long-term residence in the environment, 129 I is incorporated into cereals, leafy vegetables and meat besides milk. However, the critical age is still in the babyhood for 6 months after birth. Radioiodine given in a form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroidal uptake rate and the biological half-life are depresesed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine given in the form of sodium iodide is actually completely absorbed in the intestines. However, the thyroids uptake rate and the biological half-life are depressed by administration of inorganic iodide. Radioiodine both in the protein-binding fraction and in the total fraction of metabolised cow's milk, reaches the thyroid in the same manner as that given in a form of inorganic iodide. While, rats given radioiodine incorporated into seaweed, excreted tremendous amount of the nuclide into feces which resulted in very low uptake of the nuclide by the thyroid. To estimate population dose from radioiodine, the absorption rate of radioiodine may be one of the most important parameters. (author)

  17. Urinary adiponectin excretion rises with increasing albuminuria in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorsal, Anders; Petersen, Emilie Hein; Tarnow, Lise

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Urinary adiponectin (u-adiponectin) excretion has been suggested to reflect early glomerular damage. Inspired by this, we studied the levels of u-adiponectin in type 1 diabetic patients with different levels of urinary albumin excretion (UAE). METHODS: U-adiponectin was analysed by ELISA in ...

  18. Nickel Dermatitis - Nickel Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T.; Thorboe, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nickel excretion in urine in four females -sensitive to nickel with an intermittent dyshidrotic eruption was measured with flameless atomic absorption. Excretion of nickel was found to be increased in association with outbreaks of vesicles. The results support the idea that the chronic condition...... was maintained by ingestion of nickel in food....

  19. Changes in plasma volume, in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and in subcutaneous blood flow during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bonde-Petersen, F; Madsbad, S

    1985-01-01

    and transcapillary escape rate increased significantly during hypoglycaemia. Skin temperature and local subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow were measured in four different regions. Both tended to decrease during hypoglycaemia and decreased significantly 2 h after hypoglycaemia. There was no correlation between...... changes in the two measurements, suggesting that there is no simple relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and skin temperature during hypoglycaemia....

  20. Current issues in measurement and report of urinary albumin excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, W. Greg; Bruns, David E.; Hortin, Glen L.; Sandberg, Sverre; Aakre, Kristin M.; McQueen, Matthew J.; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Lieske, John C.; Seccombe, David W.; Jones, Graham; Bunk, David M.; Curhan, Gary C.; Narva, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    ANTECEDENTES: A excreção urinária de albumina indica lesão nos rins e é reconhecida como fator de risco para a progressão das doenças renal e cardiovascular. A dosagem da albumina urinária chama a atenção sobre a necessidade clínica de relatos de resultados precisos e claramente descritos. O National Kidney Disease Education Program e a Federação Internacional de Química Clínica e Medicina Laboratorial (IFCC) reuniram-se para avaliar o estado atual das questões pré-analíticas, analíticas e pó...

  1. Utilizing Estimated Creatinine Excretion to Improve the Performance of Spot Urine Samples for the Determination of Proteinuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ke Wang

    Full Text Available Agreement between spot and 24-hour urine protein measurements is poor in kidney transplant recipients. We investigated whether using formulae to estimate creatinine excretion rate (eCER, rather than assuming a standard creatinine excretion rate, would improve the estimation of proteinuria from spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients.We measured 24 hour urine protein and albumin and spot albumin:creatinine (ACR and spot protein:creatinine (PCR in 181 Kidney transplant recipients." We utilized 6 different published formulae (Fotheringham, CKD-EPI, Cockcroft-Gault, Walser, Goldwasser and Rule to estimate eCER and from it calculated estimated albumin and protein excretion rate (eAER and ePER. Bias, precision and accuracy (within 15%, 30% and 50% of ACR, PCR, eAER, ePER were compared to 24-hour urine protein and albumin.ACR and PCR significantly underestimated 24-hour albumin and protein excretion (ACR Bias (IQR, -5.9 mg/day; p< 0.01; PCR Bias, (IQR, -35.2 mg/day; p<0.01. None of the formulae used to calculate eAER or ePER had a bias that was significantly different from the 24-hour collection (eAER and ePER bias: Fotheringham -0.3 and 7.2, CKD-EPI 0.3 and 13.5, Cockcroft-Gault -3.2 and -13.9, Walser -1.7 and 3.1, Goldwasser -1.3 and -0.5, Rule -0.6 and 4.2 mg/day respectively. The accuracy for ACR and PCR were lower (within 30% being 38% and 43% respectively than the corresponding values estimated by utilizing eCER (for eAER 46% to 49% and ePER 46-54%.Utilizing estimated creatinine excretion to calculate eAER and ePER improves the estimation of 24-hour albuminuria/proteinuria with spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients.

  2. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Casagrande

    Full Text Available Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites, we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  3. Carotenoids, Birdsong and Oxidative Status: Administration of Dietary Lutein Is Associated with an Increase in Song Rate and Circulating Antioxidants (Albumin and Cholesterol) and a Decrease in Oxidative Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Stefania; Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites), we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits. PMID:25549336

  4. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    in autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer by specific gene silencing. The effective delivery of the therapeutic to target cells and tissues is currently a great challenge for successful siRNA therapy. In the bloodstream, free siRNA is rapidly cleared by renal excretion or degraded by serum...... been used to create a range of albumin variants with FcRn affinity both lower and higher than that of wild-type albumin. The aim of this project is to develop a siRNA carrier system utilizing albumin as a natural delivery vehicle. Cholesteryl functionalized siRNA was designed to facilitate binding...... formulation with albumin. Furthermore, the experiments revealed a preferential accumulation of the 2- cholesteryl siRNA in the liver after 6 hours. The finding of accumulation in the liver was utilized in vivo to illustrate liver specific Factor VII silencing of ~30%, mediated only by albumin as a delivery...

  5. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0-25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26-40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P metabolic syndrome.

  6. Fractional excretion of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    FE sodium; FENa ... a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Excretion fraction of filtered sodium-blood and urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, ...

  7. Renal acid excretion in the domestic fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S; Skadhauge, E

    1983-05-01

    1. In order to assess the role of uricotelism in net renal acid excretion, blood and ureteral urine samples were collected from five hens fed a commercial poultry feed (Diet A) and five hens fed a protein-rich, Na-poor feed (Diet B). All samples were analysed for pH, PCO2, ammonium, phosphate, uric acid and urates (UA + U) and inulin. 2. On Diet A, average pH in venous blood was 7.42, while urinary pH (pHu) ranged from 4.74 to 7.25. At average pHu (6.10), uric acid accounted for 52% of total acid excreted, H2PO4 for 20% and NH4 for 28%. Net acid excretion in ureteral urine was 345 muequiv h-1 kg body weight-1, or 5-10 times that observed in ureotelic vertebrates (amphibians and mammals). 3. The relative contributions of these urinary buffers to net renal acid excretion changed with pHu. Significant negative correlations exist between pHu and both total phosphate and ammonium excretion rates (P less than 0.001). Excretion rates of (UA + U) showed a positive correlation (P less than 0.05) with pHu. 4. Feeding on Diet B revealed the homeostatic power of the avian kidney. Blood pH and PCO2 were not changed relative to values in hens fed the control diet while striking increases in excretion rates of all urinary buffers (except HCO3) were observed. Average pHu fell to 5.12, and the average net renal acid excretion rate doubled.

  8. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...... extravasation rate (137 +/- 52 mumol/h). Albumin flux from the peritoneal cavity into the plasma was substantially lower (0.22 +/- 0.07 mumol/h, P albumin from plasma over 4 h was 14 +/- 3.2 mumol, which was significantly lower than the intraperitoneal albumin...

  9. Studies on the pathogenesis in iron deficiency anemia Part 1. Urinary iron excretion in iron deficiency anemia patients and rats in various iron states

    OpenAIRE

    中西,徳彦

    1991-01-01

    In the "iron excretion test" , urinary iron excretion after injection of saccharated iron oxide has been reported to be accelerated in relapsing idiopathic iron deficiency anemia. To determine the relevance of urinary iron excretion to clinical factors other than iron metabolism, 15 clinical parameters were evaluated. The serum creatinine level was positively and the serum albumin level was negatively correlated with urinary iron excretion, showing coefficients of r=0.97,-0.86 respectively, a...

  10. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular /sup 125/I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease.

  11. Diabetic kidney disease in FVB/NJ Akita mice: temporal pattern of kidney injury and urinary nephrin excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae-Hyung; Paik, Seung-Yeol; Mao, Lan; Eisner, William; Flannery, Patrick J; Wang, Liming; Tang, Yuping; Mattocks, Natalie; Hadjadj, Samy; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Ruiz, Phillip; Gurley, Susan B; Spurney, Robert F

    2012-01-01

    Akita mice are a genetic model of type 1 diabetes. In the present studies, we investigated the phenotype of Akita mice on the FVB/NJ background and examined urinary nephrin excretion as a marker of kidney injury. Male Akita mice were compared with non-diabetic controls for functional and structural characteristics of renal and cardiac disease. Podocyte number and apoptosis as well as urinary nephrin excretion were determined in both groups. Male FVB/NJ Akita mice developed sustained hyperglycemia and albuminuria by 4 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. These abnormalities were accompanied by a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in 10-week old Akita mice, which was associated with functional, structural and molecular characteristics of cardiac hypertrophy. By 20 weeks of age, Akita mice developed a 10-fold increase in albuminuria, renal and glomerular hypertrophy and a decrease in the number of podocytes. Mild-to-moderate glomerular mesangial expansion was observed in Akita mice at 30 weeks of age. In 4-week old Akita mice, the onset of hyperglycemia was accompanied by increased podocyte apoptosis and enhanced excretion of nephrin in urine before the development of albuminuria. Urinary nephrin excretion was also significantly increased in albuminuric Akita mice at 16 and 20 weeks of age and correlated with the albumin excretion rate. These data suggest that: 1. FVB/NJ Akita mice have phenotypic characteristics that may be useful for studying the mechanisms of kidney and cardiac injury in diabetes, and 2. Enhanced urinary nephrin excretion is associated with kidney injury in FVB/NJ Akita mice and is detectable early in the disease process.

  12. [Pitfalls in measuring urinary proteins: age-related changes in urinary creatinine excretion that affect the urine protein/creatinine ratio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuno, Tomoji; Hisada, Yukimasa; Nishimura, Yasuyuki

    2011-02-01

    Knowing the amount of protein excreted in the urine is important in determining the severity and activity of renal diseases. In general, screening tests have been carried out using the urine dipstick. However, there are limitations in determining the amount of urinary protein excretion using qualitative tests for protein in spot urine samples due to the concentration and dilution of urine. Therefore, when using spot urine samples, it is helpful to calculate the urine protein/creatinine ratio (P/C) by simultaneous measurement of urinary creatinine for determining daily protein excretion. We examined P/C measurements using the dipstick method in 22,718 subjects who visited our hospital for health examinations. The results showed positive rates for qualitative urinary protein (1 + and more) of 4.2% for males and 2.7% for females. Also positive rates for P/C (150 mg/g.cre and more) were found of 7.7% for males and 10.2% for females. The results showed a reversal of positive rates for males and females compared with the results of qualitative urinary protein. In addition, P/C showed a higher positive rate in 70 years old or older both for males and females. The distribution of urinary creatinine levels simultaneously measured by dipstick method showed that the percentage of diluted urine with urinary creatinine level less than 50 mg/dL was 6.8% for males and 18.3% for females overall. Females showed a higher rate and the percentage tended to increase with age both for males and females. From these results, it was suggested that changes in urinary creatinine excretion with age that affect the P/C ratio are large. We then measured the albumin excretion rate in the 24-hour urine as well as examined the correlation between the urinary creatinine concentration and albumin index with regard to age and sex in 1,280 diabetic patients. The results showed that daily urinary creatinine excretion overall in males, overall in females, in males over 80 years old and in females over

  13. Supplementation with dairy calcium and/or flaxseed fibers in conjunction with orlistat augments fecal fat excretion without altering ratings of gastrointestinal comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mette Bredal; Juul, Signe Rømer; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orlistat is a lipase inhibitor which reduced absorption of dietary fat by ~30% thereby inducing a weight loss; however, side effects occur as a consequence of increased colonic fat content. To test the hypothesis that most gastrointestinal side events induced by treatment with orlistat...... side effects by concomitant use of FF and Ca. However, fecal fat excretion was increased with both FF and Ca in the absence of a worsening of symptoms, warranting further studies powered to detect potential additive weight loss effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Ethical Committee of the Capital Region...... could be prevented/ameliorated by concomitant use of natural dietary components, flaxseed fiber (FF) and/or dairy calcium (Ca), binding liquid fats to more solid complexes. METHODS: A randomized controlled dietary intervention study. Thirty-eight obese adults completed a 1-week run-in period, where all...

  14. Pre-symptomatic increase in urine-orosomucoid excretion in pre-eclamptic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Camilla S; Allen, Jim; Vittinghus, Erik

    2007-01-01

    ELISA. RESULTS: Orosomucoid/creatinin excretion ratio was significantly higher early in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (from the 20th week of pregnancy, p=0.0053) compared with healthy pregnancies, the difference increased throughout pregnancy. Albumin/creatinin ratio increased subsequent to the increase...... by standard methods, and in urine by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Orosomucoid/creatinin excretion ratio was significantly higher early in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (from the 20th week of pregnancy, p=0.0053) compared with healthy pregnancies, the difference increased throughout pregnancy. Albumin/creatinin ratio...... pregnancy. Orosomucoid and albumin in plasma were analysed by standard methods, and in urine by sandwich ELISA. RESULTS: Orosomucoid/creatinin excretion ratio was significantly higher early in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (from the 20th week of pregnancy, p=0.0053) compared with healthy pregnancies...

  15. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigations of excretion rates of the radionuclides 230Th, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po of persons of the general population and of workers in selected regions in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, I.; Seitz, G.; Hartmann, M.

    2006-01-01

    According to ICRP 60 and European-Directive 96/29, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) and Technical Enriched Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) have to take the radiation protection of the general population as well as of workers into account. The German radiation protection regulations stress that particularly. In connection with these regulations, various measurement programs have been and still are performed to investigate the relevant exposure paths. One of these programs is the determination of the intake of natural occurring radionuclides of the uranium decay series in individuals of the public, in exposed regions and houses and also at NORM workplaces by excretion analysis. Excretion analysis surveillance is one of the common tools for internal dosimetry. Sources of primordial radionuclides could be the ingestion of foodstuff and water and the incorporation of (mostly airborne) pollution on work places. The main focus in this report is set upon the excretion rate in faeces and urine. A cohort of about 100 persons was selected in five regions in Germany. One of these regions we chose to be the reference area. It is situated in the northern part of Germany with low background radiation. The other regions are in the south-west and south-east mountain areas. Workers were selected from drinking water providers, natural gas providers, balneologic facilities and exhibition mines and museum pits. In the same region also persons of public were recruited for the study. The paper presents selected data of the above mentioned nuclides in urine and faeces samples which were collected during 2002 to 2005. The results are grouped due the parameters like regions and working fields and are discussed in detail. These are 15 mBq/d in urine and 70 mBq/d in faeces and are not as different for the different nuclides as one may expect. (authors)

  17. Renal metabolism and urinary excretion of platelet-activating factor in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noris, M.; Perico, N.; Macconi, D.; Nanni, V.; Dadan, J.; Peterlongo, F.; Remuzzi, G.

    1990-01-01

    The origin of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the urine remains ill defined. The present study documents that [3H]PAF (3.5 mu Ci) injected into the renal artery of isolated control rat kidney preparations perfused at constant pressure with a cell-free medium containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was excreted in negligible amounts (0.034%) in the urine, whereas 6% was retained by the kidney. When kidneys were perfused with a BSA-free medium, 0.029 and 71% of the total radioactivity added to the perfusate was recovered in the urine and in the renal tissue, respectively. [3H]PAF urine excretion in proteinuric kidneys from adriamycin-treated rats was still negligible (0.015%). Analysis of the renal tissue-retained radioactivity in control and proteinuric kidneys perfused with 1% BSA indicated metabolism into long chain acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine species, lyso-PAF, glycerols, and intact PAF. Thin layer chromatography analysis of [3H]glycerol fraction in these renal extracts showed two major components comigrating with 1-O-alkylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-fatty acylglycerol. Isolated proximal tubules, but not glomeruli from nephrotic rats exposed to increasing concentrations of BSA (0-4%), had a higher PAF uptake than control tubules for BSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.1%. Our findings in the isolated perfused kidneys indicate that, in normal conditions, circulating PAF is excreted in the urine in negligible amounts and that the altered glomerular permeability to proteins does not affect this excretion rate. Moreover, analysis of renal tissue radioactivity documented that the renal metabolism of PAF is comparable in control and nephrotic kidneys

  18. Bidirectional peritoneal transport of albumin in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in order to assess bidirectional peritoneal kinetics of albumin after simultaneous i.v. and i.p. injection of radioiodinated albumin tracers (125I-RISA and 131I-RISA) in eight clinically stable uraemic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis...... mass at the end of the dialysis (54 +/- 19 mumol, P peritoneal...... (CAPD). The plasma volume, intravascular albumin mass (IVM), and overall extravasation rate of albumin were not significantly different from that found in healthy controls. Albumin flux from the plasma into the peritoneal cavity was 3.71 +/- 0.82 (SD) mumol/h, which was only 3% of the overall...

  19. Monitoring of ovarian activity by daily measurement of urinary excretion rates of oestrone glucuronide and pregnanediol glucuronide using the Ovarian Monitor, Part III: variability of normal menstrual cycle profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Leonard F; Vigil, Pilar; Cooke, Delwyn G; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Brown, James B

    2013-12-01

    What are the characteristics of, and how variable are, individual normal menstrual cycle profiles of excretion rates for the urinary metabolites oestrone glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG)? There is a continuum of menstrual cycle profiles that differ from standard textbook profiles but which can be understood simply in terms of growth, atresia and ovulation of ovarian follicles. Point-of-care assays with the Ovarian Monitor pre-coated assay tubes, using urine samples diluted to a constant volume per unit time, give laboratory accurate clinical data for individual menstrual cycles. Lay operators can perform the point-of-care assay system at home to achieve reliable and reproducible results, which can be used for natural family planning. This prospective study involved 62 women, with normal menstrual cycles, recruited from three centres: Palmerston North, New Zealand, Sydney, Australia and Santiago, Chile. The study lasted 3 years. Women collected daily urine samples and determined their E1G and PdG rates with a pre-coated enzyme assay system known as the Ovarian Monitor. For two cycles, the assays were repeated in a study centre and the results were averaged to give 113 individual menstrual cycles for analysis. The cycles were displayed individually in a proprietary database program. The individual normal hormonal profiles were more complex than the classic composite curves for 40% of the cycles. Of 113 ostensibly normal cycles, only 91 were potentially fertile and 22 had some luteal phase defect. The oestrone glucuronide and PdG excretion rates were reliable and informative in the non-invasive elucidation of ovulation and ovarian function for both simple and complex profiles. Daily monitoring revealed the variability of normal menstrual cycle profiles. The LH peaks were variable and ambiguous markers for ovulation. The study consisted of cycles only from women with regular cycles of 20-40 days duration. All the women were intending to avoid a

  20. Distribution and degradation of albumin in extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Anne-Marie; Taaning, E; Rossing, N

    1981-01-01

    The distribution and degradation of albumin were determined in twelve patients with extensive skin disease and in ten control subjects by measuring the metabolic turnover and transcapillary escape of 132 I-labelled albumin. The ratio of intravascular to total mass of albumin was normal. Thus...... the observed hypoalbuminaemia and the low intravascular mass reflect a reduced mass of total body albumin. The rate of synthesis was normal, but the transcapillary escape rate reflecting the microvascular leakiness to macromolecules, and the fractional disappearance rate were significantly higher...

  1. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    The dietary treatment of protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has been designed on an empirical basis, with outcomes for successful management including body weight gain and resolution of apathy. We propose using the measurements of protein synthesis as a more objective measure of renourishment. We will therefore randomize a group of malnourished children (weigh-for-height Z score 13 C-leucine and serial measurements of 13 C-enrichment of albumin. Isotope infusions will be performed on days one and three, following a standard three hour fast. Since albumin synthesis is reduced under the influence of cytokines which mediate the inflammatory response, results will be stratified according to the presence or absence of clinically apparent infections. We hypothesize that the provision of added dietary protein will optimize albumin synthesis rates in PEM as well as attenuate the reduction in albumin synthesis seen in the presence of infections. (author). 20 refs

  2. Relation of albumin/creatinine ratio to C-reactive protein and to the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Adrian W; Seshadri, Niranjan; Pearce, Gregory L; Sachar, Ravish; Hoogwerf, Byron J; Sprecher, Dennis L

    2003-09-01

    We hypothesized that the association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) with urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is predominately mediated through its correlation with the metabolic syndrome. Serum CRP and urine albumin:creatinine ratios (ACR) from 720 preventive cardiology patients were analyzed to estimate age- and gender-adjusted relative risk of high CRP and metabolic syndrome for high ACR. These data demonstrate that CRP independently predicts the presence of UAE, a marker of endothelial dysfunction.

  3. Evaluation of use of human albumin in critically ill dogs: 73 cases (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Amy V; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Delaforcade, Armelle M; Chan, Daniel L

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the use of human albumin in critically ill dogs. Design-Retrospective case series. 73 client-owned hospitalized dogs. Medical records of dogs that received human albumin were reviewed to assess effects of the use of human albumin on serum albumin concentration, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein concentration; determine the relationships between these variables and outcome; and assess its safety. Data for signalment, diagnoses, physiologic variables, dosage, amount of crystalloid fluid administered prior to human albumin administration, complications, and outcome were reviewed. Additionally, pre- and postadministration values for serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein were recorded. Administration of human albumin resulted in significant changes in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein. The serum albumin, total protein, degree of improvement in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and dosage of human albumin were significantly greater in survivors. Seventeen of 73 (23%) dogs had at least 1 complication that could be potentially associated with the administration of human albumin that occurred during or immediately following administration of human albumin. Three of 73 (4%) dogs had severe delayed complications. Administration of human albumin significantly increased serum albumin, and total protein concentrations and colloid osmotic pressure, especially in survivors. Because of the high mortality rate of the study population and other confounding factors, it was uncertain whether complications were associated with the underlying disease or with human albumin administration. Acute and delayed complications may have been under-recognized.

  4. A nation-wide cross-sectional study of urinary albumin excretion rate, arterial blood pressure and blood glucose control in Danish children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Danish Study Group of Diabetes in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H B; Marinelli, K; Nørgaard, K

    1990-01-01

    than 20 to 150 micrograms min-1 were compared with those for 569 diabetic adolescents with AER less than or equal to 20 micrograms min-1 and duration of diabetes more than 2 years. The group with AER greater than 20 to 150 micrograms min-1 had significantly higher mean age (16.5 years) than the group...

  5. Acidosis and Urinary Calcium Excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, R Todd; Cordat, Emmanuelle; Chambrey, Régine

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is associated with increased urinary calcium excretion and related sequelae, including nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis. The increased urinary calcium excretion induced by metabolic acidosis predominantly results from increased mobilization of calcium out of bone...... in the renal tubule and then discuss why not all gene defects that cause renal tubular acidosis are associated with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis....

  6. Studies on kinetics of albumin in uraemic patients on chronic haemodialysis: evidence of interstitial albumin wash-down

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, H A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1983-01-01

    Albumin-kinetic studies were performed in nine uraemic patients without oedema on chronic haemodialysis and in seven normal controls in order to determine microvascular leakiness and thereby, during steady state, lymph drainage of albumin. Transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb i.......e. the fraction of intravascular mass (IVMalb) passing into, or returning from, the extravascular space per unit time] and the distribution ratio (DRalb) between IVMalb and total albumin mass were determined from intravenously injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Before haemodialysis, TERalb was significantly...... with respect to controls (mean 0 X 44, range 0 X 42-0 X 48, P less than 0 X 01), and the extravascular mass of albumin was significantly decreased (mean 27 X 9 mumol kg-1, range 14.1 - 41.2 v. mean 35.9, range 27.1 - 43.8, P less than 0.05). We interpret the results as to indicate increased transvascular...

  7. The estimation of phytoplankton production and excretion by carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Phytoplankton growth and excretion rates as usually estimated from C-14 kinetics are biased, according to a simple model of carbon exchange. True growth rates are progressively overestimated as they decrease, but the error is relatively small (less than 2-fold at 0.1 per day) if carbon loss rates in nature resemble those observed in phytoplankton cultures. True excretion rates are badly underestimated (2 to 10-fold) over the same range of growth rates. Any heterogeneity of the phytoplankton cell carbon pool will reduce these errors, so estimated growth rates are likely to be quite close to true and the kinetics of assimilation and release unlikely to explain, or to further inflate, apparent discrepancies between C-14 and other production estimates. By contrast, kinetics of tracer appearance in dissolved organic carbon are frequently consistent with the model, and indicate that serious underestimation of excretion rate can be a common occurrence. (Auth.)

  8. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis-A Dose-Finding Study to Define Optimal Albumin Concentration and Dialysate Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Rosa Bianca; Nawrot, Gesa-Henrike; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor Maximilian

    2017-02-01

    Several artificial liver support concepts have been evaluated both in vitro and clinically. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) has shown to be one of the most simple approaches for removing albumin-bound toxins and water-soluble substances. Being faced with acute liver failure (ALF) in everyday practice encouraged our attempt to define the optimal conditions for SPAD more precisely in a standardized experimental setup. Albumin concentration was adjusted to either 1%, 2%, 3%, or 4%, while the flow rate of the dialysate was kept constant at a speed of 700 mL/h. The flow rate of the dialysate was altered between 350, 500, 700, and 1000 mL/h, whereas the albumin concentration was continuously kept at 3%. This study revealed that the detoxification of albumin-bound substances could be improved by increasing the concentration of albumin in the dialysate with an optimum at 3%. A further increase of the albumin concentration to 4% did not lead to a significant increase in detoxification. Furthermore, we observed a gradual increase of the detoxification efficiency for albumin-bound substances, from 350 mL/h to 700 mL/h (for bilirubin) or 1000 mL/h (for bile acids) of dialysate flow. Water-soluble toxins (ammonia, creatinine, urea, uric acid) were removed almost completely, regardless of albumin concentration or flow rate. In conclusion, this study confirmed that SPAD is effective in eliminating albumin-bound as well as water-soluble toxins using a simulation of ALF. Furthermore, this project was successful in evaluating the most effective combination of albumin concentration (3%) and dialysate flow (700 mL/h-1000 mL/h) in SPAD for the first time. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Urinary excretion of uric acid is negatively associated with albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqin; Guo, Hui; Zou, Jianan; Chen, Weijun; Lu, Yijun; Zhang, Xiaoli; Fu, Chensheng; Xiao, Jing; Ye, Zhibin

    2018-04-24

    Increasing evidence has shown that albuminuria is related to serum uric acid. Little is known about whether this association may be interrelated via renal handling of uric acid. Therefore, we aim to study urinary uric acid excretion and its association with albuminuria in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A cross-sectional study of 200 Chinese CKD patients recruited from department of nephrology of Huadong hospital was conducted. Levels of 24 h urinary excretion of uric acid (24-h Uur), fractional excretion of uric acid (FEur) and uric acid clearance rate (Cur) according to gender, CKD stages, hypertension and albuminuria status were compared by a multivariate analysis. Pearson and Spearman correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to study the correlation of 24-h Uur, FEur and Cur with urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). The multivariate analysis showed that 24-h Uur and Cur were lower and FEur was higher in the hypertension group, stage 3-5 CKD and macro-albuminuria group (UACR> 30 mg/mmol) than those in the normotensive group, stage 1 CKD group and the normo-albuminuria group (UACRuric acid is negatively associated with albuminuria in patients with CKD. This phenomenon may help to explain the association between albuminuria and serum uric acid.

  10. Excretion of DTPA from human body and the effect of DTPA on the excretion of 241Am in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Guogang; Lu Ying; Bai Guang; Yu Yaoxian

    1988-01-01

    The excretion of DTPA in urine was studied after intramuscular injection or inhalation as an aerosol. For two administration of DTPA, the excretion fraction of DTPA in urine can be described by sum of two exponent functions. For intramuscular injection, the fast removal part is about 97% of all the activity administered with a half-life of 88 minutes; the slow removal part is about 3% with a half-life of 292 minutes; the excretion rate of DTPA within 24 hours is about 99%. For inhalation of DTPA, the fast removal part is about 81% with a half-life of 92 minutes; the slow removal part is about 19% with a half-life of 624 minutes. The therapeutic effect of DTPA on 241 Am is good, the average excretion of 241 Am in urine after treatment is 18 times more than that before treatment

  11. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-01-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with 125 I or 131 I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return

  12. Magnesium excretion and hypomagnesemia in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu Gökceoğlu, Arife; Comak, Elif; Dogan, Cagla Serpil; Koyun, Mustafa; Akbas, Halide; Akman, Sema

    2014-08-01

    We investigated magnesium excretion and rate of hypomagnesemia in pediatric renal transplant recipients. The medical records of 114 pediatric renal transplant recipients were retrospectively evaluated. After exclusion of 23 patients, 91 patients were included in the study. We recorded serum magnesium levels at the time of measurement of urine magnesium wasting. Mean serum magnesium levels were 1.73 ± 0.22 mg/dL and 38 of the patients (41%) had hypomagnesemia. There was a negative correlation between serum magnesium levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum tacrolimus trough level (r=-0.215, p=0.040 and r=-0.409, p=0.000, respectively). Also, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum magnesium levels and transplantation duration (r=0.249, p=0.017). Mean fractional magnesium excretion was 5.9 ± 3.7% and 59 patients (65%) had high magnesium excretion. There was a significant negative correlation between fractional magnesium excretion and estimated glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.432, p=0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between fractional magnesium excretion and serum creatinine (r=0.379 p=0.003). Patients with higher tacrolimus trough blood levels, lower glomerular filtration rate and at early posttransplant period had risk of hypomagnesemia.

  13. Opname, retentie en uitscheiding van stikstof, fosfor en kalium bij edelherten = Intake, retention and excretion of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by red deer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Hindle, V.A.

    2008-01-01

    Annual excretion rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium by red deer were estimated based on an inventory among farmers. These excretion rates are lower than earlier estimates, except for N by fattening stock

  14. Thyroid albumin originates from blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vijlder, J. J.; Veenboer, G. J.; van Dijk, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Iodoalbumin has been found in the goiter of Dutch goats with a thyroglobulin synthesis defect. Immunohistochemical studies showed that in the goiter the percentage of follicles containing albumin was higher than that in normal thyroid glands. In the albumin-containing follicles of normal and

  15. DETERMINATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reaction of tribromoarsenazo(TB-ASA) with serum albumin in the presence of emulgent OP was studied by spectrophotometry. In a Britton-Robinson buffer solution at pH 2.9, tribromoarsenazo and bovine serum albumin can immediately form a red compound in the presence of emulgent OP with a maximum absorption ...

  16. Midodrine versus albumin in the prevention of paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction in cirrhotics: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Dheerendra, Prashant C; Singh, Baljinder; Nain, Chander K; Chawla, Divya; Sharma, Navneet; Bhalla, Ashish; Mahi, Sushil K

    2008-06-01

    Intravenous albumin has been used to prevent paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) in cirrhotics; however, its use is costly and controversial. Splanchnic arterial vasodilatation is primarily responsible for PICD. There are no reports of use of midodrine in the prevention of PICD. In this pilot study, we evaluated midodrine and albumin in the prevention of PICD. Forty patients with cirrhosis underwent therapeutic paracentesis with midodrine or albumin in a randomized controlled trial at a tertiary center. Effective arterial blood volume was assessed by plasma renin activity. Plasma renin activity at baseline and at 6 days after paracentesis did not differ in the two groups (43.18 +/- 10.73 to 45.90 +/- 8.59 ng/mL/h, P= 0.273 in the albumin group and 44.44 +/- 8.44 to 41.39 +/- 10.21 ng/mL/h, P= 0.115 in the midodrine group). Two patients had an increase in plasma renin activity of more than 50% from baseline in the albumin group, and none in the midodrine group. A significant increase in 24-h urine volume and urine sodium excretion was noted in the midodrine group. Midodrine therapy was cheaper than albumin therapy. The study suggests that midodrine may be as effective as albumin in preventing PICD in cirrhotics, but at a fraction of the cost, and can be administered orally. Midodrine also resulted in an increase in 24-h urine volume and sodium excretion.

  17. Single Pass Albumin Dialysis in Hepatorenal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ebadur

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS is the most appalling complication of acute or chronic liver disease with 90% mortality rate. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD can be considered as a noble liver support technique in HRS. Here, we present a case of a young healthy patient who developed hyperacute fulminant liver failure that progressed to HRS. The patient was offered SPAD as a bridge to liver transplantation, however, it resulted in an excellent recovery.

  18. Comparison of different measures of urinary protein excretion for prediction of renal events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Brenner, Barry M

    2010-01-01

    ratio (ACR) from a first-morning void in predicting renal events. The primary outcome measure was the time to a doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. During follow-up, 202 events occurred. The hazard ratios for the risk of a renal outcome (95% CIs) associated with 1-SD increment...... of Endpoints in Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial to compare the ability of urinary protein excretion (UPE) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) from a 24-hour urine collection and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and the albumin:creatinine...... in the log-transformed measures were 3.16 (2.60 to 3.86) for UAE, 3.02 (2.53 to 3.62) for UPE, 3.23 (2.67 to 3.91) for UAC, and 4.36 (3.50 to 5.45) for ACR. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for ACR compared with the other measures. In conclusion, measurement of the albumin:creatinine...

  19. Comparison of different measures of urinary protein excretion for prediction of renal events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Gansevoort, Ron T; Brenner, Barry M

    2010-01-01

    of Endpoints in Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial to compare the ability of urinary protein excretion (UPE) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) from a 24-hour urine collection and urinary albumin concentration (UAC) and the albumin:creatinine...... ratio (ACR) from a first-morning void in predicting renal events. The primary outcome measure was the time to a doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease. During follow-up, 202 events occurred. The hazard ratios for the risk of a renal outcome (95% CIs) associated with 1-SD increment...... in the log-transformed measures were 3.16 (2.60 to 3.86) for UAE, 3.02 (2.53 to 3.62) for UPE, 3.23 (2.67 to 3.91) for UAC, and 4.36 (3.50 to 5.45) for ACR. The area under the ROC curve was significantly higher for ACR compared with the other measures. In conclusion, measurement of the albumin:creatinine...

  20. Increased urinary zinc excretion after thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Solem, L D; Cerra, F B; Konstantinides, F; Ahrenholz, D H; McCall, J T; McClain, C J

    1991-12-01

    Urinary zinc excretion normally plays a minor role in zinc homeostasis; however, urinary zinc excretion is markedly elevated after trauma or surgery, and mechanism(s) for this zinc loss are poorly defined. In this study we evaluated multiple potential mechanisms for increased urinary zinc excretion in patients with thermal injury. We documented that patients with severe thermal injury had markedly elevated urinary zinc excretion. Above 20% total body surface area burn, however, the severity of thermal injury did not correlate with urinary zinc excretion. Serum zinc concentrations were depressed on initial evaluation and gradually increased during the hospital course, whereas peak urinary zinc excretion occurred 2 to 5 weeks after injury. Thus the depression in serum zinc concentration did not temporally relate to the observed pattern of hyperzincuria. Increased urinary zinc excretion also did not temporally relate to urinary excretion of the amino acids cysteine and histidine (both of which tightly bind zinc) nor to urinary 3-methylhistidine excretion, a marker of muscle breakdown. Urinary amylase excretion, a marker of renal tubular dysfunction, did follow the pattern of urinary zinc loss to some extent, although this correlation was not perfect. Increased oral intake of zinc via zinc supplements resulted in significantly increased urinary zinc excretion. Patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) did not have significantly increased urinary zinc excretion when compared with people receiving their total nutrient intake by mouth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Urinary excretion of epidermal growth factor in living human kidney donors and their recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L; Munck, O

    1995-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a growth-promoting peptide that is synthesized in the distal tubules of the kidney and excreted in urine. EGF has been suggested to play a role in the repair after renal tissue damage, as well as in compensatory growth of the remaining kidney after uninephrectomy....... The present study examined the urinary EGF excretion after uninephrectomy and transplantation among relatives. The urinary EGF excretion rate and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were followed for 26-54 days in 16 healthy kidney donors and nine recipients. After uninephrectomy the median urinary EGF...... excretion rate in the donors was not 50% of the pre-operative value, but around 65% (95% confidence limits of the median on the fifth post-operative day: 59-72%). This suggests that there is a compensatory increase in the EGF excretion rate from the remaining kidney of around 30% after uninephrectomy...

  2. Effect of change in diet on excretion of plutonium-239 from organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, N.P.

    1987-01-01

    To check supposition on milk effect on plutonium-239 excretion from organism the portable water for rats, contained in individual metabolic cages permitting separate excretion analysis, was replaced by milk. Some days later milk was excluded from diet. 24-hourly rate of radionuclide with feces and urine excretion from organism was determined. On the basis of preliminary data analysis it is supposed that interaction of some milk components with biocomponents of blood and deposition organ tissues violate 239 Pu steady equilibrium distribution in organism, affecting its metabolism through the intermediary of blood system. It results in increased plutonium excretion

  3. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

  4. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced /sup 131/I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs.

  5. Terlipressin plus albumin versus midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallin, Marta; Kamath, Patrick S; Merli, Manuela; Fasolato, Silvano; Toniutto, Pierluigi; Salerno, Francesco; Bernardi, Mauro; Romanelli, Roberto Giulio; Colletta, Cosimo; Salinas, Freddy; Di Giacomo, Antonio; Ridola, Lorenzo; Fornasiere, Ezio; Caraceni, Paolo; Morando, Filippo; Piano, Salvatore; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), a serious complication of cirrhosis, is associated with high mortality without treatment. Terlipressin with albumin is effective in the reversal of HRS. Where terlipressin is not available, as in the United States, midodrine and octreotide with albumin are used as an alternative treatment of HRS. The aim was to compare the effectiveness of terlipressin plus albumin versus midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in the treatment of HRS in a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven patients were randomized to receive terlipressin with albumin (TERLI group) and 22 to receive midodrine and octreotide plus albumin (MID/OCT group). The TERLI group received terlipressin by intravenous infusion, initially 3 mg/24 hours, progressively increased to 12 mg/24 hours if there was no response. The MID/OCT group received midodrine orally at an initial dose of 7.5 mg thrice daily, with the dose increased to a maximum of 12.5 mg thrice daily, together with octreotide subcutaneously: initial dose 100 μg thrice daily and up to 200 μg thrice daily. Both groups received albumin intravenously 1 g/kg of body weight on day 1 and 20-40 g/day thereafter. There was a significantly higher rate of recovery of renal function in the TERLI group (19/27, 70.4%) compared to the MID/OCT group (6/21, 28.6%), P = 0.01. Improvement in renal function and lower baseline Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score were associated with better survival. Terlipressin plus albumin is significantly more effective than midodrine and octreotide plus albumin in improving renal function in patients with HRS. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  6. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are both synthesized by tubular cells in the distal part of the nephron and excreted with the urine. The present study examines the urinary excretion rates of the two peptides in relation to functional tubular markers in patients...

  7. Zooplankton as a compound mineralising and synthesizing system: Phosphorus excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulati, R.D.; Martinez, C.P.; Siewertsen, K.

    1995-01-01

    Data on phosphate excretion rates of zooplankton are based on measurements using the pelagic crustacean zoo-plankton of Lake Vechten and laboratory-cultured Daphnia galeata. In case of Daphnia sp we measured the effects of feeding on P-rich algae and P-poor algae (Scenedesmus) as food on the

  8. Protein excretion in urine during Schistosoma haematobium infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiological survey of protein excretion in the urine of people living in Schstosoma haematobium endemic area around Atavu stream in Amagunze, Enugu State, Nigeria was conducted between 1994 and 1995. A verification of the endemicity of the diseases revealed differences in prevalence rate ranged from 46.66 ...

  9. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  10. Albumin synthesis in protein energy malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, C.; Hardy, S.; Kleinman, R.E.; Harvard Medical School, Children's Hospital, Boston, MA; Lembcke, J.; Young, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of protein nutritional status during re-feeding children with protein energy malnutrition (PEM) can be difficult. We hypothesized that the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of albumin, as measured by stable isotope technology, would serve as an objective measure of changes in protein status, and that increased amounts of dietary protein (15% of calories vs 10%) would lead to higher FSR. Eight (5 M, 3 F) Peruvian children (mean age 15.5 months) with PEM (mean wt/ht Z score = -2.47) were studied twice during the first week of admission by the flooding dose technique. An intravenous dose of 13 C-leucine (57 mg/kg, 99 atom%) was given and serial blood samples were drawn in intervals up to 90 minutes in order to measure isotopic enrichment of serum albumin. Mean FSR for the day one infusion was 6.11% (range 3.07 - 15.37%) (n = 8). Mean FSR for the follow-up infusion was 7.67% (range 3.63 - 12.37%) (n = 5), and FSR was no different between the two dietary groups. FSR on day one was inversely related to age (r = -0.62), and one patient with Shigella dysentery had the highest FSR (15.9%). We conclude that FSR of albumin can be measured successfully in children with PEM using the flooding dose technique, and that assessment of albumin FSR holds promise to help determine protein requirements and status during recovery from PEM. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  11. Prediction of cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy, and mortality by albumin concentration in a spot urine sample in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luciana Verçoza; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Camargo, Joiza Lins; Zelmanovitz, Themis; da Costa Rocha, Enio P C; Azevedo, Mirela Jobim

    2012-01-01

    To analyze in a random urine spot the predictive value of urinary albumin concentration (UAC) for cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy (DN), and death in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this cohort, urinary albumin (immunoturbidimetry) was measured as 24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and, in a random spot urine, as UAC and albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR). Primary outcomes were: 1) cardiovascular events, 2) DN defined as a composite outcome [macroalbuminuria and/or decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) type 2 diabetic patients, aged 59.9 ± 9.9 years, were followed for 6.1 ± 2.7 years. UAC ≥14.4 mg/l, as determined by ROC curve, predicted DN and prediction for this and other outcomes were compared with traditional microalbuminuria cutoffs for ACR and UAE. The outcomes frequency was: cardiovascular events = 26.4%, DN = 31.7% (23.5% decreased GFR; 13.6% macroalbuminuria) and death = 8.50%. In Cox analyses, UAC ≥14 mg/l increased the risk (hazard ratio, HR) for cardiovascular events 3.25 times (95% CI 1.43-7.38; P = 0.005), 4.30 for DN composite outcome (95% CI 2.22-8.32; P cardiovascular events, 4.67 (95% CI 2.34-9.34; P cardiovascular events, 6.76 (95% CI 3.32-13.77; P cardiovascular events, diabetic nephropathy, and mortality just as well as ACR. UAC may be used to assess cardiovascular and renal risks in patients with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Albumin-based drug delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maja Thim; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Hvam, Michael Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of a drug is dependent on accumulation at the site of action at therapeutic levels, however, challenges such as rapid renal clearance, degradation or non-specific accumulation requires drug delivery enabling technologies. Albumin is a natural transport protein with multiple ligand...... binding sites, cellular receptor engagement, and a long circulatory half-life due to interaction with the recycling neonatal Fc receptor. Exploitation of these properties promotes albumin as an attractive candidate for half-life extension and targeted intracellular delivery of drugs attached by covalent...... conjugation, genetic fusions, association or ligand-mediated association. This review will give an overview of albumin-based products with focus on the natural biological properties and molecular interactions that can be harnessed for the design of a next-generation drug delivery platform....

  13. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg−1, infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg−1·min−1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to

  14. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume....../min, packed cell volume increased, plasma volume decreased and intravascular mass of albumin decreased significantly. During noradrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms/min, packed cell volume increased and plasma volume decreased, but intravascular mass of albumin did not change. 4. Application...... of a hyperinsulinaemic, euglycaemic glucose clamp led to an increase in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and a decrease in intravascular mass of albumin. Packed cell volume remained constant, while plasma volume, measured by radiolabelled albumin, decreased. 5. We conclude that the previously reported changes...

  15. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Seed Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Loi Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16 % higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  16. Excretion of Different Forms of Zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Freshly collected speciments of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in ''zinc-free'' water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight apparently in a log-log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1-3 hr) experiments, while weight specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4-5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (author)

  17. Excretion of different forms of zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly collected specimens of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in zinc-free water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight, apparently in a log--log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1 to 3 hr) experiments, while weight-specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4 to 5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (auth)

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors are differently associated with urinary albumin excretion in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, JC; Hillege, HL; Burgerhof, JGM; Navis, G; De Zeeuw, D; De Jong, PE

    Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is not equally distributed among genders, men being more affected than women. It is not clear whether this. is only related to a higher prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors or to a similar prevalence of the risk factors as in women but a greater

  19. Elevated urinary albumin excretion is associated with impaired arterial dilatory capacity in clinically healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensen, G

    2001-01-01

    (endothelium-dependent, flow-associated dilation) and to nitroglycerin (endothelium-independent, nitroglycerin-induced dilation). Plasma concentrations of the endothelial markers nitrate/nitrite, thrombomodulin, and von Willebrand factor antigen were also measured. Both flow-associated and nitroglycerin...

  20. Impaired left-ventricular function in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with increased urinary albumin excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1991-01-01

    in group II (p less than 0.05). Stroke volume was also lower in group II and III than in controls (p less than 0.05), but not so in group I. These differences could not be explained by differences in metabolic control, blood pressure, blood volume status, degree of autonomic neuropathy or frequency...

  1. Impairment of renal sodium excretion in tropical residents - phenomenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, S. K.; Aryee, P. A.; Amuasi, J.; Hesse, I. F. A.; Affram, R. K.

    There is evidence of impaired renal sodium excretion in salt-sensitive African Blacks. A decreased rate of renal sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion, low plasma renin activity and a tendency to elevated blood pressure are the hallmarks of salt sensitivity. Recent evidence indicates that increased proximal and distal tubular fluid reabsorption in some tropical residents may explain the impaired sodium excretion in these people. In this study of a cohort population, we speculated that subjects selected from that population might be salt-sensitive. We therefore measured the sodium balance in 10 normotensive male subjects over 10 consecutive days, after they had ingested a normal or a high amount of sodium, as NaCl (salt) in their diet. We quantified their renal sodium excretion rate by phenomenological analysis of their sodium balance data. We also measured plasma renin activity for 7 consecutive days in a separate group of 6 male and 4 female subjects in order to assess the state of their renin/angiotensin system. We selected all our subjects from a cohort population of 269 subjects randomly selected from a community known to have a high prevalence of primary hypertension. Our data on two separate groups of subjects from the same cohort population revealed delayed renal sodium excretion with t1/2 of about 5 days, compared to published data for normal individuals with t1/2 of less than 24 h. Also, plasma renin activity levels were low. Hence, our subjects are salt-sensitive. Quantification of their renal impairment is important for various reasons: it heightens one's appreciation of the problem of salt retention in African Blacks who are salt-sensitive and it also underlines the importance of the need for further research into the benefits of dietary salt restriction for reducing cardiovascular mortality in African populations, as has been done in some Western countries.

  2. Albumin metabolism in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, R.E.; Saunders, S.J.; Brock, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Studies performed at the University of Cape Town on the metabolism of albumin have been reviewed. The control of albumin metabolism in protein energy malnutrition, in acute exposure to alcohol and after partial hepatectomy in the rat is discussed

  3. Grazing and excretion by zooplankton in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, M.; Cowles, T.; Whitledge, T.; Smith, S.; Howe, S.; Judkins, D.

    1980-01-01

    Rates of ingestion and excretion by adult females of the copepods Calanus chilensis, Eucalanus inermis, and Centropages brachiatus were measured in natural seawater during a cruise in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977. Simultaneously, zooplankton samples were collected for later determination of the abundance and distribution of these and other species. For these three organisms, feeding, and excretion rates of individuals are combined with information on the animal concentrations to estimate the grazing stress on the phytoplankton at each station, and to estimate the excretory nitrogen produced at each station. Comparison of grazing stresses with measured rates of primary production indicates that these large copepods were harvesting less than 5% of the daily phytoplankton production. Comparison of the nitrogen excretion rates with the amounts of excreted nitrogen in the water column indicates that less than 3% of the ambient excretory nitrogen was produced daily by these copepods. The importance of the abundant small zooplankton in the system is suggested.

  4. Metabolic excretion and retention patterns of incorporated radionuclides in reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper gives formulae for calculating the total expected 50-year dose (TED 50 ) and excretion rate for four patterns of uptake as well as numerical descriptions of the ICRP ''gut model'' and ''lung model''. (author)

  5. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asami Ota

    Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  6. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model. Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.

  7. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin (Human). 640.80 Section 640.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Albumin (Human) § 640.80 Albumin (Human). (a) Proper...

  8. Determination of bioequivalence of lomefloxacin tablets using urinary excretion data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shailesh A; Rathod, Ishwarsinh S; Savale, Shrinivas S; Patel, Dharmesh B

    2002-11-07

    The present study describes development of a sensitive and simple HPTLC method for estimation of lomefloxacin (LMF) in human urine. The drug was extracted using chloroform after adjusting the pH of urine to 7.0. Chloroform extract was spotted on silica gel 60 F(254) TLC plate and was developed in a mixture of n-butanol-methanol-ethyl acetate-6 M ammonia (4:2:3:2, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase and scanned at 290 nm. The peak for LMF resolved at R(F) of 0.40+/-0.02. The method was validated in terms of linearity (50-600 microgram/ml), precision, specificity and accuracy. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for LMF in urine were found to be 20 and 50 microgram/ml, respectively. The average recovery of LMF from urine was 91.93%. The proposed method was applied to generate urinary excretion data for LMF after administration of two market LMF tablet formulations (400 mg, Formulation R and Formulation T) to six healthy human volunteers in a two-treatment, open, crossover design. Various pharmacokinetic parameters like peak excretion rate ((dAU/dt)(max)), time for peak excretion rate (t(max)), AUC(0-48), AUC(0- infinity ), cumulative amount and % cumulative amount of LMF excreted, elimination half-life (t(1/2)), terminal elimination rate constant (k(el)) and overall elimination rate constant (K), were calculated for both the formulations. The average cumulative amounts of LMF excreted in urine after administration of Formulation R and Formulation T were found to be 321.60 mg (80.40% of dose) and 296.51 mg (74.13% of dose), respectively. The urinary excretion profiles of LMF upto 48 h for both the formulations were found to be similar. Statistical comparison (90% confidence intervals of ratio) of various pharmacokinetic parameters of Formulation T with that of Formulation R revealed that Formulation T is bioequivalent with Formulation R.

  9. Niacin metabolite excretion in alcoholic pellagra and AIDS patients with and without diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jacqueline Pontes; da Cunha, Daniel Ferreira; Filho, Dalmo Correia; Silva-Vergara, Mario León; dos Santos, Vitorino Modesto; da Costa, José Carlos; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Gonçalves, Jussara; de Carvalho da Cunha, Selma Freire; Jordão, Alceu A; Chiarello, Paula Garcia; Vannucchi, Helio

    2004-09-01

    Malnourished patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) can develop pellagra-like manifestations such as dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia; therefore, we tested the hypothesis that patients with AIDS and diarrhea would have niacin depletion. This study compared 24-h urine excretion of N1-methyl-nicotinamide (N1MN) among patients with pellagra and patients with AIDS who did and did not have diarrhea. Three groups were studied: G1 (patients with AIDS and diarrhea, n = 5); G2 (patients with AIDS and no diarrhea, n = 7), and G3 (patients with alcoholic pellagra and without the human immunodeficiency virus, n = 8). Diarrhea was defined as the production of at least three liquid stools per day over 3 to 5 d. Studies included mucosal intestinal biopsy, malabsorption tests, detection of parasites in stool, and serum albumin measurements. Semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, anthropometry, and daily urinary N1MN excretion were also determined. Groups were matched in relation to age, sex, presence of parasites in stool, and intestinal absorption results. G1 had normal intestinal examination by light microscopy and no parasites in stools. G2 group showed lower levels of serum albumin (2.6 +/- 0.3 g/dL) when compared with G1 (3.4 +/- 0.3 g/dL) and G3 (3.1 +/- 0.7 g/dL). Except for patients with pellagra, groups met their energy requirements. Patients in G3 (0.013, 0.01-0.081 mg/dL) and G1 (0.062, 0.001-0.33 mg/dL) excreted smaller amounts of N1MN in urine than did those in G2 (0.63, 0.02-2.9 mg/dL). Patients with AIDS and diarrhea excreted less N1MN in urine than did those without diarrhea. These patients may have an impaired niacin nutritional status, possibly associated with increased metabolic needs.

  10. Absorption, tissue distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Tokunori; Mikata, Kazuki; Nagasaki, Hiromi; Ohta, Kazunari

    2003-11-19

    Absorption, distribution, excretion, and metabolism of clothianidin [(E)-1-(2-chloro-1,3-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-2-nitroguanidine] were investigated after a single oral administration of [nitroimino-(14)C]- or [thiazolyl-2-(14)C]clothianidin to male and female rats at a dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight (bw) (low dose) or 250 mg/kg of bw (high dose). The maximum concentration of carbon-14 in blood occurred 2 h after administration of the low oral dose for both labeled clothianidins, and then the concentration of carbon-14 in blood decreased with a half-life of 2.9-4.0 h. The orally administered carbon-14 was rapidly and extensively distributed to all tissues and organs within 2 h after administration, especially to the kidney and liver, but was rapidly and almost completely eliminated from all tissues and organs with no evidence of accumulation. The orally administered carbon-14 was almost completely excreted into urine and feces within 2 days after administration, and approximately 90% of the administered dose was excreted via urine. The major compound in excreta was clothianidin, accounting for >60% of the administered dose. The major metabolic reactions of clothianidin in rats were oxidative demethylation to form N-(2-chlorothiazol-5-ylmethyl)-N'-nitroguanidine and the cleavage of the carbon-nitrogen bond between the thiazolylmethyl moiety and the nitroguanidine moiety. The part of the molecule containing the nitroguanidine moiety was transformed mainly to N-methyl-N'-nitroguanidine, whereas the thiazol moiety was further metabolized to 2-(methylthio)thiazole-5-carboxylic acid. With the exception of the transiently delayed excretion of carbon-14 at the high-dose level, the rates of biokinetics, excretion, distribution, and metabolism of clothianidin were not markedly influenced by dose level and sex.

  11. Uptake and excretion of 110mAg by Mud carp Cirrhina molitorella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shunhua; Zhong Chuangguang

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation, excretion and tissue distribution of 110m Ag from both labeled food and water pathways in juvenile mud carp Cirrhina molitorella were investigated. Results indicated that the excretion rate of 110m Ag uptaken from artificial food pathway was very fast. 24 hours after feeding, the radioactivity of the fish decreased rapidly to 2.62% of the initial one and maintained the similar level afterwards in the 7 days excretion experiment. On the 7th day of excretion, the fish were dissected to separate the organs and tissues. The distribution of 110m Ag in the fish was uneven. Radioactivity of 110m Ag in the organs and tissues was in the order as liver>intestine>gall bladder>eye>gill>remainder>muscle. The radioactivity in liver, intestine and gall bladder were 48.14%, 18/43% and 15.43% of the total radioactivity of the fish, respectively. The accumulation of waterborne 110m Ag by mud carp showed that 110m Ag was easy to be uptaken by the fish. the concentration factors at 8th hour and 13th day were 23.8 and 208.6 respectively. Excretion of 110m Ag uptaken from water pathway was slower than that from food pathway. The radioactivity decreased to 20.1% and 16.7% on 15th and 28th day, respectively. The excretion procedure was composed of fast excretion phase (0-2d) and slow excretion phase (2-28d). The half-life of 110m Ag in mud carp in the slow excretion phase was 22d during the slow excretion phase. The distribution of 110m Ag in organs and tissues was mainly in viscera, which accounted for about 80% of the total radioactivity of the fish

  12. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-01-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to diatomite at pH6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30°C was about 100-fold larger than that of nativ...

  13. The clearance of albumin microspheres from an intramuscular injection site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, S.N.; Davis, S.S.; Frier, M.; Hardy, J.G.; Wilson, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Human serum albumin microspheres of three different diameters were radiolabelled with indium-111, and a suspension injected into rabbit thigh muscle. Clearance from the intramuscular site was monitored for 2 weeks using gamma scintigraphy. The clearance rates were compared with the injection site clearance of non-biodegradable polystyrene microspheres. (U.K.)

  14. Cryo-survival and development of bovine blastocysts are enhanced by culture with recombinant albumin and hyaluronan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michelle; Maybach, Jeffrey M; Hooper, Kathy; Hasler, John F; Gardner, David K

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant albumin can be used to supplement culture medium for the maturation and fertilization of bovine oocytes and subsequent embryo development to the blastocyst stage. Recombinant albumin was able to support blastocyst development at rates equivalent to that of bovine serum albumin (BSA) supplemented media. Supplementation of media containing recombinant albumin and citrate stimulated blastocyst expansion. Culture with recombinant albumin and citrate significantly increased the ability of the resultant blastocysts to re-expand and hatch following cryopreservation. The further addition of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan to the culture medium containing either BSA or recombinant albumin also increased the ability of blastocysts to survive cryopreservation. Inclusion of recombinant albumin and hyaluronan in culture media facilitates the development of physiological defined culture conditions. For bovine embryos this has implications for both research and commercial applications where defined reproducible conditions are desirable. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-01-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s −1 ) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms. (paper)

  16. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s(-1)) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms.

  17. Dynamics of albumin in plasma and ascitic fluid in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Siemssen, O; Krintel, J J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine dynamics of albumin in plasma and ascitic fluid of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Forty-seven patients were classified in four groups: I--patients without fluid retention; II--patients with ascites not resistant to subsequent diuretic treatment; III......--recompensated patients during diuretic treatment; and IV--patients with diuretic-resistant ascites. Transvascular and transperitoneal albumin transports were quantified by 131I-/125I-labelled human albumin. RESULTS: TER(P) (i.e. the fraction of intravascular albumin (IVM) passing from plasma into the interstitial space...... per hour) was increased in all groups. In group IV patients the transport rate of albumin from plasma into the ascitic fluid (TER(PA)) was significantly higher than the transport rate from the ascitic fluid back into the plasma: TER(AP) (0.45 vs. 0.26% IVM/h, P

  18. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244......INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...

  19. Iodine excretion in school children in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone B.; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies of dietary habits show a high iodine intake in children in Denmark. Iodine excretion in children has not previously been assessed. Iodine excretion in adults is below the recommended threshold, and it is therefore being discussed to increase the fortification level. The main...... according to grade. The UIC was higher in children than in adults from the same area. CONCLUSIONS: The iodine excretion among schoolchildren in Copenhagen, an area with a relatively high iodine content in tap water, was within the recommended range as assessed by the UIC. An increased iodine fortification...... objective of this study was to assess iodine excretion in children living in Copenhagen to establish whether a moderate increase in iodine fortification would lead to excess iodine intake in this group. METHODS: Children in first and fifth grade were recruited through schools in Copenhagen. In total, 244...

  20. Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates using the Ovarian Monitor, Part IV: the relationship of the pregnanediol glucuronide threshold to basal body temperature and cervical mucus as markers for the beginning of the post-ovulatory infertile period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Leonard F; Vigil, Pilar; Alliende, María Elena; Brown, Simon; Festin, Mario; Cooke, Delwyn G

    2016-02-01

    Do the basal body temperature (BBT) shift and the cervical mucus markers for the beginning of the post-ovulatory infertile phase (POIP) of a menstrual cycle agree with the corresponding urinary pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) threshold value? Perfect agreement between the cervical mucus markers and BBT shift and the hormonal definition of the start of post-ovulatory infertility occurred for only 7-17% of the cycles. The PdG threshold of 7.0 µmol/24 h is an objective and accurate marker for the beginning of the POIP. The rise in serum progesterone also produces the BBT shift and changes in cervical mucus which determine the mucus peak. Serum progesterone and urinary PdG are closely correlated when variations in urine volume are taken into account. Individual menstrual cycle profiles of urinary PdG excretion rates for 91 fertile cycles from normally cycling women were analysed to identify the day of the beginning of the POIP. These days were compared with those determined by the day of the BBT shift +2 days, the day of the mucus peak +4 days and the later of these two indicators. The study lasted 3 years. A total of 62 women with normal menstrual cycles were recruited from three centres: Palmerston North, New Zealand; Sydney, Australia and Santiago, Chile. The cycles were displayed individually in a proprietary database program which recorded the PdG excretion rates, the BBT shift day and the cervical mucus peak day. A group of 15 women from a separate Chilean study had PdG urinary data measured as well as their day of ovulation determined by ultrasound. The BBT and cervical mucus markers differed significantly in their identification of the beginning of the POIP when compared with the PdG excretion rate of 7.0 µmol/24 h. The observation that the BBT shift day and the mucus peak day could be identified even though the PdG excretion rates were still at baseline levels in some cycles could lead to an unexpected pregnancy for women using these natural family planning

  1. The influence of dietary and whole-body nutrient content on the excretion of a vertebrate consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Dalton

    Full Text Available In many contexts, nutrient excretion by consumers can impact ecosystems by altering the availability of limiting nutrients. Variation in nutrient excretion can be predicted by mass balance models, most of which are premised on two key ideas: (1 consumers maintain fixed whole-body nutrient content (i.e., %N and %P, so-called fixed homeostasis; (2 if dietary nutrients are not matched to whole-body nutrients, excesses of any nutrient are released as excretion to maintain fixed homeostasis. Mass balance models thus predict that consumer excretion should be positively correlated with diet nutrients and negatively correlated with whole-body nutrients. Recent meta-analyses and field studies, however, have often failed to find these expected patterns, potentially because of a confounding influence-flexibility in whole-body nutrient content with diet quality (flexible homeostasis. Here, we explore the impact of flexible homeostasis on nutrient excretion by comparing the N and P excretion of four genetically diverged Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata populations when reared on diets of variable P content. As predicted by mass balance, P excretion increased on the high-P diet, but, contrary to the notion of fixed homeostasis, guppy whole-body %P also increased on the high-P diet. While there was no overall correlation between excretion nutrients and whole-body nutrients, when the effect of diet on both whole-body and excretion nutrients was included, we detected the expected negative correlation between whole-body N:P and excretion N:P. This last result suggests that mass balance can predict excretion rates within species, but only if dietary effects on whole-body nutrient content are controlled. Flexible homeostasis can obscure patterns predicted by mass balance, creating an imperative to accurately capture an organism's diet quality in predicting its excretion rate.

  2. Dissolved Compounds Excreted by Copepods Reshape the Active Marine Bacterioplankton Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina P. Valdés

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Copepods are important suppliers of bioreactive compounds for marine bacteria through fecal pellet production, sloppy feeding, and the excretion of dissolved compounds. However, the interaction between copepods and bacteria in the marine environment is poorly understood. We determined the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds excreted by copepods fed with two natural size-fractionated diets (<20- and 20–150-μm in the upwelling zone of central/southern Chile in late summer and spring. We then assessed the biogeochemical response of the bacterial community and its structure, in terms of total and active cells, to enrichment by copepod-excreted dissolved compounds. Results revealed that copepods actively excreted nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, mainly in the form of ammonium and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP, reaching excretion rates of 2.6 and 0.05 μmol L−1h−1, respectively. In both periods, the maximum excretion rates were associated with the 20–150-μm size fraction, but particularly during spring, when a higher organic matter quality was observed in excretion products compared to late summer. There were higher excretion rates of dissolved free amino acids (DFAAs from copepods fed with the <20-μm size fraction, mainly histidine (HIS in late summer and glutamic acid (GLU in spring. A shift in the composition of the active bacterial community was observed between periods and treatments, which was associated with the response of the common seawater surface phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The specific bacterial activity (16S rRNA:rDNA suggested a different response to the two size-fractionated diets. In late summer, Betaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were stimulated by the treatment enriched with excretion products derived from the 20–150-μm and <20-μm size fractions, respectively. In spring, Alphaproteobacteria were active in the treatment enriched with the excretion products of copepods fed with the <20-μm size

  3. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamg?ney, G?ltekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 ? scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 ? are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5?8 , the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in ...

  4. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces

    OpenAIRE

    Tamgüney, G; Miller, MW; Wolfe, LL; Sirochman, TM; Glidden, DV; Palmer, C; Lemus, A; Dearmond, SJ; Prusiner, SB

    2009-01-01

    Infectious prion diseasesĝ€"scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer familyĝ€" are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces...

  5. Delayed excretion of 3-methylhistidine in goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.L.; Barnes, D.M.; Calvert, C.C.

    1987-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of 3-methylhistidine (3MH) as an index of muscle protein degradation in dairy goats. The criterion for validation was the rapid and quantitative excretion of radiolabeled 3MH. Three adult dry does and four bucks were confined to metabolism cages and injected with 5 ml of L-3-(/sup 14/C)methylhistidine dihydrochloride (4 microCi/mL) diluted in normal saline. The does' urine was collected from catheters and the bucks' urine from stainless steel separators protected with fecal collection bags. The daily urine samples were analyzed for labeled amino acid. Urinary recovery of radioactivity from all does was less than 33% after 3 d and was proceeding at less than 5% d. After 9 d, total recovery was less than 50% of total dose for the does. Elimination rates were slightly higher and more variable for the yearling bucks (25-63% after 4 d). On the basis of these data, 3MH does not appear to be a valid index of muscle protein degradation in either male or female dairy goats.

  6. Flocculation of diatomite by methylated egg albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    2003-07-01

    A common and inexpensive protein, egg albumin, was applied to the solid-liquid separation or flocculation of diatomite. Egg albumin was methylated in a 0.05 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 90% of the carboxylic groups of egg albumin could be methylated within 24 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto diatomite at pH 6.8 was remarkably enhanced by methylation. The adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin to diatomite at 30 degrees C was about 100-fold larger than that of native egg albumin; however, the adsorption constant of methylated egg albumin decreased to about 1/100 with temperature decreasing from 30 to 6 degrees C. The saturated adsorption amount of egg albumin was also increased by the methylation. The flocculating ability of methylated egg albumin was examined with a diatomite suspension at 6 and 30 degrees C in the pH range from pH 2 to 11. The diatomite suspension was effectively flocculated by the addition of small amounts of methylated egg albumin (only 0.5-1 wt% against diatomite) over a wide pH range from pH 3 to 10.

  7. Comparison of associations of urine protein-creatinine ratio versus albumin-creatinine ratio with complications of CKD: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Herrick; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lin, Feng; Bansal, Nisha

    2013-12-01

    Urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) and protein-creatinine ratio (PCR) are important markers of kidney damage and are used for prognosis in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite how commonly these measurements are done in clinical practice, relatively few studies have directly compared the performance of these 2 measures with regard to associations with clinical outcomes, which may inform clinicians about which measure of urinary protein excretion is best. We studied the association of ACR and PCR with common complications of CKD. Cross-sectional study. 3,481 participants with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. ACR and PCR. We examined the association between ACR and PCR with measures of common CKD complications: serum hemoglobin, bicarbonate, parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, potassium, and albumin. Restricted cubic spline analyses adjusted for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; calculated by the MDRD [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease] Study equation) were performed to study the continuous association with our predictors with each outcome. Mean eGFR was 43±13 (SD)mL/min/1.73 m2 and median values for PCR and ACR were 140 and 46 mg/g, respectively. In continuous analyses adjusted for eGFR, higher ACRs and PCRs were similar and both were associated with lower serum hemoglobin, bicarbonate, and albumin levels and higher parathyroid hormone, phosphorus, and potassium levels. Across all outcomes, the associations of ACR and PCR were similar, with only small absolute differences in the outcome measure. Similar associations were seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. Participants largely had moderate CKD with low values for ACR and PCR, so results may not be generalizable to all CKD populations. In persons with CKD, ACR and PCR are relatively similar in their associations with common complications of CKD. Thus, routine measurement of PCR may provide similar information as ACR in managing immediate complications of CKD

  8. Behavioral and perceived stressor effects on urinary catecholamine excretion in adult Samoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Meredith R; Steele, Matthew S; Bereiter, David A; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2011-01-01

    The effects of perceptions and behaviors related to culturally patterned socioeconomic obligations on catecholamine excretion rates were studied in a cross-sectional sample of Samoan adults. A total of 378 participants, ages 29-62 years, from 9 villages throughout Samoa, provided timed overnight urine specimens, and self-reported perceptions and behaviors associated with contributions to one's family, aiga, and chief, matai, and communal gift exchanges, fa'alavelave. Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Age (≤40 vs. >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with catecholamine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who view their contribution to their matai to be "just right," had significantly higher residence-adjusted norepinephrine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who consider their contribution to their aiga not to be a burden, had higher epinephrine excretion. Older men who contribute more to their aiga and who perceive their contribution to their aiga to be "just right" had increased residence-adjusted epinephrine excretion. Individual-level perceptions and behaviors related to traditional socioeconomic obligations are a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates. Higher excretion rates may be attributed to psychosocial stress arousal associated with a discordance between personal desires for upward social mobility, and family and community-based socioeconomic obligations. Changes in patterns of individual-level psychosocial stress arousal may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Clinical Research on Albumin-bound Paclitaxel-based Therapy in Advanced Lung Cancer

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    Xu LI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Albumin-bound paclitaxel is a novel paclitaxel formulation formed by the combination of paclitaxel and human serum albumin (HSA to improve the efficacy of paclitaxel and reduce its adverse reactions. The aim of this retrospective study is to observe the efficacy and safety of albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy in the treatment of lung cancer. Methods We have enrolled 50 patients with advanced or unresectable retreatment lung cancer who were admitted from November 2011 to December 2014. All patients were treated with albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy with a 21 day cycle (albumin-bound paclitaxel weekly by intravenous dose of 130 mg/m2 on day 1 and day 8. Efficacy was evaluated every two cycles according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1 and side effects were observed during each cycle. All patients were evaluated. Results The total objective response rate (ORR of albumin-bound paclitaxel-based therapy was 20%, disease control rate (DCR was 68%. In the subgroup analysis, in squamous non-small-cell lung carcinoma groups, ORR and DCR were 26.7% and 80% respectively. Albumin-bound paclitaxel based chemotherapy combined anti-angiogenesis therapy had a promising overall response rate 36.4%. In the patients who had been previously treated with≥4 lines of chemotherapy DCR also reached 69.2%. The most common adverse reactions were hematologic toxicities and were all manageable, no hypersensitivity reactions or treatment-related grade 4 adverse events were reported. Conclusion Weekly albumin-bound paclitaxel is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of advanced lung cancer including all histological subtypes. Albumin-bound paclitaxel was associated with superior efficacy in patients with squamous (SCC histology and combined with anti-angiogenesis therapy. Albumin-bound paclitaxel shown to be an effective and safe regimen for elderly or previous heavily treated patients.

  10. Protein degradation by ruminal microorganisms from sheep fed dietary supplements of urea, casein, or albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R J; Broderick, G A; Brammall, M L

    1987-01-01

    Ruminal fluid from sheep fed hay plus concentrate diets containing 1.8% urea, 6% casein, or 6% egg albumin had proteolytic activities of 4.12, 3.02, or 4.00 mg of [14C]casein hydrolyzed ml-1 h-1, respectively. Dietary albumin had no effect on the rate of albumin breakdown relative to that of casein (0.06). Greater numbers of highly proteolytic bacteria, mainly Butyrivibrio spp., were isolated from the rumens of sheep receiving albumin. Albumin hydrolysis by these isolates was even slower relative to that of casein (0.03) than in ruminal fluid and was similar to that found in isolates from urea- and casein-fed sheep. Hence, there appears to be no mechanism by which ruminal bacteria can alter their proteolytic activity to utilize resistant soluble protein more effectively. PMID:3579280

  11. The urinary excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in high serum creatinine rats: Can creatinine predict renal tubular elimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Jing; Qin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Pei; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-03-01

    The renal excretion of creatinine and most drugs are the net result of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion, and their tubular secretions are mediated by individual transporters. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of serum creatinine (SCr) levels attributing to inhibiting tubular transporters but not glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine. In this work, we firstly developed the creatinine excretion inhibition model with normal GFR by competitively inhibiting tubular transporters, and investigated the renal excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that the 24-hour urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime in model rats were decreased by 25% and 17% compared to that in control rats, respectively. The uptake amount and urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime could be inhibited by creatinine in renal cortical slices and isolated kidney perfusion. However, the urinary excretion of ofloxacin was not affected by high SCr. These results showed that the inhibition of tubular creatinine transporters by high SCr resulted to the decrease of urinary excretion of metformin and ceftizoxime, but not ofloxacin, which implied that the increase of SCr could also be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine in normal GFR rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives in Yerli Kara cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Guecues, A. I.; Oezcan, H.; Ulutuerk, S.; Yaman, S.

    2000-01-01

    The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was measured in four Yerli Kara bulls in two experiments, a fasting experiment lasting for 7 days and the other , where animals were given a diet containing 30% wheat straw and 70% compounded feed at four levels of intake (40,60,80 and 95% of voluntary feed intake). In the second experiment, which was carried out according to a 4x4 Latin Square design, four animals receiving 60 and 95% levels of intake were also given a single injection of 8- ''1''4C - uric acid via a jugular catheter. In Addition to the above two experiments the activity of xanthine oxidase and uricase in plasma, liver and intestinal mucosa obtained from Yerli Kara cattle was also determined.In the first experiment,fasting PD excretion averaged 0.691 (±0.053) mmol/kgW''0''.''7''5/d. Glomerular filtration rate GFR), tubular load and net re-absorption of allantoin between pre fasting and fasting were statistically significant (P<0.05). In the second experiment the recovery of injected 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid as total PD was 72.5 and 89.9% for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. The average recovery was 81%. Plasma kinetics measured by 8 - ''1''4C - uric acid indicated that the total compartment pool size was 214.0 (±43.8) and 250.3 L (±29.5) for 60 and 95% feeding levels, respectively. GFR, tubular load and net re-absorption of uric acid and allantoin were not affected by feed intake. The allantoin : PD molar ratios changed between 0.78 to 0.93 for the four levels feed intake. There were significant correlations between PD excretion (expressed as mmol/d and μmol/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DDMI (kg/d and kg/kg W''0''.''7''5/d) and DOMI (kg/d)(r=0.99, P<0.01). The rate of PD excretion as a linear function of feed intake was 16.4 mmol/kg W''0''.''7''5 DDMI, 19.8 mmol/kg DDMI and 22.7 mmol/kg DOMI. Xanthine oxidase and uricase activities were; 1.34 (±0.72) and .44 (±0.05) and 0.13 (±0.03) and 0.08 (±0.03) unit/g fresh tissue in liver and

  13. Effect of probenecid on the biliary excretion of belotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, Eun-Mi; Kim, In-Wha; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of probenecid, an inhibitor of the MRP2/ ABCC transporter, on the pharmacokinetics and transport of belotecan (7-[2-(N-isopropylamino)ethyl]-(20S)-camptothecin). The effect of probenecid on the pharmacokinetics of belotecan was studied in rats. When belotecan was injected as a bolus dose of 5 mg/kg after probenecid was infused at a rate of 42.8 mg/2 mL/h/kg, the cumulative biliary excretion amounts and biliary clearance (CL(b)) of belotecan decreased (28.29 +/- 2.83 versus 19.96 +/- 1.45% of dose and 161.01 +/- 26.95 versus 92.66 +/- 1.45 mL/min/kg), whereas the systemic pharmacokinetics did not change. This indicates that the MRP2 transporter is involved in the biliary excretion of belotecan. The involvement of MRP2 in the secretory transport was further characterized using Caco-2 cell monolayers expressing MRP2. The apparent permeability across Caco-2 cell monolayers from basolateral to apical was 2.3 times greater than that from the apical to the basolateral side at the 50 microM belotecan. In addition, probenecid significantly decreased the basolateral-to-apical transport of belotecan (52.9%). These results indicate that MRP2 is involved in the secretory transport of belotecan in biliary excretion.

  14. Effect of Albumin on the Biliary Clearance of Compounds in Sandwich-Cultured Rat Hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Kristina K.; Brouwer, Kenneth R.; Pollack, Gary M.; Brouwer, Kim L.R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and essentially fatty acid-free BSA (BSA-FAF) on the biliary clearance of compounds in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. Unbound fraction (fu), biliary excretion index (BEI), and unbound intrinsic biliary clearance (intrinsic Cl’biliary) were determined for digoxin, pravastatin, and taurocholate in the absence or presence of BSA or BSA-FAF. BSA had little effect on the BEI or intrinsic Cl’biliary of th...

  15. Penatalaksanaan perdarahan saluran cerna bagian atas dengan nutrisi enteral dini terhadap kadar albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgianti Nur Faridah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding generally were decreased nutritional status that hypoalbuminemia because of increased albumin excretion from hemorrhage and patients fasted indefinitely until the bleeding stops. Enteral nutrition in patients with bleeding should be given to prevent malnutrition and reduce mortality. Objective: To identify the differences in levels of albumin serum in the early enteral nutrition without waiting for the results of gastric lavage is clear (without fasting and after 2-3 times the clear gastric lavage (fasted. Method: The study used pre-experimental research design by static group comparison design. The study was conducted in RS Aisyiyah Bojonegoro in March to June 2015. The sample was 30 patients divided into 2 groups by Random Allocation, there was the treatment group I that fasted (15 patients, and treatment group II without fasted (15 patients. Analysis of data using Wilcoxon test Signed Ranks Test. Results: The research found that there were differences in the provision of early enteral nutrition to albumin. Results showed that albumin level in patients who fasted lower than that without fasted. Results Statistics by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test with a 0.05 significance level values obtained 0,046, its means that H1 was accepted. Conclusion: Patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be given early enteral nutrition without waiting for the results gastric lavage clear rinse.

  16. Determination of the binding properties of the uremic toxin phenylacetic acid to human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Juliana F; Yi, Dan; Stockler-Pinto, Milena B; Soula, Hédi A; Chambert, Stéphane; Fouque, Denis; Mafra, Denise; Soulage, Christophe O

    2016-06-01

    Uremic toxins are compounds normally excreted in urine that accumulate in patients with chronic kidney disease as a result of decreased renal clearance. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) has been identified as a new protein bound uremic toxin. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro the interaction between PAA and human serum albumin (HSA) at physiological and pathological concentrations. We used ultrafiltration to show that there is a single high-affinity binding site for PAA on HSA, with a binding constant on the order of 3.4 × 10(4) M(-1) and a maximal stoichiometry of 1.61 mol per mole. The PAA, at the concentration reported in end-stage renal patients, was 26% bound to albumin. Fluorescent probe competition experiments demonstrated that PAA did not bind to Sudlow's site I (in subdomain IIA) and only weakly bind to Sudlow's site II (in subdomain IIIA). The PAA showed no competition with other protein-bound uremic toxins such as p-cresyl-sulfate or indoxyl sulfate for binding to serum albumin. Our results provide evidence that human serum albumin can act as carrier protein for phenylacetic acid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  17. Imaging diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy by 99mTc-labeled serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Toru; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Jyokou, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Abdominal scintigraphy with intravenous injection of 99m Tc-labeled serum albumin was performed in 6 patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) and 3 patients with nongastrointestinal tract disorders. In 3 out of 6 patients with PLE, abnormal radioactivity was observed in the ileum region 3 hours after injection, and thereafter clear colon image was obtained. In the remaining 3 patients, the colon was visualized 24 hours after injection. On the other hand, in all patients with nongastrointestinal tract disorders, no abnormal radioactivity was observed in the abdomen until 24 hours after injection. These results indicate that gastrointestinal protein loss could be demonstrated by scintigraphy with intravenously administered 99m Tc-labeled serum albumin. In one healthy subject, 99m Tc-labeled serum albumin was administered orally and abdominal scintigraphy was performed. Gastrointestinal tract image was only observed and no other image was demonstrated until 24 hours after oral administration. This result suggests that 99m Tc excreted into the gastrointestinal tract is not reabsorbed. Therefore, abdominal scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled serum albumin appears to be a simple and useful method for diagnosis of PLE. (author)

  18. Differential receptor targeting of liver cells using 99mTc-neoglycosylated human serum albumins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungeun; Jeong, Jae Min; Hong, Mee Kyung; Jang, Ja-June; Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2008-01-01

    Neolactosyl human serum albumin (LSA) targets asialoglycoprotein receptor and shows high liver uptake due to accumulation in hepatocytes. Although neomannosyl human serum albumin (MSA) also shows high liver uptake, it has been reported to be taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. We compared the biological properties of LSA and MSA. 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA biodistribution in mice were investigated after intravenous injection. In vivo localization of rhodaminisothiocyanate (RITC)-LSA and fluoresceineisothiocyanate (FITC)-MSA were investigated in mouse liver. Excretion routes of 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA metabolites were examined. Both 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA showed high liver uptakes. RITC-LSA was taken up by hepatocytes whereas FITC-MSA was taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. 99mTc-MSA showed higher spleen and kidney uptakes than 99mTc-LSA. 99mTc-LSA metabolites excreted in urine and feces accounted for 44.4 and 50.0% of 99mTc-LSA injected, respectively, while 99mTc-MSA metabolites accounted for 51.5 and 10.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LSA is specifically taken up by hepatcytes while MSA by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. After taken up by the liver, LSA is metabolized by the hepatocytes and then excreted through both the hepatobiliary tract and kidney, whereas MSA is metabolized by Kupffer cells and endoghelial cells and then excreted mainly through the kidney.

  19. [Comparison of bioactive aldehydes modifying action on human albumin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiuk, I P; Knaub, A Ia; Shandrenko, S H

    2014-01-01

    Protein's postsynthetic modifications are a cause and a consequence of many diseases. Endogenous aldehydes are one of the main factors of these modifications formation. The human albumin's modification under some aldehydes influence in in vitro experiment has been investigated. Human albumin (20 mM) was incubated with following aldehydes: ribose, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde (20 mM each) and their combinations in 0.1 M Na-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) with 0.02% sodium azide at 37 degrees C in the dark for up to 30 days. We have determined the fluorescent properties of the samples, the content of protein's carbonyl groups and the redistribution of protein's molecular weight. The following ratings of aldehydes from the lowest to the highest effect have been obtained. Fluorescent albumin adducts formation: formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, ribose, glyoxal; carbonylation of the protein: ribose, formaldehyde, glyoxal, methylglyoxal; polymerization of albumin--the formation of intermolecular crosslinks: ribose, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde. The results indicate that these aldehydes have different capability for protein's modifications. For example, formaldehyde, having the lowest ability to form fluorescent adducts, shows the highest ability to form protein's intermolecular crosslinks. Therefore, methods and parameters in order to evaluate the protein postsynthetic modification intensity have to be chosen correctly according to carbonyl stress peculiarity in order to evaluate the protein's postsynthetic modification intensity.

  20. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Sano, Naoyo; Takikawa, Hajime

    2003-08-01

    Glucuronide and glutathione conjugates have been reported to be substrates of multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2), whereas sulfates of nonbile acid organic anions have never been reported as substrates of Mrp2. To further examine the substrate specificity of Mrp2, we examined the effects of bile acid sulfates on the biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate in rats. The biliary excretion of phenolphthalein sulfate was markedly delayed in Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats, an Mrp2-deficient strain, and was markedly inhibited by taurolithocholate-3-sulfate. The biliary excretion of leukotriene C(4) metabolites and sulfobromophthalein was inhibited by phenolphthalein sulfate infusion to some extent. These findings suggest that phenolphthalein sulfate is a unique sulfated nonbile acid organic anion which is a substrate of Mrp2. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Urinary excretion of Tamm-Horsfall protein and epidermal growth factor in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torffvit, O; Jørgensen, P E; Kamper, A L

    1998-01-01

    with chronic nephropathy. Four groups of patients with moderate to severely reduced renal function were studied: glomerulonephritis (n = 10), diabetic nephropathy (n = 11), tubulointerstitial nephropathy (n = 13), and polycystic kidney disease (n = 8). The renal function was evaluated by glomerular filtration...... rate (GFR) as an indicator for the general renal function, lithium clearance (C(Li)) as an indicator for proximal tubular function, and absolute distal reabsorption of sodium (ADR(Na)) as an indicator for distal tubular function. The excretion rate of EGF was rather closely correlated with GFR, C...... analyses, the excretion rates of the two peptides were still associated with ADR(Na) but not with C(Li). In conclusion, the urinary excretion rates of especially EGF but also those of THP were correlated with renal function and distal tubular reabsorption of sodium in patients with chronic nephropathy....

  2. [Effects of union of albumin and egg yolk on human semen cryopreservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Hui; Zhao, Hu; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Sheng, Ji-Yun; Zhou, Jie-Ling

    2006-02-01

    To provide a more effective cryoprotective medium (CPM), effect of union of albumin and egg yolk on human sperm cryopreservation was studied. Egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate was regarded as CPM of the control group and egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate with different concentrations of albumin (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 g/L) were regarded as CPMs of experiment groups. Before and after cryopreservation, sperm movement parameters were assessed by using computer-aided sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and then egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added 1 g/L albumin was selected, whose movement parameters were the best among the experimental groups, and egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrateto group as the control to compare sperm survival rate, membrane integrity, function of mitochondrion and ultrastruction. Sperm in egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate added I g/L albumin showed significantly higher motility, viability than those in the control group and other experimental groups (P egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added 1 g/L albumin had significantly higher survival rate, head unpigmenting rate than those in control group (P egg yolk-glycerol-sodium citrate group added I g/L albumin manifested significantly higher succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity than that in control group (P albumin and egg yolk has better effects on human sperm cryopreservation than those of solitary use of egg yolk. The action of albumin is related to its concentration, and albumin combining with egg yolk may have plus and complementary effects on human sperm cryopreservation.

  3. Intestinal excretion of metals by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The excretion of 65 Zn, sup(115m)Cd, 203 Hg, 207 Bi, 210 Pb, 60 Co, 64 Cu, 85 Sr and 86 Rb in the perfused sections of the intestinal tract in vivo was investigated by the pendular perfusion method. After intravenous administration the excretion of metals was investigated in the jejunum, in the colon and in some experiments also in the ileum. The fluid net movement in the jejunum and colon was measured in dependency on the energy spectrum of the applied metal isotope by means of 14 C or 3 H-polyethylene glycol 2000. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin ( Cucurbita pepo ) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  5. Relationship between glucose and sodium excretion in the new-born dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jeffrey T.; Kleinman, Leonard I.

    1974-01-01

    1. The relationship between renal glucose and sodium excretion was studied in thirty-three new-born dogs aged 1-14 days and in ten adult dogs. 2. Glucose was infused into the animals at rates sufficient to produce an amount of filtered glucose at least 1·5 times the tubular transport of glucose (saturating glucose load). In both puppies and adults tubular glucose reabsorption at saturating glucose loads varied directly with the glomerular filtration rate (r = 0·54 and 0·73 respectively, P puppies. Although mean (TG/GFR)m was greater in the adult than in the puppy (P puppies had CNa/CIn similar to that for adults, they had (TG/GFR)m values equivalent to that for the adult. 4. There was excellent correlation between glucose excretion and water excretion for both adult and new-born dogs (r = 0·93 and 0·87, respectively). However, for any glucose loss, water loss was greater in the puppy than in the adult (P period total sodium excretion (per gram kidney) and CNa/CIn were similar in the new-born and adult dog. However, during glucose loading, the puppies excreted more sodium and had a higher CNa/CIn than did the adult, although glucose excretion was greater in the adult than in the puppy (P sensitivity of the neonatal proximal tubule to the osmotic effect of glucose. When presented with a glucose osmotic load the new-born dog diminishes net proximal sodium reabsorption more than does the adult and thus depresses tubular glucose reabsorption to a greater extent. The lower values of maximal glucose transport rates found in new-born animals may be related, therefore, to the higher fractional sodium excretion rates during glucose diuresis rather than to a diminished intrinsic glucose transport capacity in the new-born kidney. PMID:4449064

  6. Reappraising the role of albumin for resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfer, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Fluid resuscitation is a common intervention in acute medical practice. The optimum fluid for resuscitation remains hotly debated and it is likely to vary from one clinical situation to another. Human albumin solutions have been available since the 1940s, but their use varies greatly around the world. This review examines the current evidence for and against the use of albumin as a resuscitation fluid. Fluid resuscitation with albumin has been compared to resuscitation with saline in large high-quality trials in adult ICU patients and in African children. Within overall equivalent effects, albumin may offer a slight mortality benefit in adult ICU patients with severe sepsis whilst increasing mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury. There are no recent high-quality trials comparing albumin to synthetic colloid solutions. In African children with febrile illness and compensated shock, the effects of bolus resuscitation with albumin and saline are similar, but both increase mortality compared to treatment that avoids fluid boluses. Fluid resuscitation with albumin is well tolerated and produces similar results to resuscitation with saline. Albumin should be avoided in patients with traumatic brain injury; possible benefits in adults with severe sepsis remain to be confirmed.

  7. Low-dose probenecid selectively inhibits urinary excretion of phenolsulfonphthalein in rats without affecting biliary excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Joo Hyun; Oh, Ju-Hee; Lee, Young-Joo

    2013-06-01

    Renal organic anion transport systems play an important role in the excretion of anionic drugs and toxic compounds. Probenecid has been used as a potent inhibitor of urinary and biliary excretion of anionic compounds mediated by transporters such as organic anion transporters and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2). The purpose of this study was to optimize the dose of probenecid required for selective inhibition of urinary excretion of anionic compounds in rats, without inhibition of biliary excretion. Phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP), a model anionic compound that is excreted in urine and bile, was intravenously administered to rats after intraperitoneal injection of different doses of probenecid (0, 0.2, 2, 10, 100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) ). Treatment with 100, 200 or 400 mg kg(-1) probenecid decreased both renal clearance (CLr ) and biliary clearance (CLb ) of PSP, whereas 0.2 mg kg(-1) probenecid did not have any effect. Probenecid administered at doses of 2 and 10 mg kg(-1) decreased only CLr . The median effective doses of probenecid for inhibiting CLr and CLb were 0.925 and 23.9 mg kg(-1) , respectively. These data suggest that a low dose of probenecid selectively inhibits urinary excretion of PSP that may be mediated by organic anion transporters, without affecting biliary excretion that may be mediated by Mrp2. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Albumin Blood Test: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/albuminbloodtest.html Albumin Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an Albumin Blood Test? An albumin blood test measures the amount of ...

  9. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...... per albumin molecule, and binding of the first sulfamethizole molecule is possibly reduced as well. Diazepam binds with equal affinity to the fetal and adult proteins. Among the two main albumin drug-binding functions, for warfarin and diazepam, the former is thus compromised in the newborn infant...

  10. Urinary excretion of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine as biomarker of oxidative damage to DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Steffen; Danielsen, Pernille; Løhr, Mille; Jantzen, Kim; Hemmingsen, Jette G; Roursgaard, Martin; Karotki, Dorina Gabriela; Møller, Peter

    2012-02-15

    Oxidatively damaged DNA may be important in carcinogenesis. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoGua) is an abundant and mutagenic lesion excised by oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) and measurable in urine or plasma by chromatographic methods with electrochemical or mass spectrometric detectors, reflecting the rate of damage in steady state. A common genetic OGG1 variant may affect the activity and was associated with increased levels of oxidized purines in leukocytes without apparent effect on 8-oxoGua excretion or major change in cancer risk. 8-OxoGua excretion has been associated with exposure to air pollution, toxic metals, tobacco smoke and low plasma antioxidant levels, whereas fruit and vegetable intake or dietary interventions showed no association. In rodent studies some types of feed may be source of 8-oxoGua in collected urine. Of cancer therapies, cisplatin increased 8-oxoGua excretion, whereas radiotherapy only showed such effects in experimental animals. Case-control studies found high excretion of 8-oxoGua in relation to cancer, dementia and celiac disease but not hemochromatosis, although associations could be a consequence rather than reflecting causality of disease. One prospective study found increased risk of developing lung cancer among non-smokers associated with high excretion of 8-oxoGua. Urinary excretion of 8-oxoGua is a promising biomarker of oxidatively damaged DNA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissular localization and excretion of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles of different sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guangping; Sun Jiao, E-mail: jiaosun59@yahoo.com [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Biomaterials Research and Testing Center, Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital (China); Zhong Gaoren [Fudan University, School of Pharmacy (China)

    2012-01-15

    The nanotoxicology as a new subdiscipline of nanotechnology needs to be studied in vivo. To do so, it is essential to understand certain pharmacological information of the nanoparticles in vivo. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been developed for a number of biomedical uses; however, research on their tissular localization and excretion has been limited. In this study, we analyzed the localization of intravenously administered SiNPs with sizes of 20 and 80 nm in liver and spleen and quantitatively investigated the excretion of SiNPs through urine and feces. The results of the tissular localization study showed that the SiNPs were located in liver evenly; however, they were mainly accumulated in the white pulp of spleen. The quantitative excretory assay found the renal excretion being the main excretion pathway of SiNPs and indicated that the accumulated excretory rate of 80 nm SiNPs through urine was higher than that of 20 nm SiNPs because of the higher hemoconcentration. Further analysis of radioactive substances in the excreta showed the convincing confirmatory evidence that the SiNPs of both the sizes of 20 and 80 nm could be excreted through urine. These results provide important information on in vivo distribution and excretion of SiNPs.

  12. Effect of insulin on albumin production and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal liver cells from normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1975-01-01

    Parenchymal rat liver cells were isolated by a modification of the collagenase method of Quistorff, Bondesen and Grunnet. The cells secreted albumin into the medium and incorporated 14C-leucine both into cell proteins and proteins secreted into the medium. Albumin production measured from...... the immunologically determined increment in the incubation medium was 1.7 +/- 0.2 mug albumin/min per g liver wet wt. This is about 30% of the rate of production in the perfused liver. Addition of insulin (10(-6)-10(-10) M) enhanced albumin production (50-17%), and incorporation of 14C-leucine both into albumin (50...

  13. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  14. Control of potassium excretion: a Paleolithic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Mitchell L; Cheema-Dhadli, Surinder; Lin, Shih-Hua; Kamel, Kamel S

    2006-07-01

    Regulation of potassium (K) excretion was examined in an experimental setting that reflects the dietary conditions for humans in Paleolithic times (high, episodic intake of K with organic anions; low intake of NaCl), because this is when major control mechanisms were likely to have developed. The major control of K secretion in this setting is to regulate the number of luminal K channels in the cortical collecting duct. Following a KCl load, the K concentration in the medullary interstitial compartment rose; the likely source of this medullary K was its absorption by the H/K-ATPase in the inner medullary collecting duct. As a result of the higher medullary K concentration, the absorption of Na and Cl was inhibited in the loop of Henle, and this led to an increased distal delivery of a sufficient quantity of Na to raise K excretion markedly, while avoiding a large natriuresis. In addition, because K in the diet was accompanied by 'future' bicarbonate, a role for bicarbonate in the control of K secretion via 'selecting' whether aldosterone would be a NaCl-conserving or a kaliuretic hormone is discussed. This way of examining the control of K excretion provides new insights into clinical disorders with an abnormal plasma K concentration secondary to altered K excretion, and also into the pathophysiology of calcium-containing kidney stones.

  15. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W; Wolfe, Lisa L; Sirochman, Tracey M; Glidden, David V; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2009-09-24

    Infectious prion diseases-scrapie of sheep and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family-are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their faeces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral inoculation of irradiated deer faeces into transgenic mice overexpressing cervid prion protein (PrP) revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 faecal samples collected from five deer at 7-11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer faeces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the end of the disease, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in faeces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in a brain. Prolonged faecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds, as well as prion transmission among other susceptible cervids.

  16. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in feces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamgüney, Gültekin; Miller, Michael W.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Sirochman, Tracey M.; Glidden, David V.; Palmer, Christina; Lemus, Azucena; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2011-01-01

    Infectious prion diseases 1 – scrapie of sheep 2 and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of several species in the deer family 3,4 – are transmitted naturally within affected host populations. Although several possible sources of contagion have been identified in excretions and secretions from symptomatic animals 5–8, the biological importance of these sources in sustaining epidemics remains unclear. Here we show that asymptomatic CWD-infected mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) excrete CWD prions in their feces long before they develop clinical signs of prion disease. Intracerebral (i.c.) inoculation of irradiated deer feces into transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing cervid PrP revealed infectivity in 14 of 15 fecal samples collected from 5 deer at 7–11 months before the onset of neurological disease. Although prion concentrations in deer feces were considerably lower than in brain tissue from the same deer collected at the disease terminus, the estimated total infectious dose excreted in feces by an infected deer over the disease course may approximate the total contained in brain tissue. Prolonged fecal prion excretion by infected deer provides a plausible natural mechanism that might explain the high incidence and efficient horizontal transmission of CWD within deer herds 3,4,9, as well as prion transmission between susceptible deer species. PMID:19741608

  17. Power Functions Relating Excretion to Body Burden

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, S M J

    2003-01-01

    Formulae necessary to relate the quantity of radionuclides excreted to that assimilated in exposures that are acute and those that are multiple or continuous are derived from power function relationships. Particular attention is given to providing equations having variables for which the bioassayer can easily derive numerical values. This paper presents this data.

  18. Excreted steroids in vertebrate social communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Wayne I; Meeks, Julian P

    2018-03-08

    Steroids play vital roles in animal physiology across species, and the production of specific steroids is associated with particular internal biological functions. The internal functions of steroids are, in most cases, quite clear. However, an important feature of many steroids -- their chemical stability -- allows these molecules to play secondary, external roles as chemical messengers after their excretion via urine, feces, or other shed substances. The presence of steroids in animal excretions has long been appreciated, but their capacity to serve as chemosignals has not received as much attention. In theory, the blend of steroids excreted by an animal contains a readout of its own biological state. Initial mechanistic evidence for external steroid chemosensation arose from studies of many species of fish. In sea lampreys and ray-finned fishes bile salts were identified as potent olfactory cues and later found to serve as pheromones. Recently, we and others have discovered that neurons in amphibian and mammalian olfactory systems are also highly sensitive to excreted glucocorticoids, sex steroids, and bile acids, and some of these molecules have been confirmed as mammalian pheromones. Steroid chemosensation in olfactory systems, unlike steroid detection in most tissues, is performed by plasma membrane receptors, but the details remain largely unclear. In this review, we present a broad view of steroid detection by vertebrate olfactory systems, focusing on recent research in fishes, amphibians, and mammals. We review confirmed and hypothesized mechanisms of steroid chemosensation in each group and discuss potential impacts on vertebrate social communication. Copyright © 2018 the authors.

  19. Rating

    OpenAIRE

    Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Charakteristika ratingu. Dělení a druhy ratingu (rating emise × rating emitenta; dlouhodobý rating × krátkodobý rating; mezinárodní rating × lokální rating). Obecné požadavky kladené na rating. Proces tvorby ratingu. Vyžádaný rating. Nevyžádaný rating. Ratingový proces na bázi volně přístupných informací. Uplatňované ratingové systémy. Ratingová kriteria. Využití a interpretace ratingové známky. Funkce ratingu. Rating v souvislosti s BASEL II. Rating v souvislosti s hospodářskými krizemi....

  20. Plasma disappearance of glycated and non-glycated albumin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Kverneland, Arne

    1993-01-01

    The fractional plasma escape rates of glycated and non-glycated albumin have earlier been measured in groups of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients and control subjects. The escape of non-glycated albumin was similar in control subjects and normoalbuminuric patients, but elevated in pati...... to be the glycosaminoglycans of the glomerular basal membrane and the interstitial matrix....

  1. 15NH4+ excretion test: a new method for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J C; Liu, G L; Zhang, Z H; Mou, Y L; Chen, Q A; Wu, J C; Yang, S L

    1992-01-01

    A noninvasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection that uses [15N]urea as a tracer has been established. The principle the test is based on is the strong urease activity of H. pylori. After oral ingestion, [15N]urea is broken down into ammonia and carbon dioxide by H. pylori urease in the stomach. The ammonia is absorbed into the blood and excreted in the urine. The amount of [15N]urea, reflecting the magnitude of H. pylori infection, is evaluated by measuring the abundance and excretion rate of 15N in ammonia in the urine. Thirty-six patients were examined in our study. The 15N excretion rates in urine ammonia of patients who were H. pylori positive were significantly higher than those of H. pylori-negative patients (P less than 0.05). Twenty-three patients were H. pylori positive by Gram stain and culture. The sensitivity of the 15NH4 excretion test compared with these techniques was 96%, and no false positives were obtained. The 15NH4+ excretion rates of 13 H. pylori-negative subjects were all in the normal range (less than 0.3%). This method is a simple, precise, highly sensitive, noninvasive, nonradioactive test. It could be used for diagnosis as well as for the followup of patients receiving H. pylori eradication therapy, especially children and pregnant women. It could also be used in epidemiological investigation of H. pylori infection in a general population.

  2. KADAR ALBUMIN SERUM DAN FAAL GINJAL ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Kosnadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Serum albumin concentration (Sa is one of the determinants of single nephron glomerular filtration rate. Hypoalbuminemia is frequently encountered in our country due to protein calory malnutrition, liver function disorders and others. The renal function or glomerular filtration rate (GFR measurement in children suffering from renal diseases would be able to provide information regarding the extent of the renal damage. The aim of this study was to know the interaction between Sa and GFR in children. GFR was measured by standard inulin clearance (Cin and conventional endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr in 112 children hospitalized with renal diseases. Standard renal function status test, namely IKA-1984 was utilized for the renal function measurement. Result of this study showed a positive correlation between : Sa, Cin and Ccr in pediatric patients with decreased renal function : Cin = 5,23 + 12,14 Sa (r = 0,50; p = 0,007; n = 26 and Cr = 7,10 + 14,47 Sa (r = 0,53; p = 0,005; n = 26, so that the lower Sa level, usually will indicate the lower renal function and the more severe the renal failure.

  3. Intestinal Farnesoid X Receptor Controls Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Schonewille, Marleen; Boesjes, Marije; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Bos, Trijnie; van Dijk, Theo H.; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Boverhof, Renze; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; van Deursen, Jan M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Moschetta, Antonio; Kremoser, Claus; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2017-01-01

    The role of the intestine in the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis increasingly is recognized. Fecal excretion of cholesterol is the last step in the atheroprotective reverse cholesterol transport pathway, to which biliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE) contribute. The

  4. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  5. Drug binding properties of neonatal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal and adult albumin was isolated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300, from adult and umbilical cord serum, respectively. Binding of monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone, warfarin, sulfamethizole, and diazepam was studied by means of equilibrium dialysis and the binding data were analyzed...... by the method of several acceptable fitted curves. It was found that the binding affinity to neonatal albumin is less than to adult albumin for monoacetyl-diamino-diphenyl sulfone and warfarin. Sulfamethizole binding to the neonatal protein is similarly reduced when more than one molecule of the drug is bound...

  6. Site-selective conjugation of an anticoagulant aptamer to recombinant albumins and maintenance of neonatal Fc receptor binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmøkel, Julie; Voldum, Anders; Tsakiridou, Georgia; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Cameron, Jason; Sørensen, Esben S.; Wengel, Jesper; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2017-05-01

    Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers, however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half-life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers. This study investigates the effect of Cys34 site-selective covalent attachment of a factor IXa anticoagulant aptamer on aptamer functionality and human FcRn (hFcRn) engagement using recombinant human albumin (rHA) of either a wild type (WT) or an engineered human FcRn high binding variant (HB). Albumin-aptamer conjugates, connected covalently through a heterobifunctional succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate linker, were successfully prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography as confirmed by gel electrophoresis band-shift analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight. Minimal reduction (∼25%) in activity of WT-linked aptamer to that of aptamer alone was found using an anticoagulant activity assay measuring temporal levels of activated partial thrombin. Covalent albumin-aptamer conjugation, however, substantially compromized binding to hFcRn, to 10% affinity of that of non-conjugated WT, determined by biolayer interferometry. Binding could be rescued by aptamer conjugation to recombinant albumin engineered for higher FcRn affinity (HB) that exhibited an 8-fold affinity compared to WT alone. This work describes a novel albumin-based aptamer delivery system whose hFcRn binding can be increased using a HB engineered albumin.

  7. Albumin-gold-glutathione is a probable auranofin metabolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.F. III; Coffer, M.; Isab, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The newly licensed gold drug, auranofin ((2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-1-D-gluco-pyranosato-S-)triethylphoshine-gold(I)) crosses cell membranes and enters cells which are inaccessible to parenteral gold drugs. In vivo, the triethylphosphine ligand and gold of auranofin, but not the thio-sugar moiety, accumulate in and subsequently efflux from red blood cells (RBCs). Extracellular albumin increases in the extent of gold efflux and acts as a gold binding site. The rate of efflux is first-order in RBC gold concentration. Studies using RBCs in which labelled [ 14 C]-glutathione is generated in situ incorporation of [ 14 C]- glycine demonstrate that glutathione also effluxes from the RBCs and forms a gold-glutathione-albumin complex. This may be the immunopharmacologically active complex

  8. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    -GH excretion (pg/h) was significantly higher in females than in males (p less than 0.01). In Tanner stages 1-4, u-GH excretion during the day was lower than that at night, whereas the opposite was true in late puberty and in adult women. The interindividual variation of u-GH excretion within the same Tanner...

  9. Excretion of polyamines by children with Beckwith's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, G B

    1980-01-01

    The urinary excretion of the polyamines--putrescine, spermidine, and spermine--was measured in 7 children with Beckwith's syndrome. Putrescine excretion was raised and spermidine excretion reduced. The raised putrescine and the low spermidine ratios were highly significant. These results are consistent with a disturbance in a metabolic pathway under growth hormone-like regulation.

  10. Ecological and sociodemographic effects on urinary catecholamine excretion in adult Samoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Meredith R; Steele, Matthew S; Bereiter, David A; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T

    2011-03-01

    Ecological and sociodemographic correlates of stress may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. The effects of peri-urban vs rural residence, education, occupation, caffeine intake and cigarette consumption on urinary catecholamine excretion were studied in Samoan adults. Five hundred and seven participants, aged 29-69 years, were randomly selected from nine villages throughout Samoa. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were assessed by questionnaire. Epinephrine and norepinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in overnight urine samples. Age ( ≤ 40 vs >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with BMI-adjusted catecholamine excretion. Norepinephrine was significantly higher in peri-urban young men and older women. Epinephrine was significantly higher in peri-urban older men. Adjustment for caffeine attenuated the relationship between residence and norepinephrine in young women. General residential exposure to modernization in urban villages is a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates and is consistent with past studies. Caffeine consumption in younger women plays a complex role in stress-related catecholamine excretion. Further studies of individual level attitudinal and behavioural factors in Samoans are needed to understand psychosocial stress, physiologic arousal and health.

  11. Late excretion of 231Pa and its decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtzman, R.B.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Excretion rates of members of the naturally-occurring actinium series (4n + 3) were determined for a 69-year-old man who had acquired 231 Pa(T/sub 1/2/ = 32500 yr) about 45 years prior to this investigation. The body contents determined by whole body counting were approximately 71 nCi of 231 Pa, 51 nCi each of 22 yr 227 Ac and 18.2 day 227 Th, and 39 nCi of 11.4 day 223 Ra. All urinary and fecal samples were collected, as were representative daily diets during the 10 days the subject was maintained on a metabolic ward. The samples were wet ashed with nitric acid. After separation the 231 Pa and 227 Th were electrodeposited on stainless steel and alpha counted. The 223 Ra was coprecipitated with BaSO 4 , mounted, and alpha counted. Actinium-227 was determined from the 227 Th daughter after a long growth period. The excretion rates varied quite dramatically over the 10-day study

  12. Albumin-stabilized fluorescent silver nanodots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sych, Tomash; Polyanichko, Alexander; Kononov, Alexei

    2017-07-01

    Ligand-stabilized Ag nanoclusters (NCs) possess many attractive features including high fluorescence quantum yield, large absorption cross-section, good photostability, large Stokes shift and two-photon absorption cross sections. While plenty of fluorescent clusters have been synthesized on various polymer templates, only a few studies have been reported on the fluorescent Ag clusters on peptides and proteins. We study silver NCs synthesized on different protein matrices, including bovine serum albumin, human serum albumin, egg albumin, equine serum albumin, and lysozyme. Our results show that red-emitting Ag NCs can effectively be stabilized by the disulfide bonds in proteins and that the looser structure of the denatured protein favors formation of the clusters.

  13. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyama Issei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet. Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+ and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4- necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-], indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body.

  14. Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624

  15. Some human albumine metabolism aspects, gathered with the utilization of 131I-albumine in normal female individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossermelli, W.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Carvalho, N.

    1974-01-01

    14 female individuals underwent a study of some aspects of the 131 I human albumine metabolism, by following-up the decreasing plasmatic radioactivity rate of this substance. The outcome of this study led to the following conclusions: the distribution hal-life presented an average and confidence interval of 15,40 +- -+ 2,16 hours; renovation half-life showed a median and confidence interval of 11,17 +- -+ 2,10 days; the renovation ratio presented an average and confidence interval of 6,80 +- -+ 1,31% days -1 . The conclusions hereabove allowed the authors to discuss the performance of these parameters upon the evaluation of the albumine synthesis and catabolism [pt

  16. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ren Liou

    Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer

  17. Preparation and characterization of microspheres of albumin-heparin conjugates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwon, Glen S.; Bae, You Han; Kim, Sung Wan; Cremers, Harry; Cremers, H.F.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1991-01-01

    Albumin-heparin microspheres have been prepared as a new drug carrier. A soluble albumin-heparin conjugate was synthesized by forming amide bonds between human serum albumin and heparin. After purification the albumin-heparin conjugate was crosslinked in a water-in-oil emulsion to form

  18. Albumin nanostructures as advanced drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahdi; Bahrami, Sajad; Ravari, Soodeh Baghaee; Zangabad, Parham Sahandi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Bozorgomid, Mahnaz; Shahreza, Somayeh; Sori, Masume; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    One of the biggest impacts that the nanotechnology has made on medicine and biology, has been in the area of drug delivery systems (DDSs). Many drugs suffer from serious problems concerning insolubility, instability in biological environments, poor uptake into cells and tissues, sub-optimal selectivity for targets and unwanted side effects. Nanocarriers can be designed as DDSs to overcome many of these drawbacks. One of the most versatile building blocks to prepare these nanocarriers is the ubiquitous, readily available and inexpensive protein, serum albumin. Areas covered: This review covers the use of different types of albumin (human, bovine, rat, and chicken egg) to prepare nanoparticle and microparticle-based structures to bind drugs. Various methods have been used to modify the albumin structure. A range of targeting ligands can be attached to the albumin that can be recognized by specific cell receptors that are expressed on target cells or tissues. Expert opinion: The particular advantages of albumin used in DDSs include ready availability, ease of chemical modification, good biocompatibility, and low immunogenicity. The regulatory approvals that have been received for several albumin-based therapeutic agents suggest that this approach will continue to be successfully explored.

  19. Urinary excretion of fatty acid-binding protein 4 is associated with albuminuria and renal dysfunction.

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    Yusuke Okazaki

    Full Text Available Fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4/A-FABP/aP2 is expressed in not only adipocytes and macrophages but also peritubular capillaries in the normal kidney. We recently demonstrated that ectopic expression of FABP4, but not FABP1 known as liver FABP (L-FABP, in the glomerulus is associated with progression of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. However, urinary excretion of FABP4 has not been investigated.Subjects who participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, a study with a population-based cohort design, in 2011 (n = 392, male/female: 166/226 were enrolled. Urinary FABP4 (U-FABP4 and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR were measured. Change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR was followed up one year later.In 93 (23.7% of the 392 subjects, U-FABP4 level was below the sensitivity of the assay. Subjects with undetectable U-FABP4 were younger and had lower UACR and higher eGFR levels than subjects with measurable U-FABP4. U-FABP4 level was positively correlated with age, systolic blood pressure and levels of serum FABP4 (S-FABP4, triglycerides, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, urinary FABP1 (U-FABP1 and UACR (r = 0.360, p<0.001. Age, S-FABP4, U-FABP1 and UACR were independent predictors of U-FABP4. On the other hand, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and U-FABP4 were independently correlated with UACR. Reduction in eGFR after one year was significantly larger in a group with the highest tertile of baseline U-FABP4 than a group with the lowest tertile.Urinary FABP4 level is independently correlated with level of albuminuria and possibly predicts yearly decline of eGFR. U-FABP4 would be a novel biomarker of glomerular damage.

  20. Protein turnover and 3-methylhistidine excretion in non-pregnant, pregnant and gestational diabetic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state

  1. Metabolism of Albumin after Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

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    Yu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS is characterized by a hypercatabolic state induced by inflammatory mediators. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH stabilizes the internal environment but also aggravates loss of amino acids. The effect of CVVH on protein dynamics is largely unknown. We adopted the stable isotopic tracer technology to investigate how CVVH changed serum albumin metabolism. Methods. Twenty SIRS patients were randomized into low- (2000 mL/h and high- (4000 mL/h volume CVVH groups according to the rate of replacement fluid. Eight patients with abdominal infection matched for age, sex, and laboratory index served as controls. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion of two stable isotopes to determine the albumin fractional synthesis rate (FSR and fractional breakdown rate (FBR. Results. Before treatment, there was no significant difference of FSR and FBR among 3 groups. After CVVH, the albumin FSR in high- and low-volume groups was 7.75 ± 1.08% and 7.30 ± 0.89%, respectively, both higher than in the control (5.83 ± 0.94%. There was no significant difference in albumin FBR after treatment. Conclusions. Protein dynamic indicators could reflect protein synthesis and breakdown state directly and effectively. CVVH increased albumin synthesis, while the breakdown rate remained at a high level independently of the CVVH rate.

  2. The impact of change in albumin assay on reference intervals, prevalence of 'hypoalbuminaemia' and albumin prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley-Grant, Deon; Herbert, Mike; Cornes, Michael P; Barlow, Ian M; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau

    2016-01-01

    We studied the impact on reference intervals, classification of patients with hypoalbuminaemia and albumin infusion prescriptions on changing from a bromocresol green (BCG) to a bromocresol purple (BCP) serum albumin assay. Passing-Bablok regression analysis and Bland-Altman plot were used to compare Abbott BCP and Roche BCG methods. Linear regression analysis was used to compare in-house and an external laboratory Abbott BCP serum albumin results. Reference intervals for Abbott BCP serum albumin were derived in two different laboratories using pathology data from adult patients in primary care. Prescriptions for 20% albumin infusions were compared one year before and one year after changing the albumin method. Abbott BCP assay had a negative bias of approximately 6 g/L compared with Roche BCG method.There was good agreement (y = 1.04 x - 1.03; R(2 )= 0.9933) between in-house and external laboratory Abbott BCP results. Reference intervals for the serum albumin Abbott BCP assay were 31-45 g/L, different to those recommended by Pathology Harmony and the manufacturers (35-50 g/L). Following the change in method there was a large increase in the number of patients classified as hypoalbuminaemic using Pathology Harmony references intervals (32%) but not when retrospectively compared to locally derived reference intervals (16%) compared with the previous year (12%). The method change was associated with a 44.6% increase in albumin prescriptions. This equated to an annual increase in expenditure of £35,234. We suggest that serum albumin reference intervals be method specific to prevent misclassification of albumin status in patients. Change in albumin methodology may have significant impact on hospital resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Comparison of bioactive aldehydes modifying action on human albumin

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    I. P. Krysiuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein’s postsynthetic modifications are a cause and a consequence of many diseases. Endogenous aldehydes are one of the main factors of these modifications formation. The human albumin’s modification under some aldehydes influence in in vitro experiment has been investigated. Human albumin (20 mM was incubated with following aldehydes: ribose, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and formaldehyde (20 mM each and their combinations in 0.1 M Na-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 with 0.02% sodium azide at 37 °C in the dark for up to 30 days. We have determined the fluorescent properties of the samples, the content of protein’s carbonyl groups and the redistribution of protein’s molecular weight. The following ratings of aldehydes from the lowest to the highest effect have been obtained. Fluo­rescent albumin adducts formation: formaldehyde, methylglyoxal, ribose, glyoxal; carbonylation of the protein: ribose, formaldehyde, glyoxal, methyl­glyoxal; polymerization of albumin – the formation of intermolecular crosslinks: ribose, methylglyoxal, glyoxal, formaldehyde. The results indicate that these aldehydes have different capability for protein’s modifications. For example, formaldehyde, having the lowest ability to form fluorescent adducts, shows the highest ability to form protein’s intermolecular crosslinks. Therefore, methods and parame­ters in order to evaluate the protein postsynthetic modification intensity have to be chosen correctly according to carbonyl stress peculiarity in order to evaluate the protein’s postsynthetic modification intensity.

  4. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14 C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [ 14 C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  5. Biliary excretion and distribution of 51Cr(III) and 51Cr(VI) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cikrt, M.; Bencko, V.

    1979-01-01

    The biliary excretion and distribution of 51 Cr after intravenous administration of 51 Cr(III) ( 51 CrCl 3 ) or 51 Cr(VI) (Na 2 51 CrO 4 .4H 2 O) were studied in rats. The cumulative biliary excretion of 51 Cr 24 hrs after the injection was significantly higher after administration of 51 Cr(VI) than of 51 Cr(III) (3.51+-0.7% and 0.51+-0.05% of administered dose, respectively). This difference was especially due to a higher rate of biliary excretion of 51 Cr in the first hours after 51 Cr(VI) administration. The excretion of 51 Cr via feces was also higher after administration of 51 Cr(VI) (7.35+-0.45%) of administered dose, as against 4.23+-0.23% after 51 Cr(III). On the other hand, no significant difference in urinary excretion of 51 Cr was found. Statistically significant differences were also observed in the distribution of 51 Cr in the organism after administration of both valence states of the metal. (author)

  6. Effect of glucagon on cyclic AMP, albumin metabolism and incorporation of 14C-leucine into proteins in isolated parenchymal rat liver cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, J; Gluud, C N

    1976-01-01

    wet wt. This is about the rate found in the perfused liver, Glucagon (10(-8-10(-6) M) inhibited albumin secretion and the incorporation of 14C-leucine into albumin, into total proteins in the medium and into total proteins in the cell suspension. The effect of glucagon on albumin secretion...... is compatible with an effect on the rate of synthesis. A positive correlation existed between the maximal level of cyclic AMP after glucagon administration and the inhibition of both albumin secretion and the incorporation of 149leucine....

  7. Modelling and sensitivity analysis of urinary platinum excretion in anticancer chemotherapy for the recovery of platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folens, Karel; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Baeten, Janis

    2016-01-01

    University Hospital in combination with compartmental models for urinary Pt excretion was performed to simulate the average Pt excretion profile during common treatment schemes. These average profiles can be used to assess the technical, social and economic feasibility of Pt-recovery from urine or wastewater...... are toxic for aquatic organisms. Therefore, efforts should be made to recover the Pt. The urinary excretion of Pt from two antineoplastics are taken under consideration, i.e. cisplatin and carboplatin. Using these reference compounds, a scenario analysis based on administration statistics from Ghent....... A one-compartment model is used for cisplatin, which is calibrated using the experimental data of six patients. In contrast, a two-compartment model with parameters from literature is used for carboplatin. A Global Sensitivity Analysis revealed kel, the rate constant of elimination, is the most...

  8. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  9. Work stress and recovery measured by urinary catecholamines and cortisol excretion in long distance coach drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluiter, J. K.; van der Beek, A. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate coach drivers' work stress during work and in the course of recovery from work by measurement of urinary catecholamines and cortisol. METHODS: The urinary excretion rate of adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol of 10 coach drivers was studied during a long distance trip of

  10. Renal energy excretion of horses depends on renal hippuric acid and nitrogen excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, B; Südekum, K-H; Zeyner, A; Goren, G; Kienzle, E

    2018-02-01

    The prediction of renal energy excretion is crucial in a metabolizable energy system for horses. Phenolic acids from forage cell walls may affect renal energy losses by increasing hippuric acid excretion. Therefore, the relationships were investigated between renal energy, nitrogen (N) and hippuric acid excretion of four adult ponies (230-384 kg body weight (BW)) consuming diets based on fresh grass, grass silage, grass cobs (heat-dried, finely chopped, pressed grass), alfalfa hay, straw, extruded straw and soybean meal. Feed intake was measured; urine and faeces were quantitatively collected for three days. Feed was analysed for crude nutrients, gross energy, amino acids and neutral-detergent-insoluble crude protein (CP); faeces were analysed for crude nutrients and cross energy; urine was analysed for N, hippuric acid, creatinine and gross energy. Renal energy excretion (y; kJ/kg BW 0.75 ) correlated with renal N excretion (x 1 ; g/kg BW 0.75 ) and renal hippuric acid excretion (x 2 ; g/kg BW 0.75 ): y = 14.4 + 30.2x 1 +20.7x 2 (r = .95; n = 30; p energy losses per gram CP intake: (i) protein supplements (e.g., soybean meal): 4.2-4.9 kJ/g CP intake (ii) alfalfa hay, grains, dried sugar beet pulp: 6.4 kJ/g CP intake, (iii) hay, preserved grass products, straw: 5.2-12.3 kJ/g CP intake (mean 8) and (iv) fresh grass. For group (iii) a negative relationship was observed between renal energy losses per gram of CP and the content of CP or neutral-detergent-insoluble CP in dry matter. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The role of albumin conformation in the binding of diazepam to human serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, J.; Hart, B.J. 't; Gier, J.J. de

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen, chloride and calcium ions on the binding of diazepare to human serum albumin has been studied by circular dichroism and equilibrium dialysis. In all cases the molar ellipticity of the diazepam-albumin complex increases with pH over the pH range 5 to 9. Under these

  12. Albumin Suppresses Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Proliferation and the Cell Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nojiri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have revealed that a low recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is associated with high serum albumin levels in patients; therefore, high levels of serum albumin are a major indicator of a favorable prognosis. However, the mechanism inhibiting the proliferation of HCC has not yet been elucidated, so we investigated the effect of serum albumin on HCC cell proliferation. Hep3B was cultured in MEM with no serum or containing 5 g/dL human albumin. As control samples, Prionex was added to generate the same osmotic pressure as albumin. After 24-h incubation, the expressions of α-fetoprotein (AFP, p53, p21, and p57 were evaluated with real-time PCR using total RNA extracted from the liver. Protein expressions and the phosphorylation of Rb (retinoblastoma were determined by Western blot analysis using total protein extracted from the liver. For flow cytometric analysis of the cell cycle, FACS analysis was performed. The percentages of cell cycle distribution were evaluated by PI staining, and all samples were analyzed employing FACScalibur (BD with appropriate software (ModFit LT; BD. The cell proliferation assay was performed by counting cells with using a Scepter handy automated cell counter (Millipore. The mRNA levels of AFP relative to Alb(−: Alb(−, Alb(+, and Prionex, were 1, 0.7 ± 0.2 (p < 0.001 for Alb(−, and 1 ± 0.3, respectively. The mRNA levels of p21 were 1, 1.58 ± 0.4 (p = 0.007 for Alb(− and p = 0.004 for Prionex, and 0.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The mRNA levels of p57 were 1, 4.4 ± 1.4 (p = 0.002 for Alb(− and Prionex, and 1.0 ± 0.1, respectively. The protein expression levels of Rb were similar in all culture media. The phosphorylation of P807/811 and P780 of Rb protein was reduced in Alb(+. More cells in the G0/G1 phase and fewer cells in S and G2/M phases were obtained in Alb(+ than in Alb(− (G0/G1: 60.9%, 67.7%, 61.5%; G2/M: 16.5%, 13.1%, 15.6%; S: 22.6%, 19.2%, 23.0%, Alb(−, Alb

  13. Influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural durante a liofilização da albumina bovina Influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Tattini Jr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A liofilização é o método mais comumente utilizado para a preparação de proteínas desidratadas, as quais devem apresentar estabilidade adequada por longo período de armazenagem em temperaturas ambientes. Entretanto, estudos recentes com espectroscopia no infravermelho têm documentado que os problemas relacionados com o congelamento e a desidratação induzidos pela liofilização podem levar ao desdobramento molecular da proteína. Através de análises por espectroscopia Raman, associadas com análise térmica por calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, estudou-se a influência da taxa de congelamento no comportamento físico-químico e estrutural da albumina sérica bovina submetida ao processo de liofilização. Observou-se que a albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 2,5 °C/min apresentou maior alteração estrutural quando comparada à albumina liofilizada com taxa de congelamento de 30 °C/min, a qual apresentou menores oscilações espectrais nas regiões da amida I, III e pontes de dissulfeto, favorecendo a manutenção da conformação estrutural da proteína.Lyophilization (freeze-drying is the most commonly method used to prepare dehydrated proteins, which should have the desired long-term stability at ambient temperatures. However, recent infrared spectroscopic studies have documented that the acute freezing and dehydration stresses of lyophilization can induce protein unfolding. Through Raman spectroscopy associated with thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, it was studied the influence of cooling rate on the structural and phase changes during lyophilization of bovine serum albumin. It was observed that bovine serum albumin (BSA lyophilized under slow freezing (2.5 ºC/min presented higher structure damage than the BSA lyophilized under fast freezing (30 ºC/min However, the lyophilization process using cooling rate of 30 ºC/min presented fewer spectra alterations on the Amide I

  14. Octanoate in Human Albumin Preparations Is Detrimental to Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture

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    Way-Wua Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies hold great promise as the next major advance in medical treatment. To enable safe, effective ex vivo culture whilst maintaining cell phenotype, growth media constituents must be carefully controlled. We have used a chemically defined mesenchymal stromal cell culture medium to investigate the influence of different preparations of human serum albumin. We examined two aspects of cell culture, growth rate as measured by population doubling time and colony forming ability which is a representative measure of the stemness of the cell population. Albumin preparations showed comparative differences in both of these criteria. Analysis of the albumin bound fatty acids also showed differences depending on the manufacturing procedure used. We demonstrated that octanoate, an additive used to stabilize albumin during pasteurization, slows growth and lowers colony forming ability during ex vivo culture. Further to this we also found the level of Na+/K+ ATPase, a membrane bound cation pump inhibited by octanoate, is increased in cells exposed to this compound. We conclude that the inclusion of human serum albumin in ex vivo growth media requires careful consideration of not only the source of albumin, but also the associated molecular cargo, for optimal cell growth and behavior.

  15. The correlation between albumin levels with 30 days mortality in community acquired pneumonia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damayanti, N.; Abidin, A.; Keliat, E. N.

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of level severity ofCommunity-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) patient at the early admission to the hospital is critical because it will determine the severity of the disease and the subsequent management of the plan. Albumin can be used as a biomarker to assess the severity of CAP. To identify the correlation between albumin level at early admission in hospital with 30-day mortality in patients with CAP. It was a cohort study. We had examined of 50 CAP subject with theCURB-65 score (Confusion, Urea, Respiratory rate, Blood pressure, Age >65years), albumin, sputum culture at the early admission at Emergency Room (ER). Then, albumin levels associated with 30-day mortality was assessed using Chi-Square test. Analysis with chi-square test found a significant correlation between albumin level with 30-day mortality (p=0.001) and Relative Risk was 2.376 (95% CI 1.515-3.723). It means that patients with CAP who has severe hypoalbuminemia have a higher risk ofdying in 30 days with 2,376 times more significant than patients with mild to moderate hypoalbuminemia. In conclusion, albumin levels at early admission in the hospital correlate with 30-day mortality in CAP patients.

  16. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baez Ramon J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  17. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon J. Baez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  18. Effects of immunizing gilts against zearalenone on height of vaginal epithelium and urinary excretion of zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougald, O A; Thulin, A J; Weldon, W C; Pestka, J J; Fogwell, R L

    1990-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to develop a vaginal epithelium bioassay for zearalenone (Z) and to determine whether immunization against Z would prevent Z mycotoxicosis. Eleven gilts were ovariectomized and allotted by weight to dietary doses of 50, 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. All doses of Z increased height of the vaginal epithelium. Height of the vaginal epithelium in gilts fed 150 or 350 micrograms Z/kg BW increased more than that in gilts fed 50 micrograms Z/kg BW. Twenty-four gilts then were ovariectomized and allotted to be immunized or not immunized. A Z-bovine serum albumin conjugate was injected into gilts to achieve immunization. Ten weeks after initial immunization, antibodies to Z were detected after a 1:10(7) dilution at greater than .1 absorbance units using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and gilts were allotted by weight to diets with no Z or 150 micrograms Z/kg BW daily for 3 d. Immunization alone had no effect on height of vaginal epithelium, but after 3 and 10 d, immunized gilts fed Z had higher vaginal epithelium than did nonimmunized gilts fed Z. Immunized gilts excreted a larger percentage of ingested Z than nonimmunized gilts did. Therefore, immunizing gilts against Z potentiated both the estrogenic effects of Z and urinary excretion of Z equivalents.

  19. Nickel Excretion in Urine after Oral Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menne, T.; Mikkelsen, H. I.; Solgaard, Per Bent

    1978-01-01

    In recent years the importance of internal exposure to nickel in patients with recurrent hand eczema and nickel allergy has become evident. The present study was performed in order to investigate the value of urinary nickel determinations as an index of oral nickel intake. After oral administration...... of 5.6 mg nickel (as the sulfate), increased nickel excretion was found over the following 2-3 days. We conclude that consecutive urinary nickel determinations are able to disclose variations in oral intake of nickel....

  20. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    OpenAIRE

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitore...

  1. The effect of ACTH upon faecal glucocorticoid excretion in the koala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Nicole; Gillett, Amber; McAlpine, Clive; Seabrook, Leonie; Baxter, Greg; Lunney, Daniel; Bradley, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Environmental changes result in physiological responses of organisms, which can adversely affect population dynamics and reduce resistance to disease. These changes are expressed in chronic levels of stress. The measurement of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations in faeces is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. The metabolism and excretion of steroids differ significantly between species and, as a consequence, non-invasive methods must be physiologically validated for each species. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are declining in numbers through much of their range. The role of chronic stress in koala populations has not been identified. Prior to the assessment of faecal GC concentrations in wild koala populations, the excretion timing and concentrations of GCs need to be determined. In this study, we assessed a method for identifying and measuring the concentrations of GC metabolites in faecal pellets of captive koalas following ACTH treatment. The results show that an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations, using sustained release of ACTH, results in elevated concentrations of faecal cortisol/cortisol metabolites. Taking into account the excretion time lag, an increase in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations corresponds to the release of GCs from the adrenal cortex as early as 36 h before faecal pellet collection. The calculations of steroid partitioning of plasma cortisol showed that the ACTH-stimulated values were significantly different from the control values for the concentrations of free, corticosteroid-binding globulin-bound and albumin-bound cortisol. This study validates the use of faecal cortisol analysis to assess the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in freshly collected koala faecal pellets and indicates that the method should be suitable to assess the adrenocortical status of koalas in wild populations.

  2. Site-selective conjugation of an anticoagulant aptamer to recombinant albumins and maintenance of neonatal Fc receptor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmøkel, Julie; Voldum, Anders; Tsakiridou, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    -life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers. This study investigates the effect of Cys34 site-selective covalent attachment......Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers, however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half...

  3. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  4. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. 125 I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom

  5. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/Mexico/2007 is atypical. PMID:23820212

  6. Decrease in urinary creatinine excretion in early stage chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tynkevich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD. We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. METHODS: We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR by (51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. RESULTS: Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3 ± 3.1 to 12.1 ± 3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20 ± 0.03 to 0.15 ± 0.04 mmol/kg/24 h in men, with mGFR falling from ≥ 60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m(2, and from 9.6 ± 1.9 to 7.6 ± 2.5 (0.16 ± 0.03 to 0.12 ± 0.03 in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53 ± 0.12 mL/min/1.73 m(2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28 ± 0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. CONCLUSIONS: Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass.

  7. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, F V; Lapsley, M; Sansom, P A; Cohen, S L

    1992-07-01

    To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive of primary glomerular disease and

  8. Bioengineered kidney tubules efficiently excrete uremic toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J; Fedecostante, M; Wilmer, M J; Peters, J G; Kreuser, U M; van den Broek, P H; Mensink, R A; Boltje, T J; Stamatialis, D; Wetzels, J F; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2016-05-31

    The development of a biotechnological platform for the removal of waste products (e.g. uremic toxins), often bound to proteins in plasma, is a prerequisite to improve current treatment modalities for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Here, we present a newly designed bioengineered renal tubule capable of active uremic toxin secretion through the concerted action of essential renal transporters, viz. organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4). Three-dimensional cell monolayer formation of human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) on biofunctionalized hollow fibers with maintained barrier function was demonstrated. Using a tailor made flow system, the secretory clearance of human serum albumin-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and kynurenic acid, as well as albumin reabsorption across the renal tubule was confirmed. These functional bioengineered renal tubules are promising entities in renal replacement therapies and regenerative medicine, as well as in drug development programs.

  9. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... of a batch of albumin solution, filtration was shown to contribute to contamination, although the largest increase in aluminium as well as nickel concentrations appeared during the bulk concentrating process. To avoid health risks to certain patients, regulations should be established requiring aluminium...

  10. Serum albumin levels predict clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikawa, Tomohiro; Shimano, Masayuki; Inden, Yasuya; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2014-01-01

    A low level of serum albumin is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with heart failure (HF). Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), a novel therapeutic option, improves cardiac performance in patients with severe HF. In addition, CKD has recently been found to be associated with outcomes after CRT; however, the associations of the serum albumin levels with adverse events and the long-term prognosis in CKD patients who have undergone CRT are unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the albumin levels can be used to the predict mortality rate and incidence of cardiovascular events in CKD patients treated with CRT. A retrospective chart review was conducted in 102 consecutive CKD patients receiving a CRT device for the treatment of advanced HF. The long-term outcomes following device implantation were assessed according to the albumin levels. During a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 34 patients (33.3%) died and 66 patients (64.7%) experienced cardiovascular events. A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the CKD patients with decreased albumin levels exhibited significantly higher rates of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events, including hospitalization for progressive HF, than the CKD patients without hypoalbuminemia. Importantly, a multivariate Cox regression analysis of confounding factors showed a low serum albumin level to independently predict all-cause death and cardiovascular events. Hypoalbuminemia independently predicts cardiac morbidity and mortality in CKD patients receiving CRT. Assessing the albumin levels provides valuable information regarding the long-term prognosis in CKD patients who undergo CRT.

  11. Alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin-induced renal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Rong; Luo, Xuan; Wu, Yan-Fang; Zhang, Tiffany; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Xin-An

    2018-02-20

    The kidney plays a major part in the elimination of many drugs and their metabolites, and drug-induced kidney injury commonly alters either glomerular filtration or tubular transport, or both. However, the renal excretion pathway of drugs has not been fully elucidated at different stages of renal injury. This study aimed to evaluate the alteration of renal excretion pathways in gentamicin (GEN)-induced renal injury in rats. Results showed that serum cystatin C, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were greatly increased by the exposure of GEN (100 mg kg -1 ), and creatinine concentration was increased by 39.7% by GEN (50 mg kg -1 ). GEN dose-dependently upregulated the protein expression of rOCT1, downregulated rOCT2 and rOAT1, but not affected rOAT2. Efflux transporters, rMRP2, rMRP4 and rBCRP expressions were significantly increased by GEN(100), and the rMATE1 level was markedly increased by GEN(50) but decreased by GEN(100). GEN(50) did not alter the urinary excretion of inulin, but increased metformin and furosemide excretion. However, GEN(100) resulted in a significant decrease of the urinary excretion of inulin, metformin and p-aminohippurate. In addition, urinary metformin excretions in vivo were significantly decreased by GEN(100), but slightly increased by GEN(50). These results suggested that GEN(50) resulted in the induction of rOCTs-rMATE1 and rOAT3-rMRPs pathway, but not changed the glomerular filtration rate, and GEN(100)-induced acute kidney injury caused the downregulated function of glomerular filtration -rOCTs-rMATE1 and -rOAT1-rMRPs pathway. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Biliary excretion of intravenous (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.; Olbe, L.

    1987-11-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion.

  13. Biliary excretion of intravenous [14C] omeprazole in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.; Olbe, L.

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of [ 14 C] omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of [ 14 C] omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted for by biliary excretion

  14. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to {sup 210}Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph [Health Canada, National Internal Radiation Assessment Section, Radiation Protection Bureau, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yusuf, Hamdi [Carleton University, Department of Chemistry, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Hamada, Nobuyuki [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, Radiation Safety Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of {sup 210}Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of {sup 210}Po. (orig.)

  15. Effects of salinity and body mass on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion of mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fujun; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of salinity and body mass on the oxygen consumption rate and ammonia excretion rate of mudskipper Boleophthalmus pectinirostris under laboratory conditions. Salinity and body mass had highly significant effects on the oxygen consumption rate ( R O) and ammonia excretion rate ( R N) ( Pbody mass on R O and R N were insignificant ( P>0.05) and highly significant ( Pbody mass increased. The relationship between R O and body mass was represented by R O = aW b ( R 2=0.956, Pbody mass of B. pectinirostris was represented by R N = cW d ( R 2=0.966, Pprotein was the secondary energy source within the salinity range 12-32. R O and R N were significantly higher at 27 than at other salinity levels. Our results suggest that the optimum salinity level for B. pectinirostris is 27.

  16. Aggregation and fibrillation of bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, NK; Jespersen, SK; Thomassen, LV

    2007-01-01

    The all-alpha helix multi-domain protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) aggregates at elevated temperatures. Here we show that these thermal aggregates have amyloid properties. They bind the fibril-specific dyes Thioflavin T and Congo Red, show elongated although somewhat worm-like morphology...

  17. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Fibrinogen adsorption on blocked surface of albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Hou, Xiaolin

    2011-01-01

    biological samples, including protein solutions. It is based on the assumption that proteins adsorbs as a monolayer on surfaces and that proteins do not adsorb on top of each other. By labelling albumin and fibrinogen with two different radioactive iodine isotopes that emit gamma radiation with different...

  19. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, I.N.; Hansen, Harald S.

    2003-01-01

    The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because a...... in aqueous compartments. - Bojesen, I. N., and H. S. Hansen. Binding of anandamide to bovine serum albumin.......The endocannabinoid anandamide is of lipid nature and may thus bind to albumin in the vascular system, as do fatty acids. The knowledge of the free water-phase concentration of anandamide is essential for the investigations of its transfer from the binding protein to cellular membranes, because...... a water-phase shuttle of monomers mediates such transfers. We have used our method based upon the use of albumin-filled red cell ghosts as a dispersed biological "reference binder" to measure the water-phase concentrations of anandamide. These concentrations were measured in buffer (pH 7.3) in equilibrium...

  20. ADSORPTION OF BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN ONTO ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the adsorption of bovine serum albumin was studied using the activated carbon prepared from Elaeagnus stone with chemical activation. Elaeagnus stone activated carbon was characterized using the point of zero charge, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller method, ...

  1. Using egg albumin foam to extinguish fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hytham A. Alsaati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil, coal and chemical fires are often difficult to put out using water. In certain hydrocarbon fires, protein foam can extinguish fires better than water by keeping air (oxygen away from the flames and by ''blowing'' the flame away from its fuel source. Egg albumin is a relatively inexpensive protein and is representative of foaming proteins, which are candidates for use as fire suppression agents. This paper begins to deal with the effect of the foam bulk pH, foam protein concentration and generating air flow rate into the foam on the fire extinguishing time in laboratory experiments. A Bunsen burner was used to generate a small, controlled laboratory fire within a plastic container, which represented a point source in a partially open room in the experiments. The Bunsen burner represents a gaseous hydrocarbon fire, which can be difficult to extinguish. Both a low pH foam and one made with a high air flow rate favor a reduction in time required to put out the Bunsen burner flame.Chamas produzidas por óleo, carvão e produtos químicos (incêndios provocados são difíceis de ser extinguidos com água. Algumas chamas de hidrocarbonetos podem ser extinguidas por espumas protéicas melhor do que a manutenção de ar (oxigênio fora do alcance das chamas ou pelo sopramento da chama para longe da sua fonte. Albumina de ovo é uma proteína relativamente barata e é representativa dentre as proteínas usadas como espuma para a (supressão extinção de agentes causadores de incêndio. Este artigo trata do estudo do efeito do pH e concentração da espuma protéica, além da geração de ar no interior da espuma, sobre o tempo de extinção de incêndio em experimentos laboratoriais. Nos experimentos um bico de Bunsen foi usado para gerar uma pequena chama, controlada em um container de plástico, representando uma fonte pontual em um ambiente parcialmente aberto. A chama do bico de Bunsen representa uma chama gasosa de hidrocarbonetos, que são dif

  2. Urinary calcium excretion in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, E W; Morris, C D; McCarron, D A

    1992-10-01

    Patients with essential hypertension have been reported to have higher levels of urinary calcium excretion (UCaV) than normotensive persons. We tested the hypothesis that the calciuria of hypertension is due to dietary factors and evaluated several alternate mechanisms. UCaV was studied in 15 patients with essential hypertension compared with 16 age- and gender-matched normotensive control subjects. For subjects taking self-selected, free-living diets, the difference in UCaV between normotensive (130 +/- 14 mg/day) and hypertensive subjects (201 +/- 37 mg/day) was not significant (p = 0.1). However, in a controlled diet with moderately restricted sodium intake (88 mEq), urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in the hypertensive than in the normotensive group receiving 400 mg calcium (204 +/- 25 vs 132 +/- 13 mg/day) and 1400 mg calcium (272 +/- 31 vs 187 +/- 25 mg/day). Twenty-four-hour UCaV was directly and significantly correlated with blood pressure (r = 0.63 for standing systolic blood pressure; p UCaV (0.12 +/- 0.11 vs 0.12 +/- 0.07 mg per 100 ml glomerular filtration) and serum ionized calcium level (0.06 +/- 0.08 vs 0.06 +/- 0.02 mmol/L) in normotensive and hypertensive subjects, respectively, suggesting that there was no difference in intestinal calcium absorption between the groups. Fasting UCaV did not differ between the hypertensive (8.9 +/- 4.5 mg per 2 hours) and normotensive groups (10.9 +/- 11.5 mg per 2 hours).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Ezetimibe Increases Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Racette, Susan B; Ma, Lina; Wallendorf, Michael; Ostlund, Richard E

    2017-05-01

    Ezetimibe improves cardiovascular outcomes when added to optimum statin treatment. It lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and percent intestinal cholesterol absorption, but the exact cardioprotective mechanism is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the dominant effect of ezetimibe is to increase the reverse transport of cholesterol from rapidly mixing endogenous cholesterol pool into the stool. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind parallel trial in 24 healthy subjects with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 100 to 200 mg/dL, we measured cholesterol metabolism before and after a 6-week treatment period with ezetimibe 10 mg/d or placebo. Plasma cholesterol was labeled by intravenous infusion of cholesterol-d 7 in a lipid emulsion and dietary cholesterol with cholesterol-d 5 and sitostanol-d 4 solubilized in oil. Plasma and stool samples collected during a cholesterol- and phytosterol-controlled metabolic kitchen diet were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Ezetimibe reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption efficiency 30±4.3% (SE, P <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 19.8±1.9% ( P =0.0001). Body cholesterol pool size was unchanged, but fecal endogenous cholesterol excretion increased 66.6±12.2% ( P <0.0001) and percent cholesterol excretion from body pools into the stool increased 74.7±14.3% ( P <0.0001), whereas plasma cholesterol turnover rose 26.2±3.6% ( P =0.0096). Fecal bile acids were unchanged. Ezetimibe increased the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport from rapidly mixing plasma and tissue pools into the stool. Further work is needed to examine the potential relation of reverse cholesterol transport and whole body cholesterol metabolism to coronary events and the treatment of atherosclerosis. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01603758. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. The impact of anti hypertensive drug groups on urinary albumin excretion in a non-diabetic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monster, TBM; Janssen, WMT; de Jong, PE; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW

    Aims Microalbuminuria (30-300 mg 24 h(-1)) is recognized to be independently associated with renal and cardiovascular risk. Antihypertensives may lower microalbuminuria. We questioned whether the use of different anti hypertensive drug classes in general practice influences microalbuminuria as

  5. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  6. Bilary and urinary excretion of five cardiac glycosides and its correlation with their physical and chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, A; Ghirardi, P

    1977-05-01

    Biliary and urinary excretion of five tritium-labelled cardiac glycosides, i.e. Ouabain, K-strophanthoside, Digoxin, Digitoxin and Deslanatoside C, were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs 5 h after i.v. or enteral administration. Urinary excretion is the main route of elimination in the case of Ouabain and Deslanatoside C. Conversely, biliary excretion is predominant in the case of Digoxin and Digitoxin. K-strophanthoside is excreted both via bile and urine. In conscious guinea-pigs treated i.v. with the same cardiac glycosides the highest levels were observed in urine, bile, kidneys and liver. The relative values of those levels were in agreement with the excretion pattern observed in anaesthetized animals. An inverse linear relation (P less than 0.05) was encountered between biliary excretion rate and polarity of glycoside molecula. This correlation has been previously observed by other authors in other species, but not in the rabbit. This suggests that the correlation may not be considered generally applicable at present.

  7. Ingestion of chromium(VI) in drinking water by human volunteers: Absorption, distribution, and excretion of single and repeated doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerger, B.D.; Corbett, G.E.; Dodge, D.G. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Irvine, CA (United States); Finley, B.L.; Paustenbach, D.J. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Alameda, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the magnitude of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] absorption, distribution, and excretion following oral exposure to 5 and 10 mg Cr(VI)/L in drinking water administered as a single bolus dose or for 3 d at a dosage of 1 L/d. Adult male volunteers were used. In the bolus dose studies, a fairly consistent pattern of urinary chromium excretion was observed, with an average half life of about 39 h. However, 4-d total urinary chromium excretion and peak concentrations in urine and blood varied considerably among the 5 volunteers. Studies of repeated exposure to small volumes ingested at a more gradual rate showed similar urinary chromium excretion patterns but generally lower chromium uptake/excretion. These data suggest that virtually all of the ingested Cr(VI) at 5 and 10 mg Cr(VI)/L was reduced to Cr(III) before entering the bloodstream. The interindividual differences in total chromium uptake and excretion are plausibly explained by ingestion of appreciable doses on an empty stomach, likely results in the formation of well-absorbed Cr(III) organic complexes. No clinical indications of toxicity in the volunteers and the patterns of blood uptake and urinary excretion of chromium are consistent with a predominant uptake of Cr(III) organic complexes that are excreted more slowly than inorganic forms of Cr(III). Therefore, it appears that the endogenous reducing agents within the upper gastrointestinal tract and the blood provide sufficient reducing potential to prevent any substantial systemic uptake of Cr(VI) following drinking-water exposures at 5-10 mg Cr(VI)/L. Based on these data, the chemical environment in the gastrointestinal tract and the blood is effective even under relative fasting condition in reducing Cr(VI) to one or more forms of Cr(III). 54 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. HEPATIC ENDOCYTOSIS OF VARIOUS TYPES OF MANNOSE-TERMINATED ALBUMINS - WHAT IS IMPORTANT, SUGAR RECOGNITION, NET CHARGE, OR THE COMBINATION OF THESE FEATURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, RW; MOLEMA, G; CHING, TL; HARMS, G; MOOLENAAR, F; HARDONK, MJ; MEIJER, DKF

    1991-01-01

    We synthesized several para-aminophenyl (pap-) mannose-terminated albumins with varying sugar density (Man7-HSA, Man22-HSA, and Man40-HSA) and compared hepatic uptake with (thio-)mannose-terminated bovine serum albumin (Man-43-AI-BSA) The rate of uptake in isolated perfused rat livers was found to

  9. The role of the transition between neutral and basic forms of human serum albumin in the kinetics of the binding to warfarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, J.M.H.; Bakker, G.; Wilting, J.

    1982-01-01

    Between pH 6 and 9 in the kinetics of the binding of warfarin to human serum albumin a two-step mechanism operates: a diffusion-controlled step, followed by a much slower step during which the stable warfarin-albumin complex is formed. The association rate constant for the formation of the

  10. Composition comprising radioactive labeled-fibrinogen and albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Gravett, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of fibrinogen is improved by mixing it with albumin, preferably at least 5 parts by weight of albumin per part by weight of fibrinogen. By this invention, iodinated ( 125 I) human fibrinogen can be stabilized with human serum albumin for use in the diagnosis of thrombi

  11. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobin......, etc. Binding to serum albumin appears to be non-saturable. Udgivelsesdato: 1984-Feb...

  12. Increased biliary excretion of glutathione is generated by the glutathione-dependent hepatobiliary transport of antimony and bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyurasics, A; Koszorús, L; Varga, F; Gregus, Z

    1992-10-06

    excretion rates, these metalloids generate increased biliary excretion of GSH probably because they are transported from liver to bile as unstable GSH complexes. The significant loss of hepatic GSH into bile as induced by arsenic or antimony may compromise conjugation of xenobiotics with GSH.

  13. Purine derivative excretion and microbial protein synthesis in sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment, urinary excretions of purine derivatives (allantoin N, Uric acid N, Xanthine + Hypoxanthine N) were measured and used to estimate microbial N yield in 9 sheep fed roughage- based diet supplemented with 0, 150 and 300g DM grass silage respectively. Daily urinary excretions of ...

  14. Excretal Near Infrared Reflectance Spectrometry to monitor the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding systems in which young ostriches feed on pasture but have access to concentrates provide better welfare than confined systems but are sustainable only if nutrition is carefully controlled. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of "excretal NIRS", a methodology that associates excretal spectral ...

  15. Plasma proteins production and excretion in diabetic nephropathy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic renal disease and a major cause of cardiovascular mortality in both developed and developing countries. In type II diabetes patients with normoalbuminuria, fibrinogen production is increased, whereas that of albumin is normal. It is not known whether hepatic albumin ...

  16. Bioavailability and poultry fecal excretion of phosphorus from soybean-based diets supplemented with phytase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Almeida Brandão Martins

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Five hundred and four 1-day-old Cobb broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 18 treatments and fed a semi-purified basal diet (4 g/kg total phosphorus supplemented with 2 levels of supplemental P (0.5 or 1 g/kg during 21 days to evaluate performance and bone mineralization; to assess the relative bioavailability of P (RBP in wheat meal (WM and roasted (RS or extruded soybean meal (ES, with or without phytase (0 or 750 ftu/kg diet, using dicalcium phosphate (DC as standard; and to estimate phosphorus excretion. Weight gain (WG, feed intake (FI, feed to gain ratio (FG, and tibia ash weigh (AW were assessed. For each source, the RBP was calculated by the slope ratio method, when tibia ash weight was regressed on P ingested. Ingested and fecal P was determined to calculate P intake, and P excretion and excretion rate. Phytase addition increased overall FI, WG, and FG ratio by 3.3, 2.6 and 0.8%, respectively, but differences were not significant. Overall AW was increased by 10.8% after the enzyme inclusion in the diets. The relative bioavailability of phosphorus values of tested WM, RS, and ES were increased by 6.32, 64.32, 76.99%, respectively, in response to supplementation of phytase in diets containing WM, RS, and ES, respectively. Phytase reduced P excretion by 12.7% and the excretion rate by 15.0%, regardless of the phosphorus source or level.

  17. Mitochondrial oxidative stress activates COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade induced by albumin in renal proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yibo; Wang, Chenhu; Wu, Chunfeng; Ding, Dan; Zhao, Fei; Hu, Caiyu; Gong, Wei; Ding, Guixia; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Lihong; Yang, Guangrui; Zhu, Chunhua; Zhang, Aihua; Jia, Zhanjun; Huang, Songming

    2018-02-06

    COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade is of importance in the pathogenesis of kidney injury. Meanwhile, recent studies documented a detrimental role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in kidney diseases. The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in albumin-induced activation of COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade in renal proximal tubular cells. Following albumin overload in mice, we observed a significant increase of oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormality determined by transmission electron microscope, which was attenuated by the administration of MnTBAP, a mitochondrial SOD2 mimic. More interestingly, albumin overload-induced upregulation of COX-2 and mPGES-1 at mRNA and protein levels was largely abolished by MnTBAP treatment in mice. Meanwhile, urinary PGE2 excretion was also blocked by MnTBAP treatment. Furthermore, mouse proximal tubule epithelial cells (mPTCs) were treated with albumin. Similarly, COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade was significantly activated by albumin in dose- and time-dependent manners, which was abolished by MnTBAP treatment in parallel with a blockade of oxidative stress. Collectively, the findings from current study demonstrated that mitochondrial oxidative stress could activate COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 cascade in proximal tubular cells under the proteinuria condition. Mitochondrial oxidative stress/COX-2/mPGES-1/PGE2 could serve as the important targets for the treatment of proteinuria-associated kidney injury.

  18. Tc-99m MAG3 excretion in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.; Marcus, V.; Herbst, S.; De Klerk, F.; Rubow, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The calculation of the urinary excretory index of patients has been an integral part of the diuresis renography done with Tc-99m DTPA (Pentetate) at Tygerberg Hospital. The value of twenty percent was accepted as normal. Since most renograms are now done with Tc-99m MAG3, normal values of urinary excretion of Tc-99m MAG3 should be available, but nothing was found in the literature. Objectives: 1. To determine whether renography reports can be used to predict normal values of MAG3 excretion in urine during diuresis renography 2. To investigate if there is a relationship between the age of the patient and the urinary excretory index 3. To compare excretory index in patients who had both DTPA and MAG3 studies. Methods: Renography reports and excretion values of diuresis renograms performed during a 15-month period were retrospectively reviewed. According to renogram reports, the patients were classified as normal or abnormal. Where possible, plasma creatinine values were obtained for patients In the normal group. MAG3 excretion values were studied in relation to age, creatinine values and DTPA excretion in those patients who had studies with both agents. Average values and ranges were compared for MAG3 excretion of the normal and abnormal groups. Statistical methods included linear regression and student's t test. Results: One hundred patients data were reviewed; age range 3 to 90 years. The MAG3 normal group included 36 patients. Plasma creatinine values were obtained for 14 patients. There was no correlation between MAG3 excretion and age (r=0.1). Average MAG3 excretion for cases reported as normal was 62.6 + 19.6% and for abnormal studies 51.0 + 21.6%. As plasma creatinine increased, MAG3 excretion decreased (correlation coefficient 0.77). Six patients had studies with both DTPA and MAG3. In this limited group, the correlation coefficient between DTPA excretion and MAG3 excretion was 0.67. Conclusion: This retrospective study demonstrates

  19. Time profile of abamectin and doramectin excretion and degradation in sheep faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, Lucija; Flajs, Vesna Cerkvenik; Kuzner, Jernej; Marc, Irena; Pogacnik, Milan; Bidovec, Andrej; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Erzen, Nevenka Kozuh

    2006-01-01

    We studied abamectin and doramectin excretion and their degradation in sheep faeces under field conditions on pasture after a single subcutaneous dose (0.2 mg/kg body weight). In the excretion experiment, maximal abamectin concentration (1277 ng/g dry faeces) was detected on day 3, while doramectin concentration showed two peaks (2186 and 1780 ng/g dry faeces on days 2 and 5, respectively). Both avermectins were excreted at approximately the same rate (k = 0.23 day -1 for abamectin and 0.19 day -1 for doramectin). In the field, a rapid loss of abamectin and doramectin from sheep faeces was seen during the first 32 days after which concentrations remained constant at approximately 77 ng/g and 300 ng/g, respectively. The half life values (DT 5 ) for abamectin and doramectin dissipation from sheep faeces were 23 and 22 days, respectively, during the first 32 days. Dissipation of both avermectins was strongly correlated with moisture content of the faeces. - Abamectin and doramectin show similar excretion and degradation behaviour in sheep faeces

  20. The Effect of Glucose on Urinary Cation Excretion during Chronic Extracellular Volume Expansion in Normal Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Edward J.; Lemann, J.; Piering, W. F.; Larson, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Both glucose administration and extracellular volume expansion augment urinary calcium and magnesium excretion. While volume expansion also augments sodium excretion, glucose induces an antinatriuresis. To examine the interrelationships of volume expansion and of glucose administration on sodium, calcium, and magnesium excretion, the effects of glucose were evaluated during clearance studies in the same subjects before and after chronic extracellular volume expansion produced by desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) and a normal dietary sodium intake. The augmentation of UCaV and UMgV by glucose was simply additive to the increments in divalent cation excretion caused by “escape” from the sodium-retaining effects of DOCA. Glucose administration reduced UNaV, an effect exaggerated after DOCA escape and associated with reductions in volume/glomerular filtration rate (V/GFR) and CNa + CH2O/GFR, suggesting augmented proximal tubular reabsorption. Before glucose, UNa was inversely correlated with UG, and after glucose administration CNa/GFR was inversely correlated with TG/GFR. We propose that the availability of glucose in the proximal tubule stimulates Na reabsorption while delaying development of a chloride diffusion potential, thereby inhibiting tubular reabsorption of Ca and Mg. PMID:4825233

  1. Partition of nitrogen excretion in urine and the feces of holstein replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, J C; Van Amburgh, M E

    2005-05-01

    Increasing public concern has been focused on animal production systems as a major nonpoint source of pollution. These studies were conducted to further our understanding of whole-animal N metabolism, N excretion, and its partition between feces and urine in growing dairy heifers. Isocaloric diets [2.31 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg of dry matter (DM)], ranging from 12.4 to 34.2 g of N/kg of DM, were fed to Holstein heifers in 2 experiments at approximately 1.8 times maintenance. Diets were formulated to provide 54 to 143% of the ruminal ammonia requirements as predicted by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System. Increasing the N content of the diet increased urinary N excretion and N balance, but did not affect fecal N excretion. Holstein heifers fed low N diets were able to maintain growth rates consistent with current recommendations while at the same time reducing N excretion, in particular nitrogenous compounds that are readily converted to ammonia. However, more research is needed before this type of diet is recommended for growing heifers because of possible changes in body composition that may affect future milk production and performance.

  2. Urinary excretion of furosemide in rats with HgCl sub 2 -induced acute renal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Akio; Sudoh, Toshiaki; Ohashi, Kyoichi; Ebihara, Akio (Jichi Medical School, Tochigi (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To examine the influence of mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2})-induced acute renal damage on urinary excretion of furosemide, HgCl{sub 2} or its vehicle along was given intraperitoneally to Wistar rats. The following two experiments were done. Study 1: three percent body weight (b.w.) of 1% NaCl solution or furosemide in 3% b.w. of 1% NaCl solution was given orally before and after HgCl{sub 2} treatment, and an 8-hour urine was collected. Study 2: furosemide was given orally, and blood samples were obtained at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 hours after administration. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase increased, and urine volume and urinary excretions of furosemide and sodium decreased in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats. There were significant correlations between the urinary furosemide and its diuretic effects. Regression lines after HgCl{sub 2} were significantly different from those before treatment. The values of absorption as well as elimination rate constant were smaller, while the time to maximum concentration and the elimination half-life were longer in the HgCl{sub 2}-treated rats compared to vehicle-treated animals. These results suggest that the urinary excretion of furosemide and the responsiveness of renal tubular cells to this agent are impaired in rats with HgCl{sub 2}-induced acute renal damage.

  3. Amphetamine enantiomer excretion profile following administration of Adderall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, John T; Valtier, Sandra; Nelson, Stephen L

    2003-10-01

    results are the first to describe the excretion of amphetamine following administration of Adderall. The presence of the l-enantiomer separates this drug from other preparations of the drug that are composed of only the d-enantiomer (i.e., dexedrine and much illicit amphetamine), thus readily differentiating them from Adderall use. Some illicit and medicinal amphetamine is, however, a mixture of amphetamine enantiomers. Because the enantiomers are metabolized at different rates, their proportion offers the opportunity to describe excretion versus time. Coupling this data with drug concentration makes it possible for forensic toxicologists and MROs to come to an informed decision about the involvement of this drug in a positive drug test result. Using the combination of enantiomer composition and quantitative data will allow MROs and forensic toxicologists to better assess the use of this drug from abuse of amphetamine.

  4. Profiling the Serum Albumin Cys34 Adductome of Solid Fuel Users in Xuanwei and Fuyuan, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Sixin S; Grigoryan, Hasmik; Edmands, William M B; Hu, Wei; Iavarone, Anthony T; Hubbard, Alan E.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Lan, Qing; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in China have the highest lung cancer rates in the world due to household air pollution from combustion of smoky coal for cooking and heating. To discover potential biomarkers of indoor combustion products, we profiled adducts at the Cys34 locus of human serum albumin

  5. Palmitate and stearate binding to human serum albumin. Determination of relative binding constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Fisker, K; Honoré, B

    1997-01-01

    Multiple binding equilibria of two apparently insoluble ligands, palmitate and stearate, to defatted human serum albumin were studied in a 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37 degrees C, by determination of dialytic exchange rates of ligands among identical equilibrium solutions...

  6. Kinetics of the Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumin of White Wine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the kinetics of adsorption of bovine serum albumin, BSA, in white wine model solutions onto activated carbon, AC, and alumina, AL. Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models were applied to determine the rate and mechanism of adsorption of the white wine protein during the haze removal ...

  7. Serum albumin concentration and clinical assessments of nutritional status in hospitalized older people: different sides of different coins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covinsky, Kenneth E; Covinsky, Michael H; Palmer, Robert M; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2002-04-01

    Malnutrition is common in hospitalized older people, and some have advocated routine nutritional screening. Serum albumin and clinically based measures such as the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) are two potential methods of assessing nutritional status in hospitalized older people. Although both measures are strongly associated with prognosis, it is not clear whether they measure similar or different clinical constructs. Our goal was to assess the degree of clinical concordance between these measures. Cross-sectional study. The inpatient medical service of a university teaching hospital. Three hundred eleven older (aged > or =70) patients. We independently measured serum albumin and performed the SGA on 311 older medical patients (aged > or =70) shortly after hospital admission. The SGA classified patients as well nourished, moderately malnourished (generally 5% weight loss with mild examination findings), or severely malnourished (generally >10% weight loss with marked findings) based on findings from a directed history and examination. We compared the distribution of clinical rating in patients with differing albumin levels and examined diagnostic test characteristics of albumin as a predictor of malnutrition as diagnosed on clinical examination. The mean age of subjects was 79.9; 64% were women, 42% were African American. Discordance between albumin and the SGA was common. For example, 38% of patients with albumin levels of 4.0 g/dL or higher were at least moderately malnourished on the SGA, whereas 28% of patients with albumin levels lower than 3.0 g/dL were rated as well nourished. No choice of albumin level was associated with simultaneously acceptable sensitivity and specificity as a predictor of SGA ratings. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for albumin level as a predictor of SGA rating was 0.58, suggesting that the ability of either measure to predict the other measure is only marginally better than chance. Albumin levels and

  8. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    nucleic acids and lipid) being excreted. Oddly, the highest quality food resources (low C:N and C:P ratios) lead to the greatest excretion of N and P nutrients in healthy organisms with high metabolic rates. This suggestion is borne out by the spatial distribution of QM excretion rates in transects across seamount-like bathymetric features in south-central Lake Michigan. On the upstream side and plateaus of Northeast and Sheboygan Reefs, where freshly advected bottom water flows across mussel communities, excretion rates in summer 2013 varied around 0.8 and 30 nmol/animal/hr (HPO4= and NH4+ respectively) for robust young adult mussels 15-20mm in length. On the downstream slope, where particles are likely reprocessed several times, nutritional quality and excretion rates were lower, especially for NH4+. Inshore shallow stations have similar rates to upstream nutrient-sufficient populations. Excretion size spectrum regressions combined with population size frequency analyses enable estimation of areal flux. N:P excretion ratios (30-40) are greater than Redfield, and consistent with growing animals nearing their late summer spawning effort. Several years of trophic gradient transects for mussel excretion, and pre- vs. post-QM porewater profiles will support these conclusions.

  9. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion, mortality, and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Wang, Xingyu; Liu, Lisheng; Yan, Hou; Lee, Shun Fu; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Diaz, Rafael; Avezum, Alvaro; Lanas, Fernando; Yusoff, Khalid; Iqbal, Romaina; Ilow, Rafal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Gulec, Sadi; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Kruger, Lanthe; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Kabali, Conrad; Dagenais, Gilles; Lear, Scott A; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    The optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health is controversial. We obtained morning fasting urine samples from 101,945 persons in 17 countries and estimated 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion (used as a surrogate for intake). We examined the association between estimated urinary sodium and potassium excretion and the composite outcome of death and major cardiovascular events. The mean estimated sodium and potassium excretion was 4.93 g per day and 2.12 g per day, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, the composite outcome occurred in 3317 participants (3.3%). As compared with an estimated sodium excretion of 4.00 to 5.99 g per day (reference range), a higher estimated sodium excretion (≥ 7.00 g per day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.30), as well as increased risks of death and major cardiovascular events considered separately. The association between a high estimated sodium excretion and the composite outcome was strongest among participants with hypertension (P=0.02 for interaction), with an increased risk at an estimated sodium excretion of 6.00 g or more per day. As compared with the reference range, an estimated sodium excretion that was below 3.00 g per day was also associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (odds ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.44). As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was associated with a reduced risk of the composite outcome. In this study in which sodium intake was estimated on the basis of measured urinary excretion, an estimated sodium intake between 3 g per day and 6 g per day was associated with a lower risk of death and cardiovascular events than was either a higher or lower estimated level of intake. As compared with an estimated potassium excretion that was less than 1.50 g per day, higher potassium excretion was

  10. New horizon in dialysis depuration: Characterization of a polysulfone membrane able to break the 'albumin wall'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuoghi, A; Caiazzo, M; Monari, E; Bellei, E; Bergamini, S; Sereni, L; Aucella, F; Loschiavo, C; Atti, M; Tomasi, A

    2015-05-01

    The uremic syndrome is attributed to the progressive retention of a large number of toxins, which under normal conditions are excreted by the healthy kidneys. Standard dialytic membranes do not purify middle-high molecular weight toxins. Haemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion coupled with a highly permeable membrane could break the limit of the 'albumin wall' improving the dialytic depuration without loss of important nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new polysulfone membrane, Synclear 0.2, to remove uremic molecules. Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight was employed to evaluate the proteomic profile of ultrafiltrate and Electrospray Ionization-Quadruple-ToF coupled with on-chip elution was used for proteins identification. A high and specific permeability for middle-high molecular weight molecules was revealed by mass spectrometry for the investigated membrane. The identified proteins are mostly uremic toxins: their relative abundance, estimated in the ultrafiltrate by exponentially modified protein abundance index, showed a high purification efficiency of the new membrane when compared with conventional ones. In conclusion, Synclear 0.2, used as convective membrane in hemodiafiltration with endogenous reinfusion treatment, permits to break the 'albumin wall', clearing middle-high molecular weight uremic toxins, improving the dialytic treatment purification efficiency. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  12. Reduced transcapillary escape of albumin during acute blood pressure-lowering in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Kastrup, J; Smidt, U M

    1985-01-01

    The effect of acute arterial blood pressure lowering upon albumin extravasation was studied in 10 patients with nephropathy and retinopathy due to long-standing Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. The following variables were measured: transcapillary escape rate of albumin (initial disappearance...... induced the following changes: arterial blood pressure decreased from 134/87 to 107/73 mmHg (p less than 0.01), transcapillary escape rate of albumin declined from 8.1 to 6.7% of the intravascular mass of albumin/h (p less than 0.01), albuminuria diminished from 1434 to 815 micrograms/min (p less than 0.......01), and plasma volume raised slightly from 2916 to 2995 ml (p less than 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that the enhanced albumin passage through the wall of the microvasculature characteristically found in long-term Type 1 diabetic patients with clinical microangiopathy is pressure-dependent to a large extent...

  13. The effect of Cerasus avium stalk extract on albumin glycation reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Abdoli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-enzymatic glycosylation of proteins is the major cause of diabetic complications. The inhibition of glycation process can reduce complications of diabetes. In the Iranian traditional medicine, the decoction (boiled extraction of Cerasus avium stalk is used as a hypoglycemic agent. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of decoction and ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cerasus avium stalk on albumin glycation reaction. Methods: In this experimental study, first, the ethanolic, aqueous and decoction extracts of Cerasus avium stalk were prepared. Then, different concentrations of these extracts were prepared and added to albumin and glucose solutions. Finally, compared to control group that was not treated with any extracts, the albumin glycation rate in the groups treated with various concentrations of extracts was evaluated using TBA (thio-barbituric acid method. Results: The results showed that compared to control group, decoction of Cerasus avium stalk in the concentrations of 20, 10 and 2 mg/dl could reduce albumin glycation to 85.10±1.55, 72.35±1.75 and 51.25±1.22 %, respectively (P>0.001. Moreover, in the concentration of 20 mg/dl, the inhibitory effect of decoction of Cerasus avium stalk on the albumin glycation reaction was higher than those of aqueous (P=0.021 and ethanolic (P=0.009 extracts. Conclusion: The findings showed that the extracs of Cerasus avium stalk, in particular in the decoction form, could significantly reduce the rate of albumin glycation; therefore, it can be used for decreasing diabetes mellitus complications.

  14. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  15. On the structural formation of albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shishpor, I. V.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.

    2017-09-01

    A microstructural analysis of the human serum albumin (HSA) samples dehydrated on a glass substrate from solutions with different concentrations of protein has been performed. The structuring effect of salt (NaCl) on the variations in the morphology of HSA interfaces has been shown experimentally. The substantiation of some structural effects has been given by taking into consideration the supramolecular organization and the polyelectrolyte nature of the protein molecule.

  16. Albumin-associated free fatty acids induce macropinocytosis in podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun-Jae; Huber, Tobias B.; Gödel, Markus; Jarad, George; Hartleben, Björn; Kwoh, Christopher; Keil, Alexander; Karpitskiy, Aleksey; Hu, Jiancheng; Huh, Christine J.; Cella, Marina; Gross, Richard W.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Shaw, Andrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells in the kidney glomerulus that play important structural and functional roles in maintaining the filtration barrier. Nephrotic syndrome results from a breakdown of the kidney filtration barrier and is associated with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and edema. Additionally, podocytes undergo changes in morphology and internalize plasma proteins in response to this disorder. Here, we used fluid-phase tracers in murine models and determined that podocytes actively internalize fluid from the plasma and that the rate of internalization is increased when the filtration barrier is disrupted. In cultured podocytes, the presence of free fatty acids (FFAs) associated with serum albumin stimulated macropinocytosis through a pathway that involves FFA receptors, the Gβ/Gγ complex, and RAC1. Moreover, mice with elevated levels of plasma FFAs as the result of a high-fat diet were more susceptible to Adriamycin-induced proteinuria than were animals on standard chow. Together, these results support a model in which podocytes sense the disruption of the filtration barrier via FFAs bound to albumin and respond by enhancing fluid-phase uptake. The response to FFAs may function in the development of nephrotic syndrome by amplifying the effects of proteinuria. PMID:25915582

  17. Fatty acid and drug binding to a low-affinity component of human serum albumin, purified by affinity chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorum, H; Pedersen, A O; Honoré, B

    1992-01-01

    Binding equilibria for decanoate to a defatted, commercially available human serum albumin preparation were investigated by dialysis exchange rate determinations. The binding isotherm could not be fitted by the general binding equation. It was necessary to assume that the preparation was a mixture...... of two albumin components about 40% of the albumin having high affinity and about 60% having low affinity. By affinity chromatography we succeeded in purifying the low-affinity component from the mixture. The high-affinity component, however, could not be isolated. We further analyzed the fatty acid...... and drug binding abilities of the low-affinity component. The fatty acids decanoate, laurate, myristate and palmitate were bound with higher affinity to the mixture than to the low-affinity component. Diazepam was bound with nearly the same affinity to the low-affinity component as to the albumin mixture...

  18. Transmission of classical swine fever virus depends on the clinical course of infection which is associated with high and low levels of virus excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weesendorp, Eefke; Backer, Jantien; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie

    2011-01-27

    Infection with moderately virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) can lead to different courses of disease: either (sub)acute, resulting in death or recovery, or chronic disease. The virus excretion dynamics between these courses are quite dissimilar, but it is not known if this also results in differences in virus transmission. In this study, the excretion and transmission dynamics of the moderately virulent Paderborn strain were studied in 15 one-to-one experiments. In these experiments, a single inoculated pig was housed with a single susceptible contact pig from day 1 post-inoculation (p.i.). Each contact pig that became infected was removed and replaced by a new contact pig at day 17 p.i. and day 26 p.i. Infection of contact pigs was monitored by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR on oropharyngeal fluid samples. Five of the inoculated pigs developed the chronic form or died during the acute phase (high excreting pigs), while 10 pigs recovered from the infection (low excreting pigs). In the first contact period, there was no significant difference in virus excretion between the high and low excreting pigs, while in the second and third contact period, high excreting pigs excreted significantly higher quantities of virus. Over the entire study period, the reproduction ratio differed significantly between the high (143 [56.3-373]) and low excreting pigs (23.1 [11.5-45.0]). This indicates the importance of high excreting pigs in transmission of CSFV. Furthermore, this study showed the rate of CSFV infections from a contaminated environment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements.

  20. Urinary excretion of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone as an index of CYP2E1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreisbach, A W; Ferencz, N; Hopkins, N E; Fuentes, M G; Rege, A B; George, W J; Lertora, J J

    1995-11-01

    To determine whether the urinary excretion of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone is an index of CYP2E1 activity in vivo. Male volunteers (n = 27; age range, 17 to 36 years) who were abstinent from alcohol were studied. Chlorzoxazone, 500 mg, was given orally and plasma was collected at 31/2, 41/2, 51/2, and 61/2 hours after dosing. Urine was collected for 8 hours. Ten volunteers participated in full kinetic studies to define the absorption phase and plasma area under the concentration-time curve of chlorzoxazone and the urinary kinetics of the 6-hydroxy metabolite. Chlorzoxazone and the 6-hydroxy metabolite were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. CYP2E1 activity was expressed as a hydroxylation index (HI = mmole oral chlorzoxazone dose/mmole 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone in 8-hour urine). There was a significant positive correlation between plasma elimination rate constant for chlorzoxazone (Ke) and urinary excretion of the metabolite (n = 27, r = 0.42, p < 0.03) and a significant negative correlation between plasma Ke and HI (n = 27, r = -0.41, p < 0.04). The mean absorption rate constant for chlorzoxazone of 3.11 +/- 4.67 hr-1 was fivefold greater than the plasma Ke of 0.57 +/- 0.17 hr-1 for the full kinetic studies. The formation clearance of the 6-hydroxy metabolite was negative between plasma Ke of the parent compound and disposition rate constant for urinary excretion of the 6-hydroxy metabolite (n = 15, r = 0.85, p < 0.0001). The urinary excretion of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone is limited by formation rate and may be useful as an in vivo probe of CYP2E1 activity.

  1. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181....... It needs to be emphasized however, that repeated blood sampling for 1/2 hour after injection of the tracer is required to correct for the disappearance of (99m)Tc and (99m)Tc-HSA from the circulation....

  2. Anion exchange fractionation of serum proteins versus albumin elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahab, Ziad J; Iczkowski, Kenneth A; Sang, Qing-Xiang Amy

    2007-09-01

    Elimination of albumin, constituting more than 50% of total serum proteins, allows increased protein loads on immobilized pH gradient (IPG) gels and better visualization of low-abundance proteins; however, it may result in the loss of albumin-bound low-abundance proteins. In this study, we report the prefractionation of serum proteins by batch anion exchange chromatography into three fractions: one containing proteins with isoelectric points (pI values) higher than the pI of albumin, a second fraction containing proteins with pI values in the same range as the pI of albumin, and a third fraction containing proteins with pI values lower than the pI of albumin. This procedure uses common instrumentation, is carried out under denaturing conditions, and takes less than 30min. We also report the loss of a clinically established prostate cancer serum biomarker, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), after albumin is eliminated using two commercially available albumin elimination kits: one that uses Cibacron Blue F3GA, which achieves albumin depletion through dye-ligand binding, and one that uses specific albumin antibody. The loss of PSA secondary to albumin elimination exceeded that after batch anion exchange serum sample prefractionation.

  3. A synergistic effect of albumin and H₂O₂ accelerates corrosion of Ti6Al4V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Addison, Owen; Davenport, Alison J

    2015-10-01

    The synergistic effect of albumin and H2O2 on corrosion of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V in physiological saline was investigated with long-term immersion tests and electrochemical methods. It was found that in the presence of both albumin and H2O2, the rate of metal release in immersion tests was far higher than in the presence of either species alone. Electrochemical polarisation curves and potentiostatic tests showed that H2O2 increased both the rates of the anodic and cathodic reactions, whilst albumin significantly decreased the rate of the cathodic reaction and slightly decreased the rate of the anodic reaction. The synergistic effect of albumin and H2O2 during immersion tests was attributed to the effect of adsorption of albumin in lowering the rate of the cathodic reaction and thus lowering the open circuit potential into the active region of titanium where complexation by H2O2 increased the corrosion rate. The corrosion attack was found to be greater in the β-phase of the alloy. The findings suggest that current standard tests in physiological or phosphate-buffered saline may underestimate the rate of corrosion in the peri-implant environment, in which albumin is the predominant protein, and reactive oxygen species such as H2O2 can occur as a result of inflammatory reactions in response to surgery, infection, or implant corrosion products. Corrosion of many biomedical implant materials occurs in the body leading to adverse biological responses. Several components of the environment into which a metal implant is placed including proteins and products of cellular physiology, been shown to modify corrosion resistance. Previously all studies on such components including the common protein albumin and the inflammatory product H2O2 have considered the effects of these species in isolation. For the first time we report a synergistic interaction between albumin and H2O2 significantly accelerating corrosion of Ti6Al4V at physiological pH and temperature. This is

  4. Excretion of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A; Smith, Michael L

    2008-01-30

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration's proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean+/-S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85+/-0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for 4 weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from seven subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 microg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for 4 weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test.

  5. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  6. Mechanism of ammonia excretion in the freshwater leech Nephelopsis obscura: characterization of a primitive Rh protein and effects of high environmental ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R.; Treberg, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Remarkably little is known about nitrogenous excretion in freshwater invertebrates. In the current study, the nitrogen excretion mechanism in the carnivorous ribbon leech, Nephelopsis obscura, was investigated. Excretion experiments showed that the ribbon leech is ammonotelic, excreting 166.0 ± 8.6 nmol·grams fresh weight (gFW)−1·h−1 ammonia and 14.7 ± 1.9 nmol·gFW−1·h−1 urea. Exposure to high and low pH hampered and enhanced, respectively, ammonia excretion rates, indicating an acid-linked ammonia trapping mechanism across the skin epithelia. Accordingly, compared with body tissues, the skin exhibited elevated mRNA expression levels of a newly identified Rhesus protein and at least in tendency the Na+/K+-ATPase. Pharmacological experiments and enzyme assays suggested an ammonia excretion mechanism that involves the V-ATPase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase, but not necessarily a functional microtubule system. Most importantly, functional expression studies of the identified Rh protein cloned from leech skin tissue revealed an ammonia transport capability of this protein when expressed in yeast. The leech Rh-ammonia transporter (NoRhp) is a member of the primitive Rh protein family, which is a sister group to the common ancestor of vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh proteins. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) caused a new adjustment of body ammonia, accompanied with a decrease in NoRhp and Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA levels, but unaltered ammonia excretion rates. To our knowledge, this is only the second comprehensive study regarding the ammonia excretion mechanisms in a freshwater invertebrate, but our results show that basic processes of ammonia excretion appear to also be comparable to those found in freshwater fish, suggesting an early evolution of ionoregulatory mechanisms in freshwater organisms. PMID:26180186

  7. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L

    2010-01-01

    /d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...... of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4......Intake of lignans has been assessed in different study populations, but so far none of the studies has compared the daily intake of lignans and the urinary excretion of plant and enterolignans. We assessed the intake of lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol in 100...

  8. Dietary intake and urinary excretion of lignans in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmi, Tarja; Mursu, Jaakko; Peñalvo, José L

    2010-01-01

    /d, of which lariciresinol and pinoresinol covered 78 %. Almost half (47 %) of the intake of lignans was explained by the intake of rye products, berries, coffee, tea and roots. The urinary excretion of plant lignans corresponded to 17 % and enterolignans to 92 % of the intake of lignans. The urinary excretion...... of plant lignans was explained 14 % by the intake of rye products and intake of coffee, and consequently 3-7 % by the intake of water-insoluble fibre. The urinary excretion of enterolactone was explained 11 % by the intake of vegetables and rye products, 14 % by the intake of water-soluble fibre and only 4...... % by the intake of lariciresinol. Although the assessed intake of lignans corresponded well with the urinary excretion of lignans, the enterolactone production in the human body depended more on the dietary sources of lignans than the absolute intake of lignans....

  9. Biliary excretion of phenolphthalein glucuronide in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, T; Takikawa, H

    2001-06-01

    To examine the substrate specificity of an ATP-dependent organic anion transporter, the multidrug resistance protein 2, we examined the effects of various bile acid conjugates and organic anions on the biliary excretion of phenolphthalein glucuronide, a hydrophilic glucuronide conjugate, in rats. Biliary phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion was markedly inhibited by taurolithocholate-3-sulfate and ursodeoxycholate-3-O-glucuronide. In contrast, ursodeoxycholate-3,7-disulfate and pravastatin only slightly inhibited and cefpiramide did not inhibit biliary phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion. Biliary excretion of sulfobromophthalein, leukotriene C(4) and pravastatin was inhibited by phenolphthalein glucuronide infusion to some extent. These findings suggest that phenolphthalein glucuronide is a relatively low affinity substrate for the multidrug resistance protein 2.

  10. Evaluation of creatinine as a urine marker and factors affecting urinary excretion of magnesium by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, A W; Weiss, W P

    2018-03-07

    estimated urine volume was 23% less (1.93 vs. 2.51) than that for actual urine production. This inflated the type I error rate, and, consequently, statistical inferences on N and K excretion differed when urine output was estimated rather than measured. The standard error of the mean for excretion of Mg calculated with actual or estimated urine production were almost identical (0.92 vs. 0.97); however, similar standard error of the mean was likely caused by differences in the covariance of urinary Mg concentration with estimated or actual urine output. Based on spot sampling (experiment 2), urinary Mg reached steady state by 2 d following an increase in dietary K regardless of Mg level, whereas excretion of urinary Mg following an increase in dietary Mg continued to increase through 7 d. Estimating nutrient excretion with urinary creatinine and body weight on average is accurate, but variance is likely underestimated. Knowing the time course of urinary Mg excretion will improve the value of using urinary Mg concentration to assess diet adequacy or Mg bioavailability. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tissue to plasma capillary permeability of 131I-albumin in the perfused rabbit ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    1991-01-01

    was marked, and occurred at rates corresponding to a unidirectional clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.068 +/- 0.012 ml (min.100 g)-1. However, with a reduction of mean interstitial albumin tracer content of no more than 4%, net transport decreased to reach slowly declining levels 5 to 10 times lower within 10 min...... at a constant rate of (mean +/- SD) 5.1 +/- 1.5 ml (min.100 g)-1. The mean extravascular albumin distribution volume was 12.4 +/- 1.1 ml.100 g-1, and the fibrinogen volume (plasma volume in tissue) was 3.1 +/- 0.4 ml.100 g-1 as determined from biopsies of the contralateral ear. The initial transfer of albumin...... of continued perfusion. The decrease was considered due to rapid exhaustion of a small interstitial pool of tracer immediately adjacent to the exchange vessel membrane, followed by an increasingly retarded outwash from more distant areas. The results suggest a bimodal structural resistance to albumin movement...

  12. Egg on their faces. The story of human albumin solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian; Bunn, Frances

    2002-03-01

    In 1998, the Cochrane Injuries Group published the results of a systematic review of human albumin administration in critically ill patients. The results showed that the risk of death in patients receiving albumin was 14%, and the risk of death in patients not receiving albumin was 8%, suggesting that for every 17 critically ill patients treated with albumin there is one extra death. The results were widely reported in the television and print media throughout the world and stimulated an immediate response from the drug regulatory agencies, the plasma products industry, and the medical profession. Despite vigorous attempts by the plasma products industry to limit the effect of the systematic review on albumin sales, the use of albumin declined steeply, showing that evidence from systematic reviews can have an important effect on clinical care.

  13. Serum Albumin Binding and Esterase Activity: Mechanistic Interactions with Organophosphates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Goncharov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The albumin molecule, in contrast to many other plasma proteins, is not covered with a carbohydrate moiety and can bind and transport various molecules of endogenous and exogenous origin. The enzymatic activity of albumin, the existence of which many scientists perceive skeptically, is much less studied. In toxicology, understanding the mechanistic interactions of organophosphates with albumin is a special problem, and its solution could help in the development of new types of antidotes. In the present work, the history of the issue is briefly examined, then our in silico data on the interaction of human serum albumin with soman, as well as comparative in silico data of human and bovine serum albumin activities in relation to paraoxon, are presented. Information is given on the substrate specificity of albumin and we consider the possibility of its affiliation to certain classes in the nomenclature of enzymes.

  14. Albumin adsorption onto surfaces of urine collection and analysis containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mary K; Caudill, Samuel P; Koch, David D; Ritchie, James; Hortin, Glen; Eckfeldt, John H; Sandberg, Sverre; Williams, Desmond; Myers, Gary; Miller, W Greg

    2014-04-20

    Adsorption of albumin onto urine collection and analysis containers may cause falsely low concentrations. We added (125)I-labeled human serum albumin to urine and to phosphate buffered solutions, incubated them with 22 plastic container materials and measured adsorption by liquid scintillation counting. Adsorption of urine albumin (UA) at 5-6 mg/l was containers, and to instrument sample cups and showed <1% change in concentration at 5 mg/l and <0.5% change at 20 mg/l or higher concentrations. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions (2-28%) was larger than that from urine. Albumin adsorption differed among urine samples and plastic materials, but the total influence of adsorption was <1% for all materials and urine samples tested. Adsorption of albumin from phosphate buffered solutions was larger than that from urine and could be a limitation for preparations used as calibrators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction and characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) albumin and globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L H; Hung, T V; Bennett, L

    2008-06-01

    Albumin and globulin fractions of 1 Desi and 2 Kabuli varieties of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum) were extracted with water and salt solutions (K(2)SO(4) and NaCl). The extractable yields and particularly the albumin-globulin ratio varied greatly with the extraction medium and chickpea variety. Depending on the procedure employed, albumin could be extracted as a major fraction of chickpea proteins. Higher levels of essential amino acids and sulfur containing amino acids were found in albumins than in globulins of all chickpeas investigated. The common structural characteristics of both Kabuli and Desi chickpea albumins and globulins were clearly identified by densitometric profiles of their sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel patterns. Albumins contained subunits with higher molecular weights than those of globulins. The in vitro digestibility of the chickpea proteins by papain, pepsin, chymotrypsin, and trypsin indicated that globulins were more susceptible to proteolytic hydrolysis.

  16. Relation of Urinary Calcium and Magnesium Excretion to Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesteloot†, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J.; Chan, Queenie; Wijeyesekera, Anisha; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Zhao, Liancheng; Dyer, Alan R.; Unwin, Robert J.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40–59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20–59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses, urinary calcium excretion was directly associated with BP. After adjustment for multiple confounders (including weight, height, alcohol intake, calcium intake, urinary sodium level, and urinary potassium intake), systolic BP was 1.9 mm Hg higher per each 4.1 mmol per 24 hours (2 standard deviations) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest that altered calcium homoeostasis, as exhibited by increased calcium excretion, is associated with higher BP levels. PMID:21624957

  17. Bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaotian; Liu, Chen; Li, Yaobin; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    The bioaccumulation and excretion of enantiomers of myclobutanil in Tenebrio molitor larvae through dietary exposure under laboratory conditions were investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. The wheat bran fed to Tenebrio molitor larvae was spiked with racemic myclobutanil at two dose levels of 20 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg (dry weight). The results showed that there was a significant trend of enantioselective bioaccumulation in the larvae with a preferential accumulation of (-)-myclobutanil in 20 mg/kg dose exposure, but it was not obviously observed in the 2 mg/kg dose group. A kinetic model considering enantiomerization between the two enantiomers based on first-order reactions was built and the rate constants were estimated to discuss the kinetic reason for the different concentrations of individual enantiomers in the larvae. The approximations implied an inversion between the two enantiomers with a relatively higher rate of the inversion from (-)-myclobutanil to (+)-myclobutanil. Meanwhile, analysis of data of excretion samples suggested the active excretion is probably an important pathway for the insect to eliminate myclobutanil rapidly with nonenantioselectivity as a passive transport process, which was consistent with the low accumulation efficiency of myclobutanil measured by BAF (bioaccumulation factor). © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. From consumption to harvest: Environmental fate prediction of excreted ionizable trace organic chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polesel, Fabio; Plósz, Benedek G.; Trapp, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    consumption/excretion up to the accumulation in soil and plant, following field amendment with sewage sludge or irrigation with river water (assuming dilution of WWTP effluent). The simulation tool combines the SimpleTreat model modified for fate prediction of ionizable chemicals in a generic WWTP......Excreted trace organic chemicals, e.g., pharmaceuticals and biocides, typically undergo incomplete elimination in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are released to surface water via treated effluents and to agricultural soils through sludge amendment and/or irrigation...... and a recently developed dynamic soil-plant uptake model. The simulation tool was tested using country-specific (e.g., consumption/emission rates, precipitation and temperature) input data. A Monte Carlo-based approach was adopted to account for the uncertainty associated to physico-chemical and biokinetic model...

  19. Nocturnal excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordjman, Sylvie; Anderson, George M; Pichard, Nadège; Charbuy, Henriette; Touitou, Yvan

    2005-01-15

    Many studies in autistic disorder report sleep problems and altered circadian rhythms, suggesting abnormalities in melatonin physiology. Additionally, melatonin, a pineal gland hormone produced from serotonin, is of special interest in autistic disorder given reported alterations in central and peripheral serotonin neurobiology. Nocturnal urinary excretion of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin was measured by radioimmunoassay in groups of children and adolescents with autistic disorder (n = 49) and normal control individuals (n = 88) matched on age, sex, and Tanner stage of puberty. Nocturnal 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion rate was significantly and substantially lower in patients with autism than in normal controls (mean +/- SEM, .75 +/- .11 vs. 1.80 +/- .17 microg/hr, p =.0001), and was significantly negatively correlated with severity of autistic impairments in verbal communication and play (p autistic disorder, and to determine the utility of melatonin administration in individuals with autism.

  20. Intravenous albumin shortens the duration of hospitalization for patients with hypoalbuminemia and bleeding peptic ulcers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Chi; Chang, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wei-Ying; Tsai, Yu-Ching; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Sheu, Bor-Shyang

    2013-11-01

    Patients with hypoalbuminemia have an increased risk of ulcer rebleeding and longer length of hospitalization. This study aimed to test whether intravenous albumin can decrease the incidence of rebleeding or shorten the duration of hospitalization in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers and hypoalbuminemia. Sixty-two patients with bleeding peptic ulcers and Rockall scores ≥ 6 were prospectively enrolled after having received endoscopic therapy. The enrolled patients were divided into a normal albumin group (serum albumin ≥ 3 g/dL, n = 39) or an intervention group (<3 g/dL, n = 23) to receive a 3-day course of omeprazole infusion and 25-day oral esomeprazole. Patients (n = 29) with bleeding ulcers and hypoalbuminemia who received the same dose of intravenous and oral omeprazole but did not receive albumin therapy were enrolled from a previous study as the control group. In the intervention group, patients received albumin infusion (10 g q8h) for 1 day (serum albumin levels 2.5-2.9 g/dL) and 2 days (<2.5 g/dL), respectively. The 28-day cumulative rebleeding rates were similar between the intervention group and the control group (39.1 vs. 42.3 %, p = 0.99). The intervention group had a shorter duration of hospitalization (9 vs. 15 days, p = 0.02) than cohort controls. The risk of rebleeding developed after discharge were similar (normal albumin group vs. intervention group vs. control group, 1/5 [20 %] vs. 2/9 [22.2 %] vs. 1/11 [9.1 %], p = 0.7). Albumin administration shortens the duration of hospitalization for patients with peptic ulcer bleeding and hypoalbuminemia, but does not decrease the incidence of rebleeding.

  1. Aluminium and nickel in human albumin solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Sandberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Five different brands of commercially available human albumin solutions for infusion were analysed for their aluminium and nickel contents by atomic absorption spectrometry. The aluminium concentrations ranged from 12 micrograms/l to 1109 micrograms/l and the nickel concentrations ranged from 17...... micrograms/l to 77 micrograms/l. Examination of the aluminium and nickel contents of the constituents for the production of one brand showed too low levels to explain the final contamination of the product. By following the aluminium and nickel concentrations of the same brand during the production...

  2. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  3. Digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing different oilseed by-products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for using oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) as partial replacements of fishmeal in feeds for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutrient digestibility and postprandial ammonia excretion rates were examined. A f...

  4. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion is not related to impaired renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Merete Skovdal; Hommel, Eva; Friberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion rate (UOER) independently predicted cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes at 5-years of follow-up. To further explore UOER in relation to local renal physiological phenomena, we studied renal glomerular and tubular functions in patients ...

  5. The effect of probenecid on the renal tubular excretion of benzylpenicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbosch, D; Van Gulpen, C; Hermans, J; Mattie, H

    1988-01-01

    1 The aim of this study was to establish whether the renal tubular excretion of benzylpenicillin is saturable and whether the effect of probenecid on the tubular excretion of benzylpenicillin is dose-dependent. 2 Each of four volunteers underwent three experiments. In each experiment benzylpenicillin was administered by continuous infusion, such that three different consecutive concentration levels were reached. In the first experiment no probenecid was given; in the second and third experiments, probenecid was administered by continuous infusion at a low and higher rate, respectively. 3 Plasma and urinary concentrations of benzylpenicillin were determined at 30 min intervals by high performance liquid chromatography. 4 By fitting the equation Rtub = Rtub,max.Cp/(EC50 + Cp) to the values of the tubular excretion rate found for benzylpenicillin (Rtub) vs the free plasma concentration (Cp), the values of Rtub,max and EC50 could be calculated: 3350 (+/- 606) mg h-1 for Rtub,max and 48.0 (+/- 17.8) mg l-1 for EC50 (in the absence of probenecid). 5 The EC50 for benzylpenicillin increased significantly with increasing doses of probenecid. 6 The dose of probenecid at which 50% of the excretory system is occupied by probenecid in the absence of benzylpenicillin (ED50) ranged from 13.2 to 108.5 mg h-1. 7 The EC50 of probenecid in one subject could actually be measured: 52.3 mg l-1. 8 Extrapolating these results to the clinical situation, the commonly used daily dose of 2 g of probenecid is likely to be close to the maximal effective dose for inhibition of the tubular excretion of benzylpenicillin. PMID:3370192

  6. Interaction of indomethacin with adult human albumin and neonatal serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R; Robertson, A

    1983-01-01

    The binding of indomethacin to albumin was investigated at 37 degrees C, pH 7.4. The first stoichiometric binding constant is 2.5 X 10(5) M-1. Indomethacin utilizes both the bilirubin and diazepam binding functions equally. The effect on bilirubin binding to albumin is negligible at therapeutic...... indomethacin blood levels. Oleic acid does not affect indomethacin binding until the oleate/albumin molar ratio exceeds 2. A method for measuring the reserve albumin equivalent for binding indomethacin is described. Measurement of this reserve binding equivalent in 33 neonatal serum samples shows...

  7. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  8. Orosomucoid in urine predicts cardiovascular and over-all mortality in patients with Type II diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Merete S; Hommel, E; Magid, E

    2002-01-01

    urinary orosomucoid excretion rate at baseline (odds ratios adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, weight, medication, HbA1 c, plasma creatinine and urinary albumin excretion rate). Urinary albumin excretion rate was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality when...... urinary orosomucoid excretion rate was not included in the analysis. Subgroup analysis revealed that 39 % of the patients with normal urinary albumin excretion rate (n = 251) had increased urinary orosomucoid excretion rates and that these patients had a higher cardiovascular mortality (p = 0.007) than...

  9. Nitrogenous and phosphorus excretions in juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different water hardness, humic acid, and pH levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombieski, Jaqueline Ineu; Koakoski, Gessi; Becker, Alessandra Janaína; Almeida, Ana Paula Gottlieb; Toni, Cândida; Finamor, Isabela Andres; Pavanato, Maria Amália; de Almeida, Tielle Moraes; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2013-08-01

    This study examined ammonia, urea, creatinine, protein, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphorus (P) excretion at different water hardness, humic acid, or pH levels in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles. The fish were exposed to different levels of water hardness (4, 24, 50, or 100 mg L(-1) CaCO3), humic acid (0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg L(-1)), or pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0) for 10 days. The overall measured nitrogen excretions were 88.1% (244-423 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for ammonia, 10.9% (30-52 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for creatinine, 0.02% (0.05-0.08 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for protein, 0.001 % (0.002-0.004 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for urea, 0.5% (0.64-3.6 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for nitrite, and 0.5% (0.0-6.9 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for nitrate, and these proportions were not affected by water hardness or humic acid levels. The overall P excretion in R. quelen was 0.14-2.97 μmol kg(-1) h(-1). Ammonia excretion in R. quelen usually was significantly higher in the first 12 h after feeding, and no clear effect of water hardness, humic acid levels, and pH on this daily pattern of ammonia excretion could be observed. Water hardness only affected the ammonia and P excretion of R. quelen juveniles in the initial and fifth days after transfer, respectively. The exposure of this species to humic acid increased ammonia excretion after 10 days of exposure but did not affect P excretion. An increase in pH decreased ammonia and increased creatinine excretion but did not change P excretion in R. quelen. Therefore, when there is any change on humic acid levels or pH in the culture of this species, nitrogenous compounds must be monitored because their excretion rates are variable. On the other hand, P excretion rates determined in the present study are applicable to a wide range of fish culture conditions.

  10. Amount and surface structure of albumin adsorbed to solid substrata with different wettabilities in a parallel plate flow cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyen, H M; Schakenraad, J M; Sjollema, J; Noordmans, J; Jongebloed, W L; Stokroos, I; Busscher, H J

    1990-12-01

    In this article we studied the adsorption of serum albumin to substrata with a broad range of wettabilities from solutions with protein concentrations between 0.03 and 3.00 mg.mL-1 in a parallel-plate flow cell. Wall shear rates were varied between 20 and 2000 s-1. The amount of albumin adsorbed in a stationary state was always highest on PTFE, the most hydrophobic material employed and decreased with increasing wettability of the substrata. Increasing stationary amounts of adsorbed albumin were observed with increasing wall shear rates at the lowest protein concentration. Inverse observations were made at the highest protein concentration. Transmission electron micrographs of replicas from the albumin-coated substrata showed that proteins were mostly adsorbed in islandlike structures on the hydrophobic substrata. The tendency to form islandlike structures was shear rate- and concentration-dependent and disappeared gradually going to more hydrophilic substrata. On glass, the most hydrophilic material employed, a homogeneous, well distributed, fine knotted, reticulated structure was found. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that both the amount of adsorbed albumin as well as the surface structure of the adsorbed proteins are regulated by the substratum wettability. This observation may well account for the fact that substratum properties can be transferred by an adsorbed protein film to the interface with adhering cells or microorganisms.

  11. Medium-chain fatty acid binding to albumin and transfer to phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature-dependent (5-42 degree C) 13 C NMR spectra of albumin complexes with 90% isotopically substituted [1- 13 C]octanoic or [1- 13 C]decanoic acids showed a single peak at >30 degree C but three peaks at lower temperatures. The chemical-shift differences result from different ionic and/or hydrogen-bonding interactions between amino acid side chains and the fatty acid carboxyl carbon. Rapid exchange of fatty acid among binding sites obscures these sites at temperatures >30 degree C. Rate constants for exchange at 33 degree C were 350 sec -1 for octanoate and 20 sec -1 for decanoate. Temperature-dependent data for octanoate showed an activation energy of 2 kcal/mol for exchange. Spectra of albumin complexes with the 12-carbon saturated fatty acid, lauric acid, had several narrow laurate carboxyl peaks at 35 degree C, indicating longer lifetimes in the different binding sites. Fatty acid exchange between albumin and model membranes (phosphatidylcholine bilayers) occurred on a time scale comparable to that for exchange among albumin binding sites, following the order octanoate > decanoate > laurate. The equilibrium distribution of fatty acid between lipid bilayers and protein was measured directly from NMR spectra. Decreasing pH increased the relative affinity of fatty acid for the lipid bilayer. The results predict that the relative affinity of octanoic acid for albumin and membranes will be similar to that of long-chain fatty acids, but the rate of equilibration will be ∼ 10 4 faster for octanoic acid

  12. Normal overall leakiness of microvasculature for albumin in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, J H; Kok-Jensen, A

    1984-04-01

    The overall extravasation rate of albumin, TER (i.e. the fraction of the intravascular albumin mass (IVM) passing into, and during steady state returning from, the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin in seven patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) and in seven normal controls. Arterial oxygen tension in patients with COLD was median 60 mmHg (range 47-80, normal greater than 75 mmHg), vital capacity was on the average 55% of expected normal value (median 1.80 litre, range 1.45-1.95), and forced expired volume in first sec was decreased to 21% of expected normal value (median 0.55 litre, range 0.40-0.70). Right-heart catheterization revealed pulmonary hypertension in all but one patient. TER in patients with COLD was median 6.1% IVM/h (range 3.5-10.1) as compared to that of normal controls 6.0% IVM/h (range 4.3-7.4), indicating that no significant change in microvascular leakiness to albumin could be found in patients with COLD. Thus, the results bring no support to a generally increased microvascular permeability to proteins in patients with COLD.

  13. Albumin and fibrinogen levels’ relation with orthopedics traumatic patients’ outcome after massive transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazavar, Mohammadreza; Tabrizi, Ali; Abedini, Naghi; Elmi, Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe bleeding is common during limb trauma. It can lead to hemorrhagic shock required to massive blood transfusion. Coagulopathy is the major complication of massive transfusion-induced increased mortality rate. Aim of this study was evaluation of fibrinogen and albumin levels association with orthopedics traumatic patients’ outcome who received massive transfusion. Methods: In a cross sectional study, 23 patients with severe limb injury admitted to orthopedic emergency department were studied. All the patients received massive transfusion, that is, >10 unit blood. Albumin and fibrinogen levels are measured at admission and 24 h later, and compared according to final outcome. Results: Twenty-three traumatic patients with severe limb injuries were studied, out of which ten (43.2%) died and 13 (56.8%) were alive. There was significant difference between patients outcome in fibrinogen level after 24 h, but no difference was observed in albumin levels. Based on regression model, fibrinogen after 24 h had a significant role in determining the final outcome in traumatic patients who received massive transfusion (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.15–0.92, P = 0.02). Conclusions: According to our results, fibrinogen level is the most important factor in determination of orthopedics traumatic patients when received massive transfusion. However, serum albumin does not play any role in patients’ outcome. PMID:24665235

  14. Estimation of the systemic burden of plutonium from urinary excretion data and a multi-exponential model for excretion in comparison with autopsy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, S.R.; Nestor, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have adapted other's method for computing the systemic burden from urinary excretion data to use a multi-exponential model (2) for excretion, rather than Langham's power function. The mathematical basis of Synder's method is the representation of the systemic burden as the convolution integral of the observed urinary excretion data with the inverse Laplace transform of the excretion function; in the case of urinary excretion of plutonium, the power function has a Laplace transform, but for other elements (notably uranium) it does not. If the method is to be used for other radioisotopes, the excretion function must have a Laplace transform, and for this reason we have used a multi-exponential form of the excretion function. They have written a computer program to calculate estimates of the systemic burden and the integrated intake from urinary excretion data, and have compared the results with two cases for which autopsy data are available, as presented in this paper

  15. Measurement of the proportion of plasma purine derivatives excreted in the urine of sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasitkusol, P.; Chen, X.B.; Kyle, D.J.; Oerskov, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Four sheep were used to measure the proportion of plasma allantoin excreted in the urine at three levels of intake. The sheep were fed a mixed ration at 800, 1200 and 1600 g air dry matter per animal/d during three periods, using an incomplete Latin Square design. Each period consisted of 10-days adaptation and 7-days measurement. After the adaptation, each animal was injected via a jugular catheter, a single dose of 30 μCi of 4,5- 14 C-allantoin as a tracer. Urine collection was made 5 days before tracer injection and until 7 days after tracer injection. Plasma samples were taken at different intervals after the tracer injection. The proportion of plasma allantoin which is excreted in the urine was measured as the recovery of dosed 14 C-allantoin in the urine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated from creatinine clearance. There was no significant difference in the recovery of plasma allantoin between levels of intake but there was a considerable variation (P 0.75 /day in the four sheep, respectively). GFR tended to increased with feed intake. However, variation in GFR in the same animal did not seem to affect the proportion of plasma allantoin excretion. (author)

  16. Plutonium fecal and urinary excretion functions: Derivation from a systematic whole-body retention function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, C.; Lee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Liver-bile secretion directly influences the content of plutonium in feces. To assess the reliability of plutonium metabolic models and to improve the accuracy of interpreting plutonium fecal data, the authors developed a compartmental model that simulates the metabolism of plutonium in humans. With this model, they can describe the transport of plutonium contaminants in the systemic organs and tissues of the body, including fecal and urine excretions, without using elaborate kinetic information. The parameter values of the models, which describe the translocation rates and recycling of plutonium in the body, can be derived from a multi-term exponential systemic function for whole-body retention. The analytical derivations and algorithms for solving translocation parameter values are established for the model and illustrated by applying them to the biokinetics and bioassay of plutonium. This study describes how to (1) design a physiological model for incorporating liver biliary secretion and for obtaining a fecal-excretion function, (2) develop an analytical solution for identifying the translocation-parameter values incorporating the recycling of plutonium in the body, and (3) derive a set of urinary and fecal excretion-functions from a published systemic whole-body retention function, generally acknowledged to be accurate, as a real and practical example

  17. The physiological mechanism of low purine derivative excretion in urine of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanh, V.T.K.; Orskov, E.R.; Susmel, P.

    2009-01-01

    Three cattle calves (Bos Taurus) and three buffalo calves (Bos bubalus) were weaned after receiving colostrum and reared by bottle-feeding of milk. During the first month the animal did not have access to solid food. Urinary purine derivative (PD), concentration, basal PD excretion and glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) were determined during fasting and feeding. After one month the animals were given access to solid feed (urea-treated rice straw 80% and molasses 20%) to stimulate rumen development. At three months of age, while the solid food was given, urinary PD, basal PD excretion and GFR were again determined. Urinary PD excretion both during fasting and milk feeding did not differ significantly between buffaloes to cattle during the period of milk feeding (P > 0.05), but there were highly significant differences between cattle and buffaloes after 3 months of age and two months of access to solid feed (P < 0.01). The GFR was lower in buffaloes than cattle on both milk fed and solid feed periods. It is suggested that the lower GFR found in buffaloes may be the reason for the differences as PD stay longer in the blood to give more time for recycling to the rumen when the rumen is developed and are then metabolized by bacteria. Whether permeability of PD from blood to rumen is an additional factor is not known. (author)

  18. Protein adsorption and clotting time of pHEMA hydrogels modified with C18 ligands to adsorb albumin selectively and reversibly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Inês C; Martins, M Cristina L; Barbosa, Mário A; Ratner, Buddy D

    2009-10-01

    This work intended to create a nanostructured biomaterial that would bind albumin in a selective and reversible way in order to inhibit the adsorption of other blood proteins and therefore minimize activation of coagulation. Different levels of C18 ligand have been immobilized on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA). We hypothesize that samples with intermediate amounts of C18 ligand would allow albumin to recognize them and bind through its hydrophobic pockets specific for long chain fatty acids. Surface characterization has confirmed increasing amounts of C18 ligand on pHEMA as the percentage of C18 in solution increases, with maximum coverage achieved in 10% C18 samples. Adsorption from pure albumin solution revealed a small decrease in albumin adsorption from pHEMA to 1% C18 and 2.5% C18 samples, but on surfaces with 5% or higher C18 the amount of adsorbed albumin increased as the percentage of C18 increased. Competitive adsorption studies in the presence of both albumin and fibrinogen, and in the presence of all plasma proteins showed that 1% C18 and 2.5% C18 were the only surfaces selective for albumin, and that the presence of all plasma proteins may even potentiate albumin adsorption. Reversibility studies demonstrated that both 2.5% C18 and 5% C18 samples exchange (125)I-albumin selectively in the presence of both unlabeled albumin and plasma, but 2.5% C18 samples presented higher exchangeability rates (58%). Clotting times using recalcified plasma revealed that samples with none or small amounts of C18 (pHEMA to 5% C18) did not shorten the clotting time compared to the negative control (polystyrene), indicating low activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade.

  19. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  20. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The native form of serum albumin is the most important soluble protein in the body plasma. In order to investigate the structural changes of Bovine serum albumin (BSA) during its unfolding in the presence of urea, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) study was performed. The scattering curves of dilute solutions of BSA ...

  1. Possibilities of Using Combined Optical and AFM Investigations of Albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shishpor, I. V.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.

    2018-02-01

    The results of a complex study of 10% aqueous solution of human serum albumin using methods of optical and atomic force microscopy have been presented. The fine structure of main structures of albumin facies (vitreous matrix and concretions) has been revealed and some observed structural effects have been interpreted from the viewpoint of polymer materials science.

  2. Structural changes during the unfolding of Bovine serum albumin in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    400Da [9]. Low-angle X-ray scattering [10] and neutron scattering [11] also in- dicated serum albumin to be a prolate ellipsoid. However, studies using 1H NMR indicated that a prolate structure was unlikely; rather a heart-shaped structure was proposed [12]. The shape of albumin reveals a heart-shaped molecule that can.

  3. Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fraction V of bovine albumin improves the adherence and survival of adult rat cerebral cortex neurons in primary culture. ... Because the attack of anoxia and mechanical/chemical force in the course of the single neuron separated from the brain, the adult neocortex neurons may be edema. Since albumin can reduce edema ...

  4. The relative role of serum albumin and urinary creatinine as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their weight, Body mass index, serum albumin and 24-hour urinary creatinine were determined before treatment, at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 4th and 6th month of treatment. Using ANOVA, the mean values of the weight, BIM and serum albumin were analysed with further analysis paired student T- test of the pre-treatment ...

  5. Reference intervals for the P-Albumin bromocresol purple method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peter Astrup

    2017-10-01

    Correct reference intervals are an important part of test results. As establishing own reference intervals is a very expensive task, the NORIP reference intervals are often transferred for use in Nordic laboratories. The NORIP reference interval on P-Albumin was here compared to current results for laboratories using the bromocresol purple (BCP) method for P-Albumin. External quality control reports were used to investigate the change in levels between the BCP and BCG methods on P-Albumin. An algorithm was built for extracting and isolating the laboratory's healthy subject population. The algorithm was used to extract test results from the laboratory information system. Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to evaluate the P-Albumin test result populations. The indirect method used here clearly shows that the NORIP reference intervals for P-Albumin are not fit for the current bromocresol purple methods. The method was also used to suggest new reference interval limits.

  6. Photodynamically generated bovine serum albumin radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvester, J A; Timmins, G S; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    Porphyrin-sensitized photoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) results in oxidation of the protein at (at least) two different, specific sites: the Cys-34 residue giving rise to a thiyl radical (RS.); and one or both of the tryptophan residues (Trp-134 and Trp-214) resulting in the formation...... of tertiary carbon-centred radicals and disruption of the tryptophan ring system. In the case of porphyrins such as hematoporphyrin, which bind at specific sites on BSA, these species appear to arise via long-range transfer of damage within the protein structure, as the binding site is some distance from...... the ultimate site of radical formation. This transfer of damage is shown to depend on a number of factors including the conformation of the protein, the presence of blocking groups and pH. Alteration of the protein conformation results in radical formation at additional (or alternative) sites, as does blocking...

  7. A novel adjuvant: polymerised serum albumin beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, J.B.

    1985-09-01

    There is an ongoing need to develop new vaccine formulations. To complement accumulating knowledge on the structure of antigens and their interaction with cells of the immune system, new vaccine vehicles to optimise the immunogenic potential of the antigen must be developed. Associated with this adjuvanticity, should be minimal adverse side effects. This study was initiated to develop a vaccine vehicle, consisting of covalently cross-linked serum albumin beads, themselves non-immunogenic, containing virus. Following inoculation, in vivo proteolysis of the beads would allow a gradual release of antigen for sustained immunostimulation. This system might have application in virus vaccine programmes to improve low immunogenic vaccines, to allow optimal delivery of the recently derived synthetic virus subunit peptides as well as for inactivated virus vaccine preparations. 35 S-methionine labelled Blue Tongue Virus was used in this study

  8. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  9. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  10. Effects of season on the bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens: water content, respiration, and excretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller-Adams, Page; Childress, James J.

    1983-06-01

    Water contents, oxygen consumption rates and ammonia excretion rates of individuals of the large bathypelagic mysid Gnathophausia ingens were measured as a function of size and season (winter and summer). Individuals of the sizes studied live permanently beneath the euphotic zone. Water content, as a percent of wet weight, is higher in winter than in summer, suggesting seasonal variability in the midwater environment. Our data suggest that the seasonal change in water content increases with increasing size. We suggest that the changes are due in part to seasonal changes in food intake. Seasonal differences were not observed in wet-weight-specific rates of either respiration or ammonia excretion. Both rates decrease with increasing size. The constancy of the atomic O:N ratio and its high value (geometric mean = 44.3) indicate that the average proportions of lipid and protein metabolized by individuals were independent of size and season and that lipid stores were not sufficiently depleted, even in small animals, to cause a shift to predominantly protein metabolism in winter or summer. On the average, metabolic rates of individuals were unaffected by seasonal variation in the midwater environment.

  11. Human serum albumin and oxidative stress in preeclamptic women and the mechanism of albumin for stress reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Kinoshita

    2017-08-01

    Significance: Serum albumin relates to oxidative stress inversely, but to the endothelial function positively, in pregnant women. Human serum albumin appears to reduce oxidative stress via NADPH oxidase inhibition in the human vascular smooth muscle, indicating that the serum level may be a critical determinant of vascular oxidative stress in some human diseases.

  12. Association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin J; Rangarajan, Sumathy; McQueen, Matthew J; Poirier, Paul; Wielgosz, Andreas; Morrison, Howard; Li, Wei; Wang, Xingyu; Di, Chen; Mony, Prem; Devanath, Anitha; Rosengren, Annika; Oguz, Aytekin; Zatonska, Katarzyna; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Avezum, Alvaro; Ismail, Noorhassim; Lanas, Fernando; Puoane, Thandi; Diaz, Rafael; Kelishadi, Roya; Iqbal, Romaina; Yusuf, Rita; Chifamba, Jephat; Khatib, Rasha; Teo, Koon; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-08-14

    Higher levels of sodium intake are reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Whether this relationship varies according to levels of sodium or potassium intake and in different populations is unknown. We studied 102,216 adults from 18 countries. Estimates of 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion were made from a single fasting morning urine specimen and were used as surrogates for intake. We assessed the relationship between electrolyte excretion and blood pressure, as measured with an automated device. Regression analyses showed increments of 2.11 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.78 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure for each 1-g increment in estimated sodium excretion. The slope of this association was steeper with higher sodium intake (an increment of 2.58 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure per gram for sodium excretion >5 g per day, 1.74 mm Hg per gram for 3 to 5 g per day, and 0.74 mm Hg per gram for 55 years of age, 2.43 mm Hg per gram at 45 to 55 years of age, and 1.96 mm Hg per gram at <45 years of age; P<0.001 for interaction). Potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure, with a steeper slope of association for persons with hypertension than for those without it (P<0.001) and a steeper slope with increased age (P<0.001). In this study, the association of estimated intake of sodium and potassium, as determined from measurements of excretion of these cations, with blood pressure was nonlinear and was most pronounced in persons consuming high-sodium diets, persons with hypertension, and older persons. (Funded by the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Ontario and others.).

  13. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  14. Cerebral Salt-Wasting Syndrome: Diagnosis by Urine Sodium Excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieff, Allen I; Gabbai, Ramin; Goldfine, Ira D

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) was initially described over 60 years ago in hyponatremic patients with a cerebral lesion. However, the diagnostic criteria for CSWS have not been fully established. Thus, when hyponatremia is observed in patients with CSWS, they may be misdiagnosed as having the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Thus, it is critical to differentiate between these 2 conditions because their treatments are diametrically opposed. We carried out a retrospective study of 45 patients with CSWS and compared them to 60 normonatremic control patients, and 28 patients with SIADH. All patients had their 24-hour urine volumes and sodium (Na) excretion measured. In patients with CSWS, urinary Na excretion was 394 ± 369mmol/24 hours and urinary volume was 2,603 ± 996mL/24 hours; both values significantly greater than in controls (P < 0.01). By contrast, in patients with SIADH, the urine Na excretion was only 51 ± 25mmol/24 hours and urine volume was 745 ± 298mL/24 hours; values significantly lower than in patients with CSWS (P < 0.01). CSWS was diagnosed in patients with cerebral lesion who had (1) symptomatic hyponatremia, (2) urine Na excretion 2 standard deviations above controls and (3) increased urine volume. Patients with SIADH also had symptomatic hyponatremia but, in contrast to patients with CSWS, they had decreased Na excretion and urine volume. Thus urine Na excretion and volume are very important for diagnosing the cause of hyponatremia in patients with cerebral lesions. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Insulin Pump Therapy Is Associated with Lower Rates of Retinopathy and Peripheral Nerve Abnormality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedowra Zabeen

    Full Text Available To compare rates of microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII versus multiple daily injections (MDI.Prospective cohort of 989 patients (aged 12-20 years; diabetes duration >5 years treated with CSII or MDI for >12 months. Microvascular complications were assessed from 2000-14: early retinopathy (seven-field fundal photography, peripheral nerve function (thermal and vibration threshold testing, autonomic nerve abnormality (heart rate variability analysis of electrocardiogram recordings and albuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio/timed overnight albumin excretion. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to examine the relationship between treatment and complications rates, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES and known risk factors including HbA1c and diabetes duration.Comparing CSII with MDI: HbA1C was 8.6% [70mmol/mol] vs. 8.7% [72 mmol/mol] (p = 0.7, retinopathy 17% vs. 22% (p = 0.06; microalbuminuria 1% vs. 4% (p = 0.07, peripheral nerve abnormality 27% vs. 33% (p = 0.108 and autonomic nerve abnormality 24% vs. 28% (p = 0.401. In multivariable GEE, CSII use was associated with lower rates of retinopathy (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.95, p = 0.029 and peripheral nerve abnormality (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.95, p = 0.026, but not albuminuria (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10-2.17, p = 0.33. SES was not associated with any of the complication outcomes.In adolescents, CSII use is associated with lower rates of retinopathy and peripheral nerve abnormality, suggesting an apparent benefit of CSII over MDI independent of glycemic control or SES.

  16. Electrochemical characterization of albumin protein on Ti-6AL-4V alloy immersed in a simulated plasma solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Norma; Bronson, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    The effect of oxygen and albumin on the electrochemical behavior of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy immersed in a simulated inorganic plasma (SIP) solution was studied with a rotating-cylindrical electrode configuration to focus on the surface/electrolyte reactions. Potentiokinetic scans and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize the interface by determining the passive current density and capacitance. For the polarization scans, an albumin addition of 37.7 mg/cm(3) to the SIP solution (oxygenated and unoxygenated) decreased the passive current density, indicating a lowering of the corrosive rate. The surface capacitance for the Ti-6Al-4V alloy immersed in a SIP solution averaged 13 microF/cm(2), which transformed after albumin addition (37.7 mg/cm(3)) from a potential independent behavior to the capacitance ranging from 23 to 6 microF/cm(2) with increasing potentials from -800 to 1500 mV(SCE), respectively, indicative of albumin adsorption. Within the same potential range and albumin addition to oxygenated solutions, the capacitances expanded slightly with a similar decreasing trend from 31 to 6 microF/cm(2), although the capacitance depicts an interaction between the hydrated passive film and the adsorbed albumin from -550 to 500 mV(SCE) in which the capacitance plateaued at 15 microF/cm(2). The hydrated porous oxide film results from the porous rutile layer reacting with H(2)O(2) formed as an intermediary component of oxygen reduction at the Ti-6Al-4V surface. The passive film-albumin interaction would affect the processing of titanium alloys in their surface preparation for biocompatibility, as well as determining the reactivity of titanium alloys to proteins.

  17. The Investigation of the Interaction between Lomefloxacin and Human Serume Albumin by Specteroscopic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Goldouzian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of the binding of lomefloxacin (LMF with human serum albumin has been studied at physiological pH (7.4 using fluorescence spectroscopic technique. LMF is a third-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic that exhibits striking potency against a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria through inhibition of DNA gyrase. Lomefloxacin is a drug that is excreted in urine and has very variable systemic absorption. Human serum albumin (HSA is the most important and abundant constituent of blood plasma and serves as a protein storage component. Recently, the three-dimensional structure of HSA was determined through X-ray crystallographic measurement. Fluorescence studies showed that (LMF has an ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching  procedure  according to the Stern–Volmer equation .LMF showed two types of binding sites, the first having a very high affinity (1/72 ×107M-1 and a secondary binding site with an affinity two orders lower than the primary site. The number of binding sites for complex: HSA-LMF at 280 nm was calculated 1and0.5. The microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosin residues and more hydrophobic of fluorophores microenvironment were changed and disturbed by the blue shift in maximum wavelength and decreased in fluorescence intensity in the presence of lomefloxacin revealed  decreased polarity of the fluorophores. The binding site for LMF is in a hydrophobic pocket in the sub-domain II A of HSA.

  18. Ammonia excretion in Caenorhabditis elegans: mechanism and evidence of ammonia transport of the Rhesus protein CeRhr-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlimoghaddam, Aida; Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Marini, Anna-Maria; Treberg, Jason R.; Brassinga, Ann-Karen C.; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a bacteriovorous animal, excreting the vast majority of its nitrogenous waste as ammonia (25.3±1.2 µmol gFW−1 day−1) and very little urea (0.21±0.004 µmol gFW−1 day−1). Although these roundworms have been used for decades as genetic model systems, very little is known about their strategy to eliminate the toxic waste product ammonia from their bodies into the environment. The current study provides evidence that ammonia is at least partially excreted via the hypodermis. Starvation reduced the ammonia excretion rates by more than half, whereas mRNA expression levels of the Rhesus protein CeRhr-2, V-type H+-ATPase (subunit A) and Na+/K+-ATPase (α-subunit) decreased correspondingly. Moreover, ammonia excretion rates were enhanced in media buffered to pH 5 and decreased at pH 9.5. Inhibitor experiments, combined with enzyme activity measurements and mRNA expression analyses, further suggested that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H+-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and a functional microtubule network. These findings indicate that ammonia is excreted, not only by apical ammonia trapping, but also via vesicular transport and exocytosis. Exposure to 1 mmol l−1 NH4Cl caused a 10-fold increase in body ammonia and a tripling of ammonia excretion rates. Gene expression levels of CeRhr-1 and CeRhr-2, V-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase also increased significantly in response to 1 mmol l−1 NH4Cl. Importantly, a functional expression analysis showed, for the first time, ammonia transport capabilities for CeRhr-1 in a phylogenetically ancient invertebrate system, identifying these proteins as potential functional precursors to the vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh-glycoproteins. PMID:25740900

  19. Binding and Anticancer Properties of Plumbagin with Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yi; Zhang, Yao; Qi, Jinxu; Kong, Linlin; Zhou, Zuping; Liang, Shichu; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2015-09-01

    Plumbagin has received extensive attention as a promising anticancer drug. Therefore, we investigated the binding and anticancer properties of plumbagin with human serum albumin. Fluorescence results demonstrated that plumbagin interacts with human serum albumin, although its binding affinity may be affected to various extents by different compounds. The human serum albumin-plumbagin complex structure revealed that plumbagin binds to the hydrophobic cavity in the IIA subdomain of human serum albumin through hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions. The plumbagin-human serum albumin complex enhances cytotoxicity by 2- to 3-fold particularly in cancer cells but has no effect on normal cells in vitro. Compared with the unbound drug, the human serum albumin-plumbagin complex promotes HeLa cell apoptosis and has a stronger capacity for cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of HeLa cells. In conclusion, this study contributes to the rational design and development of plumbagin-based drugs and a drug-human serum albumin delivery system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  1. The importance of excretion by Chironomus larvae on the internal loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in a small eutrophic urban reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Henry

    Full Text Available Measurements of ammonium and phosphate excretion by the Chironomus larvae were conducted in order to evaluate the importance of these chironomids for the internal loads of a small eutrophic urban reservoir. Ammonium and phosphate excretion rates by Chironomus larvae of small size (6-10 mm total length were significantly higher than those of the Chironomids having medium (9-11 mm and large (11-16 mm sizes. A dependence in relation to temperature was recorded for the ammonium and phosphate excretions that was significantly higher at 25 °C than at 20 and 15 °C. Through a linear relation between biomass (dry weight and total length and, between excretion and biomass and, data on chironomids densities, after an intense sampling in 33 sites distributed all along the reservoir bottom, the mean phosphate and ammonium excretion rates corresponded to 2,014 ± 5,134 µg.m-2/day and 1,643 ± 3,974 µg.m-2/day, respectively. Considering the mean biomass (34 mg.m-2 of Chironomus, the lake area (88,156 m² and the mean excretion rates, the contribution of benthic chironomids to the internal loads would be 181 KgP and 147 KgN. for the sampling months (October-November 1998. These values showed that the internal loads by excretion from Chironomus larvae correspond to approximately 33% of the external loads of phosphorus in the lake and, in the case of nitrogen, to only 5%.

  2. Regulation of direct transintestinal cholesterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van den Oever, Karin; Seemann, Ingar; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; van Eck, Miranda; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2008-01-01

    Biliary secretion is generally considered to be an obligate step in the pathway of excess cholesterol excretion from the body. We have recently shown that an alternative route exists. Direct transintestinal cholesterol efflux ( TICE) contributes significantly to cholesterol removal in mice. Our aim

  3. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagen - Plantinga, Esther; Hendriks, Wouter; Bosch, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November

  4. Urinary sodium excretion and determinates among adults in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Background: There is strong and consistent evidence indicating high salt intake is one of the risk factors for non- communicable diseases (NCDs). The global target is to reduce population salt intake by 30% by 2025. This study was conducted with the aim of determining the level of urinary sodium excretion and ...

  5. The effect of disulfiram on excretion of catecholamine alcoholic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    forms the basis for its use in the treatment of alcoholism. In addition, disulfiram inhibits dopamine-B-hydroxylase (DBH) through a copper-chelating action 2. Since DBH catalyses the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline, we decided to investi- gate the urinary excretion of catecholamine metabolites in a group of recently ...

  6. Urinary sodium excretion and determinates among adults in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary sodium excretion and determinates among adults in Ethiopia: Findings from National STEPS survey. Feyissa Challa, Yewondwossen Tadesse, Kissi Mudie, Girum Taye, Terefe Gelibo, Alemayehu Bekele, Meron Sileshi, Tigist Getahun, Zeleke Geto, Abenezer Ayalkebet, Bikila Nagasa, Habtamu Teklie, Tefera ...

  7. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, van der J.

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  8. Campylobacter infections in fattening pigs; Excretion pattern and genetic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijtens, M.J.B.M.; Reinders, R.D.; Urlings, H.A.P.; Plas, J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The excretion of campylobacter by eight individually housed fattening pigs was monitored during 15 weeks. Rectal faeces samples were collected six times from these pigs and twice from their mothers (seven sows). Campylobacter was cultured from these samples on Preston medium. In some pigs, samples

  9. Molecular regulation of copper excretion in the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijmenga, C; Klomp, LWJ

    Cu is an essential nutrient that is required for a broad range of cellular and molecular processes. Mammals have efficient systems to control Cu homeostasis that operate at the level of controlling uptake, distribution, sequestration and excretion of Cu. The study of diseases associated with

  10. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men. LA Olayaki, EO Edeoja, OR Jimoh, OK Ghazal, A Olawepo, AG Jimoh, SA Biliaminu. Abstract. Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship ...

  11. Enhanced excretion of radioactive iodine from the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarchuk, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that administration of stable iodine (Lugol solution) accelerates excretion of radioactive iodine from the thyroid. Owing to the fact, all the patients subjected to thyroid scanning with 131 I or those who suffered as a result of NPP accident like the Chernobyl one, should take iodine preparations in conventional treatment-and-prophylactic doses for 3-4 weeks

  12. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  13. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin to MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed to unmethylated yeast and the adsorption amount of egg albumin...

  14. Age-adjusted glycated albumin accurately reflects blood glucose in patients with neonatal diabetes mellitus: comparison with calculated glycated albumin determined by past blood glucose concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Furuya, Akiko; Oshima, Miho; Amamiya, Satoshi; Nakao, Atsushi; Wada, Keiko; Okuhara, Koji; Hayano, Satoshi; Imamoto, Aya; Matsuo, Kumihiro; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Azuma, Hiroshi; Koga, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Glycated albumin is a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus. However, glycated albumin concentrations in infants are lower than those in adults and increase in an age-dependent manner. Based on our investigation of non-diabetic subjects, we proposed the possibility that the reference range for adults may be used regardless of age, provided that age-adjusted glycated albumin is employed. In the present study, we evaluate the usefulness of age-adjusted glycated albumin in neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. Six neonatal diabetes mellitus patients (four patients with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus and two patients with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus) were included. Measured glycated albumin or age-adjusted glycated albumin was compared to calculated glycated albumin, which was determined using calculation formulae we had reported based on past blood glucose over the 50 days before measurement of glycated albumin. Measured glycated albumin was significantly lower than calculated glycated albumin (20.5 ± 4.9% versus 28.2 ± 6.1%; p diabetes mellitus in remission were lower than the reference range for adults, whereas age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were within the reference range for adults. We demonstrated that age-adjusted glycated albumin concentrations were consistent with calculated glycated albumin. Age-adjusted glycated albumin is therefore a useful glycaemic control indicator for neonatal diabetes mellitus patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Adsorption behavior of cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone-based fibrous adsorbents with bovine serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yuzhong; Borneman, Zandrie; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    The cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone (PES)-based fibrous adsorbents were developed to study their adsorption behavior with bovine serum albumin (BSA). A fibrous adsorbent with an open pore surface had much better adsorption behavior with a higher adsorbing rate. The adsorption capacity

  16. Hepatic drug-oxidizing enzyme systems and urinary D-glucaric acid excretion in patients with congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokola, O; Pelkonen, O; Karki, N T; Luoma, P

    1975-10-01

    Drug-oxidizing enzyme systems in liver biopsy samples and the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid were studied in two different groups of patients with cardiac insufficiency. 2. In one group of six patients, the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes had decreased considerably as compared with the control values, but in four liver samples from patients treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents for their diabetes, activities were higher than in control samples from ten patients. 3. In the other group of seven patients, the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid (isolated by ion-exchange chromatography) was 60% lower than in the control group of nine humans, whereas in four patients taking antiepileptic agents excretion rate was higher than control values. 4. Because the age distribution was markedly different between cardiac insufficiency and control groups, it is difficult to conclude, if the impairment of drug metabolism was a consequence of the old age or of the disease process. However, drug-oxidizing enzyme systems seem to be inducible also in old age. 5. The results support further the opinion that the urinary excretion of D-glucaric acid may be one useful index in assessing an individual's capacity to metabolize foreign compounds especially in the patients with lowered drug metabolizing capacity.

  17. Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion of MnDPDP in the rat and dog after intravenous administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hustvedt, S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate distribution and excretion of mangafodipir (MnDPDP, Teslascan) in the rat and dog. Material and Methods: Formulations of either 14 C-MnDPDP or 54 MnDPDP were injected intravenously at near clinical doses in rats and dogs. Results: The manganese (Mn) moeity is rapidly removed from plasma with an elimination half-life of less than 25 min in both species, reflecting a rapid distribution to the tissues and an early excretion. The plasma clearance of the DPDP moeity is slower than that of Mn and it appears to distribute into the extracellular fluid. Mn is distributed largely to the liver, pancreas and kidneys, and in pregnant rats, also to foetal liver and bones. No transplacental passage of DPDP could be detected. The metal is mainly excreted by the faecal route, with a small fraction eliminated early in the urine. DPDP is rapidly and essentially completely excreted in the urine, consistent with the glomerular filtration rate. (orig./AJ)

  18. Effects of dietary carnitine and protein energy: non-protein energy ratios on growth, ammonia excretion and respiratory quotient in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Burchell) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozorio, R.O.A.; Eekeren, van T.H.B.; Huisman, E.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    Two separate feeding experiments were carried out to determine the effects of dietary carnitine supplements on growth rates, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) excretion and respiratory quotient rates (RQ) in the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), juveniles fed various diets differing in

  19. Feeding, respiration, and excretion of the Black Sea Noctiluca scintillans MacCartney in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drits, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.; Sergeeva, V. M.; Solov'ev, K. A.

    2013-07-01

    Studies were conducted at the end of June 2011 in the coastal region of the northeastern part of the Black Sea. The bulk of the Noctiluca scintillans population was observed in the thermocline and reached a density of 40000 ind./m3. Analysis of digestive vacuoles content showed that Noctiluca could consume cells of Neoceratium tripos and N. furca, which had been considered inedible for Black Sea zooplankton, as well as temporary cysts of dinoflagellates, presumably of the toxic genus Alexandrium. The Noctiluca population consumed in total 10-30% of the abundance of temporary cysts, 2-29% of primary production, and 2-9% of potential Calanus euxinus egg production. For the first time, the excretion rates of ammonium nitrogen and mineral phosphorus were measured for N. scintillans. Our calculations showed that in summer, excretion by Noctiluca contributed from 4 to 18% and from 15 to 53% of phytoplankton total nitrogen and phosphorus requirements, respectively. The specific growth rate of Noctiluca (0.17-0.35) in summer, estimated from data on the daily food intake and respiration rate, was close to the values obtained in spring.

  20. Age-related changes in the endocytosis of heat-denatured colloidal albumin by rat Kupffer cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, A.; Barelds, R.J.; Knook, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    In this study, two major functions of rat liver Kupffer cells, viz., endocytosis and catabolism, were determined in relation to age to investigate the cellular basis of the age-related changes in the functional capacity of the RES. Rat liver Kupffer cells were isolated, purified and placed into maintenance culture for 24 hours. The cells were then incubated with 125 I-labelled heat-denatured colloidal albumin (CA 125 I), a clinically used RES test substance. The kinetics of endocytosis and the catabolism of CA 125 I by Kupffer cells obtained from female BN/BiRij rats of various ages were compared. After incubation of cultured Kupffer cells with various concentrations of CA 125 I, no differences were observed in the uptake of CA 125 I by cells from rats of different ages. The capacities of Kupffer cells from young and old rats to degrade and excrete ingested CA 125 I are compared. Although Kupffer cells from old rats appear to be slightly more effective in the degradation and excretion of CA 125 I during the first half hour of postincubation, no significant differences between the two age groups were observed. (Auth.)

  1. Novel role of insulin in the regulation of glucose excretion by mourning doves (Zenaida macroura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweazea, Karen L; Braun, Eldon J; Sparr, Richard

    2017-06-01

    In mammals, insulin primarily lowers plasma glucose (P Glu ) by increasing its uptake into tissues. Studies have also shown that insulin lowers P Glu in mammals by modulating glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Birds have naturally high P Glu and, although insulin administration significantly decreases glucose concentrations, birds are resistant to insulin-mediated glucose uptake into tissues. Since prior work has not examined the effects of insulin on GFR in birds, the purpose of the present study was to assess whether insulin can augment renal glucose excretion and thereby lower P Glu . Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that insulin lowers P Glu in birds by augmenting GFR, as estimated by inulin clearance (C In ). Adult mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) were used as experimental animals. Doves were anesthetized and the brachial vein was cannulated for administration of [ 14 C]-inulin and insulin and the brachial artery was cannulated for blood collections. Ureteral urine was collected via a catheter inserted into the cloaca. Ten minutes following administration of exogenous insulin (400μg/kg body mass, i.v.) plasma glucose was significantly decreased (p=0.0003). Twenty minutes following insulin administration, increases in GFR (p=0.016) were observed along with decreases in urine glucose concentrations (p=0.008), glucose excretion (p=0.028), and the fractional excretion of glucose (p=0.003). Urine flow rate (p=0.051) also tended to increase after administration of insulin. These data demonstrate a significant role for insulin in modulating GFR in mourning doves, which may in part explain the lower P Glu measured following insulin administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF KANAMYCIN IN DOMESTIC RUMINANT SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, Z. IQBAL AND B. ASLAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Species dependent geonetical differences in renal clearance and urinary excretion of kanamycin were investigated in adult female buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats. The drug was administered as a single intravenous dose (5 mg/kg b.wt. Blood and urine samples were collected at various time intervals after drug administration. The plasma and urine concentrations of the drug were determined using the microbiological assay. The mean (± SE values for endogenous creatinine clearance (an index of glomerular filtration rate were 0.77 ± 0.05, 0.49 ± 0.07, 0.81 ± 0.07 and 0.98 ± 0.13 ml/min.kg in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats, respectively. Experiments regarding kidney handling of kanamycin in these ruminant species revealed respective values of renal clearance as 0.08 ± 0.01, 0.07 ± 0.01, 0.19 ± 0.02 and 0.23 ± 0.04 ml/min.kg. Besides glomerular filtration, kanamycin was reabsorbed from the renal tubules of all ruminant species and actively secreted into the renal tubules of buffaloes and goats. The cumulative percentages of intravenous dose of kanamycin excreted through urine during 12 hours in buffaloes, cows, sheep and goats were 4.31 ± 0.37, 2.53 ± 0.30, 11.0 ± 1.04 and 15.8 ± 2.22, respectively. This species variation in the percentage of urinary excretion in these domestic ruminants coincides with their respective glomerular filtration rates, being the highest in goats, lowest in cows and intermediate in sheep and buffaloes.

  3. Albumin (BSA) adsorption onto graphite stepped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Pereda, Pamela; Vilhena, J. G.; Takeuchi, Noboru; Serena, Pedro A.; Pérez, Rubén

    2017-06-01

    Nanomaterials are good candidates for the design of novel components with biomedical applications. For example, nano-patterned substrates may be used to immobilize protein molecules in order to integrate them in biosensing units. Here, we perform long MD simulations (up to 200 ns) using an explicit solvent and physiological ion concentrations to characterize the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) onto a nano-patterned graphite substrate. We have studied the effect of the orientation and step size on the protein adsorption and final conformation. Our results show that the protein is stable, with small changes in the protein secondary structure that are confined to the contact area and reveal the influence of nano-structuring on the spontaneous adsorption, protein-surface binding energies, and protein mobility. Although van der Waals (vdW) interactions play a dominant role, our simulations reveal the important role played by the hydrophobic lipid-binding sites of the BSA molecule in the adsorption process. The complex structure of these sites, that incorporate residues with different hydrophobic character, and their flexibility are crucial to understand the influence of the ion concentration and protein orientation in the different steps of the adsorption process. Our study provides useful information for the molecular engineering of components that require the immobilization of biomolecules and the preservation of their biological activity.

  4. Human serum albumin binding of certain antimalarials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Olivera S.; Cvijetić, Ilija N.; Zlatović, Mario V.; Opsenica, Igor M.; Konstantinović, Jelena M.; Terzić Jovanović, Nataša V.; Šolaja, Bogdan A.; Verbić, Tatjana Ž.

    2018-03-01

    Interactions between eight in-house synthesized aminoquinolines, along with well-known chloroquine, and human serum albumin (HSA) have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. The synthesized aminoquinolines, despite being structurally diverse, were found to be very potent antimalarials. Fluorescence measurements indicate that three compounds having additional thiophene or benzothiophene substructure bind more strongly to HSA than other studied compounds. Competitive binding experiments indicate that these three compounds bind significantly stronger to warfarin compared to diazepam binding site. Fluorescence quenching at three temperatures (20, 25, and 37 °C) was analyzed using classical Stern-Volmer equation, and a static quenching mechanism was proposed. The enthalpy and entropy changes upon sulphur-containing compound-HSA interactions were calculated using Van't Hoff equation. Positive values of enthalpy and entropy changes indicate that non-specific, hydrophobic interactions are the main contributors to HSA-compound interaction. Molecular docking and calculated lipophilicity descriptors indicate the same, pointing out that the increased lipophilicity of sulphur-containing compounds might be a reason for their better binding to HSA. Obtained results might contribute to design of novel derivatives with improved pharmacokinetic properties and drug efficacy.

  5. O2-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Gullotta, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. → O 2 -mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. → Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. → Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. → Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O 2 -mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O 2 -mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10 -5 and 8.3 x 10 -4 s -1 , and h = 1.3 x 10 -4 and 8.5 x 10 -4 s -1 , in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 o C. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O 2 -mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O 2 does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O 2 -mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

  6. On the possible involvement of bovine serum albumin precursor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    biotin affinity chromatography and mass finger printing analysis technique, herein we report the identification of a 70 kDa size protein (bovine serum albumin precursor, BSAP) which binds strongly with lipoplexes and may play role in lipofection ...

  7. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  8. Albumin-mediated delivery of siRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bienk, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    nucleases. Development of protective carriers for active transport of siRNA is a promising strategy to utilize the potential of siRNA therapeutics. Synthetic carriers have been used but are recognized as foreign and susceptible to capture by the mononuclear phagocytic system and invoking an immune response...... towards albumin. The binding affinity was shown to be dependent on position and number of modifications, and experiments suggested Fatty Acid site 5 as the binding site for the cholesteryl siRNA. In vitro experiments showed reduced serum degradation, increased stability of albumin/siRNA complexes for up...... to 72 hours in serum and reduced TNFα response towards albumin/siRNA complexes compared to naked siRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). It was also demonstrated that albumin can help efficient annealing of highly hydrophobic siRNA. Furthermore, it was shown that, by preferentially...

  9. CORRELATION OF SPOT URINE ALBUMIN AND 12-HOUR URINE PROTEIN WITH 24-HOUR URINE PROTEIN IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vinayachandran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pre-eclampsia is defined as the development of new-onset hypertension in the second half of pregnancy often accompanied by new-onset proteinuria with other signs and symptoms. Proteinuria is defined by the excretion of 300 mg or more of protein in a 24-hour urine collection. To avoid time consumed in collection of 24-hour urine specimens, efforts have been made to develop faster methods to determine concentration of urine protein. Preliminary studies have suggested that 12-hour urine protein collection maybe adequate for evaluation of pre-eclampsia with advantage of early diagnosis and treatment of pre-eclampsia as well as potential for early hospital discharge and increased compliance with specimen collection. The aim of the study is to evaluate and correlate spot urine albumin and 12-hour urine protein with 24-hour urine protein in pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS A diagnostic evaluation study- a 24-hour urine protein, 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin results are analysed. Correlation of 12-hour urine protein and spot urine albumin with 24-hour urine protein is analysed using SPSS software. The strength of correlation was measured by Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Student’s t-test and Chi-square tests were used to compare patients with and without 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg. Probability value of 165 mg with 24-hour urine protein ≥300 mg suggest that this test has role in the evaluation of women with suspected pre-eclampsia and could be substituted for 24-hour urine protein as a simple, faster and cheaper method.

  10. Diagnostic efficacy of random albumin creatinine ratio for detection of micro and macro-albuminuria in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanato, Rana M

    2016-03-01

    To compare a less cumbersome random albumin creatinine ratio (RACR) with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion (UAE) for detection of renal damage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This retrospective study performed between March 2013 and June 2014 at the Department of Pathology, King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia included 122 patients (mean age 54 ± 15, 104 females and 18 males) with T2DM. Urine albumin levels of less than 30 mg/g was considered normal, from 30-300 mg/g considered as micro-albuminuria, and over 300 mg/g considered as macro-albuminuria. Concordance between the 2 assays was observed in 114 (93.4%) samples. The sensitivity of RACR assay was 100%, specificity was 91.3% with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 95%, and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% in micro-albuminuria range. For macro-albuminuria, RACR had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 94.1% with PPV of 94% and NPV of 100%. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves analysis cut-off values of 40 mg/g-300 mg/g for micro- and greater than 300 mg/g for macro-albuminuria revealed 100% sensitivity, 97.5% specificity, 95% PPV, and 100% NPV for micro-albuminuria, and 100% sensitivity, 94% specificity, 76% PPV, and 100% NPP for macro-albuminuria. The area under the curve for micro-albuminuria was 100% and 98.2% for macro-albuminuria. Performance of RACR was comparable to 24 hour UAE assay particularly in excluding renal damage in T2DM.

  11. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace K Saba

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2 concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill by conducting a CO(2 perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2 levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP. Under elevated CO(2 conditions (∼672 ppm, ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1 d(-1 and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2 concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2 treatment than at ambient CO(2 concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2 treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, were consistently higher in the high CO(2 treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  12. Effects of oral contraceptives on total serum proteins, albumin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In view of the finding of this study, it is suggested that the biochemical profile of long-term oral contraceptive users be assessed periodically. Résumé Sérum protéine totale, albumine, globuline, le rapport albumine/globuline et le niveau du cholestérol tous étaient determines chez 25 clients, en utilisant contraceptives oraux ...

  13. Albumin-drug interaction and its clinical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Keishi; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2013-12-01

    Human serum albumin acts as a reservoir and transport protein for endogenous (e.g. fatty acids or bilirubin) and exogenous compounds (e.g. drugs or nutrients) in the blood. The binding of a drug to albumin is a major determinant of its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. The present review discusses recent findings regarding the nature of drug binding sites, drug-albumin binding in certain diseased states or in the presence of coadministered drugs, and the potential of utilizing albumin-drug interactions in clinical applications. Drug-albumin interactions appear to predominantly occur at one or two specific binding sites. The nature of these drug binding sites has been fundamentally investigated as to location, size, charge, hydrophobicity or changes that can occur under conditions such as the content of the endogenous substances in question. Such findings can be useful tools for the analysis of drug-drug interactions or protein binding in diseased states. A change in protein binding is not always a problem in terms of drug therapy, but it can be used to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic agents or to enhance the accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals to targets for diagnostic purposes. Furthermore, several extracorporeal dialysis procedures using albumin-containing dialysates have proven to be an effective tool for removing endogenous toxins or overdosed drugs from patients. Recent findings related to albumin-drug interactions as described in this review are useful for providing safer and efficient therapies and diagnoses in clinical settings. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Serum Albumin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Lack of plasma albumin impairs intravascular lipolysis and explains the associated free fatty acids deficiency and hypertriglyceridemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Helena CF

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in lipid metabolism and transport are hallmarks in analbuminemic Nagase rats (NAR and humans. Triglyceridemia is nearly 3- to 5-fold higher in female NAR than in control Sprague-Dawley rats (SDR. Also, NAR present with a severe plasma free fatty acid (FFA deficit. There are conflicting results regarding the mechanisms underlying NAR hypertriglyceridemia. Objective We aimed at investigating whether liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates into the plasma contribute to the hypertriglyceridemia in NAR. We also studied whether heparin or albumin administration would release the hypothesized lipolysis inhibition in NAR. Methods The incorporation of tritiated water into lipids and the linear accumulation rate of plasma triglycerides after Triton WR1339 injection were the measures of liver lipogenesis and triglyceride secretion rates. Results Lipogenesis (596 ± 40 vs. 929 ± 124 μmol 3H2O/g/h and triglyceride (4.25 ± 1.00 vs. 7.04 ± 1.68 mg/dL/min secretion rates were slower (P ≤ 0.05 in fasted NAR than in control SDR. The injection of either heparin or albumin elicited an increase in NAR plasma FFA levels over time. FFA levels reached control levels 90 min after the albumin administration, increasing from 0.36 ± 0.05 to 1.34 ± 0.16 mEq/L (P ≤ 0.05. These results indicate that the lack of plasma albumin inhibits intravascular lipolysis and causes the FFA deficit observed in NAR. Conclusion NAR hepatic triglyceride synthesis and output do not contribute to NAR hypertriglyceridemia. We propose that the lack of albumin diminishes intravascular lipolysis which reduces the plasma triglyceride removal rate and explain both NAR hypertriglyceridemia and FFA deficiency.

  15. 2B.07: DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MODIFIES THE ASSOCIATION OF URIC ACID WITH ALBUMIN/CREATININE RATIO IN PRE-METABOLIC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcoviechova, A; Cifkova, R; Wohlfahrt, P; Bruthans, J; Tremblay, J; Hamet, P

    2015-06-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). We questioned whether UA and ACR are associated in pre-metabolic individuals, and whether this association is modified by any component variable of the metabolic syndrome. In a cross-sectional survey of a representative Czech population (n = 3612) aged 25-64 years, urinary albumin and creatinine excretion were determined in an early morning spot urine sample and ACR was calculated. Components of MetS were defined using the joint statement of IDF, NHBLI, AHA, WHF, IAS, and IASO. Individuals presenting with 1 or 2 components were defined as pre-metabolic. Individuals with urinary albumin excretion bellow the detection limit of 1 mg (n = 594), diabetes treated with glucose lowering medication (n = 122), current use of inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (n = 95) and incomplete data (n = 135) were excluded from this analysis. This resulted in 2666 individuals in total. Six hundred and sixty-five (25%) individuals presented without any component of MetS, and 1248 (46.8%) individuals with 1 or 2 components. In individuals free of any component of MetS, there was no association between UA and ln-ACR. In pre-metabolic individuals, UA significantly correlated with ln-ACR in men (n = 639; standardized beta (SB) 0.091; p = 0.022) and in women (n = 609; SB 0.122; p = 0.003). After multivariate adjustment, UA was independently associated with ln-ACR (SB 0.058; p = 0.004), age (SB -0.247; p creatinine ratio in individuals with pre-metabolic syndrome. This association appears to be largely modified by diastolic blood pressure.

  16. Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Gispert, M P; Martins, M C L; Brogueira, P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2006-09-01

    The orthopedic prosthesis used to substitute damaged natural joints are lubricated by a pseudosynovial fluid that contains biological macromolecules with potential boundary lubrication properties. Proteins are some of those macromolecules whose role in the lubrication process is not yet completely understood. In a previous work, we investigated the influence of the presence of albumin, the major synovial protein, upon the tribological behavior of three of the most used pairs of artificial joint materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against counterfaces of alumina, CoCrMo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. Albumin was found to cause a significant decrease in the friction coefficient when the counterfaces were metallic because transfer of UHMWPE was avoided, but this effect was much weaker in the case of alumina. The objective of the present work was to look for an explanation for these differences in tribological behavior in terms of albumin adsorption. With this goal, studies on adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the counterface materials, from a biological model fluid (Hanks' balanced salt solution), were carried out using radiolabeled albumin ((125)I-BSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The conclusion from all techniques is that the driving force for albumin adsorption is higher on the metals than on alumina. These results confirm that the greater the amount of protein adsorbed on the counterface, the more efficient is the protection against the transfer of polymeric film to the counterface.

  17. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  18. Adsorption of egg albumin onto methylated yeast biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira; Maruyama, Hideo

    2004-02-15

    A new biosorbent, methylated yeast (MeYE), was prepared for the adsorptive separation of proteins from aqueous solutions. Yeast was methylated in a 0.1 M HCl methyl alcohol solution at room temperature. About 80% of the carboxylic groups of yeast could be methylated within 9 h. The adsorption of egg albumin onto MeYE was studied to evaluate the protein adsorption ability of MeYE. At near neutral pH, egg albumin was scarcely adsorbed onto unmethylated yeast and the adsorbed amount of egg albumin increased with increasing methylation degree. The amount of egg albumin adsorbed onto MeYE increased with increasing pH from 4 to 7 and steeply decreased above pH 7. The Langmuir isotherm was applied to determine the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin on MeYE. Both the apparent adsorption constant and the saturated adsorbed amount increased with the degree of methylation. The saturated adsorbed amount of egg albumin onto MeYE having methylation degree 77% was 8.41 x 10(-6) mol g(-1) or 0.378 gg(-1) at near neutral pH.

  19. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. 125 I- and/or 131 I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. 99m Tc-labeled DTPA and 51 Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial 99m Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h

  20. Albumin adsorption on oxide thin films studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Bermudez, P., E-mail: suriel21@yahoo.com [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Unidad de Posgrado, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, CU, 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rodil, S.E.; Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, C.U., 04510, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-12-15

    Thin films of tantalum, niobium, zirconium and titanium oxides were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering and their wettability and surface energy, optical properties, roughness, chemical composition and microstructure were characterized using contact angle measurements, spectroscopic ellipsometry, profilometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The purpose of the work was to correlate the surface properties of the films to the Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) adsorption, as a first step into the development of an initial in vitro test of the films biocompatibility, based on standardized protein adsorption essays. The films were immersed into BSA solutions with different protein concentrations and protein adsorption was monitored in situ by dynamic ellipsometry; the adsorption-rate was dependent on the solution concentration and the immersion time. The overall BSA adsorption was studied in situ using spectroscopic ellipsometry and it was found to be influenced by the wettability of the films; larger BSA adsorption occurred on the more hydrophobic surface, the ZrO{sub 2} film. On the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2} films, hydrophilic surfaces, the overall BSA adsorption increased with the surface roughness or the polar component of the surface energy.

  1. Availability of urinary albumin measurement in Southern Brazilian laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana Aguiar Soares

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD is the leading worldwide cause of end-stage renal disease. The current recommendation is to screen for DKD by evaluating estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR and measuring urinary albumin (UA levels in a spot sample. The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of UA measurement in Southern Brazilian laboratories.   Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the routine use of UA in all laboratories registered in the State Pharmacy Council ofRio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state ofBrazil. Data was collected by mail, e-mail, telephone, or personal interview. A sample size of at least 384 laboratories was necessary to achieve 5% precision at a 95% confidence level based on a fixed proportion of 0.5.   Results: Eight hundred and eighty laboratories currently registered in the state were invited to participate in the study; 548 (62% answered the technical specification questionnaire. Only 306 (55% of the 548 surveyed laboratories performed UA measurements. The laboratories were also required to provide the number of UA measurements performed per day, which ranged from less than one per week to 65 per day.  Conclusion: The availability of UA measurements is undesirably low inSouthern Brazil. This demonstrates the urgent need to increase the availability of this important test. It also reveals the gap between the current guidelines and the awareness about them among health care professionals.

  2. A comparison of two methods for the evaluation of the daily urinary fluoride excretion in Romanian pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, M; Bánóczy, J; Fazakas, Z; Hobai, S; Villa, A

    2008-03-01

    To compare two different methods of estimating daily fluoride urinary excretion in pre-school children under stable fluoride intake conditions. Thirty-five healthy kindergarten children, permanent residents of Targu-Mures, Romania, where the average drinking water fluoride concentration is 0.12 mg F/L, participated on two separate occasions, when they were aged 4-6 and 5-7 years, respectively in the collection of a) a mid-morning spot urine sample and b) a 16-h time-controlled urine sampling. In case a), the ratio of concentrations of fluoride and creatinine were measured, while in case b) the rates of fluoride excretion in two separate 8-hour periods were used to estimate the 24-hour fluoride urinary excretion. The estimated average daily fluoride urinary excretion values (S.D.) were 0.318 (0.182) mg F/day for method a) and 0.341 (0.193) mg F/day for method b). These values were not significantly different (Mann-Whitney U test; p = 0.49). The estimated daily fluoride doses were 0.040 (0.021) and 0.043 (0.022) mg F/kg body weight/day, respectively. The latter values were not significantly different (Mann Whitney U test; p = 0.38). Results obtained suggest that under stable F-intake conditions the estimation of the daily fluoride urinary excretion by means of a mid-morning spot urine sample yields comparable results to those obtained with the more involved method of separate, two 8 h (16 h) time-controlled urine sampling recommended by the WHO. Use of spot urine sampling appears to be particularly useful for epidemiological studies.

  3. Urinary excretion of arsenicals following daily intake of various seafoods during a two weeks intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, M.; Ulven, S.M.; Dahl, L.

    2014-01-01

    The excretion pattern of arsenic (As) species after seafood intake varies widely depending on species ingested and individual handling. We have previously reported the 72h urinary excretion of arsenicals following a single dose of seafood. Here, we report the excretion patterns in the same 37...

  4. Changes in urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Jörning, G. G.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    This study followed the time course of urinary taurine and hypotaurine excretion after two-thirds hepatectomy in rats. The excretion of both taurine and hypotaurine was elevated during 18 h following the hepatectomy, with maximal excretion during the first 6 h. Twelve and 24 h after partial

  5. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  6. Kinetics of Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Bovine Serum Albumin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera A Borzova

    Full Text Available Thermal aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA has been studied using dynamic light scattering, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and analytical ultracentrifugation. The studies were carried out at fixed temperatures (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 80°C in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, at BSA concentration of 1 mg/ml. Thermal denaturation of the protein was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Analysis of the experimental data shows that at 65°C the stage of protein unfolding and individual stages of protein aggregation are markedly separated in time. This circumstance allowed us to propose the following mechanism of thermal aggregation of BSA. Protein unfolding results in the formation of two forms of the non-native protein with different propensity to aggregation. One of the forms (highly reactive unfolded form, Uhr is characterized by a high rate of aggregation. Aggregation of Uhr leads to the formation of primary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,1 of 10.3 nm. The second form (low reactive unfolded form, Ulr participates in the aggregation process by its attachment to the primary aggregates produced by the Uhr form and possesses ability for self-aggregation with formation of stable small-sized aggregates (Ast. At complete exhaustion of Ulr, secondary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,2 of 12.8 nm are formed. At 60°C the rates of unfolding and aggregation are commensurate, at 70°C the rates of formation of the primary and secondary aggregates are commensurate, at 80°C the registration of the initial stages of aggregation is complicated by formation of large-sized aggregates.

  7. Novel Transgenic Mouse Model for Studying Human Serum Albumin as A Biomarker of Carcinogenic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, Jonathan; Wang, Yi; Turesky, Robert J.; Kluetzman, Kerri; Zhang, Qing-Yu; Ding, Xinxin

    2016-01-01

    Albumin is a commonly used serum protein for studying human exposure to xenobiotic compounds, including therapeutics and environmental pollutants. Often, the reactivity of albumin with xenobiotic compounds is studied ex vivo with human albumin or plasma/serum samples. Some studies have characterized the reactivity of albumin with chemicals in rodent models; however, differences between the orthologous peptide sequences of human and rodent albumins can result in formation of different types of...

  8. Pancreatic excretion of 5, 5-dimethyl-2, 4-oxazolidinedione in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, A; Hayakawa, T; Nakajima, S; Suzuki, T; Toda, Y

    1975-11-01

    Pancreatic excretion of 5,5-dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DMO) was studied in 25 normal subjects using the technique of the traditional pancreatic secretory test. The pancreozymin-secretin test was performed 4 days after the oral administration of trimethadione (3,5,5-trimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione, the precursor of DMO) for 3 consecutive days. When a dose of 1 unit/kg of pancreozymin was administered intravenously, both DMO concentration and output of a 10-min fractional specimen were rapidly increased and then decreased gradually. When a dose of 1 unit/kg of secretin was injected 30 min after pancreozymin, DMO concentration in duodenal aspirate showed no significant alteration, while DMO output of the aspirate was remarkably increased and then diminished in parallel to flow rate. DMO concentration in plasma varied widely from subject to subject, but was fairly constant during the course of the test in the same subject. Total DMO output in the postpancreozymin 30-min and postsecretin 60-min periods was linearly related to plasma DMO concentration. The output of DMO, when expressed as the output at a level of 10 mg/100 ml of plasma DMO, was linearly related to secretory volume and bicarbonate and amylase outputs in the postsecretin period. These results led to the conclusion that the human pancreas was capable of excreting a week organic acid of DMO with a molecular weight of 129.1 and that the excretion of DMO in normal subjects was a funciton of two factors: plasma DMO concentration and pancreatic secretory volume.

  9. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  10. Excretion of [3H]prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    The excretion rate of [3H]prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of [3H]prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and [3H]prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of [3H]prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of [3H]prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows

  11. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of soy-protein and egg albumin on endogenously secreted zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberleas, D.; Smith, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Male albino rats (Charles River) were maintained on a basal soy-protein diet, unsupplemented with Zn and with 1.6% Ca for 4 weeks [Ca][Phy]/[Zn] = 9.4(molar). Animals were subdivided in 2 expts. between soy-protein 0.8% Ca, 11.24 mg Zn/Kg diet [4.2(molar)] or 1.6% Ca, 11.21 mg Zn/Kg [9.4(molar)] and egg albumin 0.8% Ca, 0.46 mg Zn/Kg diet and 1.6% Ca, 0.37 mg Zn/Kg diet at which time each animal was injected with 10 μCi 65 Zn. Daily fecal collections were made for 14 days and ratios of 65 Zn Soy:Egg alb. calculated. The very low concentration of Zn in the egg albumin diet restricted the pancreatic secretion of Zn and the differential effect of phytate on these diets was not apparent as shown earlier with soy and casein diets. This was also reflected in the growth rates of the exptl. groups in that the egg albumin fed rats gained -4.4 and -9.0 g/wk; soy fed rats gained 28.0 and 17.3 g/wk

  13. Low doses of terlipressin and albumin in the type I hepatorenal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Pulvirenti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hepatorenal syndrome is a pre-renal like dysfunction that generally onsets in cirrhotic patients presenting ascites. MATERIALS AND METHODS We investigated the improvement of renal function in subjects with hepatorenal syndrome after terlipressin administration and the survival times after this treatment. 30 patients affected by cirrhosis, with diagnosis of type I hepatorenal syndrome were treated with intravenous terlipressin plus albumin (group A or with albumin alone (group B. Liver function, renal function, sodium plasma level and plasma renin activity were monitored. RESULTS Patients of group A showed a significant improvement (p < 0.001 of renal function valued by creatinine rate compared with the results obtained in group B. The probability of survival was higher in the group A (p < 0.0001. CONCLUSIONS Our results seem to confirm that the administration of terlipressin plus albumin improves renal function in patients with cirrhosis and type I hepatorenal syndrome and that a reversal of hepatorenal syndrome is strongly associated with an improved survival.

  14. Normal overall leakiness of microvasculature for albumin in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kok-Jensen, A; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1984-01-01

    The overall extravasation rate of albumin, TER (i.e. the fraction of the intravascular albumin mass (IVM) passing into, and during steady state returning from, the extravascular space per unit time) was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin in seven...... patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD) and in seven normal controls. Arterial oxygen tension in patients with COLD was median 60 mmHg (range 47-80, normal greater than 75 mmHg), vital capacity was on the average 55% of expected normal value (median 1.80 litre, range 1.......45-1.95), and forced expired volume in first sec was decreased to 21% of expected normal value (median 0.55 litre, range 0.40-0.70). Right-heart catheterization revealed pulmonary hypertension in all but one patient. TER in patients with COLD was median 6.1% IVM/h (range 3.5-10.1) as compared to that of normal...

  15. Study about excretion of 210 Po in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Azeredo, A.M.G. da.

    1988-01-01

    The urine of mines's workers are analysed to detect the presence of 210 Po. The results was compared with the workers and with a control population. Cigarettes samples was analysed two and confirmed the 210 presence. The control population individuals were divided in smokers and non smokers and them urine was investigated the influence of the smoke in the 210 Po excretion. (L.M.J.)

  16. The daily water, sodium and potassium excretion in urine of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The daily water, sodium and potassium excretion in urine of. Ghanaian children aged 5 to 12 years. *E. 0. Badoe, W. Appeadu-Mensah, Afua Hesse and S. 0. Maddy. Depart111ent r~f S11rge1y and Chemical Pathology, 1 University r!f' Ghana. Medical School, Accra, Ghana. Summary. Aim: The aim of the study was to ...

  17. Genome-Wide Identification and Comparative Analysis of Albumin Family in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shugang Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Albumins are the most well-known globular proteins, and the most typical representatives are the serum albumins. However, less attention was paid to the albumin family, except for the human and bovine serum albumin. To characterize the features of albumin family, we have mined all the putative albumin proteins from the available genome sequences. The results showed that albumin is widely distributed in vertebrates, but not present in the bacteria and archaea. The phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate albumin family implied an evolutionary relationship between members of serum albumin, α-fetoprotein, vitamin D–binding protein, and afamin. Meanwhile, a new member from the albumin family was found, namely, extracellular matrix protein 1. The structural analysis revealed that the motifs for forming the internal disulfide bonds are highly conserved in the albumin family, despite the low overall sequence identity across the family. The domain arrangement of albumin proteins indicated that most of vertebrate albumins contain 3 characteristic domains, arising from 2 evolutionary patterns. And a significant trend has been observed that the albumin proteins in higher vertebrate species tend to possess more characteristic domains. This study has provided the fundamental information required for achieving a better understanding of the albumin distribution, phylogenetic relationship, characteristic motif, structure, and new insights into the evolutionary pattern.

  18. Relationship between urinary sodium excretion and pioglitazone-induced edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akinobu; Osonoi, Takeshi; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2010-10-19

    To investigate the factors contributing to pioglitazone-induced edema, we analyzed sodium excretion and several clinical parameters before and after administration of pioglitazone. We analyzed these parameters before and after 8 weeks of administration of pioglitazone to female subjects with type 2 diabetes. When we evaluated whether a significant correlation was found between salt excretion and blood pressure, six patients showed such correlation and 20 patients did not. After 8 weeks of pioglitazone administration, five patients had developed edema, and, surprisingly, such correlation was not found in all five subjects. Salt excretion after administration of pioglitazone was significantly lower in subjects who developed edema and those who showed the correlation, and the hematocrit was significantly lower after administration in the subjects who showed the correlation, but not in the edema group. Pioglitazone-induced edema would be caused not only by fluid retention, but also by other factors, such as vascular permeability. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/ j.2040-1124.2010.00046.x, 2010).

  19. Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultcrantz, R.; Angelin, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.E.; Ewerth, S.; Einarsson, K.

    1989-01-01

    The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis

  20. Concentration and daily excretion of uranium in urine of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolmachev, Sergei; Kuwabara, Jun; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2006-08-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate uranium concentrations in urine samples for unexposed Japanese individuals and to evaluate uranium daily excretion. Uranium concentrations were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted digestion and online separation using the UTEVA extraction chromatographic resin. The concentrations ranged from 0.8 to 35.6 ng of uranium per liter of urine (median 4.5 ng L(-1)). Urinary uranium was normalized relative to the creatinine concentration in order to compensate for the degree of urine dilution. Creatinine-normalized values ranged from 1.2 to 17.8 ng of uranium per gram of creatinine (median 7.4 ng g(-1) creatinine). These results corresponded to the lower end of urinary uranium reported for unexposed populations. The level of daily excreted uranium was calculated as 6.45 ng d(-1) (median value) using ICRP recommended values for 24-h creatinine excretion. These data along with literature data on uranium dietary intake for Japanese populations were used to estimate the uranium gastrointestinal absorption fraction (f(1)). The median f(1) value was calculated to be 0.007. Statistical analysis was done to investigate statistical differences and relationships between the studied variables.

  1. Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteinase A excretion and wine making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lulu; Chen, Yefu; Du, Yongjing; Wang, Xibin; Guo, Xuewu; Dong, Jian; Xiao, Dongguang

    2017-11-09

    Proteinase A (PrA), the major protease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an essential role in zymogen activation, sporulation, and other physiological processes in vivo. The extracellular secretion of PrA often occurs during alcoholic fermentation, especially in the later stages when the yeast cells are under stress conditions, and affects the quality and safety of fermented products. Thus, the mechanism underlying PrA excretion must be explored to improve the quality and safety of fermented products. This paper briefly introduces the structure and physiological function of PrA. Two transport routes of PrA, namely, the Golgi-to-vacuole pathway and the constitutive Golgi-to-plasma membrane pathway, are also discussed. Moreover, the research history and developments on the mechanism of extracellular PrA secretion are described. In addition, it is briefly discussed that calcium homeostasis plays an important role in the secretory pathway of proteins, implying that the regulation of PrA delivery to the plasma membrane requires the involvement of calcium ion. Finally, this review focuses on the effects of PrA excretion on wine making (including Chinese rice wine, grape wine, and beer brewage) and presents strategies to control PrA excretion.

  2. Quetiapine reduces nocturnal urinary cortisol excretion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Stefan; Pohlmann, Kathrin; Guan, Zhenghua; Jordan, Wolfgang; Meier, Andreas; Huether, Gerald; Rüther, Eckart; Rodenbeck, Andrea

    2004-07-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction is a frequent finding in psychiatric disorders, including psychotic depression and schizophrenia. Conflicting results exist concerning the influence of antipsychotics on the HPA-axis. Therefore, this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized cross-over study investigated the effect of quetiapine on nocturnal urinary cortisol and melatonin excretion in 13 healthy male subjects under conditions of undisturbed and experimentally disturbed sleep. Volunteers were studied 3 times for 3 consecutive nights (N0, adaptation; N1, standard sleep conditions; N2, acoustic stress) 4 days apart. Placebo, quetiapine 25 mg or quetiapine 100 mg was administered orally 1 h before bedtime on nights 1 and 2. Urine produced during the 8-h bedtime period was collected for later determination of cortisol and melatonin concentrations by standard radioimmunoassays. MANOVA showed a significant effect for N1 vs. N2 with elevated total amount of cortisol ( pmelatonin ( pcortisol excretion in comparison to placebo. No interaction effect of stress condition was observed. There was no effect of quetiapine on melatonin levels. The significant reduction of nocturnal cortisol excretion following quetiapine reflects a decreased activity of the HPA-axis in healthy subjects. This finding may be an important aspect in quetiapine's mode of action in different patient populations.

  3. Plasma-to-ascitic fluid transport rate of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Relation to intraperitoneal albumin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Ring-Larsen, H; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    was on the average 0.22 of that of plasma and directly correlated to the plasma concentration (rlin = 0.68, P less than 0.01). The hydrostatic pressure difference across the splanchnic microvasculature (assessed as wedged hepatic vein minus inferior vena caval pressure) was directly correlated to the effective...... (plasma minus ascitic fluid) oncotic pressure (rlin = 0.74, P less than 0.001) but significantly higher than that (P less than 0.005), indicating a 'non-equilibrium' in the splanchnic Starling forces. The results point to a multivariate genesis and perpetuation of cirrhotic ascites as laid down...

  4. Effect of human serum albumin on the kinetics of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N-N'-N″ Triacetylchitotrioside hydrolysis catalyzed by hen egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Cristian; Abuin, Elsa; Lissi, Eduardo; Montecinos, Rodrigo

    2011-08-01

    The effect of human serum albumin (HSA) addition on the rate of hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N-N'-N″ triacetylchitotrioside ((NAG)(3)-MUF) catalyzed by hen egg white lysozyme has been measured in aqueous solution (citrate buffer 50 mM pH = 5.2 at 37 °C). The presence of HSA leads to a decrease in the rate of the process. The reaction follows a Michaelis-Menten mechanism under all the conditions employed. The catalytic rate constant decreases tenfold when the albumin concentration increases, while the Michaelis constant remains almost constant in the albumin concentration range employed. Ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that the main origin of the observed variation in the kinetic behavior is related to the existence of an HSA-lysozyme interaction. Interestingly, the dependence of the catalytic rate constant with albumin concentration parallels the decrease of the free enzyme concentration. We interpret these results in terms of the presence in the system of two enzyme populations; namely, the HSA associated enzyme which does not react and the free enzyme reacting as in the absence of albumin. Other factors such as association of the substrate to albumin or macromolecular crowding effects due to the presence of albumin are discarded. Theoretical modeling of the structure of the HSA-lysozyme complex shows that the Glu35 and Asp52 residues located in the active site of lysozyme are oriented toward the HSA surface. This conformation will inactivate lysozyme molecules bound to HSA.

  5. Excretion of the urinary 5C- and 7C-aglycone metabolites of vitamin K by young adults responds to changes in dietary phylloquinone and dihydrophylloquinone intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Dominic J; Booth, Sarah L; Card, David J; Shearer, Martin J

    2007-07-01

    The physiological function and putative health roles of vitamin K-dependent proteins now extend beyond their classical role in hemostasis and include bone mineralization, arterial calcification, apoptosis, phagocytosis, growth control, chemotaxis, and signal transduction. Current assessments of vitamin K status do not reflect the variety of molecular forms of vitamin K. We assessed whether urinary excretion of 2-methyl-3-(5'-carboxy-3'-methyl-2'-pentenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (7C-aglycone) and 2-methyl-3-(3'-3'-carboxymethylpropyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (5C-aglycone), vitamin K metabolites common to both phylloquinone and the menaquinone series, reflect dietary vitamin K intake. In a randomized crossover study, 9 adults resided in a metabolic unit for two 30-d periods separated by a free-living period of > or = 4 wk. During each residency, subjects consumed 3 sequential diets: a control diet (93 microg phylloquinone/d) for 5 d, a phylloquinone-restricted diet (11 microg/d) for 15 d, followed by a randomly assigned repletion diet for 10 d with either phylloquinone (206 microg/d) or dihydrophylloquinone (240 microg/d). During the second residency, the alternative repletion diet was assigned. Urinary excretion of the 5C- and 7C-aglycones was measured in sequential 24-h collections. The 5C-aglycone accounted for approximately 75% of total excretion and declined in response to phylloquinone restriction (P = 0.001) to approximately 30% of that during the control diet period. Repletion with phylloquinone and dihydrophylloquinone doubled the excretion rate of the major 5C-aglycone by 24 h (P < 0.001), and tripled excretion by 4 d. There was a linear relationship between the logarithm of total urinary excretion and dietary vitamin K intake (r = 0.699, P < 0.001). We conclude that the urinary excretion of vitamin K metabolites reflects dietary phylloquinone intake and offers the first candidate marker of global vitamin K status.

  6. Dialysis membrane-dependent removal of middle molecules during hemodiafiltration: the beta2-microglobulin/albumin relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenholz, P G; Winkler, R E; Michelsen, A; Lang, D A; Bowry, S K

    2004-07-01

    Current hemodialysis therapy modalities such as online hemodiafiltration (HDF) attempt to enhance solute removal over a wide molecular weight range through a combination of diffusion and convection. While the effects of variations of treatment modalities and conditions have been studied reasonably well, few studies have examined the efficacy of HDF to remove middle molecules in relation to the dialyzer and membrane characteristics. In this investigation, diverse high-flux dialyzers, covering a wide range of membrane permeabilities, were compared under identical in vivo conditions to assess their ability to eliminate larger uremic retention solutes (using beta2-microglobulin as a surrogate of middle molecules) without simultaneously causing excessive leakage of useful proteins such as albumin. In a prospective, crossover study, 3 ESRD patients were treated with 8 different brands of high-flux dialyzers at 4 different ultrafiltration (UF)/substitution flow rates (QS: 0, 30, 60, 90 ml/min) in post-dilution HDF mode. Thus, each patient underwent 32 treatment sessions, with a total of 96 treatment sessions conducted during the entire clinical study. Albumin and beta2-microglobulin levels were measured in both, dialysate and blood. Both, albumin and beta2-microglobulin elimination was dependent upon the permeability of the dialysis membrane as well as on the ultrafiltration/substitution flow rates applied. At the maximum UF rate of 90 ml/min, the total albumin loss (measured in the dialysate) ranged from 300 mg/4 h (for the FLX-15 GWS dialyzers) to 7,000 mg/4 h (for the BS-1.3U dialyzers). Up to 50% reduction of albumin occurred within the first 30 minutes of the dialysis treatment, and the leakage of albumin increased exponentially with increasing UF rates as well as increasing transmembrane pressure (TMP). The various dialyzers could be classified according to their UFR-dependent beta2-m reduction rates (RR), into low ( 70%; BS-1.3U, APS 650, FX 60) removers of middle

  7. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  8. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  9. Aortic endothelial and smooth muscle histamine metabolism. Relationship to aortic 125I-albumin accumulation in experimental diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, T.M.; Gallik, S.G.; Orlidge, A.; Yost, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    We studied rat aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cell de novo histamine synthesis mediated by histidine decarboxylase (HD) and the effects of its inhibition by alpha-hydrazinohistidine on the intracellular histamine content and intraaortic albumin accumulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single jugular vein injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, pH 4.5, ether anesthesia), with animals held 4 weeks following the overt manifestation of diabetes. Additional diabetic and nondiabetic rats received alpha-hydrazinohistidine (25 mg/kg, i.p. every 12 hours) during the last week; this had no effect on the severity of diabetes in any animal receiving streptozotocin. Data indicate that the aortic endothelial (EC) HD activity was increased more than 130% in the untreated diabetic group but was similar to control values in the diabetic group receiving alpha-hydrazinohistidine; similarily, the EC histamine content from diabetic aortas increased 127% over control values, but in EC from diabetic animals receiving alpha-hydrazinohistidine it was comparable to control values. Similar trends were observed for the subjacent aortic smooth muscle. In untreated diabetic animals the aortic 125I-albumin mass transfer rate was increased 60% over control values, while in diabetic animals receiving alpha-hydrazinohistidine the 125I-albumin mass transfer rate was essentially identical to controls. These data indicate that in streptozotocin diabetes there is an expansion of the inducible aortic histamine pool, and that this expansion is intimately related to the increased aortic albumin accumulation

  10. 131I-albumin caused metabolic changes in patients carrying systemic lupus erythematosus with or without nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossermelli, W.; Carvalho, N.; Papaleo Netto, M.

    1974-01-01

    Human 131 I-albumin metabolism has been analyzed in 28 female patients carrying systemic lupus erythematosus, 14 out of whom have also presented nephropathy. The hypoalbuminemia common in this type of affection is explained. The results of a comparison made between the two groups, as well as of another comparison of both groups to a normal female individuals one let to the following conclusion: non-significant difference was show relating to restoration and distribution half-life, as well as albumin turn over rate under the two fold comparisons; significative distribution half-life increase in those patients suffering from kidneys disease when compared to normal individuals; non-significative half-life and radioactive albumin turn over rate difference of patients with renal lesion when compared to normal women. The findings allowed the following judgment: if the synthesis and the katabolism are excluded as the main causes of the hypoalbuminemia, the other factors may be a compensation mechanism due to protein alterations like the hypergammaglobulinemia without, however, any sensible loss of the stabilizing and metabolic albumin functions, perhaps due to a possible qualitative change of its molecule [pt

  11. Quantitative determination of albumin in microlitre amounts of rat serum: With a short note on serum albumin levels in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.; Hollander, C.F.

    1967-01-01

    A simple dye binding method for determining rat serum albumin, which employs the anionic dye 2-(4′-hydroxybenzneeazo) benzoic acid (HBABA) is described. Albumin in 5μ1 of serum is determined colorimetrically. Purified rat albumin is used as a primary standard and rat serum as a reference sample.

  12. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus absorption and excretion in horses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, Ives Claudio da Silva; Abdalla, Adibe Luiz; Vitti, Dorinha Miriam Silber Schmidt [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Nutricao Animal]. E-mails: icsbueno@cena.usp.br; abdalla@cena.usp.br; dovitti@cena.usp.br; Furtado, Carlos Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zootecnia]. E-mail: cefurtado@uem.br

    2007-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most polluting nutrients because of high husbandry concentrations in restricted areas. The present study compiles data from previous studies dealing with true digestibility of different P levels in diets for horses. Database consisted of results from two experiments carried out at the Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA/USP), using horses fed different levels of P (n=28). True absorption of phosphorus was determined by isotopic dilution technique, using {sup 32}P as tracer. All parameters (P{sub ING}: ingested P; P{sub ABS}: absorbed P; P{sub FECTOT}: total faecal P excretion; P{sub FECENDO}: endogenous faecal P; P{sub URI}: total urinary excretion; and P{sub RET}: retained P) were normalized according to body weight (BW) and linear and quadratic regressions between P{sub ING} and the other parameters were tested. No quadratic effect was observed. P{sub ING} ranged from 41 to 264 mg/kg BW. Faecal P excretion was affected by intake, analysing by total (P{sub FECTOT} = 0.888 (S.E. 0.058) P{sub ING} - 29.40 (S.E. 8.14) (P<0.0001; RMSE=20.37; R{sup 2}=0.90) or by endogenous fraction (P{sub FECENDO} = 0.095 (S.E. 0.029) P{sub ING} + 12.10 (S.E. 4.16) (P=0.0034; RMSE=10.41; {sup R}2=0.29). Urinary P excretion was not affected by intake (P=0.35), although ranging from 0.06 to 59.20 mg/kg BW. The same occurred for P{sub RET} (P=0.25) ranging from -13.69 to 88.78 mg/kg BW. P absorption also was affect by P intake (P{sub ABS} = 0.195 (S.E. 0.060) P{sub ING} + 42.19 (S.E. 8.45) (P=0.0031; RMSE=21.15; R{sup 2}=0.29). The present study showed that only a small part of ingested P was absorbed, i.e. most of ingested P was excreted via faeces, contributing for environmental pollution. (author)

  13. Preparation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles by desolvation using a membrane contactor: a new tool for large scale production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedomon, B; Fessi, H; Charcosset, C

    2013-11-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are attractive drug delivery systems as they can be prepared under soft conditions and incorporate several kinds of molecules. The aim of this study was to upscale the desolvation process for preparing Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles using a membrane contactor. At a first step, the BSA nanoparticles were prepared at small scale using a syringe pump. BSA nanoparticles of 139 nm in size, with a polydispersity index of 0.046, were obtained at the optimal conditions: pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution (2 mL), and 1 mL min(-1) flow rate of ethanol addition (8 mL). The upscaling with a membrane contactor was achieved by permeating ethanol through the pores of a Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG Technology Co., Japan) membrane and circulating the aqueous phase tangentially to the membrane surface. By increasing the pressure of the ethanol from 1 to 2.7 bars, a progressive decrease in nanoparticle size was obtained with a high nanoparticles yield (around 94-96%). In addition, the flow rate of the circulating phase did not affect the BSA nanoparticle characteristics. At the optimal conditions (pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution, pressure of ethanol 2.7 bars, flow rate of the circulating phase 30.7 mL s(-1)), the BSA nanoparticles showed similar characteristics to those obtained with the syringe pump. Large batches of BSA nanoparticles were prepared up to 10 g BSA. The BSA nanoparticles were stable at least during 2 months at 4 °C, and their characteristics were reproducible. It was then concluded that the membrane contactor technique could be a suitable method for the preparation of albumin nanoparticles at large scale with properties similar to that obtained at small scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Miri Baek,1,* Hae-Eun Chung,1,* Jin Yu,1,* Jung-A Lee,1 Tae-Hyun Kim,2 Jae-Min Oh,2 Won-Jae Lee,3 Seung-Min Paek,3 Jong Kwon Lee,4 Jayoung Jeong, 4 Jin-Ho Choy,5 Soo-Jin Choi1 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, 2Department of Chemistry and Medical Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwondo; 3Department of Chemistry and Green-Nano Materials Research Center, Kyungpook National University, Taegu, 4Toxicological Research Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Chungchungbuk-do, 5Center for Intelligent Nano-Bio Materials, Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: This study explored the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion profile of zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles with respect to their particle size in rats.Methods: Two ZnO nanoparticles of different size (20 nm and 70 nm were orally administered to male and female rats, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve, tissue distribution, excretion, and the fate of the nanoparticles in organs were analyzed.Results: The plasma zinc concentration of both sizes of ZnO nanoparticles increased during the 24 hours after administration in a dose-dependent manner. They were mainly distributed to organs such as the liver, lung, and kidney within 72 hours without any significant difference being found according to particle size or rat gender. Elimination kinetics showed that a small amount of ZnO nanoparticles was excreted via the urine, while most of nanoparticles were excreted via the feces. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies in the tissues showed no noticeable ZnO nanoparticles, while new Zn-S bonds were observed in tissues.Conclusion: ZnO nanoparticles of different size were not easily

  15. EVALUATION OF SERUM ALBUMIN LEVELS IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Serum albumin levels are inversely related with age, smoking, blood pressure and obesity. It is not clear whether low serum albumin level is a nonspecific , prognostic variable, a marker of subclinical disease, or whether it is a part of causal mechanism leading to death due to cardiovascular disease. Some studies have reported an inverse association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality but oth ers have not . 1 The association between serum albumin and cardiovascular mortality remains controversial. This study was done to evaluate the serum albumin levels in patients with ST segment elevation Myocardial infarction (STEMI over a period of three days from the date of admission and whether the changes had any relationship with the prognosis of the patient. AIM: to associate changes in serum albumin levels in AMI patients over a period of three days i.e., day zero - at the time of admission, day+1 - the following day(12 to 30hrs after collecting first sample, day +2(32 to 54 hrs after collecting first sample with the clinical prognosis of the patient. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Prospective follow up study in patents admitted with AMI in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: 30 pati ents admitted with STEMI were included in the study and serum albumin levels were estimated in them on admission and for two days thereafter. Statistical analysis used. The data was analysed using SPSS 15.0, STATA 8.0, MEDLAC 9.0.1, And SYSTAT 11 softwares. Repeated measures analysis of variance and student t test was used to find the significance in changes of serum albumin levels and prognosis of the patient on different days. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This study found that there was fall in serum albumin le vels in patients with AMI in the course of three days compared with the day of admission and it was significantly associated with bad prognosis.

  16. Targeting Albumin Binding Function as a Therapy Goal in Liver Failure: Development of a Novel Adsorbent for Albumin Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, Adrian; Stange, Jan; Baumann, Anja K; Pfensig, Claudia; Suraj, Matthias; Ibrahim, Badr; Eggert, Martin

    2017-12-20

    Liver failure results in impaired hepatic detoxification combined with diminished albumin synthesis and is associated with secondary organ failure. The accumulation of liver toxins has shown to saturate albumin binding sites. This was previously demonstrated by an in vitro test for albumin binding capacity (ABiC) that has shown to inversely correlate with the established MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) score. In this study, we introduced a new adsorbent material for albumin dialysis treatments that improves albumin binding capacity. The new charcoal adsorbent was developed by an evolutionary test schedule. Batch testing of charcoals was performed as steady-state experiments. The charcoal reflecting the highest increase in albumin binding capacity was then introduced to kinetic models: Perfusion tests were designed to evaluate adsorption capacity and kinetics for liver failure marker toxins. A dynamic recirculation model for liver failure was used for upscaling and comparison against conventional MARS adsorbents as the gold standard in an albumin dialysis setting. Batch tests revealed that powdered activated Hepalbin charcoal displayed the highest ABiC score. Hepalbin charcoal also demonstrated higher adsorptive capacity and kinetics for liver failure marker toxins as determined by perfusion tests. These findings translated to tests of upscaled adsorbents in a dynamic model for liver failure: upscaled Hepalbin adsorbent removes bile acids, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin significantly better than MARS adsorbents and significantly increases ABiC. The novel adsorbent Hepalbin offers a significant improvement over both MARS adsorbents concerning liver failure marker toxin removal and ABiC improvement. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  17. Liposome encapsulated albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticle for enhanced antitumor efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttala, Hima Bindu; Ko, Young Tag

    2015-03-01

    Albumin nanoparticles have been explored as a promising delivery system for various therapeutic agents. One limitation of such formulations is their poor colloidal stability in vivo. Present study aimed at enhancing the chemotherapeutic potential of paclitaxel by improving the colloidal stability and pharmacokinetic properties of albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticles (APNs) such as Abraxane®. This was accomplished by encapsulating the preformed APNs into PEGylated liposomal bilayer by thin-film hydration/extrusion technique. The resulting liposome-encapsulated albumin-paclitaxel hybrid nanoparticles (L-APNs) were nanosized (~200 nm) with uniform spherical dimensions. The successful incorporation of albumin-paclitaxel nanoparticle (NP) in liposome was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography analysis. Such hybrid NP showed an excellent colloidal stability even at 100-fold dilutions, overcoming the critical drawback associated with simple albumin-paclitaxel NP system. L-APNs further showed higher cytotoxic activity towards B16F10 and MCF-7 cells than APN; this effect was characterized by arrest at the G2/M phase and a higher prevalence of apoptotic subG1 cells. Finally, pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies in tumor mice demonstrated that L-APNs showed a significantly enhanced plasma half-life, and preferential accumulation in the tumor. Taken together, the data indicate that L-APNs can be promising therapeutic vehicles for enhanced delivery of PTX to tumor sites.

  18. Interaction of mycotoxin zearalenone with human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poór, Miklós; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Gerner, Zsófia; Lemli, Beáta

    2017-05-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium species. Fungal contamination of cereals and plants can result in the formation of ZEN, leading to its presence in different foods, animal feeds, and drinks. Because ZEN is an endocrine disruptor, it causes reproductive disorders in farm animals and hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans. Despite toxicokinetic properties of ZEN were studied in more species, we have no information regarding the interaction of ZEN with serum albumin. Since albumin commonly plays an important role in the toxicokinetics of different toxins, interaction of ZEN with albumin has of high biological importance. Therefore the interaction of ZEN with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using spectroscopic methods, ultrafiltration, and molecular modeling studies. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies demonstrate that ZEN forms complex with HSA. Binding constant (K) of ZEN-HSA complex was quantified with fluorescence quenching technique. The determined binding constant (logK=5.1) reflects the strong interaction of ZEN with albumin suggesting the potential biological importance of ZEN-HSA complex formation. Based on the results of the investigations with site markers as well as docking studies, ZEN occupies a non-conventional binding site on HSA. Considering the above listed observations, we should keep in mind this interaction if we would like to precisely understand the toxicokinetic behavior of ZEN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.