WorldWideScience

Sample records for albino

  1. Characterization and Fine Mapping of a Novel Rice Albino Mutant low temperature albino 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Peng; Sheng Teng; Yi Zhang; Jun Lv; Jianhui Zhang; Ping Li; Xiaoliang Shi; Yufeng Wang; Honglei Zhang; Zuhua He

    2012-01-01

    Albino mutants are useful genetic resource for studying chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast development and cloning genes involved in these processes in plants.Here we report a novel rice mutant low temperature albino I (ltal) that showed albino leaves before 4-leaf stage when grown under temperature lower than 20℃,but developed normal green leaves under temperature higher than 24℃ or similar morphological phenotypes in dark as did the wild-type (WT).Our analysis showed that the contents of chlorophylls and chlorophyll precursors were remarkably decreased in the ltal mutant under low temperature compared to WT.Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that chloroplasts were defectively developed in the albino ltal leaves,which lacked of well-stacked granum and contained less stroma lamellae.These results suggested that the ltal mutation may delay the light-induced thylakoid assembly under low temperature.Genetic analysis indicated that the albino phenotype was controlled by a single recessive locus.Through map-based approach,we finally located the Ltal gene to a region of 40.3 kb on the short arm of chromosome 11.There are 8 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in this region and two of them were deleted in ltal genome compared with the WT genome.The further characterization of the Ltal gene would provide a good approach to uncover the novel molecular mechanisms involved in chloroplast development under low temperature stress.

  2. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  3. Rescue of the albino phenotype by introducing a functional tyrosinase minigene into Kunming albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Xiao; Kang Xu; Xi-Gu Chen; Ying Yue; Xin-Yan Deng; Bing Huang; Zhong-Min Guo; Yun Ma; Yi-Li Lin; Xun Hong; Huan Tang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To use the tyrosinase minigene as a visual marker to perform microinjection training and improve the techniques related with transgene to greatly elevate the efficiency of gene transfer.METHODS: A mouse tyrosinase minigene, i.e., TyBS,in which the 2.25-kb authentic genomic 5' non-coding flanking sequence of mouse tyrosinase was fused to a mouse tyrosinase cDNA, was introduced into the fertilized eggs of outbred Kunming albino mice.RESULTS: Of the 11 animals that developed from the injected eggs, two mice (P1 and #8) exhibited pigmented hair (P1) and eyes (P1 and #8), as confirmed by PCR analysis for the tyrosinase minigene integrated into the genome. When founder P1 was bred to Kunming male mouse, six progeny out of 11 offspring inherited the transgene and the pigmented-eye phenotype.CONCLUSION: Taken together, these results suggest that this minigene encodes the active tyrosinase protein and that its 5' flanking region contains the sequences regulating the expression of mouse tyrosinase gene as expected. We have rescued the albino phenotype by introduction and expression of a functional tyrosinase minigene in the Kunming albino mouse and the transgene can be passed to subsequent generation.These findings also indicate that TyBS can be a useful visual marker gene in the co-transgenic experiments.

  4. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil M Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  5. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  6. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Parekar Sushant Shahaji; Somkuwar Arju Parnu

    2011-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, has been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various ailments including Parkinson’s disease. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens (whole plant) on Swiss albino mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in Swiss albino mice following acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens at the dose of 2000 mg/...

  7. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  8. Evaluation of analgesic activity of perindopril in albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Suresha, R. N.; Siddamma Amoghimath; Vaibhavi, P. S.; Shruthi, S L; M.K. Jayanthi; H L Kalabharathi

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the analgesic activity of perindopril in chemical, thermal and mechanical pain on Swiss albino mice. A total of 54 albino mice (Swiss strain) weighing 25-30 g were allocated to each experimental model and in each model there were three groups. The control group received normal saline (25 ml/kg) per orally, standard group received pentazocine (10 mg/kg) intra-peritoneal and test groups received perindopril (1 mg/kg) per orally. Perindopril and normal saline was administ...

  9. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  10. Chelala, Ninou. – L’albinos en Afrique

    OpenAIRE

    Missié, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Au moment où les médias internationaux se délectent de faits divers relatant les actes de violence faite aux albinos en Afrique de l’Est notamment (crimes en vue de prélever des parties du corps pour des besoins de fétiches, viol, stigmatisations), ce livre vient fort à propos bien qu’il semble n’avoir pas été suffisamment relu. Il pose malgré tout des questions pertinentes. Articulé sur trois chapitres (« Inventions historico-sociales de l’albinos » ;« La construction de l’identité de l’alb...

  11. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parekar Sushant Shahaji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, has been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various ailments including Parkinson’s disease. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens (whole plant on Swiss albino mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in Swiss albino mice following acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens at the dose of 2000 mg/ kg. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of M. pruriens and thus the findings of this study provide scientific validation on the use of the M. pruriens as a medicine for treating various ailments.

  12. COMPARATIVE ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFICACY OF TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI EXTRACTS IN ALBINO RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. IQBAL, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, B. ASLAM AND L. ALI1

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi (L Sprague (Ajowain extracts in chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water was investigated in albino rabbits. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with butter fed ad libitum and oral intubation of cholesterol 400 mg/kg body weight. Simvastatin was used as a synthetic cholesterol lowering drug. The results suggested that chloroform and water extracts of T. ammi seed had no hypolipidaemic activity. However, methanol and petroleum ether extracts equivalent to its 2 g/kg body weight powder and Simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg body weight were equally effective in treating hyperlipidaemia in albino rabbits. Moreover, petroleum ether extract appeared to be more potent than methanol extract on the basis of increasing the level of HDL-cholesterol and lowering the LDL-cholesterol more effectively than methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract reduced atherogenic index (total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol more effectively than methanol extract.

  13. Immunomodulatory Activity of Abutilon Indicum linn on Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    N. L. Dashputre; , N. S. Naikwade

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Abutilon indicum Linn. (Family: Malvaceae) on albino mice. Methods: The ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum was administered orally at the dosage levels of 200 mg/kg/day and 400 mg/kg/day body weight in mice. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity on specific and non-specific immunity were studied by heamagglutination antibody (HA) titer, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH...

  14. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Bagri; Vinod Kumar; Anil Kumar Sikka; Joginder Singh Punia

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes ...

  15. Evaluation of analgesic activity of perindopril in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Suresha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the analgesic activity of perindopril in chemical, thermal and mechanical pain on Swiss albino mice. A total of 54 albino mice (Swiss strain weighing 25-30 g were allocated to each experimental model and in each model there were three groups. The control group received normal saline (25 ml/kg per orally, standard group received pentazocine (10 mg/kg intra-peritoneal and test groups received perindopril (1 mg/kg per orally. Perindopril and normal saline was administered 2 h before, whereas the pentazocine was administered 15 min prior to Eddy′s hot plate, writhing and tail clip methods. The decrease in number of writhes, the delay in reaction time in tail clip and Eddy′s hot plate method denoted the analgesic activity. Perindopril decreased the number of writhes, delayed the reaction time in tail clip and Eddy′s hot plate method considerably when compared with control (normal saline, but less when compared with standard (pentazocine. Perindopril exhibits analgesic activity in thermal, chemical, and mechanical pain models in albino mice.

  16. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  17.  Miners’ magic: artisanal mining, the albino fetish and murder in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryceson, Deborah; Jønsson, Jesper Bosse; Sherrington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    purchase the albino charms, the waganga healers renowned for their healing, divination and sorcery skills who prescribe and sell the charms, and the albino murder victims. The agrarian background, miners’ ambitions and a clash of values comprise our starting point for understanding the victimisation...

  18. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  19. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  20. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  1. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  2. Melanoma maligno em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Florisbal Damé

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se melanomas múltiplos em dois búfalos albinos da raça Murrah no Sul do Brasil. Macroscopicamente havia múltiplos tumores enegrecidos no músculo esquelético, pulmões, linfonodos, saco pericárdio, cápsula renal, mediastino e pleura. Microscopicamente foram observadas células epitelióides poliédricas dispostas em ninhos sólidos ou fascículos entrelaçados sustentadas por um estroma colagenoso fino e esparso. O citoplasma era eosinofílico e por vezes continham quantidades variáveis de pigmento de melanina. A taxa de mitose foi baixa. Na imuno-histoquímica houve imunomarcação positiva utilizando anticorpo anti-tirosinase, anti-Melan-A, anti-vimentina, anti-proteína S-100 e antineurofilamento. É possível que o polimorfismo relacionado com o gene da pigmentação em búfalos albinos tenha contribuído para o maior risco de desenvolvimento de melanomas, como foi sugerido em humanos.

  3. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Heling; YANG Hongsheng; ZHAO Huan; LIU Shilin; WANG Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity.The offspring of albino A.japonicus also suffer from albinism.The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF).To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism,we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A.japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A.japonicus.In addition,we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A.japonicus.The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes,which also contained less melanin.In albino juvenile offspring,MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer,and less developed,epidermal melanocytes.Thus,we conclude that albino A.japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin,likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  4. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on pancreas in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological side effects of doxorubicin on pancreas tissue in male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. This study were used 55 adult rats (2.5-3.5 month of age. The rats divided into two groups, the first group include (35 rats. The second group were (20 rats. Microscopial examination of pancreas lesion demonstrated oedema around the acini, swelling of the epithelial cells of acini, occurance of cystic fibrosis (mucoviscidosis at the concentration of (4,5 mg/kg of body weight ,occurrence of small islets that form of few cells and exocrine-endocrine transformation. There were thickness in the walls of blood vessels, thrombus, congestion of blood vessels, we conclude, that doxorubicin had histopathological effect on pancreas in sub-acute doses more than chronic doses.

  5. The Albino Rat Following Oral Administration Of A-Chlorohydrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad A.F.Ali*, Ali A.Abdel Rahman* and Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The antifertility effects of a- chlorohydrin were re-investigated in female albino rats. a.i/Kg. bw of and six females were ! " #$ The uterine changes were in the form of an increase lumenal folding with areas of metaplasia, some cellular vaculization and increased the collogen deposition in the % $ &!rd "th day of the drug intake. The ovarian changes were in the form of decreased number of growing follicles and absence of both Graafian follicles and corpora lutea. It is clear that, treatment of female rats with a chlorohydrin caused reversible uterine and ovarian changes. Uterine changes took longer time to recover compared with that of ovarian changes. These results support the possibility that this drug could be a functional female sterilant as it was known as a male sterilant.

  6. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  7. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  8. Consequences of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus (Pocock, 1900 envenomation in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MK Chaubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Mesobuthus tamulus gangeticus Pocock (Buthidae venom on albino mice (NIH strain. Whole venom was obtained by electrical stimulation and its toxicity was determined in albino mice by subcutaneous envenomation. The venom LD50 was 2.5 mg kg-1 of mouse body weight. Toxic effects on different biochemical and enzymatic parameters in blood serum and other tissues of albino mice were determined after experimental envenomation with sublethal doses of M. tamulus gangeticus venom. Increased levels of glucose, uric acid and cholesterol, as well as decreased serum total proteins, were observed at 2 and 4 hours after the envenomation. In the liver and muscles, glycogen content dropped after venom injection. Moreover, M. tamulus gangeticus venom elevated the enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase (ACP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in the serum of albino mice. In conclusion, M. tamulus gangeticus can be considered a lethal scorpion species.

  9. Effect of co-administration of voglibose and vildagliptin on diabetic albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umashanker PD Keshri

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Vildagliptin and voglibose are effective in lowering blood glucose level in albino diabetic rats but their combination has potentiating effect. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1533-1538

  10. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Haidry, Muhammad Tahir; Malik, Arif

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L.) in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride conce...

  11. Behavior of an albino vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy) (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Uieda

    2001-01-01

    Albinism in the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffrey, 1810) was already reported for seven individuals, six of them did in Brazil. Although this species is relatively easy to keep in captivity and many studies with normally pigmented bats were did under laboratory conditions, no reports on detailed observations of captive albino vampire bats were found in literature. This paper reports some behavioral observation of a single albino female D. rotundus kept in captivity in Brazil b...

  12. Ostracism of an Albino Individual by a Group of Pigmented Catfish

    OpenAIRE

    Ondřej Slavík; Pavel Horký; Matúš Maciak

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain un...

  13. Effect of vitamin D on atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arunkumar, R; Vinayak Meti; A. Ruckmani; Shobita Devi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Statins are hypocholestrolemic agents used in atherosclerotic vascular disorders. They act by inhibiting hepatic hypoxanthine methyl glutaryl CoA reductase enzyme. They are reported to cause hyperglycemia as an important adverse event. This study was conducted to investigate atorvastatin induced blood sugar changes in Wistar, albino, male rats and the influence of vitamin D on the blood sugar changes. Methods: Forty, 12 weeks old male, Wistar albino rats, were selected and rand...

  14. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shatavisa Mukherjee; Sukanta Sen; Arunava Biswas; Tapan Kumar Barman; Santanu Kumar Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into f...

  15. HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaiji Amrita; Patil Umesh Kumar; Dave Suchi; Jain Arvind; Sahoo Himanshu Bhusan

    2012-01-01

    Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion ...

  16. Erythropoietin-Like Effects of Dihydroartemisinin in Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin drugs were active during the intra-erythrocytic stage of malaria parasite infection. The activity of artemisinin and synthetic endoperoxides was related to their interaction with heme. The electrophillic intermediate formed from artemisinin in the presence of heme alkylates the protein portion of hemoglobin preferentially to the heme portion. Problem statement: Since there might be an interaction between artemisinin and the heme of the blood, we studied the effects of 5-day and 7-day oral Dihydroartemisinin (DHA treatments with 5 dosage regimens of dihydroartemisinin on the blood and six vital organs of Wistar albino rats. Approach: The dosages of DHA tested on 5 test adult Wistar albino rats (weight = 106-140 grams were 1, 2, 60 or 80 mg Kg-1 rat weight of DHA by oral intubation for 5 or 7 days. Four rats of similar weight which served as controls in each experiment were given distilled water equivalents of the administered doses of DHA. Another group of 5 test rats and four control rats (weight 75-90 gms were given 1 mg kg-1 rat weight of DHA or distilled water for 5 or 7 days and were allowed to rest for one week after which the treatment was repeated. Results: The findings of the study showed that Dihydroartemisinin (DHA had erythropoietin-like properties. In the study DHA produced dose, repetition and time dependent statistically significant increases in the Packed Cell Volume (PCV (PConclusion: This result suggested that the administered DHA inhibited its own stimulated statistically significant increases in the PCV and the WBC of the treated rats through an inhibitory (negative feed-back effect. The structure and composition of the blood cell types like the presence of large numbers of reticlocytes and left-shifted neutrophils in the blood samples of 5-day DHA -treated rats but not in those of 7-day DHA treated rats indicated that new haemopoiesis was actively going on in the first 5 days of DHA treatment but had slowed down

  17. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    OpenAIRE

    Anbalagan, T

    2009-01-01

    A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with...

  18. Antiarthritic activity of Vernonia amygdalina in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of water extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina(V.A.)on arthritis induced model of rats.Methods:Arthritis was induced in male albino Wister rats by injection of cro-ton oil (0.1 mL)into the left foot pad of the animals.Treatment with V.A.at 200 and 400 mg/kg and stand-ard Indomethacin (0.3 mg/kg)was started on the same day and continued up to the 12th day.The paw vol-ume was measured on the 1st,5th,12th and 21st day,respectively for both the paws and anti-arthritic activity was evaluated.Results:The extract of V.A.produced reduction in the inflammation of the paw due to croton oil.The antiarthritic action started on the 5th day and continued till the 12th day and the activity was compara-ble to that of the standard on both days.V.A.significantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis and had signifi-cant ant-inflammatory effect (P <0.05).Conclusion:This report therefore clearly showed that V.A.signifi-cantly inhibited adjuvant induced arthritis in rats as it significantly reduced the paw volume on the 12th day and may explain the effectiveness of this plant when used in the tropics for the treatment of arthritis.

  19. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayakhmetova Ganna M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2 mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I - control (intact animals, II - chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days. Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (-53% and methionine (+133%. The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure.

  20. Immunomodulatory Activity of Abutilon Indicum linn on Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Dashputre

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the immunomodulatory activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves of Abutilon indicum Linn. (Family: Malvaceae on albino mice. Methods: The ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum was administered orally at the dosage levels of 200 mg/kg/day and 400 mg/kg/day body weight in mice. The assessment of immunomodulatory activity on specific and non-specific immunity were studied by heamagglutination antibody (HA titer, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH, neutrophil adhesion test and carbon clearance test. In order to induced immunosuppresion in mice by using cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg/day, p.o. and levamisole (50mg/kg/day, p.o. used as immunostimulating agents. Results: Oral administration of A. indicum showed a significant increase in the production of circulating antibody titre in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs. A significant (p<0.01 increase in both primary and secondary HA titre was observed when compared to control group, whereas in cyclophosphamide treated group A. indicum showed ignificant (p<0.01 increase in HA titre. A. indicum showed ignificantly (p<0.01 potentiated the DTH reaction by facilitating the footpad thickness response to SRBCs in sensitized mice. Also A. indicum evoked a significant (p<0.01 increase in percentage eutrophil adhesion to nylon fibers and phagocytic activity.Conclusion: The study demonstrates that A. indicum triggers both pecific and non-specific responses to a greater extent. The study comprised the acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening of A. indicum. From the results obtained and phytochemical studies the immunostimulant effect of AI could be attributed to the flavonoid content.

  1. Correlation of body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus Norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ikenna Aguh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between body weight and other morphometric measurements in Albino rats (Rattus norvegicus was investigated. Morphometric data such as body weight (BDYWT, tail length (TL, body length from nose to anus (BLNA, body length from nose to tail tip (BLNT, tail circumference (TC, tail diameter (TD, and ear length (EL were collected from fifty live Albino rats involving 28 females and 22 males. The collected data were evaluated using regression analysis, correlation and independent-sample t-test. There was high significant (P r2 values ranging from 0.264 to 0.81. Regression analysis with high r2 value could be exploited in predicting many morphometric traits with great accuracy with the body weight serving as the explanatory or predictor variable. This research also suggested that male and female Albino rats have very similar morphometric characters as the results of independent-samples t-test showed.

  2. Hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T Thirumalai; S Viviyan Therasa; EK Elumalai; E David

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of Brassica juncea (seeds) on streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Methods: Hypoglycemic activity of Brassica juncea (seeds) aqueous extract at a dose of 250, 350 and 450 mg/kg body weight was evaluated. Adult male Swiss albino rats of six numbers in each group was undertaken for study and evaluated. Results: The serum insulin levels were recorded a significant depletion in all groups, short term as well as long term diabetic animals, when compared to that of normal animals. A significant dosage dependent augmenting effect of the seed extract on the serum insulin was recorded in both short term as well as long term groups. Conclusions: The aqueous seed extract of Brassica juncea has potent hypoglycemic activity in male albino rat.

  3. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy ofMangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajan S; Suganya H; Thirunalasundari T; Jeeva S

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity inSwiss albino mice.Methods:Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods.Results:Aqueous and alcoholic extracts ofM. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score inSwiss albino mice.Conclusions:The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea inSouthern parts of India.

  4. Changes of carbohydrate and protein metabolism in seedling leaves of a temperature-induced greenable albino mutant line W25 of rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; SHUQingyao; XIAYingwu

    1998-01-01

    W25 is a low-temperature sensitive albino mutant line, Temperature not only controls the albino phenotype expression of W2o, but also determines whether it could survive, When the temperature is lower than 25℃. the leaves of W25 shows complete albino, but they exhibits normal green when temperature is higher than 30℃

  5. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  6. Impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Al-Naemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulative reports documented that oxidative stress is implicated in many human and animal diseases. However, the reports concerning the effect of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome are limited and scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of oxidative stress on pregnancy outcome and to assess the antioxidant effect of vitamin C and E on oxidative stress parameters in blood and placental tissue samples in experimental pregnant animals model exposed to oxidative stress. Wister Albino rats were used in this work to investigate the effects of oxidative stress exposure (addition of H2O2 to the drinking water on pregnancy outcome. Rats were divided into 5 groups, as follows: Group I (included 7 normal pregnant rats which served as control group. Group II (exposed to 1 % H2O2 included 7 pregnant rats, the rats were allowed to become pregnant and received (1% H2O2 in drinking water from day 7th till the day 19th of pregnancy. Group III (exposed to 3% H2O2 included 8 pregnant rats. Same as group 2, but the rats were exposed to a higher concentration of H2O2 (3% in drinking water. Group IV (included 8 pregnant rats. Pregnant rats received vitamins C and E without induction of oxidative stress. Group V (included 8 pregnant rats.induction of oxidative stress by 1% H2O2 with vitamins supplementation in the pregnant rats. Serum total antioxidants capacity (TAC, serum and placental tissue oxidative stress biomarker; 8-iso prostaglandin F2α (8-Isoprostane were measured using specific ELISA kits. Also placental tissues of pregnant rats were isolated and put directly in 10% formalin prepared for histopathological examination. Results revealed a significant decrease in the median values of the body weight and total serum antioxidants capacity (TAC in groups II and III of rats compared with the control group. A significant higher median value of TAC obtained in the groups IV and V when compared with the control group. Significant higher

  7. Therapeutic effects of Cassia angustifolia in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay conducted in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tahir Haidry

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of Senna plant (Cassia angustifolia L. in a cadmium induced hepatotoxicity assay by evaluating the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total protein (TP in the albino rats’ serum. A total of 30 white albino rats were taken and divided into three groups; each group comprising ten rats. The group A was taken as a control group; group B was given cadmium chloride concentration of 5 mg/kg (body weight for 42 days; and group C was given cadmium chloride 5 mg/kg body weight for first 21 days and then extract of C. angustifolia 100 mg/kg (body weight was given for remaining 21 days. The analysis were performed twice i.e., on 21st day and 42nd day. Results illustrated that the concentration of cadmium was significantly elevated (P<0.05 at the levels of serum biochemical markers namely ALT, AST, ALP which lowered the protein levels in albino rats. Moreover, treatment with the standard extracts of C. angustifolia observed to reverse the effects of the cadmium significantly (P<0.05. It is concluded that the C. angustifolia had hepatoprotective effects and therapeutic potential against the cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

  8. Aphrodisiac and phytochemical studies ofCocculus hirsutus extracts in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SharanabasappaA Patil; SujayaM; SaraswatiB Patil

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate thein vivo aphrodisiac activity of various extracts obtained from aerial partsCocculus hirsutus(C. hirsutus).Methods:We evaluated whether oral administration ofC. hirsutushas spermatogenic activity in male rats.Petroleum ether, chloroform and alcohol extract of aerial parts(stem and leaf) ofC. hirsutus were administered at the dose level of25 mg/100 g body weight to adult male albino rats for30 days.Results:The above said extracts have stimulated the spermatogenic activity and accessory reproductive organs performance in albino rats.Out of the three extracts administered, alcohol extract showed highly stimulant spermatogenic effects in mature male albino rats.Alcohol extract showed potent androgenic activity when treated in immatureAlbino rats.Males treated with the extract displayed more frequent and vigorous anogenital sniffing and mounting as compared to untreated animals.The increased spermatogenesis in extract treated groups was confirmed by change in histoarchitecture as evidenced by increase in number of spermatogonia, spermatocyte, spermatids and caudal spermatozoa.After subjecting to preliminary phytochemical screening, the alcohol extract showed positive tests for steroids, saponins, oils and fats, phenolic compounds and tannins.Conclusion:C. hirsutus exhibited remarkable increase in spermatogenic activity.These findings support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac.

  9. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  10. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material. PMID:27268983

  11. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on reproductive function of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ArtiSharma; PramodKumarVerma; V.RDixit

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruits on spermatogenesis in albino rats. Methods: Male albino rats were fed with a 50 % ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium fruit at 100 mg·kg-l·day-1, 200 mg·kg-l·day-1 and 300 mg·kg-1·day-1 for 60 days. Fertility test was performed after 60 days of treatment. Sperm motility and density were observed in the cauda epididymis. Biochemical and histological analyses of the blood and reproductive organs were done. Recovery of fertility was followed to evaluate the reversibility of drug action. Results: S. anacardium fruit extract administration resulted in spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. Thes perm motility and density was reduced significantly. The RBC and WBC counts, haemoglobin, haematocrit, blood sugar and urea were found to be within the normal range in the whole blood. The protein, cholesterol and glycogen in the testes and the fructose in the seminal vesicle were significantly decreased after the treatment. The fruit extract feeding caused marked reduction in the number of primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes and spermatids.The number of mature Leydig cells was also decreased and degenerating cells increased proportionately. Conclusion:S. anacardium fruit extract causes spermatogenic arrest in albino rats. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 121-124)

  12. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Slavík

    Full Text Available Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis, to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  13. Lipid Lowering Efficacy of Pennisetum glaucum Bran in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Javed*, B. Aslam, M. Z. Khan1, Zia-Ur-Rahman, F. Muhammad and M. K. Saleemi1

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine lipid lowering efficacy of Pennisetum (P glaucum (Pearl millet, locally known as bajra, bran in hyperlipidemia albino rats. Simvastatin, (Tablet survive®, was used as cholesterol lowering synthetic drug. The period of 0-15 days was considered as a lead-in period to induce hyperlipidemia with atherogenic diet in albino rats. P. glaucum bran at dose rate of 2, 4 and 6 g/kg BW showed lipid lowering efficacy in hyperlipidemic rats at post-treatment days 30, 45 and 60. At the level of 6 g/kg, P. glaucum bran was able to produce a significant (P<0.05 increase in HDL- cholesterol (47% and fall in other lipid profile parameters i.e. total lipids (41%, triglycerides(48%, total cholesterol (39% and LDL- cholesterol (55%. P. glaucum 6 g/kg also reduced total cholesterol in liver tissue and increased fecal bile acid secretion. The results of present study suggest that 6 g/kg P. glaucum bran and 0.6 mg/kg Simvastatin were equally effective in treating hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Moreover, the potency of P. glaucum for stimulating fecal bile acid secretion in albino rats may safely be conceived, at least, as a part of mechanisms for its antihyperlipidemic efficacy.

  14. QUANTITATIVE AND HISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ON THE ADRENAL MEDULLA IN POST NATAL PERIOD OF ALBINO RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagieh k.Baiomy; Abdel-mawgood Anas; Mamdooh Ghaly; Ashraf M. Moustafa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present work was based on the evaluation of histological, histochemical, and quantitative study on the adrenal medulla of the white albino rat in the different post natal age period. Material and methods:Sixty male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were classified to 4 main groups as follows: - Group one : One week old albino rats. - Group two: One month old albino rats. - Group three: Three months old albino rats. - Group four: Senile rats. Three main parameters were performed in this study, the first was the study of the morphological changes in the adrenal medulla in the different postnatal age groups. The second was concerned with the histochemical studies while the last parameter was the quantitative studies on the gland volume as well as its cellular count. These three parameters were performed by using different staining techniques. Results: The results showed that medullary cells in the early age groups were arranged in non-differentiated groups and become more differentiated in the older age groups. Both reticular and elastic fibers in the older age groups showed a definite increase especially at the region of corticomedullary zone. The different types of chromaffin cells were more observed at the old age groups. The concentration of ascorbic acid granules was more marked in the senile group. The quantitative changes were in the form of increased medullary volume especially in the old age. The number of chromaffin cells as well as the concentration of ascorbic acid contents was more noticed in the old age group. Conclusions: The differentiation of both divisions of the adrenal gland was not noticed in the early age groups. Cellular and fibrous differentiations were more seen in older age groups which may reflects an idea about the degree of gland maturation

  15. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes from albino and control sea cucumbers,Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Deyou; YANG Hongsheng; SUN Lina; XU Dongxue

    2014-01-01

    The sea cucumberApostichopus japonicus is an important economic species in China. Its dorsal body wall color is commonly tawny, whereas its ventral surface is fawn. Albino sea cucumbers are rarely observed. In order to profile gene expression and screen albinism-related genes, we compared the transcriptome of albino samples with a control by 454 cDNA sequencing. We found that 6 539 identified genes on the basis of sequence similarity to known genes were expressed in the albino A. japonicus. The gene ontology analysis indicated that the transcription of genes associated with the terms of biological regulation and pigmenta-tion was non-abundant in the albino library compared to the control. Based on an analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomics (KEGG) database, we identified 14 important genes that were in-volved in major intercellular signaling pathways related to melanin synthesis, such as tyrosine metabolism, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, and melanogenesis. The expressions of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), protein kinase C (PKC), protein kinase A (PKA), and Ras genes were sig-nificantly down-regulated in the albino transcriptome compared with the control, while the expressions of homogentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase gene (HGO), cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), transcrip-tion factor AP-1(c-jun), and calmodulin (CaM) were significantly up-regulated (Fisher's exact test,p < 0.05). These differentially expressed genes could be candidate genes for revealing the mechanism of albinism and investigating regulation of melanin synthesis inA. japonicus.

  16. Hematological and Histological Response of Wister Albino Rat Rattus norvegicus a Dietary Supplement of Seaweed Diet Gracilaria edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anbalagan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A dietary supplementation of seaweed Gracilaria edulis haematological and histological responseof albino rat Rattus norvegicus .The blood protein, cholesterol, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and urea of theseaweed feed albino rats having an increased tendency during the experimentation when compared with controlrats. Its note mostly that the experimental rat showing a decreasing level of glucose when compared withcontrol rats. The oral picture of the haematological change of albino rat fed with seaweed diet evidenced theiractive participation on the metabolism of the experimental subject. These findings w ere well correlated w ithhistological observation in the liver and intestine shows the hepatocyte appearance and deposited fat and fociat necrosis is also seen in photomicrographs.

  17. Um albino parcial de veado campeiro (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus no Parque Nacional das Emas, Goiás Partial albinism in the pampas deer and a critical analysis about albino Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio H.G. Rodrigues

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of partial albinism in the pampas deer, recorded at the Emas National Park, Goiás, Brazil is described. The coat color and behaviour of the albino are compared with normal pampas deer.

  18. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan; Raghunath Totaram Mahajan; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO) fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significa...

  19. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    OpenAIRE

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  20. [Obtaining and analysis of intergeneric somatic hybrids between Brassica napus and "albino" line of Orychophragmus violaceus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, M Iu; Komarnitskiĭ, I K; Sakhno, L A; Gleba, Iu Iu; Kuchuk, N V

    2003-01-01

    The Orychophragmus violaceus chlorophylldefective line of "albino" type has been obtained by spectinomycin treatment. Somatic hybridization between Orychophragmus violaceus and Brassica napus was performed by fusion of green mesophyll protoplasts of rape and callus protoplasts of the O. violaceus "albino" line. Near two hundred of regenerant plants were selected according to the regeneration type and ability to become green, and were determined as hybrids. Chloroplast DNA in selected hybrids was identical to rape chlDNA, which was confirmed by the PCR-RFLP analysis of plastid DNA fragments. Fragments of hybrid mitochondrial DNA analyzed by the PCR-RFLP analysis were identical to fragments of O. violaceus. The nuclear genome of the majority of hybrids was represented by the O. violaceus genome, which was demonstrated by analyses of isoenzymes, DNA telomeric sequences, ribosomal and satellite DNAs, and the RAPD analysis. The cytogenetic analysis of a number of lines has shown variability in the number of chromosomes in the obtained lines. PMID:12741055

  1. EFFECTS OF POTASSIUM BROMATE ON THE KIDNEY AND HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA STUTI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the possible effects of potassium bromate toxicity on histological,haematological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice. Mice were orally administered with potassiumbromate at the rate of 150 mg/kg body weight daily in a single dose for 30, 60 and 120 days. The chemicalsignificantly reduced the RBC count (p<0.01 Hb% (p<0.01 and platelet count (p<0.01, while it increasedsignificantly the urea (p<0.01 and creatinine level (p<0.01 and decreased total protein and Albumin (p<0.01Histopathological examination showed degenerative changes of tubular cells, cytoplasma vacuolation, cellularinfiltration, tubular dilation with eosinophilic debris and clear cell cytoplasm were observed. These findingssuggest that KBrO3 affects the physiological and biochemical activities of Swiss albino mice

  2. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeja E; Joshi S; Jain D

    2009-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80), chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histologica...

  3. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sheeja, E.; Joshi, S.B.; D. C. Jain

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60–80°), chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods: Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological ...

  4. Effect of nigella sativa seeds extract on serum c-reactive protein in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein. It predicts future risk of cardiovascular diseases. Different medicinal plants and their active ingredients possess the ability to reduce serum CRP levels and hence inflammatory disorders and cardiovascular diseases. In our study, ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds was evaluated in albino rats for its possible effect on serum CRP levels. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds on an acute inflammatory biomarker/mediator, C-reactive protein (CRP) in albino rats. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore; from September to November, 2009. Subjects and Methods: The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent (5%) formalin in a dose of 50 meu1 was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. CRP levels in each group were measured from blood samples taken 25 hours after giving formalin. Results: The ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds, given intraperitoneally, caused highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in serum CRP levels as compared to control group. The reduction in CRP levels by ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa was also significantly (p<0.05) more than that produced by diclofenac sodium. Conclusion: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa possesses ability to reduce serum CRP levels significantly, after production of artificial inflammation, in albino rats. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Surender Singh; Vinod Nair; Yogendra K Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried o...

  6. Effect of Feeding Chapaties Preserved with Sorbic Acid on Growth and Reproduction of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Satyanarayana Rao

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Sorbic acid, used in concentration of o.3% in chapaties and found satisfactory as a preservative, has been investigated for its safety of use by long term feeding studies with albino rats. The data obtained with regard to growth rate, food consumption, organ to body weight ratio and performance in reproduction show that the preserved foodstuffs containing sorbic acid in the concentration of o.3% are safe for consumption.

  7. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Deka Manalisha; Kalita Jogen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were d...

  8. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Neveen M. El-Sherif; Noha Mohy Issa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Naphthalene (NA) is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group), G...

  9. Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha; Sunanda Raina; Sajad Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 – 165 gms. These animals were randomly d...

  10. The genome sequencing of an albino Western lowland gorilla reveals inbreeding in the wild

    OpenAIRE

    Prado-Martinez, Javier; Hernando-Herraez, Irene; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Dabad, Marc; Ramirez, Oscar; Baeza-Delgado, Carlos; Morcillo-Suarez, Carlos; Alkan, Can; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Raineri, Emanuele; Estellé, Jordi; Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos; Valles, Mònica; Ritscher, Lars; Schöneberg, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Background The only known albino gorilla, named Snowflake, was a male wild born individual from Equatorial Guinea who lived at the Barcelona Zoo for almost 40 years. He was diagnosed with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism, i.e. white hair, light eyes, pink skin, photophobia and reduced visual acuity. Despite previous efforts to explain the genetic cause, this is still unknown. Here, we study the genetic cause of his albinism and making use of whole genome sequencing data we find a higher ...

  11. Comparative Study of Wound Healing Activity of Topical and Oral Ocimum Sanctum Linn in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Asha, B.; Nagabhushan, A.; G. H. Shashikala

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Ocimum sanctum, when given orally in one of the studies showed wound healing property. Since majority of the agents tried for wound healing are topical, the present study was planned to compare the oral and topical Ocimum sanctum for wound healing property. Methods: Excision and incision resutured wound models in albino rats were used to study complete epithelisation time, wound contraction, histopathological study and tensile strength of the wounds. Results: The animals were di...

  12. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlo...

  13. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, A.; K. Syed Zameer Ahmed; Sundaresan, S.; A. Sivaraj; Devi, K; B Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile a...

  14. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ROLE OF SODIUM SELENITE AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RAT ALBINOS WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip), mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p) and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobar...

  15. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, Inas Z. A.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame). Male rats were administe...

  16. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  17. Bioprotection of Spruce Logs Against Sapstain Using an Albino Strain of Ceratocystis resinifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Chantal; Tanguay, Philippe; Breuil, Colette; Yang, Dian-Qing; Bernier, Louis

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT We recovered a spontaneous albino strain from ascospores of Ceratocystis resinifera, a sapstain fungus that grows deeply and rapidly in freshly felled conifer trees. This albino strain, named Kasper, was tested for its ability to prevent discoloration of spruce sapwood caused by wild-type sapstain fungi and compared with Cartapip 97, a commercially available biological control agent of sapstain in lodgepole pine and red pine logs. In a laboratory trial, Kasper reduced sapstain of white spruce logs as much as 94.4% and was more efficient than Cartapip 97. In field trials conducted in an area north of Québec City, Kasper reduced sapstain of black spruce as much as 80%. In three of four field trials, Kasper was significantly more efficient than Cartapip 97 in reducing sapstain development. The exception was encountered in a 2003 trial conducted in a sawmill yard where Kasper did not reduce sapstain. In a field trial conducted in western Canada, at Aleza Lake forest near Prince George, Kasper almost totally prevented the development of sapstain, even after 24 weeks. These results suggest albino strains derived from C. resinifera might be an additional source of potential biocontrol agents against sapstain.

  18. Histological review of skin cancers in African Albinos: a 10-year retrospective review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skin cancer is rare among Africans and albinism is an established risk for skin cancer in this population. Ultraviolet radiation is highest at the equator and African albinos living close to the equator have the highest risk of developing skin cancers. This was a retrospective study that involved histological review of all specimens with skin cancers from African albinos submitted to The Regional Dermatology Training Center in Moshi, Tanzania from 2002 to 2011. A total of 134 biopsies from 86 patients with a male to female ratio of 1:1 were reviewed. Head and neck was the commonest (n = 75, 56.0%) site affected by skin cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was more common than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) with a ratio of 1.2:1. Only one Acral lentiginous melanoma was reported. Majority (55.6%) of SCC were well differentiated while nodular BCC (75%) was the most common type of BCC. Squamous cell carcinoma is more common than basal cell carcinoma in African albinos

  19. Citrus aurantifolia impairs fertility facilitators and indices in male albino wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak Akpan Okon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to reproduce is one of lifes essential functions; therefore factors that affect this ability are of vital importance to mankind. We therefore designed this study to assess the effect of various dosages of C. aurantifolia treatment on fertility promoters and indices in male albino wistar rats. Methods: Toxicity studies showed no lethality at 5000 mg/kg. Eighteen male albino wistar rats weighing between 220 and 240 g were used. They were randomly assigned into three groups of six rats each. Group one served as control and was gavaged 5 ml of normal saline, groups two and three were gavaged 1000 mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg body weight as medium and high dose respectively twice daily for 21 days. On the 22nd day, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture; following standard procedure, the serum was obtained for hormonal (FSH, LH, prolactin and testosterone assay using microplate immunoenzymometric assay. The testes were harvested for semen analysis. Results: LH level was significantly lower in medium dose (P Citrus aurantifolia possess antifertility potentials in male albino wistar rats. Excessive intake should be with caution in males with fertility challenges. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 640-645

  20. White versus blue: Does the wild 'albino' bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) differ in fruit quality compared to the blue one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorenc, Zala; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-11-15

    Wild albino and blue bilberry fruit were analyzed to compare different fruit characteristics linked to the composition of primary and secondary metabolites. Compounds were identified using HPLC-MS and standard quality parameters were determined. Albino berries were significantly smaller, accumulated less water and were characterized by 23% higher dry weight. Soluble solids content and pH value were higher in albino bilberry and their surface was lighter and characterized by a yellow hue. Both bilberry forms accumulated identical individual sugars and organic acids; however, the albino form had 33% higher content of total sugars and 9% higher content of total organic acids compared to the blue type. Fifteen anthocyanins were identified in both forms, but in albino bilberries, individual anthocyanins were only detected in traces. Blue bilberry contained 1.6-fold higher levels of flavanols, 2.1-fold higher levels of flavonols, 2.5-fold higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and consequently, 4.6-fold higher total phenolic content. PMID:27283708

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTINOCICEPITVE ACTION OF PENTAZOCINE IN COMPARISION WITH MORPHINE IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikanta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of pentazocine in three graded doses (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg and its combination with morphine at sub-analgesic doses, and comparing their effect with analgesic dose of morphine (1mg/kg by tail flick method in albino rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: Tail flick method using analgesiometer and tail immersion test by hot water bath was selected for evaluating antinociceptive action of pentazocine and standard drug morphine. RESULTS: Pentazocine in the doses of 6mg/kg, 12 mg/kg intra peritoneal (i.p and morphine 1mg/kg i.p, produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control by tail flick test and tail immersion test. Pentazocine 3 mg/kg, i.p and morphine 0.1 mg/kg, i.p had not produced significant antinociceptive action when given alone, but combination (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg treatment produced significant antinociceptive effect in comparison to control. CONCLUSION: Pentazocine in the doses of 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg and their combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg demonstrated significant antinociceptive activity in albino rats. Combination in low doses (pentazocine 3 mg/kg + morphine 0.1 mg/kg showed comparable antinociceptive activity with pentazocine 6 mg/kg in albino rats. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One way ANOVA and multiple comparison test (LSD was applied only to MPE% at 60 min.

  2. Potential of Pandanus odoratissimus as a CNS depressant in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sama Raju

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several neuropharmacological effects of methanolic leaf extract of Pandanus odoratissimus (PO (family; Pandanaceae were studied in albino mice using various experimental models. The effect of PO on the CNS was studied by using different neuropharmacological paradigms including spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance and potentiation of Pentobarbital sodium sleeping time in albino mice. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation and acute toxicity studies were also carried out where LD50 >2000 mg/kg was considered non-toxic through acute exposure in rats by the oral route. The methanolic leaf extract (50,100 and 200 mg/kg i. p. produced a reduction in spontaneous motor activity, motor coordination and prolonged Pentobarbital sodium sleeping time. Preliminary qualitative chemical studies indicated the presence of steroids, saponins, terpinoids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids and phenolics in the extract. These observations suggest that the leaf of Pandanus odoratissimus contains some active principles which possess potential CNS-depressant actionEstudaram-se alguns efeitos neurofarmacológicos do extrato metanólico de Pandanus odoratissimus (PO (família Pandanaceae em camundongos albinos, usando vários modelos experimentais. O efeito do PO no SNC foi estudado por meio de diferentes paradigmas neurofarmacológicos, como atividade motora espontânea, desempenho na haste rotatória e a potenciação do tempo de sono em camundongos albinos pelo pentobarbital sódico. A avaliação fitoquímica preliminar e os estudos de toxicidade aguda foram realizados e a DL50 >2000 mg/kg é considerada não tóxica, por meio da exposição aguda, por via oral, em ratos. O extrato metanólico de folha (50,100 e 200 mg/kg i. p. produziu redução da atividade motora espontânea, da coordenação motora e tempo prolongado de sono pelo pentobarbital sódico. Estudos químicos qualitativos preliminares indicaram a presença de esteróide, saponinas

  3. Experimental adiaspiromycosis in animals with a modified reactivity (Albino mice) after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nature of the pathologic process in experimental adiaspiromycosis, following intraperitoneal inoculation with elements of the mycelium phase of Emmonsia crescens Emmons et Jellison (1960), depends on the reactivity of the experimental animals. Compared with a control group of animals, inoculated albino mice (with a single dose of 250 rad) contracted adiaspiromycosis more readily, there was a higher incidence of positive findings, aleirospore dissemination to distant organs outside the abdominal cavity occurred earlier, the intensity of tissue and organ insemination of the host was much higher. The results of these studies show that individuals with low resistance and increased susceptibility to infection are particularly liable to contract adiaspiromycosis. (author)

  4. Contraceptive effect of Curcuma longa (L.) in male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PurohitAshok; BhagatMeenakshi

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To study the contraceptive effect of the crude extracts of Curcuma longa in male albino rats.Methods:Rats were fed orally with Curcuma longa aqueous and 70% alcoholic extract for 60 days (500 mg·kg-1·day-1).Results:A reduction in sperm motility and density was observed in both the treated groups.Conclusion:Curcuma longa may have affected the androgen synthesis either by inhibiting the Leydig cell function or the hypothalamus pituitary axis and as a result,spermatogenesis is arrested.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:71-74)

  5. Effect of cassava based diet on some heamatological parameters in albino rats fed petroleum contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A O Adegoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to ascertain the effect of a cassava based diet (gari on crude oil heamato-toxicity in albino rats by feeding diet contaminated with various concentrations of crude oil mixed with 20% gari to determine the protective effect of gari. The haematological parameters haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count (WBC(Total and differential were monitored in the animals. Gari feeding at 20% caused insignificant dose dependent decrease in Hb and PCV but significant dose dependent white blood cell count in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05. Dose dependent decrease in Hb, PCV and white blood cell count was also observed in petroleum fed rats compared with their controls (P<0.05.  The study showed that ingestion of petroleum contaminated diet caused decreased haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count, an indicator of possible blood damage but supplementation of the diet with 20% gari decreased the haemoglobin (Hb, Packed cell volume (PCV and white blood cell count observed in petroleum fed albino rats. This study showed that feeding on gari diet did not reverse the damage caused by crude petroleum as evidenced by insignificant differences in Hb and PCV concentrations possibly as result of cyanide present in the gari.Industrial relevanceCassava is a staple food in human diets in over 80 countries (Gomez, et al 1988. Gari a starchy food prepared from cassava (Manihot utilisima tubers is one of the most popular staple foods of the people of the rain forest belt of West Africa. Gari contains mainly starch-20% amylase and 70% amylopectin having lost the soluble carbohydrates. Crude petroleum is capable of eliciting haemolytic toxicity of the blood cells in conditions of long- exposure causing decrease haemoglobin, white cell count and PCV levels. The study was carried out to see the effect of gari, a staple food on haemolytic toxicity caused by crude

  6. Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

  7. Antioxidant Effect of Caffeic Acid on Oxytetracycline Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthi, R.; Subash, P.

    2010-01-01

    Caffeic acid is a well-known phenolic compound widely present in plant kingdom. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of caffeic acid (CA) against oxytetracycline (OXT) induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino Wistar rats. A total of 30 rats weighing 150–170 g were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each group. Oral administration of OXT (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 15 days produced hepatic damage as manifested by a significant increase in serum...

  8. COMBINED EFFECT OF WATER CONTAMINATION WITH COBALT AND NICKEL ON METABOLISM OF ALBINO (WISTAR) RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Kechrid, F. Dahdouh, R. M. Djabar, N. Bouzerna

    2006-01-01

    The contamination of water by metal compounds is a worldwide environmental problem. Concentration of metals is widely related to biochemical values, which are used in diseases diagnosis due to environmental toxicity. The sub-chronic combined effects of nickel and cobalt on body weight gain and biochemical parameters were determined and compared with those of Ni (2+) or Co (2+) alone in 6 weeks male albino (Wistar) rats. Animals were given drinking solutions of NiSO4 6H2O [Ni (II) cation, LD50...

  9. Pharmacological evaluation of anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extract of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf in female albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Jain; Gajendra Pratap Choudhary; Dinesh Kumar Jain

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Anti-fertility activity of ethanolic extract of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf in female albino mice. Methods: Jatropha gossypifolia leaf extract, when administered orally, altered the estrous cycle pattern in female mice, prolong the length of estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus stage and reduced significantly the number of litters in albino mice. Treatment of mice with extract of 250 and 450 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days caused a prolonged estrous cycle with significant increase in the duration of diestrus phase and elongation of estrus stage in treatment with higher dose (450 mg/kg body weight/day). Results: The analysis of the principal hormones involved in estrous cycle regulation showed that the plant extracts altered gonadrotrophin release (LH, FSH and prolactinn) and estradiol secretion. Conclusions:The results indicated the anti-fertility effect of Jatropha gossypifolia leaf extract in female albino mice.

  10. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Xanthium strumarium Linn. leaves extract in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Akarte Atul; Bhagat Vishwas; Deshmukh Pradeep; Disle Chandrakant

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the probable antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in Swiss albino mice by using models of Eddy′s hot plate test, tail immersion test and acetic acid induce writhing test. Swiss albino mice were treated i.p. with saline water (control), test group treated with 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg extract per oral, standard group treated with pentazocin 3 mg/kg. The results are expressed as the mean ± SEM. and...

  11. The Protective Role of Ginger (Zingiber Officinales ) in Male Albino Rats Exposed to Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of preirradiation treatment with ginger (Zingiber Officinales) for 21 consecutive days before exposure in controlling post-irradiation hazards in male rats. Male albino rats weighing about 120±10 g were divided into four groups: ( I ) control, ( II ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg , ( III ) irradiated with 6 Gy and ( IV ) treated with ginger 200 mg/kg before irradiated with 6 Gy gamma - radiation . The blood samples were collected from heart of animals 21 days after treatment with ginger and seven days post irradiation. Blood samples were subjected to biochemical analysts such as liver functions , lipid profile , kidney function and sex hormone. Whole body gamma irradiation of rats at 6 Gy (single dose) caused significant increase in (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides , glucose, urea and creatinine) while alkaline phosphatase showed no effect. Irradiation caused decrease in the contents of total protein , albumin and testosterone. Ginger treatment exerted noticeable amelioration in the studied biochemical parameters of the irradiated albino rats. The mechanism of action of ginger may be due to its antiinflammatory properties against whole body gamma irradiation

  12. Immunomodulatory Activity of Vetiveria zizanioides Extract on Peritonial Macrophages of Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha VS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vetiveria zizanioides L. (Poaceae is a medicinal plant which is used as a thirst quencher in southern part of India especially in Kerala. The present study was conducted to scientifically evaluate the effects of extracts of V. zizanioides on phagocytic function of macrophages. In vivo effect of aqueous, ethanol and hexane extract of the plant at two doses (10mg/kg body weight and 25mg/kg b.w. were evaluated by oral administration of the extracts on Swiss albino male mice. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of the above extracts at different concentrations (10μg/ml, 25μg/ml, 50 μg/ml and 100μg/ml was studied using peritoneal macrophages from Swiss albino mice. All extracts gave phagocytic modulation in vivo. The aqueous extract of vetiveria zizanoides at a dose of 25mg/kg b.w. showed significant (p<0.05 increase in phagocytic activity in comparison with the control. An increased phagocytic response was shown by murine peritoneal macrophages after treatment with the extracts in vitro. A dose dependent response was observed in all cases. The results of the present study indicate the immunomodulatory effect of V. zizanioides extracts on murine peritoneal macrophages, as evidenced by its effect on phagocytosis which is a nonspecific immune mechanism.

  13. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Iyyaswamy; Sheeladevi Rathinasamy

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  14. A comparative study on the susceptibility of male and female albino mice to Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Turay, G.O. Nwobu, G.R.A. Okogun, C.U. Igwe, K. Adeyeye, K.E. Aghatise, H.O. Okpal & Y.M. Tatfeng

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Trypanosomiasis has remained a major set-back in the development oflivestock farming in tropical Africa. Thus the need for ascertaining the trypanotolerant levels ofdomestic animal breeds and possible improvement on them cannot be over-emphasised.Methods: Level of trypanotolerance in animals was compared between sexes using albino mice infectedwith a Nigerian strain of Trypanosoma brucei brucei at a 50% mouse lethal dose (MLD50.Results: The male mice showed unrestrained parasite growth with a prepatent period (PP of two daysand a mean survival period (MSP of six days corresponding to a gradual decrease in packed cellvolume (PCV, body weight, diet response and white blood cells (WBC count to the time of death.Their female counterparts showed a PP of three days and MSP of ten days with a similar PCV gradientbut a refractory WBC count. There was no significant difference in the differential leucocytes countin both sexes. However, the eosinophils count was significantly higher in the infected animals. It wasfound that female albino mice exercised more parasite restraint than their male counterparts.Interpretation & conclusion: The result suggests that the female animals may be more trypanotoleranthence may be more useful in protein production in trypanosomiasis endemic areas. However, furtherresearch using large domestic breeds like goats and sheep may be required to confirm the hypothesis.

  15. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  16. Amelioration of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Rubia cordifolia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy Jisha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutics against a wide range of cancers including head, neck, ovarian and lung cancers. But its usefulness is limited by its toxicity to normal tissues, including cells of the kidney proximal tubule. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether the hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia could decrease the intensity of toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Cisplatin at a dose of 12 mg/kg body wt was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss albino mice. Another set of animals was given hydro-alcoholic extract of Rubia cordifolia at different doses along with cisplatin treatment. The antioxidant levels, serum creatinine, serum urea etc. were analyzed. Results: The extract could significantly decrease the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity as inferred from the tissue antioxidant status in the drug administered animals. Remarkable change was observed in serum creatinine and urea levels. Lipid peroxidation in the kidney and liver tissues was also considerably reduced in Rubia cordifolia extract treated animals. Conclusion: Hydro-alcoholic extracts of Rubia cordifolia are effective in reducing the renal damage caused by the cancer chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Since Rubia cordifolia has been in use as an important ingredient in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, it could be safe and beneficial to use this herbal extract as an adjuvant to ameliorate renal damage in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy with cisplatin.

  17. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A M Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001 reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia.

  18. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  19. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  20. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  1. HAIR GROWTH POTENTIAL OF EVOLVULUS ALSINOIDES LINN. PLANT EXTRACT IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaiji Amrita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. (Convolvulaceae is traditionally used for its hair growth promoting activity in rural community of Indian sub-continent. Studies were therefore carried out to evaluate petroleum ether and methanolic extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous base and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats for thirty days. The time required for hair growth initiation and completion was significantly (P < 0.01 reduced. Minoxidil 2% solution applied topically served as positive control. The treatment was successful in bringing 73% of hair follicles in anagenic phase by application of 5% methanolic extract as comparable to standard. Bioactivity guided fractionation was carried out of methanolic extract and was fractionated as aqueous and non-aqueous extract and screened pharmacologically. Water insoluble methanolic extract was found to be more potent and reduced the hair growth initiation and completion time significantly (P < 0.01 as comparable to standard. It holds the promise of potent alternative for minoxidil.Keywords:

  2. Effect of Some Antioxidants on the Physical Fitness of Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, more attention has been paid for searching of natural antioxidants and their evaluation in either medicinal practice or as food raw materials. The aim of the present research is to assess the effect of several well-known products used as antioxidants, on body weight, haemopoesis, endocrine system and lipid profile in normal albino rats. Thirty male adult albino rats were equally arranged into 5 groups, the first group was served as control and the others received special treatments where taurine (2% in drinking water), tryptophan (100 mg/kg b.w. orally), hawthorn extract (50 mg/100 g b.w. orally) and coenzyme Q10 (50 mg/kg b.w. orally) were given for two months. Body weight was regularly recorded twice a week and at the end of the experiment, the rats were decapitated. Red blood cell count (RBCs), hemoglobin (Hb) content, reticulocytic count, white blood cell count (WBCs) and glutathione (GSH) concentration were estimated in blood, while, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), Testosterone, and corticosterone hormones besides lipid profile were estimated in the serum. The results denoted that although there is a slight improvement in the parameters tested, it does not deserve the coast of the regular use of these antioxidants and further investigations still needed

  3. Effect of GABAB Receptor Antagonist (CGP35348 on Learning and Memory in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quratulane Gillani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential effect of CGP 35348 (GABAB receptor antagonist on the learning, memory formation, and neuromuscular coordination in albino mouse. Mice were intrapertoneally injected with 1 mg CGP 35348/mL of distilled water/Kg body weight, while the control animals were injected with equal volume of saline solution. A battery of neurological tests was applied following the intrapertoneal injections. Results of rota rod indicated that CGP 35348 had no effect on neuromuscular coordination in both male (P=0.528 and female (P=0.125 albino mice. CGP 35348 treated females demonstrated poor exploratory behavior during open filed for several parameters (time mobile (P=0.04, time immobile (P=0.04, rotations (P=0.04, and anticlockwise rotations (P=0.038. The results for Morris water maze (MWM retention phase indicated that CGP 35348 treated male mice took shorter latency to reach the hidden platform (P=0.04 than control indicating improved memory. This observation was complemented by the swim strategies used by mice during training days in MWM as CGP 35348 treated males used more direct and focal approach to reach the platform as the training proceeded.

  4. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdelruhman Sakr; Mohamed El-said Zoil; Samraa Samy El-shafey

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods: Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results: Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions:The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  5. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shatavisa Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT. Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05 reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05 increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use.

  6. Hematobiochemical changes of lead Poisoning and amelioration with Ocimum sanctum in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjaneyulu Y.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the hematobiochemical changes of chronic lead poisoning in adult male wistar albino rats for a period of twelve weeks. Adult 216 healthy rats were randomly divided into six groups viz. control (groupI, higher dose of lead acetate @60mgs/kg bwt (group II, Lower dose of lead acetate @ 30 mgs / kg bwt (group III, Higher dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group IV, lower dose of lead + Ocimum @ 400 mgs/ kg bwt (group V, Ocimum control (group VI. All lead treated and ameliorated groups given Lead acetate/ lead + Ocimum orally for three days in a week for a period of twelve weeks. The mean PCV, Hb, values were reduced significantly (P<0.05 in lead treated rats as dose dependent manner. Where as significant improvement was noticed in Ocimum treated groups Increased TLC and PLC values as dose dependent manner. A significant reduction in PNC was noticed in ocimum treated groups. Significant (P<0.05 decrease in serum total protein values, serum glucose and increased creatinine values were observed in lead treated groups as dose dependent . Increased protein & glucose and decreased creatinine values obtained in Ocimum treated groups. The alterations in hematological and biochemical parameters in the present study indicates decreased lifespan & fragility of RBC and damage to liver, kidney and Pancreas in lead poisoned wistar albino rats. [Vet. World 2011; 4(6.000: 260-263

  7. Dietary Antioxidants Effectiveness on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Adult Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic toxicity through carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) induced lipid peroxidation was extensively used in experimental models to understand the cellular mechanisms behind oxidative damage and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs and dietary antioxidants. The ameliorative effect of Aloe vera juice and carrot supplementation on hepato carcinogenesis induced by carbon tetrachloride in adult female albino rats was investigated. The carcinogenic process was determined by measuring gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), representing levels of lipid peroxides, and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in the sera of female albino rats. Carbon tetrachloride significantly elevated the serum GGT, OCT activities and the level of TBARs. Administration of Aloe vera leaf juice filtrate after CCl4 treatment resulted in a non-significant modification in GGT, OCT activities and significantly improved the level of TBARs in comparison with control. Supplementation of carrot to CCI4 treated animals led to a great amelioration in OCT activity and TBARs level, whereas GGT activity was ameliorated but statistically changed compared to control. There was a non-significant alteration in the level of CEA in all treated groups compared to normal control one

  8. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  9. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  10. Traffic Noise: A Silent Killer of Male Gamate of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam Pramanik , Snehangshu Biswas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study aims to estimate the change in the weight of testis, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular cholesterol and protein level in acute and chronic traffic noise exposed albino rats. Background: Road traffic is a significant source of noise pollution, a type of environmental stress. Traffic noise significantly increases adrenal cortical function and causes testicular dysfunction. Method: Experiment was performed on adult male albino rats. Animals were divided in to one control group and two experimental groups. Both the experimental groups were exposed to traffic noise having intensity 80 dB to 90 dB at the rate of 5 hr daily and control group was not exposed. First experimental group was exposed to traffic noise for 30 days and second group for 60 days. Testicular weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, testicular protein level and testicular cholesterol level were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired ‘t’ test. Result: Contribution of testis to body weight, testicular protein level and sperm count were low but testicular cholesterol level was more in traffic noise exposed rats than unexposed counterpart. Traffic noise exposure also increased percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm. Conclusion: Traffic noise adversely affect male gamete and such effect may be due to noise-induced suppression of testosterone synthesis.

  11. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Xanthium strumarium Linn. leaves extract in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akarte Atul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the probable antinociceptive effect of an ethanolic extract of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in Swiss albino mice by using models of Eddy′s hot plate test, tail immersion test and acetic acid induce writhing test. Swiss albino mice were treated i.p. with saline water (control, test group treated with 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg extract per oral, standard group treated with pentazocin 3 mg/kg. The results are expressed as the mean ± SEM. and statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by a Student-Newman-keuls test for multiple comparisons using Graph Pad Instant statistical program. Values of p < 0.05 were considered to be significant. The ethanolic extract showed the dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in Eddy′s hot plate test, tail immersion test and acetic acid induce writhing test at time intervals 15, 30, 60 and 120 min.

  12. ANTIFERTILITY STUDIES ON ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ABRUS PRECATORIUS L ON SWISS MALE ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeed Mohammed Abu et al.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility control is an issue of global and national health concern, many study have been done for the male contraception. The use of medicinal plants in different sorts of disease including fertility problem is widespread throughout the world. Though considerable progress has been made the development of highly effective, acceptable and reversible methods of contraception among females, progress possibilities on males are still slow and limited. With recent progress towards a better understanding of male reproductive physiology there is needed to develop new contraceptive modalities for male. Abrus precatorius is one of the folk medicinal plants widely used as an antifertility agent in varius places of south Asian countries including Chittagong region of Bangladesh. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifertility activity of abrus precarious seed extract intraperitonially administered in adult swiss male albino mice. The intraperitonial administration of 40, 80 and 80 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius shown a highly antifertility activity which done for two months. The lower concentrations (40 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic seed extract of Abrus precatorius gave temporarily antifertility activity. But the higher dose (80 mg/kg body weight gave relatively more permanent antifertility activity on swiss albino mice compare with the control.

  13. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  14. Effect Of Some Aflatoxins On A Lymphatic Organ (Spleen Of Male Albino Rats (Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed Ahmed Omar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The present study was planned to compare between two kinds of aflatoxins ( AFB2 and AF Mix on spleen of male albino rats. Fifty young male albino rats ,each weighing 50g, were fed on diets containing aflatoxins at concentration of 1.0 ppm either of AFB2 or AF mix. for 2, 4, 6 weeks followed by a withdrawal period of 2 weeks. Material and Methods:- Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the 1st group of 10 rats was fed on the standard diet. The 2nd and the 3rd groups of 20 rats each were maintained on the standard diet plus either AFB2 or AF mix. respectively. Ten animals from the latter 2 groups as withdrawal period. Pieces of spleen were subjected to histological procedures and the obtained sections (6 µm thick were stained with the haematoxylin and eosin, also, mercuric bromophenol blue stain for total protein were used in this study. Results:- Marked histopathological alterations were observed in the studied sections under the influence of AFB2 and AF mix. It was found that AFB2 induced more alterations. The most common changes were lymphocytic degeneration, fatty changes with numerous hemorrhagic areas.The two weeks withdrawal period showed a partial recovery of the developed changes. Conclusion:- This study indicated that AFB2 has a toxic effect on spleen than the equivalent level of AF mix. .Great caution must be followed to prevent the possible contamination of our food with such mycotoxins.

  15. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM) EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava S; Pathak P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae) (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE)) was studied on free amino acids (FAA) level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P

  16. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  17. Toxicological evaluation and oral glucose tolerance test of ethanolic leaf extract of Barleria cristata L. in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Narmadha

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: EtBc was revealed the non-toxic nature used for acute toxicity studies and among various doses of this extract, 400 mg/kg brought an effective hypoglycemic activity in wistar albino rats. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 742-746

  18. Estudo quantitativo do nervo frênico de rato albino em função do envelhecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Romeu Rodrigues de Souza; Ii-Sei Watanabe; Gerson Chadi; Maria Vilma de Araújo

    1990-01-01

    The phrenic nerve of albino rats was studied for age changes in number of fibres, myelin sheath thickness and axon calibre. Nerves were excised from three young and three aged rats. There is no significant morphological differences between nerves from young and aged rats and no difference with age was found in the number of fibres, myelin sheath thickness and axon calibre.

  19. Acute toxicity of the aqueous-methanolic Moringa oleifera (Lam leaf extract on female Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchel O. Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Based on these results, the LD50 of the AQ-ME MO leaf extract was found to be >2000 mg/kg in female wistar albino rats. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Aqueous-methanol, Wistar rats, OECD 425, Biochemical assays, Liver [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 1856-1861

  20. CGP 35348, GABAB Receptor Antagonist, Has a Potential to Improve Neuromuscular Coordination and Spatial Learning in Albino Mouse following Neonatal Brain Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Gillani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of CGP 35348 on learning and memory in albino mice following hypoxia ischemia insult, 10 days old albino mice were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following brain damage, mice were fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 week old. At this time point, mice were divided into two groups. Group 1 received saline and group 2 intrapertoneally CGP 35348 (1 mg/mL solvent/Kg body weight for 12 days. A battery of tests used to assess long term neurofunction (Morris water maze, Rota rod and open field along with brain infarct measurement. Overall CGP 35348 has improved the motor function in male and female albino mice but effects were more pronounced in female albino mice. In open field, CGP 35348 treated female albino mice had demonstrated poor exploratory behavior. During Morris water maze test, gender specific effects were observed as CGP 35348 had improved spatial learning and memory and swimming speed in male albino mice but had no effect in female albino mice following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE. We concluded that GABAB receptor antagonists CGP 35348 can be used to improve gender based spatial memory.

  1. COMPARISON OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF LOSARTAN WITH IMIPRAMINE IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choppadandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Comparison of antidepressant activity of Losartan with Imipramine in albino mice. BACKGROUND Of all the afflictions that trouble the soul, depression is the commonest characterised by a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and physical well-being. Similarly, hypertension is another condition which has emerged as a major public health problem in India and many other developing countries. There is compulsion that 35% of the population has to use the antihypertensives and antidepressants simultaneously for a long period of time to maintain their health. The present work is aimed at comparing antidepressant activity of losartan with imipramine which acts by raising brain BDNF (Brain derived neurotrophic factor levels so that a single agent can be used for both the conditions avoiding multiple medications. METHOD 18 Albino mice were taken, divided into 6 mice in each group and subjected to Forced swim test. All the drugs were administered orally. Drugs were administered and time of onset of immobility is measured 60 min. after the drug administration along with total duration of immobility. Animals are exposed to pretest of 15 min., 24 hrs. prior to the 6 min. swim test. Each animal is considered immobile when it ceased to struggle and swim and remained floating in the water, only moving to keep its head above water. Control group received distilled water (10 mL/kg. Standard group received Imipramine (5 mg/kg and test group was treated with Losartan (3 mg/kg. The Forced swim test for each mouse was video captured which was later analysed to count the time of onset of immobility and total duration of immobility. RESULTS Data was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Losartan showed significant antidepressant activity indicated by significant delay (P<0.05 in the time of onset of immobility and significant reduction (P<0.05 in the total duration of immobility compared to

  2. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  3. Harmful effect of protein difficiency on lipids, glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in female albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the harmful effect of protein deficient diet on some biochemical activities in serum of female rats. Protein malnutrition is a well known socioeconomic problem in different parts of the world. Many studies were investigated on the biological parameters following protein malnutrition in human and experimental animals. Forty albino female rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group (10 rats) fed 18% protein diet and served as normal control and the other two groups, each contains 15 rats, fed 5% protein for 21 and 45 days, respectively, and served as malnourished groups. The results showed significant decrease in total body weight, serum glucose, insulin and estradiol levels in the third group as well as decrease in the total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations that compared to normal control rats

  4. Cyathula prostrata:A potent source of anticancer agent against daltons ascites in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya K; Krishnakumari S; Vijayakumar M

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata inEhrlich ascites carcinoma(EAC)-bearing mice with methotrexate as positive control in the advanced stage of tumorigenesis.Methods:EAC was induced in swiss albino mice by injecting 106 cell/mL of tumor cell suspension intraperitoneal.The methanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata effect on the tumor cell viability,DNA fragmentation andMTT assay were carried out.Results:Methanolic extract attenuated percentage increased in the cell survival time when compared to control group.However, the effect was less than that of methotrexat.Methotrexat and the extracts reversed the tumor-induced alterations inDNA fragmentation andMTT assay.Conclusions:The present study suggests that the methanol extract ofCyathula prostratahas significant anticancer activity and that is comparableto that of methotrexate.

  5. Sub-chronic toxicity and heavy metal toxicity study on Kappaphycus alvarezii in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbiramiRG; KowsalyaS

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Kappaphycus alvarezii methanolic extracts in albino rats. Methods: Sub-chronic toxicity was tested with a single dose of intraperitonal administration of the extract as per the OECD guidelines in the experimental group rats and the control group rats was fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behaviour changes, clinical signs and symptoms, food intake, body weight and any abnormalities of the visceral organs were observed. Results: The results revealed that the algal extract resulted in neither mortality nor any abnormalities. The Most of the serum biochemical parameters and hematological values were similar in control and experimental groups, histopathological examination of the vital organs like liver, kidney, spleen, brain and heart revealed no obvious abnormality in the control group and Kappaphycus alvarezii treated group. Conclusion: It may be concluded that Kappaphycus alvarezii rich in nutrient and nutraceutial potentials and also safety food for human consumption.

  6. Effect of Escherichia coli infection on the histopathology of albino mice visceral organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Biswas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology is very essential in assessing the nature and state of the tissues. It is used widely to examine the visceral organs in various diseases, infections and disorders. It provides the required insight and details about the possible malfunctioning of the disease or infection. Albino mice were taken and test group was infected withEscherichia coli. The control group was not infected with any linical pathogen. The histopathological examination was carried out to determine the effect of infection in the test group. Liver, spleen and kidney were the visceral organs which were used for the study. The size, shape and other morphological characteristics had markeddifference in case of infected mice when compared with control group mice. Histopathological analysis can be further extended in the case of other clinical pathogenic infections which could lead to nteresting results.

  7. Haematological And Biochemical Changes Induced By Amaranth Impact On Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Ali Radwan; Ahmed Riad El-Sayed; Mohammed Salah Al-Shinnawy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was performed to study the effect of daily administration (interperitoneal injection of synthetic coloring agent amaranth at dose 50 mg /kg b.w. /day for two periods (7 and 21 days, using male albino rats. The effects of amaranth on growth, haematological and some biochemical parameters were examined throughout the study. The results revealed that amaranth treatment cause a marked change in treated groups when compared with control. They showed a significant decrease in percentage of body weight change, RBCs count, Hb concentration and HCT value, while, they recorded a significant increase in WBCs, serum activity of AST and ALP, in addition to serum urea and creatinine levels in treated rats. But ALT and bilirubin showed insignificant changes throughout the experiment.

  8. Spermatotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic evaluation of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Akinboro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae is an alternative medicine as well as food condiment in African and Asian countries. Information on its safe consumption is important considering its wide utilization. The potential effects of aqueous extract of this plant on cell division, chromosome structure and sperm morphology in mice were investigated. The Inductions of chromosomal aberrations and abnormal sperm cells were not dose dependent. However, these were and sperm morphology tests, respectively. Aberrant sperm cell in form of tail folded over head was observed most. These observations suggest possible mutagenic activity of the aqueous extract of O. gratissimum in albino mice. Key words: Ocimum gratissimum, chromosome, mitotic index, sperm cells, aqueous extract  

  9. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) Extract in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective efficacy of aqueous extract of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaves against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. The oral administration of Rajgira extract at 800 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days before whole body exposure to radiation was found to be effective with the LD50/30 values of 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for irradiation alone and Rajgira+irradiation group, respectively, giving a dose reduction factor of 1.36. This effect of Rajgira accompanied the increased endogenous spleen colonies and the spleen weight without any side effect or toxicity, as well as the modulation of the radiation-induced decrease of reduced glutathione and the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation assessed in the liver and the blood. (author)

  10. Effects of lithium carbonate on the microanatomy of thyroid gland of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasseer Ahmad Shah

    2014-02-01

    Results: Microscopic changes in thyroid gland of albino rats were evident after 8 weeks of drug administration which include marked pleomorphism, shrinkage in size of thyroid follicles, excess of colloid and marked vacuolations in acini. At 12th week of study, follicles were found both macro and micro follicular, with variable lining epithelium and hyperchromatic nuclei. Lining epithelium of some follicles was disrupted. The stroma was infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils and there were some interfollicular hemorrhages. Conclusions: Lithium given over prolonged period will cause macro and micro follicular goiter with hyperplastic epithelium and hyper chromatic nuclei, hyperplasia of stroma with increased vascularity, sometimes hemorrhages and finally may lead to thyroiditis like picture. So, it is advised that patients on lithium therapy should be periodically evaluated for thyroid dysfunction. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 279-284

  11. HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS SIMS LEAF EXTRACT IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional medicinal plant P.edulis was tested for its hypoglycemic effect in Wistar albino rats. The oral glucose tolerance test was performed in overnight fasted normal as well as in alloxan induced diabetic rats (150 mg/kg, of alloxan, i.p. with the administration of 100,200,300,400 mg/kg of b.wt of P.edulis. The blood sample withdrawn at 0, 60, 120, 180 min of glucose administration from the retro orbital sinus by capillary puncture indicated the hypoglycemic nature of the P.edulis leaf extract and identified the most effective dose as 200mg/kg b.wt.

  12. Effect of Aqueous Flower Extract of Catharanthus roseus on Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is widely used in Indian Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and hyperlipidemic potential of Catharanthus roseus on alloxan induced diabetes in male albino rats. Oral administration of aqueous extract of Catharanthus roseus at a dose of 250 mg, 350 mg, and 450 mg/kg body weight for 30 days to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose, reduction in lipid profile and also prevented a decrease in body weight. Histological observation demonstrated significant fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates in pancreas of diabetic rats. But, supplementation with Catharanthus roseus to diabetic rats significantly reduced the fatty changes and inflammatory cell infiltrates.

  13. Inheritance of a new albino mutation in Brazilian free-range black chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Jorge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A genetically recessive albino mutation, which inhibits pigment development in the eyes, skin, and feathers of domestic chickens from Brazil, is described. This mutation appeared in a flock of completely black chickens of a private breeder. There are no information on the origin, breed, or specific line of the birds. Pigment inhibition is apparently complete in the feathers and eyes. Bird sight is very impaired, but no histological examination was carried out. Ratios obtained in F2 and backcrossed birds indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene is responsible for the condition. The data suggest that the absence of melanin in the eyes, skin, and feathers (symbol cc is a mutation of the pigmented C wild gene.

  14. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods: Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results: Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion: No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  15. HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT OF ACETONE EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROXB. BARK ON TYPE-2 DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAMSHUN NEHAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, hypoglycemic effects of Terminalia arjuna bark extract were seen in high fructose (21%followed by streptozotocin (40mg/kg BW induced type-2 diabetic male albino rats. In vivo study showedprotective effect of T. arjuna bark acetone extract of towards blood glucose, serum urea, serum createnine, SGOT,SGPT, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT, urine sugar and urine ketone bodies in diabetic rats. Feeding 500 mg/kgBW arjuna bark extract to rats showed better effect for blood and urine parameters as compared to rats fed with250 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract. The effect of feeding 500 mg/kg BW arjuna bark extract was found to bealmost equal to that of with glimepiride fed diabetic rats. The result indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark acetoneextract of have antidiabetogenic and possess hypoglycemic effects in type-2 diabetic rats.

  16. Histopathological changes in Wistar albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeeq Oduola

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Exposure of animals to xenobiotics may or may not trigger adverse response at cellular levels. Aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya is consumed by sickle cell patients as antisickling agent in Western Nigeria. Aim : This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Carica papaya on certain organs in Wister albino rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya. Materials and Methods : Different doses of aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya were administered orally daily for 42 days to six groups of rats. At the end of exposure, the animals were sacrificed and tissue sections were prepared from livers, kidneys, hearts and small intestines using standard techniques. Results : Histopathological results showed that no pathological changes were observed in tissue sections of experimental animals when compared with tissue sections of the same organs in control animals. Conclusion : No pathological changes were elicited in the organs of rats exposed to aqueous extract of unripe Carica papaya.

  17. Therapeutic Efficacy of Ginger, Cisplatin and Radiation on Chemically-Induced Cancer in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo effect of dietary supplementation with ginger to evaluate its therapeutic effect against lung and kidney cancer and in combination with cisplatin as chemotherapy and radiotherapy in male albino rats. 54 male albino rats were divided into nine groups of 6 animals each, all animals were allowed to food and water ad libitum . Group I was treated with 0.5 ml saline, orlly for 12 consecutive weeks serve as con - trol group Group II injected with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ); all groups were injected with NDMA + CCl4 for 6 weeks. Group III were given ginger for 6 consecutive weeks (200 mg/kg, b.wt./day). Group IV animals received cisplatin, group V irradiated with 2 Gy, group VI treated with ginger then irradiated, group VII treated with ginger then injected with cisplatin, group VIII injected with cisplatin then irradiated and group IX treated with ginger and cisplatin then irradiated. Antioxidant status in both kidney and lung tissues were estimated by determining the activity of antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD); as well as the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and Nitric oxide (NO). In parallel to histopathological investigations of lung and kidney tissues. In addition, Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) level, advanced oxidative protein product (AOPP), urea, creatinine and uric acid. Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters in NDMA + CCl4 group. On the other hand, rats injected with the cancer agents then treated with cisplatin+radiation showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with ginger + cisplatin + radiation ameliorated the levels of the disturbed bio

  18. Nigella sativa oil Ameliorates ionizing Radiation induced cellular injury in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as black seed, is a plant spices in which thymoquinone is the main active ingredient isolated from the black seeds. The seeds of Nigella sativa are used in herbal medicine all over the world for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases. The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of NS against gamma radiation induced nephrotoxicity and inflammatory changes in male albino rats. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy), treated group (rats treated with 0.2 ml/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks), and treated irradiated group (animals treated with 0.2 mL/kg, i.p., NS oil for 4 weeks then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy). The obtained results revealed that the administration of Nigella sativa oil to irradiated rats significantly ameliorated the changes induced in kidney antioxidant system; catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as reduced glutathione concentration. Also, NS oil restored the kidney function indices (urea and creatinine) near normal level when compared with their equivalent values in irradiated rats. In addition, the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) activities were markedly improved compared to the corresponding values of irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of ischemic renal injury in irradiated group, while in treated- irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture with or without focal degeneration. In conclusion, NS acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorates the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological study and also NS oil might provide substantial protection against

  19. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor of albino and pigmented rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R J; Liu, W; Drusano, G; Madu, A; Mayers, M; Madu, C; Miller, M H

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum and vitreous humor samples from albino and pigmented rabbits by using a recently described animal model which permits robust estimation of parameter values. The drug was administered to rabbits intravenously, multiple vitreous humor and serum samples were taken from each rabbit, and the vitreous humor and serum samples were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with RSTRIP, an iterative, nonlinear, weighted, least-squares regression program. Eight New Zealand White rabbits and eight Dutch Belted rabbits (split into single-dose and multiple-dose groups) were investigated in this study. The value of penetration into the vitreous humor of albino rabbits (n = 6) was 32.6% +/- 2.12%, with terminal-elimination half-life values of 3.21 and 2.39 h, respectively, for vitreous humor and serum. In pigmented rabbits after a single dose (n = 3) and with a steady-state concentration of drug in serum (n = 4), penetration values were similar, at 30.4% +/- 2.98% and 30.0% +/- 4.12%, respectively (P > 0.10). Following a single dose of ofloxacin, pigmented animals had elimination half-life values from serum and vitreous humor of 2.64 and 4.32 h, respectively. After steady state was achieved, half-life values for serum and vitreous humor were 3.12 and 6.05 h, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CURCUMA AMADA (MANGO - GINGER IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. has morphological resemblance with ginger, but imparts mango flavour. According to Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems , the biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. Hence curcuma amada aqueous extract for analgesic activity was evaluated in pain animal models. Pain is a most common complaint of many medical conditions, and pain control is one of t he most important therapeutic priorities. Curcuma Amada suppresses the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. However there is no scientific data suggestive of its analgesic activity. Hence this study was carried out to evaluate its role in central a nd peripheral models of pain. OBJECTIVE: To Evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats, the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines . The aqueous extract of curcuma amada was used.4x2 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity was assessed with the help of following screening methods . Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid . Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer . Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C . Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULT S: Aqueous extract of curcuma amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to control group (Gum acacia. In Tail flick test and Hot plate test Curcuma Amada increases the latency period of pain (reaction time. In Tail im mersion test the test drug significantly (P < 0.001 reduces pain at 30 min when compared to control group at 60 min of oral administration. CONCLUSION : The present findings indicate that

  1. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. Normal control and diabetic control group received gum acacia (2% orally for 12days, and normal saline (i.p., dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p. from day 7- day12 respectively. Two test groups (Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract 2 and 4gm/kg/p.o./12days and standard control received metformin (2gm/kg/p.o./12 days. The two test groups, standard control group received dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p from day 7- day 12 respectively. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity was estimated by measuring serum glucose, insulin, lipid levels and histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Results were analyzed by using one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe’s multiple comparison test. Results: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre (2 and 4gm/kg/p.o significantly (p<0.01 altered the elevated glucose, lipid, insulin levels and also improved the histopathology of liver in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance rats. Conclusion: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre improved the altered glucose, insulin and lipid profile in insulin resistance rats.

  2. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  3. EVALUATION OF ANXIOLYTIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT HYPERICUM HOOKERIANUM IN STRESS INDUCED SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Subakanmani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is evaluate to Anxiolytic profile of Hypericum hookerianum in stress induced Swiss albino mice. The study was carried out using Swiss albino mice (25- 30 g. The Anxiolytic effect of aerial parts of ethanolic extract of Hypericum hookerianum was evaluated by using behavioral analysis like Elevated plus maze (EPM test, Open Field Test (OFT, Hole Board Test (HBT, Light dark exploration Test (LDE in restraint stress induced animals. Behavioral test parameters for anxiety were assessed followed by biochemical parameters (lipid per oxidation, super oxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione per oxidase, reduced glutathione, etc. and Diazepam 1 mg/kg served as a standard Anxiolytic drug, administered intraperitonealy. The results were shown that, ethanolic extract of H.hookerianum (Hh 100mg/kg and Hh 200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly increased the percentage of time spent and number of entries in open arm in EPM. In LDE, the extract produced significant increase in time spent, number of crossing and decrease in the duration of immobility in light box. In OFT, the extract showed significant increase in number of rearings, assisted rearings and number of square crossed, all of which are demonstrations of exploratory behavior. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in lipid per oxidation, depletion of super oxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, catalase activity and glutathione per oxidase in stress induced animals as compared to unstressed animal. Six days treatment of Hh (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg comparable with Diazepam, significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral and oxidative damage. The results of the present study suggest that an ethanolic extract of H.hookerianum may possess Anxiolytic activity in stressed animals and provide a scientific evidence for its traditional claim.

  4. EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ON KIDNEY OF ALBINO RABBIT-AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fluoride is present in environment in various forms and ingested by man from solid foods, drinks, drinking water and inhaled from the air. Out of these, fluoride is present in large quantities in dissolved state in many sources of drinking water producing toxicity in man. Fluoride, being excreted mainly through the kidneys, seems to damage it causing renal dysfunction. Kidneys are among the most sensitive body organs in their histopathological and functional responses to excessive amounts of fluoride. Trace elements are essential and beneficial to human being in minute concentrations. However, intake in large quantities produces adverse and toxic effects on our body. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes of sodium fluoride on the kidney in albino rabbit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 40 albino rabbits were used for this study, among them 8 rabbits were taken in the control group (Group A and16 rabbits each were taken in both group B and group C who were administered low and high dose of fluoride respectively. After 2 weeks interval, up to 16 weeks the histology of the kidney of each group of the rabbit was studied for histological analysis. RESULT: Histological changes in the kidneys of both Group B and Group C rabbits, following continuous daily exposure to sodium fluoride solutions in two different doses (0.5% solution for Group B and 3% solution for Group C for different durations of time were studied in detail and compared with those of the controls (Group A. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that Sodium Fluoride solution in high doses for prolonged period has a definite adverse effect on the renal parenchyma.

  5. In vivo DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Gurabi MA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed A Al Gurabi, Daoud Ali, Saad Alkahtani, Saud Alarifi Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on organs, tissue, cell levels, and protein levels because of their physicochemical properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are being used on a wide scale in world consumer markets; their potential hazards for humans remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the intraperitoneal toxicity of AgNPs (26 mg per kg of body weight, 52 mg per kg of body weight, and 78 mg per kg of body weight over 72 hours in Swiss albino mice. AgNPs induced a significant increase in serum liver injury markers including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Induction of DNA damage was also studied in mice injected with AgNPs. Apoptosis (detected by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphatase nick end labeling assay method in liver tissue and DNA strand breaks (detected by using the comet assay method in lymphocytes revealed that a concentration of 78 mg of AgNPs per kg body weight can cause significant apoptosis and DNA damage. The DNA damage and apoptosis raise the concern about the safety associated with application of the AgNPs. Significantly more alterations were induced in the hepatocytes of animals exposed to AgNP doses than in the control animals. The induced histological and apoptotic changes may be due to AgNP toxicity. immunohistochemical and ultrastructural of AgNP. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, liver tissue, histology, apoptosis, DNA damage, Swiss albino mice

  6. Effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves on Serum Lipids in Albino Rats Fed with High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saikia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is major problem among population those have sedentary life style as well as in diabetics. Bougainvillea spectabilis is most commonly found in India as an ornamental plant and has got anti-diabetic action due to presence of one insulin mimicking agent D-pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiroinositol. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (AEBSL on serum lipid profile in albino rats fed with high fat diet (HFD and to compare it with a standard hypolipidaemic drug simvastatin. Thirty healthy albino rats of both sexes (100-200 g were randomized into 5 groups of 6 animals each. The groups were treated as follows: Group A: normal diet (ND; Group B: HFD (vanaspati ghee + coconut oil mixture in ratio of 3:2 at 10 ml/kg/day; Group C: HFD+ AEBSL (100 mg/kg/day; Group D: HFD + AEBSL (200 mg/kg/day; Group E: HFD + simvastatin (1.8 mg/kg/day. Lipid profile was estimated after 8 weeks of treatment. AEBSL showed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in total cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL levels and significant (p<0.01 increase in high density lipoproteins (HDL in hypercholesteromic rats (Group C and Group D. AEBSL 200 mg/kg/day found to be more effective than AEBSL 100 mg/kg/day. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index (p<0.01 and increases the percentage of protection AEBSL treated animals. Alcoholic extract of leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves have excellent lipid lowering potentiality.

  7. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp/albino zebrafish line to characterize in vivo expression of neurod.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Thomas

    Full Text Available In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults.

  8. Note on breeding and parental care behaviours of albino Hoary-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus pygerythrus (Rodentia: Sciuridae in Sibsagar District of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kalita

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A few individuals of albino Horay-bellied Squirrels along with normal gray individuals of Callosciurus pygerythrus have been observed in Sibsagar district of Assam, India. One albino female was studied in captivity. This paper presents our observations on the breeding behaviour and the parental care exhibited by the albino squirrel in captivity. The squirrel bred twice in captivity with a normal male of the same species. In both the periods, a single male baby with normal coat colour developed. Oral dose of vitamin E has been found helpful in the breeding of the studied squirrel species. The mother squirrel exhibited parental care by carrying her baby using her mouth, to a safer place during danger. However, the observed phenomenon is unlike that of the cat species. Some of the habitat ecology and feeding habits of the albino squirrels have also been studied, both in natural and in captive conditions.

  9. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Devi, K. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dos...

  10. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extract on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    OpenAIRE

    K. Lakshmi Devi; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at...

  11. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative cont...

  12. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Ashwin K. Panchasara; Manish J Barvaliya; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Seema N Baxi; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 gr...

  13. Garlic (Allium sativum) Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sashank Srivastava; P. H. Pathak

    2012-01-01

    Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, ...

  14. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with s...

  15. Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet (A compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Deole, Yogesh S.; Chavan, Sulakshan S.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Thakar, A.B.; Chandola, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprisin...

  16. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Gauri D; Sengupta Mahuya; Chakraborty Biswajit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrach...

  17. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products) of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G.E. Helal * Samir A.M. Zaahkouk

    2000-01-01

    Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll) and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow), food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect m...

  18. Estudo quantitativo do nervo frênico de rato albino em função do envelhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Rodrigues de Souza

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The phrenic nerve of albino rats was studied for age changes in number of fibres, myelin sheath thickness and axon calibre. Nerves were excised from three young and three aged rats. There is no significant morphological differences between nerves from young and aged rats and no difference with age was found in the number of fibres, myelin sheath thickness and axon calibre.

  19. Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sodium valporate induced cytogenetic and testicular alterations in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sakr, Saber A.; Zowail, Mohamed E.; Marzouk, Amera M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological ch...

  20. Comparison of the efficacy of sitagliptin with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Mathai; Nagendra Nayak; Mamtha Rao; Nitasha Bhat, G. M.; K. Vinodraj; N Chandralekha; D Rajesh; T. K. Chethan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 inhibitor. This study was done to assess the insulin-sensitizing effect of sitagliptin on Wistar albino rats by means of surrogate measures. Methods: There were four groups of six rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received sitagliptin 100 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 d...

  1. Evaluation of genotoxic potential of Hypericum triquetrifolium extract in somatic and germ cells of male albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Bushra M. A. Mohammed,; Sarbast K. Q. Kheravii

    2011-01-01

    Hypericum triquetrifolium aqueous extract were studied for the first time for its toxic and the possible clastogenic effects in vivo on the bone marrow and spermatozoa cells of Swiss albino mice. The lethal dose of the aqueous extract was considered to be 10.33 g/kg of the body weight, injected subcutaneously. The doses which were chosen for treatments were 2, 1, and 0.25 g/kg. H. triquetrifolium extract induce statistically significant increases in the average...

  2. Comparison of the efficacy of liraglutide with pioglitazone on dexamethasone induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Vinodraj, K.; Nagendra Nayak, I. M.; Rao, J. Vikram; Mathai, Paul; N Chandralekha; Nitasha, B.; D. Rajesh; T. K. Chethan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of liraglutide with pioglitazone for prevention of dexamethasone induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: There were four groups of six rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received liraglutide 1.8 mg/kg subcutaneously 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days...

  3. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-Induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S.; Mahmoud, Hamada M.

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment a...

  4. Structural And Histochemical Changes Of Albino Rat Kidney Under The Effect Of Injectable Contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh A. Ghali

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of safe and effective method for fertility control still under continuous search. So, discovery of structures having long duration of action which made administration by injection was an attractive alternative to oral contraceptives. Medroxyprogesterone acetate emerged from this early work as promising injectable long ­ acting contraceptive with minimal risk. This work was planned to evaluate the structural and histochemical changes induced by injectable contraceptive Depo-provera (MPA, on the kidney of adult female Albino rats as well as testing the degree of reversibility of changes that may develop after the arrest of its use. Thirty adult female Albino rats were used in this work and divided into three equal groups. Group I was used as a control, group II was intramuscularly injected with MPA 4 times (2.7 mg / rat every 3 oestrus cycles and sacrificed one day after arrest of the injection, while , group III the animals were injected with MPA by the same dose and sacrificed 30 days after arrest of the injection. The abdominal aorta was exposed and Indian ink injection was injected to study the renal vascular changes. The animals were sacrificed, the kidney was dissected and paraffin sections were prepared and stained by haematoxylin and eosin and PAS technique to study the microscopic structure and the distribution of PAS+ve materials respectively. Frozen sections were prepared and stained by both Gomori and Nachla's techniques to study the activity of acid phosphatase enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme respectively. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using Student's t.test. The injected groups showed atrophy of tubular epithelium, dilatation of tubular lumina. All recovery groups were nearly similar to normal state except PAS+ve material of renal tubules which were nearly similar to injected groups. The treated groups showed significant increase in vascular distribution and PAS+ve materials. While, non

  5. Effects of ciprofloxacin and zinc chloride in adult albino rat and pre-natal conceptus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Administration of quinolone therapy is controversial during growing age as stated by earlier authors. The flouroquinolones are currently not indicated for young children because of arthropathy and adverse effect as new born shown by studies. However the effects of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ on prenatal conceptus have remained undocumented. The present study was designed to compare the effects on conceptus after maternal ingestion of ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ using Wastar albino rats. Methods: Ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ was administrated to pregnant female albino rats. Ciprofloxacin with a dose of 20 mg/Kg bodyweight and ZnCl/sub 2/ 120 micro g/100 gm bodyweight two times therapeutic dose for 10 days (from day 8-18 of pregnancy). Each animal was weighted on day 1, day 8 and day 18 of pregnancy. Abortion resulted on day 18th of pregnancy. Each group of pregnant animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation by over dose of either anaesthesia, abdomen opened, uterus and both cornua containing conceptus identified, removed, there weight recorded, crown rump length was measured and was compared with similar value of control animals. The results were statistically analysed to find out the significance. Results: The ciprofloxacin induces a mordanting effect as obviated by increased basophilia. Our study reveals that ciprofloxacin administered in maternal, decreased maternal body weight to 38.4+-0.9 gm. However simultaneous ZnCl/sub 2/ maintained the body weight to 41.4+-0.7 gm, while ZnCl/sub 2/ increased the body weight to 46.5+-2.25 gm. The body weight and Crown Rump length (CR Length) in conceptus decreased by 4.52+-0.10 gm and 3.06+-0.09 Cm respectively. That ciprofloxacin and ZnCl/sub 2/ administration maintained the body weight and CR length by 5.46+-0.09 gm and 3.79+-0.13 Cm respectively. That ZnCl/sub 2/ administration increased the body weight and CR length by 6.71+-0.05 gm and 4.15+-0.08 Cm respectively. Conclusion: Prenatal administration

  6. Proteomic analysis of young leaves at three developmental stages in an albino tea cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Juan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White leaf No.1 is a typical albino tea cultivar grown in China and it has received increased attention in recent years due to the fact that white leaves containing a high level of amino acids, which are very important components affecting the quality of tea drink. According to the color of its leaves, the development of this tea cultivar is divided into three stages: the pre-albinistic stage, the albinistic stage and the regreening stage. To understand the intricate mechanism of periodic albinism, a comparative proteomic approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry was adopted first time to identify proteins that changed in abundance during the three developmental periods. Results The 2-DE results showed that the expression level of 61 protein spots varied markedly during the three developmental stages. To analyze the functions of the significantly differentially expressed protein spots, 30 spots were excised from gels and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry. Of these, 26 spots were successfully identified. All identified protein spots were involved in metabolism of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, photosynthesis, protein processing, stress defense and RNA processing, indicating these physiological processes may play crucial roles in the periodic albinism. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis was used to assess the transcriptional level of differentially expressed proteins. In addition, the ultrastructural studies revealed that the etioplast-chloroplast transition in the leaf cell of White leaf No. 1 was inhibited and the grana in the chloroplast was destroyed at the albinistic stage. Conclusions In this work, the proteomic analysis revealed that some proteins may have important roles in the molecular events involved in periodic albinism of White leaf No. 1 and identificated many attractive candidates for further investigation. In

  7. Protection of radiation-induced DNA damage in albino rats by Zingiber Montanum extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tropical ginger, Zingiber montanum (J. König) A. Dietr, has potentials in scavenging free radicals and affording protection from radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations. The present investigation aims at determining antioxidant and radioprotective properties of the rhizome extract. Sulphur free radical, DPPH and superoxide scavenging assays were carried out for assessing antioxidant activities. Radiation-induced (500 cGy) DNA damage in pBR322 in vitro could be significantly reduced upto 71% (P < 0.05) by treatment with 60% ethanol extract (20 μg). Acute toxicity of the 60% ethanol extract was determined and suitable injectable dose was selected for intra-peritoneal administration in albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). The LD50 of extract calculated for 72 hrs was found to be 2.9 g/kg, and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of rhizome extract was 1.3 g/kg. Rhizome extract (0.5 g/kg) in 60% ethanol was intra-peritoneally injected to albino rats and exposed to 100, 300 and 500 cGy. Radioprotective effect of the extract was determined by alkaline single cell comet assay. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) of comet DNA (68%) and length (61%)in rat bone marrow cells was observed at a radiation dose of 500 cGy. The results demonstrate that tropical ginger possess free radical scavenging properties and can protect bone marrow cells from radiation-induced DNA damages. The results on radiation induced DNA damage using plasmid pBR322 DNA obviously justify that the extract at a low dose can protect DNA from undergoing strand breakage due to gamma radiation exposure. Versatility of Zingiber montanum in different chemical assays in terms of its radical scavenging potential shows that this non-conventional food plant as a lot of potential in maintaining human health through dietary supplementation as nutraceutical. This candidate plant also can possibly be a promising candidate in clinical radiotherapy perhaps as a substitute of or the well-know radioprotector amifostine. (author)

  8. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  9. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow on the liver of adult albino rats. The study included three main parts: A. Histological studies on the liver under the effect of (Sodium nitrate and sunset yellow substances. Using paraffin sections, which were stained with Hx & Eosin, Masson Trichrome B. Evaluation of histochemical activity of both alkaline phosphates enzyme and succinic dehydrogenase enzymes on the renal tissue. C. Statistical evaluation using image analyzer to detect glomerular area, area percentage of collagen fibers distribution and optical density of both alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity in glomerulus and succinic dehydrogenase enzyme activity in renal tubules. Seventy adult male albino rats were used. Nitrate and sunset yellow were given orally through a gastric tube in dose of 1 mg / kg / b.w. daily. The animals were classified into seven groups. 1. Group I (Control group 2. Group II: The animals were given sodium nitrate in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt for one month. 3. Group III: The animals were given sun set yellow in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/day for one month. 4. Group IV: The animals were given sodium nitrate and sunset yellow for one month in a dose of 1mg/kg/bwt/for each drug in a separate manner. 5. Group V: The animals were given sodium nitrate similar to the previous dose as group II for one month and left 2 weeks without oral intubations. 6. Group VI: The animals were given sun set yellow No 6 in a dose and route of administrations as group III for one

  10. THE USE OF CASSAVA ROOT MEAL AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR CORN IN DIETS FOR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Nii NARKU NORTEY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to determine if partial replacement of maize with cassava root meal (CRM in diets for albino rats will have an effect on performance, organ characteristics and blood parameters. Twenty five Sprague Dawley albino rats (F344 strain, initial body weight (216 ± 8g were randomly assigned to five treatments (T1 to T5 in a completely randomized (CRD arrangement. T1 was the control and contained zero CRM. T2 and T3 contained 30% CRM, while T4 and T5 contained 45% CRM. These levels of inclusion represented 50 and 75% replacement of corn in the diets respectively. T2 and T4 had 0.15% methionine (Met while T3 and T5 had 0.3% Met. The rats were each fed a single diet for 28d. Average daily feed intake (ADFI of rats on T1 was lower (P 0.05 in average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion efficiency (FCE. Similarly there were no differences (P>0.05 in carcass, viscera and other internal organ weights. Results of this trial indicate that albino rats can tolerate diets with added CRM (45% of the diet with no adverse effects on growth and internal organ characteristics. Future work will need to look at the possibility of using CRM at similar or higher levels in diets for growing pigs.

  11. Distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in the skins of normal and albino adult turbot, Scophthalmus Maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Huarong; HUANG Bing; QI Fei; ZHANG Shicui

    2007-01-01

    The distribution and ultrastructure of pigment cells in skins of normal and albino adult turbots were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three types of pigment cells of melanophore, iridophore and xanthophore have been recognized in adult turbot skins. The skin color depends mainly on the amount and distribution of melanophore and iridophore, as xanthophore is quite rare. No pigment cells can be found in the epidermis of the skins. In the pigmented ocular skin of the turbot, melanophore and iridophore are usually co-localized in the dermis. This is quite different from the distribution in larvae skin. In albino and white blind skins of adult turbots, however, only iridophore monolayer still exists, while the melanophore monolayer disappears. This cytological evidence explains why the albino adult turbot, unlike its larvae, could never resume its body color no matter what environmental and nutritional conditions were provided. Endocytosis is quite active in the cellular membrane of the iridophore. This might be related to the formation of reflective platelet and stability of the iridophore.

  12. Effect of Chronic Use of Recreational Drugs on the Sperm Count in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sravonee Purkayastha

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of various recreational drugs is leading to drug abuse which is increasingly developed in the modern society among the various populations throughout the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of a few recreational drugs viz., anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS, alcohol and nicotine on male fertility status which was assessed by measuring sperm count in male albino mice. Semen samples were collected from normal, AAS-treated, alcohol-treated and nicotine-treated mice and the sperm count (in millions/ml semen was assessed at regular intervals i.e. on 10th, 20th, 30th, 45th,60th,75th and 90th day of treatment during the experimental period of 90 days. The results showed a significant decrease in the sperm count in AAS-treated, nicotine-treated (p<0.01 and alcohol-treated mice (p<0.05 compared to that of the normal mice. The present study clearly indicates suppression of sperm count on AAS, alcohol and nicotine treatment which may be one of the contributing factors in male infertility.

  13. Antiovulatory and estrogenic activity of Plumbago rosea leaves in female albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeja E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the effect of petroleum ether (60-80, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Plumbago rosea leaves on the estrous cycle and to identify the estrogenic activity of active acetone and ethanol extracts in female albino rats. Methods : Plant extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at two dose levels: 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. The effective acetone and ethanol extracts were further studied on estrogenic activity in rats. Histological studies of the uterus were carried out to confirm their estrogenic activity. Results : The acetone and ethanol extracts were most effective in interrupting the normal estrous cycle of the rats (P< 0.05, < 0.01, < 0.001. These later exhibited prolonged diestrous stage of the estrous cycle with consequent temporary inhibition of ovulation. The antiovulatory activity was reversible on discontinuation of treatment. Both the extracts showed significant estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Conclusion : The acetone and ethanolic extracts of P. rosea leaves have an antifertility activity.

  14. Restoring lens capsule integrity enhances lens regeneration in New Zealand albino rabbits and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, A; Gruber, L J; Mantras, C

    1993-11-01

    In studies conducted by numerous investigators for 150 years, lenses regenerated following endocapsular lens extraction in New Zealand albino rabbits have been irregular in shape, appearing primarily doughnut-shaped as a result of lack of lens growth at the site of the anterior capsulotomy and its adhesion to the posterior capsule. In the present study, we restored the lens capsule integrity by inserting a collagen patch at the time of surgery to seal the anterior capsulotomy and to improve the shape and structure of the regenerated lenses. We then filled the capsule bag with air to prevent adhesions between the anterior and posterior capsule and maintain capsule tautness and shape. Lens regeneration was first noted as early as one to two weeks. Regenerated lens filled approximately 50% of the capsule bag at two weeks and 100% by five weeks. Subsequent growth was in the anterior-posterior direction and measured by A-scan biometry. Lens thickness increased by 0.3 mm per month. The regenerated lenses were spherical with normal cortical structure and a nuclear opacity. In conclusion, restoration of lens capsular integrity with a collagen patch following endocapsular lens extraction enhanced the shape, structure, and growth rate of the regenerated lenses. In addition, lens regeneration was shown to occur in two cats.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  16. Antioxidative Effect of Trichosanthes tricuspidata Root Extract on Sildenafil Induced Migraine in Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nithiya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is considered a neurovascular disease involving the dilatation of cerebral arteries. Because of their dual role in modulating neuronal and vascular events, neuropeptides have been implied to be of importance in migraine pathophysiology. It is a highly prevalent disorder which manifests clinically as moderate to severe or severe headache attacks with frequent frontotemporal unilateral location and associated symptoms. The disability of migraine results in considerable economic and social losses .Nitric oxide, a short lived vasodilator and weak oxygen radical has been implicated in the genesis of migraine headaches. Hence the role of all enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants becomes in evitable in the treatment of migraine. Trichosanthes tricuspidata′s (red apple gourd antioxidant effect was tested over Sildenafil induced migraine in female albino mice. The levels of antioxidant enzymes such as super oxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidase(LPO, catalase(CAT and glutahione peroxidase(GPx were more promising in the treatment group fed with the root extract of Trichosanthes tricuspidata.

  17. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( [3H]DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. [3H]DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of [3H]DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of [3H] DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT

  18. Protective Role Of Fresh Pomegranate Against Oxidative Damage In Whole Body Gamma Irradiated Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty four male albino rats, body weight 100-130 g, were used to evaluate the protective role of fresh pomegranate fruit intake for 30 days on the damage induced by single dose of 6 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: group (1): control, group (2): irradiated with 6 Gy, group (3): pomegranate for 30 days and group (4): pomegranate for 30 days followed by 6 Gy whole body irradiation. At the end of the experiment, all rats were sacrificed after 12 hours fasting then sera were separated for the determination of sugar, total antioxidant, lipid profile and liver and kidney functions. Results showed that gamma radiation caused significant decline (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant, total protein, albumin, HDL-C and blood glucose with significant elevation (P<0.05) in other hepato-renal markers in addition to serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C. These changes were significantly attenuated in irradiated animals pre-treated with whole fresh pomegranate fruit leading to the conclusion that pre-intake of pomegranate fruit had a radio- protective effect. This protection of this whole fruit may be due to the increased total antioxidant level leading to free radical scavenging

  19. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males.

  20. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan I El-Sayyad; Saber A Sakr; Gamal M Badawy; Hanaa S Afify

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods: Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results: Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite.

  1. Effect of Camel's Milk on Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M.E. Afifi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nephrotoxicity is a major complication and a dose limiting factor for cisplatin therapy. Cisplatin mediated nephrotoxicity is remarkably documented by reactive oxygen species. Camel's milk has good nutritive value, antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the protective effect of camel's milk against Cisplatin-induced renal oxidative stress in mice. Approach: Forty mal Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10. Group I, control group. Group II was received cisplatin (12 mg kg-1 for 5 alternate days. Group III was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days. Group IV was received camel's milk (33 mL kg-1 for consecutive 30 days before administration of Cisplatin. Results: Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress was indicated by increased level of tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA, serum creatinine and urea, decreased the concentration of reduced Glutathione (GSH, Vitamin C (Vit. C and Vitamin E (Vit. E and decreased both activities and gene expression of Superoxid Dismutase (SOD, Catalase (CAT, Glutathione Raductase (GR and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx. Camel's milk reduced these biochemical changes and counteracted the deleterious effects of cisplatin Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the renoprotective potential of camel's milk against cisplatin-induced oxidative stress and renal dysfunction in mice. Hence, camel's milk has a potential to be used as therapeutic adjuvant in cisplatin nephrotoxicity.

  2. Biochemical Effects Of Ribavirin (Antiviral And Ddb (Hepato Protective Drugs In Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman S. Ibrahim, Amr Shalaby and Mahmoud Rabeh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation has been designed to through spot light on the efficiency of these two drugs in treatment of hepatitis patients. Cortisol, antigliadin (1gG , total protein (TP albumin (ALB , Iron (Fe , alanine aminotransferase (ALT , aspartic aminotransferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were determined in serum of normal mature male and female albino rats that injected intraperitoneally day after day with 1mg/kg body weight of each drug separately for 3 months. The cortisol level and ALP showed significant increase in each of ribavirin or DDB treated animals, while the IgG concentration in ribavirin treated animals increased significantly, but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animals. On the other hand both ribavirin and DDB treated male and female rats showed significant decrease in the ALT in serum while serum AST elicited non significant decrease in each of ribavirin and DDB treated male and female. With respect to serum TP and ALB levels the result showed significant decrease in ribavirin and non significant decrease in DDB treated male and female rats. Furthermore, the serum Fe level in ribavirin treated male and female rats increased significantly but it is did not vary greatly from that of the control in DDB treated animal.

  3. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C3H8NO5P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p) to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(a)pyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only), whereas, animals of control (vehicle) group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL). Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P<.05). The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI). The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow.

  4. In vivo anticancer activity of vanillin, benzophenone and acetophenone thiosemicarbazones on Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sha Md. Shahan Shahriar; Shaikh M Mohsin Ali; Mele Jesmin; Md. Khairul Islam; Sarozit Mondal

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the anticancer activities of three schiff bases viz. vanillin thiosemicarbazone, benzophenone thiosemicarbazone and acetophenone thiosemicarbazone against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Synthesized compounds have administrated into the intraperitoneal cavity of the EAC inoculated mice at two doses. The anticancer activities have studied by monitoring the parameters such as cell growth inhibition, tumor weight measurement, survival time of EAC bearing mice as well as the changes in depleted hematological parameters due to tumorgenesis. All such data have been compared with those of a known standard drug bleomycin at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.).Results:It has been found that these bases enhanced life span, reduced average tumor weight and inhibited tumor cell growth of EAC cell bearing mice remarkably. The results were similar in potency to those obtained with bleomycin. It was also found that the depleted hematological parameters (red blood count, white blood count and haemoglobin content) were found to be restored gradually towards normal within few weeks after ceasing the treatment.Conclusions:The compounds can be primarily considered more or less as potent anticancer agents.

  5. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  6. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one.

  7. Effect of Solanine on Arthritis Symptoms in Postmenopausal Female Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanine is a toxic compound produced in nightshades family as potato,tomato and eggplant when exposed to light.The current study was carried out on 18 female postmenopausal albino rats to investigate the effect of solanine on the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.Animals were classified into 3 groups feeding on balanced diet only (GI) or replaced by two third with small pieces of diseased potatoes for 2 and 4 weeks (GII,GIII) respectively . Serum levels of arthritic bio markers were investigated as the estimation of erythrocytes sedimentation rate ( ESR) , C-Reactive Protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA),Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),Interleukin-6( IL-6) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined in all groups. There was a significant positive increase in the levels of ESR, CRP , MDA , TNF-α, IL-6 , and IgG among different groups depending on potatoes intake. There was positive correlation between the serum levels of CRP and TNF-α ,Il-6 and IgG.However, a non significantly positive correlation between serum level of CRP and the level of MDA was observed. The data of the present study showed that old age and postmenopausal suffering from arthritis and joint swollen must eliminat or avoid the nightshades plants to alleviate the joint pain and also decrease the destruction of the tissues

  8. [Comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions in albino mice with experimental larval alveococcosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkoliar, N A; Legon'kov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions (AOS and MOS) was studied in an experimental model of experimental larval alveococcosis in albino mice. The animals were intragastrically injected with the agents once daily for 40 days on day 35 after intraperitoneal inoculation with E. multilocularis acephalocysts. They were dissected 29 days after treatment termination (103 days following inoculation) and the rate of infestation and viability and the degree of maturity of developed alveococcosis larvocysts (AL) were determined. The AOS and MOS efficiency estimated by the mean mass of AL per animal was 83.3 and 98.1%, respectively; whereas the similar indicator calculated by one largest AL weight per animal found among all the animals in the compared groups was equal to 57.7 and 96.9%, respectively. Under the equal conditions of solubilization in vegetable oil, the biological activity and bioavailability of mebendazole were shown to increase to a much greater extent than those of albendazole. The findings suggest that the use of mebendazole is promising for designing new vegetable oil-based formulations of the agent. PMID:24003516

  9. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one. PMID:26827585

  10. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella on fertility in pregnant female albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lilaram; R Nazeer Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of ethanolic seed extract of Caesalpinia bonducella (C. bonducella) on fertility in female Wistar albino rats. Methods: Pregnant rats were randomized into two groups containing eight animals in each group. Control group rats were orally administered with 1 mL/100 g b.wt of distilled water while rats in second group received 300 mg/kg of the seed extract from gestation day 1-7, once daily. The animals were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last dose on gestation day 12. Results:A significant reduction in implantation index and a contrasting significant increase in resorption index, pre-implantation and post-implantation loss was recorded in the seed extract treated rats. Progesterone level declined significantly in rats treated with seed extract. Ovary revealed degenerated corpora lutea in treated rats. The embryos were noticed with craniofacial deformities in extract treated group. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study suggest that the seeds of C. bonducella possess antifertility activity probably due to its antiprogesterogenic hormonal properties that can modulate the reproductive function of the experimental rats.

  11. Long-term exposure to incense smoke alters metabolism in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Alarifi, Saud A; Draz, Hossam M; Hussain, Tajamul; Yakout, Sobhy M

    2011-03-01

    The burning of incense is an important source of indoor air pollution in Asia. We assessed the effect of long-term exposure to incense smoke on the body weight and levels of circulating glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, insulin, adiponectin and leptin in Wistar albino rats. Two groups of rats were used. First group (n = 12) was exposed daily to incense smoke for 4 months at the rate of 4 g day(-1) in the exposure chamber. Another group of rats (n = 12), was used as non-exposed control. Blood samples were collected from all animals after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of exposure. Serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol insulin, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Our results showed that incense smoke exposure was associated with decreased weight gain and the adverse metabolic changes of increased triglycerides and decreased HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Exposure to incense was also associated with a transient increase of leptin levels. Taken together, these data suggest that incense smoke influences metabolism adversely in rats. The effect of incense smoke on human health and the underlying mechanisms need to be studied further.

  12. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwudi Onyeka John Okonkwo; Ailende Daniel Ehileboh; Eddy Nwobodo; Charles Chijioke Dike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To find out if Gasoline vapour has some effects on haematological indices when inhaled by experimental rats. Methods: The standard method for laboratory operating procedure recommended by World Health Organization was used in all the analysis done. Forty two albino Wistar rats comprising twenty one males (160–220 g) and twenty one females (140–190 g) were sampled into six groups consisting of four test groups and two control groups. The test groups were exposed to gasoline vapour for twenty one days. Test group one were exposed to gasoline for 30 min while test group two were exposed to gasoline vapour for 1 h daily. At the end of twenty one days of exposure, blood samples were collected from the rats and their haematological parameters were estimated. Statistical analysis was done using windows SPSS version 16. Results: The results showed a significant decrease (P Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that inhalation exposure to gasoline may result in pancytopaenia and a significant fluctuation in the red blood cell-dependent haematological indices.

  13. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg was used as standard while normal saline (0.9% was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  14. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  15. Effect of methanol extract ofSynsepalum dulciifcum pulp on some biochemical parameters in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nkwocha Chinelo; Njoku Obioma Uzoma

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the beneficial effects of the methanol extract ofSynsepalum dulcificum on some biochemical parameters. Methods: In this study, rats were orally administered (gavage) with methanol extracts at doses of 0 mg/kg (Group 1, as normal group), 100 mg/kg (Group 2), 200 mg/kg (Group 3) and 500 mg/kg (Group 4) body weight per day for 28 d. Results: Acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract was not toxic to rats up to 5 000 mg/kg. From the results, the 100 mg/kg doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced serum levels of bilirubin, low density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase and glucose after 14 d compared with those after 28 d. A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the malondialdehyde and serum protein concentration in Group 4 while glucose concentration decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group 1 and Group 4 after 14 d compared with 28 d. The high density lipoprotein significantly increased (P<0.05) in Group 3. Conclusions: The fruit has no negative effect on some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions of carbamazepine and glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prashanth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To find out the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interaction of carbamazepine, a protype drug used to treat painful diabetic neuropathy with glibenclamide in healthy albino Wistar rats following single and multiple dosage treatment. Materials and Methods: Therapeutic doses (TD of glibenclamide and TD of carbamazepine were administered to the animals. The blood glucose levels were estimated by GOD/POD method and the plasma glibenclamide concentrations were estimated by a sensitive RP HPLC method to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Results: In single dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations of rats treated with both carbamazepine and glibenclamide were significantly increased when compared with glibenclamide alone treated rats and the mechanism behind this interaction may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport of glibenclamide by carbamazepine, but in multiple dose study the percentage reduction of blood glucose levels and glibenclamide concentrations were reduced and it may be due to inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated transport and induction of CYP2C9, the enzyme through which glibenclamide is metabolised. Conclusions: In the present study there is a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction between carbamazepine and glibenclamide was observed. The possible interaction involves both P-gp and CYP enzymes. To investigate this type of interactions pre-clinically are helpful to avoid drug-drug interactions in clinical situation.

  17. Effect of Commiphora myrrha extract on some physiological parameters and histological changes in diabetic albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud ** Essam E. El-Badawy

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the antidiabetic activity of Commiphora myrrha (CM aqueous extract on thirty adult male albino rats, which were divided into two groups; the first served as a control group, the second was injected with alloxan (120mg/Kg body weight and divided into two subgroups the first served as diabetic group, the second treated with (CM water extract (0.05mg/100 gm bwt. After 30 days of the treatment half of each group was sacrificed and the other half was left for other 15 days without any additional treatment (recovery period. Our results revealed highly significant decrease (p< 0.01 in blood glucose level and highly significant increase in body weight of the diabetic rats with different histological changes in cells of islets of Langerhans. These histological and physiological changes were ameliorated in rats treated with CM. Water extract of CM has a definite hypoglycemic, hyperinsulinimic effect, on the other hand, a significant increase in body weight, cell number and liver glycogen contents were achieved. The results of the present study clarify the role of CM as an active antidiabetic plant and suggest a relationship between drenching CM extract and insulin production. Other of investigations want be done to detect effects of different doses and time intervals of CM in diabetic animals.

  18. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Leidi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57, Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22 and human (strain EP. Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs.

  19. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, L; Urdaneta-Morales, S

    2001-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57), Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22) and human (strain EP). Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs. PMID:11500777

  20. Hypoglycaemic and Antioxidant Activity of SPHAG - a Poly Herbal Formulation in Alloxan Induced Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Management of Diabetes mellitus is one of the greatest challenges among the developing and developed countries. The use of herbal medicine is steadily growing in the management of various diseases all over the world. The present study has been taken up on a poly herbal formulation -SPHAG, a combination of aqueous extracts of plants Solanum nigrum, Premna corymbosa, Holarrhena pubescens, Alstonia scholaris and Gymnema sylvestre for its hypoglycaemic and antioxidant activity in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. The four groups containing 6 animals in each group, like Healthy Control, Disease Control, SPHAG lower dose(250 mg/kg.b.wt. and SPHAG higher dose (500 mg/kg.b.wt. were maintained. The oral administration of SPHAG had showed significant reduction in the glucose level and HbA1C level when compared with Disease Control. Biochemical parameters comprising of liver function and renal function tests had shown improved health status in SPHAG treated groups over Disease Control group. The antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase levels in blood and tissues including liver, kidney and heart were found to be decreased in the Disease control group. SPHAG treated animals showed significant improvement on the antioxidant enzyme levels and the efficacy is found to be dose dependent. Thus, the present study has demonstrated hypoglycaemic and antioxidant potential of SPHAG in the experimental animals. The synergistic contribution of major phyto-constituents of SPHAG i.e. flavonoids and phenols are expected for its biopotency and efficacy.

  1. Radiomodification by Aloe vera leaf extract on skin of Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of effective radioprotectors and radiorecovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (e.g. radiotherapy) and unplanned (e.g. in nuclear industry, natural background radiation emanating from the earth or other sources) radiation exposure. Over the past 50 years, research in the development of radioprotectors has focused on screening a plethora of chemical and biological compounds. Several synthetic chemical compounds have been tested for protection against radiation. But they have limited use due to inherent toxicity. Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75-80 percent of the world population mainly in the developing nations for primary health care because of better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects. Thus, natural products offer an alternative to their synthetic counterparts due to low toxicity with no side effects. The present investigation has been an attempt to asses the radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract on biochemical alterations in skin of Swiss albino mice

  2. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  3. Evaluation of analgesic activity of lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the analgesic effect of red and white lotus (Nelumbo nucifera seeds in albino rats. The analgesic action in acute pain model was studied by tail flick method. The methanolic extracts of lotus seeds were screened for phytochemical analysis and it’s revealed the presence of all components excluding tannins. The Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg on 7thday of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days.  It is observed that the both lotus seed extracts shows considerable analgesic effect in acute pain model which is less than the effect of Diclofenac group. The higher dose groups of lotus seed extracts (600mg/kg were revealed more activity than their corresponding lower dose. While evaluating all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed (600mg/kg, exhibited more pronounced activity than other extracts. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 355-357

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds (Nelumbo nucifera in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vikrama Chakravarthi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of red and white lotus seeds in albino rats. The Carrageenin induced paw edema model was used for studying the anti-inflammatory activity. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay was carried out in spectrophotometer to identify the specific mode of action. Forty eight adult Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. They were divided into six groups of eight each and maintained under ideal laboratory conditions. Group I was taken as control and group II treated with the standard drug diclofenac potassium @ 3mg/kg/celecoxib @ 10mg/kg (in case of COX–2 assay on 7th day of study. The methanolic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds of red and white varieties @ 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg were fed to group III, IV, V and VI respectively, for 7 days. All groups of lotus seed extracts were revealed anti-inflammatory activity in Carragenin induced inflammation as well as in COX-2 enzyme inhibition assay. While comparing all groups, the higher dose group of white lotus seed extracts, exhibited more pronounced inhibition than other groups. [Vet World 2010; 3(4.000: 157-159

  5. ANTIANXIETY EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TYLOPHORA INDICA IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamjith Manikkoth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pathological anxiety is one of the most common mental disorders in humans. Anxiolytic drugs, mostly belonging to the benzodiazepine (BDZ group and serotonergic groups are widely used to treat anxiety. However the clinical uses of these established drugs are associated with lot of adverse effects. Therefore the development of new agent possessing anxiolytic effect with minimal or no adverse effects would be of great importance in the treatment of anxiety related disorders. Very high importance is given to the phytoconstituents by the scientific community for a new anxiolytic agent which is devoid of side effects/ minimal adverse effects. In this research work the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica (300 mg/kg body weight was administered oral for ten days to Wistar albino rats for screening its anxiolytic effect by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM and Light Dark Arena (LDA test. The results of our study demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Tylophora indica has significant anxiolytic activity in EPM and LDA models of anxiety.

  6. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaat Mohamed Elsanhoty; Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods:The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results: The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r:0.743;P Conclusions:The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage.

  7. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  8. Toxicity assessment of ethanol extract of Solanum villosum (Mill on wistar albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the potential toxicity of ethanol extract of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill. Methods: Ethanol extract of S. villosum administered orally at ranges of doses 100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg/bw to assess its impact on biochemical indices of Wistar albino rats. Hematological profile, biochemical assays, antioxidant and lipid peroxidation assays were compared between control and experimental animals. An acute toxicity test was performed in rats at different concentration of ethanol extract of S. villosum in order to establish the approximate oral lethal dose (LD 50. Results: No mortality occurred during the two weeks experimental period, in both control and experimental groups. The changes in biochemical parameters were statistically insignificant at p<0.05 levels. The treated rats showed that very less toxic symptoms only after 800 mg/kg/bw. These observations were supported by hematological and liver function markers. Conclusions: The medicinal plant Solanum villosum can be administered orally at a dose range of 200 mg/kg/bw was very effective and without any side effects. Ethanol extract of S. villosum is not toxic and therefore it may be used safely in clinical trials. It is the first documented report about the plant Solanum villosum (Mill in the toxicity assessment study.

  9. GASTROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF PONGAMIA PINNATA STEM BARK IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khumanthem Deepak Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn, belonging to the family Fabaceae. It is one of the fast growing, glabrous, deciduous tree and has recently gained importance as a commercial source of alkaloids like kaempferol, karanjin. Methanolic extract of Pongamia pinnata was subjected to phytochemical screening. Acute gastric ulceration was produced by oral administration of various noxious chemicals including Ethanol, Indomethacin, Pylorus ligation and Cold restraint stress. In pharmacological screening, the effect of methanolic extract of stem bark of Pongamia pinnata Linn was evaluated in Wistar Albino Rats of either sex(150-200g for Antiulcer activity at a dose of 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg(p.o and the effect was compared with Omeprazole(10mg/kg p.o as standard drug. The extract decreased the ulcer index thereby increasing the percentage ulcer protection. Thus from the study and literature, it can be concluded that Pongamia pinnata Linn have potent antiulcer activity.

  10. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA GUMMI GUTTA (LINN IN PARACETAMOL INTOXICATED WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamizh Selvam N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Garcinia gummi gutta fruit in the selective in vivo model system using Wistar albino rats. The experiment was comprised of five groups such as Healthy control, Disease control (Paracetamol treated, Positive control (Silymarin treated, test groups G. gutta lower dose(250mg/kg b.wt and higher dose (500 mg/kg b.wt. The study period was 10 days and the biochemical profile including SGOT, ALKP, Total protein and antioxidant enzymes Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione reductase levels were evaluated in blood and tissue samples (liver, kidney, heart of all the experimental animals. The study proved that there was a significant improvement of antioxidant enzyme levels in the G. gutta treated groups as compared to the control groups and the efficacy was found to be dose dependent. The study proved the antioxidant activity of G. gutta extract and further study on characterization of phytoconstituents is under progress for harnessing G. gutta as a drug formulation.

  11. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Nickel in Swiss Albino Mice during Organogenetic Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivi Saini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates potential hazardous of nickel (Ni+2 as NiCl2·6H2O to Swiss albino mice fetus. Ni was administered orally on body weight base from days 6 to 13 of gestation period. Based on LD50, Ni doses (46.125, 92.25, and 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. were used. On day 18 of gestation, uteri of the sacrificed dams were examined. A dose-dependent decrease ( in the body weight of the pregnant females and fetuses during the gestation period was observed. Number of implant sites and placental weight at all the three dose levels was lower compared with their respective control groups. Average number of live fetuses/dams reduced significantly ( at 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. with concomitant increase in the percentage of postimplantation death and percentage of resorbed, macerated, and dead fetuses, respectively. Exposure increased the fetal malformations, namely, hydrocephaly, open eyelids, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, club foot, umbilical hernia, and skeletal anomalies. Reduced ossification of nasal, frontal, parietal, intraparietal, and supraoccipital bones, absence/gap between the ribs, reduced/fused sternebrae, vertebral centra, and caudal vertebrae, reduced pelvic elements, absence of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges were distinct. This indicates vulnerability of the mice fetus to nickel during prenatal exposure.

  12. Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sahdeo Prasad; Neetu Kalra; Madhulika Singh; Yogeshwer Shukla

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate antioxidant potential of lupeol/mango pulp extract (MPE) in testosterone induced oxidative stress in prostate of male Swiss albino mice. Methods: Oral treatment of lupeol (1 mg/animal) and MPE (1 mL [20% w/v]/animal) was given separately to animals along with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight)consecutively for 15 days. At the end of the study period, the prostate was dissected out for the determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes status (catalase, superoxide dismutase,glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase). Results: In testosterone treated animals, increased ROS resulted in depletion of antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidation in mouse prostate. However, lupeol/MPE treatment resulted in a decrease in ROS levels with restoration in the levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that lupeol/MPE are effective in combating oxidative stress-induced cellular injury of mouse prostate. Mango and its constituents, therefore, deserve study as a potential chemopreventive agent against prostate cancer.

  13. ANTI IMPLANTATION AND PREGNANCY INTERRUPTION ACTIVITY OF JAPAKUSUMA (HIBISCUS ROSA SINENSIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashinath Hadimur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increase in population has affected many socio-economic conditions of people by increasing crimes, illiteracy, destructive activities, diseases, improper food and shelter. Thus to control this population and limit the family size at a personal level and at a national level, modern contraceptive methods and medicines were introduced long back. There are many new contraceptives available now, but they have various side effects. Some traditional practitioners used to dispense oral contraceptives mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. Such as 1 Pippali (Piper longum, Vidanga (Emblica ribes and Tankana (Sodii Biboras. 2 Talisapatra (Taxus baccata and Gairika (Hematite with cold water and 3 Kanji bhavita Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis. An experimental study on above mentioned 1 and 2 formulations has proved its efficacy as temporary contraceptive medicine. To evaluate the permanent or long term temporary contraceptive effect of Japakusuma, an attempt was made in this study. Study was conducted by Choudary and Khanna method on 18 female, 36 male (for mating albino rats. Japakusuma, Propylene glycol, Ovral L formed the materials. Single dose was administered on proestrous stage of rat oestrous cycle and observed for anti-implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Test drug showed significant anti implantation and pregnancy interruption activity. Thus showing the temporary contraceptive activity of Japakusuma (Hibiscus rosa sinensis.

  14. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  15. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop J.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  16. Effect Of Some Slimming Drugs On Haematological And Some Vital Signs Of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* and Shadia, A. Radwan**

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Some of slimming drugs had been withdrawn from markets so, the present study was conducted to follow the effect of three different anorexic drugs; on the haematological and physical parameters of adults albino rats. The used drugs differ in their nature, where the first one i.e., apple-lite is a fully natural substance, the 2nd one i.e., mirapront-N. is a chemical substance and the 3rd one i.e., tenuate is a synthetic foamy filler substance. Fourty adult male albino rats (130 20g were randomly divided into four groups, ten on each treated group and ten for the first group which conserved as control group. The 2nd group was treated daily with apple-lite (3.5mg/ 100g.b.wt, the 3rd group was treated daily with mirapro-N (0.14mg/100g.b.wt and the 4th group was treated daily with tenuate (0.1 mg/100g.b.wt. Haematological parameters (RBCs, WBCs count, haemoglobin content (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct%, mean cell volume (MCV, mean cell heamoglobin (MCH and mean cell heamoglobin concentration (MCHC were detected after 30 days of treatment and also after 15 days of the last treatment as a recovery period. Also, body weight, percent of organs weight/body weight, skin-fold thickness and some vital measurements i.e. heart beats, respiratory rate and rectal temperature were recorded after the same periods of treatment and recovery. Haematological studies revealed that RBCs count, total WBCs count, Hb and Hct values were significantly decreased in the three groups treated daily with anorexic drugs for 30 days. These changes aere also recorded after the recovery period except in apple-lite treated group which showed insignificant change in RBCs and Hb after the recovery period. The calculated mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC recorded significant increase in apple-lite after treated and recovery periods, while non significant changes in MCHC were observed after mirapro-N and tenuate groups after treatment 30 daysfor 30 days but significant increase of

  17. Study of Aging and Hepatoprotective Activity of Vitis vinifera L. Seeds in Albino Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Mustafa Khan; SH Ansari; ZABhat; Feroz ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Present study was conducted to investigate in liver of rats from 8-12 weeks old to 20 weeks old, the age dependent changes, carbon tetrachloride mediated changes, and the hepatoprotective effect shown by the seeds of Vitis vinifera L. Method: The hepatoprotective activity was studied by observing the effect of 100 mg/kg dose of ethanolic extract of grape seeds on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats and results were compared with those of the aged group results. Results: 100 mg/kg b.w. of ethanolic extract of Vitis vinifera seeds produced highly significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin, albumin levels and significant decrease in the TSP levels compared to the toxic group levels. The levels of AST, ALT, ALP, bilirubin and albumin in aged control rats were found to be significantly higher than the levels in young control animals. MDA levels were slightly higher while GSH levels were lower in aged control rats as compared to young control rats. MDA levels in the toxic group showed highly significant increase compared to the young control levels. Ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera significantly lowered the MDA levels. Histopathology results reveal that 100mg/kg/day dose of ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. cured the hepatic damage to a great extent which was induced by CCl4. Conclusions: Aging leads to the changes in the hepatic structure which are comparable to the changes induced by low doses of a hepatotoxin and the ethanolic extract of seeds of Vitis vinifera L. was effective in bringing about functional improvement of hepatocytes exposed to free radical attack, which was confirmed by biochemical and histological observations.

  18. The Protective Effect of Vitamin C on Irradiated Testes of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotfy Sayed*, Esam Eldin Abdel Hady*, Hosam Eldin Hussin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased exposure to radiation in medicine or industries increases the hazards of radiation on various organs of the human body. The aim of this work was to evaluate the protective effect of anti oxidant (vitamin C against the effect of radiation on rat testes. Thirty adult albino rats were divided into three groups, each contained ten rats .The first group (G.1 was exposed to 415 r (G.1' or 622 r (G.1" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week. The second group (G.2 was exposed to 415 r (G.2' or 622 r (G.2" using x-ray source for one minute per day for one week, in addition to vitamin C equivalent to 86.9 mg./liter orally for the two sub groups for the same period . The third group (G.3 was a control group. The examined testes of G.1 showed damaged germinal epithelium with remaining some layers of spermatogonia. There was no affection of spermatocytes, mature sperms, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells, the lumen contained little sperms and debris of germ cells (G.1' .While for (G.1" there was marked damage of the seminiferous tubules with irregular outline, destruction of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids with pyknotic type of nuclear degeneration and the lumen was devoid of mature sperms. The examined testes of the (G.2 showed evidence of almost complete recovery for G .2' and marked recovery for G.2" It is concluded that anti oxidants were essential to patients exposed to x-ray , to guard against its hazards.

  19. EFFICACY OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL INDUCED NEPHROLITHIASIS IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibhakumari P.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nephrolithiasis is the third most common disorder of the urinary system with high recurrence rate. Clinical treatment of lithiasis is costly and can cause harmful side effects and hence nowadays phytotherapy have higher clinical significance in kidney stone management. Aim of the study is to investigate the antilithiatic property of the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (MEAP in experimentally induced nephrolithiatic rats. Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar albino rats by administering the dose of 0.75% ethylene glycol for a period of 28 days. The experimental animals were divided into nine groups. Group I served as normal control. Group II received standard antilithiatic drug and group III as the lithiatic control. Group IV and V indicated as preventive regime, received 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight MEAP and group VI, VII, VIII and IX indicated curative regime of which VI and IX received 400mg/kg extract and VII and VIII at 200mg/kg body weight of MEAP. At the end of the experimental period, serum (creatinine, blood urea, BUN, uric acid urine (protein, calcium and phosphorus and kidney (calcium and phosphorus were analyzed. All the elevated biochemical parameters in EG received group were declined in the MEAP treated groups at dosage of 200 and 400mg/kg. Urinary protein, phosphorus and calcium also declined in both MEAP treatment groups than the lithiatic groups. Serum creatinine declined significantly in high dose received group than its low dose in both post and co treatment groups. A dose dependent effect was observed in all the serum parameters except BUN. Kidney phosphorus and calcium of preventive regime which received MEAP at a high dose of 400mg/kg showed a clear dose dependent effect than the curative regimes. The result of the present study suggests the usefulness of MEAP against nephrolithiasis.

  20. Effect of curcuma longa L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab and Ghada A. Zedan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcuma longa has been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic agent. The present investigation aimed at examining the possible potential protective effect of curcuma against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline ( 120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c curcuma treated group; which was treated with curcuma ( 0.4 % of diet for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group and c drug protection group; which received curcuma for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10 % formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine while HDL cholesterol and A/G ratio were significantly decreased compared to control group. Histopathological changes were detected in liver tissue of fatty liver rats. The treatment with curcuma ameliorated the biochemical parameters and histological changes. The pre-treatment with curcuma before the induction of fatty liver also ameliorated the results but they did not turn back to the normal values. Conclusion: It is recommend to using curcuma as diet additive for fatty liver patients or those people who have hyperlipidemic family history.

  1. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  2. Selenium ameliorates carbimazole induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Abdel-Rahman Sakr; Faten Roshdy Abdel-Ghafar; Samah Mohamed Abo-El-Yazid

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of the antithyroid drug, carbimazole on liver of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of selenium. Methods:Four groups of rats were used (n=10), Group 1 served as normal control, Group 2 was orally given sodium selenite (10μg/kg body weight) daily for 8 weeks, Group 3 was orally given carbimazole at a dose level of 1.35 mg/kg body weight, Group 4 was orally administered carbimazole and sodium selenite daily for 8 weeks. Rats in control and treated groups were sacrificed by cervical decapitation after 8 weeks of treatment, their livers were removed and stained with H&E for histological examinations. Alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were determined in the sera. Malondialdehyde and the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase were measured in the liver. Results:Cytoplasmic vacuolation of the hepatocytes, necrosis, leucocytic infiltrations, blood vessels congestion and fatty degeneration were observed in liver of carbimazole-treated animals. Carbimazole caused marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and depletion of the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver. Treating animals with carbimazole and selenium led to an improvement in both the histological and biochemical alterations induced by carbimazole. Moreover, selenium reduced the level of malondialdehyde and increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusions:It is concluded that the ameliorative effect of selenium against the hepatotoxicity of carbimazole is attributed to its antioxidant properties.

  3. Effect of some medicinal plants on liver and kidney functions in diabetic albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Ashraf Mahmoud

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the effect of aqueous extracts of five plants (Nigella sativa , Aloe vera, Ferula assafoetida, Boswellia carterii Birdw and Commiphora myrrha and their mixture on liver and kidney functions and protein profiles. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups, the first served as control group, other groups were injected with alloxan(120mg/kg b.wt. The second group served as diabetic rats, the third were treated with a mixture (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fourth was treated with Nigella sativa (0.1g/100g b.wt, the fifth was treated with Aloe vera (0.05 g/100g b.wt , the sixth was treated with Ferula assafoetida (0.1g/100g b.wt, the seventh was treated with Boswellia carterri Birdw (0.1g/100g b.wt and the eighth group was treated with Commiphora myrrha (0.05 g/100g b.wt . After thirty days of treatment half of each group was decapitated and the other one was left for 15 days without any additional treatment as recovery period to followup their hazards if present. The results revealed highly significant increase (p<0.01 in serum transaminases (aspartate ( AST and alanine (ALT, alkaline phosphates (ALP, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine and recorded highly significant decrease (p<0.01 in serum total protein , albumin and globulin concentrations in the diabetic group when compared with normal rates. Otherwise, all plants extracts treated groups showed insignificant changes in the previous parameters when compared with control one . It seams, therefore that the water extracts of these plants and their mixture have protective effect against the side effects of alloxan on liver and kidney.

  4. Effectiveness of grape seed extract on gamma radiation-induced hazards in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of grape seed extract (GSE), rich in proanthocyanidins against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress associated to serum metabolic disorders in the liver, heart and pancreas tissues of rats. Male albino rats received GSE (100 mg/day/Kg body weight), by gavages, for 14 successive days before whole body exposure to 5 Gy gamma radiation (shot dose). Animals were sacrificed 1, 14, and 28 days post radiation exposure. The results showed that in the irradiated group, tissues superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were decreased significantly, while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content was increased, which was in parallel with significant increases in the activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT). Hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, decreases in red blood cells count (RBCs) count and hemoglobin (Hb) content were also observed in irradiated rats. n the GSE-treated irradiated group, significant increases of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px activities with significant reduction of TBARS levels were observed in cardiac, liver, and pancreas tissues, in parallel to significant decreases in the activity of serum LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT compared with their corresponding values in the irradiated group. Moreover, serum glucose and insulin contents, RBCs count and Hb content were significantly improved in the GSE-treated irradiated rats. Furthermore, the marked increase in serum triglycerides and total cholesterol observed in irradiated rats, along with elevated LDL-C and decreased HDL-C levels were significantly improved in GSE treated rats. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate that GSE through its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties attenuates ionizing radiation-induced oxidative injury suggesting that it may be a potential

  5. Histopathological Effects of Varied Fluoride Concentration on Cerebrum in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Hamid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorides have been a cause of concern for scientists and environmentalists for the long because of their harmful effects on the human and animal life but the problem was highlighted during the twentieth century because of great increase in the human population and industrialization. Since fluorides accumulate in calcified and hard tissues of the body such as bone and teeth and can be detected easily in these tissues, so most of the previous studies focused on the effects of fluorides on these tissues. However, during the past decade researchers all over the world have felt that there is a need to study the effects of fluorides on various other tissues of the body including CNS as fluoride intake for prolonged period is known to cause abnormal behavioural pattern, grave implications for Alzheimer’s Disease, Dementia, Attention deficit disorder and reduced I.Q in children as the fluorides are known to cross blood brain barrier. Hence the present study has thrown light on the involvement of brain in chronic fluoride toxicity. The target organ of studied was cerebrum. In the Study, albino rats were exposed to 30 or 100 ppm fluoride (asNaF in drinking water for 3 months. Rats exposed to 30 ppm fluoride did not show any notable alterations in brain histology, whereas rats exposed to 100 ppm fluoride showed significant neurodegenerative changes in lhe motor cortex.Changes included decrease in size and number of neurons in all the regions, signs of chromatolysis and gliosis in the motor cortex. These histological changes suggest a toxic effect of high-fluoride intake & on chronic use. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2012; 1(1.000: 30-34

  6. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  7. Protective role of ginseng against gentamicin induced changes in kidney of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Use of gentamicin is now limited due to its toxic effects, mainly on kidney and vestibular system. Herbal products including ginseng has been reported to possess protective effects against drugs induced nephrotoxicity in experimental animals. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of ginseng on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino mice of 6-8 weeks age, were divided into 3 groups. Group-A served as control and was given normal mouse diet; Group-B was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water for fifteen days. Group-C was given 80 mg/Kg/day of gentamicin intraperitoneally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water along with 100 mg/Kg/day of ginseng orally dissolved in 1 ml of distilled water, also for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment, blood was drawn from each animal by cardiac puncture for renal function tests. Each animal was then sacrificed and kidneys removed for routine histological studies. Results: In group B, weight of the animals and kidneys decreased and there was significant increase in mean serum urea, creatinine and intraluminal diameter (p<0.001) of proximal convoluted tubules as compared to the controls (group-A). Moderate to severe necrotic and degenerative changes in proximal convoluted tubules were seen in this group. When the Ginseng and gentamicin were given together (group-C), a statistically significant improvement in the mean body and kidney weight along with improvement in renal function tests and tubular diameter were seen (p<0.001). Conclusion: It appears that Ginseng has some protective role against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  8. Possible Outcome of Fenugreek Seeds Powder Administration on the Fertility of Female and Male Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is an annual plant from the family of Papilionaceae-Leguminosae that has been credited with many medicinal properties. The current study aims to evaluate the possible fertility activity of fenugreek seeds powder on female and male albino rats. To achieve the theme, fenugreek seeds powder (200 mg/rat) were daily administered orally to both female and male Wistar rats for 15 and 30 consecutive days, after which the rats were sacrificed for both biochemical and histopathological observations. Fenugreek treatment significantly decreased the serum cholesterol levels in both female and male rats with a marked increase in the ovary and testis cholesterol levels following 30 days of consecutive administration. The circulating serum female hormones showed an initial elevation at the end of 15 days of fenugreek intake followed by a significant drop in the group of rats that continued to receive the daily fenugreek dose for 30 days. These observations were supported by the notable decline in the ovarian weights further validated by their ovarian histological sections revealing remarkable dissolution of some follicles and prominent abundance of inflammatory cells. In the 30 days interval treated males, the serum testosterone hormone concentrations significantly declined and the testis weights were reduced with evident damage to the seminiferous tubules and interstitial tissues as shown by the histopathological picture of testis tissue sections. Accordingly, it can be deduced that fenugreek seeds powder exert a significant antifertility adverse effect on the female and male rats when supplemented at a considerable dose for an extended time interval

  9. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.

  10. Effect Of Colchicine On The Histology Of Spleen And Testis Of Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila A. R. Abdel Motaal

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the effect of colchicine administration on the histology of spleen and testis of albino rat. Colchicine was given in a daily dose of 3mg/kg body weight for five days. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 4 and 7 days following treatment. Histopathological studies of the spleen and testis were undertaken. Histological examination of spleen showed that colchicine caused histopathological changes in spleen manifested by massive haemorrhage, highly expanded red pulps accompanied by reduced white pulps with multi small degenerated areas, disturbed architecture, degenerated areas wer occupied by the hemorrhagic areas, prominent haemosiderin deposition, increased number of megakaryocytes in red pulp and subcapsular edema. These histopathological changes depend on the duration of colchicine intake. Histological examination of the testis one, four and seven days post treatment with colchicine showed dilatation and congestion of interstitial blood vessels, moderate degeneration of spermatogoneal cells, debris of spermatozoa could be detected in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules. The testis also suffered from interstitial edema with signs of fatty degeneration and degeneration of spermatogoneal cells lining some seminferous tubules. Complete destruction with hypocellularity in the spermatogenic layers in some seminiferous tubules and others contained only the debris of germ cells and disturbed nuclei of spermatogoneal cells with appearance of giant cells with highly reduced number of Leydig cells which contained pyknotic nuclei were also noticed in some examined sections. These results indicate that colchicine is considered as a toxic drug to the spleen and testis at double therapeutic doses as indicated by the histological changes.

  11. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p < 0.001) of writhing inhibition, respectively, which is comparable with that of standard diclofenac (59.34% inhibition). The ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg) also showed promising central analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p < 0.001) elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of sample which is also similar to that obtained by morphine (85.84% elongation). In antidiarrhoeal activity screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease. PMID:26799747

  12. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic activities of Guduchi Ghana in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disorder, characterized by hyperglycaemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Ayurvedic herbs are relatively low cost, more suitable and have negligible side-effects than synthetic oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents. Guduchi is reported as highly potent anti-diabetic herb in Ayurveda and Guduchi Ghanavati is popularly known by the Ayurvedic fraternity for its therapeutic properties on Madhumeha represented as diabetes mellitus. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic activities of Guduchi Ghana (GG in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Hypoglycaemic and anti-hyperglycaemic potential of GG was evaluated in normal mice using both 18 h fasted mice model and oral glucose tolerance test. GG was suspended in distilled water and administered to animals at the dose of 130 mg/kg. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically interpreted using Student′s ′t′- test for paired and unpaired data to assess the statistical significance and the significant level was set at P < 0.05. Results: GG showed mild reduction in blood sugar level (BSL at all the time intervals in normoglycaemic mice. In anti-hyperglycaemic activity, glibenclamide at a dose of 0.65 mg/kg studied as the reference standard to compare the potency of test drug. Administration of GG prior to glucose over load resulted significant attenuation in BSL at 60 min, 90 min and 120 min in comparison to glucose control group. Conclusions: GG has mild hypoglycaemic and significant anti-hyperglycaemic activity and can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus as well as a supportive drug without fear of producing hypoglycaemia.

  13. Effect of imidacloprid on hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Arfat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imidacloprid (IC is a systemic insecticide related to the tobacco toxin nicotine. IC is a toxic substance frequently used into combat insects, rodents and plants pests and other creatures that can pose problems for agriculture. We, therefore, planned this study to assess risk factors, biochemical and histological alterations associated with hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Forty-eight adult male albino mice were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. All the animals were given standard synthetic pellet diet. One group served as control, and the other three were served as experimental groups. Decrease in the body weight of the high dose group was observed at 15 mg/kg/day, and no mortality occurred during the treatment period. High dose of imidacloprid caused a significant elevation of serum clinical chemistry parameters, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate kinase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (TBIL. Histology of liver and kidney indicates hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at a high dose of imidacloprid. Based on the morphological, biochemical and histopathological analysis, it is evident that imidacloprid induced toxicological effects at 15 mg/kg/day to mice. The results of the present study demonstrate that IC had significant effects on body weight, liver functions and kidney (p < 0.05 at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. IC treatment 5 and 10 mg/kg/day may be considered as no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL for mice. It was concluded that IC can cause hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity at a dose much lower than the LD50 (131 mg/kg body weight in mice.

  14. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CISPLATIN ON KIDNEY OF MALE WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the most dreaded disease and currently taking a heaviest toll of human lives. The number of cancer patients diagnosed is growing at an alarming proportion. So, its treatment forms an important part of modern health care. Cisplatin is one of the important anticancer drugs used to treat a number of cancers like that of head and neck , prostate, breast, cervix , uterus etc. Though comparatively a safe drug it has got many side effects amongst which nephrotoxicity is of common occurance. Hence, a study was conducted, in the Department of Anatomy Government Medical College Jammu, on 40 male albino Wistar rats, obtained from the Animal house of Department of Pharmacology Government Medical College Jammu, to determine the toxic effects of Cisplatin on kidney of rats. The rats were divided into 4 groups where 3 groups were given the test drug Cisplatin I. P. ( I ntraperitoneally in doses of 0.2mg/kg body weight for 7 days , 1 mg/kg body weight for 7 days and 45 mg / kg body weight as a single dose respectively, whereas in the 4 th group or control group normal saline of same volume was injected I. P. These rats were subsequently anaesthetised, dissected and their kidneys were taken out. The kidneys were then subjected to standard histological slide preparation by paraffin embedding method and longitudinal and transverse sections so prepared were stained by H &E stain and observed under a light microscope. In group I ( C ontrol group no macroscopic as well as microscopic changes were seen in the kidneys. In group II, III, IV, well - marked microscopic changes were seen in the kidneys.

  15. Hepatoprotective Role of Sodium Selenite Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of sodium selenite against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: sodium selenite (1mg/ kg b.w; ip, mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of sodium selenite and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 10 days experimental period. Results: Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of sodium selenite resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH -Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by sodium selenite supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of sodium selenite. Conclusion: The results clearly demonstrate that sodium selenite treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radical mediated diseases.

  16. The analgesic effect of different antidepressants combined with aspirin on thermally induced pain in Albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla S. Elhwuegi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background:Combination analgesics provide more effective pain relief for a broader spectrum of pain. This research examines the possible potentiation of the analgesic effect of different classes of antidepressants when combined with aspirin in thermal model of pain using Albino mice.Methods:Different groups of six animals each were injected intraperitoneally by different doses of aspirin (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg, imipramine (2.5, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg, fluoxetine (1.25, 2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg, mirtazapine (1.25, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg and a combination of a fixed dose of aspirin (100 mg/kg with the different doses of the three antidepressants. One hour later the analgesic effect of these treatments were evaluated against thermally induced pain. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired Student's t-test.Results:Aspirin had no analgesic effect in thermally induced pain. The three selected antidepressants produced dose dependent analgesia. The addition of a fixed dose of aspirin to imipramine significantly increased the reaction time (RT of the lowest dose (by 23% and the highest dose (by 20%. The addition of the fixed dose of aspirin to fluoxetine significantly increased RT by 13% of the dose 2.5 mg/Kg. Finally, the addition of the fixed dose of aspirin significantly potentiated the antinociceptive effect of the different doses of mirtazapine (RT was increased by 24, 54 and 38% respectively.Conclusion:Combination of aspirin with an antidepressant might produce better analgesia, increasing the efficacy of pain management and reduces side effects by using smaller doses of each drug.

  17. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  18. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  19. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF N-ACETYLCYSTIENE AGAINST TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES MODULATED IMMUNE RESPONSES IN MALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mohamed Soliman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC against orally administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 for 3 months on male albino rats were examined. Adult male albino rats were given saline as a control group, TiO2 (1200 mg kg-1 BW, NAC (100 mg kg-1 BW and co-treatment of NAC and TiO2 as a protective group for 3 months. Blood was assayed for serum changes in GPT, GOT, lipid profiles, cytokines and immunoglobulins profiles. Moreover, spleen was examined for alterations in cytokines expression and histopathology. Administration of TiO2 significantly increased serum levels of GPT, GOT and increased lipid profiles. Administration of NAC to TiO2 rats improved significant changes induced by TiO2 alone. There were an increase in IL-1β and IL-6 secretion in TiO2 administered rats which is normalized by NAC administration. TiO2 administration down regulated IL-8 and IL-10 secretion, while co-administration of rats by NAC together with TiO2 normalized that down regulation. Moreover, TiO2 induced toxicity in spleen that accompanied by a decrease in IgA, IgG and IgM that are normalized by NAC administration. Finally, TiO2 up-regulated IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-β expression in spleen and NAC administration together with TiO2 normalized cytokines expression. In conclusion, present findings confirmed the protective effect of NAC on TiO2 induced alteration in immune responses in male albino rats.

  20. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  1. Antidiarrheal activity and Phytochemical profile of the ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia (Lion's ear) in Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ndukui James Gakunga; Godfrey Kateregga; Larry Fred Sembajwe; John Kateregga

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Leonotis nepetifolia in wistar albino rats. Methods: This study was done in February 2013. The ethanolic leaf extract of L. nepetifolia was evaluated for its antidiarrheal activity. A total of sixty rats were used in the study. At first, thirty rats in five groups of six animals were orally dosed with the extract at dose rates of 225mg/kg, 450mg/kg, 900mg/kg body weight respectively...

  2. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna) on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-01-01

    Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental). The control group (n=8) received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate) once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12) received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna), once ...

  3. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  4. Skin cancers among Albinos at a University teaching hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 64 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabula Joseph B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. The challenges associated with the care of these patients are numerous and need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to outline the pattern and treatment outcome of skin cancers among albinos treated at our centre and to highlight challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffer solutions for improved outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of all albinos with a histopathological diagnosis of skin cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre from March 2001 to February 2010. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 64 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The median age of patients was 30 years. The median duration of illness at presentation was 24 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was financial problem. Head and the neck was the most frequent site afflicted in 46(71.8% patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type in 75% of cases. Surgical operation was the commonest modality of treatment in 60 (93.8% patients. Radiotherapy was given in 24(37.5% patients. Twenty-seven (42.2% of the patients did not complete their treatment due to lack of funds. Local recurrence following surgical treatment was recorded in 6 (30.0% patients. Only thirty-seven (61.7% patients were available for follow-up at 6–12 months and the remaining patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions Skin cancers are the most common cancers among albinos in our environment. Albinism and exposure to ultraviolet light appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of these cancers. Late presentation and failure to complete treatment due to financial difficulties and lack of radiotherapy services at our centre are major challenges in the care of these patients. Early institution of preventive

  5. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF VIRGIN OLIVE OIL ( OLEA EUROPEA L.) AGAINST OXIDATIVE DAMAGE INDUCED BY MERCURIC CHLORIDE IN RAT ALBINOS WISTAR

    OpenAIRE

    Necib, Youcef; Bahi, Ahlem; Zerizer, Sakina; Abdennour, Cherif; Boulakoud, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  6. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L.) Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Necib; Ahlem Bahi; Sakina Zerizer; Cherif Abdennour; Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (0....

  7. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  8. Polyculture of Taimen Hucho taimen and Albino Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss%哲罗鲑与日本金鳟混养生物学初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文学; 张永泉; 徐革锋; 佟广香; 白庆利; 尹家胜

    2014-01-01

    A polyculture of taimen Hucho taimen and Albino rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was conducted at different stocking ratios(4:1, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4) at water temperature of 7.5~10.6℃and dissoluble oxygen level of 6.24~8.69mg/L in order to optimize the cultivation model of taimen and albino rainbow trout. The result showed that the polyculture of taimen with albino rainbow trout at a proper ratio resulted in increase in survival rate of taimen. However, the survival rate of albino rainbow trout was found to be decreased in the polyculture of albino rainbow trout with taimen. The total survival rate was decreased as the increase in ratio of taimen in both polyculture of taimen with Albino rainbow trout and polyculture of albino rainbow trout with taimen. As high as survival rate of 90.56%and weight gain rate of 979.87%and 1124.18%were observed at a ratio of 200:100 and 150:150 in the polyculture of taimen with albino rainbow trout, in which the growth of albino rainbow trout was not significantly influenced by taimen (P>0.05), though the predation and behavior of both taimen and albino rainbow trout were affected by the polyculture. During the whole experiment, the variation coef-ficients of body length and body weight in both taimen and albino rainbow trout were manifested the same change trend, the variation coefficients of body length and body weight in albino rainbow trout being increased as increase in the ratio of taimen.%在水温7.5~10.6℃、溶氧6.24~8.69mg/L条件下,进行不同比例(4:1、2:1、1:1、1:2、1:4)的哲罗鲑Hucho taimen与日本金鳟Oncorhynchus mykiss混养试验,以优化哲罗鲑与日本金鳟的养殖模式。结果表明:哲罗鲑养殖过程中,混养适当比例的日本金鳟可以有效地提高哲罗鲑的存活率,而日本金鳟养殖中混养哲罗鲑对日本金鳟的存活有一定抑制;各混养组鱼的存活率随哲罗鲑比例的增大而降低。哲罗鲑养殖中,混养一定

  9. Transcription profiling using RNA-Seq demonstrates expression differences in the body walls of juvenile albino and normal sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina; Chen, Muyan

    2014-01-01

    Sea cucumbers Apostichopus japonicus are one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Their normal body color is black to fit their surroundings. Wild albinos are rare and hard to breed. To understand the differences between albino and normal (control) sea cucumbers at the transcriptional level, we sequenced the transcriptomes in their body-wall tissues using RNA-Seq high-throughput sequencing. Approximately 4.876 million (M) and 4.884 M 200-nucleotide-long cDNA reads were produced in the cDNA libraries derived from the body walls of albino and control samples, respectively. A total of 9 561 (46.89%) putative genes were identified from among the RNA-Seq reads in both libraries. After filtering, 837 significantly differentially regulated genes were identified in the albino library compared with in the control library, and 3.6% of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found to have changed those more than five-fold. The expression levels of 10 DEGs were checked by real-time PCR and the results were in full accord with the RNA-Seq expression trends, although the amplitude of the differences in expression levels was lower in all cases. A series of pathways were significantly enriched for the DEGs. These pathways were closely related to phagocytosis, the complement and coagulation cascades, apoptosis-related diseases, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, and cell adhesion. The differences in gene expression and enriched pathways between the albino and control sea cucumbers offer control targets for cultivating excellent albino A. japonicus strains in the future.

  10. Anesthetic activity of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla and effectiveness in reducing stress during transport of albino and gray strains of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Thaylise V; Cunha, Mauro A; Becker, Alexssandro G; Zeppenfeld, Carla C; Martins, Dirlaine I; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo Gil; Heinzmann, Berta M; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of the essential oil (EO) of Aloysia triphylla as an anesthetic for albino and gray strains of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Juveniles were exposed to concentrations between 20 and 800 μL L(-1) EO of A. triphylla to evaluate time of induction and recovery from anesthesia. In another experiment, both strains were divided into four groups such as 0 (control), 30, 40, or 50 μL L(-1) EO and transported for 5 h. The longest time for anesthetic induction and recovery was observed in the albinos. Both strains reached anesthesia in the 100-800 μL L(-1) (11.1-1.24 min) range, without mortality, being 200 μL L(-1) the best response considering time to anesthesia (5.35 min). Albinos transported with all EO concentrations showed higher values of carbon dioxide in the water of transport, but lower levels were observed in grays transported with 40 and 50 μL L(-1) EO when compared to control fish. The same concentrations did not prevent significant whole-body cortisol rise at the end of transport in the albino strain. Juveniles of both strains transported with EO presented lower ion loss to the water compared to control fish. The EO of A. triphylla is an effective anesthetic for albino and gray silver catfish. This EO increases whole-body cortisol levels in the albino strain, but as it reduces net ion loss as in the gray strain, it can be also recommended for transport. PMID:23974669

  11. CGP 35348, GABA B Receptor Antagonist, Has a Potential to Improve Neuromuscular Coordination and Spatial Learning in Albino Mouse following Neonatal Brain Damage

    OpenAIRE

    Gillani, Q.; M. Ali; Iqbal, F.

    2014-01-01

    To study the effect of CGP 35348 on learning and memory in albino mice following hypoxia ischemia insult, 10 days old albino mice were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following brain damage, mice were fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 week old. At this time point, mice were divided into two groups. Group 1 received saline and group 2 intrapertoneally CGP 35348 (1 mg/mL solvent/Kg body weight) for 12 days. A battery of tests us...

  12. Effect of Zingiber officinale on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M. Moussa Sharaf**

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver causes were markedly increased in Egyptian people throughout last years. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds. Ginger is a natural dietary rhizome with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Zingiber officinale (ginger against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger treated group; which was treated with ginger water extract (125 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120 mg/kg for three consecutive days and c ginger protective group; which received ginger for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment

  13. Effect of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism on histological characteristics of parotid gland of albino rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of hypothyroidism on the histological structure of parotid salivary gland of the rat. Methods: Twenty male albino rats, weighing between 130-150 grams, were used which were divided into two groups; control group (A) and an experimental group (B), each containing 10 animals. Group B was rendered hypothyroid by giving methimazole (MMI) as 0.02% solution in drinking water daily for 3 weeks. On day 22 parotid and thyroid glands were removed, weighed and processed for light microscopy. Salivary gland was fixed in Bouin's solution, H and E and Toluidine blue stains were used for histological examination. Serum T /sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay. Results: In group A, serum concentration of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH was 12.58+-3.05 mu g/ml, 4.72 +- 1.20 macro g/dl, and 0.25 +- 0.24 macro IU/ml respectively, where as in group B it was 2.14+-1.83 mu g/ml, 1.04 +- 0.44 macro g/dl and 1.44+-0.20 mu U/ml respectively. When differences between T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/ and TSH of the groups were compared, the p-value was <0.000, <0.000, and <0.000 respectively. Mean thyroid weight significantly increased in group B (44.1 0+-1.66 mg) when compared to that in group A (33.70+-1.56 mg). These findings established the occurrence of hypothyroid state in the experimental group. There was a statistically significant reduction in the parotid gland weight in the animals of the experimental group (38.30 +- 1.15 mg) when compared to the control group (39.60 +- 0.84 mg), (p<0.01). With light microscopy, group A showed a normal structure of parotid salivary gland, whereas multiple histological changes were observed in parotrid gland of the experimental group. Number of mast cells in parotid gland was also significantly higher (p<0.017) in group B (3.70 +- 1.11/mm/sup 2/) than in group A (2.25 +- 1.34/mm/sup 2/). Conclusion: The level of T/sub 3/ T/sub 4/ decreased and that of TSH increased

  14. Effect of Cichorium intybus L. on fatty liver induced by oxytetracycline in albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* , Samia M. Abd El-Wahab* , Atef M.Moussa Sharaf**

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatty liver is now one of the most common diseases in Egypt. People prefer to use the medicinal plants instead of using chemical compounds because they are cheap and have few side effects compared to chemical compounds.The current investigation was carried out to examine the possible potential therapeutic and protective effects of Cichorium intybus (chicory against oxytetracyclin-induced fatty liver in an attempt to understand its mechanism of action, which may pave the way for possible therapeutic applications. Material and Methods: Albino rats were divided into two major groups, 15 rats for each. The first group was divided into three sub-groups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days resulting in steatosis and c chicory treated group; which was treated with chicory water extract (70 mg/kg for 30 days after fatty liver induction . All animals were scarified after 33 days of the beginning of the experiment. The second group was divided into three subgroups: a control, b fatty liver group; that was injected intraperitonealy with oxytetracycline (120mg/kg for three consecutive days and c drug protection group; which received chicory for 15 days before induction of fatty liver, then sacrificed after induction of fatty liver (3 days. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver specimens were obtained and fixed in 10% formalin for histological study. Results: Fatty liver groups showed high significant increase in serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, ALAT, ASAT, GGT, LDH, urea, creatinine and A/G ratio while total protein, albumin, globulin and HDL cholesterol were significantly decreased compared to control group. These biochemical changes were accompanied with histopathological alterations in fatty liver tissue. The treatment with chicory ameliorated most of the evaluated biochemical parameters and improved the

  15. Physiological Effect Of Peri winkle (C.roseus On Diabetic Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab*, Atef M. moussa** and Anwaar A. Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a major health problem worldwide in recent time. Asia and Africa are the most viable areas where the disease is feared to raise 2–3 folds. Many herbal products have been recommended for the treatment of DM in ancient literature of Ayurveda in India and other worldwide.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of Catharanthus rosea (C.roseus on diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic C.roseus treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the islets of Langerhans.Results: The obtained results showed that the diabetic rats were diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, C.roseus treatment led to a significant improvement in these parameters except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of C.roseus treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: It was recommended that the use of the water extract of C. roseus levies as a hypoglycemic agent may offer a new hope to the diabetics in future. It

  16. Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis Extract on Naphthalene Induced Nephrotoxicity in Adult Male Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen M. El-Sherif

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Naphthalene (NA is a common environmental contaminant and is abundant in tobacco smoke. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis is a herb commonly used as a spice and flavoring agents in food processing and is useful in the treatment of many diseases. Aim of the work: To study the nephrotoxicity of NA and to evaluate the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. Materials and Methods: 25 animals were divided into three groups: Group I (Control group, Group II (NA treated group received NA at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day dissolved in 5 ml/kg corn oil orally by gastric tube, Group III (protected group received rosemary extract (10 ml/kg/day followed after 60 min by NA at the same previous dose orally by gastric tube. The experiment lasted 30 days. The following parameters were studied: Biochemical assessment of renal function, histological, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies and statistical analysis of the results. Results: NA treatment resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean values of serum urea and creatinine. NA induced histological changes in the form of glomerular congestion. Some glomeruli demonstrated marked mesangial expansion and hence that Bowman's spaces were almost completely obliterated. Shrinkage of renal glomeruli with widening of Bowman's spaces could also be seen. Focal tubular dilatation with appearance of casts inside the tubules was observed. Congested peritubular blood vessels and interstitial hemorrhage were also seen. The medullary region demonstrated vascular congestion and fibrosis. Focal cellular infiltration was presented in the interstitium. The renal cortex of NA treated rats showed a noticeable down regulation in alkaline phosphatase positive immunoreactive cells in some proximal convoluted tubules. NA induced up regulation of positive immunoreaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules as well as in the collecting tubules

  17. EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood

  18. Physiological Changes Induced by Long Term Administration of Saccharin Compared with Aspartame to Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Z.A. Abdallah

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial sweeteners have been in use by food industries for a long time. Safety concerns raised about artificial sweeteners since they are widely used nowadays. The present work aims to study the possible changes in body weight, blood picture, liver functions, blood glucose and liver glycogen content as wel as histopathological changes induced in liver and urinary bladder of male albino rats after administration of two artificial sweeteners (saccharin or aspartame. Male rats were administered saccharin (50 mg/kg b.w. or aspartame (100 mg/kg b.w. daily by intragastric gavage for 14 weeks. The results revealed that both saccharin and aspartame provoked highly significant reduction in body weight gain %. Saccharin exerted highly significant reduction in haemoglobin (Hb level, haematocrit (Hct% and red blood cel s (RBCs count, while aspartame induced insignificant changes in al haematological parameters. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activity levels were significantly increased with saccharin and aspartame. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels in serum showed slightly insignificant increase by saccharim administration, while aspartame caused a significant rise in ALP. Blood glucose level of rats given saccharin significantly dropped, while aspartame caused a significant elevation in blood glucose level. Liver glycogen content of rats given saccharin significantly increased, while aspartame caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen content. Microscopic examination of liver sections showed lymphocytic and macrophages infiltration of the portal traid in rats administered saccharin, while aspartame group showed no histopathological changes except slight hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes. Urinary bladder sections of rats administered saccharin revealed proliferation of the mucosal epithelial cel s into papil ary invaginated projections with highly vascularized connective tissue core and mononuclear inflammatory

  19. Effect of forced swim stress on wistar albino rats in various behavioral parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambareesha Kondam, Nilesh N Kate, Gaja Lakshmi, Suresh M, Chandrashekar M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is an important factor of depression that causes the changes in various body systems. The forced swim test is a commonly used stressor test where rats are forced to swim in specially constructed tanks for a particular period where there is behavioral activation characterized by vigorous swimming and diving to search for alternate routes of escape. Animal health including human has been shown to be affected by the stressful events of life inducing situation which alters cognition, learning memory and emotional responses, causing mental disorders like depression and anxiety and stress in rats. Methods: The experiment was carried out with 12 healthy albino Wistar female rats weighing about 150-180gms. The animals were randomly divided into two groups of six animals each. Group – I (control, Group – II (Stressed Group. Group –II rats are placed in plastic tanks for 45minutes for15 days. Temperature of water was maintained at 20˚C. During stress phase, the animals will be trained for forced swim test, behavioral changes observed by open field apparatus for emotions, and eight arm maze for memory & leaning, elevated plus maze for anxiety. Results: Forced swim stress causes to a significant change (p<0.05 on cognitive functions: motivation, learning and memory. Forced swim stress is the factor damaging the hippocampus causes repeated immobilization and produce atrophy of dendrites of pyramidal neurons and neuroendocrinological disturbances, controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA. Repeated stress in the form of forced swimming activates the free radical processes leading to an increase in lipid peroxidation in many tissues. Conclusion: This study reveals the effect of repeated forced swim stress causes wide range of adaptive changes in the central nervous system including the elevation of serotonin (5-HT metabolism and an increased susceptibility to affective disorders. The earlier findings have reported

  20. Histopathological effects of pesticide-cholopyrifos on kidney in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Histopathological lesions have been widely used as biomarkers for health evaluation of organism exposed to pollutants and can be used as warning symptoms for organism health. There are few reports regarding histomorphological changes in kidney following pesticide chlorpyrifos exposure which has prompted us to undertake this study. Methods: The present study was conducted on 45 inbred adult Wistar albino rats of either sex, weighing 145 – 165 gms. These animals were randomly divided into 3 groups A, B, C. Oral Chlorpyrifos was given to the experimental groups B and C in dose of 5 mg/kg body weight and 10 mg/kg body weight respectively. Group A served as control and was left as such. 3 animals from each group were sacrificed after 1 week, 2nd week, 4th week, 6th week and 8th week of initiation of experiment to see the histological changes in the kidney architecture. Results: Group A shows no histological alterations. Group B – No histological alterations in the kidney after 1 week. From 2 weeks-8 there was shrinkage of glomerulus at initial stages of treatment, tubular dilation, glomerular hypercellularity, hypertrophy of tubular epithelium, degeneration of renal tubules, deposition of eosin positive substance in the glomerulus and renal tubules. There were infiltration of lymphocytes in the interstitium and increased vascularity in the form of dilated vessels fibrosis and interstitial oedema. All these changes were suggestive of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis and interstitial nephritis leading to acute renal failure progressing to chronic renal failure with increasing duration. In Group C – the Kidneys of 1 week Chlorpyrifos treated rats exhibited shrunken glomeruli and hypertrophy of renal tubular epithelium. From 2nd week- 8thweek, the changes seen were more pronounced than Group B Conclusion: The present study showed that significant histomorphological changes were caused in the kidneys of rats administered with

  1. Histopathological and Biochemical Toxic Effect of Amiodarone on Thyroid Gland in Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola A. El Sayed*, Safaa E. Gawish

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Amiodarone AMD (Cordarone was a benzofuran derivative, used in management of angina and refractory ventricular arrhythmia. Its effect on the thyroid gland structure and function was investigated in this study. Material and Methods: Fifty adult male albino rats were used and divided into three groups. The first group was consisted of 10 rats which served as control, received distilled water orally (1ml. The second group was consisted of 20 rats used as therapeutic dose treated group, received 40 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone while the third group was consisted of 20 rats used as a toxic dose treated group which received 60 mg/Kg b. w. of amiodarone orally daily for three months. Body weight of animals was determined. Serum concentration of tri-iodothyonine (T3, thyroxine (T4, thyrotrophin (TSH, interleukin 6 (IL6, tumour marker P53 and tissue residue for amiodarone in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart was determined. Results: Specimens from thyroid gland were taken and prepared for light and electron microscope examination. Highly significant decrease in body weight (P<0.001 were observed in both therapeutic and toxic doses treated groups in comparison to the control one. A very highly significant increase (P<0.001 of serum (T4 & T3 with Concomitant suppression of (TSH (P<0.001. Serum levels of IL6 and P53 showed also a very highly significant increase (P<0.001. Amiodarone concentration in plasma, fat, liver, lung, thyroid gland and heart showed significant increase in therapeutic dose treated group and highly significant increase in toxic dose treated group. Histopathological examination of thyroid gland of therapeutic dose treated group by light microscope showed marked evidence of thyotoxicosis in the form of microcystic follicular changes and peripheral scalloping, cellular degeneration with scanty cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei appeared. These changes became more severe in toxic dose treated group in the form of

  2. Study of oestrus cycle periodicity and oogenesis of adult albino rats:Response to hyperprolactinaemia induced by haloperidol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savita Kuldip Kumar; Pal Abhishek; Sahu Pratap Kumar; Tiwari Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible effect of hyperprolactinaemia induced by HPL on oogenesis in female albino rats. Methods: The oestrus cycle of each rat was observed daily for 16 days at a regular interval of 24 hours including Sunday. Animals from each group were scarified 24 hr after last treatment (on 17th day) following the ethical procedure for histopathological examination ovaries were separated. Results: In our study we found that prolactin treatment at the dioestrous phase increased the number of apoptotic cells and significant changes in volume of corpus luteum and the number of steriodogenic cell per corpus luteum decreased and therefore resultant synthesis of oestrogen decreased. So, haloperidol possesses antioestrogenic activity which may be attributed to high serum prolactin levels induced by haloperidol in experimental animals. Conclusion: In this study intraperitoneall administration of haloperidol at doses of 1, 2 and 5 mg/kg/day for 16 days significantly produced hyperprolactinaemia in female albino rats as compared to control. Hyperprolactinaemia produced by haloperidol causes significant increase in periodicity of dioestrous phase and decreased the other phase significantly in a dose dependent manner.

  3. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on anti-Thy1,1 induced kidney injury in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saber Sakr; Laila Rashed; Waheba Zarouk; Rania El-Shamy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in rats with anti-Thy1,1 nephritis. Methods: Female albino rats were divided into three groups, control group, anti-Thy1,1 group and treatment with i.v. MSCs group. MSCs were derived from bone marrow of male albino rats, Y-chromosome gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the kidney. Serum urea and creatinine were estimated for all groups. Kidney of all studied groups was examined histologically and histochemically (total carbohydrates and total proteins). DNA fragmentation and expression of α-SMA were detected. Results:Kidney of animals injected with anti-Thy1,1 showed inflammatory leucocytic infiltration, hypertrophied glomeruli, tubular necrosis and congestion in the renal blood vessels. The kidney tissue also showed reduction of carbohydrates and total proteins together with increase in apoptosis and in expression ofα-SMA. Moreover, the levels of urea and creatinine were elevated. Treating animals with MSCs revealed that kidney tissue displayed an improvement in the histological and histochemical changes. Apoptosis and α-SMA expression were decreased, and the levels of urea and creatinine decreased. Conclusions:The obtained results demonstrated the potential of MSCs to ameliorate the structure and function of the kidney in rats with anti-Thy1,1 nephritis possibly through the release of paracrine growth factor(s).

  4. Evaluation of antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Alternanthera brasiliana against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Kumar Samudrala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The main objective of the present study was to explore the antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the Alternanthera brasiliana (EAAB and its antioxidant status against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Based on the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity studies, EAAB was selected for anti-tumor and antioxidant effects. Anticancer activity of EAAB was evaluated against EAC in Swiss albino mice at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. EAAB was administered for 14 consecutive days after induction of cancer. After 24 h of the last dose and 18 h of fasting, half of the mice were sacrificed and rest were kept alive for assessing any increase in life span. The antitumor effect of EAAB was assessed by evaluating tumor volume, viable and nonviable tumor cell count, tumor weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of EAC bearing host. Furthermore, the antioxidant and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: EAAB treatment has shown significant decrease in tumor volume, viable cell count, tumor weight and elevated the life span of EAC tumor bearing mice in a dose dependent manner. In hematological profile count of RBC, hemoglobin, and WBC were found reverted to normal. EAAB also significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation and significantly increased the levels of GSH, SOD and Catalase. Conclusion: From the above results it may be concluded that EAAB has potent dose dependent antitumor activity and is comparable to that of 5-flourouracil.

  5. ABHRAK BHASMA MEDIATED ALTERATIONS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS DURING CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teli Parashuram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug used against many diseases including hepatitis. In present study various doses of abhrak bhasma (10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/kg body wt were tested for hepatoprotective efficacy against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 intoxicated liver and kidney functions in male albino rat. Administration of CCl4 to the normal rat increased serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin indicated acute damage. Abhrak bhasma treatment counteracted the action of CCl4 on liver and kidney functions. With the administration of increasing doses of abhrak bhasma all activities were dropped progressively and significantly at 40 mg dose as compared with silicate control. Conjugation metabolism and excretion of bilirubin were improved with increasing doses of abhrak bhasma suggesting dose dependent protection of all metabolic steps in bilirubin metabolism. Also CCl4 induced acute toxicity increased serum urea and creatinine content, which was progressively controlled by increasing abhrak bhasma doses. The findings of this study indicated that abhrak bhasma exert dose dependent protective effects in liver and kidneys functions against CCl4 induced toxicity in albino rat.

  6. Effect of Piper betel leaf stalk extract on protein metabolism in reproductive tissues of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vengaiah V; Govardhan Naik A; Changamma C

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To know the impact of Piper betel leaf stalk (P. betel) extract on Protein and energy metabolism and its role in male albino rats. Methods: Healthy adult (3-4 months old) male Wistar strain albino rats were administered with betel leaf stalk extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg/day through oral gavages for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last dose, the animals were autopsied. In order to assess antifertility effect in testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland, estimation of total, soluble and structural proteins, free amino acids and DNA, RNA were undertaken. Results: The accumulation in proteins indicates the anti-androgenic effect of extract. The reduction in free amino acids will affect the sertoli cell function, results in the damage of spermatogenesis. The significant elevation in testicular DNA content (hyperplasia) was observed. In the present study, P. betel leaf stalk extract decreases the concentration of RNA, in testes, seminal vesicle and prostate gland except in epididymis where it was elevated. It indicates the alterations in rate of protein synthesis and growth rate of tissues due to the administration of P. betel leaf stalk extraction. However, the RNA: DNA ratio was reduced except in prostate. Conclusions: P. betel leaf stalk extract exert its anti androgenic effect by alterations in rate of protein synthesis and cellular hypertrophy occur in prostate.

  7. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  8. Evaluation of genotoxic potential of Hypericum triquetrifolium extract in somatic and germ cells of male albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra M. A. Mohammed,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum triquetrifolium aqueous extract were studied for the first time for its toxic and the possible clastogenic effects in vivo on the bone marrow and spermatozoa cells of Swiss albino mice. The lethal dose of the aqueous extract was considered to be 10.33 g/kg of the body weight, injected subcutaneously. The doses which were chosen for treatments were 2, 1, and 0.25 g/kg. H. triquetrifolium extract induce statistically significant increases in the average numbers of micronucleus(MN at the dose 2 g/kg and chromosome aberrations at the doses 2 and 1 g/kg ,the majority of aberrations observed were chromatid breaks, centromeric breaks, acentric fragments. The extract was found to inhibit mitotic index (MI in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover the plant extract showed a significant induction of sperm abnormalities in all concentrations used comparing with the untreated animals. The most frequent types of sperm abnormalities of the treated groups were; amorphous, pseudo-droplet defect, bent mid piece defect and corkscrew mid piece defect. However, the lowest dose 0.25 g/kg body weight was the most effective one which markedly increased the corkscrew midpiece defect. The results indicated that the mixture of the compounds found in the aqueous extract caused cytotoxicity and induced different cytogenetic effects in both somatic and germ cells of male albino mice.

  9. Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats: A newer model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents, namely silymarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Parama

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: This study was conducted to establish olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in Wistar albino rats as a newer model to screen putative hepatoprotective agents namely silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups, namely vehicle control group (CG, olanzapine-treated group (OZ, and olanzapine plus silymarin (OZS treated groups. Both the OZ and OZS groups were treated with the same dose of intraperitoneal olanzapine for 6 weeks and group OZS additionally received oral silymarin. Baseline and terminal hepatic enzymes (SGOT, SGPT, and ALP were measured in all three groups. Results: Histopathological examination of livers of both OZ and OZS groups showed degenerative changes, whereas those of control group showed normal architecture. Liver enzyme levels showed statistically significant rise in comparison to the control group as well as the respective base line values in both the test groups, but the differences in the rise of liver enzymes between the two test groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Olanzapine-induced hepatopathy in rats can be used as a model for screening putative hepatoprotective agents and in our setting silymarin has failed to provide any hepatoprotection.

  10. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  11. Modification of the Mus musculus albino rats parasitological profile induced by low x-ray radiation dose; Modificacao do perfil parasitologico de camundongos albinos Mus musculus causada por raios X em baixa dosagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, P.L.; Veloso, L.F.; Motta, M.A. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    1994-12-31

    Ionizing radiations can induce alterations on the immunological response. In order to observe the effects of X-Rays in the susceptibility to intestinal worms infestation, feces of 40 Albino Swiss mice (20 males and 20 females) receiving weekly X-Rays doses of 500 mGy, were collected once per week, so as was collected fecal material of an equal group o mice non-irradiated, for comparison. The results of the coprologic examination revealed the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs mainly in the irradiated females, having the irradiated group a proportional rate of 30:1, as compared with the non-irradiated group. Eggs of Syphacia obveolata was also found, with a rate of 13:1 as compared with the non-irradiated, and also here with a prevalence among the irradiated females. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs.

  12. GARLIC (ALLIUM SATIVUM EXTRACT AFFECTS THE FREE AMINO ACID LEVEL IN THE GONADS OF FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Allium sativum Linn. (Alliaceae (Raw Garlic Extract (RGE was studied on free amino acids (FAA level in female albino rats. The garlic extract was tested in three different doses 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight daily as low, medium and high dose respectively for a period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days. The significant (P<0.01 increase in Free amino acid (FAA level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with 4ml/kg body weight of garlic extract there was a not significant increase in Free Amino Acid (FAA level was observed.

  13. Acute Effect of Fansidar and Antioxidant Vitamin C Co- administration on Serum Lipid profile of Wistar Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasofunjo Kayode

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Assessment of the lipid profile of fansidar and antioxidant Vitamin C co-administration in albino wistar rats.Methodology: Thirty (30 Wistar albino rats ranging from 175-200g were randomly assigned into six (6 study groups of five (5 rats each Viz: I, II, III, IV, V and VI of ten rats per group. Group I served as male control group. Group II served as female control group. Group III served as male fansidar alone treated group. Group IV served as female fansidar alone treated group. Group V served as male fansidar and Vitamin C treated group while group VI served as female fansidar and vitamin C treated group. Each rat was housed in a wooden cage. The animal room was ventilated and kept at room temperature and relative humidity of 29°c and 40-70% respectively with 12 hours natural light-dark cycle and were allowed free access to food and water ad libitum. Good hygiene was maintained by constant cleaning and removal of faeces and spilled from cages daily. Rats in all groups were weighed daily and sacrificed 24hours after the experimental periods of 14 days of oral administration and the serum were collected for lipid profile determination. Results: The body weight parameters of both male and female albino rats, showed significant increase (P<0.05 in both the control groups and fansidar + Vitamin C treated group when compared with their initial weights while the group treated with fansidar alone, showed a significant decrease (P<0.05 in weight when compared with the initial weight for both genders. Likewise, the fansidar treated groups showed a significant increase (P<0.05 in serum cholesterol when compared with the control while the fansidar + Vitamin C treated group showed no significant difference in total serum cholesterol when compared with the control. The group treated with fansidar alone showed a significant decrease in serum HDL when compared with the control while the group treated with fansidar + Vitamin C showed a significant

  14. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes. PMID:26827586

  15. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF THE AQUEOUS METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERBERIS CALLIOBOTRYS IN ALBINO MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgeer; Naz, Huma; Rasool, Shadid; Raza, Sayed Atif; Ahmad, Taseer; Ahsan, Haseeb; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Asif, Hira; Khan, Zahid; Noor, Nabeela; Utra, Ambreen Malik; Umme-Habiba-Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous methanolic extract of stem part of Berberis calliobotiys (AMEBC) was evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in albino mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using carrageenan and albumin induced paw edema, while the analgesic effect was assessed by using formalin-induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. The brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia model was used for antipyretic investigation. Ibuprofen (40 mg/kg) was used as a standard drug in all the three models. The aqueous methanolic extract at both (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg) doses, showed highly significant (p antipyretic activity against yeast induced pyrexia. The maximum effect was observed in all the three parameters at 500 mg/kg dose. The results suggest a potential benefit of the aqueous methanolic extract of Berbeis calliobotrys in treating conditions associated with inflammation, pain and fever. PMID:27505907

  16. Effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose con-centration of alloxan induced diabetic Albino Wistar Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgewill OA; Georgewill UO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of extract of Abrus precatorius on blood glucose of alloxan induced albino wist-ar rats.Methods:Experimental animals received daily oral administration of extract of Abrus precatorius for 14 days.The effect of 200 mg/kg dose was studied during the treatment period.Results:There was a significant reduction in blood glucose concentration (P <0.05)with the mean blood glucose of the different groups as 5.0 ±0.3 for normal control,7.0 ±0.4 for diabetic control group and 4.0 ±0.2 for diabetic treated group. Conclusion:The findings of this study suggest that extract of Abrus precatorius has hypoglycemic effect.

  17. Evaluation of Pergularia daemia and metformin in the treatment of PCOS in testosterone propionate induced albino wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. POORNIMA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin and the combined activity of P. daemia and metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS induced rats. Female albino wistar rats (150- 180 g were injected with Testosterone propionate (TP for the development PCOS. The PCOS induced rats were divided into two groups, one were treated with metformin and the other were treated with the combination of metformin and Pergularia daemia extract over a period of 15 days. The vaginal smear and histological studies proved the combined efficacy of metformin and the P. daemia extract by restoring the estrous cycle and re-establishment of the ovarian morphology. The biochemical and hormonal assays also confirms the same. Thus we conclude that the combined activity of metfromin and P. daemia extract is an effective medicine in treating PCOS than metformin alone.

  18. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  19. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects.

  20. Immunostimulant and chemoprotective effect of vivartana, a polyherbal formulation against cyclophosphamide induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanasekaran, Sadhana; Sakthivel, Kunnathur Murugesan; Chandrasekaran, Guruvayoorappan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to develop a technology for cost effective immunomodulator from natural products to combat adverse effects during cancer chemotherapy. In the present study, the immunomodulatory efficacy of Vivartana, a poly herbal formulation in immunosuppressed animal model induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX) and its comparison with standard herbal immunostimulators Chyawanprash and Brahma Rasayana was investigated. The effect of Vivartana (500 mg/kg x bw) (p.o.), Chyawanprash (20 mg/kg.bw) (p.o.) and Brahma Rasayana (20 mg/kg x bw) (p.o.) on hematological parameters, relative organ weight, Bone marrow cellularity and α-esterase activity were determined in Swiss albino mice by using the standard methods. Among the herbal formulations Vivartana showed the maximum number of leukocytes (13150 cells/mm3) on the 15th day. The leukocyte count in Vivartana treated CTX induced group shows significant increase (5375 cells/mm3) when compared with CTX alone induced group (3358 cells/mm3) on the same day. The Vivartana treated CTX induced group shows increase in the hemoglobin level compared with the CTX induced group. Moreover, Vivartana treatment prevented the loss of organ weight in the CTX induced group by the enhancement of spleenocytes on the 7th day and thymocytes on the 11th day. Similarly the lowered bone marrow cellularity and number of α-esterase positive cells in CTX induced group were restored in the Vivartana treatment. Treatment with vivartana also exhibits hepatoprotective activity by regulating the SGOT and SGPT levels in CTX induced group. The study indicates that Vivartana has the considerable potential as an immunostimulant and chemoprotectant against CTX induced immunosuppression in Swiss albino mice.

  1. Effect of different forms of acute stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, K K; Mukkadan, J K

    2014-01-01

    Stress is common for all organisms either in the form of eustress (beneficial) or as distress (harmful). Stress is highly diverse in present world and its effects in organisms are well studied. This study is a comparative effect of stress in the generation of reactive oxygen species in albino Wistar rats, which are seldom reported. Here animals were grouped into four and the test animals of each group were administered with any one of the following stress, namely forced swimming induced stress (FS), and noise induced stress (NS), immobilization stress (IS) and overcrowding stress (OS). After stress administration, serum cortisol was estimated as a bio marker of stress in the albino rats, and the liver homogenate were used to estimate superoxide dismutase (SOD) by using rat Elisa kit in the spectrophotometer. The data were processed with unpaired 't' test. The cortisol levels were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in all the groups as compared to the normal control. And the stress level was found to be maximum in the FS group in comparison with other groups. The mean cortisol level in different stress groups such as FS, NS, IS and OS were found to be 4.15, 3.7, 3.63, 3.62 μ gm/dl respectively. Among all the stressed groups, the SOD level in the FS group were found to be increased in a highly significant level (P < 0.001) in comparison with normal control group. The SOD level in FS group was (30.75 U/mgm. protein) followed by OS (28.96), noise (28.88) and IS (28.77).

  2. 夹竹桃叶色白化的原因探讨%Research on the Reason of Albino Oleander Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永亮; 赵歌; 李叶峰; 杨燕; 陆小平

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The reason of the albino mutant of oleander leaf was researched from the structure of leaf, the chloroplast in leaf,the structure of sub-cellular and the pigment composition of leaf.[ Method] The chloroplast form of albino leaf of oleander in different developmental stages was observed under optical microscope and the composition of the photosynthetic pigment in albino leaf was analyzed with the technique of plate chromatography. [Results] There was no significant difference in mesophyll cell between the mutant and wild species of oleander,however in the palisade and spongy tissue of albino leaf the green could barely be seen. The experiment in the isolation of chloroplast from the normal plat and mutant indicated that few mature chloroplasts could be found in the mutant. The result from the analysis of plate chromatography showed that there was basically no photosynthetic pigment in the albino leaf. [Conclusion] The reason causing the albino leaf of oleander might be the lack of the chlorophyll due to the disruption of the chloroplast synthesis in leaf.%[目的]从叶片结构,叶绿体等亚细胞结构以及色素组成研究该突变体叶色白化的原因.[方法]以叶色白化的夹竹桃叶片为材料,用光学显微镜观察不同发育阶段的叶绿体形态;用板层析技术分析叶片中光合色素的组成.[结果]突变型与野生型的叶肉细胞无明显差异,但白化叶片中栅栏组织和海绵组织几乎看不到绿色存在;分离2种叶色的叶绿体发现,突变型的成熟叶绿体数量很少;板层析结果显示,白化夹竹桃中光合色素基本缺失.[结论]夹竹桃叶色白化可能是因叶绿体合成受阻引起叶绿素缺失造成的.

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  4. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress

  5. Modulation of Tinospora rumphii and Zinc Salt on DNA Damage in Quinoline-Induced Genotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Male Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Salvacion Tan; Bajo, Lydia M.

    2014-01-01

    Tinospora rumphii (T. rumphii) is a folkloric medicinal plant that is widely distributed in Asia and Africa. It has been widely used by locals to treat many diseases including jaundice, which is a manifestation of liver damage. We investigated the action of T. rumphii crude extract together with zinc sulphate, a known tumor modulator, on hepatic injuries induced by intraperitoneal (i.p) injections of quinoline on albino mice. The hepatotoxic effect was assessed by bilirubin concentration in t...

  6. The Protective Role of Aegle Marmelos on Aspirin–Induced Gastro-Duodenal Ulceration in Albino Rat Model: A Possible Involvement of Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Shyamal K.; Chandan Roy

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM), family: Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameter...

  7. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swarnamoni Das; Sarajita Barman

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C ...

  8. Atipične karakteristike albino embrija psa tupana Carcharhinus plumbeus (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae) u Gabeškom zaljevu (južni Tunis, centralni Mediteran)

    OpenAIRE

    SAÏDI, Béchir; Bradaï, Mohamed Nejmeddine; Marouani, Sondes; Guélorget, Olivier; Capapé, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Neuobičajeni embrio s atipičnim obilježjima, djelomično albino, koji je odstranjen iz skotne ženke psa tupana, Carcharhinus plumbeus uhvaćen je u Gabeškom zaljevu (južni Tunis), centralni Mediteran. U ovom radu opisan je nađeni primjerak. Dat je pregled atipičnih obilježja i albinizma ove vrste morskog psa.

  9. THE INFLUENCE AN EXOGENOUS ENZYMES-PROBIOTICS COMPLEX ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS TRAITS OF ALBINO RATS FED DIETS CONTAINING UP TO 60% RICE BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BOATENG

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of varying levels of rice bran supplemented with Xzyme™ (an exogenous enzyme-probiotic complex on the growth performance and carcass traits of albino rats. Thirty weanling albino rats with average initial liveweight of 66.9±0.3g were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments in a 3 x 2 factorial design (3 levels of rice bran [20, 40 and 60%] by 2 levels [0 and 250mg/kg of diet] of the Xzyme™. There were 5 rats on each treatment which were housed individually in plastic cages. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and their growth performance monitored for 28 days, after which the rats were slaughtered to collect carcass data.The mean values for total feed intake, weekly feed intake and daily weight gain were similar (P>0.05 for all the various dietary treatments. The addition of the Xzyme™ led to an improvement (P>0.05 in feed conversion ratio (FCR at each level of the rice bran. Both feed cost and feed cost per 100g weight gain values decreased as the level of RB increased despite the extra cost of the added Xzyme™. The carcass characteristics of the albino rats on all the six dietary treatments were similar (P>0.05. The results suggest that albino rats and probably other mono-gastric livestock species can be fed diets containing 60% rice bran plus Xzyme™ without any adverse effect on health, growth performance and carcass characteristics.

  10. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of alloxan diabetic albino rats: Presence of an inhibitor of this enzyme activity in the cerebral extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Nayeemunnisa; Tarannum, Suraiya

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemic manifestations and cerebral dysfunction have been demonstrated in diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cerebral dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: Type-2 diabetes was induced in albino rats (280–300g) with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg i.v.,) and the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata of the brain were used 48 h after alloxan injection for modulations in acetylcholin...

  11. Lactogenic Study of the Effect of Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) Seed on Serum Prolactin Level in Lactating Albino Rats

    OpenAIRE

    I G Bako; M. S. Abubakar; M.A. Mabrouk; Mohammed, A

    2014-01-01

    Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5 mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactat...

  12. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    G M Nitasha Bhat; Nagendra Nayak; Vinodraj, K.; N Chandralekha; Paul Mathai; J Cherian

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administrati...

  13. Simple generation of albino C57BL/6J mice with G291T mutation in the tyrosinase gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Seiya; Dinh, Tra Thi Huong; Kato, Kanako; Mizuno-Iijima, Saori; Tanimoto, Yoko; Daitoku, Yoko; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Ikawa, Masahito; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Single nucleotide mutations (SNMs) are associated with a variety of human diseases. The CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system is expected to be useful as a genetic modification method for production of SNM-induced mice. To investigate whether SNM-induced mice can be generated by zygote microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) donor, we attempted to produce albino C57BL/6J mice carrying the Tyr gene SNM (G291T) from pigmented C57BL/6J zygotes. We first designed and constructed a CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector for the Tyr gene (px330-Tyr-M). DNA cleavage activity of px330-Tyr-M at the target site of the Tyr gene was confirmed by the EGxxFP system. We also designed an ssDNA donor for homology-directed repair (HDR)-mediated gene modification. The px330-Tyr-M vector and ssDNA donor were co-microinjected into the pronuclei of 224 one-cell-stage embryos derived from C57BL/6J mice. We obtained 60 neonates, 28 of which showed the ocular albinism and absence of coat pigmentation. Genomic sequencing analysis of the albino mice revealed that the target of SNM, G291T in the Tyr gene, occurred in 11 mice and one founder was homozygously mutated. The remaining albino founders without Tyr G291T mutation also possessed biallelic deletion and insertion mutants adjacent to the target site in the Tyr locus. Simple production of albino C57BL/6J mice was provided by C57BL/6J zygote microinjection with px330-Tyr-M DNA vector and mutant ssDNA (G291T in Tyr) donor. A combination of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and optional mutant ssDNA could be expected to efficiently produce novel SNM-induced mouse models for investigating human diseases. PMID:24879364

  14. Protective potential of Emblica Officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced hepatic lesion in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure of living systems to ionizing radiation causes a variety of damages to DNA and membranes due to generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. So there is a need of hour is to search for an ideal radioprotector which could minimize the deleterious and damaging effects caused by ionizing radiation. Radioprotectors are agents which reduce the radiation effects on cell when applied prior to exposure of radiation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica officinalis in reducing radiation and lead induced changes in mice liver. For the present experiment, healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks) were selected and maintained under standard conditions of temperature and light. Fruit extract of Emblica was fed orally at the dose of 0.01 ml/animal/day.The animal were divided into seven groups according to the treatment i.e. lead acetate solution as drinking water (group-II) or exposed to 3.5 or 7.0 Gy gamma radiation (group-III) or combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate (group-IV). The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica extract seven days prior to radiation or lead acetate treatment (group V, VI and VII) respectively. The animals from all the groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals pieces of liver were taken out and some of them were kept at -20℃ for different biochemical parameters. The histopathological changes included cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, hyperaemia, pycnotic and crenated nuclei. The changes observed in the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day - 14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups, thereafter value declined up to day - 28 without reaching to normal. Whereas the value of

  15. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2009-09-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg(-1) body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis' homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  16. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-Induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz S. Abu El-Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6 in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1 treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg−1 body wt for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis’ homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide

  17. The Protective Effect of Curcumin Against Gentamicin-Induced Renal Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra H. El-Zawahry and Effat M. Abu El Kheir

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Generation of free radicals in the renal cortex plays an important role in the pathogenesis of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Curcumin, the yellow curry pigment isolated from turmeric, has been confirmed to have a strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging actions. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective effect of curcumin against gentamicin-induced nephropathy in male albino rats. Methods: Thirty two male albino rats were divided into 4 equal groups (Gr.: (Gr.I control, injected i.p with 1cc isotonic saline solution/day for 8 wks; (Gr.II received 200 mg/kg/day curcumin (Cur. orally, suspended in normal saline, for 8 wks ; (Gr.III injected I.p by 100 mg/kg/day gentamicin (Gen. for 8 days followed by 1cc saline I.p thereafter; (Gr.IV (Cur./Gen. received 200 mg/kg/day Cur. for one week before starting Gen injection (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days during which Cur. was received concurrently with Gen then Cur administration was continued thereafter throughout the rest of the study (6 wks. Body weight was recorded weekly. Renal function was evaluated by measuring the 24 h. urine output, the concentrations of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine clearance. Also, kidney weight and the parameters of oxidative stress: reduced glutathione (GSH, thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were measured in kidney tissue. Results: The Kidney weight, plasma creatinine, BUN and 24 h urine output were significantly increased while the body weight and creatinine clearance were significantly decreased (P < 0.0005, in rats treated with Gen. as compared to control. While Cur. could significantly normalize the previous parameters. In addition Gen. caused oxidative stress in kidney as seen by significant increase in TBARS level, and significant decrease of catalase, GSH, SOD and GPX activities (P < 0.0005, However, Cur

  18. Chemo preventive action of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present century has been an ever-increasing use of nuclear technologies in different fields raising the alarming problem of radiation hazards to living beings including man. An increasing body of evidence indicates that human activities are responsible for global climatic changes, which, in turn, may be directly or indirectly increasing human exposure to environmental hazards. On the other hand, all forms of cadmium are poisonous leading cadmium intoxication under appropriate circumstances. The interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of immense potential importance as their total environmental burden may have greater effects than expected from the sum of their individual impact. In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Liv.52 for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice. The changes included loosened sub-mucosa with hydropic degeneration. Lamina propria exhibited hydropic degeneration, abnormal mitotic figures, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic degranulation in crypt cells, loosened tips and shortened villi. Leucocytic infiltration appeared in lamina propria. Few mitotic figures were observed during the early intervals but were not normal and resulted in mitotic death. Recovery started on day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in Liv.52 treated groups. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculature, hydropic degeneration in sub-mucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in sub-mucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis

  19. Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahaid Al-Hashem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  20. The Protective Efficacy Of Extract Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Karkade) Calyces Against Alcohol Toxicity In Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS), Malvacea family, is a medicinal plant with a worldwide fame. Its benefit effect on some physiological parameters as blood picture, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, liver and kidney functions, electrolytes and antioxidant capacity is mentioned in several recent studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of this plant in protecting from alcohol toxicity in rats. Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: group 1 received water orally for 30 days, group 2 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) for 30 days, both group 3 and group 4 received Hibiscus sabdariffa (100 mg/kg/day) orally for 30 days and then group 4 received ethanol (5 ml/kg/day) orally for another 30 days. Serum hepatic markers (aspartate and alanine minotransferases; AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were increased significantly by alcohol abuse with no observed improvement in treatment with HS. Significant reduction in total protein and albumin was observed in alcohol abuse which improved with HS treatment and showed significant increase as compared with both control and alcohol treated groups. Serum kidney markers (urea, creatinine and uric acid) were increased in alcohol abuse and only creatinine and uric acid nearly returned to normal levels with HS treatment while urea level remains high. Serum glucose was increased significantly in alcohol abuse and significantly decreased in group 3 (HS treated) and group 4 (HS + ethanol). Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and atherogenic index were increased significantly while HDL-C was significantly reduced in alcohol abuse. HS treatment resulted in significant increase in HDL-C and therefore decreased atherogenic index in both group 3 and group 4 which indicated protective effect of HS for coronary heart diseases. These results lead to the

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Cabbage and/or Carrot Against Oxidative Stress Induced by Gamma Irradiation in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies indicated that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against diseases, and populations that consume such diets have higher plasma antioxidants and exhibit lower risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Vegetable is considered major dietary source of fibers and antioxidants such as polyphenols, flavonoids and carotenoids that can protect against different dietary disorders. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of cabbage and/or carrot against oxidative stress induced by gamma irradiation in male albino rats. Chemical composition and phenolic contents in cabbage and carrot were determined. Male albino rats were exposed to 5 Gy (single dose with rate 0.46 Gy/min) of whole body gamma irradiation. Thirty five rats were randomly divided into five groups as follow: group 1: control (rats fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks), group 2: irradiated (rats were exposed to whole gamma irradiation and fed on balanced diet for 6 weeks) and groups 3, 4 and 5: irradiated rats fed on balanced diet and received cabbage 15%, carrot 15% and a combination of cabbage and carrot, respectively. The results obtained revealed that the administration of cabbage and/or carrot diet significantly reduced the changes induced by gamma irradiation in the serum level of glucose and liver function parameters; serum aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and albumin. In addition, significant improvements were observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). Significant enhancement in hepatic antioxidant enzymes; superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), was observed. The levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) associated with remarkable decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were observed. Accordingly, it could be concluded that consumption of cabbage and/or carrot

  2. The Vitamine D3 Analogue (1α Hydroxyvitamin D3) Aggravates Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provitamin D, cholecalciferol, undergoes hydroxylation at the 25 and the 1α position in the liver and the kidney, respectively, before it turns into a hormonally active form regulating calcium homeostasis. The main purpose of the present study is to assess the potential of the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 analogue to aggravate the ability of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) to cause hepatotoxicity in albino rats. For this purpose, four groups of male albino rats, each of five, were used as follow: control group (G 1) received no treatment, CCl4 treated group (G 2) received CCl4 at a dose of 0.2 ml/100 g body weight in sunflower oil (1/1) v/v ratio two times per week for three weeks subcutaneously, 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 3) received a total dose of 5 ng/g body weight of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 dissolved in propyl alcohol divided into six doses each given twice weekly for three weeks via the subcutaneous route, and CCl4 + 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 treated group (G 4) received the same dose of CCl4 and 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 concomitantly as previously described. Liver tissues from sacrificed animals were fixed in 10% formalin before sectioning and stained with eosin and hematoxyline then were examined histopathologically. Sera from control and treated animals were separated from blood and examined for ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase and LDH levels. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, A/G, bilirubin, creatinine, phosphorous and Ca levels were also monitored. Data from the present study showed that administration of 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 aggravated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as evidenced by the exacerbation of the rise in serum ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase levels. The analogue, however, had no effect on serum liver enzymes in CCl4 untreated rats. Though, CCl4 caused significant impairment of kidney function as shown by the rise in serum creatinine and urea levels which were differentially affected by the analogue. In conclusion, the 1α hydroxyvitamin D3 compound

  3. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE ACTION OF GLUCOSE AND SCOPOLAMINE ON THE COGNITIVE FUNCTION OF ALBINO RATS USING DIGITAL ZERO MAZE APPARATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Purpose of the Present study was to compare the action of glucose and scopolamine on the cognitive function using digital zero maze apparatus on albino rats. Method: The digital zero mazes was made of ply-wood in which to arms positioned at right angled related to each other .This apparatus is like a digital zero maze digit in appearance. Albino rats were given a free exploration session consisting of 10 minutes in the apparatus 24 prior to testing to allow familition to the testing apparatus. Albino rat was treated with glucose to determine the memory performance in second trials scopolamine was injected and effect was observed. Result: In the present study 2 groups were taken and had given treatment glucose and scopolamine (buscopan.The digital zero maze was design to study animal behavior after supervised training given to the rats the observation glucose and scopolamine were shows that the glucose a have some sought of cognition enhancing activity in experiment animals On the other hand the scopolamine slows down cognition activity of brain. Conclusion: The result shows that glucose enhanced the activity while scopolamine slows down cognition activity of brain.

  5. Gender-specific effects of CGP 55845, GABAB receptor antagonist, on neuromuscular coordination, learning and memory formation in albino mouse following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia insult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Quratul Ane; Akbar, Atif; Ali, Muhammad; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-06-01

    GABAB receptor antagonists are experimentally proved as spatial memory enhancers in mouse models but their role has not been described following hypoxic-ischemic insult. 10-day-old albino mice were subjected to Murine model of hypoxia and ischemia. Following brain damage, mice were fed on normal rodent diet till they were 13 weeks old. At this time point, mice were divided into two groups. Group 1 received saline and group 2 received intraperitoneally CGP 55845 (1 mg/ml solvent/Kg body weight) for 12 days. Behavioural observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test along with brain infarct measurement in both CGP 55845 treated and untreated groups. It was observed that application of GABAB receptor antagonist improved the over all motor function in male and female albino mice but effects were more pronounced in males. In open field, CGP 55845-treated female mice showed poor performance. CGP 55845 had no significant effect on learning and memory formation during Morris water maze test and also on brain infract size in both genders following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy. Effects of CGP 55845 can be further explored in a dose and duration dependent manner to improve the learning and memory in albino mice following neonatal brain damage.

  6. Lactogenic Study of the Effect of Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae Seed on Serum Prolactin Level in Lactating Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Bako

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactogenic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa seed was evaluated on serum prolactin and milk production in lactating albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were grouped randomly at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n = 6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5 mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and serum prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa howed a significant increase (p<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (p<0.05 than the control group. This can be deduced that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases serum prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seed stimulate prolactin synthesis; release and milk production in albino rats and it is affordable and safe for consumption.

  7. Toxicity effect of sub-chronic oral administration of class bitters® - a polyherbal formula on serum electrolytes and hematological indices in male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate administration of readyto- use herbal formulations has become a major concern due to their potential health risk. The study investigated the effect of class bitters® (CB - a polyherbal formula prepared with Mondia whitei, Khaya senegalensis, Capparis erythrocarpus, Thoningia sanguinea and Xylopia aethiopica on serum electrolytes and hematological parameters in male Wistar albino rats. Two doses (500 and 1000 mg kg–1 of the polyherbal drugs were administered orally to male Wistar albino rats for a period of 9 weeks. The results showed that administration of 500 and 1000 mg kg–1 body weight of CB recorded a marked increase in the levels of sodium and chlorum when compared with control. However, there was a marked reduction in the levels of potassium and hydrogen carbonate. The results of the study also showed a significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the level of hematological parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBCs and platelets levels in the male Wistar albino rats, when compared with control. The marked decrease in Hb, PCV, RBCs and platelets concentrations observed in experimental rats in this study suggest that CB may have an adverse effect on erythropoiesis. These observations therefore showed that long-term administration of CB might cause renal disease and anemia.

  8. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  9. Garlic (Allium sativum Extract Supplementation Alters the Glycogen Deposition in Liver and Protein Metabolism in Gonads of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sashank Srivastava

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is an ayurvedic herb that has been extensively used as medication and as the taste enhancer of the food. The present investigation was undertaken to provide data on the efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum Linn. extract on glycogen deposition and protein metabolism in female albino rats that may further explore medicinal potential of garlic. The rats were divided into four groups A, B, C and D, keeping group A as a healthy control. The garlic extract was tried in three different doses, 1ml, 2ml and 4ml/ kg body weight as low, medium and high dose respectively and given orally for the period of 7, 14, 21 and 28 days daily to the rats of group B, C and D as stated above. The significant (P<0.01 & P<0.05 increase in glycogen and protein level was observed when rats were fed with low and medium dose but when rats were fed with high dose of garlic extract there was significant (P<0.01 decrease in glycogen level and a not significant decrease in protein level was observed.

  10. Effects of Junk Foods on Brain Neurotransmitters (Dopamine and Serotonin) and some Biochemical Parameters in Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutritional Habits have changed significantly and junk foods have become widely popular, in recent years. The present study aimed to shed the light on the effect of potato chips and / or ketchup consumption on some biochemical parameters. Sixty four male and female albino rats were used in the study. Animals were maintained on 0.25 g potato chips/ rat and / or 0.125 g ketchup / rat, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Potato chips showed the lowest body wt gain in the male rats after 4 weeks but, ketchup modulated this negative effect of the potato chips in the group of male animals fed on potato chips plus ketchup. Potato chips significantly decreased brain serotonin, liver glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) in both sexes; brain dopamine, serum total proteins, albumin, total globulins, α2- and β1-globulins in the females and serum thyroxine (T4) in the male rats. Ketchup apparently affected serum T4 and A / G ratio in both sexes, brain dopamine and liver GSH in the males in addition to brain serotonin, serum total globulins and ?1-globulin in the female rats. Potato chips plus ketchup significantly changed T4, dopamine, GSH, CAT, α1 and α2-globulins in both sexes; serotonin and β1-globulin in the male rats, total proteins and albumin in the females. It could be concluded that potato chips consumption might induce numerous adverse effects in various body organs

  11. Some toxic manifestations in male albino rats following an acute intraperitoneal injection of the mycotoxins ochratoxim A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the preparation and microbiology of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) that was extracted from Aspergillus niger and injected intraperitoneally to male albino rats at a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight (1/5 LD50). Its effect was followed after 6, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and 7 days. Body weight gain, organs body weights ratio and some hematological and biochemical parameters were investigated. The results revealed significant decrease in body weight gain of treated rats in addition to an alteration in the relative weights of some selected organs. The data revealed dramatic decrease in RBCs count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value and platelets number, where WBCs count was significantly increased. Moreover, significant increases of serum ALT, AST, ALP and total and direct bilirubin were observed indicating changes in liver function. Total protein and albumin were significantly decreased. Kidney function of treated rats, as determined by alterations in creatinine and blood urea levels, was affected. Also, profound decline in serum testosterone level was observed as performed by radioimmunoassay technique

  12. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  13. Does rosmarinic acid treatment have protective role against sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar Albino rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacanlı, M; Aydın, S; Taner, G; Göktaş, H G; Şahin, T; Başaran, A A; Başaran, N

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant-derived phenolic compounds are thought to be possible therapeutic agents against sepsis because of their antioxidant properties. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants, which has many biological activities including antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RA on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes and liver and kidney cells of Wistar albino rats by alkaline comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase protein. The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and kidney tissues and an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) level in plasma were also evaluated. It is found that DNA damage in the lymphocytes, livers, and kidneys of the RA-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the sepsis-induced rats. RA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the livers and kidneys of the sepsis-induced rats. Plasma TNF-α level was found to be decreased in the RA-treated rats. It seems that RA might have a role in the attenuation of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only by decreasing the DNA damage but also by increasing the antioxidant status and DNA repair capacity of the animals. PMID:26429925

  14. Embryonic/fetal mortality after exposure to tritiated water in pregnant Swiss albino mice during different gestation periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were given a priming injection(im) of tritiated water (HTO) at the dose rate of 2.3 and 5 μCi/ml body water (74, III or 185 K Bq/ml body water) at 0,6 and 14 day post conception (d.p.c) and were subsequently maintained on tritiated drinking water ad libitum during preimplantation (0-5 d.p.c), organogenetic (6-12 d.c.p.) or fetal (14-18 d.p.c) period, respectively. On day 18 of gestation the females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation to record the implant sites per dam and embryonic/fetal mortality. Significant reduction was observed in average implant sites per dam when the females were exposed to any of the three doses during the preimplantation period due to embryonic resorption before implantation. However, the same was found to be within the normal range when mothers were exposed during the organogenetic or fetal period. Prenatal mortality (embryonic resorption/fetal death) was higher after in utero exposure to different doses during preimplantation period as compared to organogenetic period, but mortality did not occur after exposure to any of the doses during the fetal period. Occurrence of mortality was found to be dose dependent. (author). 25 refs., 1 tab

  15. Garlic oil as a modulating agent for oxidative stress and neurotoxicity induced by sodium nitrite in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Hafez, Hani S; Zeghebar, Fawzia E

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the neurobiochemical alterations and oxidative stress induced by food preservative; sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as well as the role of the garlic oil in amelioration of the neurotoxicity in male albino rats. Serum and brain homogenates of the rats received NaNO2 (80 mg/kg body weight) for 3 months exhibited significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as well as the levels of phospholipids, total protein and the endogenous antioxidant system (glutathione; GSH and superoxide dismutase; SOD). In contrast, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased. On the other hand, the oral administration of garlic oil (5 ml/kg body weight) daily for 3 months significantly improved the neurobiochemical disorders and inhibited the oxidative stress induced by NaNO2 ingestion. So, this study reveals the neural toxic effects of NaNO2 by exerting oxidative stress and retrograde the endogenous antioxidant system. However, garlic oil has a promising role in attenuating the obtained hazard effects of sodium nitrite by its high antioxidant properties which may eventually be related with the preservation of SOD activity and primary mitochondrial role against nitrite-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

  16. Aphrodisiac potentials of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) stem in male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. T. Yakubu; M. A. Akanji; A. T. Oladiji

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the phytochemical constituents and the aphrodisiac potential of the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis (Rubiaceae) stem in male albino rats. Methods: The aqueous stem extract of the plant was screened for phytochemical constituents. Male rats were orally dosed with 18 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg body weight,respectively, of the extract at 24 h intervals and their sexual behavior parameters and serum testosterone concentration were evaluated at days 1, 3 and 5. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins while anthraquinones and flavonoids are weakly present. All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and significantly prolonged the ejaculatory latency (P < 0.05) and reduced mount and intromission latency (P < 0.05). There was also a significant increase in serum testosterone concentrations in all the groups in a manner suggestive of dose-dependence (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem increased the blood testosterone concentrations and this may be the mechanism responsible for its aphrodisiac effects and various masculine behaviors. It may be used to modify impaired sexual functions in animals, especially those arising from hypotestosteronemia.

  17. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCEROGENIC ACTION OF PLANTAIN BANANA ( MUSA SAPIENTUM VAR. PARADISIACA IN ASPIRIN PLUS PYLORUS LIGATED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R. Tandel* and B.K. Shah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the effect of unripe dried banana powder in experimentally induced gastric ulcers and effect on gastric acid secretion. To evaluate the antiulcerogenic effect of plantain banana of Gujarat as a part of evaluation of impact of biological variables on this activity. Materials and methods: Total of 24 albino rats of either sex weighing between 150-250 gm were randomly divided into 4 groups. Each group has 6 no. of rats. The first group received placebo (distilled water, the second, third & forth group received 0.5gm/kg, 1gm/kg and 2mg/kg of banana powder respectively. Banana powder was given as suspension at fixed time (3 times in a day for two days and animals were kept for fasting for another 48hrs. On 5th day, the animals were sacrificed after 7 hrs and stomach were removed for examination and gastric juice samples were collected to analyze volume and acidity.Results: Orally administered banana powder in the dose of 2gm/kg caused a statistically significant decrease in aspirin with pyloric ligation induced ulcers in rats without significantly decrease in secretary activity.Conclusion: It can be concluded from these results that vegetable plantain banana has antiulcerogenic and mucosal protective actions, but it has no antisecretory activity.

  18. Effect of Vitamins A, C, and E Supplementation in the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Bilbis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated the effects of vitamins A, C, and E in the management of metabolic syndrome traits condition in albino rats fed with high salt diet. The rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and then supplemented with these vitamins for additional 4 weeks in the presence of salt diet. Supplementation with vitamins significantly (P<0.01 decreased blood pressure of the rats as compared with the control. Supplementation also significantly (P<0.05 reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total antioxidant status as compared with untreated group. The percentage protection of the supplemented groups against atherogenesis indicated 55.50±3.75%. Percentage weight gain indicated significant positive correlation with triglyceride, insulin resistance, and malondialdehyde while total antioxidant status and nitric oxide showed significant negative correlation. Salt diet significantly (P<0.05 induced features of metabolic syndrome. The result, therefore, indicated strong relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome and underscores the role of these vitamins in the management of metabolic syndrome.

  19. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5-10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators.

  20. Hepatoprotective Activity of Aqueous Acetone Extract from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Hepatotoxicity in Albinos Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konaté

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally liver disease in albinos Wistar rats. Animals received by gavage 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of extract daily for a period of 28 days. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethanol for a period of 28 days in rats showed an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administration of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Cienfuegosia digitata presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of liver disease particularly hepatitis B in Burkina Faso.

  1. Antifungal efficacy of amphotericin B encapsulated fibrin microsphere for treating Cryptococcus neoformans infection in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azmat Ali; Jabeen, Mumtaz; Alanazi, Amer M; Khan, Abdul Arif

    2016-01-01

    A natural and biocompatible fibrin microsphere is one of the most promising dual delivery vehicle as compared to other traditionally designed delivery modalities. It represents sustained delivery of encapsulated drug and is easily biodegradable in the blood circulation. In the present study, we evaluated the systemic augmentation of the antifungal activity of amphotericin B loaded in fibrin microsphere (AMB-fibrin microsphere) against cryptococcosis in Swiss albino mice. Mice infected with Cryptococcus neoformans were treated with 0.5mg/kg AMB-fibrin microsphere that was given alternately for 7 days. The antifungal potential of AMB-fibrin microsphere was assessed on the basis of reduction of cfu count in the systemic circulation and various vital organs of infected mice. The formulation was found to be highly effective in reducing intracellular pathogen from the experimental animals where fibrin microsphere significantly controlled the release of amphotericin B for longer time duration. The AMB-fibrin microsphere chemotherapy was significantly more effective than free amphotericin B in reducing the fungal burden and showed better survival efficacy (p<0.05). The current study demonstrating the use of novel amphotericin B loaded fibrin microsphere not only imparts protection to the encapsulated amphotericin B but also offers an effective strategy to decrease the drug associated toxicities. PMID:27294976

  2. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  3. ANTI-FERTILITY ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACT OF SARCOSTEMMA SECAMONE (L BENNET ON MALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanga Krishna Kumari S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of whole plant extract of Sarcostemma secamone was observed in male albino rats. The relative weight of the testes and epididymis were decreased. The epididymal sperm count, motility and sperm abnormality were reduced significantly in treated rats. There was an increase in serum protein, albumin, globulin, urea, creatinine and the activity of liver marker enzymes (SGOT, SGPT and ALP levels of control and treated rats. The activities of serum antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST and GRD in plant extract treated rats were decreased. The results of the hormonal assay showed that increased serum levels of FSH and estrogen but decreased in the serum levels of LH and testosterone compared to control. The results of fertility test indicated that the treated adult male rats reduced the number of female’s impregnation. In addition, the number of implantations and the number of viable featuses were also decreased. The results of the present study concluded that, ethanol extract of whole plant of Sarcostemma secamone inhibited sperm concentration, motility and testosterone which might result in a male fertility.

  4. The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium on thefetuses of albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Shahin, Ramadan A. Ramadan, Samia M. Sakr and Sahar A. Sabry

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium (DS on the fetuses of albino mice from the morphological and skeletal points of view. Material and methods: Sixty adult pregnant female mice were used in the present study. They were allocated into 6 groups (10 mice each. The first two groups served as control and were injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with the solvent of the drug, and the 3rd and 5th groups were treated with 1.5 and 3mg/kg body weight of diclofenac sodium for 6 days ( gestation days 1-6 , respectively ; the 4th and 6th groups were treated with 1.5and 3mg/kg body weight of the drug for 8 days ( gestation days 7-14, respectively. Results: The morphological examination of the fetuses of treated groups showed conspicuous decrease in the average body weight and body length in all treated groups. The fetuses maternally treated with the drug showed noticeable external morphological malformations and their skeletons exhibited mild retardation in skeletal elements. In conclusion: The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac sodium had exerted marked morphological malformations and mild skeletal alterations in mice fetuses maternally treated during different periods of gestation.

  5. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  6. Dried Fruit Extract of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L) Protects Albino Rats from Adverse Effects of Whole Body gamma-Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Antioxidant effect of Sumac; Rhus coriaria L. against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in lung and liver tissues was investigated in albino rats. To achieve the ultimate goal of this study, 48 adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12 animals each. Group I: Control group. Group II: Irradiated with a single dose of 5Gy gamma-rays. Group III: Fed with sumac orally (300 mg/ kg body wt/ day) for 10 days. Group IV: Fed sumac (300 mg/ kg body wt) for 3 days pre-irradiation and 7 days after-radiation (5 Gy). The rats were sacrificed 1 and 7 days after a single exposure to ?-rays. The animals exposed to gamma radiation recorded significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total nitrate oxide (NO) levels in both lung and liver tissues. Also the results revealed, significant decrease in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), in lung and liver tissues. Moreover, a significant increase in plasma glucose accompanied with a significant decrease in insulin level was observed in irradiated rats. Administration of sumac for 10 days to rats prior and post gamma irradiation improved the tested parameters except glucose. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that sumac could increase the antioxidant defence mechanism in rat and there by protects the animals from radiation-induced organs toxicity but it may increase the blood sugar, therefore in diabetic patient be considered

  7. Protective role of ginkgo Biloba extract against gamma radiation and alcohol induced liver damage in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) is a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves that promotes vasodilatation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries and has antioxidant properties as a tree radical scavenger. This study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of EGb 761 against gamma radiation and/ or alcohol induced disorders in the liver of male albino rats. EGb 761 was given orally at a dose level of 100 mg/ kg body wt for 4 days, absolute alcohol was administered orally at a dose level of 1ml/ rat for 4 days and the dose of gamma radiation was 6.5 Gy. All animals were subjected to the following investigations: nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA). reduced glutathion (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the liver tissue. In irradiated and/ or alcoholic animal groups, there was a highly significant decrease in liver NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD. On the other hand, significant increase in MDA content was observed. Treatment with EGb 761 before irradiation and/or alcohol causes significant increase in NO and GSH content and in the activities of GSHPx and SOD and significant decrease in MDA content compared to the irradiated and/ or alcoholic groups. Based on these observations, one could conclude that pre-treatment of rats with EGb 761 could partly protect liver from gamma rays and/ or absolute alcohol injurious and this protection may be induced, at least partly, through antioxidant mechanisms

  8. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabassum Imrana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods : The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g. The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM test, open field test (OFT, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST. Result : Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days. Restraint stress-induced (a increased latency and (b decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion : O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities.

  9. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-01-01

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities. PMID:27188870

  10. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  11. Hepatoprotective Effect of Aqueous Acetone Extract of Sida alba L. (Malvaceae Against Alcohol Induced Liver Damage in albinos Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Konaté

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous acetone extract of Sida alba. (Malvaceae an herbal plant used in Burkina Faso to treat traditionally hepatics affections in albinos Wistar rats. Animals were treated by gavage during 28 days with different doses of aqueous acetone extracts of Sida alba. (75, 100, 150 mg/kg suspended in 35% ethanol. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethano l for 28 days results an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin in serum as compared with rats which received water (control water. However, administrations of 35% ethanol along with aqueous acetone extract decreased the activities of liver markers enzyme in serum comparatively to the control water group (p0.05 and p<0.05. This study revealed that Sida alba presents a hepatoprotective potential and this plant could be traditionally exploited in the treatment of affection hepatics.

  12. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lekha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO, extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract′s efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours.

  13. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raphael Chukwuma Ekeanyanwu; Obioma Uzoma Njoku

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods:Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results:The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions:The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe.

  14. Evaluation of Anti-fertility Potential of Aqueous Extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis Leaves in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra N.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Population explosion is a major problem it is raising tremendously; this may affect drastically the economic growth. So family planning has been promoted through several methods of contraception. A wide variety of synthetic contraceptive agents are available, but these cannot be used continuously due to their side effects. Thus the present study was to evaluate the effect of Bougainvillea spectabilis on fertility of male and female mice. Swiss Albino mice were orally administered with aqueous crude extract of the leaves of Bougainvillea spectabilis (800 mg/kg of body weight/day, for 30 days, and effect of crude extract on reproductive organs and fertility was investigated. The treatment Caused decrease in weight of testis, sperm count and the histological examination revealed a reduction in the size of seminiferous tubules along with the thickness of germinal epithelial cells, though some of the epithelial cells and interstitial cells of leydig showed hypertrophy. Moreover, the lumen of the tubules was found to be devoid of sperms. On the other hand, in treated females no histological changes could be observed. The only marked change, which could be visualized, was the slight disruption of estrous cycle having prolonged metaestrus phase, which has been increased by 145.28 %. The overall duration of estrous cycle had been extended by more than one day. The hormonal profile was also influenced by the Bougainvillea spectabilis extract. The testosterone and estrogen levels were significantly decreased.

  15. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  16. Chemopreventive Action of Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi Hydromethanolic Extract on DMBA- Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiki Vishnoi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. (Brahmi (Family: Scrophulariaceae, has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for centuries. In the present study, Cancer Chemopreventive property of B. monnieri was evaluated on 7,12-dimethyl benz(aanthracene (DMBA induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice (6-7 weeks old. A single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(aanthracene (104 µg/100 µl of acetone, followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in 100 µl acetone two times in a week and continued till the end of the experiment (After 16 weeks exhibited 100% tumor incidence. In contrast, mice topically treated on the shaven dorsal side with the Bacopa monnieri Hydromethanolic extract (BMH (dose 120 mg/kg body wt. & (dose 240mg/kg body wt. at one hour before each application of 1% Croton oil two times in a week., a significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, average number of tumors per tumor bearing mouse and papillomas per papilloma bearing mouse were observed. Thus results showed that BMH possesses a Chemopreventive activity and provide evidences for its traditional usage in clinical studies.

  17. Effect of Some Food Colorants (Synthetic and Natural products of Young Albino RatsI- Liver and Kidney Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G. E. Helal(1 Samir A.M.Zaahkouk

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Food colorants are used all over the world in great amount. However, their use in food is still controversial. It causes and will cause severe tension to the consumers as the sensitivity of people increases to general health. This work was carried out to study and compare between the possible toxic effect of some natural (tumeric, carmine and chlorophyll and synthetic (fast green, annatto and sunset-yellow, food colorants on liver and kidney function of young male albino rats. Such effect might explain hyperactivity of children that was claimed associated with consumption of food colorants. The study revealed that administration of both natural and synthetic food colorants (permitted dose significantly increases serum AST and serum urea. All colorants with the exception of sun-set yellow significantly increase serum total bilirubin. While, chlorophyll, fast-green and sun-set yellow were significantly increase serum ALT. Some of the colorants used have a retard destructive effect on some vital organ functions, which extends even after the recovery period. Therefore, large quantities and /or long periods of colorants administration should not be used as additive in man's diet or as a drink. Hence, these colorants should restrictly be used in nutritional therapy. And more caring must be done prevent our children to eat or drink these colorants with much amounts or for long period.

  18. Comparison of BALB/c and B6-albino mouse strain blastocysts as hosts for the injection of C57BL6/N-derived C2 embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantar, Tuija M; Wiler, Rhonda; Rairdan, Xin Y

    2016-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells from a C57BL/6N (B6N) background injected into B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2J/J (B6-albino) recipient blastocysts are commonly used for generating genetically modified mouse models. To understand the influence of the recipient blastocyst strain on germline transmission, BALB/cAnNTac and B6-albino germline transmission rates were compared using the C57BL6/N-derived C2 ES cell line. A total of 92 ES cell clones from 27 constructs were injected. We compared blastocyst yield, birth rate, chimera formation rate, and high-percentage (>50 %) male chimera formation rate. For germline transmission, we analyzed 24 clones from 19 constructs, which generated high-percentage male chimeras from both donor strains. B6-albino hosts resulted in higher mean blastocyst yields per donor than did BALB/c ones (3.6 vs. 2.5). However, BALB/c hosts resulted in a higher birth rate than B6-albino ones (36 vs. 27 %), a higher chimera formation rate (50 vs. 42 %), a higher high-percentage male chimera rate (10 vs. 8 %), and a higher germline transmission rate (65 vs. 49 %), respectively. Our data suggest that BALB/c is a suitable blastocyst host strain for C2 ES cells and has an advantage over the B6-albino strain for receiving the injection of C2 ES cells. PMID:26852382

  19. The ameliorative effect of grape seed extract(GSE) on sodium borate-inducing kidney injury of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borax (sod-borate) is a toxic compound that is implicated daily to environmental pollutant, so occupational exposure leading to adverse effects on functions of some organs causing their damage as nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and testicular atrophy . In particularly, kidney is the most organ that is affected by borax exposure due to continuous exposure with slow rate of excretion leading to accumulation in the renal tissue. Supplementation with high potent antioxidant grape seed extract may alleviate the worse damage effects induced in the kidney as a result of continual exposure of borax in our daily life. The current study aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract on renal injury of male albino rats intoxicated with sod-borate. Twenty eight male albino rats were classified to 4 groups(GI and II and III and IV).GI served as a control, group GII was a group intoxicated with sod-borate for 45 days, where as rats in GIII supplemented with GSE beside sod-borate for 45 days , GIV was a group supplemented with GSE only. Serum and kidney samples were collected for biochemical, histopathological and DNA examinations. Significant elevation in the levels of blood urea and creatinine in GII were observed when compared to control group(GI). Significant decline were prominent in biochemical kidney functions when intoxicated group supplemented with GSE(GIII) , where as non significant changes were observed between control group and group supplemented with GSE only (GIV). Significant increase in both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 was observed in group intoxicated with sod-borate(GII) when compared to control rats(GI). Oral supplementation with high potent antioxidant GSE (GIII) caused alleviation in the kidney injury leading to the reduction of both pro-inflammatory mediator cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. DNA% fragment migration showed that worse significant migration of DNA fragements were observed in toxicated group(GII) followed by increase in

  20. Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel on Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Induced Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Baniya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (CGO peel extract in rats. Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel extract was evaluated for protection against cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body wt., i.p. and doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body wt., i.p. induced cardiotoxicity in male albino rats. Biomarkers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and creatinine kinase (CK-MB along with heart weight index and antioxidant enzymes was considered to determine the cardioprotective property. Histopathological study was also carried out on heart of experimental animals. The CGO peel extract was found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannin as chemical constituents. Cyclophosphamide (CYP and doxorubicin (DOX treated groups exhibited significant increase in LDH, ALT, AST, ALP, TC, TG and CK-MB level and decrease in catalase (CAT, superoxide dimutase (SOD when compared to control group. Pretreatment with different doses of CGO significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to DOX and CYP alone treated groups. Moreover, treatment with CGO also improved CYP induced changes in histopathology of heart which may be due to its antioxidant property. The Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck exerted protective effect against CYP and DOX induced cardiotoxicity in rats, which may be due its lipid lowering and antioxidant properties. These findings might be helpful to understand the beneficial effects of CGO extract against myocardial injury although further study is needed to confirm its mechanism.

  1. Effects of photosensitizer (hematoporphyrin derivative-HPD) and light dose on vascular targets in the albino mouse ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.K.; Davis, K.; Straight, R.C.; Waner, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photodynamic damage to normal tissues, including skin, appears to occur by photooxidative damage to the normal microvasculature as the primary target sensitized by HPD bound to the vascular wall or endothelial cell. Initial damage to the microvasculature was measured by the increase in vascular permeability (VP) as measured by Evans Blue dye (EB) extravasation as a function of HPD and laser light (632 nm) dose. Albino, Swiss-Webster mice (female 122-25 g, 5 mice per group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with incremental doses of HPD (1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg). After 48 hours the left ear of each mouse was masked as a control and the right ear was irradiated at 632 nm using the Aurora-Lexel Argon-dye laser with an intensity of 50 mW/cm2 and light doses of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 J/cm2 directed to a 3-mm spot on the mouse ear. No EB leakage occurred in the absence of HPD at any light dose or in the absence of light at any HPC dose. Vascular permeability increased as a function of HPD dose up to 30 mg/kg. AT 50 mg/kg HPD, there was a decrease in VP. At each HPD dose above 10 mg/kg, the VP increased as a function of light dose up to 75 J/cm2. Further increase in light dose was without effect. The amount of HPD porphyrin recovered from irradiated ears decreased as a function of light dose. There appeared to be an irreversible photo destruction of the porphyrin exposed to light.

  2. Protective effects of Punica Granatum (L) and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Radiotherapy, which is a chief modality to treat cancer, faces a major drawback because it produces severe side effects developed due to damage to normal tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have indicated that some commonly used medicinal plants may be good sources of potent but non-toxic radioprotectors. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron beam radiation(EBR) induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were exposed to sub-lethal dose (6 Gy) of Electron Beam Radiation and then treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid for 15 consecutive days. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the liver homogenate of the sacrificed animals. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were prevented significantly by EPWF, EPS and EA administration. Also there was significant reduction in the levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the treated groups compared to irradiated control. The findings of our study indicate the protective efficacy of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant levels. (author)

  3. Biochemical histological and histochemical changes induced in pregnant albino rats as affected by SILYMARIN treatment and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silymarin is a mixture of flavonoids extracted from seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum), that has been used in the treatment of liver diseases. Flavonoids are a large group of polycyclic phenols of plant origin that are displaying estrogenic effects. Silybum marianum has been traditionally used in Egypt for its antifertility effect. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of silymarin administration and / or exposure to gamma radiation in pregnant rats. Silymarin at a dose level 75.6 mg/kg body weight was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 1st to the 20th day of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) as fractionated dose; 0.75 Gy on the 6th day and 0.75 Gy on 12th day of pregnancy. Experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition have demonstrated that silymarin intake throughout the whole gestational period induced biochemical, histopathological and histochemical disorders in irradiated mothers. The data obtained revealed that silymarin administration and/or gamma radiation exposure caused significant elevation in levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), the luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol in pregnant rats.Moreover, the histopathological results showed different distortions which varied from hyperemic blood vessels, fibroblasts in the ovary, degenerated uterine glands, erosion in the lining epithelia of the uterus and degenerated epithelial cells, necrosis in trophospongium, necrosis in the giant cells, massive blood in the labyrinth and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the placenta. In addition, the histochemical observations revealed various diminutions in each of the polysaccharides, total protein and DNA content. Conclusively, these findings proved that radiation exposure and/or silymarin intake could exert deleterious effect, therefore, it is recommended that radiation occupational workers especially females have to be careful toward

  4. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahuya Sengupta; Gauri Dutta Sharma; Biswajit Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. Methods: First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. Results: The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  5. Antimalarial potential of kolaviron, a biflavonoid fromGarcinia kola seeds, againstPlasmodium bergheiinfection in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adaramoye Oluwatosin; Akinpelu Tolulope; Kosoko Ayokulehin; Okorie Patricia; Kehinde Aderemi; Falade Catherine; Ademowo Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimalarial potential of kolaviron(KV), a biflavonoid fraction from Garcinia kolaseeds, againstPlasmodium berghei(P. berghei) infection inSwiss albino mice. Methods:The study consists of seven groups of ten mice each.GroupsⅠ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ were normal mice that received corn oil,KV1 and chloroquine(CQ), respectively.GroupsⅣ,Ⅴ,Ⅵ and Ⅶ were infected mice that received corn oil,CQ,KV1 andKV2, respectively.CQ,KV1 andKV2 were given at10-,100- and200-mg/kg daily, respectively for three consecutive days.Results:Administration ofKV1 andKV2 significantly(P<0.05) suppressedP. berghei-infection in the mice by85% and90%, respectively, whileCQ produced87% suppression relative to untreated infected group after the fifth day of treatment.Also,KV2 significantly(P<0.05) increased the mean survival time of the infected mice by175%.The biflavonoid prevented a drastic reduction inPCV from day 4 of treatment, indicating its efficacy in ameliorating anaemia.Significant(P<0.05) oxidative stress assessed by the elevation of serum and hepatic malondialdehydewere observed in untreatedP. berghei-infected mice.Specifically, serum and hepatic malondialdehyde levels increased by 93% and78%, respectively in the untreated infected mice.Furthermore, antioxidant indices, viz; superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione-s-transferase, gluathione peroxidase and reduced gluathione decreased significantly(P<0.05) in the tissues of untreatedP. berghei-infected mice. KV significantly(P<0.05) ameliorated theP. berghei-induced decrease in antioxidant status of the infected mice.Conclusions:This study shows that kolaviron, especially at200 mg/kg, has high antimalarial activities inP. berghei-infected mice, in addition to its known antioxidant properties.

  6. Protective role of Triphala, an Indian traditional herbal formulation, against the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Udhaya Lavinya Baskaran; Sherry Joseph Martin; Rasool Mahaboobkhan; Sabina Evan Prince

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and antioxidant properties of Triphala against bromobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity in female Wistar albino rats. METHODS:Animals were divided into ifve groups of six rats and treated as fol ows:Group I was a normal control and received no treatment, Group II received only bromobenzene (10 mmol/kg), Groups III and IV received bromobenzene and Triphala (250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively), Group V received Triphala alone (500 mg/kg), and Group VI received bromobenzene and silymarin (100 mg/kg). Antioxidant status and serum kidney functional markers were analyzed. RESULTS:Bromobenzene treatment resulted in signiifcant (P<0.05) decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase as wel as total reduced glutathione. There was a signiifcant (P<0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation in kidney tissue homogenates. There were signiifcant (P<0.05) reductions in the levels of serum total protein and albumin as wel as signiifcant (P<0.05) increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid. The oral administration of two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of Triphala in bromobenzene-treated rats normalized the tested parameters. The histopathological examinations of kidney sections of the experimental rats support the biochemical observations. CONCLUSION:Triphala treatment al eviated the nephrotoxic effects of bromobenzene by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and kidney functional markers.

  7. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  8. Effects of aspartame on hsp70, bcl-2 and bax expression in immune organs of Wistar albino rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartame, a “first generation sweetener”, is widely used in a variety of foods, beverages, and medicine. The FDA has determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value of aspartame to be 50 mg/kg·day, while the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set this value at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day. Safety issues have been raised about aspartame due to its metabolites, specifically toxicity from methanol and/or its systemic metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. The immune system is now recognized as a target organ for many xenobiotics, such as drugs and chemicals, which are able to trigger unwanted apoptosis or to alter the regulation of apoptosis. Our previous studies has shown that oral administration of aspartame [40 mg/(kg·day)] or its metabolites for 90 days increased oxidative stress in immune organs of Wistar albino rats. In this present study, we aimed to clarify whether aspartame consumption over a longer period (90-days) has any effect on the expression of hsp70, bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in immune organs. We observed that oral administration of aspartame for 90 days did not cause any apparent DNA fragmentation in immune organs of aspartame treated animals; however, there was a significant increase in hsp70 expression, apart from significant alteration in bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression level in the immune organs of aspartame treated animals compared to controls. Hence, the results indicated that hsp70 levels increased in response to oxidative injury induced by aspartame metabolites; however, these metabolites did not induce apoptosis in the immune organs. Furthermore, detailed analyses are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms involved in these changes.

  9. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  10. Estimation of the novel antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects of silymarin in Albino rats and mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Mahmoud; Amin; Mahmoud; Soliman; Arbid

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the other pharmacological actions of silymarin in Albino rats and mice such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects. Methods: Rats were injected intramuscularly with pyrogenic dose of brewer’s yeast for the antipyretic test of silymarin. Another group of rats injected with 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenan solution in saline at the subplanter area of the right hind paw for the anti-inflammatory test of silymarin. Another group of mice tested by hot plate method for determination of antinociceptive effect of silymarin. Hyperlipidemia was induced using high fat diet for 2 months to estimate the antihyperlipidemic activity of silymarin. Results: Silymarin showed a significant antipyretic effect of both doses(50 and 100 mg/kg) compared with control untreated group. Moreover, silymarin elucidated a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both doses reflected on the decrease of the rat paw edema every hour interval for 4 h after administration in comparison with control positive group. By the same taken, both doses of silymarine revealed a significant antinociceptive action in hot plate method at 30 and 60 min post administration. Besides, it lowered significantly the serum levels of prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta after 2 h of silymarin administration in carrageenan induced rat paw edema besides the significant decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and significantly elevated high density lipoprotein after 2 weeks of silymarin administration. Conclusions: These outcomes delivered a new vision into the possible pharmacological mechanisms by which silymarin advances antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antihyperlipidemic effects.

  11. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE. PMID:24266407

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract against paracetamol-induced liver damage in Albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingshuk Lahon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of reliable hepatoprotective drugs in modern medicine to prevent and treat drug-induced liver damage. Leaves of Sacred/Holy Basil, i.e. Green Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum, belonging to family Lamiaceae are used traditionally for their hepatoprotective effect. We wanted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum and observe whether synergistic hepatoprotection exists with silymarin. Materials and Methods: Albino rats (150-200 g were divided into five groups. Groups A and B were normal and experimental controls, respectively. Groups C, D and E received the alcoholic extract of Ocimum Sanctum leaves (OSE 200 mg/kg BW/day, silymarin 100 mg/kg BW/day and OSE 100 mg/kg BW/day + silymarin 50 mg/kg BW/day p.o., respectively, for 10 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced in Groups B, C, D and E on the eighth day with paracetamol 2 g/kg BW/day. The hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by performing an assay of the serum proteins, albumin globulin ratio, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases and liver histopathology. The assay results were presented as mean and standard error of mean (SEM for each group. The study group was compared with the control group by one-way ANOVA, followed by Bonferoni′s test. A P-value of <0.01 was considered significant. Results: In groups C, D and E, liver enzymes and albumin globulin ratio were significantly (P < 0.01 closer to normal than in group B. Reduction in sinusoidal congestion, cloudy swelling and fatty changes and regenerative areas of the liver were observed on histopathological examination in groups C, D and E, whereas group B showed only hepatic necrosis. Conclusion: The Ocimum sanctum alcoholic leaf extract shows significant hepatoprotective activity and synergism with silymarin.

  13. Efficacy of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in comparison with atorvastatin in treatment of hypercholesterolemia in albino rat liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisaa M. AL-Rawi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study deals with the effect of oat bran (Avena sativa L. in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia in comparison with a hypocholesterolemic drug, atorvastatin, on hypercholesterolemic liver in male albino rats. Material and Methods: For this purpose four groups of rats (each containing 6 rats were used. The first group was used as a control, the second was cholesterol-fed group with cholesterol (0.5% w/w for 6 weeks. The third group was oats-fed hypercholesterolemic rats on oat supplemented diet (20% w/w for 4 weeks and the forth group was atorvastatin-treated hypercholesterolemic rats orally at a dose of 0.18 mg/Kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Results: The biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum LDL-C and a significant decrease in HDL-C level. In addition the activity of AST was increased in cholesterol-fed rats. Meanwhile, the treatment with oat soluble fiber or atorvastatin drug improved the above mentioned parameters. The histopathological examination of liver sections of cholesterol-fed group showed accumulation of lipid. Hepatocytes showed ballooning degeneration and manifested clear necrotic signs. Inflammatory cellular infiltration was found around the blood vessels, mild fibrosis near the portal blood vessels. However, liver impairment was reduced markedly in the liver of oat soluble fiber fed rats rather than atorvastatin drug treated rats. Conclusion: The present study, however, confirms that the cereal grain oat may have potent beneficial health effects in reducing LDL cholesterol and should be included in the prudent diet of individuals with hyperlipidemia.

  14. Hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Fagonia indica Burm in carbon tetra chloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.M. Bagban; S.P. Roy; A.Chaudhary; S. K. Das; K.J. Gohil; K.K. Bhandari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of Fagonia indica Burm. on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Methods: Animals in Group 1 served as vehicle control, Group 2 served as hepatotoxin (CCl4 2ml/kg, s.c) treated group, Group 3 served as standard (Silymarin 50mg/kg, p.o.) treated group. Group4 and 5 served as methanolic extract of Fagonia indica (MEFI) in different doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg b.w., p.o).The degree of protection was determined by measuring levels of biochemical marker like SGOT, SGPT, ALP, Bilirubin (Total & Direct) and Cholesterol. The histopathological studies also show the hepatic protection of the test extracts. Results: The levels of the biochemical parameters such as SGPT, SGOT, ALP, Total bilirubin, Direct bilirubin and Cholesterol were significantly increased in CCl4 treated rats when compared with the normal group (P<0.05), but the MEFI (400 mg/kg, bw) treated rats showed maximum reduction of SGOT (114.83±1.51), SGPT (164.33±1.25), ALP (154.83±1.53), Total bilirubin (1.55±0.01), Direct bilirubin (0.65±0.009) and Cholesterol (193.00±1.06) in a significant manner. Histopathological studies also reveal the hepatoprotection property of MEFI in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: These results suggest that MEFI in different doses showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity and this might be due to the presence of flavonoids and tannins. Further research is sought to explore the exact mechanism of action and phytoconstituents responsible for the pharmacological response.

  15. Albino mutation rates in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle L.) as a bioassay of contamination history in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the sensitivity of a viviparous estuarine tree species, Rhizophora mangle, to historic sublethal mutagenic stress across a fine spatial scale by comparing the frequency of trees producing albino propagules in historically contaminated (n=4) and uncontaminated (n=11) forests in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Data from uncontaminated forests were used to provide estimates of background mutation rates. We also determined whether other fitness parameters were negatively correlated with mutagenic stress (e.g., degree of outcrossing and numbers of reproducing trees km-1). Contaminated sites in Tampa Bay had significantly higher frequencies of trees that were heterozygous for albinism per 1000 total reproducing trees (FHT) than uncontaminated forests (mean ?? SE: 11.4 ?? 4.3 vs 4.3 ?? 0.73, P 25 yrs of subsequent recruitment and tree replacement may have allowed an initial elevation in the FHT to decay. Patterns of FHT were not explained by distance from the bay mouth or the degree of urbanization. However, there was a significant positive relationship between tree size and FHT (r=0.83, P<0.018), which suggests that forests with older or larger trees provide a more lasting record of cumulative mutagenic stress. No other fitness parameters correlated with FHT. There was a difference in FHT between two latitudes, as determined by comparing Tampa Bay with literature values for Puerto Rico. The sensitivity of this bioassay for the effects of mutagens will facilitate future monitoring of contamination events and comparisons of bay-wide recovery in future decades. Development of a database of FHT values for a range of subtropical and tropical estuaries is underway that will provide a baseline against which to compare mutational consequences of global change. ?? 2005, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  16. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Emblica officinalis on Histopathology of Kidney and on Biochemical Parameters in Hyperlipidemic Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheemshetty S. Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been reported that hyperlipidemia plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Embilica officinalis also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry acts as antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant. Its active ingredients contains tannins, gallic acid and flavonoids. Aim & Objectives: It was aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis on histopathology of kidney and on biochemical parameters in hyperlipidemic albino Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Extraction of dried fruits of Emblica officinalis was done by Soxhlet apparatus 0 using 99% ethanol at 60 C for 24 hours and also phytochemical analysis was done. Group I served as normal control. Group II was fed with isocaloric diet. Group III was fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Group IV was fed with isocaloric diet for 21 days + Embilica officinalis for 21 days. Group V was fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 21 days+ Embilica officinalis for 21 days. The dose of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was taken as 100mg/kg body weight daily. Results: Percent body weight gain, kidney weight and nephro-somatic index significantly improved in hyperlipidemic rats treated with Emblica officinalis. There was a significant improvement in serum electrolyte and kidney markers. It was found that there were focal glomerular lesions with thickening of glomerulus in the kidneys of rats on hyperlipidemic diet and normal renal histology of rats on hyperlipidemic diet treated with Emblica officinalis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Emblica officinalis may be a good, natural therapeutic agent against hyperlipidemic diet induced oxidative damage and nephrotoxicity.

  17. Chloroquine causes similar electroretinogram modifications, neuronal phospholipidosis and marked impairment of synaptic vesicle transport in Albino and Pigmented Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retinal toxicity of chloroquine has been known for several years, but the mechanism(s) of toxicity remain controversial; some author support the idea that the binding of chloroquine to melanin pigments in the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) play a major toxic role by concentrating the drug in the eye. In our study, 12 albinos Sprague-Dawley (SD) and 12 pigmented Brown Norway (BN) rats were treated orally for 3 months with chloroquine to compare functional and pathological findings. On Flash electroretinograms (ERG) performed in scotopic conditions, similar and progressive (time-dependent) delayed onset and decreased amplitudes of oscillatory potentials (from Day 71) and b-waves (on Day 92) were identified in both BN and SD rats. In both strains, identical morphological changes consisted of neuronal phospholipidosis associated with UV auto-fluorescence without evidence of retinal degeneration and gliosis; the RPE did not show any morphological lesions or autofluorescence. IHC analyses demonstrated a decrease in GABA expression in the inner nuclear layer. In addition, a marked accumulation of synaptic vesicles coupled with a marked disruption of neurofilaments in the optic nerve fibers was identified. In conclusion, ERG observations were very similar to those described in humans. Comparable ERG modifications, histopathology and immunohistochemistry findings were observed in the retina of both rat strains suggesting that melanin pigment is unlikely involved. chloroquine-induced impairment of synaptic vesicle transport, likely related to disruption of neurofilaments was identified and non-previously reported. This new mechanism of toxicity may also be responsible for the burry vision described in humans chronically treated with chloroquine

  18. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3

  19. Effect ofEmilia sonchifolia (Linn.)DC on alcohol- induced oxidative stress in pancreas of male albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dominic Sophia; Murugesan Gomathy; Thomas Shebin; Paramasivam Ragavendran; Chinthamony Arulraj

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the efficacy ofn-hexane extract ofEmilia sonchifolia (E. sonchifobia) against ethanol induced pancreatic dysfunction in the young Wistar albino rats.Methods:The rats were divided into four groups. Control rats in groupⅠreceived distilled water orally, groupⅡreceived oral administration of20% (w/v) ethanol dissolved in drinking water, groupⅢreceived oral administration of20% (w/v) ethanol in distilled water+n-hexane extract ofE. sonchifolia (250mg/kg body weight), and groupⅣ received oral administration ofn-hexane extract of E. sonchifolia (250 mg/kg body weight) alone. Liver marker enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, non-enzymatic antioxidants glutathione and vitaminC were measured and compared.Results: Administration of20% ethanol for 16 weeks significantly increased the liver marker enzymesAST,ALT(P<0.05), reduced the pancreatic enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, lipid peroxidation, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and vitaminC(P<0.05). Histopathological examination showed that the ethanol provoked the oxidative stress which was demonstrated as pancreatic necrosis and oedema. Simultaneous administration ofn-hexane extract ofE. sonchifolia (250 mg/kg body weight) protected the pancreas against the damage induced by ethanol which was confirmed by the histopathological studies and the normalization of biochemical parameters.Conclusions:Thusn-hexane extract ofE. sonchifolia shows a promise in therapeutic use in alcohol induced oxidative stress.

  20. The effect of amlodipine on blood glucose level and its interaction with oral hypoglycemic drugs in albino rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Prajapat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amlodipine used as many cardiac conditions esp in hypertension. Diabetes affects cardiovascular system adversely. So this study was done to see effect of amlodipine on blood glucose level and its interaction with commonly used oral hypoglycemic agents in diabetic & non diabetic albino rabbits. Methods: Rabbits were divided into nine groups of 6 rabbits in each group. I and II group were non-diabetic given normal saline and amlodipine respectively. Group III to IX were made diabetic by using alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg i.p. & given normal saline, glimepiride, metformin, pioglitazone, amlodipine + glimepiride, amlodipine + metformin and amlodipine + pioglitazone respectively. All drugs were given orally once daily for 7 day except group VII, VIII and IX in which glimepiride, metformin and pioglitazone were added on 7th day. After GTT blood glucose level were measured at 0, 1, 2 and 6 hours on 7th day in all groups by using spectrophotometer. Results: After 7 days of treatment the amlodipine produced significant hyperglycemia in normal rabbits. Amlodipine on combination, causes significant decreased in hypoglycemic effect of glimepiride, significant increased the hypoglycemic effect of metformin, while no significant changes in hypoglycemic effects of pioglitazone in diabetic rabbits. Conclusion: The present study shows that amlodipine causes hyperglycemia in normal rabbits. Amlodipine significantly altered hypoglycemic effect of glimepiride and metformin as compared to control group. If these finding are true to human beings then amlodipine should be use cautiously in diabetic patient on oral hypoglycemic drugs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 768-771

  1. Protective Effect of Virgin Olive Oil (Olea europea L. Against Oxidative Damage Induced by Mercuric Chloride in Rat Albinos Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Necib

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is beneficial effects are not only related to its high content of oleic acid, but also to the antioxidant potential of its polyphenols. In this study, we assess the effects of virgin olive oil on mercuric chloride induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: virgin olive oil (2ml/ kg b.w; by gavage, mercuric chloride (0.5 mg/kg body weight i.p and combination of virgin olive oil and HgCl2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH contents were determined after 2 weeks of experimental period. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose level, APL and transaminases activities and decreased in total protein and albumin levels. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of virgin olive oil resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in total protein, albumin and liver GSH levels. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and glutathione –S-transferase (GST were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by virgin olive oil supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of virgin olive oil. The results clearly demonstrate that virgin olive oil treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a

  2. The disposition and metabolism of 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane in male Wistar albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to investigate 1,3,5-[U-14C]trioxane (TOX) distribution, excretion and metabolism. The experiments were performed on male Wistar albino rats after a single administration of TOX at doses of 40 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. The exhaled air proved to be the main route of 14C elimination, mainly as 14CO2. During the first 12 h following the administration of 40 mg/kg of TOX the exhalation of 14CO2 was monophasic, with a half-life of 3.5 h. After the administration of 400 mg/kg, TOX was eliminated mainly as 14CO2 with the exhaled air (77%) and unchanged TOX (8%). About 3% of 14C was excreted in the urine as unchanged 1,3,5-trioxane. With regards to TOX elimination from blood plasma for the lower dose, a biphasic process was observed, with half-lives of 4.5 and 72 h. The amount of 14C bound by the erythrocytes was minute compared with the amount in blood plasma. When the higher dose of TOX was administered the efficiency of 14C binding to the erythrocytes was found to be 10 times higher than the respective value for blood plasma. Among the examined tissues the highest concentration of TOX-derived radioactivity was detected in the liver while the lowest was in fat tissue and brain. A subsequent decay of radioactivity occurred in the tissues. The results of the present study indicate that TOX belongs to the group of compounds, which are rapidly eliminated from the organism; hence TOX should not be expected to accumulate within the tissues. The data obtained confirm the assumed pattern of metabolic transformation, according to which 1,3,5-trioxane undergoes enzymatic transformation to formaldehyde, with carbon dioxide and water being the final products. (orig.)

  3. EFFECT OF AN ISOLATED COMPPOUND (AS-1 FROM THE LEAVES OF Amaranthus spinosus L. ON ASPIRIN INDUCED GASTRIC ULCER IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEBIPRASAD GHOSH

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Effect of AS-1, a compound isolated from the leaves of Amaranthus spinosus L., was studied on aspirin induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Method: Gastric ulcer was produced in rats by aspirin and effect of AS-1 was studied. Result: Result showed that the compound could decrease ulcer index in rats induced by aspirin. The compound produced gastric anti secretory effect by decreasing gastric volume and acidity. It further increased gastric mucin which showed gastric cytoprotective effect. Results were comparable to that of ranitidine, a standard anti ulcer drug. Conclusion: AS-1 thus provides a scientific rationale for the use as anti gastric ulcer drug.

  4. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-tr...

  5. Histopathological And Histochemical Studies On The Effect Of Taurine In Preventing Carbon Tetrachloride ­Induced Hepatic InjuryIn The Albino Rat

    OpenAIRE

    Nabila, S. Hassan, Naglaa, F. Abbas And Hafiza, A. Sharaf

    2003-01-01

    Taurine is an amino acid­ like compound, it is found mostly in meat and fish.This study was designed to evaluate the effects of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) on liver Histopathological & Histochemical changes and the protective role of taurine (2amino-ethanosulfonic acid ) was studied . Fourty two albino rats were divided into seven groups : control, taurine alone (200mg/kg), CCL4 alone, CCL4 plus 50mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 100mg/kg of taurine, CCL4 plus 200mg/kg of taurine (taurine was inje...

  6. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    I G Bako; A M Mabrouk; S.M. Abubakar; Mohammed, A

    2013-01-01

    Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6). The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline), metoclopramide (5mg/kg) and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg) respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. ...

  7. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg;: a bi-herbal formula in male Wistar albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu; Jane A. Emerue

    2014-01-01

    The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF) - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05) increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered ...

  8. Salvia aegyptiaca as a Potential Herb for Ameliorating the Acute Toxicity Induced by Fenvalerate in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After fen valerate and/or Salvia aegyptiaca administration to male albino rats, fenvalerate caused a reduction in liver enzymes activity in liver homogenate with a percent change recording -24.1, -21.94 and-30.46 %, after 7 days, for ALT, AST and ALP, respectively .. Moreover, it increased the total protein and albumin at the same period. On day 7, fenvalerate increased the levels of serum ALT, AST and ALP by 351. 24, 164.60 and 119.78%, respectively. On the contrary, fenvalerate reduced the serum levels of total protein and albumin. Significant increase was observed in both creatinine (58.62%) and blood urea (47.41 %) after 7 days, whereas, serum T3 and T4 recorded a percentage change of -3.0.18 and -51.45%, respectively. An increase in GABA content in 7 brain areas was noticed after daily oral administration of fenvalerate, showing that GABA content in 'the cortex was the most affected recording, 191.43% change from control on the 7th day. Daily oral administration of 2 g/kg body weight of Salvia aegyptiaca extract alone or after fenvalerate caused a gradual decrease in ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity as well as in total protein and albumin content in both liver homogenate and serum, on the 7th day. Salvia extract decreased serum creatinine and blood urea throughout the experimental period. No statistically significant changes in T3 and T4 levels were observed in animals that received salvia extract alone. On the other hand, salvia improved T3 and T4 levels after it was delivered post fenvalerate administration, bringing the hormonal levels near to that of control. Moreover, salvia extract caused a significant decrease in GABA content throughout the experimental period. However, animals that received combined treatment (fenvalerate + salvia) showed that salvia reduced the elevation that occurred in GABA content as a result of fenvalerate administration in all brain areas under investigation. From the current investigation, it could be recommended that, the

  9. Protective effects of rosmarinic acid on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the liver of Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Gul Goktas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is an imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory responses. Sepsis induced multiple organ failure that is associated with mortality is characterized by liver, renal, cardiovascular and pulmonary dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant polyphenols may act as antioxidants by different mechanisms such as free radical scavenging, metal chelation and protein binding. Data indicates possible beneficial effects of plant derived phenolic compounds against sepsis. Rosmarinic acid (RA (α-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants such as Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Origanum vulgare (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Mentha spicata (spearmint, Perilla frutescens (perilla, Ocimum basilicum (sweet basil and several other medicinal plants. It has been shown that RA has many biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anticancer and actimicrobial and is widely used in cosmetic and food industry. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of RA against the oxidative DNA damage induced by sepsis in Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups; sham, sepsis induced, RA-treated, RA treated and sepsis induced groups. Wistar rats were subjected to sepsis by cecal ligation puncture. The liver tissues were carefully dissected from their attachments and totally excised. The concentrations of the hepatic tissue cells were adjusted to approximately 2 x 106 cells/ml. Standard and formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg modified comet assay described by Singh et al were used. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of tail length, tail intensity and tail moment between the sham group and the RA-treated groups (p>0.05. The DNA damage was found significantly higher in the sepsis-induced group compared to the sham group (p0.05, and the DNA damage

  10. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  11. Effect of Monthly Injectable Contraceptive (Mesigyna on the Uterus of Adult Female Albino Rat: Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer M. Hassan, Magda M. Naim, Somaya H. Mahmoud, Fouad M. Badr

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two adult female albino rats were randomized into 2 main groups (control and experimental. The control group (n=8 received IM injection of 0.3 ml of the drug vehicle (castor oil & benzyl benzoate once every 5 days for 6 times. 50% of rats of this group were scarificed after 24 hours of the last injection while the other 50% were left for 15 days. Experimental group was divided into 2; experimental group 1; E1 (n=12 received IM injection of 1.5 mg/kg BW of the drug (Mesigyna, once every 5 days for 6 times, and were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injection. Experimental group 2; E2 (n=12 were injected as in group E1 then left for 15 days. Uterine tissue was used for various techniques; histological (H&E & Masson's trichrome and immunohistochemical (staining of progesterone receptors, using Labeled-Streptavidin method. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were done to assess the degree of uterine affection. Quantitative measurements (optical density, color area percentage, line distance & cells count were performed using the image analyzer. Mesigyna injection showed increased endometrial folding (91.6% of the animals with decreased endometrial thickness. Luminal epithelium showed proliferation with pseudostratification of its nuclei (75% of animals, necrotic changes (31.3% of animals, hyperplasia (epithelial tufting; in 25% of animals and desquamation (8.3%of animals. Increased gland size and stromal hypercellularity were also observed. Polymorphonuclear cellular infiltration in both endometrium and myometrium, Vascular congestion and increased myometrial thickness were respectively seen in 83.33%, 63.5 %, 83.5% of E1 group animals. Mesigyna also caused reduction in the amount of collagen fibers. Immunostaining revealed decreased number and optical density of progesterone receptors in nuclei of surface epithelium, glandular epithelium and stromal cells while they were increased in nuclei of smooth muscle fibers. Image analysis

  12. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  13. MORPHOLOGY OF THE SPLEEN IN ADULT ALBINO RATS AFTER WHOLE-BODY EXPOSURE TO LOW-LEVEL OF TOLUENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N. Voloshin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spleen is a secondary lymphoid organ that is highly sensitive to different chemicals. Toluene is an aromatic hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent and can be considered as a potential immunotoxin. Aims and Objects: We aimed to investigate the organometry and histology of spleen from rats exposed to toluene. Materials and Methods: The toxicity of toluene was evaluated in male albino rats (6/group via whole-body exposure. The animals were exposed to target concentrations of 0 (air control and 133 parts per million (ppm of toluene in air for 5 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 2 month. The animals were weighted and decapitated at different time points (one, seven, sixteen, thirty one and sixty one day post-exposure. The weight, length, width and thickness of the spleen were measured. It was studied absolute and relative weight of the spleen. Histological examination of the spleen was made by light microscope. Results: Statistically significant difference between the mean of body weight from the control and experimental animals was observed seven days after last exposure to toluene. Thus, the body weight of animals exposed to toluene was 254.17 g, that was 7.18% (p = 0.048 below control data. The histological findings showed increased area of the white pulp of spleen from rats exposed to toluene had increases compared to that from the control. The numbers of siderophages were higher in the spleen from rats exposed to toluene. The relative area of germinal centre in the structure of the splenic lymph follicles of rats exposed to toluene increased. We found that in the first and second experimental groups of animals the indication was at the level 10.86% and 10.26% respectively. These are 24.11% (p = 0.002 and 26.04% (p <0.001 above control data, respectively. Inhalation exposures to toluene vapor at 133 ppm produces hyperplasia of lymphoid tissue of the rat spleen. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that whole-body exposures to low

  14. Antiplasmodial activity of certain medicinal plants against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium berghei infected white albino BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C; Begam, M; Kumar, Dharmendra; Baruah, Indra; Gogoi, H K; Srivastava, R B; Veer, Vijay

    2014-06-01

    In the present study of antimalarial efficacy, aqueous extracts of leaves and unripe fruits of Psidium guajava, leaves of Ocimum sanctum and leaves of Murraya koenigii are evaluated against Plasmodium berghei (chloroquine resistant NK65 strain) infected white albino BALB/c mice. A 7 days oral administration was adopted with different dosage viz., 350 mg, 750 mg and 1,000 mg/kg body weight as treatment schedule along with parasite (Group I) and drug control with Chloroquine, 50 mg/kg body weight (Group II). All the parts were extracted based on the decoction method, which is commonly seen among the villagers/tribes as their usual method of preparation of decoction for most of the ailments. The antimalarial activities were evaluated from the giemsa stained blood smears collected from different treated groups of mice used in this experiment. The antiplasmodial effect that is percent parasitaemia and percent suppression (values in parenthesis) showed by the treated groups of mice at 350 mg/kg b. wt. by the aqueous extracts of P. guajava leaves (Group III) was 19.8 ± 1.22 (73.7 %), P. guajava unripe fruits (Group IV) was 52.7 ± 2.19 (30.0 %), leaves of O. sanctum (Group V) was 64.0 ± 0.73 (15.1 %) and leaves of M. koenigii (Group VI) was 28.9 ± 0.81 (61.6 %) whereas at 750 mg/kg b. wt., it all showed 10.3 ± 0.7 (80.2 %), 26.3 ± 0.52 (65.1 %), 42.0 ± 0.47 (44.2 %) and 14.9 ± 0.46 (71.5 %) whereas at 1,000 mg/kg b. wt. dose, it all showed 9.2 ± 0.39 (85.8 %), 25.6 ± 0.40 (62.0 %), 41.8 ± 0.29 (35.5 %) and 14.0 ± 0.42 (76.9 %) respectively. PMID:24808642

  15. Effect of Terminalia Chebula (Haritaki on Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase in Paracetemol induced liver damage in Wister Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Yeasmin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Liver plays a major role in detoxification and excretion of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Any injury may lead to severe liver damage and impairment of liver function. Harbal plants such as Terminalia chebula (Haritaki may have free radical scavenging activity thereby can be used for the prevention and treatment of liver damage. Objective: To observe the effect of Terminalia chebula on paracetamol induced changes of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in Wister albino rats. Methods: This experimental study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from January to December’ 2013. Total 44 rats with age 90 to 120 days, weighing between 150 to 200 gm were selected. After acclimatization for 14 days, they were divided into base line control (BC, n=11, paracetamol treated control (PC, n=11,Terminalia chebula pretreated and paracetamol treated (TCP-PCT n=11 and paracetamol pretreated and Terminalia chebula treated group (PCP-TCT, n=11. All groups received basal diet for 21 consecutive days. In addition to basal diet, rats of BC received propylene glycol (2ml/kg body weight, orally and PC received single dose of paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Rats of TCP-PCT received Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for 21 consecutive days and paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on 21st day. Again, rats of PCP-TCT received paracetamol suspension (750mg/kg body weight, orally on the 1st day and Terminalia chebula extract (200 mg/kg body weight orally for 21 consecutive days. All rats were sacrificed on 22nd day and then blood samples were collected. For assessment of liver function serum AST and ALT levels were estimated by using standard laboratory kits. The statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni test as applicable. Results: The mean serum AST and ALT levels were

  16. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Gauri D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO, nitric oxide (NO release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p. also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous

  17. Protective Effect Of Avocado Oil Against Biochemical And Histological Changes In Whole Body Gamma Irradiation In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avocado oil, extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic, linolenic, oleic acids and the monounsaturated fatty acid. It also contains B-sitosterol, B-carotene, lecithin, minerals and vitamins A, C, D and E. Avocado oil lowers the blood levels of serum lipids and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. Male albino rats were divided into 5 groups. 1- Control group: rats not subjected to any treatment, 2- Avocado treated group: rats received avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) via intraperitoneal injection during 21 days, 3- Irradiated group: rats were whole body gamma irradiated with 7 Gy, 4- Avocado + irradiated group: rats received avocado oil for 21 days then exposed to whole body gamma irradiation with 7 Gy and 5- Radiation + avocado group: rats were exposed to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then received avocado oil for 21 days. Avocado oil (0.1 ml/kg/day) was given to rats, receiving a standard diet, for 21 days before exposure to 7 Gy whole body gamma irradiation then the treatment was continued for 10 days after irradiation. Several investigations were carried out such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), lipid profile and blood sugar. High significant increase in MDA was observed and treatment with avocado before irradiation caused significant increase in GSH, CAT and SOD and significant decrease in MDA as compared to the irradiated groups. The results also showed that treatment with avocado oil significantly diminished the radiation-induced alterations observed in the levels of lipid profile and glucose. The results demonstrated that whole body gamma irradiated rats showed significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose. By studying the lipid profile, significant increases in cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-C levels were recorded while significant decrease was

  18. Synthesis and study of cholosubstituted 4-aroyl pyrazolines and isoxazolines and their effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRITHVISIGH R. RAJPUT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bhoyar AD, Vankhade GN, Rajput PR. 2011. Synthesis and study of cholosubstituted 4-aroyl pyrazolines and isoxazolines and their effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 118-123. Condensation of 2-substitutied 3,5-dichloroacetophenones (2a-b obtained from the condensation of 2-hydroxy 3,5-dichloro-acetophenone (1 and benzoyl chloride were dissolved in NaOH, on treatment under Baker-Venkatraman transformation in presence of KOH with pyridine gives 1-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-3-substituted-1,3-propanediones (3a-b. Then converted into 3-aroyl-6,8-dichloroflavanones (4a-d by using different aromatic aldehyde in ethanol containing little piperidine. The condensation of (4a-d and phenylhydrazinehydrochloride, piperidine in DMF gives 3-(2-hydroxy3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-substitution-1-phenyl-2pyrazolines (5a-d and condensation of (4a-d and hydroxylamine-hydrochloride gives 3-(2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorophenyl-4-aroyl-5-substituted isoxazolines (6a-d. The above compounds are screened for their activities and have been found to exhibit significant effects on inorganic ions in blood serum in albino rats.

  19. Further antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous extract of cym-bopogon citratus stapf (lemon grass) against plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DV Dapper; IMSiminialayi; OO Ebong

    2008-01-01

    Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf)is a popular alternative to western medicines for a number of condi-tions,including fevers,muscle soreness and superficial infections in Nigeria.In addition to its already reported suppressive effects against P.berghei infection,this study sought to determine its repository and blood schizon-ticidal activities in established P.berghei infection using Swiss albino mice as models.Mice weighing on aver-age,between 15 and 25g were given 103mg/kg,155mg/kg and 310mg/kg/day of the crude aqueous extract of cymbopogon citratus stapf,in the 4-day test,24-hour Rane test and 72-hour Rane test.The effects of these do-ses of the extract were then compared with chloroquine (5mg/kg/day)and sulphadoxine /pyrimethamine (3mg/kg/day).We report an average percentage suppressive repository activity of 65.8% for the extract at a dose of 310mg/kg and a blood schizonticidal activity that increased from 68.33% in the 24-hour Rane test to 92% in the 72-hour Rane test for the same dose of extract.The crude aqueous extract of C.citratus stapf thus has significant repository and blood schizonticidal activities against established P.berghei infection in Swiss al-bino mice compare to that of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine /pyrimethamine respectively.

  20. Experimental evaluation of prophylactic and curative effect of a herbal drug Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. in drug induced ulcers in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishira Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptic Ulcers are the most common condition experienced by most of the people due to urbanized lifestyle. Hemidesmus indicus R.Br. is a herbal drug mentioned for its treatment in the ancient Indian traditional medicine. To compare the Prophylactic and Curative effects of aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of Hemidesmus indicus in Drug induced ulcers. Aqueous and Alcoholic extracts of the drug were studied for their ulcer healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. Ninety Wistar albino rats were divided into nine groups with one control, four prophylactic and four curative groups. Ulcers were induced with Indomethacin in a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight twice in a gap of 15 hours. Aqueous extract was given in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight and alcohol in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. It was found that both have potential ulcer healing activity with alcoholic extract marginally better than aqueous extract. It can thus be concluded that Hemidesmus indicus R. Br is a effective drug in peptic ulcers. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 243-247

  1. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro-duodenal ulceration in albino rat model: A possible involvement of antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Das

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Gastro duodenal ulcer is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Several Indian medicinal plants have been traditionally and extensively used to prevent different diseases. In the present research studies, Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos (AM, family: Rutaceae which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as a herbal drug and its antioxidative role in aspirin- induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Patients and Methods: Mucosal thickness (MT, ulcer index (UI, different biochemical parameters, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxidation (LPO were measured in all the groups, to study the possible involvement of antioxidants with gastroduodenal protection. Results: A significant decrease in MT, SOD and CAT activities and GSH level and a significant increase in UI, AST, ALT, and ALP activities and LPO level were observed in aspirin treated stomach and duodenum of albino rats. Conclusions: Pretreatment with AM fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro-duodenal protective and anti- ulcerogenic properties of AM through its antioxidant mechanism.

  2. Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on The Toxicity and Distribution of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride in Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the possibility of whether the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) has a protective and therapeutic effect on the toxicity and distribution of 14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (cerebellum, striatum, cerebral cortex) of adult male albino rats for determination of distribution of 14C-CCl4 and monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5- HT)) and also estimation of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of 14C-CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of counted 14C in all tested brain areas all over the experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 1'4C-CCl4 injection resulted in a significant reduction (P14C in tested areas. The maximum reduction was observed in cerebral cortex on 1st day (-40.91%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4 . The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period. This may be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. Data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4 .

  3. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAUHUNIA PURPUREA LINN. PLANT IN STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Brahmachari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work was undertaken to study the comparative phytochemical profiles and hypoglycemic effects of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Barks (BPBE and leaves ethanolic extracts (BPLE in albino wistar rats to validate their ethno medical use in hyperglycemia as well as to explore the better option. Phytochemicals in ethanolic extracts were analyzed by standard natural product chemistry methods. Diabetes was developed in rats by single intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotocin @ 60mg/ Kg bw. Diabetic albino wister rats (n=3 of either sex (150-200gm bw were orally fed with the extracts once daily for 4 weeks. Glibenclamide @ 0.5mg/Kg bw was used as a positive control for comparison. Fasting blood glucose level at 0, 14th and 28th day and hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin on 28th day of experiment were analyzed. Our results show that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, tannins and phenolics. Rats treated with plant extracts show better glucose modulation, decreased hemoglobin glycosylation and improved hemoglobin concentration as compared to diabetic control. The hypoglycemic effect of only BPBE at 420 mgkg-1 on 14th and 28th day is comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (P>0.01. The bark extract has been observed to be more potent hypoglycemic agent than leave extract.

  4. Studies on the hypolipidemic effects of Coconut oil when blended with Tiger nut oil and fed to albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Anany, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is a predominant risk factor for atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular diseases (CVD. The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend a reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intake as a means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and CVD. The main objective of the current investigation was to evaluate the effects of feeding blended oils consisting of coconut oil (CNO with different proportions of Tiger nut oil (TNO on serum lipid levels in Albino rats. GLC analysis was performed to illustrate the fatty acid composition of the blended oils. Blended oils were obtained by mixing tiger nut oil with coconut oil at the volume ratios of 100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 25:75, 10:90 and 0:100. Fifty-six male albino rats were randomly divided into 7 groups of 8 rats each according to the oil type. The blended oils were fed to rats for a period of up to 10 weeks. Total cholesterol (T-Ch, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-Ch, and triglycerides (TG, were determined. The atherogenic Index (AI was calculated. The results showed that non-significant changes in all nutritional parameters were observed between the control group and the rats fed with the tested oils. The results also indicate that coconut oil had 86% saturated fatty acids. On TNO contains 66% oleic acid. Therefore, blending coconut oil with tiger nut oil can reduce the proportions of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in CNO. The rats that were fed blended oils showed significantly reduced levels of serum cholesterol as compared to those fed CNO. The HDL levels were marginally enhanced in the rats that were fed blended oils. The total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were controlled when TNO/CNO proportions varied between 25/75 and 70/30. This was reflected in the calculation of the atherogenic index. Similar changes were observed with serum triglyceride levels.

    La hiperlipidemia

  5. Whole number, distribution and co-expression of brn3 transcription factors in retinal ganglion cells of adult albino and pigmented rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M Nadal-Nicolás

    Full Text Available The three members of the Pou4f family of transcription factors: Pou4f1, Pou4f2, Pou4f3 (Brn3a, Brn3b and Brn3c, respectively play, during development, essential roles in the differentiation and survival of sensory neurons. The purpose of this work is to study the expression of the three Brn3 factors in the albino and pigmented adult rat. Animals were divided into these groups: i untouched; ii fluorogold (FG tracing from both superior colliculli; iii FG-tracing from one superior colliculus; iv intraorbital optic nerve transection or crush. All retinas were dissected as flat-mounts and subjected to single, double or triple immunohistofluorescence The total number of FG-traced, Brn3a, Brn3b, Brn3c or Brn3 expressing RGCs was automatically quantified and their spatial distribution assessed using specific routines. Brn3 factors were studied in the general RGC population, and in the intrinsically photosensitive (ip-RGCs and ipsilateral RGC sub-populations. Our results show that: i 70% of RGCs co- express two or three Brn3s and the remaining 30% express only Brn3a (26% or Brn3b; ii the most abundant Brn3 member is Brn3a followed by Brn3b and finally Brn3c; iii Brn3 a-, b- or c- expressing RGCs are similarly distributed in the retina; iv The vast majority of ip-RGCs do not express Brn3; v The main difference between both rat strains was found in the population of ipsilateral-RGCs, which accounts for 4.2% and 2.5% of the total RGC population in the pigmented and albino strain, respectively. However, more ipsilateral-RGCs express Brn3 factors in the albino than in the pigmented rat; vi RGCs that express only Brn3b and RGCs that co-express the three Brn3 members have the biggest nuclei; vii After axonal injury the level of Brn3a expression in the surviving RGCs decreases compared to control retinas. Finally, this work strengthens the validity of Brn3a as a marker to identify and quantify rat RGCs.

  6. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  7. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jayaprakash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is a disease that evokes wide spread fear among people and is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN is a known carcinogen in rodent liver. DENs reported to undergo metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form reactive electrophiles that cause oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (EETC in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was assessed by the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Result: A significant levels of LPO was increased as the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants values were decreased in liver cancer bearing animals. Conclusions: The administration of EETC to cancer bearing animals reverted the LPO levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants to near normal

  8. Impact of abhrak bhasma and silicon dioxide on histological architecture of liver and kidney in single dose of carbon tetrachloride intoxicated male albino rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parashuram Teli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abhrak bhasma is a widely used Ayurvedic drug in various diseases including hepatotoxicity. In the present study, protective effect of graded doses (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg body wt of abhrak bhasma and its silica control, SiO2 was studied against CCl4 induced liver and kidney damage in male albino rats during single dose experimental schedule for 24 hrs. Administration of CCl4 (3.0ml/ kg body wt induced fatty necrosis in hepatic cells without affecting kidney histology. Treatment of abhrak bhasma showed dose dependent protection against CCl4 induced liver damage by free radical scavenging activity. Silica in SiO2 form also positively influences liver fatty degeneration induced by single dose of CCl4 but is associated with some hepatocytes hypertrophy.

  9. Subchronic oral toxicity evaluation of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical indices in Wistar albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ette Okon Ettebong; PaulAlozie Nwafor

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of ingestion of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical parameters of Wistar albino rats. Methods: Subchronic toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight) of the extract on alternate-day basis to different groups of rats for 28 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for haematological and biochemical analyses. Results: Haematological indices were preserved and the extract showed significant (P Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that ingestion of Eleucine indica whole plant extract for a long period of time reduces both bleeding and clotting times, reduces blood sugar and shows no apparent toxic effect on liver and kidneys. The results of this study may be useful as a basis for clinical trials in humans.

  10. Effect of long dose exposure of Podophyllum hexandrum methanol extract on antioxidant defense system and body and organ weight changes of albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Showkat Ahmad Ganie; Bilal Ahmad Zargar; Akbar Masood; Mohmmad Afzal Zargar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of long dose administration of methanol rhizome extract of Podophyllum hexandrum and hydrogen peroxide on lipid peroxidation of erythrocytes, antioxidant enzyme status of rat liver, kidney, lung and brain tissue and body weight and organ weight changes of albino rats. Methods: The body and organ weight was monitored with digital scale balance and lipid peroxidation of RBC ghost membrane was monitored by measuring malonaldehyde (MDA). Antioxidant enzymes were assayed by standard procedures. Results: Our study showed that administration of H2O2 (0.1%) in drinking water of the rats for 25 weeks increased the malondialdehyde levels in erythrocytes of all the rats. However, rats receiving Podophyllum hexandrum extract and α- tocopherol had lower MDA levels in a dose dependent manner, which indicates decreased lipid peroxidation in these rats. Our results also showed decrease in the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione levels in different organs of H2O2 treated rats. Rats receiving methanolic extract of Podophyllum hexandrum at the concentration of 5, 10 and 15mg% for 25 weeks increased the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione levels in different organs of the rats indicates the protective effect of the plant in combating oxidative stress undergone by the rats. No significant variation (P< 0.05) in the organ weights between the control and the treated groups was observed after 25 weeks of treatment. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study presents strong evidence of the nontoxic effect of the methanol extract of Podophyllumhexandrum. The findings also demonstrate that Podophyllum hexandrum methanol extract increased the levels of antioxidant enzymes and decreased lipid peroxidation in albino rats and explained the extensive utilization of the plant in traditional medicine.

  11. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  12. Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G Bako

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The effect of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production was evaluated in albino rats. Twenty four lactating rats were randomly grouped at parturition into control, metoclopramide-treated and Ethyl-acetate-treated group consist of six rats in each group (n=6. The lactating rats were administered control (normal saline, metoclopramide (5mg/kg and ethyl-acetate fraction (100 and 200mg/kg respectively from day 3-17 of lactation. Milk yield for rats were estimated by pup weight and weight gain. The animals were then euthanized on the day 18 and pituitary prolactin was analyzed using prolactin kit. The prolactin level of ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa showed a significant increase (P<0.01 when compared to control group. Pup weight gain was also significantly higher (P<0.05 than the control group. This can be inferred that ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa l. seed has lactogenic activity because it increases pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of Ethyl-acetate fraction Hibiscus sabdariffa l. was found to be above 5000mg/kg. Industrial relevance. The outstanding advantage of this galactagogue option is that, it is safer, affordable and tolerable, and it is taken as an alternative in preference to anti-psychotic drugs that have side effect of drowsiness and depression. The plant calyces, leaves and seeds are eaten as foods because it contain substantial amount of essential fatty, Tocopherol (Vitamin E, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C, mineral salts calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus. Keywords. Hibiscus sabdariffa; prolactin; lactation; milk; pituitary

  13. Effect of rana galamensis–based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Rana galamensis-based diet on the activities of some enzymes and histopathology of selected tissues of albino rats was investigated for eight weeks. A total of sixteen albino rats weighing between 29.15 and 26.01g (21 days old were divided into two groups. The first group contains animals fed on casein-based diet (control; the second group was fed on Rana galamensis-based diet. The animals were fed with their appropriate diet on daily basis and on the eight weeks of the experiment the animals were sacrificed using diethyl ether as anesthesia, blood was collected by cardiac puncture and organs of interest were harvested. Thereafter, organ to body weight ratio, some biochemical parameters and histopathology examination were carried out. There was no significant difference (p >0.05 in the organ to body weight ratio of the animals fed on control and Rana galamensis-based diets. Also, there was no significant different (p >0.05 in the activities of all the enzymes (ALP [alkaline phosphatase], AST [asparate transaminase], ALT [alanine transaminase], and γGT [gamma glutamyl transferase] investigated in the selected tissues and serum of rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet when compared with the control. In addition, histological examinations of hepatocyte's rats fed on Rana galamensis- based diet show normal architecture structure when compared with the control. The insignificant different in the activities of all the enzymes studies (ALP, AST, ALT and γGT indicated no organ damage, supported by the normal histology studies. The obtained results may imply that Rana galamensis is safe for consumption.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  14. Effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of the intestine and enzymes of both the intestine and the pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A Abd El-Mawla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs cause gastrointestinal damage both in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, in addition to their undesirable side effects on the pancreas. Meloxicam like all NSAIDs has damaging effects on the gastrointestinal tract including perforations, ulcers and bleeding. Objective: The present work describes the effects of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine and enzymes of both intestine and Pancreas of albino rats treated with Meloxicam. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on four groups of equally weighed male rats, each group included ten animals; the first group was received a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg bw meloxicam per day; the second was given 1gm Gum acacia per day in its diet; the third was given meloxicam followed by gum in the same doses per day; while the fourth group (control rats was placed on a normal diet and water. All rats were received their diet for a period of 21 days. Results: A considerable protective effect of Gum acacia aqueous extract on the histology of intestine of albino rats treated with meloxicam was recorded. In addition, the study displayed a significant increase (P < 0.001 in the intestinal enzymes; lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the 1 st and 3 rd groups animals while these enzymes were significantly decreased (P < 0.001 in the 2 nd group when compared with the 4 th control group. Conclusion: This study concluded that Gum acacia provides a protection and defense against the harmful effects of meloxicam therapy used as one of the novel anti-Cox-1 and Cox-2 NSAIDs.

  15. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  16. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)

  17. Esquistossomose mansoni experimental: carga parasitária e distribuição de vermes adultos no sistema porta de ratos albinos tratados com Azatioprina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o curso da infecção esquistossomótica experimental no rato albino, um hospedeiro singular para o Schistosoma mansoni, e quatro semanas após a infecção houve uma rápida diminuição na carga parasitária, fato esse denominado por alguns pesquisadores como ' fenômeno de autocura Contudo, após a administração de um imunossupressor - a Azatioprina - observou-se uma maior susceptibilidade dos ratos à infecção, com os animais apresentando um significativo retardamento no chamado "fenômeno de autocura A grande maioria dos vermes é recuperada nos vasos intra-hepáticos do sistema porta, sem que haja migração para as veias mesentéricas. Quando os ratos foram tratados com Azatioprina observou-se uma significativa localização mesentérica dos vermes adultos neste hospedeiro.The course of experimental Schistosoma mansoni infection in the albino rat, a singular host for schistosomes was studied. Four weeks after infection there was a decrease of worm burden, a sélf-cure phenomenon reported by other investigators. However, after administration of a immunosupressive drug - Azathioprine - an increase in susceptibility of rats to infection was observed, with the animals presenting a significant delay in the to period selfcure. The majority of worms were recovered from the intra-hepatic veins of the portal system, but there was no migration to mesenteric veins. When rats were treated with Azathioprine a significant mesenteric localization of schistosomes was observed in this host.

  18. Evaluation of the radioprotective Effect of the co-oral Administration of Vitamin B12 with Vitamin c on some Haematological and Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations in male albino rats. Male albino rats were divided into six groups (n=8). Group 1: rats were kept as control, Group 2; rats received orally vita-min B12 (2000μgkg-1). Group 3; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C (500mgkg-1). Group 4; rats whole body exposed to 7Gy of gamma rays. Group 5; rats received vitamin B12 for 21 successive days before irradiation. Group 6; rats received Vitamin B12 with Vitamin C for 21 successive days before irradiation. Animals were sacrificed the third day post irradiation. The oral administration of Vitamin B12 with or with-out Vitamin C enhanced the recovery from radiation-induced haemopoietic injury and some biochemical changes demonstrated by a significant increase (p0.05>) of WBCs, RBCs and Platelets count, Hb content, Hct%, serum erythropoietin and iron levels and a significant reduction (p0.05>) of serum homocysteine level (Hcy), creatine kinase (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities compared to their respective values in irradiated rats. Improvement of oxidative stress in heart and spleen tissues denoted by a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (MDA) and a significant increase in glutathione (GSH) content was recorded also. The co-oral administration of vitamin B12 with vitamin C has no effect on the prophylactic efficacy of vitamin B12

  19. 杂交金鳟苗种的制备及其生长、抗病性能的研究%Breeding of Hybrid Albino rainbow trout and Its Growth and Resistance to Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐绍刚; 杨晓飞; 田照辉; 李文通; 马峻峰

    2016-01-01

    In order to get Albino rainbow trout strains with good productivity,a reciprocal-crossing experi-ment was carried out on Albino rainbow trout and steelhead trout,and the rate of growth,disease resistance were compared using hybrid progeny seedling and its parents.The results were as follows.The hybrids were of Albino rainbow trout’s color(golden).The eyed egg rate of fertilization eggs from steelhead trout♀×Albino rainbow trout♂was 59.47-81.22%,and that of the eggs from Albino rainbow trout♀×Steelhead trout♂was 76.91%-81.22%.The hatching rate of fertilization eggs of the four groups was 91.55%-94.25%.The average AGRs (Absolute growth rate) of steelhead trout selfing,steelhead trout♀×Albino rainbow trout♂,Albino rainbow trout♀×steelhead trout♂ and Albino rainbow trout selfing were 0.106,0.103,0.101 and 0.073 respectively. The AGRs of the two reciprocal hybrids were significantly higher than that of Albino rainbow trout selfing ( P<0.05) and lower than that of steelhead trout selfing,but there was no significant difference between the two re-ciprocal hybrids (P<0.05).After vibrio anguillarum infection,the mortality rates of steelhead trout selfing, steelhead trout♀×Albino rainbow trout♂,Albino rainbow trout♀×steelhead trout♂ and Albino rainbow trout selfing were 54.5%,60.8%,61.4%and 100%respectively.The infection experiment revealed:steelhead trout selfing had the highest resistance,the two reciprocal hybrids took the second place and significantly higher than Albino rainbow trout selfing( P<0.05) ,there was no significant difference between the two hybrids,Albino rain-bow trout had the lowest resistance.%为获得生产性能优良的金鳟品系,开展硬头鳟和金鳟的正反杂交实验,并对杂交子代苗种的生长速度、抗病性能与亲本进行对比。结果表明:杂交子代均为金鳟体色;硬头鳟自交组及硬头鳟♀×金鳟♂杂交组受精卵发眼率为59.47%~62.52%,金鳟自交组

  20. AN EXPERIMENTAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA: AMADA (MANGO - GINGER WITH CONVENTIONAL NSAID ASPIRIN IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmukananda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mango ginger ( Curcuma amada Roxb. belongs to Zingiberaceae family has biological activities include antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anti - inflammatory, antiallergic, CNS depressant and analgesic activity. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. Pain is often the first indication of disease or injury and a major symptom in many clinical conditions and can significantly interferes with a person’s quality of life and general functioning. The standard and test drugs suppress the inflammatory mediators associated with pain. This article brings out the analgesic activity of C. Amada in comparison with aspirin. Therefore aqueous extract of C. amada was evaluated for analgesic activity in animal models of pain. OBJECTIVES: 1. To evaluate rhizomes of Curcuma Amada for analgesic activity in male albino wistar rats and to compare the analgesic activity with aspirin . 2. To Evaluate if combination of Curcuma Amada with aspirin is synergistic . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Albino rats are the proven models for analgesic studies. They were obtained from the animal house of DR.B. R. Ambedkar Medical College. Animals were maintained as per CPCSEA guidelines .The aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada was used. Aspirin (100mg/kg was used as the standard analgesic drug. 4x4 groups of 6 Rats were used to ensure that results obtained were statistically significant using ANOVA test. Analgesic activity will be assessed with the help of following screening methods Acetic Acid Writhing Method using Acetic Acid, Tail Flick Method using the Analgesiometer, Tail Immersion Method using Hot Water (55 0 C , Hot Plate method using Hot Plate . RESULTS : Aqueous extract of Curcuma Amada significantly suppressed the 1% acetic acid induced writhing response in rats when compared to standard drug aspirin. In the Tail flick and Hot plate test Curcuma

  1. Comparison of the acute ultraviolet photoresponse in congenic albino hairless C57BL/6J mice relative to outbred SKH1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konger, Raymond L; Derr-Yellin, Ethel; Hojati, Delaram; Lutz, Cathleen; Sundberg, John P

    2016-09-01

    Hairless albino Crl:SKH1-Hr(hr) mice are commonly utilized for studies in which hair or pigmentation would introduce an impediment to observational studies. Being an outbred strain, the SKH1 model suffers from key limitations that are not seen with congenic mouse strains. Inbred and congenic C57BL/6J mice are commonly utilized for modified genetic mouse models. We compare the acute UV-induced photoresponse between outbred SKH1 mice and an immune competent, hairless, albino C57BL/6J congenic mouse line [B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J]. Histologically, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J skin is indistinguishable from that of SKH1 mice. The skin of both SKH1 and B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice exhibited a reduction in hypodermal adipose tissue, the presence of utricles and dermal cystic structures, the presence of dermal granulomas and epidermal thickening. In response to a single 1500 J/m(2) ultraviolet B dose, the oedema and apoptotic responses were equivalent in both mouse strains. However, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice exhibited a more robust delayed sunburn reaction, with an increase in epidermal erosion, scab formation and myeloperoxidase activity relative to SKH1 mice. Compared with SKH1 mice, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J also exhibited an aberrant proliferative response to this single UV exposure. Epidermal Ki67 immunopositivity was significantly suppressed in B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice at 24 h post-UV. A smaller non-significant reduction in Ki67 labelling was observed in SKH1 mice. Finally, at 72 h post-UV, SKH1 mice, but not B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice, exhibited a significant increase in Ki67 immunolabelling relative to non-irradiated controls. Thus, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice are suitable for photobiology experiments. PMID:27095432

  2. Histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts on thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with dimethylnitrosamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate histopathological and biochemical effects of green tea and/or licorice aqueous extracts in thyroid functions in male albino rats intoxicated with Dimethylnitrosamine. Methods 40 Male albino rats were divided into two main groups, 20 normal rats and 20 DMN intoxicated rats. Normal rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group A without treatment (controls, group B treated with green tea, group C treated with licorice, group D treated with green tea and licorice. DMN intoxicated rats were subgrouped into 4 equal groups, group E treated with DMN, group F treated with DMN and green tea, group G treated with DMN and licorice, group H treated with DMN, green tea and licorice. The rats were permitted for free access to solubilized extracts of green tea and or licorice for 4 weeks. All rats in groups E, F, G, H were treated by intraperitoneal DMN (4 mg dissolved in 2.5 ml distilled water/kg body weight seven times every 2 days in the first two weeks. Plasma total triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Thyroxine 5-monodeiodinase activity of liver was determined by spectrophotometeric method. Plasma thyroid stimulating hormone was determined by chemiluminometric technique. Histopathological examination was conducted. Results Histopathologically thyroid gland of DMN intoxicated rats showed degeneration (DGand desquamation (DS of the lining epithelium and atrophy of many acini with hyperemia (H in the stromal capillaries and In comparison with control, the administration of DMN alone induced decrease in plasma levels of T3 and T4 while it induced increase in plasma levels of TSH and hepatic activity of Thyroxine 5-monodeiodinase. Coadminstration of DMN and green tea attenuated the lowering effect of DMN on plasma levels of T3 and T4 and induced increase in these levels but values are still below normal ones while Co administration of DMN with licorice or mixture did not affect these

  3. An experimental study on effect of antioxidant vitamin E in stress and alcohol induced changes in male fertility in albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghishetti Vijay Prasad, Nayak BB, Ghongane BB, Raul AR, Vijay Kumar AN, Mutalik MM, Kapure NL.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical and Psychological stresses are believed to reduce sexual functions, resulting fromneurotransmission changes in various erectile response pathways and reduced blood flow in genital organs.Intake of alcohol depends on numerous genetic and environmental factors. Stress has long been thought to influence the alcohol drinking in humans. Forced swimming in laboratory animals has been widely used as a model of stress to study the physiological changes and the capacity of the organism in response to stress. Aim: 1. To assess the effect of forced swimming stress on seminal fluid profile, Serum testosterone level, Testicular lipid peroxidation levels. 2. To assess the effect of Vitamin E on stress induced changes. Method: Adult male albino rats weighing 200 – 220 g, aged 12-15 weeks were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into four groups of 6 animals each. Group1 (control received distilled water, Group 2 (Forced Swimming Stress received distilled water Group 3: subjected to Forced Swimming stress with 20% alcohol intake p.o. Group 4: Swimming stress with 20% alcohol treated with Vitamin E(200mg/kg/day orally. The following parameters were studied in all groups 1. Body weight. 2. Sperm count Motility and Life /death Ratio (SLDR. 3. Serum Testosterone 4. Testicular Malondialdehyde level (MDA. Results: Forced swimming stress caused loss in body wt, reduction in sperm count, motility and SLDR in sperm analysis, reduction in serum testosterone and increase testicular MDA levels compared to control. All the changes were statistically significant. When alcohol was added along with forced swimming it caused further loss in body wt, sperm count, motility and SLDR, serum testosterone level and slightly further increase in MDA levels. These observations were also statistically significant. In case of group IV in which Vitamin E was administered long with stress with alcohol it showed a trend of reversal phenomenon of

  4. Infecção experimental do camundongo albino pelo Schistosoma mansoni. I - Estudo comparativo da eficácia de diferentes vias de infecção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaira Silva de Azevedo

    1976-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo da eficácia comparativa de diferentes vias de infecção na equistossomose experimental do camundongo albino. Foram utilizados trinta camundongos albinos de ambos os sexos, com idade de dois meses, infectados com cerca de cem cercárias cada um e sacrificados três meses após a infecção. As vias de penetração empregadas foram: oral, transcutânea (por submersão parcial, imersão apenas da cauda e/ou colocação de cercárias em área depilada do abdômen e intraperitoneal. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a via mais eficaz foi transcutânea (sub-parcial, e que a maior mortalidade ocorreu no grupo infectado por via intraperitoneal.The comparative efficiency for different infecting routes in experimental schistosomiasis in Swiss albino mice has been studied. Thirty mice, both male and female, two months old, have been each infected with one humdred Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, and sacrificed three months later. The following infecting routes have been used: oral, percutaneous (partial body submersion, tail imersion and dropping of water containg cercariae on a shaved area of the anterior abdominal wall, and intra-peritoneal routes. Per-cutaneous route (partial submersion of the body proved to be the best and the highest mortality occurred in animais intra-peritoneally infected.

  5. Esquistossomose mansoni experimental: carga parasitária e distribuição de vermes adultos no sistema porta de ratos albinos tratados com Azatioprina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Moreira Campos

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o curso da infecção esquistossomótica experimental no rato albino, um hospedeiro singular para o Schistosoma mansoni, e quatro semanas após a infecção houve uma rápida diminuição na carga parasitária, fato esse denominado por alguns pesquisadores como ' fenômeno de autocura Contudo, após a administração de um imunossupressor - a Azatioprina - observou-se uma maior susceptibilidade dos ratos à infecção, com os animais apresentando um significativo retardamento no chamado "fenômeno de autocura A grande maioria dos vermes é recuperada nos vasos intra-hepáticos do sistema porta, sem que haja migração para as veias mesentéricas. Quando os ratos foram tratados com Azatioprina observou-se uma significativa localização mesentérica dos vermes adultos neste hospedeiro.

  6. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahba, Sanaa M.R. [Zoology department, Women College, Ain-Shams University,11566 Cairo (Egypt); Darwish, Atef S., E-mail: atef_mouharam@sci.asu.edu.eg [Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Shehata, Iman H. [Microbiology and Immunology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Abd Elhalem, Sahar S. [Zoology department, Women College, Ain-Shams University,11566 Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-03-01

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week for 2.5 months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. - Highlights: • Opening the door to synthesize smart targeted drug deliveries against RA disease • Therapy action of MTX-laden lignin and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} composite toward RA disease • Procure selective targeted drug deliveries of near 100% curing against RA disease • Revolutionary clinical therapies for RA disease by inventive MTX-delivery models.

  7. A study of anti-hyperlipidemia, hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of emblica officinalis (amla in high fat fed albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevangi Santoshkumar, Manjunath S, Sakhare Pranavkumar M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available : Emblica Officinalis (Amla, belonging to the genus, Phyllanthus emblica is widely used for medicinal purpose. Its fruits have been used traditionally as a hypolipidemic. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate hypolipedimic and anti-atherogenic activity of fruit of Emblica officinalis in high fat fed albino rats. Materials and Methods: For study of anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic activity. 5 groups of 6 animals in each received normal saline, E. Officinalis powder, high fat diet, High fat diet plus E. Officinalis powder both and Atorvastatin respectively for 8 weeks. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding animals with high fat diet per orally, consisting of coconut oil and vanaspati ghee, daily ad libitum. At the end of the study, blood samples of the animals were sent for the estimation of the lipid profile and effects of test drug studied by comparing levels of Total Cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and Atherogenic index. The statistical significance between groups was analysed by using one way ANOVA, followed by Dunnet’s multiple comparison test. Results: Fruit of Amla showed significant anti-hyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect. All these effects may contribute to its anti-atherogenic activity. Conclusion: Present study revealed the antihyperlipidemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-atherogenic effect of Amla fruit powder and can be safely used in the treatment of mild to moderate cases of hyperlipidemia considering its easy availability, cost effectiveness, and other beneficial effects.

  8. Amaranthus spinosus L. (Amaranthaceae) leaf extract attenuates streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes and oxidative stress in albino rats:A histopathological analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanti Bhushan Mishra; Amita Verma; Alok Mukerjee; Madhavan Vijayakumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible antidiabetic effects of Amaranthus spinosus leaf extract (ASEt) against streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes &oxidative stress in albino rats.Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by a single dose of STZ (60 mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal way after the administration of nicotinamide (120mg/kg). The oxidative stress was measured by reduced glutathione (GSH) content and by enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver and kidney. Biochemical observations were further substantiated with histological examination of pancreas, kidney and liver. Results: The increase in blood glucose with the decrease in GSH content and in enzymatic activities were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. Administration of ASEt (250 & 500 mg/kg bw/day, i.p) for 21 days caused a significant reduction in blood glucose in STZ-nicotinamide treated rats when compared with diabetic rats. Furthermore, diabetic rats treated with ASEt leaf extract showed a significant increase in the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants when compared to those of diabetic rats. Degenerative changes of pancreatic cells in STZ treated rats were minimized to near normal morphology by administration of ASEt leaf extract as evidenced by histopathological examination.Conclusion: Results clearly indicate that Amaranthusspinosus treatment attenuate hyperglycemia by decreasing oxidative stress and pancreatic cells damage which may be attributed to its antioxidative potential.

  9. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  10. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  11. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Nitasha Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01. Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01. Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia.

  12. Cardioprotective potential of hydro-alcoholic fruit extract ofAnanas comosus against isoproterenol induced myocardial infraction in Wistar Albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Priya Saxena; Dharamveer Panjwani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To evaluate the cardioprotective effects of hydro alcoholic extract ofAnanas comosus (A. comosus)(HEAC), onIsoproterenol(ISO) induced myocardial infarction inAlbinoWistar rats. Methods:Myocardial infarction was induced byIsoproterenol(85 mg/kg,s.c.) for two consecutive days at an interval of24 h.Rats were pretreated withHEAC(200-400 mg/kg/day, oral) for a period of30 days andIsoproterenol(ISO) was injected on31st and32nd day and after24 h blood was collected through retro-orbital plexus for the estimation of biochemical parameters and histopathological studies were also performed.Results:In the present study,ISO administration significantly elevated the cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it decreases high density lipoprotein and total protein in plasma and administration ofHEAC decreases the level of cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein, triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels while it increases high density lipoprotein and total protein levels.Pretreatment with theHEAC protected the cardiotoxicity induced by Isoproterenol.The histopathological findings of theISO-induced myocardium showed infracted zone with inflammatory cells, lipid droplets, myocardial necrosis and vacuolization of myofibrils which were reduced by the pretreatment ofHEAC.Conclusion:It can be concluded thatHEAC possess cardioprotective activity againstIsoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  13. ¿Es necesaria la reconstrucción de la conjuntiva?: Trabajo experimental en conejos albinos para evaluar la neogénesis de la conjuntiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Moretti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En los defectos de espesor total del párpado inferior de gran magnitud, siempre ha sido regla de oro la reconstrucción de la lamela posterior (tarso y conjuntiva palpebral. Esto es debido a que el tono del músculo orbicularis oculi no alcanza a mantener el soporte necesario para resistir la acción de la gravedad y/o contractura cicatricial. Además la ausencia de conjuntiva provocaría lesiones sobre la córnea ocular. Es por ello que el empleo de injertos compuestos condromucosos ha sido insustituible. El presente trabajo de investigación fue realizado en 20 conejos albinos con el objeto de evaluar la posibilidad de emplear cartílago auricular para la reconstrucción del tarso sin colocación de mucosa a modo de conjuntiva sobre dicho cartílago. Los resultados obtenidos permiten confirmar por diferentes tinciones histológicas sobre biopsias comparadas con zonas testigo, el crecimiento de tejido conjuntival sobre el pericondrio sin provocar lesiones oculares (neogénesis de conjuntiva. Los hallazgos encontrados provocan importantes y sustanciales cambios en la cirugía reconstructiva del párpado inferior debido a que de esta manera, no sería necesaria la reconstrucción de la conjuntiva palpebral, siendo útil exclusivamente la colocación de cartílago.

  14. JATROPHA MULTIFIDA LINN (EUPHORBIACEAE : EXPLORATION DES PROPRIETES ANTIBACTERIENNES ET DU POUVOIR CICATRISANT DE LA SEVE DE CETTE PLANTE CHEZ LE RAT ALBINOS DE SOUCHE WISTAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. KLOTOE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha multifida Linn is a plant used in traditional medicine in the treatment of certain diseases or skin troubles in Republic of the Benin. In this study, the sap of the plant was used to evaluate its healing and antimicrobial activities.With this intention, the antimicrobic activity of the sap carried out starting from the method of dilution in solid medium was evaluated on two germs of references: Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.The results showed that J multifida has a very strong inhibiting activity on the growth of S. aureus (nearly 100% with one CMI equal to 20mg/ml and an average inhibition on the growth of E coli. The healing activity of the sap was required on the wounds (wound of excision of size 2,25cm2 carried out in the albino rat Wistar. The results indicated that at the end of 19 days of treatment (once every 48 hours, the wounds of the rats of the treated batch were healed to 99% compared to those of the batch untreated and being used as witness of which the percentage of retraction of the wounds is 43% at the same stage.

  15. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of alloxan diabetic albino rats: Presence of an inhibitor of this enzyme activity in the cerebral extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nayeemunnisa; Tarannum, Suraiya

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ischemic manifestations and cerebral dysfunction have been demonstrated in diabetes. However, the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cerebral dysfunction still remains to be elucidated. Hence, the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: Type-2 diabetes was induced in albino rats (280–300g) with alloxan monohydrate (40 mg/Kg i.v.,) and the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata of the brain were used 48 h after alloxan injection for modulations in acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) activity. Results: AChE activity in the discrete regions of the brain of rats decreased significantly (P<0.01, 0.05 and 0.05 respectively) in diabetes. In vitro studies using cerebral extract from alloxan diabetic rats demonstrated significant (P<0.05) inhibition of AChE activity in the brain of normal animals. Feeding with Cichorium intybus (chicory) leaf extract (500 mg/Kg) for 10 days resulted in an increase in AChE activity. Conclusion: The impairment in the glycemic control is the basic mechanism causing inhibition of neuronal activity. Cerebral extract from alloxan diabetic rats significantly inhibited the brain AChE activity of normal animals, indicating the presence of an inhibiting factor in the cerebrum of diabetic rats. Cichorium intybus when fed for 10 days offered neuroprotection by stimulating AChE activity. PMID:20336201

  16. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F. Methanol Leaf Extract on the Haematological Indices and Histomorphology of the Endometrium and Liver of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook f. methanol leaf extract on some hematological indices and histomorphology of the uterus and liver of female albino rats. Acute toxicity study of the extract was performed with female rats, following standard procedure. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The first group (A served as the untreated control and received distilled water, while the second group (B and third (C received 200 and 800 mg/kg mg/kg body weight of the methanol leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively. Administration of the extract was done daily via the oral route for 21 days. Blood was collected for hematological evaluation at weekly intervals. Hematological parameters assessed were the packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration (HB and total white blood cell (TWBC count. At the end of the study period uterine and liver tissues were excised and prepared for histological examination. Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P 0.05 in the mean total WBC throughout the duration of the study. Histological examination of uterine and liver tissues of the different groups did not show any lesions. It was concluded that the T. occidentalis leaf methanolic extract does not adversely affect the reproductive functions of the uterus.

  17. Role Of Ginkgo BILOBA Extract In Ameliorating The Toxicity And Distribution Of 14C-Carbon Tetrachloride In Some Brain Areas Of Adult Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective and therapeutic effect of the standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb-761) on distribution of14C-CCl4 in different brain areas (hippocampus, brain stem and hypothalamus) and its toxicity using the determination of monoamine contents (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT)) as well as estimation of serum nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in adult male albino rat. The i.p. injection of14C-CCl4 (1 ml/kg) resulted in increase in the activity of 14C amount in all tested brain areas during experimental period. The treatment with EGb-761 (200 mg/kg) pre and post 14C-CCl4 treatment resulted in a significant reduction (P14C amount in areas under investigation. The maximum reduction was recorded in hypothalamus on 3rd day (-49.28%) after pre-treatment with EGb-761. The treatment with CCl4 (1ml/kg) resulted in a significant reduction (P4. The pre and post-treatment with EGb-761 ameliorated the effect of CCl4 in all tested brain areas throughout the experimental period, which might be due to the free radical scavenger property of its constituents. The data obtained could recommend that EGb-761 has a protective and therapeutic effect against toxicity produced by CCl4.

  18. Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of Ammi majus seeds in albino rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriem, Khaled M M; Asaad, Gihan F; Megahed, Hoda A; Zahran, Hanan; Arbid, Mahmoud S

    2012-06-01

    Pharmacological and biochemical studies on the Ammi majus seeds L. (family Umbelliferae) grown in Egypt are limited. Furocoumarins are the major constituents in the plant seeds. In the present study, the evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities on albino rats and mice was done. After 2 months of administration, both the doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight [bwt], respectively) of the alcoholic extract of the A. majus seed result in a significant decrease in the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in the concentration of high-density lipoprotein. The extract was found to inhibit the rat paw edema at both the doses, which means that it exerts a significant anti-inflammatory activity compared with control-untreated groups at the intervals of 30 and 60 minutes posttreatment. The antipyretic effect of the extract was quite obvious; it showed that 100 mg/kg bwt was more potent in lowering body temperature starting after 1 hour of treatment than the lower dose (50 mg/kg bwt). It is worth to mention that the A. majus extract with its coumarin contents as well as the tested biological activities of the plant was investigated for the first time in the current study. In conclusion, ethanolic extract of the A. majus seeds had antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities that are dose dependant.

  19. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  20. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg/week for 2.5 months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. - Highlights: • Opening the door to synthesize smart targeted drug deliveries against RA disease • Therapy action of MTX-laden lignin and Fe3O4/SiO2 composite toward RA disease • Procure selective targeted drug deliveries of near 100% curing against RA disease • Revolutionary clinical therapies for RA disease by inventive MTX-delivery models

  1. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitet, Evan R.; Turner, Ashley N.; Johnson, Larry W.; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R.; Hymel, Katherine M.; Gross, Alecia K.; Kesterson, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene. PMID:27224051

  2. Subchronic oral toxicity evaluation of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical indices in Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of ingestion of ethanolic whole plant extract of Eleucine indica on haematological and biochemical parameters of Wistar albino rats. Methods: Subchronic toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight of the extract on alternate-day basis to different groups of rats for 28 days. The animals were subsequently sacrificed and blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture for haematological and biochemical analyses. Results: Haematological indices were preserved and the extract showed significant (P < 0.01–0.001 haemostatic potentials. There was significant reduction (P < 0.05–0.001 in total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.001, alanine transaminase (P < 0.05, alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.001 and blood glucose (P < 0.001 compared to control. The level of total protein increased significantly (P < 0.05–0.001. Kidney functions were, however, intact. Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that ingestion of Eleucine indica whole plant extract for a long period of time reduces both bleeding and clotting times, reduces blood sugar and shows no apparent toxic effect on liver and kidneys. The results of this study may be useful as a basis for clinical trials in humans.

  3. Methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaf and low doses of gamma radiation alleviated amiodarone-induced lung toxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Hesham F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (MO and/or low doses of gamma radiation (LDR on amiodarone (AMD-induced lung toxicity in rats. AMD administered to female albino rats (100 mg/kg body weight for 10 consecutive days. Rats received methanolic extract of MO (250 mg/kg bwt for 15 successive days and/or were exposed to whole body LDR (0.25Gy on the 1st and 10th days, up to a total dose of 0.5Gy. MO administration induced a significant decrease in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β levels as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Also, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA and hydroxyproline (HYP was significantly decreased in lung tissue. Furthermore, MO significantly increased reduced glutathione (GSH content in lung tissue as compared with AMD. The histopathological investigation of lung tissue revealed the appearance of interstitial pneumonia in rats treated with AMD. The oral administration of MO and/or exposure to LDR reversed the biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by AMD. It can be posited that MO and LDR might have a considerable role in the prevention of lung toxicity induced by AMD.

  4. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Saldaña, Sergio; Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  5. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  6. Modulatory action of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on mitomycin C-and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Rashmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a structural analog of glucose is an effective inhibitor of glucose metabolism and ATP production. It selectively accumulates in cancer cells and interferes with glycolysis leading to cell death. 2-DG is shown to differentially enhance the radiation-induced damage in cancer cells both under euoxic and hypoxic conditions. A combination of 2-DG and ionizing radiation selectively destroys tumors while protecting the normal tissue. 2-DG is being advocated as an adjuvant in the radiotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer. Objective: The present investigation focuses on the modulatory effect of 2-DG on mitomycin C- (MMC and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO-induced cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were pretreated with 2-DG (500 mg/kg, i.p. for five consecutive days followed by MMC (2 mg/kg, i.p or 4-NQO (15 mg/kg, i.p., 24h prior to sacrifice. Control animals were given either the mixture of olive oil and acetone (3:1 or distilled water. Bone marrow cells were processed for the micronucleus assay and metaphase analysis for estimating cytogenetic damage. Results: 2-DG significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the frequency of aberrant cells induced by MMC (~90% and 4-NQO (~74%. Incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs induced by the mutagens were reduced up to 68%. Conclusion: 2-DG effectively reduces the MMC-and 4-NQO-induced genotoxicity.

  7. Amelioration of radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations by Punica Granatum (L) extracts and synthetic ellagic acid in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy has been used in cancer treatment for many decades; Although effective in killing tumor cells, ROS produced in radiotherapy threaten the integrity and survival of surrounding normal cells. ROS are scavenged by radioprotectors before they can interact with biochemical molecules, thus reducing harmful effects of radiation. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations in Swiss Albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and Ellagic acid for 15 days before exposure to 6 Gy of EBR. Radiation induced DNA damage was assessed by comet assay in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the serum and RBC lysate of the animals. The plant extracts and synthetic compound exhibited good radical scavenging and reducing properties.The pretreated animals before irradiation caused a reduction in the comet length, olive tail moment, % DNA in tail when compared to irradiated group. The biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation was significantly depleted in the treated groups when compared to irradiated group followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione. Our findings indicate the ameliorating effects of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant

  8. Teratogenicity Induced By 13-Cis-Retinoic Acid and/or Gamma Irradiation on Bone of Fetuses and Placenta of Pregnant Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) has revolutionized the management of severe treatment-resistant acne and it has been widely used for a range of dermatological conditions. During pregnancy, high incidence of developmental anomalies were occurred in pregnant rats given isotretinion and/or exposed to gamma irradiation on specific days during organogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the side effects of isotretinoin administration and/or exposure to gamma radiation on the placenta of pregnant rats, vertebrae and neural spine of their fetuses. Isotretinoin at the dose level 70 mg/kg was daily administered via an oral stomach tube to pregnant adult albino rats from the 11th to 15th days of pregnancy while mothers were subjected to gamma radiation 1.5 Gy as fractionated dose (0.5 Gy/3 times) on the 11th, 12th and 13th day of gestation. The experimental investigations carried out one day prior to parturition (the 20 th day of gestation) have demonstrated that isotretinoin intake from the 11th-15th days of gestation induced embryological, biochemical, histochemical and histopathological disorders in irradiated mothers and their fetuses. The data obtained revealed that isotretinoin administration and/or gamma irradiation caused significant elevation in alkaline phosphatase accompanied by a decline in total protein and DNA in the placenta tissues and vertebrae bone. In addition, histopathological results showed different distortions in the placenta which varied from necrotic nuclei of giant cells, haemorrhage and pyknotic nuclei in trophoblast. Moreover, ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layers and reduced number of chondrocytes together with severe damage in spine neural arch were viewed. In conclusion, isotretinoin is a serious and powerful drug and should be used with great caution, therefore, it is recommended that radiation workers especially females have to be careful toward isotretinoin intake during pregnancy.

  9. Evaluation of effect of dietary supplementation with Dacryodes edulis G.Don pulp oil on serum lipid parameters in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekwesili, C N; Eneh, F U

    2014-07-01

    The pulp of Dacryodes edulis G.Don which is rich in oils is commonly consumed in Nigeria when in season. The effect of diet supplementation with edulis fruit pulp oil on body lipid parameters was evaluated in male Wistar albino rats. D. edulis oil was extracted in n-hexane. The test diet was.compounded using the oil extract (10%), whereas the control animals were kept on control diet formulated with groundnut oil (10%). After six weeks, the animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and blood samples collected through cardiac puncture for the determination of serum lipid profile. Results revealed that D. edulis fruit pulp oil did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) alterations in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol. The total amount of lipids present in the serum was increased by 33.3%, whereas the quantity of liver lipids decreased by the same factor (33.3%). Insignificant (p > 0.05) increases in the weights (g 100 g(-1) BW) of the liver (2.91 ± 0.17 to 3.38 ± 0.25), kidney (0.36 ± 0.06 to 0.40 ± 0.02) and heart (0.32 ± 0.02 to 0.33 ± 0.04) were observed in the test group. No significant change (p > 0.05) in the average body weight of the test animals was recorded. HPLC analysis of D. edulis oil showed that it contained palmitic acid (48.7%), linoleic acid (28.6%),oleic acid (12.9%), stearic acid (5.0%), lauric acid (2.2%), linolenic acid (1.7%) and myristic acid (0.9%). The peroxide value of the oil was 0.00. Prolonged intake of D. edulis fruit pulp oil may induce adverse effects on the body organs, even though the body lipid profile remains unaltered. PMID:26035940

  10. Study On The Effect Of Cooking Of Some Food Proteins By Short-Term Radiation (Microwave) On The Functions Of The Liver And Kidney In Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five groups of albino male rats, every group consist of seven rats, were used to study the effect of microwave proteins on liver, kidney functions and blood parameters. Control group was fed on 10% casein. The 2nd one was fed on 10% protein from microwave chicken. The 3rd one was fed on 10% protein from boiled chicken. The 4th one was fed on 10% protein from microwave kidney beans. The 5th one was fed on 10% protein from boiled kidney beans. The time of experiment was seven weeks. The biochemical parameters included (cholesterol, LDL, HDL, total lipids, triglyceride, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, creatinin, uric acid and amino acids). The group of rats fed on microwave chicken showed more increase in cholesterol level than the group fed on boiled chicken. The group fed on microwave kidney beans showed decrease in cholesterol level. The group fed on microwave chicken showed decrease in HDL and increase in LDL. The highest activity of SGOT was shown in group fed on microwave kidney beans followed by the group fed on microwave chicken. The groups fed on boiled kidney beans and boiled chicken proteins showed significant increase in SGPT activity. The group fed on boiled kidney beans have the highest activity of ALP enzyme; but the group fed on microwave chicken showed increase in the activity of ALP enzyme compared to the control group. The feeding of microwave chicken leads to increase in creatinine and uric acid levels in comparison to the control group. Microwave cooking leads to little increase in all amino acids in comparison to the control group

  11. Anticancer and antimutagenic properties of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Punar Dutt; Kaushik, Pallavi; Shukla, Shalini; Soni, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    We report the chemopreventive activity of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) gum, flower and leaf aqueous extracts, on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into following groups: Group I (Controls) given DMBA and croton oil, with no extract ; Group II (treatment) animals treated with Acacia nilotica gum (Group II-a) (800 mg/kg body weight), flowers (Group II-b) (800 mg/kg body weight), or leaves (Group II-c) (800 mg/kg body weight) during the peri- and post initiation periods of DMBA and croton oil application. A significant reduction in the values of tumor burden, tumor incidence and cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the Acacia nilotica gum, flower and leaf extracts as compared with the control group. The latency period in treatment Group-II (b) and Group-II (c) was significantly increased as compared with the control group. A significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was also observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the aqueous extracts, along with significant decrease in total chromosomal aberrations in the form of chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, centric rings, dicentrics, acentric fragments and exchange. Treatment with Acacia nilotica flower (Group II-B) and leaf (Group II-C) aqueous extracts by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a highly significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in the liver, but this was less evident with the gum (Group II-A) . Conversely, reduced glutathione (GSH) content was observed to be significantly elevated as compared with the control group with leaves (Group II-C) and flowers (Group II-B). The chemopreventive and antimutagenic activity of the leaf extract of Acacia nilotica was most significant followed by the flower extract and then by gum. PMID:17250441

  12. Evaluation of hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of Vigna mungo (Linn. Hepper on rifampicin-induced toxicity in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nitin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of aqueous extract of seeds of Vigna mungo (AEVM (fabaceae against rifampicin-induced liver and kidney damage in rats. Settings and Design: Albino rats of either sex (200-250 g were selected and divided in to eight groups of six animals in each. Four groups for hepatoprotective activity and four groups for nephroprotective activity. Group 1 was normal control, group 2 was positive control, group 3 was treated with standard drug, group 4 was treated with AEVM. Similarly it was done for nephroprotective activity. The results are evidenced on the basis of physical, biochemical, histological, and functional parameters. Materials and Methods: Drugs used are rifampicin, silymarin, diagnostic kits (SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and BIT for hepatoprotective activity. BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid for nephroprotective activity. Seed powder of Vigna mungo was extracted with water. Preliminary phytochemical tests were done to identify the phytoconstituents. The hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of the AEVM were assessed in rifampicin-induced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic rats. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by "Tukey-Kramer" multiple comparison tests. Results: The AEVM showed the presence of amino acids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, proteins, phytic acid, total phenolic compounds, saponins, and tannins. Rifampicin produced significant changes in physical (increased liver weight, decreased body weight, biochemical (increase in serum glutathione pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (BIT level, increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid level, histological (damage to hepatocytes, nephrons, and functional (barbiturates-induce sleeping time induced by rifampicin in liver and kidney

  13. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Kamal, Sara M

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometer, N2-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. PMID:27157738

  14. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D' Souza, Antony Sylvan [Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Guruprasad, E-mail: guru.kalthur@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  15. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasra Ayuob

    Full Text Available A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3.Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed.Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities compared to the group which received PH alone.Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action.

  16. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  17. Protective role of diet supplements Spirulina and Tamarind fruit pulp on kidney in sodium fluoride exposed Swiss albino mice: Histological and biochemical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K p; Pandey, A; Pareek, P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toxicity through potable water, particularly ground water, is not uncommon in countries such as India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, parts of Africa and Afghanistan. Kidney being the main organ involved in fluoride removal, it accumulates considerable amount of fluoride. Here, we report toxic effects of oral exposure of Swiss albino mice to fluoride (sub-acute: 190 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days; and sub-chronic: 94 mg/kg body wt. for 90 days) and recovery of sub-chronic fluoride exposed mice after 90 days of sodium fluoride (NaF) withdrawal. The role of diet supplements (Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp @ 230 mg/kg body wt. independently as well as in combination) in amelioration of fluoride toxicity has also been screened. Compared with controls, feed intake decreased from 3-43%, body wt. 4-18%, and kidney wt. 5-12% in treated mice (except diet supplement groups of sub-chronic exposure) while their water intake increased from 4-43%. Histopathological changes in the cortical region of kidney in fluoride treated mice were as follows: dilation of bowman's capsule and thickening of its parietal and visceral layer; alterations in glomeruli size and their sclerotization; increase in bowman's space; proliferation of mesangial cells; reduction in podocyte counts; and dilation of proximal and distal tubules. Fluoride exposure altered tissue biochemistry (protein, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase content) and increased urea (23-58%) and creatinine content (14-127%) in the serum. Sub-acute exposure was found more toxic. The diet modulation not only reduced fluoride toxicity but also led to better recovery of treated mice after withdrawal, especially in combination. PMID:26891552

  18. Protective role of diet supplements Spirulina and Tamarind fruit pulp on kidney in sodium fluoride exposed Swiss albino mice: Histological and biochemical indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K p; Pandey, A; Pareek, P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toxicity through potable water, particularly ground water, is not uncommon in countries such as India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, parts of Africa and Afghanistan. Kidney being the main organ involved in fluoride removal, it accumulates considerable amount of fluoride. Here, we report toxic effects of oral exposure of Swiss albino mice to fluoride (sub-acute: 190 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days; and sub-chronic: 94 mg/kg body wt. for 90 days) and recovery of sub-chronic fluoride exposed mice after 90 days of sodium fluoride (NaF) withdrawal. The role of diet supplements (Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp @ 230 mg/kg body wt. independently as well as in combination) in amelioration of fluoride toxicity has also been screened. Compared with controls, feed intake decreased from 3-43%, body wt. 4-18%, and kidney wt. 5-12% in treated mice (except diet supplement groups of sub-chronic exposure) while their water intake increased from 4-43%. Histopathological changes in the cortical region of kidney in fluoride treated mice were as follows: dilation of bowman's capsule and thickening of its parietal and visceral layer; alterations in glomeruli size and their sclerotization; increase in bowman's space; proliferation of mesangial cells; reduction in podocyte counts; and dilation of proximal and distal tubules. Fluoride exposure altered tissue biochemistry (protein, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase content) and increased urea (23-58%) and creatinine content (14-127%) in the serum. Sub-acute exposure was found more toxic. The diet modulation not only reduced fluoride toxicity but also led to better recovery of treated mice after withdrawal, especially in combination.

  19. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Between Albino and Normal Apostichopus japonicus%基于抑制消减杂交识别白化刺参和青刺参差异表达基因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱琳; 郭春阳; 王振; 李成华

    2014-01-01

    To explore the intrinsic molecular issues behind the different growth and resistance, we construct a forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization database using albino and normal sea cucumbers. GO analysis indicates that 26 differentially expressed genes are classified into six categories, including ribosomal genes, metabolism related genes cell structure, immune gene, albino related genes and unknown genes. RT-qPCR analysis shows that the relative expression of ADP-ribosylation factor in albino sea cucumber is twice as much as that of normal ones. On the contrary, the relative expression of astacin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in albino sea cucumber is 2.6 and 2.1 times higher than normal ones, which is consistent with those recorded in SSH library. The present study provides the basic insight for further understanding the mechanism of colour differentiation for sea cucumbers.%为探寻刺参体色遗传的内在分子基础,运用 Clontech SSH 试剂盒分别构建了白化刺参和青刺参的正反向抑制性消减杂交文库;221个克隆测序分析确认了体色遗传差异性表达基因26个; GO分析显示这些差异基因分别隶属于核糖体基因、能量代谢、细胞结构、免疫调控、白化性状直接相关基因及未知基因.荧光定量PCR结果显示: ADP-核糖激化因子在白化刺参中相对表达量约是青刺参的2倍,而虾青素和小眼畸形转录因子在白化刺参中相对表达量则低于青刺参,分别为青刺参的0.38倍和0.47倍,相对表达量趋势和文库所得结果一致.该研究为进一步了解刺参体色分化及其优良性状的形成机制提供了基础资料.

  20. Effects of Aging and Anti-Aging Hormones on The Kidney, The Thyroid Functions and The Histology of The Testis of Male Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia Ali Radwan; Samia Mohamed Sakr; Mohamed Salah Al-Shinnawy and Enas Saleh Abdel-Bakey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of aging and anti-aging hormones on the kidney, the thyroid and the testis of aged male albino rats from the physiological and histological points of view. Material & Methods Thirty five male rats were used in the present study. They were allocated into five groups. The first group (5months old served as control group and the other remaining groups are (18 months old. The second group 1 ml/kg b.w. corn oil intramuscular injection through a period of two weeks .The third group received 2mg/kg b.w. of melatonin hormone orally daily for two weeks. The fourth group received 0.57 mg/kg b.w. of testosterone hormone via intramuscular injection through two weeks. The fifth group received the same dose of both hormones (Melatonin & Testosterone for two weeks. Some biochemical parameters of the kidney, the thyroid and histological structure of the testis were examined. Results The untreated aged group showed insignificant change in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones levels. The melatonin treated group showed significant decrease in urea level with highly significant decrease in creatinine, T3 and T4 hormones. The testosterone treated group showed highly significant increase in urea, T3 and T4 hormones and highly significant decrease in creatinine level. Whereas, fifth group showed significant decrease in urea accompanied with a highly significant decrease in creatinine and highly significant increase in T3 with a significant increase in T4. The histological changes induced by aging and anti-aging hormones included intertubular haemorrhage, odematous areas present between the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial tissue was degenerated. The degenerated seminiferous tubules revealed maturation arrest in late-stage spermatides. Conclusion In conclusion, aging and anti-aging hormones administration into adult male rats exerts a clear effect on the kidney and

  1. On the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi y strain in swiss mice Sobre o parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in Swiss mice was carried out. This strain parasitized preferentially smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers, with low transitory spleen and liver parasitism, as previously found by some Authors, although differing from other reports. These results can be related to the host genetical constitution and/or the degree of the strain virulence at the time of this study. Furthermore, we discuss that the high macrophagotropism reported for this strain in some instances could be an artificially induced condition resulting from its serial maintenance in mice, either for a longer time and/or by using young animals. The heavy parasitism and inflammation observed in the bladder, pancreas and spermatic duct of some inoculated mice, as well as the testis parasitization, were also noteworthy findings.Através deste trabalho fizemos uma revisão do parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster. Esta cepa parasitou preferencialmente as fibras musculares lisas, esqueléticas e cardíacas, sendo baixo e transitório seu parasitismo do baço e fígado, conforme já observado por alguns Autores, embora diferindo de outros achados. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados com o padrão genético do hospedeiro e/ou com o grau de virulência da cepa por ocasião deste estudo. Além do mais, discutimos a possibilidade de que o intenso macrofagotropismo descrito para esta cepa em algumas ocasiões possa ser uma condição artificialmente induzida através de sua manutenção seriada em camundongos por tempo prolongado e/ou pelo uso de animais jovens. Também são dignos de nota, o intenso parasitismo e inflamação da bexiga, pâncreas e canal espermático de alguns animais inoculados, assim como, o encontro de ninhos de amastigotas no testículo.

  2. The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir O El Sadik

    Full Text Available Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques.Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group: control group (Group I; full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies.Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous

  3. Extract Against Toxic Sodium The Protective Role of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Nitrites and Gamma Irradiation Induced Histological Changes in Intestine and Urinary Bladder of Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proanthocyanidins (a grape seed extract) possess a broad spectrum of biological activities. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation exposure and toxic sodium nitrites induced oxidative stress on the intestine and urinary bladder histologically and also to evaluate the possible protective role of proanthocyanidins. Seventy adult male albino rats, each weighing 95-105 g were used and divided into 7 groups as follows: The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose and sacrificed on the 7th day. The third experimental group received by a stomach tube daily 50 mg/kg b.wt of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The fourth experimental group received proanthocyanidins, Grape seed extracts (antioxidant) (100 mg/kg) body wt.) daily for seven days before irradiation and the continued for 14 days post irradiation. The fifth group of animals received grape seed extract after being exposed to gamma radiation for two weeks, while the sixth experimental group received the same antioxidant for seven days before and after received sodium nitrite (50 mg/kg) daily for 4 weeks. Finally, the seventh experimental groups was treated with the same antioxidant in same dose and time after received sodium nitrite for 4 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed on the end of each experimental duration. The results revealed that both gamma-radiation and sodium nitrite induced different histological changes in the intestine and urinary bladder of irradiated and sodium nitrite received animals. The effect of gamma radiation exposure showed marked degeneration of intestinal villi, vaculation in the lining epithelium cells and karyolytic nuclei. In addition, using sodium nitrite lead to necrosis of intestinal glandular cells. The effect of gamma radiation on urinary bladder was presented by, hyperplasia and vaculation of mucosal epithelium, congestion of blood capillaries. Rats from nitrite

  4. Comportamento motor, sob estímulo farmacológico, de segmentos duodenais pré e pós-papilar de ratos albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bento José Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cada segmento do tubo digestivo tem um padrão próprio de motilidade e toda atividade motora resulta fundamentalmente das propriedades elétricas do músculo liso. Em sua atividade motora o duodeno apresenta funções de mistura e progressão, como também participa do controle do esvaziamento gástrico. Os movimentos do complexo antro-piloro-bulbar são considerados ponto de partida para o peristaltismo intestinal, inclusive com movimentos reversos, sendo que encontramos normalmente uma diminuição progressiva da freqüência das ondas do duodeno ao íleo terminal. Considerando que o duodeno tem características embriológicas, anatômicas, histológicas e bioquímicas que o destacam na fisiologia digestiva, interessou-nos o comportamento motor do segmento duodenal pré e pós-papilar sob estímulo farmacológico. Na realização do trabalho foram utilizados dez ratos albinos dos quais foram retirados os segmentos duodenais pré e pós-papilar. Estes foram divididos em: grupos I e II, pré e pós-papilar, respectivamente. Em cada segmento foram obtidos as diferenças porcentuais (D% do número de ondas e da amplitude máxima no movimento espontâneo e sob estimulo farmacológico do cálcio, potássio, acetilcolina e nor-adrenalina. Foram analisados segundo a ação das drogas dentro de cada grupo e, também, analisadas a ação de cada droga, comparadas entre os grupos. Os resultados mostraram diferenças no delta % do número de ondas sob estímulo farmacológico quando comparados ao movimento espontâneo. Na amplitude máxima, porém, não houve diferença significante. Nas condições de realização do trabalho, pode-se concluir então, que o comportamento motor sob estímulo farmacológico do segmento duodenal pré-papilar isolado de rato é diferente do pós-papilar.

  5. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg;: a bi-herbal formula in male Wistar albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05 increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF in a dose-dependent manner. Alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, triacylglycerides and creatinine increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas urea and fasting blood sugar decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. There was a marginal decrease in serum calcium ion and phosphate ion following the administration of UF when compared with control. Packed cell volume and hemoglobin decreased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in rats treated with UF, whereas white blood cell increased significantly (p and #8804;0.05 in a dose-dependent manner when compared with control. Histological examination of the liver, kidney, heart and lungs showed normal architecture in control group, whereas hepatocytes of rats treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW of UF were characterized by slight periportal fatty change, marked change and ballooning degeneration. Heart muscle of rats treated with 200mg/kg BW of UF showed slight inflammation while histological examination of the lungs showed areas of interstitium damage and diffuse alveolar damage in rats treated with UF. In conclusion, indiscriminate administration of UF could be of public health concern and long-term exposure may cause a significant potential health risk. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 970-977

  6. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  7. GC-MS and NMR analysis of the bioactive compounds from the crude extracts of Waltheria indica and the histopathological changes induced in albino rats challenged with Naja nigricollis venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Ilani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a characteristic fingerprint of the different chemical compounds of plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis and assess the effect of the crude extract on histological changes induced in Naja nigricollis (N. nigricollis envenomed albino rats. Methods: The coarsely powdered Waltheria indica (W. indica whole plant material was extracted using 70% methanol. GC-MS analysis was carried out using a Shimadzu GC-MS QP 2010 plus system of gas chromatography interfaced to a mass spectrometer. The identification of components was based on National Institute of Standard and Technology-08 and Willey-8 libraries. Hydrogen-NMR spectra of the extracts was performed using Bruker Biospin Avance 400-MHz NMR spectrophotometer with a 5 mm broad inverse probe head, equipped with shielded z-gradient accessories and C-13 NMR hetero-nuclear single quantum correction was carried out using the Brucker’s standard pulse library. The efficacy of the crude extract of W. indica whole plant was tested and the lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged with N. nigricollis were analyzed by light microscopy. Results: The identification of the bioactive compounds from W. indica by GC-MS analysis revealed 41 peaks. A total of 38 compounds were identified with majority having important pharmacological activities that included anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant antiinflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-ageing, anti-arthritic, larvicidal, anti-convulsant and herbicidal activities. C-13 and hydrogen-NMR analysis of W. indica elucidated key bioactive compounds in the whole plant that were consistent with the classes of bioactive compounds detected by GC-MS analysis. The efficacy of the crude extract of W. indica whole plant in ameliorating histopathological lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged with N. nigricollis venom revealed the

  8. GC-MS and NMR analysis of the bioactive compounds from the crude extracts ofWaltheria indica and the histopathological changes induced in albino rats challenged withNaja nigricollis venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip Ilani; Nicholas Ajodo; Folashade Adewusi; Samirat Yakubu; Victor Yakubu Cosmos; Ache Eunice; Atonila Kayode Ezekiel; Oshiedu Sarah; Emmanuel Amlabu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To develop a characteristic fingerprint of the different chemical compounds of plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and assess the effect of the crude extract on histological changes induced inNaja nigricollis(N. nigricollis)envenomed albino rats. Methods: The coarsely powderedWaltheria indica (W. indica) whole plant material was extracted using 70% methanol.GC-MS analysis was carried out using a ShimadzuGC-MS QP 2010 plus system of gas chromatography interfaced to a mass spectrometer. The identification of components was based on National Institute of Standard and Technology-08 and Willey-8 libraries. Hydrogen-NMR spectra of the extracts was performed using Bruker Biospin Avance 400-MHzNMR spectrophotometer with a 5 mm broad inverse probe head, equipped with shielded z-gradient accessories andC-13 NMR hetero-nuclear single quantum correction was carried out using the Brucker’s standard pulse library. The efficacy of the crude extract ofW. indica whole plant was tested and the lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged withN. nigricollis were analyzed by light microscopy. Results:The identification of the bioactive compounds fromW. indica byGC-MS analysis revealed 41 peaks. A total of 38 compounds were identified with majority having important pharmacological activities that included anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-ageing, anti-arthritic, larvicidal, anti-convulsant and herbicidal activities.C-13 and hydrogen-NMR analysis ofW. indica elucidated key bioactive compounds in the whole plant that were consistent with the classes of bioactive compounds detected byGC-MS analysis. The efficacy of the crude extract ofW. indica whole plant in ameliorating histopathological lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged withN. nigricollis venom revealed the abrogation of tissue degeneration when

  9. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  10. Studies on the role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and effects of co-administration of Fluoxetines in regulating generalized seizures in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant R Chavan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is due to imbalance between inhibitory & excitatory neurotransmitter release at synaptic level in brain such as GABA, Serotonin, Glutamate and nor epinephrine. Recently there are few reports suggesting that, 5-HT1A receptor antagonist with co-administration of fluoxetine has shown anticonvulsant activity. The present study is undertaken to evaluate the action of 5-HT2A/2C mediated anticonvulsant action of Trazodone in MES (Maximum Electro Shock model in albino rats. Materials & Methods: Fifty albino rats of 200-250 gms of either sex were divided into five groups each of 10 rats(n=10, Group–I received distil water 0.5ml oral, Group –II- received sodium valproate - 200mg/kg bw intra peritoneal(i.p.acted as positive control, Group –III- received Trazodone 54mg/bw, orally Group- IV- received sub-anticonvulsant dose of Fluoxetine 6mg/kg/bw i.p. Group- V- received Trazodone 54mg/kg/bw and Fluoxetine 6mg/kg bw. Subsequently all groups were subjected for MES. The results were analyzed by calculating the mean duration of convulsions & absence of HLE and comparison was done by student‘t’ test. Results: The present study revealed that sodium valproate showed 100% protection against MES as compared to negative control,(P<0.05. Trazodone showed 40% protection against MES& decrease in the duration of convulsions by 60%, and Fluoxitine sub-anticonvulsive dose combined with Trazodone 54 mg /kg b.w. has shown 90% protection against MES. The results are parallel to standard drug sodium valproate. Conclusion: Trazodone has exerted anticonvulsant activity, by enhancing 5-HT&NE extra cellular level in brain, and probably potentiated the action of sub anticonvulsive dose of fluoxetine in combination. However, further investigative studies are needed to confirm the potention of trazodone action.

  11. Construction and Preliminary Analysis of Subtractive Library for Cricetulus Barabensis with Albino Mutant%黑线仓鼠白化突变系抑制差减文库的构建及初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱学; 曾林; 尚世臣; 王鹏; 姚晓兰; 孙兆增

    2013-01-01

    目的 构建黑线仓鼠白化突变系的抑制差减文库,分离获得黑线仓鼠发生被毛突变的相关基因片段,并进行初步分析.方法 以黑线仓鼠作为实验组(tester),以其白化突变系作为驱动组(driver),采用抑制差减杂交技术构建差减文库(SSH).对阳性克隆进行测序并分析.结果 共获得126个有生物学意义的表达序列标签(ESTs),包括21个骨架蛋白,42个转录因子,24个代谢酶基因,25个转运分子及其调节蛋白和4个未知基因.差异基因中没有发现常见的白化疾病相关基因,发现多种与溶酶体的形成及内吞作用相关的基因,推测黑线仓鼠白化突变性状的产生可能与黑色素的运输障碍有关.结论 成功构建了黑线仓鼠白化突变的抑制差减文库,获得126个白化突变的相关基因,为进一步寻找白化突变相关基因,揭示其分子机制奠定了基础.%Objective To construct the subtractive library for Cricetulus barabensis and its albino mutant and preliminarily analyse the obtained gene fragments that related to the hair mutation of Cricetulus barabensis. Methods The Cricetulus barabensis was used as tester and its albino mutant was used as driver, the subtractive Library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. The positive clones was sequenced and analyzed. Results 126 Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was obtained including 21 skeleton proteins, 42 transcription factors, 24 genes of metabolic enzymes, 25 transport factors and their regulators, and 4 genes of unknown. Not the common genes related to albinism but several kinds of genes related to the formation and endocytosis of lysosomes were found in the differentially expressed genes, suggesting that the production of albinism of Cricetulus barabensis may relate to the disfunction of transportation. Conclusion The subtractive library for Cricetulus barabensis and its albino mutant was successfully constructed and 126 ESTs was

  12. Topical application of Gallic acid suppresses the 7,12-DMBA/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis by modulating anti-oxidants and MMP-2/MMP-9 in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Vimala; Venkatesan, Balaji; Tumala, Anusha; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA - 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a dietary anti-oxidant has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in in vitro. Herein, we investigated the in vivo chemo preventive activity of GA on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the 16 weeks of experimental period. In addition, LDH-isozyme shift, skin collagen content, activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9) enzymes and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant were studied in the skin and serum of experimental mice. Tumor incidence was significantly increased in the DMBA/Croton oil induced mice (100%; pCroton oil induced skin while decreased levels of enzymatic (GST, SOD, CAT & GPx) and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant (GSH) were noticed. On the other hand, GA co-treatment exhibited a significant protection by reverting back the altered levels of LDH-isoenzymes, antioxidants, collagen and MMP-2/MMP-9 activities. The results of this study indicate that topical application of GA inhibits DMBA/Croton oil induced two-stage skin carcinogenic process by modulating the antioxidants and MMPs (-2 & -9) in the mouse skin.

  13. Discharge of lead contamination by natural compounds pectin and chitin:biochemical analysis of DNA, RNA, DNase, RNase and GOT in albino rat as an early bio-marker of lead-toxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abd El-Moneim MR Afify; Hossam S El-Beltagi

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of different concentrations of lead in drinking water on nucleic acid contents, nuclease activities and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (GOT) in different tissues and reduce toxic effects of lead on environment especially human and rats by using pectin and chitin natural compounds in rat diets. Methods:Male albino rats were divided into eight groups. Groups 1, 4, 5 and 6 were fed on synthetic diet and given deionized water containing 0, 150, 250 and 1 500 μg lead/mL. Groups 2 and 3 were fed on synthetic diet containing 2%apple pectin or 2%grasp shell chitin and served as positive control. Groups 7 and 8 were fed on synthetic diet containing 2%pectin or 2%chitin and drinking water containing 250 μg lead/mL. At the end of the experimental period, animals (6 week) were killed by decapitation. All organs of each rat were dissected out and chilled for determination of DNA, RNA, DNase, RNase and GOT. Results:The data showed that higher lead concentration increased the activity of GOT in all organs. The concentrations of both DNA and RNA were increased with decreasing the activities of DNase and RNase. Adding 2%pectin or chitin with lead concentration 250 μg/mL showed discharge of lead, maintained the amount of nucleic acids and activated the related decomposition enzymes. Conclusions: Pectin or chitin natural compounds have the ability to chelate to lead and subsequently work as active natural compounds to discharge lead contamination.

  14. Analytical and microscopical studies on the protective effect of ascorbic acid (vitamin C and beta-carotene against the toxicityinduced by fenitrothion on the liver of female albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekram F. Hashim and Kadry Weshahy

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The organophosphate insecticide feneitrothion is a contact insecticide and selective acaricide. It is used as a fly, mosquito and cockroach, residual contact spray for farms and public health programs. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the toxicity of fenitrothion on the female rate and the possible protective effects of ascorbic acid (vitamine C and beta­carotene as antioxidant agents against the toxicity induced by fenitrothion. Sixty of adult female albino rats were randomly assigned to six equal groups including control group and groups treat­!"successive days. Ingestion of fenitrtothion caused a significant increase in ALT (alanine transferase, AST (aspartate transferase, and AP (alkaline phosphatase. It decreased signifiantly GL (glucose level, AchE (acetyle cholinesterase and GSH (glutathion reductase activities, while, it had insignificant effects on TB (total bilirubine and a slight decrease in TP (total protein. The histological study of female rat liver tissues by Hx & Eosin,P.A.S, and Methyl Green Pyronine revealed that, fenitrothion showed vascular and degenrative changes in the hepatic cells, Also, it caused a significant decrease in glycogen contents and depletion in of nucleic acids in hepatic cells. Treatments with ascorbic acid and beta­carotene plus fenitrothion hasn't been caused any significant changes in all parameters in serum of female rats. Treatment with ascorbic acid plus fenitrothion resulted a significant improvement in all parameters tested regarding to the histological study, while, beta-carotene plus fenitrothion showed the same improvement except in glycogen content in hepatic cells . Key Words : Fenitrothion ­ Toxicity ­ ALT ­ AST ­ GL ­ AChE ­ Rats ­ Histological ­ beta ­ carotene ­ Ascorbic acid .

  15. Cloning and expression of astacin gene in albino and normal sea cucumber (Apostichopusjaponicus Selenka)%刺参虾青素基因的克隆及不同体色个体间表达差异的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹤凌; 杨红生; 赵欢; 刘石林

    2012-01-01

    仿刺参(ApostichopusjaponicusSelenka)的体色变化很大,多数背腹均为黄褐色,极少数呈白化特征,背腹均为纯白色。经人工繁育实验发现,白化仿刺参的子代仍多具白化特征。本文研究了虾青素基因与刺参白化特征的相关性。在克隆虾青素基因cDNA全长的基础上,比较了普通仿刺参和白化仿刺参在不同发育时期虾青素基因表达量的差异。结果表明,该基因的cDNA含有2058个核苷酸,编码560个氨基酸。经实时定量PCR分析,白化成参体壁中虾青素基因表达量显著低于普通成参;而在仿刺参色素沉积的早期,白化稚参体壁中虾青素基因表达量从受精后第39天开始显著低于普通稚参。可见,仿刺参体壁中虾青素基因的低表达与刺参白化特征的发生密切相关。%In normal individuals of Apostichopus japonicus, dorsal and ventral surfaces turn yellowish brown in color. However, in albino individuals, little pigment is deposited on their dorsal and ventral surfaces, and the off- spring also suffer from albinism. To investigate the correlation between astacin gene expression and albinism in A. japonicus, we cloned the astacin full-length cDNA of A. japonicus and analyzed the differences of astacin mRNA expression in the adult body wall and juveniles between albino and normal individuals. The full-length cDNA of A. japonicus astacin contained 2058 nucleotides that encodes an astacin protein of 560 amino acids. The real-time PCR analysis showed that astacin expression levels were significantly lower in albino adults compared to normal adults. In A. japonicus juveniles, compared to normal juveniles the astacin expression levels were significantly lower in albino individuals by 39 days after fertilization. We therefore suggest that the albinism in A. japonicus might be due to low astacin expression.

  16. 大菱鲆子二代家系白化与正常幼鱼生长及形态学差异%Growth and morphology of albino and normal F2 juveniles from different families of turbot Scophthalmus maximus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关健; 郑永允; 刘洪军; 官曙光; 张全启; 雷霁霖

    2011-01-01

    白化现象是大菱鲆(Scophthalmus maximus)生产中存在的主要问题之一.2009年,采用大菱鲆育种标准化苗种培育方案培育大菱鲆子二代全同胞家系32个,选取其中白化较为严重的16个全同胞家系(包括6对半同胞家系组合)作为样本家系,抽样测定统计各家系85日龄(dph)幼鱼的形态指标,比较了各全同胞家系白化和正常鱼的形态特征,以及全同胞家系间生长的差异.大菱鲆幼鱼体色分为完全正常、局部白化和完全白化3个类型,白化率统计时将部分白化幼鱼归于白化幼鱼一类.16个全同胞家系的白化率处于17.2%~86.7%范围内,6对半同胞家系组合的白化率差别较大,姊妹家系间白化率差值0 ~ 46%,因此认为白化可能受到母系遗传或卵子质量的影响.多数家系的白化与正常幼鱼的全长、体长、总高、体高、全重差异不显著(P>0.05).16个全同胞家系样本中,除2个家系外,其余家系的白化与体色正常鱼的可比性状差异不显著(p>0.05).将各全同胞家系抽样的全部90尾鱼的全重平均值作为指标进行比较,发现全重的生长差异在全同胞家系间表现较为明显.因此,白化鱼与原色鱼的生长和身体形态整体上不存在显著差异.本研究还获得速生候选家系1个,高体型候选家系3个.根据研究结果分析大菱鲆白化现象发生的原因,认为虽然遗传不是大菱鲆白化与否的决定因素,但却是一个重要因素.%Albinism has a significant effect on the market value of cultured turbot Scophthalmus maximus. We investigated the causes of albinism in cultured turbot by constructing 32 full-sib turbot families using standardized larval-rearing in 2009. We measured weight and documented the morphology of 16 full-sib families (including 6 pairs of half-sib families) with higher rates of albinism 85 days post hatching (dph). We compared the morphology of albino juveniles and normal juveniles in every

  17. Desnutrição experimental: resultados anátomo-patológicos e bioquímicos da administração de dietas hipoprotéicas a ratos albinos jovens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Madi

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Na tentativa de reproduzir experimentalmente os achados morfológicos e eletroforéticos (proteínas no soro observados na desnutrição infantil, dois grupos de experiências foram realizados em ratos albinos jovens, submetendo-os a uma dieta pobre em proteínas (2% por períodos de 41 a 88 dias. O modelo experimental reproduz em linhas gerais os principais danos estruturais vistos na patologia humana, ficando num meio termo entre kwashiorkor e marasmo. Alterações atróficas tegumentares foram assinaladas como achado tardio. O achado mais conspícuo foi metamorfose gordurosa hepática do tipo perilobular. A regeneração hepatocelular foi abortiva, aparecendo nos estágios finais das experiências ao lado dos fenômenos regressivos. Foi possível estabelecer seqüência lesional nas alterações estruturais do pâncreas, desde mofificações da quantidade de grânulos de zimogênio nos estágios iniciais até a atrofia acinosa acentuada, subvertendo a arquitetura do órgão, nos estágios finais. As alterações intestinais culminaram com o quadro de atrofia, não comparável em intensidade com a patologia humana, correspondem à diminuição da altura do epitélio mucoso, hipocelularidade da lâmina própria, criptas pequenas, pobreza em mitoses, que encurtam as vilosidades, assemelhando-se ao padrão mucoso dos chamados animais "germ-free". Além disso, os autores chamam a atenção para a intensa dimuição das célular muco-secretoras ao nível do epitélio do intestino delgado e grosso. No modelo surpreende-se também uma depleção linfo-histiocitária, representada por atrofia das placas de Peyer, diminuição das célular de Kupffer, atrofia do timo e depleção linfóide ganglionar e esplênica. O estudo bioquímico do soro revelou baixa das proteínas totais e do colesterol. A eletroforese de proteínas demonstrou acentuada baixa da fração albumina, com inversão A/G. Entre as globulinas, as frações alfa1 e alfa2 est

  18. Conversazioni autobiografiche con Albino Sacco-Casamassima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Maria Valastro

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1948 venne Olivetti a Matera. Olivetti venne a Matera con un certo ambasciatore americano che praticamente aveva preparato o stava dando una mano per il piano Marschall, venne a Matera e mi vollero incontrare. Io sono stato chiamato dalla piazza, stavo nella piazza, era il mese di luglio, una cosa di questo genere, e andai in un bar, un bar ad angolo mi ricordo in Via Don Minzioni, dove questo Olivetti mi disse 'ma lei che cosa fa coi sassi?' 'Che cos'è questa storia?' Gli raccontai un po' che cosa facevo io con questi amici, avevamo fatto questo, insomma tutto quello che avevamo fatto nei sassi e che volevamo preparare ancora per presentare a qualcuno un piano di revisionamento dei sassi. Mi ricordo, era la prima volta che avevo visto Adriano Olivetti, ne avevo sentito parlare però non avevo mai visto quest'uomo con gli occhi celesti, minuto, coi capelli bianchi, riccioluto, con una cravatta bianca, cosa che mi fece impressione, una specie di angelo.

  19. Characterizations of a Mutant Gene hw-1(t)for Green-revertible Albino, High Tillering and Dwarf in Rice(Oryza sativa L.)%一个控制水稻叶色白化转绿及多分蘖矮杆性状基因hw-1(t)的鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭涛; 黄宣; 黄永相; 刘永柱; 张建国; 陈志强; 王慧

    2012-01-01

    通过空间诱变从光身稻品种Francis的M2群体中发现1株叶色白化转绿、多分蘖矮秆突变体hfa-1.hfa-1在三叶期之前完全白化,随后转绿.白化转绿表型受生长发育和温度调控.亚细胞结构观察发现hfa-1叶绿体发育异常抑制叶绿素合成,造成光合效率降低,产生白化表型.hfa-1的多分蘖表型是由于高节位分蘖芽激活所致,初步鉴定与苗期叶片IAA(吲哚乙酸)含量无关.hfa-1的矮生性则由节间长度缩短所致,与苗期GA(赤霉素)的合成和信号 传导无关.遗传分析表明hfa-1的白化转绿、多分蘖矮秆表型受单隐性核基因hw-1(t)控制.利用hfa-1与粳稻品种02428杂交获得的F2群体将hw-1(t)定位在水稻第4染色体长臂上两个InDel标记HW27和HW7间46.9 kb的物理距离内,该区域有13个阅读框架,其中LOC_Os04g57320编码IMMUTANTS蛋白,推测为hw-1(t)的候选基因.%A rice (Oryza sativa L.) mutant hfa-1 exhibiting green-revertible albino, high-tillering dwarf was detected from a M2 population of an American variety Francis by space mutagenesis. Hfa-1 displayed distinctive albino before 3rd leaf stage but finally turned to normal green after 3rd leaf stage, and the expression of this phenotype was conditionally controlled by development and temperature. Examining ultrastructure and measuring chlorophyll content indicated that hfa-1 showed albino due to abnormal development of chloroplast, which resulted in inhibiting chlorophyll synthesis and decreasing photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, the increased tiller number of hfa-1 was ascribed to initiate more higher-order tiller buds. Further endogenous hormones analysis demonstrated that the enhanced tillering capacity of hfa-1 might not result from inhibiting the synthesis of IAA. In addition, the dwarfism of hfa-1 was caused by shortening internodes and was independent of biosynthesis and signal transduction of GA. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of green

  20. Evaluation of analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhomik Goel

    2014-04-01

    Results: Emblica officinalis extract did not produced statistically significant (p>0.05 analgesia when compared with the control group in hot plate latency, but produced a statistically significant reduction in 6% NaCl induced abdominal writhing (pEmblica officinalis exhibit analgesic activity involving peripheral mechanisms. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 365-368

  1. Anticonvulsant profile of nardostachys jatamansi roots in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushotham K.

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of nardostachys jatamansi roots was less when compared to Sodium Valproate in Maximal Electro Shock model. Whereas, in Pentylenetetrazole induced seizure model, anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of nardostachys jatamansi roots was comparable to sodium valproate. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 758-762

  2. Anti hyperalgesic potentials of Laggera aurita in Swiss Albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Temidayo Olutoyin; Mati, Fatima Guiet

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Laggera aurita (LA), including its anti-nociceptive properties have been documented in literature. This study evaluated the anti-hyperalgesic effects of the methanolic extract of LA (MELA) using chemically and mechanically induced hyperalgesia models. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were also conducted. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose was found to be 3807.88 mg/kg, while saponins, tannins and carbohydrates were found to be present in the plant material. MELA exhibited significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing and Randall-Siletto tests. The 400 mg/kg dose of MELA exhibited a significant (psaponins, tannins and carbohydrates which have been previously associated with anti-hyperalgesia may be responsible for the pharmacological actions, thus authenticating the ethnomedical rationale for its anti-nociceptive uses. PMID:24374444

  3. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Myristica fragrans houtt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutmeg, the dried seed kernel of Myristica fragrans, MF (Family: Myristicaceae) possesses antifungal, hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Its radioprotective effect against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded lethal dose to 50% of the population in 30 days (LD50/30) as 6.83 Gy and 8.89 Gy for irradiated only and (MF+radiation) groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.3. Administration of MF significantly enhanced hepatic glutathione (GSH) and decreased testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) level whereas acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity did not show any significant alteration. Irradiation resulted in significant elevation in LPO level and ACP activity, and decreased the GSH content and ALP activity. MF pretreatment effectively protected against radiation induced biochemical alteration as reflected by a decrease in LPO level and ACP activity, and an increase in GSH and ALP activity. The present study has implications for the potential use of MF as a radioprotector. (author)

  4. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S H Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH response, and humoral antibody (HA titre. Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count. Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant.

  5. Hematological and Biochemical Evaluation of Teucrium Polium in Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Al-Kubaisy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of acute (24 h and subacute (3 weeks treatment of the Teucrium polium decoction on liver and kidney functions and hematological parameters in rats. The toxicity study with this decoction did not produce mortality. No marked adverse alterations were observed in hematological and biochemical parameters during acute toxicity. In the subacute toxicity studies, red blood cells counts, Hemoglobin (Hb and Packed Cell Volume (PVC insignificantly decreased. However, other blood indices, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC were not changed. There was significant (p<0.001 increase in white blood cells. Serum glucose level change was insignificant, while the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly (p<0.001 reduced. The Activity of Serum Transaminases (ALT and AST showed non significant changes, urea, uric acid and creatinine levels were found non significant changes. In conclusion the statistical analysis of our results indicates that treatment with T. polium did not cause any attension that might suggest the presence of pathological damage at the dose investigation.

  6. Molecular analyses of a tyrosinase-negative albino family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K.C.; Chintamaneni, C.D.; Kwon, B.S. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis (United States)); Halaban, R. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)); Witkop, C.J. Jr. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Sequence analysis of the tyrosinase coding region from an individual with tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote. One allele carried a C[r arrow]A single-base substitution in codon 355 of exon 3, and the other carried a two-nucleotide deletion in exon 1. The nucleotide substitution caused a putative amino acid change from threonine (ACA) to lysine (AAA), abolishing a signal for N-glycosylation. The two base-pair deletion caused a frameshift, creating a putative premature termination signal at codon 226. The melanocytes from the proband and her affected brother were amelanotic and devoid of measurable tyrosinase activity. Moreover, gel electrophoretic analysis of the immunoprecipitated proband tyrosinase showed that the protein was no processed to the mature glycosylated form, confirming the predicted consequence of the amino acid change. The two-base deletion on the homologous allele was detected only by sequencing genomic DNA. The transcript of this allele was not represented in the cDNA library and could not be detected by PCR mRNA, and the putative truncated protein ([approximately]25 kDa) was not present in immunoprecipitates, suggesting that the allele with the missense mutation may be preferentially expressed. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Joshi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in some of the biochemical and haematological parameters along with histopathological findings were evident at the highest dose level.

  8. Wound healing property of paroxetine in immunosuppressed albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Dwajani S; Ranjana Gurumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the wound healing activity of Paroxetine in different wound models in wistar rats and to study its effects on dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Methods: For assessment of wound healing activity, excision and incision wound models were used. Group I was assigned as control, orally, Group II received Paroxetine, i.p, Group III received Dexamethasone intramuscularly (i.m) and Group IV received Dexamethasone i.m and Paroxetine, i....

  9. Avaliação dos efeitos depressores centrais do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum Pax. e de suas frações em camundongos albinos Evaluation of the central depressor effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum Pax. and its fractions in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borges de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea é uma planta nativa da África tropical conhecida como "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", dentre outros. A planta é utilizada pela população brasileira como detentora de propriedades antiinflamatória, analgésica, dentre outras. Foram avaliados os efeitos depressores sobre o sistema nervoso central (SNC do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum (EES e de suas frações - hexânica (FH, clorofórmica (FC e metanol/água (FM. Vários testes foram utilizados em camundongos machos albinos (Mus musculus, dentre eles, o sono induzido por barbitúrico, campo aberto e o teste do rota-rod. O EES foi testado nas doses de 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, enquanto que a FH foi testada na dose de 10 mg/kg, a FC na dose de 20 mg/kg e a FM na dose de 25 mg/kg. O EES e as frações FH e FC, mas não a FM, apresentaram um possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC, visto que foram capazes de aumentar o tempo parado e diminuir o número de bolos fecais no campo aberto, além de potencializarem o sono induzido por barbitúrico. No teste do rota-rod, observou-se que o EES e as frações não foram capazes de causar incoordenação motora ou relaxamento muscular. Assim, conclui-se que o extrato etanólico e as frações FH e FC do Syandenium umbellatum Pax. possuem possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC.Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea is a native plant from tropical Africa known as "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", among others. The plant is used by Brazilian folks for having anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, among others. It was evaluated the depressor effects over the central nervous system (CNS of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum (EES and its fractions - hexane (HF, chloroformic (CF and methanol/water fractions(MF. Several tests were used in Swiss mice (Mus musculus, among them, barbiturate-induced sleep, open field and rota-rod test. The

  10. 二烯丙基硫醚对睾丸激素引发的瑞士白鼠氧化应激反应的调节作用%Modulatory effects of diallyl sulfide against testosterone-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Prasad; N. Kalra; Y. Shukla

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the protective effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a constituent of garlic, against testosterone-induced oxidative stress in male Swiss albino mice. Methods: The animals were given low (250 mg/animal) and high dose (500 mg/animal) of DAS in corn oil for 7 days along with testosterone (5 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). At the end of the study period, the prostate and the liver were dissected to determine various antioxidant enzyme levels (catalase,superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase) and lipid peroxidation. Results: In testosterone treated mice, depleted antioxidant enzyme level was accompanied with enhancement in lipid peroxidation in prostate and liver. DAS significantly restored the testosterone-induced antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in the both organs. These changes appear to be mediated by the antioxidant-enhancing effects of DAS. Conclusion:The results of the present study suggest that DAS is effective in exerting antioxidant effects by inhibiting testosteroneinduced oxidative stress and might be helpful in preventing prostate cancer. (Asian JAndrol 2006 Nov; 8: 719-723)%目的:研究大蒜的成分之一二烯丙基硫醚(diallyl sulfide,DAS)对睾丸激素引发的雄性瑞士白鼠氧化应激反应的保护作用.方法:给瑞士白鼠连续7天注射不同剂量的DAS,低剂量组为250 mg/只,高剂量组为500 mg/只,玉米油作为佐剂.同时根据小鼠的体重注射一定剂量的睾丸激素(5 mg/kg).注射结束后将前列腺和肝脏进行切片,观察不同的抗氧化酶(过氧化氢酶、超氧化物歧化酶、谷胱甘肽还原酶、谷胱甘肽-S-转硫酶)水平和脂质过氧化情况.结果:在注射了睾丸激素的小鼠的前列腺和肝脏中,抗氧化酶失活的同时脂质的过氧化反应增强.DAS在这两种脏器中能恢复由睾丸激素引起的上述反应,这个作用是由DAS的抗氧化增强作用介导.结论:本研究结果显示

  11. ANALGESIC EFFECT OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LINN. PLANT ON INDUCED ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Sachan Dipti

    2012-01-01

    The ethanolic extract of whole part of Moringa oleifera plant in Eddy’s Hot plate method shows markedly increase in the pain threshold of mice. The three different Extract Curative doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg were compared with standard drug i.e. Aspirin. The increased pain threshold of mice by curative treatment using alcohol extract was significant. Moringa oleifera is a deciduous tree of immense medicinal properties. Whole plant specially root, bark, leaves and fruits conta...

  12. ANALGESIC EFFECT OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LINN. PLANT ON INDUCED ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachan Dipti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of whole part of Moringa oleifera plant in Eddy’s Hot plate method shows markedly increase in the pain threshold of mice. The three different Extract Curative doses of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg were compared with standard drug i.e. Aspirin. The increased pain threshold of mice by curative treatment using alcohol extract was significant. Moringa oleifera is a deciduous tree of immense medicinal properties. Whole plant specially root, bark, leaves and fruits contain many important phytoconstituents. Literature survey revealed that plant contains flavonoids, glycosides, vitamins, and important inorganic metals that’s why used as an important medicine traditionally in many ailments. This laid the basis for selection of whole plant for the anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. Antifertility activity of ethanolic extracts of Plumbago indica and Aerva lanata on albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savadi R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of roots of Plumbago indica and aerial parts of Aerva lanata were evaluated for antifertility activity using anti-implantation, abortificient, and motility of rat spermatozoa (in-vitro models. The anti-implantation effect seems to be depending on the dose as well as the initiation of treatment on specific days of pregnancy. P. indica has showed percentage pre-implantation loss of 40% and 50% against control at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w. Percentage pregnancy failure among treated groups was 60% and 70% at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, whereas A. lanata has shown pre-implantation loss of 20% and 30% against control at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, respectively. Percentage pregnancy failure among treated groups was 30% and 40% at the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg b/w, respectively. Both P. indica and A. lanata at a concentration of 10% have shown no motility of rat spermatozoa within 60 seconds.

  14. Effect of the Aqueous Root Extract of Urena lobata (Linn on the Liver of Albino Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Y. Mshelia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the aqueous root extract of urena lobata on the rat liver was investigated using a total of (25 adult Wister rats of both sexes that were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as the control, while rats in groups II-IV where administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of the extract, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 300 mg/kg of the extract for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental period the animals were sacrificed and liver weight taken and fixed for routine histological examinations. Administration of the extract to rats had no effects on liver and body weights but the extract caused a decrease in albumin level and increases in the levels of Aspartate Transaminases (AST, Alanine Transaminases (ALT and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP. Histopathological assessment of the liver revealed mild to severe interstitial hemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis, congestion and edema in the liver of the treated rats while withdrawal of the extract for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. This findings suggest that the biochemical and morphological organization of the liver can significantly be altered with continues and increase use of the extract, but further studies on the long term effect of the extract and a prolonged recovery period is recommended in further studies.

  15. Beta-glucan ameliorates gamma-rays induced oxidative injury in male Swiss albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1,3-beta-D-Glucan is a natural polysaccharide derived from the cell walls of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevsiae with immunoenhancing and potent antioxidant effects. This study investigated the pathways through which beta-glucan gavage treatment (50mg/kg) exerts its effect on radiation-induced oxidative damage in male rats. Beta-glucan was given orally to male rats; 3 hours post gamma-irradiation at dose 5Gy, for 10 and 20 days post-irradiation level were assayed, being remarkable indicators in cell oxidative stress. Results pointed out that irradiation at 5Gy significantly depressed all blood parameters, such as erythrocytes count (RBCs), hemoglobin content (Hb), hematocrit value (Hct), total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, blood glutathione (GSH) level and conversely elevated level of serum ascorbyl radical (AsR), product of lipid peroxidation (MDA melanodialdehyde), triglycerides and cholesterol. Total leucocytes count and absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, RBCs, Hb, Hct, blood GSH and serum MDA of irradiated animals receiving beta-glucan administration were exhibited significant differences compared to the irradiated group. Marrow count and the percentage of viability and spleenocytes viability were also significantly decreased. Beta-glucan treatment accelerates recovery of cell damage induced by ionizing irradiation through its potential immune-enhancing activity and free radical scavenging ability that is partially mediated through stimulation of immunohaematological system thus could play a role in regulating irradiation complications

  16. Peripheral blood and bone marrow responses under stress of cypermethrin in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pande Sunita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroids, commercially available pesticides, are greatly in use these days, and thus they carry considerable chances of contaminating various ecosystems. Haematotoxicity of cypermethrin, a broadly used type II pyrethroid, has been assessed in the present study. Selected parameters included determination of total RBC count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb conc., packed cell volume (PCV, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential leukocyte count (DLC, along with qualitative analysis of blood and bone marrow. Of these parameters, those showing significant decline following cypermethrin intoxication included total RBC count, Hb conc., PCV, MCV, MCH, whereas non-significant decrease was observed in the case of MCHC. ESR, TLC and DLC, on the other hand, increased significantly following cypermethrin intoxication. Qualitative changes included altered red cell morphology such as microcystosis, appearance of stomatocytes, poikilocytosis, giant platelet formation, etc. in peripheral blood and increased erythroid precursors in bone marrow of treated rats. These parameters were however normalised following twenty-two days of recovery phase

  17. Amelioration of lead induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue-gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine am...

  18. ALTERATIONS IN THE ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN THE BRAIN OF ALBINO MICE EXPOSED TO ACEPHATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SIVA PRASAD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acephate (AP, a widely available organophosphorus (OP insecticide, has low mammalian toxicity and isconsidered non-phytotoxic on many crop plants and therefore it is preferred in agricultural crops. In plants andinsects, AP is metabolized extensively to methamidophos (MP, a more potent OP insecticide. The limitedmammalian metabolism of AP to MP has been studied in laboratory rat models and suggests that initial formationof MP from AP may inhibit further formation. Hence in the present investigation we have studied the effect of anAP in cholinergic mechanisms in the different regions of brain. For the present study the male mice were exposedto 1/10th LD50 of AP via oral gavage (i.e. 40.5mg/kg body weight. Our results indicate a steady decline of AChEactivity in all the regions of the brain of Acephate exposed animals. As expected an increase in ACh activity wasnoticed in all the regions of the AP exposed animals. We suggest that cholinergic system is seriously affected bythe intoxication of Acephate and the effect was more effective in 30 days when compared to 10 days

  19. Histological Evaluation of Radioprotection by Silymarin and Brassica Oleracea Extract on Eye of Albino Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of two different antioxidant agents (an ethanolic seed extract of cabbage Brassica oleraceaand silymarin) on irradiated rat eye tissues. Silymarin, known for its potent antioxidant activity, was used as a reference. Rats were divided into 6 groups; group I contained control rats, group II rats received gamma radiation (6 Gy) in three fractionated doses for 3 consecutive days, group III rats received silymarin orally through the experiment , group IV rats received ethanolic extract of brassica seeds orally through the experiment, group V rats received silymarin one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation, and group VI rats received brassica extract one week before radiation, during radiation and one week after radiation . The histological study revealed that ethanolic extract of brassica seeds alleviated the manifestations of radiation injury in the eye tissues as compared with the untreated animals and also with those who received the silymarin.

  20. EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF VITIS VINIFERA LINN. ON ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tikare V.P; Hadaginhal R V; Raghavendra M M A V

    2011-01-01

    In the present study fruits of Vitis vinifera Linn. (Vitacae) commonly known as Draksh were selected for preliminary phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of cognitive enhancing activity. The shade dried fruits were subjected to successive solvent extraction with 70 % ethanol. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids when subjected to chemical tests. TLC was run for their confirmation of flavonoids in Vitis...

  1. IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB. STEM BARK ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are believed to be an important source of new chemical substance with potential therapeutic applicability. Several plant species traditionally used as anti-inflammatory.This research work is carryout for the anti-inflammatory activity of Pterocarpus marsupium roxb. Stem bark extracts using Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Ibuprofen 60mg/kg p.o. was kept as standard. The research was carried out in Wister strain weighing 150-200gm. The Methanol (100mg/Kg and Aqueous extract (100mg/Kg has exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Flavonoids present in stem bark may be responsible for anti-inflammatory activity. However, it needs isolation, structural elucidation and screening of above active principles to pin point activity of drug.

  2. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Solanum Pubescens LINN ON CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Pushpalatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of Solanum pubescens Linn was evaluated for hepato protective and antioxidant activities in rats. The plant extract (500mg/kg/day showed a remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels in liver tissues. CCl4 induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, LPO with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Treatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.01 altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against CCl4 - treated rats. The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotective activity of plant.

  3. Effect of pomegranate pretreatment on the oral bioavailability of buspirone in male albino rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sarangapani; Y Madhusudan Rao; R Shiva Kumar; Ramesh, G.; Y Vamshi Vishnu; Bhargavi Latha, A.; Adukondalu, D.; Y Shravan Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Background and the Purpose of the study: Many drug substances and variety of naturally occurring dietary or herbal components are capable of interaction with the CYP enzyme system. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate juice pretreatment on the bioavailability of buspirone in rabbits. Methods: White New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.1±0.13 Kg were selected for study. The bioavailability of buspirone after pre-treatment with pomegranate juice (10 ml Kg-1 for sev...

  4. Protective effect of Genistein against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahad Ali; Rahul; Falaq Naz; Smita Jyoti; Yasir Hasan Siddique

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we studied the effect of Genistein against the hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA). NDEA is present in almost all kinds of food stuff and has been reported to be a hepatocarcinogen. The male rats were exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) dissolved in drinking water separately and along with 25, 50, 100 mg/mL of Genistein for 21 days. The activities of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured in blood serum. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, micronucleus frequency and DNA damage (Comet assay) were performed on rat hepatocytes. The results of the study reveal that the treatment of NDEA along with Genistein showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the levels of blood serum enzymes i.e., SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LDH (Po0.05). The HE staining of histological sections of the liver also revealed a protective effect of Genistein. A significant dose-dependent reduction in the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content was observed in rats exposed to NDEA (0.1 mg/mL) along with Genistein (Po0.05). The results obtained for the comet assay in rat hepatocytes showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the mean tail length (Po0.05). Thus the present study supports the hepatoprotective role of Genistein.

  5. Toxicological impact of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food coloring agents in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JPMS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed M.Hashem, Attia H.Atta, Mahmoud S. Arbid, Somaia A. Nada, Samar M. Mouneir and Gihan Farag Asaad (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt (pages 43-51

  6. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response.

  7. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  8. ANTI ULCER EFFECT OF BASELLA ALBA LEAF EXTRACT IN ASPIRIN INDUCED ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkatalakshmi et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the anti ulcer effect of Basella alba in aspirin induced ulcerated rats. Aspirin induced ulcer was revealed by increased ulcer index, decreased gastric pH, increase in the levels of pepsin, Thio barbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS. Lipid hydroperoxides and decrease in the levels of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants. Treatment with the plant extract brought back the altered parameters to normal.

  9. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Asiaf, Asia; Aslam, Mohammad; Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Nizami, Qudsia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Siddiqui, Aisha; Umar, Sadiq

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochem-ical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity ...

  10. Anticonvulsant activity of gap-junctional blocker carbenoxolone in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel Kumar Reddy

    2014-08-01

    Conclusions: Carbenoxolone has in-vivo anticonvulsive effect and could be useful in both petitmal (absence seizures and grand mal (generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy seizures. The protective effect of carbenoxolone could be due to blockade of GJ channels that mediate electro tonic coupling and thereby prevent the neural synchronization that is characteristic of seizures. The study also supports the view that GJs have a functional role in the electrophysiology of seizures and GJ blockers have potential as a new class of antiepileptic drugs. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 711-717

  11. Evaluation of anti-depressant effect of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Dudhgaonkar

    2014-08-01

    Results: Lemon grass at the above doses significantly reduced the immobility time in both the tests compared with the control (C. citratus has significant anti-depressant activity comparable to imipramine. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(4.000: 656-660

  12. ANTIDIARRHOEL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF VERNONIA CINEREA (L. LESS ON FEMALE ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panday Ganesh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with the objectives of investigating antidiarrhoel activity of Vernonia cinerea whole plant (Family-Compositae, collected from tarai region of Uttarakhand. The plant extracts were obtained via cold extraction method. For the purpose of evaluating antidiarrhoel efficacy of methanolic extract of the plant, rats were used as test animal. The time of onset of first wet faeces increased significantly and dose dependently by the extract. It was excellent at higher doses (100 & 200 mg/kg body wt., orally. It indicated reduction in peristaltic movement of gastro intestinal tract of animals. The antidiarrhoel activity was further confirmed by its significant and dose dependent decrease in number of wet faeces and number of total faeces in comparison to rats used as control.

  13. Effect of salvia a Egyptiaca extract on serotoninergic system and cortisol in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract with a dose of 2 g/kg body weight (0.5 ml solution /rat) for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in tryptophan, serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in all tested brain areas, almost allover the experimental period. Also, it caused significant decrease in serum cortisol level. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that the extract of Salvia egyptiaca may affect GABA-benzodiazepine receptors, that eventually inhibit the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) which consequently caused decrease in serum cortisol level. The low level of cortisol inhibits the tryptophan pyrrolase activity resulting in an increase of the peripheral availability of tryptophan for 5-HT synthesis in brain. Accordingly, 5-HT content as well as its metabolite 5-HIAA were increased

  14. Effect of artesunate on maximal electroshock and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sanjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin-based combination therapies are highly efficacious, and they are now listed as first-line therapies for uncomplicated malaria in most countries where malaria is endemic. Neurotoxicity of artemisinins is a growing concern. However, no studies have reported its antiepileptic or epileptogenesis potential, hence the present study was undertaken to explore the activity of artesunate in experimentally induced seizures in rodent models. Artesunate at doses 36.4 and 72.8 mg/kg respectively significantly reduced the duration of the hind limb extensions (3.033±1.493 and 2.033±1.383, respectively when compared to the control (P<0.0001 in the maximal electroshock-induced seizure model. However, no significant decrease was noted in the duration of clonic convulsions in a pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure model indicating lack of activity in petit mal epilepsy. The results of the present study indicate that artesunate at both the doses employed showed a significant anticonvulsant activity in the maximum electroshock-induced seizure model suggesting its potential utility in the management of generalized tonic-clonic seizures and partial seizures. Further studies regarding its mechanism of action are warranted.

  15. The influence of lactation on L-proline absorption from small intestine in the albino rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, U; Sharma, R K

    1985-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of L-proline was studied in control and lactating rats from jejunum and ileum by in vivo method and presented per unit dry weight and per unit length of the respective segment. L-proline absorption was found to be significantly reduced in lactating animals as compared to the virgin controls. The results were discussed in light of serosal to mucosal ratio. By in vitro method also jejunal and ileal uptake of L-proline were found to be significantly reduced in lactating animals as compared to the virgin controls.

  16. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN. ROOTS IN ALBINO MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Deka Manalisha; Kalita Jogen Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Clitoria ternatea has been using since the ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root of the plant is reported to have anti diarrheal, Anti histamic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally the root has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic, impotency, stomach trouble etc. The present study was designed to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute ...

  17. Studies on the Analgesic Potential of leaf Extracts of Allium humile on Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamini Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium humile is a medicinal plant found at the Alpine Himalayas of Uttarakhand at altitute of 2500-3000 meters height of sea level. In India, Allium humile, is used by local people as a spice and in ethano-medicine. In the present study, Allium humile leaves were explored for their analgesic potential on experimental model and compared to standard drugs. Allium humile at the doses of 100 mg/kg and aspirin 25 mg/kg exhibited significant (p>0.05 inhibition of the control writhes at the rate of 64.25%, 44.54%, 44.54% and 59.89% respectively when compared to that of control. Thus, methanolic extract of the plant can be fully explored for its analgesic potential which has not been reported so far. The plant extract showed a relative low toxicity hence justifies the folkloric use of plant by the local people in Western Himalayan region for curing inflammation and painful conditions.

  18. Cisplatin-induced ototoxicity : Morphological evidence of spontaneous outer hair cell recovery in albino guinea pigs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaal, RM; de Groot, JCMJ; Huizing, EH; Veldman, JE; Smoorenburg, GF

    2000-01-01

    Cisplatin is frequently used in the treatment of various forms of malignancies. Its therapeutic efficacy, however, is limited by the occurrence of sensorineural hearing loss. Little is known about the course of hearing loss over longer time intervals after cessation of cisplatin administration. Infr

  19. EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF VITIS VINIFERA LINN. ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikare V P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study fruits of Vitis vinifera Linn. (Vitacae commonly known as Draksh were selected for preliminary phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of cognitive enhancing activity. The shade dried fruits were subjected to successive solvent extraction with 70 % ethanol. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids when subjected to chemical tests. TLC was run for their confirmation of flavonoids in Vitis vinifera and than subjected to isolation by preparative TLC method and analyzed by UV, FTIR and HPTLC. In the pharmacological screening, the alcoholic extract was used for the evaluation of cognitive enhancing activity using elevated plus maze & passive avoidance task method with Mentat as Standard by using parameters of step down and transfer latency. Induction was carried out by MES and scopolamine for 7 days. On 7th day the brain was isolated for evaluation of Acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The alcoholic extracts (200mg/kg.B.W showed significant effect when compare to control, there was significant increase in step down latency and decrease in the transfers latency and also decrease in acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity, which was as effective as that of standard drug. Hence it can by conclude that fruits of Vitis vinifera contain favonoid and hence possess significant cognitive enhancing activity.

  20. EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF MIMUSOPS ELENGI LINN ON ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadaginhal R V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, flowers of Mimusops elengi Linn (Sapotacae commonly known as Bakul was selected for preliminary phytochemical investigation and pharmacological screening of cognitive enhancing activity. The shade dried flowers were subjected to successive solvent extraction with 70 % ethanol. The extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids when subjected to chemical tests. TLC was run for their confirmation of terpenoids in Mimusops elengi Linn and then subjected to isolation by preparative TLC method and analyzed by UV, FTIR and HPTLC. In the pharmacological screening, the alcoholic extract was used for the evaluation of cognitive enhancing activity using elevated plus maza & passive avoidance task method with Mentat as Standard by using parameters of step down and transfer latency. Induction was carried out by MES and scopolamine for 7 days. On 7th day the brain was isolated for evaluation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The alcoholic extracts (200mg/kg.B.W showed significant effect when compare to control, there was significant increase in step down latency and decrease in the of transfers latency and also decrease in acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity but was not as effective as that of standard drug. Hence it can by conclude that the flowers of Mimusops elengi Linn contain triterpenoid and hence possess significant cognitive enhancing activity.