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Sample records for albicans isoladas da

  1. Estudo do perfil eletroforetico de proteinas intracelulares de Candida albicans isoladas da cavidade bucal de escolares

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    Marcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: Um total de setenta e cinco amostras de Cândida albicans isoladas da cavidade oral de escolares saudáveis, do município de Piracicaba, estado de São Paulo, região sudeste do Brasil, com idades variando entre seis e nove anos, provenientes de cinco classes socioeconômicas e oito escolas, foram estudadas. Com base nos dados da literatura, o propósito da presente pesquisa foi analisar os graus de associação (similaridade) entre esses isolados, através da técnica de eletroforese de proteí...

  2. Perfil eletroforetico de proteinas intracelulares de Candida albicans isoladas da cavidade bucal e outros sitios anatomicos de humanos

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    Cristina Crespo Rodrigues

    2001-01-01

    Resumo: Amostras de Cândida álbicans isoladas da cavidade oral e de diferentes sítios anatômicos de humanos, foram estudadas. O propósito da presente pesquisa foi analisar os graus de similaridade entre esses isolados, através da técnica de eletroforese de proteínas totais em gel de poliacrilamida, em sistema descontínuo (SDS-PAGE). As amostras foram inoculadas em 50 mL de meio de cultura YPD. Decorrido o tempo de inoculação, as amostras foram centrifugadas a 3000 x g, por 5 minutos e os sedi...

  3. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from oral mucosa of patients with cancer Suscetibilidade de Candida albicans a antifúngicos: cepas isoladas da mucosa bucal de pacientes com câncer

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    Lino João da COSTA

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of oral infections due to opportunistic fungi in immunocompromised patients, needs a new evaluation of the drugs in use. The susceptibility in vitro of Candida albicans strains from the oral mucosa of cancer patients to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were evaluated. A dilution technique in YNB agar or subculture on Sabouraud agar was utilised for MIC or MFC determinations. With this methodology, the best fungicidal drug for C.albicans collected from the oral mucosa of 40 cancer patients, divided in two groups: one treated by radiotherapy and the other not, the best results were obtained with amphotericin B, presenting low values of MIC compared to azoles and MFC values. However it is important to take into consideration the utilisation in vivo of this polyenic antibiotic and the possible toxic levels necessary to achieve good results. The coexistence of other fungi and the local conditions must also be pondered with these patients, who are mostly undergoing radiotherapy. In order to achieve better results without undesirable consequences, higher levels of MIC are expected with the daily clinical use of new drugs.O crescente número de infecções fúngicas bucais em pacientes imunocomprometidos tem estimulado a pesquisa de drogas mais eficientes. Procuramos, assim, avaliar a suscetibilidade in vitro de cepas de Candida albicans de pacientes com câncer submetidos ou não a radioterapia frente às seguintes drogas: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, miconazol e itraconazol. A técnica de diluição em ágar YNB e o subcultivo em AS foram respectivamente utilizados para determinação da CIM (Concentração Inibitória Mínima e da CFM (Concentração Fungicida Mínima. Com esta metodologia, a droga que mostrou melhor atividade antifúngica para cepas de C. albicans isoladas de qualquer dos grupos de pacientes foi a anfotericina B, apresentando baixos valores de CIM em comparação aos az

  4. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças de uma creche da prefeitura de Fortaleza Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the buccal mucosa of children of a day-care center of the city hall of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available As candidíases bucais (também chamadas sapinhos que ocorrem em crianças são causadas por uma deficiência imunológica, bem como por outros fatores tais como má higiene bucal e esterilização inadequada dos utensílios utilizados pelas mesmas, que potencializam a ocorrência dessa infecção fúngica. Considerando esse fato, foram avaliadas a freqüência e a atividade enzimática de Candida sp. isoladas em crianças de uma creche pública (Aprisco na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará. Foram coletadas amostras da mucosa bucal de 364 alunos de 1 a 5 anos de idade. Elas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose com cloranfenicol, incubadas por 72 horas a 37ºC e identificadas por testes micológicos. Verificou-se que 67 (18% apresentaram leveduras do gênero Candida. A Candida albicans foi a mais freqüente, com 30 isolados (45%, seguida pelas C. tropicalis (31%, C. guilliermondii (17%, C. glabrata (4,5% e C. stellatoidea (1,5%. Com relação às atividades enzimáticas das cepas de Candida albicans, 20% produziram a enzima proteinase e 33%, a fosfolipase. As Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças dessa creche da prefeitura apresentaram uma fraca atividade enzimática. Assim, conclui-se que essas cepas parecem ter uma baixa virulência.Immunedefficiency is one of the main causes of buccal candidiasis, also called thrush, in children. Other factors like inadequate mouth hygiene and inappropriate sterilization utensils potentialize this fungal infection. Considering these facts, Candida sp. frequency and enzymatic activity were evaluated in 364 stocks from mouth mucous of one to five year-old children from a public day care center in Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil. The samples were cultured in dextrose Sabouraud with chloranfenicol agar and incubated for 72 hours at 37°C. They were identified by mycological tests. It was verified that 67 samples (18% presented Candida sp. and the most frequent genus was Candida albicans (30

  5. SDS-Page and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from human oral cavity and other anatomical sites Eletroforese de proteínas totais e análise numérica de Candida albicans isolada da cavidade oral e outros sítios anatômicos de humanos

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    Cristina Crespo Rodrigues

    2004-06-01

    secretion, pulmonary secretion, oral cavity of immunocompromised patients, and blood. Complementary studies involving C. albicans sample isolated from several anatomical sites of immunocompetent or immunocompromised patients (before, during and after specifics therapies and their families or hospital workers must be done in order to establish the sources of C. albicans colonization. The whole-cell proteins profile performed by SDS-PAGE associated with computer-assisted numerical analysis may provide preliminary criteria for taxonomic and epidemiological studies of such microorganisms.O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi analisar os graus de polimorfismos protéicos entre isolados de C. albicans provenientes de diversos sítios anatômicos de quarenta e dois pacientes clínicos, através do emprego da eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida (SDS-PAGE e análise numérica, a fim de se identificar subespécies e suas similaridades nos diversos nichos infecciosos. Culturas celulares foram desenvolvidas em meio YEPD, coletadas por centrifugação e lavadas com solução salina gelada. As proteínas celulares totais, foram extraídas por rompimento celular, usando pérolas de vidro e submetidas à técnica de SDS-PAGE. Após a eletroforese, as bandas de proteínas foram coradas com coomassie-blue e analisadas pelo conjunto de programas estatístico NTSYS-pc versão 1,70. Matrizes de similaridade e dendrogramas foram gerados pela aplicação do coeficiente de similaridade simple-matching e do algoritmo UPGMA, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos revelaram vários subtipos de C. albicans e seus graus de similaridade (80% a 100%. Tais dados permitiram demonstrar que, certos pacientes podem estar infectados com dois ou mais subtipos de C. albicans em determinados sítios anatômicos (i.e. apenas na cavidade oral de pacientes imunocomprometidos, sangue ou secreção traqueal, ou ainda, dois ou mais pacientes podem estar infectados em sítios anatômicos idênticos (i.e. apenas em

  6. Toxinas killer e produção de enzimas por Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de pacientes com câncer Killer toxin sensitiviy and production of enzymes by Candida albicans isolated from the oral mucosa of patients with cancer

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    Elida Elias de Oliveira

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Infecções oportunistas da cavidade bucal são primariamente causadas por fungos do gênero Candida e freqüentemente ocorrem em pacientes com câncer que estão sobtratamento quimioterápico e antibacteriano. De 44 amostras coletadas da mucosa oral de pacientes com câncer, observou-se o isolamento de 25 leveduras do gênero Candida em cultivo realizado em ágar Sabouraud-dextrose. Foram identificados Candida albicans em 24 (96% isolados e C. krusei em 1 (4%. As características fenotípicas das amostras de Candida albicans mostraram que todos os isolados foram fortemente proteolíticos, capazes de produzir fosfolipases e possuíam os biotipos caracterizados como 811(95,8% e 511 (4,2% em relação a susceptibilidade às toxinas killer.Opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are primarily caused by Candida and frequently occur in patients with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. Of the specimens received from the oral mucosa of 44 patients with cancer, 25 (56.8% yielded Candida on culture in Sabouraud agar. Twenty four of these isolates were identified as C. albicans (96% and 1 as C. krusei (4%. The phenotypic characteristics of these isolates showed that all of them were strongly proteolytic, had a high ability to produce phospholipase, and presented the byotypes characterized as 811 (95.8% and 511 (4.2% in terms of susceptibility to killer toxins.

  7. Membrane fluidity and lipid composition of fluconazole resistant and susceptible strains of Candida albicans isolated from diabetic patients Fluidez e composição lipídica da membrana de cepas de Candida albicans resistentes e sensíveis ao fluconazol, isoladas de pacientes diabéticos

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    Nagendra N. Mishra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten clinical isolates of Candida albicans, five strains belonging to each of fluconazole resistant and susceptible groups isolated from diabetic patients, were studied for the membrane fluidity and lipid composition. Compared to fluconazole susceptible strains, fluconazole resistant ones exhibited enhanced membrane fluidity as measured by fluorescence polarization technique. The increased membrane fluidity was reflected in the decreased p-values exhibited by the resistant strains. On the other hand, susceptible isolates contained higher amount of ergosterol, almost twice as compared to resistant isolates which might have contributed to their lower membrane fluidity. However, no significant alteration was observed in the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of these isolates. Labeling experiments with fluorescamine dye revealed that the percentage of the exposed aminophospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine was highest in the resistant strains as compared to the susceptible strains, indicating a possible overexpression of CDR1 and CDR2 genes in resistant strains. The results presented here suggest that the changes in the ergosterol content and overexpression of ABC transporter genes CDR1 and CDR2 could contributeto fluconazole resistance in C. albicans isolated from diabetic patients.Dez isolados clínicos, sendo cinco resistentes e cinco sensíveis ao fluconazol, obtidos de pacientes diabéticos, foram estudados quanto à fluidez e composição química da membrana. Quando comparados aos isolados sensíveis ao fluconazol, os isolados resistentes apresentaram fluidez de membrana aumentada, conforme mensurado pela técnica de polarização fluorescente. A fluidez de membrana aumentada refletiu-se pelos valores mais baixos de p. Por outro lado, os isolados sensíveis continham quantidades mais elevadas de ergosterol, quase o dobro dos isolados resistentes, o que pode ter contribuído para a fluidez de membrana mais baixa. Entretanto, não se

  8. Candida albicans isoladas da cavidade bucal de crianças com síndrome de Down: ocorrência e inibição do crescimento por Streptomyces sp Candida albicans isolated from buccal cavity of children with Down's syndrome: occurrence and growth inhibition by Streptomyces sp

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    José Daniel Gonçalves Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparação entre a presença de leveduras de Candida na cavidade bucal de crianças sem e com síndrome de Down mostrou-se estatisticamente significante no caso de crianças afetadas por esta cromossomopatia, tornando-as mais predispostas à candidíase bucal, provavelmente favorecida pelas alterações anátomo-fisiológicas da boca em decorrência da trissomia do cromossomo 21. Recidivas constantes de candidíase bucal em crianças portadoras desta alteração cromossômica levou a busca de prováveis alternativas terapêuticas. Visando determinar a atividade antifúngica de Streptomyces sp isolados de diferentes solos brasileiros, 5 cepas foram testadas frente a Candida albicans, oriundas da cavidade bucal de crianças com síndrome de Down. Observou-se que os isolados apresentaram uma diversidade de tamanho dos halos (9-31mm de diâmetro de inibição de crescimento das leveduras, sugerindo uma possível utilização em terapêutica antifúngica.Comparison of the presence of Candida yeasts in the buccal cavity of children without and with Down's syndrome showed a statistically significant difference in the case of children that were affected by this chromosomopathy, rendering them more predisposed to buccal candidiasis, probably due to anatomicophysiologic alterations of the mouth resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21. Constant recurrence of buccal candidiasis in children with this chromosomal alteration lead to the search for a possible therapeutic alternative. Seeking to determine the antifungal activity of Streptomyces sp isolated from various Brazilian soils, 5 strains have been tested for Candida albicans isolated from the buccal cavity of children with Down's syndrome. It was observed that the isolate presented a diversity in the size of the halos (9-31mm in diameter of growth inhibition of the yeasts, suggesting a possible use as a therapeutic antifungal.

  9. Atividade da fração enriquecida em fenólicos de Buchenavia tomentosa e de algumas substâncias isoladas antes e após encapsulação com beta-ciclodextrina em Candida albicans

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    Teodoro, Guilherme Rodrigues [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade frente a Candida albicans da fração enriquecida em fenólicos (FE) das folhas de Buchenavia tomentosa além das substâncias ácido gálico (AG), corilagina, kaempferol e vitexina, substâncias fenólicas que foram previamente detectadas no extrato aquoso de B. tomentosa livres ou encapsuladas em ciclodextrinas. Para tal, foi realizado teste de microdiluição com cepas padrão e isolados clínicos e análise química da FE por espectrometria de massa (ESI...

  10. Enzimotipagem de espécies do gênero Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal Enzymotiping of species of the genus Candida isolated from the oral cavity

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    Regina Celia Candido

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas quanto a produção de exoenzimas fosfolipase e proteinase, 79 amostras de Candida isoladas da cavidade bucal de pacientes com lesões bucais características de candidose e indivíduos com boca clinicamente normal, atendidos na Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto USP. Dentre as cepas de C. albicans isoladas de lesões bucais, a fosfolipase e proteinase foram detectadas em, respectivamente, 83,3% e 66,7%. C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis produziram somente proteinase. Quanto às cepas isoladas de nichos sem lesão, do total de 32 C. albicans, 71,9% apresentaram fosfolipase e 68,7% proteinase. C. tropicalis apresentou apenas a enzima proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii e Candida spp, não apresentaram nenhuma das exoenzimas. Entre as amostras de C. albicans de ambos os grupos, o enzimotipo 22 (fosfolipase positiva e proteinase fracamente positiva foi prevalente. Enzimotipos diferentes foram detectados em amostras da mesma espécie provenientes de mesmo paciente.The production of phospholipase and proteinase exoenzymes was evaluated in seventy nine samples of Candida isolated from the oral cavity of patients with oral lesions characteristic of candidosis and from individuals presenting a clinically normal mouth, attended at the University of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto USP. Among the strains of C. albicans isolated from oral lesions, the phospholipase and proteinase were detected in 83.3% and 66.7%, respectively. C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis produced only proteinase. Regarding the isolated strains from niches without lesions, out of a total of 32 C. albicans, 71.9% presented phospholipase and 68.7% proteinase. C. tropicalis only presented the enzyme proteinase, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii and Candida spp did not present any of the exoenzymes. Among the samples of C. albicans from both groups, the enzymotype 22 (positive phospholipase and proteinase weakly positive, was prevalent

  11. Susceptibility testing of Candida albicans isolated from oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV+ patients to fluconazole, amphotericin B and Caspofungin: killing kinetics of caspofungin and amphotericin B against fluconazole resistant and susceptible isolates Teste de suscetibilidade de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa orofaringeana de pacientes HIV+, ao fluconazol, anfotericcina B e caspofungina: cinética de morte de caspofungina e anfotericina B contra isolados fluconazol resistentes e suscetíveis

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    Janine de Aquino Lemos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the pharmacodynamic properties of antifungal agents is important for the adequate treatment of fungal infections like candidiasis. For certain antifungal agents, the determination of Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC and time kill curve could be clinically more relevant than the determination of the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC. In this study, MIC and MFC to fluconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against C. albicans isolates and the killing patterns obtained with caspofungin and amphotericin B against susceptible and resistant strains to fluconazole were determined. The results of MICs showed that all C. albicans isolates were highly susceptible to amphotericin B, but two isolates were fluconazole resistant. The comparative analysis between MIC and MFC showed that MFC of fluconazole was fourfold higher than MIC in 41.9% of the C. albicans isolates. Same values of MFC and MIC of amphotericin B and caspofungin were found for 71% of the isolates. Correlation between time kill curves and MFC of amphotericin B and caspofungin against all 4 isolates tested was observed. The caspofungin killing effect was more evident at MFC in 6 hours of incubation than at MIC in this time, suggesting dependence of concentration. The similarity of results of time-kill curve and MFC values indicate that determination of MFC is an alternative for the detection of the fungicidal activity of these drugs.Um claro entendimento das propriedades farmacodinâmicas dos agentes antifúngicos é de grande importância para o adequado tratamento das infecções fúngicas como a candidíase. Em alguns casos de escolha do agente antifúngico, a determinação da concentração fungicida minima (CFM e a curva do tempo de morte podem ser mais clinicamente relevantes do que a concentração inibitória minima (CIM. Nesse estudo, foi avaliado a CIM e a CFM de fluconazol, anfotericina B e caspofungina em Candida albicans e ainda os padrões de

  12. Molecular typing of Candida albicans strains isolated from nosocomial candidemia Tipificação molecular de espécies de Candida albicans isoladas de candidemia hospitalar

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    Maria Luiza Moretti Branchini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida have been recognized as important microorganisms responsible for nosocomial fungemia. Six blood-stream and two intravenous central catheter C. albicans strains were isolated from eight patients and studied by electrophoretic karyotyping of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seven chromosomal DNA profiles were identified. Two patients showed isolates with the same profile, suggesting nosocomial transmission. Karyotyping of C. albicans revealed an excellent discriminatory power among the isolates and may therefore be useful in the study of nosocomial candidemia.Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido reconhecidas como importantes causadoras de fungemias hospitalares. Foram estudados os DNA cromossômicos de oito cepas de C. albicans, obtidas de oito pacientes com fungemia hospitalar, por cariotipagem eletroforética através de "pulsed-field gel electrophoresis". As cepas foram obtidas pelo isolamento da levedura em seis hemoculturas e duas infecções relacionadas ao uso de cateter intra-venoso central. Foram identificados sete perfis de DNA cromossômico. Dois pacientes mostraram cepas com o mesmo perfil de DNA sugerindo transmissão nosocomial. A cariotipagem eletroforética revelou excelente capacidade discriminatória entre os isolados sendo útil no estudo das candidemias hospitalares.

  13. Suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes com estomatite protética Susceptibility to antifungal drugs of Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis

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    Jéssica Moreira BATISTA

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacientes portadores de próteses totais, apresentam, com freqüência a chamada estomatite protética, com a qual associa-se Candida albicans determinando a chamada candidíase eritematosa. Assim, procuramos avaliar a suscetibilidade dessa levedura a agentes antifúngicos. A suscetibilidade de dezenove cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes apresentando estomatite protética foi estudada frente a: um derivado poliênico representado, pela anfotericina B (AnB, e dois derivados azóicos, cetoconazol e miconazol. A atividade antifúngica foi estudada a partir da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM e da concentração fungicida mínima (CFM, pela técnica de diluição em ágar. Os resultados obtidos, mostraram baixos valores de CIMs e CFMs (mg/ml para a AnB frente a todas as leveduras. Para o miconazol e o cetoconazol, foram observadas CIMs invariavelmente £ 4,00 mg/ml; para as CFMs, foram obtidos valores ³ 16,00 mg/ml frente a maioria das cepas. Conclui-se que a AnB apresentou maior ação fungicida in vitro enquanto os azóis demonstraram ação fungistática mas não fungicida. Acreditamos que a pesquisa de novas drogas, principalmente de uso tópico ainda é necessária, a fim de se tratar, com sucesso, a candidíase eritematosa, comumente observada nas chamadas estomatites protéticas.Users of total prosthesis present in general a high frequency of the so called denture stomatitis, associated to erythematous candidiasis. So, we evaluated the susceptibility of oral yeast to three antifungal agents. Strains of Candida albicans isolated from patients with denture stomatitis were evaluated in relation to the susceptibility of the antifungal drugs as amphotericin B (polyenic derivatives, and azole agents as ketoconazole and miconazole. The antifungal activity was evaluated, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicide concentration (MFC were determined utilizing the agar dilution method. The

  14. Dossiê: Escolas isoladas e reunidas: a produção da invisibilidade

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    Maria Cristina Gouvea

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Os textos reunidos neste dossiê têm o intuito de conferir visibilidade às escolas isoladas e reunidas visando analisar sua importãncia na configuração da escola primária brasileira, dando destaque ao período em que esta foi numericamente dominante, porém secundarizada nas políticas educacionais. Tem-se em vista também compreender como em outros contextoas nacionais, em que a populaçao rural era dominante no período (México, foram construídas políticas de funcionamento de escolas rurais, que tinham o mesmo modelo multideriado. Contemplando contextos nacionais (Brasil e México e regionais distintos (São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, períodos históricos diversos(final século XIX e meados século XX, aspectos variados no tratamento do tema(formação de professores, estatística escolar, organização das salas de aula, condições de funcionamento fontes múltiplas (relatórios de inspeção, estatística escolar, legislação,  currículos escolares, entre outros tem-se em vista contribuir para a produção de uma historiografia das escolas isoladas e reunidas que permita apreender as múltiplas possibilidades de instrução da infância no interior do espaço escolar, bem como as diversas configurações que  a instituição escola assumiu ao longo da história.

  15. Estudo da incidência de amostras clínicas do gênero Candida isoladas de diversos sítios anatômicos = Study of the incidence of clinical samples belonging to the genus Candida obtained from different anatomic sites

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    Luciana Furlaneto-Maia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase, principal infecção fúngica do ser humano, é provocada por leveduras do gênero Candida, que fazem parte da microbiota endógena e exógena do corpo humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença das espécies de Candida spp, em diversos sítiosanatômicos. Um total de 90 amostras clínicas foram isoladas em ágar Sabouraud contendo antibióticos e identificadas em meio cromogênico CHROMagar Candida®. Deste total, 58 amostras foram provenientes de secreção vaginal, 17 de raspado de unha, 8 de escarro e 7 deraspado de pele. Das amostras de secreção vaginal, 89% corresponderam a espécie C. albicans, seguido de espécies de Candida não-albicans, sendo 5,1% de C. krusei e 1,7% de C. glabrata, C. tropicalis e Candida sp., individualmente. Para as amostras isoladas de raspado de pele não foi observada prevalência de C. albicans (28%. As espécies Candida não-albicans corresponderam a 70% das amostras, sendo distribuídas em C. glabrata (14%, C. krusei (28% e demais espécies de Candida (28%. A prevalência de espécies Candida não-albicans foi também observada para as amostras isoladas de raspado de unha, sendo que 29% foram caracterizadas como C. glabrata, 23% C. krusei e Candida sp., individualmente e 11% de C. tropicalis. Amostras de C. albicans, isoladas neste sítio anatômico, representaram somente 11%. Em amostras obtidas de escarro foi observada somente duas espécies, com prevalência de C. albicans (75% seguida de C. tropicalis (25%. As amostras identificadas como C. albicans em meio CHROMagar Candida®, foram confirmadas quanto ao crescimento a 42ºC e pelo emprego da técnica de seminested PCR.Candidiasis is the main human fungal infection caused by yeasts of the genus Candida which are part of endogenous microflora of thehuman body. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of Candida species obtained from different infection processes. A total of 90 clinical samples were isolated in

  16. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais frente a amostras clínicas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes HIV positivos Antifungal activity of essential oils against clinical samples of Candida albicans isolated from HIV-positive patients

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    L.F.D. Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a atividade antifúngica dos óleos essenciais de Ocimum basilicum L. (manjericão, Cymbopogon martinii L. (palmarosa, Thymus vulgaris L. (tomilho e Cinnamomum cassia Blume (canela da china sobre cepas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes HIV positivos e cepa padrão (ATCC 76845. Quinze amostras clínicas de C. albicans (C1-C15 foram repicadas em ágar Sabouraud Dextrose, para confecção de suspensões em solução salina estéril (0,9% contendo 1,5 x 10(6 UFC mL-1. As emulsões dos óleos essenciais foram preparadas em água destilada estéril e tween 80, com concentrações variando entre 1024 µg mL-1 e 4 µg mL-1. A ação antifúngica foi determinada por meio da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM utilizando-se a técnica da microdiluição. Foram utilizados como controles positivos a nistatina e o miconazol (50 µg mL-1. Os testes foram realizados em triplicata, sendo a CIM, a menor concentração capaz de inibir o crescimento das leveduras, observada por método visual de acordo com a turvação do meio de cultura. Para C. albicans (ATCC 76845, a CIM do óleo essencial de C. cassia foi 64 µg mL-1, enquanto para óleo de C. martinii foi 1024 µg mL-1. Para as cepas clínicas, verificou-se que a CIM de C. cassia para 80% das cepas foi 64 µg mL-1, sendo a variação dos valores da CIM entre 128 µg mL-1 e 64 µg mL-1. Observou-se que para 66,6% das amostras clínicas, a CIM de C. martinii foi 612 µg mL-1. Constatou-se que a nistatina não apresentou atividade frente às cepas clínicas (C1-C15, enquanto a atividade antifúngica do miconazol foi verificada em 100% das amostras. Não se constatou atividade antimicrobiana dos óleos essenciais de O. basilicum e T. vulgaris, nas concentrações avaliadas. Concluiu-se que os óleos essenciais de C. cassia e C. martinii, em diferentes concentrações, apresentam atividade antifúngica sobre cepas de C. albicans isoladas de pacientes HIV positivos e cepa padr

  17. Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-positive patients at Fortaleza, Ceará Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isolado da cavidade oral de pacientes HIV-positivos em Fortaleza, Ceará

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2006-08-01

    % apresentaram positividade para Candida, sendo 65% (52 identificados como C. albicans, 27,5% (22 como C. tropicalis, 2,5% (2 como C. glabrata, 2,5% (2 como C. krusei e 2,5% (2 como C. guilliermondii. Entre as cepas de C. albicans isoladas da cavidade oral foram detectadas proteinase e fosfolipase em 69,2% e 73%, respectivamente. Os resultados sugerem que a C. albicans foi a espécie mais freqüentemente observada, com intermediária expressão de proteinase e fosfolipase.

  18. Atividade farmacológica da monocrotalina isolada de plantas do gênero Crotalaria

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    José E. R. Honório Júnior

    Full Text Available Crotalaria retusa é uma planta encontrada no Nordeste brasileiro, pertence ao gênero Crotalaria e à família Leguminosae, e possuem mais de seissentas espécies no mundo e mais de quarenta no Brasil. As variedades tóxicas mais conhecidas são C. spectabilis, C. crispata, C. retusa, C. dura e C. globifera. Plantas do gênero Crotalaria são de interesse porque são usadas na medicina popular. Esses gêneros são ricos em alcaloides pirrolizidínicos (AP, que são as principais toxinas e apresentam efeitos pneumotóxicos, nefrotóxicos, cardiotóxicos, fetotóxicos, carcinogênicos, inflamação, hemorragia e fibrose. A monocrotalina é o principal alcaloide pirrolizidínico encontrado nessas plantas e é ativamente oxidada in vivo pelo citocromo P450 no fígado, formando intermediários altamente reativos tipo pirrólicos que são responsáveis pela ligação cruzada do DNA-DNA e DNA-proteína. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um levantamento bibliográfico via internet, utilizando bancos de dados, programas de pesquisa científica e pesquisa em livros relacionados, acerca da atividade farmacológica e do mecanismo de ação da monocrotalina extraída de plantas do gênero Crotalaria, ressaltando desde os aspectos botânicos da planta, estrutura química dos alcaloides pirrolizidínicos, exemplos experimentais de toxicidade e provável mecanismo de ação.

  19. O impacto da obesidade isolada na função do ventrículo direito em adultos jovens

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    Abdullah Sokmen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A obesidade é um fator de risco independente para as doenças cardiovasculares. Os efeitos da obesidade sobre a estrutura e função do ventriculo esquerdo têm sido relatados, mas, relativamente, pouco se sabe sobre o funcionamento do ventrículo direito (VD na obesidade. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as alterações subclínicas do VD em adultos jovens obesos, porém saudáveis, por ecocardiografia convencional e Doppler tecidual (TDI. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo, foram incluídos 35 indivíduos saudáveis de peso normal, com um índice de massa corporal (IMC 35 kg/m2 (grupo III. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a ecocardiografia transtorácica. Além de medidas ecocardiográficas padrão, as velocidades sistólicas de pico do anel tricúspide (Sm, e as velocidado pico diastólico precoce (Em e final (Am, tempo de contração isovolumétrica (TCIm, tempo de relaxamento isovolumétrico (TRIm, e o tempo de ejecção (TEm foram obtidos por TDI e o índice de desempenho do miocárdico do VD (IDMm foi calculado. RESULTADOS: No grupo II, a razão Em/Am do VD foi significativamente menor e o TRIm e o IDMm foram significativamente maiores em relação ao grupo I (p < 0,01. A Sm, Em, e a razão Em/Am do VD foram significativamente menores e TRIm e IDMm do VD foram significativamente maiores no grupo III em relação ao grupo II (p < 0,05 para Sm e TRIm do VD e p < 0,01 para os outros parâmetros. A Am do VD diferiu significativamente entre os grupos I e III (p < 0,05. O IMC teve uma correlação negativa significante com a Sm, Em, e a razão Em/Am do VD, mas uma correlação positiva com o IDM do VD (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Nosso estudo mostrou que a obesidade isolada em adultos jovens normotensos foi associada com disfunções subclínicas na estrutura e função do VD.

  20. Aumento da freqüência de resistência à norfloxacina e ciprofloxacina em bactérias isoladas em uroculturas

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    Lopes A.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar mudanças, ao longo dos anos, na freqüência de resistência à norfloxacina e ciprofloxacina em bactérias isoladas de uroculturas. MÉTODOS: Resultados de todas as uroculturas com crescimento bacteriano de pelo menos 10(5 unidades formadoras de colônias por mL de urina (UFC/mL, realizadas no Serviço de Nefrologia da Universidade Federal da Bahia durante o período 1983-1994, foram analisadas. As bactérias incluídas na análise foram aquelas mais freqüentemente isolados: Escherichia coli (n=668, Klebsiella spp. (n=286, Staphylococcus spp. (n=186, Proteus spp. (n=135 e Enterobacter spp. (n=129. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de bactérias resistentes à norfloxacina foi de 3,2%, no período 1983-1986; 5,9%, no período 1987-1990; e 9,1%, no período 1991-1994 (p<0,05. Klebsiella spp. e Enterobacter spp. foram as bactérias que apresentaram maiores aumentos na freqüência de resistência à norfloxacina. Para a ciprofloxacina, constatou-se resistência em 7,4% das bactérias isoladas, no período 1985-1989, e 16,5%, no período 1990-1994 (p<0,05. Esse aumento na freqüência de bactérias resistentes à ciprofloxacina foi mais marcante para Enterobacter spp. e Staphylococcus spp. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados do presente estudo mostram um aumento gradual na freqüência de resistência à norfloxacina e ciprofloxacina entre as bactérias mais comumente isoladas em uroculturas. A influência do uso prévio de quinolonas e de peculiaridades da bactéria infectante, nesses achados, representa importante questão a ser investigada.

  1. Biotyping and genotypic diversity among oral Candida albicans strains from caries-free and caries-active healthy children Diversidade fenotípica e genotípica entre amostras de Candida albicans isoladas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livre de cárie

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    Rita de Cássia Mardegan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans oral strains collected from caries-free and caries-active healthy children ranging from 24 to 36 months old, were studied. The aim of the study was to determine proteinase and phospholipase activities produced by Candida albicans in the two groups and to determine the phenotypic diversity of these enzymes based on genetic polymorphism using the AP-PCR method. Strains identified by morphological and fermentation tests as C. albicans were grown in proteinase and phospholipase agar media at 37ºC for 7 and 4 days, respectively. After the incubation period, the enzyme activity of the proteinase and phospholipase positive strains was measured. All strains were subjected to AP-PCR, using the arbitrary primer AP-3. The enzymatic analysis showed no differences between the two groups. The AP-PCR method was effective in demonstrating intra-individual genetic polymorphism in C. albicans, showing a greater clonal diversity in caries-active versus caries-free children. Dendograms of similarity showed only intra-individual clonal lineage. The results suggest that the enzymatic profile does not depend on the genotypic characteristics of the strains.Cepas orais de Candida albicans coletadas de crianças saudáveis cárie ativas e livres de cárie com idade variando de 24 a 36 meses, foram estudadas. O propósito do estudo foi determinar a atividade da proteinase e da fosfolipase produzida por Candida albicans nos dois grupos e comparar com a diversidade genotípica usando o método AP-PCR. As cepas identificadas como C. albicans por testes morfológicos e de fermentação, foram cultivadas em meio ágar proteinase e fosfolipase a 37ºC por 7 e 4 dias, respectivamente. Após o período de incubação, a atividade enzimática das cepas proteinase e fosfolipase positiva foram medidas. Todas as cepas foram submetidas a técnica genotípica AP-PCR, usando o primer arbitrário AP-3. A análise enzimática demonstrou que não há diferença entre os

  2. Resistência de bactérias isoladas de cães e gatos no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (2008-2009

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    Juliana B. Ishii

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinado o perfil de resistência de bactérias isoladas de diversas afecções em cães e gatos atendidos no Setor de Clinica Cirúrgica de Animais de Companhia do Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Houve maior frequência de Staphylococcus spp. (27,6%, seguido por Pseudomonas spp. (22,7% e Escherichia coli (16,6%. Na prova de sensibilidade antimicrobiana pelo método de difusão em ágar houve alta porcentagem de resistência das bactérias isoladas aos principais antibióticos usados no tratamento das infecções do trato urinário, principalmente das bactérias Gram negativas que apresentaram resistência superior a 66% aos antibióticos testados, com exceção da norfloxacina. Nas bactérias isoladas de feridas, apenas a gentamicina e a amicacina demonstraram índices de resistência inferior a 50,0%. Nas bactérias isoladas das afecções otológicas observou-se menor resistência à norfloxacina e maior à neomicina, sendo os menores índices de resistência observados nas bactérias Gram positivas. As bactérias Gram positivas apresentaram maior resistência à ciprofloxacina nos casos ortopédicos, e nas bactérias isoladas das peritonites houve 100% de resistência a diversos antibióticos. Este trabalho ressalta a importância da identificação bacteriana e a realização de antibiogramas para a escolha do agente antimicrobiano apropriado no tratamento das principais afecções atendidas na área de animais de companhia em medicina veterinária.

  3. Lisotipia Vi e classificação bioquímica de amostras de Salmonella typhi isoladas no Estado da Guanabara

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    Ernesto Hofer

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available Na presente investigação, os autores estudaram a distribuição dos lisótipos Ví, tipos fermentativos e tetrationato-redutase, em 110 amostras de Salmonella typhi, isoladas no período de 1966-1970, no Estado da Guanabara. Para estabelecer uma melhor configuração epidemiológica dos resultados, fez-se a divisão do Estado em seis regiões, respectivamente as zonas Sul, Centro, Norte, da E. F. Central, da E. F. Leopoldina e rural. Obteve-se no cômputo geral, a prevalência dos lisótipos A (59,09%, E 1a (19,09%, T (7,27% e amostras Vi negativas (4,55%. Verificou-se ainda, que cerca de 70,90% das culturas foram classificadas no tipo fermentativo II, segundo esquema de Kristensen e 95,42% das amostras revelaram-se positivas na prova de detecção da tetrationato-redutase.In the present investigation, the authors have studied the distribution of lysotypes, fermentative types and tetrathionate- reductase in 110 strains of Salmonella typhi, isolated from hemocultures during the period 1966-1970, in the State of Guanabara, Brazil. In order to establish a better epidemiological configuration of the results, this study has been divided and effected in the six following regions: south, middle, north at the Central Railway, the Leopoldina Railway and the rural district. As a general outcome a predomination of the lysotypes A, E 1a, T and negative Vi strains has been obtained. It has stil been verified that 70,90% of the cultures were classified fermentative type Ii and that 95,42% of the strains were tetrathionate-reductase positives.

  4. Identificação microbiológica e sensibilidade in vitro de Candida isoladas da cavidade oral de indivíduos HIV positivos Microbiological identification and in vitro sensitivity of Candida isolates from the oral cavity of HIV-positive individuals

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    Márcia Arias Wingeter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase orofaríngea é a infecção fúngica mais comum entre os pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana e seu tratamento é realizado com antifúngicos tópicos ou sistêmicos, que são indicados empiricamente com base em dados clínicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a freqüência de leveduras em lavados bucais de indivíduos HIV positivos, comparando os resultados entre pacientes com diferentes condições de imunodeficiência e verificar o perfil de susceptibilidade das espécies isoladas frente aos antifúngicos visando avaliar se as opções de tratamento utilizadas na prática clínica atingem a maioria das espécies identificadas. Leveduras foram isoladas em 58% das amostras de lavado bucal coletadas e Candida albicans foi a espécie mais (93% freqüente. Resistência ou susceptibilidade dose dependente, frente aos antifúngicos testados foi registrada em aproximadamente 17% das amostras. A importante variabilidade de resposta sugere limitações quanto à eficácia das terapias instituídas empiricamente.Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection among patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It can be treated with either systemic or topical antifungal agents, which are indicated empirically on the basis of clinical data. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of yeast in mouthwashes from HIV-positive patients, compare the results between patients presenting different states of immunodeficiency, and investigate the susceptibility profile of the species isolated in relation to antifungal agents, with the aim of evaluating whether the treatments used in clinical practice are able to reach the majority of the species identified. Yeasts were isolated from 58% of the mouthwash samples collected. Candida albicans was the most (93% frequent species. Resistance or dose-dependent susceptibility in relation to the antifungal agent tested was registered in

  5. O EXERCÍCIO FÍSICO MODULA O METABOLISMO DA GLICOSE EM ILHOTAS ISOLADAS DE ANIMAIS OBESOS-MSG

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    NAYARA DE CARVALHO LEITE

    2013-01-01

    A obesidade é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento do diabetes tipo 2. O exercício físico reduz o tecido adiposo, modula a secreção e ação da insulina preservando a homeostase glicêmica. A administração de glutamato monossódico (MSG) induz lesões hipotalâmicas que levam a obesidade. O controle da secreção de insulina depende da formação do ATP nas células β pancreáticas, processo acoplado a rotas metabólicas glicolíticas e mitocondriais. O presente estudo investigou o efeito do exerc...

  6. Prevalência e suscetibilidade aos antibióticos de enterococcus spp. isoladas da cavidade bucal humana

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    Komiyama, Edson Yukio [UNESP

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência e suscetibilidade aos antibióticos de Enterococcus spp. isolados da cavidade bucal de indivíduos (n=240) de diferentes faixas etárias (4 a 11, 12 a 17, 18 a 34, 35 a 59 e acima de 60 anos). Foram excluídos indivíduos diabéticos, gestantes, fumantes, edêntulos totais, indivíduos sob tratamento com fármacos que interfiram sobre o fluxo e composição salivar, pacientes usuários de prótese total, prótese parcial removível ou aparelhos ortodônticos,...

  7. Comparison between E-test and CLSI broth microdilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans oral isolates Comparação entre E-test e o método da microdiluição do CLSI para teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados orais de Candida albicans

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    Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Candida albicans isolated from oral candidosis patients and 30 C. albicans isolated from control individuals were studied. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and itraconazole through the Clinical and Laboratorial Standards Institute (CLSI reference method and E test system. The results obtained were analyzed and compared. MIC values were similar for the strains isolated from oral candidosis patients and control individuals. The agreement rate for the two methods was 66.67% for amphotericin B, 53.33% for fluconazole, 65% for flucytosine and 45% for itraconazole. According to our data, E test method could be an alternative to trial routine susceptibility testing due to its simplicity. However, it can not be considered a substitute for the CLSI reference method.Trinta Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e 30 Candida albicans isoladas de indivíduos controle foram estudadas. Testes de susceptibilidade in vitro foram realizados com anfotericina B, fluconazol, 5-flucitosina e itraconazol pelo método do Clinical and Laboratorial Standars Institute (CLSI e por E-test. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e comparados. Os valores de CIM foram semelhantes para amostras isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e indivíduos controle. A concordância entre os dois métodos foi de 66,7% para a anfotericina B, 53,33% para o fluconazol, 65% para a flucitosina e 45% para o itraconazol. De acordo com estes resultados, o método do E-test poderia ser uma alternativa para a triagem de casos de rotina pela sua simplicidade. Entretanto, este método não pode ser considerado como um substituto para o método de referência do CLSI.

  8. Efeitos da MT-I, uma fosfolipase A2, isolada do veneno de Bothrops asper em mastócitos: ativação e sinalização intracelular envolvida na desgranulação.

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    Marlos Cortez Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Os efeitos da MT-I, uma fosfolipase A2 isolada do veneno de Bothrops asper (VBa), foram avaliados em mastócitos (MC) em cultura, quanto à: i) desgranulação e liberação de prostaglandina E2 (PGE2); ii) papel da atividade catalítica na desgranulação; iii) papel da PLD, PLC, cPLA2, iPLA2, PI3K, MAPK, PKC, PTK, ERK1/2, Junk, Gαi, Gαq e do cálcio na desgranulação; iv) expressão gênica de citocinas Th1 e Th2, e v) alterações ultraestruturais em MC. Os resultados mostraram que a MT-I, e...

  9. OTIMIZAÇÃO DO CÁLCULO DA CAPACIDADE DE CARGA E TENSÃO ADMISSÍVEL DO SOLO PARA SAPATAS ISOLADAS

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    Bruna Leal Melo de Oliveira

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Para o dimensionamento geotécnico de fundações superficiais é necessário conhecer a tensão admissível do solo, obtida indiretamente a partir da capacidade de carga; ou diretamente aplicando-se os métodos semiempíricos. Uma alternativa para automatizar esses cálculos é a utilização de planilha eletrônica, uma ferramenta simples, com o intuito de otimizar o tempo e reduzir as falhas humanas. Para demonstrar a aplicabilidade e a eficiência desta ferramenta, desenvolveu-se uma planilha eletrônica através do software Microsoft Excel que, a partir de variáveis como: coesão, ângulo de atrito, peso específico e nível freático; dentre outras, é capaz de estimar a capacidade de carga e a tensão admissível para sapata isolada, em diferentes ocasiões, por diversas metodologias consagradas e, além disso, exibir graficamente a comparação entre os resultados obtidos. Por fim, a ferramenta foi aplicada em três cenários fictícios: (1 sapata quadrada com variação da cota de assentamento; (2 sapata retangular com variação do nível freático e (3 sapata circular com realização de ensaio de placa, comprovando que é possível testar várias hipóteses para um mesmo problema em um curto período de tempo. ABSTRACT: For geotechnical design of shallow foundations it is necessary to know the allowable stress of the soil, obtained indirectly from the load bearing capacity; or directly, applying the semi-empirical methods. An alternative to automate these calculations is the use of spreadsheet, a simple tool, aiming to optimize time and reduce human error. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this tool, a spreadsheet was developed using the Microsoft Excel software, based on some variables such as: cohesion; friction angle; specific weight; groundwater level; among others, to estimate the load bearing capacity and the allowable stress for isolated footing on different occasions, by several methodologies, and

  10. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of ocular bacteria isolates from the cornea and conjunctiva to moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones Testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas da córnea e da conjuntiva à moxifloxacina, gatifloxacina e outras fluoroquinolonas

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    Ana Luisa Höfling-Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess and compare the in vitro susceptibility of ocular bacterial isolates to fluoroquinolones, including moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. METHODS: A total of 154 bacterial ocular isolates from keratitis and conjunctivitis were tested for sensitivity to the studied antibiotics, using the disk diffusion method. RESULTS: Of the 51 corneal isolates, 46 (90.2% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, 45 (88.2% to ofloxacin and 41 (80.4% to lomefloxacin. All corneal isolates were sensitive to moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin. Of the 103 bacterial conjunctival isolates, 101 (98.1% and 103 (100% were sensitive to gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. Two strains of Streptococcus sp viridans group were resistant to gatifloxacin. A total of 82 (79.6% specimens were sensitive to lomefloxacin, 89 (86.4% and 96 (93.2% to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fourth generation fluoroquinolones, herein exemplified by moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin, seem to be more effective than previous generation fluoroquinolones against frequently encountered organisms isolated from patients with bacterial keratitis and conjunctivitis.OBJETIVOS: Conhecer e comparar a susceptibilidade in vitro de bactérias isoladas do olho à fluoroquinolonas, incluindo moxifloxacina e gatifloxacina. MÉTODOS: Um total de 154 bactérias isoladas de ceratites e conjuntivites foram submetidas a testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana aos antibióticos usando o método de difusão em disco. RESULTADOS: Das 51 bactérias isoladas da córnea, 46 (90,2% foram sensíveis a ciprofloxacina, 45 (88,2% a ofloxacina e 41 (80,4% a lomefloxacina. Todas as bactérias isoladas da córnea foram sensíveis a moxifloxacina e a gatifloxacina. Das 103 bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva 101 (98,1% e 103 (100% foram sensíveis a gatifloxacina e moxifloxacina, respectivamente. Duas cepas de Streptococcus sp do grupo viridans mostraram-se resistentes à gatifloxacina. Um total de 82 (79,6% esp

  11. ATIVIDADE RESPIRATÓRIA EM MITOCÔNDRIAS ISOLADAS DA POLPA DO MAMÃO UENF/CALIMAN 01 E TAINUNG 01 NA CONSERVAÇÃO DO FRUTO EM PÓS-COLHEITA

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    LÍGIA RENATA ALMEIDA DA SILVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo comparar a atividade respiratória em mitocôndrias isoladas e os atributos físicos e químicos da polpade dois híbridos de mamão, UENF/Caliman01 (UC01 e Tainung01,durante o amadurecimento dos frutos. Oamadurecimento dos frutos não mostrou diferenças significativas entre os genótipos na luminosidade (L, no croma (C e no ângulo hue da casca. A perda de massa (PMe as firmezas do fruto (FF e domesocarpo (FM diferiram entre os genótipos, sendo que a FF e a FM diminuíram com o tempo após a colheita,ao contrário da PM, que aumentou no mesmo período. A atividade respiratória nas mitocôndrias isoladas mostrou diferenças entre os genótipos quanto à respiração total (RT, sendo maior e decrescente no Tainung01 e constante no UC01 durante o amadurecimento dos frutos. Durante esse período, verificou-se que a participação da via oxidase alternativa (AOX foi crescente, contra uma participação decrescente da via citocromo oxidase (COX em ambos os híbridos, indicando um crescente desacoplamento das mitocôndrias, o que pode estar associado às rápidas transformações bioquímicas que acarretam a senescência do órgão. A partir desses resultados, sugere-se investigar materiais genéticos com menor atividade AOX, ou formas de minimizar a atividade respiratória nos frutos em pós-colheita. A AOX apresentou alta correlação positiva com a PM e negativa com a FF e a FM. O inverso foi observado para COX. A RT apresentou correlação positiva apenas com a FM. As correlações apontam a viabilidade de estimar a atividade respiratória por meiode análises mais simples, como a PM, a FF e a FM, facilitando a pesquisa na área.

  12. Primeiro encontro do Triatoma costalimai naturalmente infectado pelo Trypanosoma cruzi: estudo de aspectos biológicos da amostra isolada First finding of Triatoma costalimai naturally infected by Trypanosoma cruzi: study of biological aspects of the isolated sample

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    Dalva A. Mello

    1981-03-01

    Full Text Available Uma amostra de T. cruzi foi isolada pela primeira vez de um exemplar do Triatoma costalimai, capturado no município de Mambai, Goiás. Estudos experimentais sobre infectividade e virulência foram conduzidos em triatomíneos, Calomys callosus (Rodentia e camundongos albinos. Cultivo "In Vitro" da amostra isolada foi obtido com sucesso utilizando-se o meio LIT. As mensurações realizadas em tripomastigotas sanguícolas deram os seguintes resultados (mcg: comprimento total - 16,4 (± 1,1; flagelo livre - 4,9 (± 1,1; largura - 2,8 (± 0,6; distância NA - 4,8 (± 0,6; distância NP - 6,0 (± 0,5 e Indice nuclear 1,3.Tripanosoma cruzi is for the first time recorded infecting Triatoma costalimai captured in Mambaí couty, state of Goiás, Brasil. The isolated strain is easily cultivated on LIT medium. The above T. cruzi strain was inoculated in mice and in Calomys callosus (Rodentia. The infection can be considered mild in those animals. The prepatent period was 9,4 days for mice and 4,8 days for C. callosus. No lethality for C. callosus was observed during the period of observations. The maxima observed parasitemia was: 366.6/5 [cubic milimeters] for mice and 3,750/5 [cubic milimeters] for C. callosus. Pseudocysts were found in muscles cells of both infected rodent species. Cross-immunity tests showed that a previous infection gives resistance against reinoculation with a virulent T. cruzi strain. Nymphs of Dipetalogaster maximus, Rhdnius neglectus and T. infestans fed on infected animals acquired the infection.

  13. Candida albicans biofilm development in vitro for photodynamic therapy study; Desenvolvimento de biofilme formado por Candida albicans in vitro para estudo da terapia fotodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Luis Claudio

    2009-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a phototherapy based on the use of a photo sensitizer (PS) in the presence of low intensity light with resonant wavelength of absorption of the PS and biological systems that can raise awareness, generating reactive oxygen species. Studies show that PDT has a lethal effect on Candida albicans. The biofilm formed by C. albicans is the cause of infections associated with medical devices such as catheters, with a proven resistance to antifungal agents, and the removal of the catheter colonized almost always is necessary. However, few studies in literature report the behavior and response of biofilm organized by C. albicans against PDT. The aims of this study were to develop a methodology for in vitro biofilm formation of C. albicans, evaluate the sensitivity of the biofilm of C. albicans to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using PS as the methylene blue (MB) and hypocrellin B: La{sup +3} (HBL{sup a+3}) and analyze the biofilm by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For biofilm formation, discs were made from elastomeric silicone catheters. The PS were dissolved in solution of PBS, and the MB had two different concentrations tested in the biofilm: 100{mu}M and 1mM; HBLa{sup +3} only one of 10{mu}M. The irradiation of both dyes with the microorganism was done by two different LEDs, one with red emission at {lambda} = 630nm {+-} 20nm and the other one blue emission at {lambda} = 460nm {+-} 30nm. We performed a curve of survival fraction versus time of irradiation of each sample with biofilm and suspension of the microorganism in the yeast form to verify the susceptibility of the front PDT. The yeast showed 100% reduction using both PS, but at different times of irradiation (30s to HBLa{sup +3} and 6 min for the MB at 100{mu}M). When the therapy was applied in biofilm, the MB 100{mu}M did not show any significant reduction, while at concentration of 1mM was reduced by 100% after 6 min of irradiation. The HBLa{sup +3} biofilm group showed a

  14. Substituição da agulha isolada para eletroneuroestimulação pela agulha metálica de cateter intravenoso, na verificação da punção epidural, em cães

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    E.A. Tudury

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se o eletroneuroestimulador como um meio adequado para confirmação do posicionamento da ponta de agulhas isoladas no espaço epidural lombossal, por meio de pequenas estimulações elétricas que provocam contrações dos músculos inervados, empregando-se agulha de cateter intravenoso em vez de agulha isolada para a eletroneuroestimulação. Foram utilizados 40 cães para procedimentos cirúrgicos ortopédicos, abdominais ou retroumbilicais que necessitassem de bloqueio epidural. Durante a introdução gradativa da agulha no canal vertebral lombossacral, estímulos elétricos de 1,5 a 0,5mA foram aplicados. Diante de contrações musculares em membros pélvicos, cauda e/ou ânus, as quais foram consideradas respostas condizentes com o correto posicionamento da agulha no espaço epidural, estimulando raízes da cauda equina, procedeu-se à administração da associação de lidocaína, bupivacaína e tramadol. Constatou-se a adequada anestesia epidural mediante relaxamento do esfíncter anal, ausência dos reflexos patelares e flexor e a analgesia na área cirúrgica abdominal. Conclui-se que o método foi eficaz para a confirmação do correto posicionamento da agulha no espaço epidural durante a realização dessa anestesia regional em cães.

  15. In vitro effect of josamycin in strains of Rhodococcus equi isolated from pulmonar infections in foals / Efeito in vitro da josamicina em cepas de rhodocaccus equi isoladas de afecções pulmonares em potros

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    Jaime Galvão Dias Júnior

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Antmicrobial susceptibility test was performed in thirty-one samples of Rhodococcus equi isolated from iung infections in foals. Among the antimicrobial tosted, erythromycin (100,0 %, rifampin (96.3%. neomycin (93,6 %Josamycin (90,4% and gentamicin (90,4 %presented the highest sensitivity against R- equi- The most-common occurrence of resistance was observed from cephalexim (100,0 %}, lincomycin (100,0 %, cephalothin (96,3 %. oxacillin (96,8 %, penicillin G (96,8 %, amoxicillin (90,3 % and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (83,8 %. The highest susceptibility of the R. equi to josamycin, suggest the drug as alternative for therapy of R. equi infections in foals.Procedeu-se o teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro pelo teste de difusão com discos em 31 cepas de Rhodococcus equi. isoladas de afecções pulmonares cm potros. frente a 20 antimicrobianos. Os maioires índices de sensibilidade de R. equi foram constatados para entromicina (100,0 %, níampicina (96.8 %}t ncomicina (93. 6 %. josamicina (90.4% e gentamicina (90A %. Os maiores índices de resistência do agente foram verificados para cefalexina (100,0%, lincomicina (100.0%, cefalotina (96.8 %, oxacilino (96,8 %}, penicilina G (96,3 %, amoxicilina (90.3 % e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (83,8 %. A alta sensibilidade das cepas de R. equi para a josamicina, sugere a possibilidade de utilização da droga como alternativa no tratamento da rodococose em potros.

  16. Perfil genotípico e antigênico de amostras do vírus da diarréia viral bovina isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul (2000-2010

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    Eloisa Bianchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Isolados do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV apresentam grande diversidade genética e antigênica, o que pode dificultar o diagnóstico e a formulação de vacinas. O presente trabalho apresenta um perfil genotípico e antigênico de 20 amostras do BVDV isoladas no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul entre 2000 e 2010. As amostras foram oriundas de uma variedade de condições clínicas, que incluíam doença respiratória ou gastroentérica aguda ou crônica, lesões cutâneas, abortos, animais com crescimento retardado, além de animais persistentemente infectados (PI. A maioria das amostras (19 ou 95% pertence ao biótipo não-citopático (NCP; enquanto um isolado apresentou uma mistura de vírus NCP e citopático (CP. O sequenciamento e análise filogenética de uma região de 270 nucleotídeos da região 5' não-traduzida do genoma viral permitiu identificar 9 isolados de BVDV-2 (45% e 8 isolados de BVDV-2 (40%. Três amostras não agruparam filogeneticamente com nenhum dos genótipos, sendo classificados como pestivírus atípicos. Não foi possível associar os genótipos ou subgenótipos com as condições clínicas e, tanto os BVDV-1 quanto os BVDV-2 estavam envolvidos em diferentes síndromes clínico-patológicas. Análise de reatividade com um painel de 19 anticorpos monoclonais (AcMs revelou uma variabilidade marcante na glicoproteína principal do envelope (E2 entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e sobretudo, entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Testes de neutralização viral (SN com anti-soro de cepas de referência de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 frente às amostras isoladas revelaram níveis variáveis de reatividade cruzada entre vírus do mesmo genótipo, e reatividade muito baixa ou ausente entre vírus de genótipos diferentes. Esses resultados indicam uma frequência semelhante de BVDV-1 e BVDV-2 na população estudada, confirmam a marcante variabilidade antigênica e reforçam a necessidade de se incluir vírus dos dois genótipos nas

  17. Cognitive impairment is correlated with reduced quality of life in patients with clinically isolated syndrome Comprometimento cognitivo correlaciona-se com redução da qualidade de vida em pacientes com síndrome clinicamente isolada

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    Carolina Fiorin Anhoque

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quality of life (QoL and potential QoL determinants in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS. METHODS: Eighteen CIS patients and eighteen controls were submitted to QoL evaluation with Functional Assessment of Multiple Sclerosis QoL instrument (FAMS. Cognition was evaluated with specific battery tests; Anxiety and depression with Beck Anxiety (BAI and Depression (BDI Inventories and Neurological disability with Guy's Neurological Disability Scale (GNDS. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in QoL between CIS patients and controls. CIS patients had worse performance in Paced Auditory Serial Addition 2 seconds (p=0.009 and fluency tests (p=0.0038. There was a significant difference in BAI (p=0.003, but no significant difference in BDI between patients and controls. There were significant correlations between QoL measure and verbal fluency and Stroop's test. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition, but not anxiety, depression and disability, was associated with reduced quality of life.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida (QoL e seus potenciais determinantes em pacientes com síndrome clinicamente isolada (SCI. MÉTODOS: Dezoito pacientes com SCI e 18 controles realizaram avaliação da QoL com Escala de Determinação da QoL na Esclerose Múltipla; cognição foi avaliada com bateria de testes específica; ansiedade e depressão com os Inventários de Beck de ansiedade (BAI e de depressão (BDI e a incapacidade neurológica com a Guy's Neurological Disability Scale. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença significativa na QoL avaliada entre pacientes com SCI e controles. Pacientes com SCI apresentaram pior desempenho no Pased Auditory Serial Addition 2 segundos (p=0,009 e na fluência verbal (p=0,0038. Houve diferença no BAI (p=0,003, entretanto sem diferença do BDI entre pacientes e controles. Houve correlações significativas entre QoL, fluência verbal e Stroop. CONCLUSÕES: Alterações cognitivas tiveram correlação com

  18. Aspectos florísticos e ecológicos de epífitos vasculares sobre figueiras isoladas no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Gonçalves Cezar Neubert

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos com epífitos vasculares no Brasil normalmente não consideram árvores isoladas em áreas antropizadas, as quais permitem o estabelecimento e preservação de uma porção representativa da flora epifítica original. Neste trabalho, enfoca-se a composição florística dos epífitos vasculares em espécimes isolados de Ficus organensis (Miq. Miq. no norte da planície costeira do Rio Grande do Sul. A área de estudo fica situada no entorno da cidade de Terra de Areia (29°35' S e 50°04' W, com clima subtropical úmido (Cfa. Sessenta árvores foram inventariadas. Foram encontradas 77 espécies, 33 gêneros e 10 famílias. A família Orchidaceae e o gênero Tillandsia L. apresentaram os maiores números de espécies. A categoria ecológica mais diversificada foi a dos holoepífitos, com 69 espécies, a maioria delas apresentando a suculência como adaptação para o estresse hídrico. A proporção de espécies anemocóricas (51 foi praticamente o dobro das zoocóricas (26. A percentagem das espécies epifíticas, em relação à flora epifítica regional, foi de 30,8%. A proporção de Orchidaceae foi relativamente menor, provavelmente devido a maiores exigências em relação aos hábitats florestais originais. A família com maior importância fisionômica foi Bromeliaceae. O predomínio das espécies anemocóricas sobre as zoocóricas, nas árvores amostradas, é menor do que em áreas com florestas preservadas.

  19. Detecção dos genes da toxina citoletal distensiva em estirpes de Campylobacter jejuni isoladas de carcaças de frangos Detection of cytolethal distending toxin genes in strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from broiler carcasses

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    A.F. Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas 80 amostras de sobrecoxas de frangos de corte resfriados provenientes de feiras livres e hipermercados do município de São Paulo, SP. Treze estirpes de Campylobacter spp. foram isoladas em 10 (12,5% sobrecoxas, sendo cinco amostras originárias de feiras livres e cinco de hipermercados. Onze estirpes foram identificadas como Campylobacter jejuni e duas como Campylobacter coli. As 11 estirpes foram confirmadas como C. jejuni pela PCR do gene da hipuricase (hip, e destas, quatro (36,4% apresentaram os três genes (cdtA, cdtB e cdtC codificantes da toxina citoletal distensiva pela multiplex-PCR, sendo três estirpes provenientes de hipermercados e uma de feira livre. Observou-se a presença de estirpes virulentas de C. jejuni, portadoras do complexo de genes cdt, nas amostras de frango resfriado, não só na linha de abate, mas até o ponto final da cadeia de distribuição, nos dois principais centros de venda a varejo.Eighty samples of refrigerated broiler thighs purchased in street markets and supermarkets in the city of São Paulo, SP, were analyzed. Thirteen Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated in 10 (12.5% thighs, five of them from street market samples and other five from supermarkets. Eleven strains were identified as Campylobacter jejuni and two of them as Campylobacter coli. The 11 strains were confirmed to be C. jejuni using PCR for hippuricase (hip gene. From these, multiplex-PCR showed that four (36.4% strains presented the three genes (cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC encoding cytolethal distending toxin: three strains from supermarket and one from street market samples. These results are important, because they demonstrate the presence of virulent C. jejuni strains in refrigerated broiler thigh samples, not only in the slaughterhouse but in the final point of the distribution chain, at the two most important food retail commercer.

  20. Use of 65 kDa mannoprotein gene primers in Real Time PCR identification of Candida albicans in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancia, Silvia; Carattoli, Alessandra; La Valle, Roberto; Cassone, Antonio; De Bernardis, Flavia

    2006-10-01

    A method for the detection and quantification of Candida albicans in biological samples (blood, urine and serum) was developed with the use of Real-Time PCR utilizing CaMP65-specific primers. Two different systems were used for the detection in the LightCycler platform (Roche): the SYBR green fluorescent dye with melting peak analysis and the 5'nuclease fluorescent-probe detection. The amplification was highly specific for C. albicans, providing no cross-reaction on genomic DNA extracted from other Candida species or Aspergillus. The sensitivity in simulated biological samples was especially high (1 genome) when applied to sera and urine, and in blood samples the limit of detection was higher by ten-fold. Finally, the real-time PCR was employed in order to detect and quantify C. albicans in the sera from patients with invasive candidiasis.

  1. VERIFICATION OF THE PRESENCE OF CAPSULE GENE SEQUENCES IN NASOPHARYNGEAL ISOLATES OF NONTYPEABLE HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE FROM HEALTHY CHILDREN AT A BRAZILIAN DAY CARE CENTER Verificação da presença de seqüências do gene da cápsula em cepas não tipáveis de Haemophilus influenzae isoladas da nasofaringe de crianças saudáveis em uma creche brasileira

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    Maria Emilia Bonifácio da Silva

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-eight nasopharyngeal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were collected from healthy children at a day care center, and nontypeable isolates were examined by Southern blot for the presence of capsule gene sequences. Seven isolates (12% demonstrated homology with capsule-specific sequences. One isolate was characterized as an H. influenzae type b capsule-deficient strain.Cinqüenta e oito cepas de Haemophilus influenzae foram isoladas da nasofaringe de crianças saudáveis que freqüentam uma creche, e através da técnica de Southern blot foi pesquisada nas cepas acapsuladas a presença de seqüências do gene capsular. Sete cepas (12% caracterizadas sorologicamente como acapsuladas mostraram homologia com seqüências específicas da cápsula. Uma cepa foi caracterizada com uma linhagem H. influenzae tipo b cápsula deficiente.

  2. RESISTÊNCIA A ANTIMICROBIANOS EM CEPAS DE Enterococcus spp. ISOLADAS DA UTI DE UM HOSPITAL DE CACHOEIRO DE ITAPEMIRIM – ES

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    Maicon Marvila Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, local onde são internados pacientes com maior gravidade, é uma das unidades do hospital com maior índice de infecções hospitalares. Os Enterococcus são capazes também de exibir diferentes mecanismos de resistência adquirida a uma ampla variedade de antimicrobianos. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo identificar a prevalência de cepas de Enterococcus spp. na UTI de um hospital em Cachoeiro de Itapemirim-ES, no período de 2014 à 2015, e determinar sua multirresistência aos antimicrobianos. Os dados foram coletados através do acervo documental do laboratório de análises clínicas. A maior prevalência da bactéria foi no gênero masculino e em amostras de urina foram fonte majoritária de isolamento. Fora verificado alta taxa de resistência a quinolonas, aminoglicosídeos e glicopeptídeos. A necessidade de uma maior vigilância no controle de infecção hospitalar com o intuito de minimizar e/ou eliminar as infecções de pacientes internados, principalmente em UTI.

  3. Descoloração do corante Azul Brilhante de Remazol R por leveduras isoladas de moluscos do Rio Subaé, no estado da Bahia, Brasil

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    Liliane Andrade Sande da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estudar o potencial de descoloração do corante Azul Brilhante de Remazol R (RBBR por cinco isolados de leveduras identificados como OJU2, SJL6, SF5, SJ10 e SJU5, otimizar as condições de crescimento das leveduras e verificar a toxicidade do produto obtido após a descoloração. Para isso, foram realizados ensaios em batelada variando os seguintes parâmetros: pH (2 a 8, concentração de glicose (0 a 3%, concentração do corante (25 a 100 ppm e temperatura (20 a 40ºC. As leveduras mostraram capacidade de descolorir o RBBR com eficiência entre 80 e 93%, depois de 24 horas. A melhor condição para descoloração do RBBR ocorreu em pH ácido, 2% de glicose, 25 ppm do corante e 25ºC. Com os ensaios com Artemia salina, foi observado diminuição da toxicidade após tratamento com os isolados SJ10 e SJU5, depois de 120 horas de incubação.

  4. AVALIAÇÃO DA EFICIÊNCIA DE ENXAGUATÓRIOS BUCAIS SOBRE A INATIVAÇÃO DE STREPTOCOCCUS SP. E CANDIDA ALBICANS IN VITRO

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    Ana Barros de Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A sobrevivência de micro-organismos patogênicos na cavidade bucal depende da habilidade de se aderirem ao dente e sintetizarem placas bacterianas, formadas a partir de resíduos da má higienização. Para evitar a formação das placas bacterianas, além da higienização mecânica, podem ser aplicados enxaguatórios bucais, que inibem o crescimento de patógenos. Ao considerar a grande diversidade de marcas de enxaguatórios bucais no mercado, o presente trabalho visou avaliar quatro das principais marcas, quanto à eficácia in vitro na inibição de Streptococcus sp. e Candida albicans. Para tanto, foram utilizados os princípios ativos Clorexidina 0,12%, Triclosan e Fluoreto de Sódio, Cloreto de Cetilpiridínio e Timol, empregado o método de difusão em ágar, para avaliação da formação do halo de inibição. Os melhores resultados obtidos na inibição dos micro-organismos testados foram Clorexidina 0,12% e Triclosan e Fluoreto de Sódio.

  5. Isolamento e caracterização biológica da amostra JAP99 do vírus da doença de Newcastle isolada de patos domésticos (Neta sp) no Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Júnior Jorge Granja de; Schiavo Paula Amorin; Doretto Júnior Luciano; Orsi Maria Ângela; Mazur Carlos; Andrade Cláudio de Moraes

    2005-01-01

    O vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN) é o agente etiológico de uma das doenças mais importantes da avicultura e tem sido identificado na maioria das espécies aviárias, silvestres e domésticas. Neste trabalho, obteve-se o isolamento em ovos embrionados da amostra denominada JAP99 do VDN, a partir de fezes de patos coletadas no Município de Japeri, RJ. A amostra foi identificada pela técnica da inibição da hemaglutinação (HI) e a caracterização biológica da patogenicidade do novo isolado foi rea...

  6. Detecção da toxina-1 da síndrome do choque tóxico em amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de mastite bovina Detection of toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis

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    H.F.T. Cardoso

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar a produção da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1 e de enterotoxinas estafilocócicas (SE A, B, C e D em 127 amostras de S. aureus, isoladas de amostras de leite proveniente de vacas com mastite no Estado de Minas Gerais, entre 1994 e 1997. A verificação da produção de toxinas foi feita pela técnica de sensibilidade ótima em placa. Das 127 amostras testadas, 60 (47% eram produtoras de TSST-1 e 54 (43% produtoras de SE, 38 amostras produziram SED (30%, 24 SEB (19%, 8 SEC (6% e 4 SEA (3%. Estes resultados trazem preocupações quanto à saúde pública pela alta prevalência de amostras de S. aureus produtoras de TSST-1 e de enterotoxinas em isolamentos a partir de leite de vacas com mastite.A total of 127 strains of Staphylococcus aureus were examined for the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1 and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE A, B, C and D. The strains were isolated from milk samples from cows with mastitis in dairy herds of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from 1994 to 1997. The toxins were detected using the optimum-sensitivity plate method. Of 127 isolates, 60 (47% produced TSST-1 and 54 (43% produced SE, 38 (30% produced SED, 24 (19% SEB, 8 (6% SEC and 4 (3% enterotoxin A..

  7. Humic substances isolated from residues of sugar cane industry as root growth promoter Substâncias húmicas isoladas de resíduos da indústria da cana-de-açúcar como promotoras de crescimento radicular

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    Jader Galba Busato

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting substances are widely used in modern agriculture. Several products in the market are humic substances isolated from different sources. The filter cake, a residue of sugar production, is a rich and renewable source of organic matter and these characteristics place the filter cake as a possible source of plant growth promoting substances. Humic acids (HA from filter cake were characterized, and their effects as root growth promoters were evaluated. Chemical features of the HA were evaluated through elemental composition, acidic functional groups, E4/E6 ratio and infrared spectroscopy analyzes. The biological activity of the HA was assessed using root architecture parameters and the P-type H+-ATPase activity. The lateral root development was directly related to the stimulation of plasma membrane ATPase activity. The ability of HA to promote root development indicate that HA from filter cake can be used as environmental plant growth stimulators.Substâncias promotoras do crescimento vegetal são amplamente utilizadas na agricultura moderna. Existem vários produtos no mercado, muitos dos quais são substâncias húmicas isoladas de diferentes fontes. A torta de filtro, um resíduo da produção do açúcar, é uma fonte rica e renovável de matéria orgânica e essas características a tornam uma possível fonte de substâncias promotoras do crescimento vegetal. Ácidos húmicos (AH da torta de filtro foram caracterizados, e foi avaliado seu efeito como promotor de crescimento radicular. As características químicas dos AH foram avaliadas por meio da composição elementar, grupos funcionais ácidos, relação E4/E6 e espectroscopia de infravermelho. A atividade biológica dos AH foi acessada avaliando-se a arquitetura radicular e a atividade da H+-ATPase de membrana plasmática. O desenvolvimento de raízes laterais foi diretamente relacionado ao estímulo da atividade da H+-ATPase. A habilidade dos AH em promover o

  8. Perfil de suscetibilidade de leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de animais ao óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis L Susceptibility profile of Candida spp. isolated from animals to the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L

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    M.B. Cleff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram avaliadas a atividade antifúngica e composição química do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis (alecrim. O óleo essencial foi obtido, através da hidrodestilação, das partes aéreas da planta, o qual foi analisado por cromatografia gasosa com detectores de ionização em chama (GC/FID e espectrometria de massas (GC/MS. Esse óleo foi testado em isolados de C. albicans da mucosa vaginal de fêmeas caninas, casos clínicos de candidíase em animais cepas padrões e espécies não-albicans, usando a técnica de microdiluição em caldo (CLSI-M27A2. A análise cromatográfica do óleo permitiu identificar como principais compostos cânfora, verbenona e 1,8-cineol. Os valores de CIM do óleo para os isolados padrões de C. albicans variaram entre 1,25 e 2,5 µL mL-1 e de 2,5 a 5,0 µL mL-1 para CFM, enquanto que para os isolados não-albicans observou-se CIM entre 1,25 e 5,0 µL mL-1 e CFM de 2,5 a 10,0 µL mL-1. C. albicans isolada de animais apresentou valores de 2,5 a >10,0 µL mL-1 para CIM e de 5,0 a >10,0 µL mL-1 para CFM. Os resultados demonstraram atividade fungicida e fungistática do óleo essencial de alecrim em isolados de Candida spp. provenientes de animais.In this work the antifungal activity and chemical composition of the Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary essential oil against Candida spp. were evaluated. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial parts, and analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. This oil was tested against fourteen isolates of Candida sp. (ten C. albicans and four no-albicans species by the microdillution broth assay (CLSI-M27A2. Chromatography analyses of the essential oil showed compounds, as camphor, verbenone and 1,8-cineole as major constituents. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 1.25 - 2.5 µL mL-1 and 2.5 - 5.0 µL mL-1, respectively. MIC and

  9. Determinação da produção de metalo-b-lactamases em amostras de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas em João Pessoa, Paraíba

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    Santos Filho Lauro; Santos Isabele Beserra; Assis Alexandro Mangueira Lima de; Xavier Danilo Elias

    2002-01-01

    Bactérias produtoras de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) são em grande parte resistentes aos betalactâmicos de largo espectro, incluindo oximino-aminotiazol cefalosporinas e também aos carbapenens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistentes ao imipenem e à ceftazidima, assim como identificar aquelas produtoras de MBLs. Foram estudadas 198 linhagens não-repetitivas isoladas de diversas amostras clínicas, hospitalares e comunitárias, identificadas bioquimica...

  10. Determinação da produção de metalo-beta-lactamases em amostras de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas em João Pessoa, Paraíba

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    Santos Filho,Lauro; Santos,Isabele Beserra; Assis,Alexandro Mangueira Lima de; Xavier,Danilo Elias

    2002-01-01

    Bactérias produtoras de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) são em grande parte resistentes aos betalactâmicos de largo espectro, incluindo oximino-aminotiazol cefalosporinas e também aos carbapenens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistentes ao imipenem e à ceftazidima, assim como identificar aquelas produtoras de MBLs. Foram estudadas 198 linhagens não-repetitivas isoladas de diversas amostras clínicas, hospitalares e comunitárias, identificadas bioquimica...

  11. Isolamento e caracterização biológica da amostra JAP99 do vírus da doença de Newcastle isolada de patos domésticos (Neta sp no Rio de Janeiro

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    Oliveira Júnior Jorge Granja de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN é o agente etiológico de uma das doenças mais importantes da avicultura e tem sido identificado na maioria das espécies aviárias, silvestres e domésticas. Neste trabalho, obteve-se o isolamento em ovos embrionados da amostra denominada JAP99 do VDN, a partir de fezes de patos coletadas no Município de Japeri, RJ. A amostra foi identificada pela técnica da inibição da hemaglutinação (HI e a caracterização biológica da patogenicidade do novo isolado foi realizada no Laboratório Regional Animal, MAPA, Campinas, SP (LARA-Campinas. Pela inoculação intracerebral em pintos de um dia (IPIC, o índice foi 1,4. Na inoculação intravenosa em aves de seis semanas (IPIV, o índice encontrado foi 0,0 (zero e o tempo médio de morte embrionária (TMME foi de 62 horas. Estes resultados indicaram que o isolado JAP99 é mesogênico para galinhas comerciais, oferecendo risco para a avicultura industrial.

  12. Caracterização antigênica e molecular de oito amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky isoladas no estado do Rio Grande do Sul em 2003 Antigenic and molecular characterization of eight samples of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in 2003

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    Alessandra D'Ávila da Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A doença de Aujeszky ou pseudoraiva (DA, causada pelo vírus da pseudoraiva (PRV é a maior preocupação na produção de suínos. No estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, a DA foi somente detectada em 1954, em bovino. Em 2003, ocorreram dois surtos de encefalite em granjas na região norte do estado, fronteira com o estado de Santa Catarina. O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA foi isolado a partir de animais coletados em oito granjas distintas da região e submetido a análises antigênicas e moleculares. As amostras de VDA isoladas foram comparadas com as amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP. A caracterização antigênica dos mesmos foi realizada com testes de imunoperoxidase frente a um painel de anticorpos mono-clonais (Mabs preparado contra epitopos de glicoproteinas virais (gB, gC, gD e gE. A caracterização genômica foi realizada através da análise restrição enzimática (REA sobre o genoma total das amostras, com a enzima de restrição (REA Bam HI. O perfil antigênico das oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul, bem como os apresentados pelas amostras padrão NIA-3 e NP, foram similares. A REA revelou que todos as oito amostras do Rio Grande do Sul apresentaram um arranjo genômico do tipo II, genótipo frequentemente encontrado em surtos prévios de DA em outros estados do Brasil. Os resultados aqui obtidos indicam que as oito amostras isoladas no Rio Grande do Sul são similares.Pseudorabies or Aujeszky's disease (AD, caused by pseudorabies virus (PRV is a major concern in swine production. In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, AD was only detected in 1954, in cattle. In 2003 two outbreaks of encephalitis occurred on the northern region of the state, close to the border with the state of Santa Catarina. Pseudorabies virus (PRV was isolated from distinct farms within the region and subjected to antigenic and genomic analyses. These isolates were compared with prototype strains NIA-3 and NP. Antigenic characterization with a

  13. Antifungal susceptibility testing of yeast isolated from corneal infections Teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais

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    Vera Lucia Degaspare Monte Mascaro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To report the antifungal susceptibility profile of yeast isolates obtained from cases of keratitis. METHODS: Susceptibility testing of 15 yeast strains isolated from corneal infections to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole was performed using the NCCLS broth microdilution assay. RESULTS: Most episodes of eye infections were caused by Candida albicans. The antifungal drugs tested showed the following minimal inhibitory concentration values against yeast isolates: 0.125-0.5 µg/ml for amphotericin B; 0.125->64.0 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.015-1.0 µg/ml for itraconazole and 0.015-0.125 µg/ml for ketoconazole. Despite the fact that all Candida isolates were judged to be susceptible to azoles, one isolate showed a minimal inhibitory concentration value significantly higher than a 90% minimal inhibitory concentration of all tested isolates. Rhodotorula rubra was resistant to fluconazole and itraconazole. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the fact that most yeast isolates from corneal infections are usually susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles, they exhibit a wide range of minimal inhibitory concentration values for antifungal drugs. The identification of strains at species level and their susceptibility pattern to antifungal drugs should be considered before determining the concentration to be used in topical antifungal formulations in order to optimize therapeutic response in eye infections.OBJETIVO: Relatar resultados e avaliar a aplicabilidade do teste de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos de leveduras isoladas de infecções corneais oculares. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se teste de suscetibilidade pelo método de microdiluição em caldo, padronizado pelo NCCLS-EUA, em 15 amostras de leveduras de infecções corneanas a anfotericina B, fluconazol, itraconazol e ketoconazol. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos episódios de infecção corneal foi causada por Candida albicans. As drogas antifúngicas testadas exibiram valores de concentra

  14. Avaliação da capacidade de produção de biofilmes e detecção da enzima KPC em Salmonella spp. isoladas de aviário e linha de abate de aves

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    Míriam Gonçalves Marquezini

    2015-01-01

    De acordo com a Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2013), o consumo mundial de carne de frango tem aumentado de maneira significativa nas últimas décadas. Por outro lado, a preocupação dos produtores de alimentos, com a inocuidade de seus produtos também tem aumentado na mesma proporção. Durante as etapas da operação de abate de maneira geral, as contaminações cruzadas são as principais causas de disseminação de microrganismos patogênicos nos produtos obtidos e caus...

  15. Avaliação da resistência a antibióticos de bactérias isoladas de efluente hospitalar - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i1.7453

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    Elenice Tavares Abreu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de antibióticos está entre as principais causas de resistência bacteriana. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se o esgoto do Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá (HUM apresentava bactérias patogênicas resistentes a antibióticos. As amostras foram coletadas em dois pontos, um de todo o hospital e outro do Hemocentro. Foram semeados 100 µL nas diluições 10-2, 10-3 e 10-4 nos meios de culturas Ágar Mac Conkey, Ágar Salmonella-Shigella, Ágar Manitol Salgado e Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose. As amostras foram submetidas à identificação bacteriana e ao antibiograma. A identificação bacteriana se baseou na bacterioscopia por coloração de Gram e provas bioquímicas. Os antibiogramas foram feitos de acordo com a metodologia de difusão de disco em Ágar Müeller-Hinton, e foram utilizados 12 antibióticos nesses testes. Foram isoladas e identificadas 39 amostras, e dentre estas, 18 espécies apresentaram resistência e moderada resistência pelo menos para um dos antibióticos. Bactérias isoladas e identificadas como K. pneumoniae, E.coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae e C. freundii apresentaram resistência para quase todos os antibióticos testados. Verificou-se que o HUM lança, na rede pública coletora de esgoto, bactérias com multirresistência a determinados antibióticos. Portanto, torna-se necessária a implantação de sistema eficiente de tratamento de efluentes no HUM.

  16. Characterization of Aujeszky's disease virus isolates from South and Southeast Brazil by RFLP analysis Caracterização de amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky isoladas nas regiões sul e sudeste do Brasil por RFLP

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    Rosa Maria Piatti

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The genomic DNA of thirty strains of Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV isolated in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil from 1982 to 1996 were characterized by restriction endonuclease analysis with BamHI. Twenty seven strains were isolated from pigs, 1 from cattle, 1 from cat and 1 from dog. Using a systematization previously described, the 30 ADV strains could be classified as genomic types I (n = 2 and II (n = 28. Genomic type III was not observed. In this first study of genomic type characterization of brazilian ADV strains, we could demonstrate the occurence in Brazil of the genomic types I and II, with a large predominance of genomic type II.O DNA genômico de 30 amostras do vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA, isoladas nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil no período de 1982 a 1996, foram caracterizadas por análise do perfil de restrição utilizando a enzima BamHI. Vinte e sete amostras foram isoladas de suínos, uma de bovino, uma de felino e uma de canino. Através de uma sistemática previamente descrita, as 30 amostras de VDA foram classificadas como pertencentes ao tipo genômico I (n = 2 e tipo genômico II (n = 28. O tipo genômico III não foi observado. Neste primeiro estudo de caracterização genômica de isolados de VDA do Brasil, foi possível demonstrar a ocorrência dos tipos genômicos I e II, com marcante predomínio do tipo II.

  17. Hemolytic activity and production of germ tubes related to pathogenic potential of clinical isolates of Candida albicans

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    MELYSSA FERNANDA NEGRI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We assessed the virulence factor profile and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 27 hospital isolates of C. albicans; 19 of these were from infections (16 urinary and three blood, and the other eight were isolated from sites of colonization (two from hands of health professionals, and six from central venous catheters. The virulence factors assayed were germ tube formation and production of extracellular products (hemolysins, proteinases, and phospholipases. Susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B was determined by E-test. Regarding the virulence factors, the infection isolates produced significantly more hemolysin and germ tubes than the colonization isolates (p<0.05. There were no significant differences in the production of other factors between isolates from the two sources (p>0.05. Amphotericin B showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations for all the isolates. The highest resistance was observed for the azoles, especially in the clinical isolates. These results suggest that the capacity of C. albicans to produce hemolysins and germ tubes may be associated with its pathogenic potential. Colonization isolates may pose a high risk of nosocomial infection, especially when the yeasts show resistance to antifungals. Keywords: Nosocomial infection. Virulence. Candida albicans. Germ tube. Hemolysins. RESUMO Atividade hemolítica e produção de tubos germinativos relacionados ao potencial patogênico de isolados clínicos de Candida albicans O perfil de virulência e o de susceptibilidade in vitro aos antifúngicos de 27 amostras de C. albicans de origem hospitalar foi avaliado, sendo que 19 delas foram isoladas de infecções (16 urinárias e três sanguíneas e as outras oito foram isoladas de colonização (duas de mãos de profissionais da saúde e seis de cateter venoso central. Os seguintes fatores de virulência foram investigados: formação de tubo germinativo e produ

  18. Influência da co-agregação entre Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH = Influence of the co-aggregation between Candida. albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus on the adhesion capacity these microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC

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    Simone Américo Etgeton

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da co-agregação in vitro entre Candida albicans e Lactobacillus acidophilus na capacidade de adesão destes microrganismos às células epiteliais vaginais humanas (CEVH. Foram utilizados um isolado vaginal de C. albicans e uma cepa ATCC de L. acidophilus. Uma suspensão de cada microrganismo isoladamente e do coagregado foram incubados com as CEVH obtidas de uma doadora saudável. Foram feitos esfregaços por cristal violeta e Papanicolaou, e o número de leveduras, lactobacilos ou coagregados aderidos às células foi contado (em 300 células superficiais-CS e 300 intermediárias-CI. A Microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV foi realizada em todas as situações dos ensaios.Leveduras e lactobacilos aderiram fortemente as CEVH, tanto em CS quanto em CI. A coagregação levou a um aumento na capacidade de adesão das leveduras (p 0,05. Havendo correlação com o que acontece in vivo, probióticos à base de L. acidophillus e mesmo uma flora lactobacilar vaginal não surtiriam efeito protetor contra a adesão de C. albicans as CEVH e do possível desenvolvimento de candidíase vulvovaginal.This work has aimed to evaluate the influence of the L. acidophilus and Candida albicans co-aggregation on the adhesion capacity this microorganisms in the human ephitelial vaginal cells (HEVC. One vaginal isolated of C. albicans and one ATCC strain of L. acidophilus was used. A suspension of the isolated and co-aggregated microorganisms was incubated with HVEC obtained from a healthy donor. After one hour, smears were made with crystal violet and Papanicolaou, and the number of yeasts adhered to HVEC was evaluated (300 superficial-SC and 300 intermediate cells-IC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was made in all situations of the assays. Yeasts and lactobacilli adhered strongly to the HEVC, both SC and IC. The co-aggregation there was an increase in the adhesion capacity of the yeasts (p 0

  19. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

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    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  20. Avaliação da resistência a antibióticos de bactérias isoladas de efluente hospitalar = Evaluation of resistance to antibiotics of bacteria isolated from hospital effluents

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    Elenice Tavares Abreu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de antibióticos está entre as principais causas de resistência bacteriana. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar se o esgoto do Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá (HUM apresentava bactérias patogênicas resistentes a antibióticos. Asamostras foram coletadas em dois pontos, um de todo o hospital e outro do Hemocentro. Foram semeados 100 μL nas diluições 10-2, 10-3 e 10-4 nos meios de culturas Ágar Mac Conkey, Ágar Salmonella-Shigella, Ágar Manitol Salgado e Ágar Sabouraud Dextrose. As amostras foram submetidas à identificação bacteriana e ao antibiograma. A identificação bacteriana se baseou na bacterioscopia por coloração de Gram e provas bioquímicas. Os antibiogramas foram feitos de acordo com a metodologia de difusão de disco em Ágar Müeller-Hinton, e foram utilizados 12 antibióticos nesses testes. Foram isoladas eidentificadas 39 amostras, e dentre estas, 18 espécies apresentaram resistência e moderada resistência pelo menos para um dos antibióticos. Bactérias isoladas e identificadas como K. pneumoniae, E.coli, K. pneumoniae, E. cloacae e C. freundii apresentaram resistência para quase todos os antibióticos testados. Verificou-se que o HUM lança, na rede pública coletora de esgoto, bactérias com multirresistência a determinados antibióticos. Portanto, torna-se necessária a implantação de sistema eficiente de tratamento de efluentes no HUM. The massive use of antibiotics is among the leading causes of bacterial resistance. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the sewage of the Maringá Regional University Hospital (HUM has pathogenic bacteria resistant to antibiotics. The samples were collected at two sites, one from the entire hospital and the other from the blood bank. 100 mL were inserted in dilutions of 10-2, 10-3 and 10-4 in cultures Mac Conkey Agar, Salmonella-Shigella Agar, Mannitol Salt Agar and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. The samples were subjected to

  1. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms

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    Mayer, Fran?ois L.; Wilson, Duncan; Hube, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphic fungus Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microbiome. In most individuals, C. albicans resides as a lifelong, harmless commensal. Under certain circumstances, however, C. albicans can cause infections that range from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Several factors and activities have been identified which contribute to the pathogenic potential of this fungus. Among them are molecules which mediate adhesion to and invasi...

  2. Determinação da produção de metalo-b-lactamases em amostras de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas em João Pessoa, Paraíba

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    Santos Filho Lauro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias produtoras de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBLs são em grande parte resistentes aos betalactâmicos de largo espectro, incluindo oximino-aminotiazol cefalosporinas e também aos carbapenens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi detectar cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistentes ao imipenem e à ceftazidima, assim como identificar aquelas produtoras de MBLs. Foram estudadas 198 linhagens não-repetitivas isoladas de diversas amostras clínicas, hospitalares e comunitárias, identificadas bioquimicamente por técnicas de rotina. A triagem para a detecção de amostras produtoras de MBLs foi realizada pelo método de dupla difusão proposto por Arakawa et al. (2000 e modificado por Nakajima et al. (2001, utilizando discos contendo mercaptoacetato de sódio. Foi detectado um percentual de resistência de 19,7% (39/198 ao imipenem e de 15,2% (30/198 à ceftazidima, com 10,1% (20/198 de resistência cruzada aos dois antimicrobianos. Entre estas amostras, 2% (4/198 demonstraram produção de MBLs e padrão de multirresistência. A detecção destas amostras configura um problema emergente, com importantes implicações na terapêutica antimicrobiana, necessitando, portanto, de maior investigação através de metodologia molecular, para melhor caracterizar a extensão do problema.

  3. Avaliação da atividade in vitro do cefetamet e outros agentes antimicrobianos diante de bactérias isoladas de infecções do trato respiratório In vitro activity of cefetamet compared with other antimicrobial agents against bacteria isolated from respiratory tract infections

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    C.M.F. Mendes

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available O cefetamet pivoxil é uma nova cefalosporina de administração oral, estável à ação de beta-lactamases. A resistência aos antimicrobianos entre os patógenos isolados do trato respiratório tem-se tornado um importante problema tanto para o clínico como para o microbiologista, com os padrões de sensibilidade variando consideravelmente, de acordo com a localização geográfica, daí, também, a importância de sempre se realizar o teste de sensibilidade in vitro dos microrganismos isolados. OBJETIVO. Avaliar a atividade in vitro do cefetamet, o metabólito microbiologicamente ativo da pré-droga cefetamet pivoxil, comparativamente com outros 11 antibióticos, perante 376 bactérias recentemente isoladas de pacientes com infecções do trato respiratório. MÉTODOS. O estudo comparativo da atividade in vitro do cefetamet e outros 11 agentes antimicrobianos foi verificado perante 376 microrganismos isolados de pacientes com infecções do trato respiratório, durante período de estudo de seis meses. Por meio da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (MIC dos antibióticos testados, verificou-se a sensibilidade das bactérias isoladas. RESULTADOS. O cefetamet mostrou alta atividade in vitro diante das bactérias testadas, possuindo um espectro de atividade semelhante ao de outras cefalosporinas orais recentemente desenvolvidas. A excelente atividade do cefetamet perante bactérias produtoras de beta-lactamase, como a Moraxella catarrhalis, pode ser atribuída à sua estabilidade ante essas enzimas. O cefetamet na concentração de 1,0µg/mL foi capaz de inibir 97% de todas as bactérias testadas. CONCLUSÃO. O estudo realizado nas 376 cepas, em que obtivemos o resultado do MIC90 dos 12 antimicrobianos testados, confirma a excelente atividade do cefetamet diante dos patógenos isolados do trato respiratório.Cefetamet pivoxil is a new ß lactamase orally stable administered cephalosporin. Antimicrobial resistance among

  4. Caracterização da mitocôndria isolada de fígado de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus e alterações da bioenergética mitocondrial causadas pela exposição herbicida oxifluorfena Characterization of liver mitochondria from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and mitochondrial bioenergetics alterations caused by exposure to oxyfluorfen herbicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.P. Peixoto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um método de isolamento de mitocôndrias acopladas de tilápia-do-nilo Oreochromis niloticus, isoladas de células hepáticas de peixes adultos. As mitocôndrias estavam metabolicamente ativas, sendo capazes de realizarem fosforilação oxidativa, de acordo com os valores do quociente de controle respiratório. Os valores de controle respiratório obtidos com malato/piruvato (complexo I e com succinato (complexo II foram de 5,8±0,8 e 3,38±0,4, respectivamente. O potencial de membrana exibiu o valor de 197±4mV, quer se utilizasse malato/piruvato ou succinato como substrato. O procedimento de isolamento de mitocôndrias de O. niloticus permite o estudo do efeito de xenobióticos na bioenergética mitocondrial, tendo sido avaliada a ação da oxifluorfena (0,6mgL-1 na bioenergética mitocondrial. Os resultados demonstram que o tratamento com oxifluorfena influencia a capacidade fosforilativa dos peixes, interferindo na sua carga energética, o que poderá levar à sua morte.A method for isolation of coupled mitochondria isolated from the liver of adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus is described for the first time. They were metabolically active, able to sustain oxidative phosphorylation, as shown by respiratory control ratio values, which were about 5.8±0.8 and 3.3±0.4 when respiring on malate/piruvate (complex I or succinate (complex II, respectively, as substrate. Membrane potential exhibited a value of approximately 197±4mV for malate/piruvate or succinate. The procedure now described for the isolation of O. niloticus mitochondria is an important new tool, allowing the study about the effect of xenobiotics on mitochondrial bioenergetic, being evaluated the effect of oxyfluorfen (0.6mgL-1 in the liver mitocondrial bioenergetic. These results showed that phosphorylation was significantly affected by oxyfluorfen which contributed to the decrease on the liver cell energy charge and consequently led to the fish dead.

  5. Antibody response to the 45 kDa Candida albicans antigen in an animal model and potential role of the antigen in adherence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujdáková, J.; Paulovičová, E.; Borecká-Melkusová, S.; Gašperík, J.; Kucharíková, S.; Kolecká, A.; Lell, C.; Jensen, D. B.; Würzner, R.; Chorvát, D.; Pichová, Iva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2008), s. 1466-1472 ISSN 0022-2615 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : candida albicans * CR3-RP antigen * adherence Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.190, year: 2008

  6. Determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima do Clotrimazol e da Terbinafina sobre isolados de Candida albicans oriundas da mucosa bucal de pacientes HIV positivos e HIV negativos

    OpenAIRE

    André Luis Ribeiro CLAUDINO; Cristiane Sbruzi GRANJA; Adriene Ribeiro LIMA; Claudete Rodrigues PAULA; Natanael Atilas ALEVA; Renata Beatriz SILVA; Jorge Kleber CHAVASCO

    2012-01-01

    Candidiasis is a fungi infection caused by yeasts from Candida genus, that live in the mucosas and justcauses illness when there are favoring conditions to its growth, like immune compromised HIV infected patients.Resistance reports verified in Candida albicans isolates, especially in those immune compromised, and fast andefficient treatment need cause there to be a great interest in studies capable of using in vitro susceptibility tests toadequate therapy choose. The objective of this study ...

  7. Estudo da patogenicidade para camundongos recém-nascidos de amostras de echovirus tipo 9 isoladas de casos de meningite durante um surto epidêmico no Rio de Janeiro Pathogenicity for newborn mice of echovirus type 9 samples isolated from cases of meningitis during an outbreak in Rio de Janeiro

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    Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available A patogenicidade do echovirus tipo 9 para camundongos recém-nascidos foi estudada, utilizando-se 12 amostras isoladas em cultura de células primárias de rim de macaco, a partir do liquor de crianças com meningite. Os animais inoculados com o fluido da primeira passagem em células desenvolveram paralisia flácida, após um período de 5 dias, com a morte ate o 8º dia. Os especimens originais de liquor não continham suficiente vírus para provocar sinais clínicos nos animais inoculados no período de 21 dias de observação. Ao exame histopatológico os animais doentes apresentaram miopatia necrotizante da musculatura paravertebral, língua e diafragma. Animais inoculados que não desenvolveram paralisia durante o período de observação apresentaram miosite discreta, sem que tenha sido encontrada necrose das fibras musculares.The pathogenicity for baby-mice of 12 strains of echovirus type 9, isolated in primary monkey kidney cells, from liquor specimens of children with meningitis, have been studied. The animals inoculated with the first passage in tissue culture show after a period of 5 days, a flaccid paralysis and died by the 8th day after inoculation. The original liquor specimens did not contain enough virus to cause clinical signs in the inoculated animals, during the 21 days of observation. Histopathologicals studies in the sick animals, show a necrosis of the paravertebral muscles, tongue and diafragm. Inoculated animals wich did not develop paralysis during the observation period, show light miositis without necrosis of the muscle tissue.

  8. Enterotoxigenicidade de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes pontos do fluxograma de abate bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Júnior O.D.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar a capacidade enterotoxigênica de cepas de Aeromonas sp. isoladas em diferentes produtos e locais no fluxograma de abate bovino, foram testadas 102 cepas (18 da espécie A. hydrophila, 65 da espécie A. caviae e 19 atípicas ante os testes de inoculação intragástrica em camundongo lactente e em alça intestinal ligada de coelho. Revelaram-se como produtoras de enterotoxinas três (16,7% cepas da espécie A. hydrophila, originárias das mãos do manipulador antes que ele iniciasse seus trabalhos e da carne desossada pronta para o consumo, e uma (1,5% da espécie A. caviae, também isolada das mãos. Os resultados são preocupantes pela presença de cepas enterotoxigênicas de bactérias do gênero Aeromonas em indústria de alto nível higiênico-sanitário.

  9. Determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima do Clotrimazol e da Terbinafina sobre isolados de Candida albicans oriundas da mucosa bucal de pacientes HIV positivos e HIV negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Ribeiro CLAUDINO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis is a fungi infection caused by yeasts from Candida genus, that live in the mucosas and justcauses illness when there are favoring conditions to its growth, like immune compromised HIV infected patients.Resistance reports verified in Candida albicans isolates, especially in those immune compromised, and fast andefficient treatment need cause there to be a great interest in studies capable of using in vitro susceptibility tests toadequate therapy choose. The objective of this study was to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC ofantifungal agents clotrimazole and terbinafine on 19 isolates of Candida albicans isolated from HIV positive patients and HIV-negative with oral erythematous candidiasis to detect possible resistance. Using agar antifungal dilutionthecnic and sample at demarcated regions on Petri dish. It was verified that MIC to terbinafine varied from 32 to 128μg/mL while to clotrimazole, MIC varied from 16 to 128 μg/mL. This study allowed concluding that almost samplesshowed elevated MIC values among HIV positive or negative patients.

  10. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil Construção e caracterização de uma amostra de BoHV-1.2 isolada no Brasil com uma deleção no gene da glicoproteína E

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    Ana C. Franco

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic DNA of wild type BoHV-1 into bovine cells. Isolation of gE deletion mutant was performed by immunoperoxidase staining with an anti-gE monoclonal antibody. Viral clones were plaque purified and further examined by restriction endonuclesase digestion and Southern blot hybridization. This gE deletion mutant will be evaluated as a vaccinal virus, in order to determine its potential use for a differential vaccine.Este artigo descreve a construção e caracterização de uma amostra de um herpesvírus bovino tipo 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a que apresenta uma deleção na região genômica que codifica a glicoproteína E (gE. A deleção gênica foi induzida através da co-transfecção de um fragmento de deleção, contendo as regiões 5´e 3´flanqueadoras da gE, com o DNA viral intacto de uma amostra viral isolada de um animal que apresentava doença respiratória. O isolamento do vírus gE negativo (gE- foi realizado com auxílio da técnica de imunoperoxidase em que foi utilizado como anticorpo primário um anticorpo monoclonal anti-gE. O vírus gE- foi purificado e o DNA isolado desta amostra foi examinado através das técnicas de análise por enzimas de restrição e "Southern blot". Esta amostra gE- será avaliada como candidata para compor uma vacina diferencial contra a rinotraqueíte infecciosa dos bovinos.

  11. Sleep characteristics in children in the isolated rural African-Brazilian descendant community of Furnas do Dionísio, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Características do sono da criança na comunidade negra rural isolada de Furnas do Dionísio no Mato Grosso do Sul

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    RUBENS REIMÃO

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Developmental and cultural factors affect sleep habits in childhood. The objective of this research was to determine sleep habits of children in the isolated rural African-Brazilian community of Furnas do Dionísio, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The members of this community are closely related descendants of the ex-slave Dionísio, and remained in relative geographical isolation for about a century. Sleep characteristics of 55 children (35M; 20F, 2 to 10 year olds, were evaluated in interviews with their mothers. The results showed that cosleeping, in the same bed with family members, was present in 80.0% of the 2-3 year olds; decreasing to 25.0% of the 8-10 year olds. Only 5.4% of the children slept alone in their own bedroom. Mean number of persons per bedroom was 2.8. Only 7.0% of the bedrooms had TV; 98.1% slept in silence. The data obtained support the need to weigh cultural factors influence on sleep.Hábitos de dormir da criança sofrem influências fisiológicas e culturais. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar os hábitos de dormir da criança da comunidade negra rural e isolada de Furnas do Dionísio, no Mato Grosso do Sul. A comunidade é composta dos membros de uma mesma família, descendentes do ex-escravo Dionísio, mantida por cerca de um século em isolamento geográfico relativo. As características de 55 crianças (35 M; 20 F, de 2 a 10 anos de idade, foram pesquisadas através de entrevistas com as mães. Resultou que o hábito de dormir junto (cosleeping estava presente em 80,0 % aos 2-3 anos; reduzindo a 25,0 % aos 8-10 anos. Apenas 5,4% dormiam sozinhas em seu quarto. A média de pessoas por quarto foi 2,8. Apenas 7,0 % dos quartos tinham televisão; 98,1% eram silenciosos. Os resultados apóiam a necessidade de determinar a influência de fatores étnicos no sono.

  12. Identificação de bactérias não fermentadoras isoladas de pacientes com fibrose cística e em hemoculturas de pacientes internados no HC da Unicamp

    OpenAIRE

    Élio Barreto de Carvalho Filho

    2015-01-01

    Resumo: Introdução: Bacilos gram-negativos não fermentadores (BGN-NFs) são microrganismos que se caracterizam pela incapacidade de utilizar a glicose como fonte de energia pela fermentação, degradando-a pela via oxidativa. A identificação dos BGN-NFs continua sendo um desafio para os laboratórios de rotina em microbiologia pela dificuldade de identificação, em virtude, da baixa ocorrência em amostras ambulatoriais, assim como, pela falta de recursos rápidos, eficientes e pela complexidade e ...

  13. Microbiota fúngica isolada da pele de suínos hígidos procedentes de diversos municípios do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiano Bonfim Carregaro

    2006-01-01

    A suinocultura brasileira encontra-se atualmente em um nível técnico de destaque no contexto mundial. Entretanto, diversas estratégias são utilizadas para restringir a compra dos produtos brasileiros por países estrangeiros, em especial barreiras sanitárias. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram determinar a microbiota fúngica da pele de suínos sem lesões aparentes e estabelecer os possíveis agentes micóticos de importância nesta espécie. Foram obtidas 261 amostras de animais com 20 a 120 dias de...

  14. Hemólise produzida por Candida tropicalis isoladas de amostras clínicas Hemolysis produced by Candida tropicalis isolates from clinical samples

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    Emanuele Júlio Galvão de França

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são responsáveis pela maioria das infecções fúngicas em humanos. Candida tropicalis tem sido uma das mais comumente isoladas dentre as espécies não-albicans. O objetivo foi analisar a hemólise in vitro promovida por isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis provenientes de sangue e outras amostras clínicas de pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário da UEL, PR-Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada a hemólise promovida por 28 isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis, sendo os isolados agrupados em classes de acordo com os níveis de hemólise. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados de sangue apresentou hemólise fraca (+, enquanto as classes de hemólise forte (+++ e muito forte (++++ foram as predominantes nos isolados de outras amostras clínicas como urina, lesão de unha e secreção traqueal, embora não tenham sido detectadas diferenças estatísticas (p>0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Isolados de C. tropicalis, obtidos de diferentes amostras clínicas, apresentam capacidade de promover hemólise in vitro.INTRODUCTION: Yeasts belonging to the genus Candida are responsible for the majority of fungal infections in humans. Candida tropicalis has been one of most commonly isolated non-albicans species. To analyze in vitro hemolysis promoted by clinical isolates of C. tropicalis obtained from blood and other clinical samples from hospitalized patients at the University Hospital of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The hemolysis promoted by 28 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis was evaluated, and the isolates were grouped into classes according to the hemolysis levels. RESULTS: The majority of the blood isolates showed weak hemolysis (+, while the classes of strong hemolysis (+++ and very strong hemolysis (++++ predominated among isolates from other clinical samples such as urine, nail lesions and tracheal secretions. However, no statistical differences were detected (p> 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Isolates of C

  15. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François L; Wilson, Duncan; Hube, Bernhard

    2013-02-15

    The polymorphic fungus Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microbiome. In most individuals, C. albicans resides as a lifelong, harmless commensal. Under certain circumstances, however, C. albicans can cause infections that range from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Several factors and activities have been identified which contribute to the pathogenic potential of this fungus. Among them are molecules which mediate adhesion to and invasion into host cells, the secretion of hydrolases, the yeast-to-hypha transition, contact sensing and thigmotropism, biofilm formation, phenotypic switching and a range of fitness attributes. Our understanding of when and how these mechanisms and factors contribute to infection has significantly increased during the last years. In addition, novel virulence mechanisms have recently been discovered. In this review we present an update on our current understanding of the pathogenicity mechanisms of this important human pathogen.

  16. Candida albicans pathogenicity mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François L.; Wilson, Duncan; Hube, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphic fungus Candida albicans is a member of the normal human microbiome. In most individuals, C. albicans resides as a lifelong, harmless commensal. Under certain circumstances, however, C. albicans can cause infections that range from superficial infections of the skin to life-threatening systemic infections. Several factors and activities have been identified which contribute to the pathogenic potential of this fungus. Among them are molecules which mediate adhesion to and invasion into host cells, the secretion of hydrolases, the yeast-to-hypha transition, contact sensing and thigmotropism, biofilm formation, phenotypic switching and a range of fitness attributes. Our understanding of when and how these mechanisms and factors contribute to infection has significantly increased during the last years. In addition, novel virulence mechanisms have recently been discovered. In this review we present an update on our current understanding of the pathogenicity mechanisms of this important human pathogen. PMID:23302789

  17. Avaliação da produção dos compostos majoritários da fermentação de mosto de uva por leveduras isoladas da região da "Serra Gaúcha" (RS Evaluation of the major compounds formed during grape must fermentation by yeast isolated from "Serra Gaúcha" (RS region

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    Maria Eugênia de Oliveira Mamede

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o comportamento do crescimento, bem como a produção de compostos voláteis durante a fermentação de mosto de uva pelas leveduras Kloeckera apiculata e Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As concentrações dos compostos voláteis majoritários da fermentação foram dependentes da temperatura de fermentação. Nas fermentações a 20°C, as concentrações da massa celular seca e dos compostos voláteis foram maiores do que na fermentação a 15°C. A Kloeckera apiculata produziu altas concentrações de acetato de etila (197,0mg/L - 310,0mg/L e acetato de isoamila (19,3mg/L - 31,3mg/L, ésteres de grande importância sensorial. No entanto, a concentração de etanol obtida foi baixa, cerca de 6,3g/L - 24,0g/L, em comparação à conseguida utilizando Saccharomyces cerevisiae como agente de fermentação (27,3g/L - 34,0g/L.The objective of this work was to study the growth behavior, as well as, volatile compounds production during grape must fermentation by Kloeckera apiculata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The concentrations of the major volatile compounds during the fermentation were dependent of the temperature of the fermentation. In fermentation at 20°C, the concentration of the dry weight biomass and volatile compounds were greater than that ones at 15°C. The Kloeckera apiculata produced high concentrations of the ethyl acetate (197.0mg/L - 310.0mg/L and isoamyl acetate (19.3mg/L - 31.3mg/L, esters of great sensory importance. However, the ethanol concentration obtained was lower, about 6.3g/L - 24.0g/L, than that one obtained with fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (27.3g/L - 34.0g/L.

  18. Substituição isolada da valva aórtica em pacientes com função ventricular deprimida Aortic valve replacement in patients with depressed left ventricular ejection fraction

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    Gilberto Venossi Barbosa

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o valor prognóstico da fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, entre 210 pacientes com lesões da valva aórtica operados, consecutivamente, entre maio de 1981 e outubro de 1988 e que receberam as próteses Omniscience e Meditronic-Hall, foram selecionados 112 e divididos, de acordo com a fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo, em dois grupos: o G1 = FE > 40%, ficou com 52 pacientes com médias de idade 39 ± 12 anos, FE = 58 ± 10% e classe funcional (NYHA = 2,8; o GE = FE To evaluate the prognostic value of resting left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF a series of 210 consecutive patients with aortic valve disease operated upon between May 1981 and October 1988 was studied retrospectively. All patients had their aortic valve replaced by Omniscience or Meditronic prosthesis; 112 formed the study group because they have complete follow up and cineangiocardiographic data. Based on pre-operatory left ventricular ejection fraction the patients were divided in two groups: Group 1 = 52 patients with LVEF > 40%, 39 ± 12 years, NYHA functional class 2.8, and EF 58 ± 10%. Group 2 = 60 patients with LVEF < 40, 48 ± 17 years, NYHA functional class 3.6, and LVEF of 27 ± 12%. During surgery moderate hypothermia and hemodilution were utilized, with dubble oxygenator and cardioplegia With St. Thomas cardioplegic solution. Mean extracorporeal circulation and cardiac arrest time were respectively 82 ± 18 and 49 ± 7 minutes in Group 1 and 96 ± 11 and 55 ± 6 minutes in Group 2. The size of the prosthesis were 25.2 ± 1.8 mm in Group 1. The short term mortality was 3.8% in Group 1 and 5.8 in Group 2. The long-term mortality was 4.0% in Group 1 and 8.7% in Group 2. In Group 1 there was a significant association between mortality and left ventricular systolic function. In the follow-up evaluation, among patients in Group 1, 65% were in class I, 28% were in functional class II, 5% in class III, and 2% in class IV. Among patients

  19. Molecular characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC isolated from minas soft cheese Caracterização molecular e avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas enteropatogenicas de E. coli (EPEC, isoladas de queijo minas frescal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tavares Dias

    2012-12-01

    como objetivo isolar, avaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e caracterizar molecularmente, através da Multiplex PCR, as cepas patogênicas de E. coli, isoladas de queijo Minas Frescal comercializado no município do Rio de Janeiro. Trinta amostras foram analisadas e cinco cepas de E. coli enteropatogênica (EPEC identificadas. A avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana revelou 40% de resistência à ampicilina e 40% de perfil de resistência intermediária à associação ampicilina-sulbactam. Tais resultados representam um alerta para as autoridades sanitárias, uma vez que este alimento é um produto de pronto consumo e, portanto, precisa ser inócuo para que a saúde da população não seja colocada em risco.

  20. Cirurgia vídeo-assistida para a ablação da fibrilação atrial isolada por radiofrequência bipolar Cirugía videoasistida para ablación de fibrilación atrial aislada por radiofrecuencia bipolar Videothoracoscopy for isolated atrial fibrillation ablation through bipolar radiofrequency

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    Alexandre Siciliano Colafranceschi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A prevalência da fibrilação atrial, os gastos com o sistema de saúde e a elevada morbidade e mortalidade associadas a ela, têm justificado a procura por novas abordagens terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a reprodutibilidade da técnica cirúrgica, a segurança e os resultados inicias da cirurgia vídeo-assistida para a ablação da fibrilação atrial isolada com radiofrequência bipolar. MÉTODOS: Dez pacientes (90% homens com fibrilação atrial (50% paroxística sintomática e refratária à terapia medicamentosa, sem doença cardíaca que requeresse cirurgia concomitante, foram submetidos à ablação da arritmia guiada por toracoscopia, no período de maio de 2007 a maio de 2008. Variáveis clínicas, laboratoriais e de imagem foram prospectivamente coletadas antes, durante e no seguimento pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: A cirurgia foi realizada conforme o planejado em todos os pacientes. Não houve lesão iatrogênica de estruturas intratorácicas ou óbitos. No seguimento médio de seis meses, 80% dos pacientes estão livres de fibrilação atrial. Houve melhora significativa dos sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca classe funcional New York Heart Association (2,4 ± 0,5 para 1,6 ± 0,7; p = 0,011. Não houve evidência de estenose de veias pulmonares à angiotomografia, nesta série. CONCLUSÃO: A cirurgia vídeo-assistida para o tratamento da fibrilação atrial é reprodutível e segura. Há melhora evolutiva dos sintomas de insuficiência cardíaca após a cirurgia.FUNDAMENTO: La prevalencia de la fibrilación atrial, los gastos con el sistema de salud y la elevada morbilidad y mortalidad asociados a ésta, justifican la búsqueda de nuevos abordajes terapéuticos. OBJETIVO: Evaluar la reproducibilidad de la técnica quirúrgica, la seguridad y los resultados iniciales de la cirugía videoasistida para la ablación de la fibrilación atrial aislada con radiofrecuencia bipolar. MÉTODOS: Diez pacientes (90% hombres con

  1. Evaluation of thermotolerant capacity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial sausages and the effects of their addition on the quality of cooked sausages Avaliação da capacidade termotolerante de bacterias lácticas isoladas de salsichas comerciais e os efeitos de sua adição na qualidade de salsichas cozidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Pérez-Chabela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermotolerant capacity of several lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from cooked commercial sausages was determined. Four strains were positively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilacti, after surviving thermal treatment (70 °C during 60 minutes. Thermotolerant strains were inoculated in sausage batters before cooking in order to determine their effect on color, texture, acceptance and inhibition of Enterobacteria during 12 days at 8 °C. No significant effect of the inoculated strains was detected on color parameters. Textural profile parameters, cohesiveness and resilience, were not affected by the inoculation of thermotolerant lactic acid bacteria, but L. curvatus sausages resulted softer than the rest of the treatments. Samples inoculated with L. curvatus also obtained the lowest scores for the sensory attributes evaluated, with the remaining treatments causing no unfavorable effects on sausage acceptance. There was a reduction in enterobacterial counts after 12 days of cold storage in inoculated samples. The performance of inoculated lactic acid bacteria strains can be explained in a similar way as that of starter cultures in dry-fermented sausages, where the growth in nests impairs other pathogenic microorganisms present in the rest of the sausage, since environmental conditions and the early inoculation of these thermotolerant strains favor them to become the dominant flora.A capacidade termotolerante de diversas cepas de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salsichas comerciais cozidas foi determinada. Quatro cepas foram identificadas positivamente como Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus e Pediococcus acidilacti, depois de sobreviver satisfatoriamente ao tratamento térmico (70 °C durante 60 minutos. As cepas termotolerantes foram inoculadas nas salsichas antes do cozimento, a fim de saber o seu efeito sobre a cor, a

  2. [Virulence factors of Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Piłat, Joanna; Siennicka, Katarzyna; Magda, Urszula; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common etiological factor of opportunistic human fungal infections. In this review, we focus on the major virulence factors that mediate the pathogenesis of C. albicans. Among these virulence factors, secreted aspartyl proteases, adherence, pleomorphism are the most important features of C. albicans infections. Ability to exist as different pleomorphic forms is defined as pleomorphism. A number of quorum sensing (QS) molecules have been described which affect morphogenesis process in C. albicans. Furthermore, the morphological transition of C. albicans in response to changing environmental conditions represent a means by which the strain adapts to different biological niches. Furthermore, every morphotype has own virulence profile and each pleomorphic form provide critical functions required for pathogenesis. Candida albicans is a producer of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Among them lipases, phospholipases and secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap) are most significant in virulence. Sap proteins contribute to pathogenesis by digestion of host cell membranes and molecules of the host immune system to avoid antimicrobial attack by the host. One of the key features in the development of candidiasis is adhesion ofC. albicans to buccal and vaginal epithelial cells. The adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the internalization process which involves adhesins. Knowledge of the role of the various C. albicans' virulence factors during in vivo infections is still incomplete, therefore further studies including quantification of genes expression and histopathological examination of tissues damage are required to fully understand pathogenesis of this opportunistic pathogen.

  3. Lidocaína com vasoconstrictor isolada e associada ao fentanil via peridural em cães

    OpenAIRE

    Cassu,Renata Navarro; Melchert,Alessandra; Silva,Ana Paula Gasparotto da; Reis,Atilana Maniezo dos; Meirelles,Carlos Collares

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo cego foi avaliar os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e analgésicos de diferentes doses de fentanil associado à lidocaína com vasoconstrictor via peridural em cães. Foram avaliados 28 cães adultos, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos: 5mg kg-1 de lidocaína isolada (L) e associada ao fentanil nas doses de 2,5, 5 e 7mg kg-1 (F2,5, F5 e F7, respectivamente). Quinze minutos antes da punção peridural, todos os animais foram tranquilizados por via intravenosa (IV) com acepromazina...

  4. Innate immunity to Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kiyoura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is not a pathogen in healthy individuals, but can cause severe systemic candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has various virulence factors and activates the innate immune system. Specifically, C. albicans induces proinflammatory cytokine production in various cell types via many receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs. This microorganism also promotes phagocytosis via CLRs on macrophages. In a previous study, we found that C. albicans induces the production of galectin-3, which is a known CLR that kills C. albicans. This review indicates that the use of mouthwash containing an antimicrobial peptide or protein might be a useful new oral care method for the prevention of oral candidiasis.

  5. Immune response to Candida albicans Resposta imune a Candida albicans

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    Luis Carlos Jabur Gaziri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans causes infections of the skin, oral cavity and esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, vagina and vascular system. Most infections occur in immunocompromised hosts or debilitated patients. More than 90% of HIV positive patients suffer from mucosal candidiasis at least once in the course of this disease. The overall severity and chronicity of oral candidiasis in patients with AIDS are mainly attributed to the HIV-induced immune deficiency in the affected individuals, namely, the loss of T-helper cells and reduction in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. In mucosal colonization and systemic infections of mice by this fungus, Th1 cells mediate phagocyte-dependent protection, whose most important cytokines are IL-2, IFN-ã, TNF-á and IL-12. In contrast, production of inhibitory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL- 10 by Th2 cells are associated with disactivation of phagocytes and disease progression. Possibly, the growth of filamentous forms is better adapted to evade the cells of the immune system, whereas the yeast form may be the mode of proliferation in infected tissues. By the discriminative production of IL- 12 or IL-4 in response to the yeast or filamentous forms respectively, dendritic cells acquire the capacity of inducing the differentiation of CD4+ cells towards the Th1 or Th2 phenotypes. Candida albicans causa infecções na pele, cavidade oral e esôfago, trato gastrointestinal, vagina e sistema vascular de humanos. As infecções ocorrem em hospedeiros imunocomprometidos ou pacientes debilitados. Acima de 90% dos pacientes HIV+ sofrem de candidíase de mucosas ao menos uma vez no decorrer da doença. A severidade e cronicidade da candidíase oral em pacientes com AIDS são atribuídas, principalmente, à imunodeficiência induzida pelo HIV nos indivíduos afetados, a saber, perda de funções de célula T auxiliar e redução do número de linfócitos T CD4. Na colonização de mucosas e infecções sistêmicas de camundongos por

  6. Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae against oral pathogens Determinação da atividade antibacteriana de extratos brutos e substâncias isoladas de Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae frente à patógenos bucais

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    Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto Severino

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from Hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. The extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. The results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.Extratos brutos de Hortia oreadica, forneceram quatro derivados do ácido diidrocinâmico, que foram isolados do extrato n-hexânico, bem como as substâncias guianina e dictamina, isoladas do extrato em diclorometano. Os extratos brutos e as substâncias isoladas foram avaliados frente a alguns patógenos bucais com o objetivo de investigar a atividade antibacteriana. Os resultados demonstraram que o extrato bruto n-hexânico e a substância dictamina foram os mais ativos frente ao conjunto de microrganismos avaliados.

  7. Monoartrite de joelho como manifestação isolada de paracoccidiodomicose

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    Silvestre Marco Túlio Alvarenga

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Artrite como manifestação isolada de paracoccidioidomicose, tem sido raramente descrita na literatura médica. O presente relato, descreve mulher de 46 anos de idade, com monoartrite crônica do joelho em tratamento com anti-inflamatórios não hormonais durante 4 anos, cujo diagnóstico definitivo foi obtido apenas por biópsia da membrana sinovial, que revelou uma inflamação crônica granulomatosa de tipo tuberculóide, com abundantes elementos leveduriformes do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. A terapêutica específica (iniciada com ketoconazol e seguida por cotrimoxazol levou à completa recuperação funcional da articulação acometida. Não se detectou a presença de outros sítios acometidos pela doença, apesar da utilização de vários métodos propedêuticos, incluindo tomografia axial computadorizada do tórax e abdome. Os autores chamam a atenção para a raridade do caso e discutem os possíveis fenômenos fisiopatológicos responsáveis por esta monoartrite fúngica.

  8. Identification of Mycobacterium bovis Isolates by a multiplex PCR Identificação de colônias isoladas de Mycobacterium bovis por PCR múltipla

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    Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza Figueiredo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Isolates from suggestive bovine tuberculosis lesions were tested by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR targeting for RvD1Rv2031c and IS6110 sequences, specific for M. bovis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex respectively. The m-PCR successfully identified as M. bovis 88.24% of the isolates.Colônias isoladas a partir de lesões sugestivas de tuberculose bovina foram testadas pela reação múltipla em cadeia da polimerase, usando oligonucleotídeos direcionados para as seqüências genômicas RvD1Rv2031c e IS6110, específicas para M. bovis e para o complexo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectivamente. A m-PCR identificou, com sucesso, 88,24% das colônias isoladas como M. bovis.

  9. Production of bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS by Streptococcus salivarius strains isolated from the tongue and throat of children with and without sore throat Produção de substâncias inibidoras semelhantes à bacteriocina por cepas de Streptococcus salivarius, isoladas da língua e garganta de crianças com e sem dor de garganta

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    Vera Fantinato

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus salivarius strains, isolated from children with and without sore throat, were tested for bacteriocin production against Streptococcus pyogenes. S. salivarius strains producing bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS against S. pyogenes were more frequently found in children without sore throat. These results suggest that these children may be protected against sore throat by the presence of BLIS-positive S. salivarius strains.Cepas de Streptococcus salivarius, isoladas de crianças com e sem dor de garganta, foram testadas quanto à produção de bacteriocina contra Streptococcus pyogenes. Os resultados mostraram que as crianças que não tinham dor de garganta possuiam, na boca, cepas de bactérias produtoras de substâncias inibidoras semelhantes à bacteriocina contra S. pyogenes.

  10. Prevalência e caracterização molecular de Beta-Lactamases de espectro ampliado (ESBL) em enterobactérias isoladas no Hospital de Clínicas de Curitiba.

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Keite da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Resumo: A resistencia em enterobacterias esta aumentando de forma alarmante no mundo todo. Este trabalho avaliou a ocorrencia de ƒÀ-lactamases de espectro ampliado (ESBLs) em 1827 amostras de enterobacterias isoladas de pacientes internados no Hospital de Clinicas da Universidade Federal do Parana, no periodo de 2003 a 2008. A deteccao de ƒÀ-lactamases foi realizada por testes fenotipicos (duplo disco difusao, disco combinado, teste de Hodge) e genotipicos (reacao em cadeia da polimerase e se...

  11. Qualidade de leites fermentados funcionais elaborados a partir de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas,R.P.; Souza,M.R.; Figueiredo,T.C.; Resende,M.F.S.; Penna,C.F.A.M.; Cerqueira,M.M.O.P.

    2010-01-01

    Leites fermentados foram elaborados a partir de bactérias ácido-lácticas com propriedades funcionais, isoladas de queijo de coalho com e sem a adição de concentrado proteico de soro (CPS). Características físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais dos produtos elaborados foram analisadas durante 40 dias de estocagem sob refrigeração a 8-10ºC. Todos os leites fermentados elaborados, independentemente da adição de CPS e da cultura utilizada, apresentaram contagens adequadas de bactérias (>10...

  12. Inoculação de proteína isolada de soja em ovos embrionados oriundos de matrizes semipesadas com diferentes idades

    OpenAIRE

    Damasceno, J.L.; Cruz, F.G.G.; Melo, R.D.; Feijó, J.C.; Rufino, J.P.F.; Valentim, F.M.; Oliveira, J.P.C.

    2017-01-01

    RESUMO Este estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da inoculação de proteína isolada de soja (P.I.S.) em ovos embrionados de matrizes semipesadas com diferentes idades. Foram utilizados 320 ovos embrionados de matrizes semipesadas da linhagem Rhode Island Red com 35 e 70 semanas de idade. Ao 17º dia de incubação, os ovos foram inoculados com 0,5mL de solução diretamente na cavidade alantoide. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (2 x 4), constitu...

  13. Detecção de cepas patogênicas pela PCR multiplex e avaliação da sensibilidade a antimicrobianos de Escherichia coli isoladas de leitões diarréicos Detection of pathogenic strains by multiplex PCR and antimicrobial sensitivity of Escherichia coli isolated from piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Macêdo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a freqüência dos genes de fímbrias (K88, K99, 987P, F18 e F41 e toxinas (LT, Stb, StaP e Stx2e de cepas de E. coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia usando a técnica de PCR multiplex com primers específicos para esses genes, e estudou-se o padrão de sensibilidade das cepas patogênicas pelo método de difusão em disco ao florfenicol, ceftiofur sódico, colistina, fosfomicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxiciclina, tetraciclina e lincomicina. Foram utilizadas 144 amostras de E.coli isoladas de leitões com diarréia, provenientes de granjas localizadas no estado de Minas Gerais. Dessas, 42 (29,2% foram positivas para pelo menos um dos fatores de virulência testados. Dentre essas 42 amostras, 23 (54,8% apresentaram genes de fímbria e toxina, sete (16,6% apresentaram somente genes de toxinas e 12 (28,6% amostras somente genes de fímbria. O resultado do teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrou que o florfenicol (89,5 % e o ceftiofur sódico (84,2% foram as drogas de melhor eficácia in vitro sobre cepas de E. coli com fatores de virulência.The frequency of virulence determinants genes for fimbrial adhesions (K88, K99, 987P, F18 and F41 and toxins (LT, Stb, StaP and Stx2e in E. coli strains isolated from diarrheic piglets using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay with specific primers for these genes was studied. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of pathogenic isolates for florfenicol, sodium ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, neomycin, norfloxacin, sulfa + trimetoprim, doxycycline, tetracycline and lincomycin was also tested using the disk diffusion method. E. coli were isolated from 144 diarrheic piglets from farms in the state of Minas Gerais. Forty-two out of 144 studied samples (29.2% were positive for at least one tested virulence factor. Out of these 42, 23 samples (54.8% contained fimbria and toxin genes, seven (16.6% samples had genes for toxins only and 12 (28.6% samples

  14. Avaliação da suscetibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias anaeróbias facultativas isoladas de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico frente aos antibióticos de uso sistêmico

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    Bárbara Trindade Di Santi

    Full Text Available ResumoIntroduçãoBactérias associadas ao insucesso do tratamento endodôntico são capazes de adquirir e expressar resistência aos agentes antimicrobianos comumente empregados para tratar infecções, o que torna necessário, em determinadas situações, a realização de testes laboratoriais para detectar a resistência ou a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana desses micro-organismos.Objetivoavaliar a suscetibilidade antimicrobiana das cepas de Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Actinomyces viscosus e Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico.Material e métodoCepas clínicas de Enterococcus faecalis (n=3, Enterococcus faecium (n=3, Actinomyces viscosus (n=3 e Staphylococcus aureus (n=3, coletadas in vivo de canais radiculares com insucesso endodôntico, foram testadas quanto à suscetibilidade antimicrobiana por meio do método E-test em duplicata, utilizando os antibióticos: Amoxicilina (AC, Rifampicina (RI, Moxifloxacina (MX, Vancomicina (VA, Tetraciclina (TC, Ciprofloxacina (CI, Cloranfenicol (CL, Benzilpenicilina (PG, Amoxicilina + ácido clavulânico (XL, Doxiciclina (DC, Eritromicina (EM e Azitromicina (AZ.ResultadoTodas as cepas clínicas testadas foram suscetíveis aos antibióticos AC, XL, PG, DC, MX, TC e VA. Todos os isolados das espécies de S. aureus foram suscetíveis aos 12 antibióticos testados. As cepas de E. faecalis, E. faecium e A. viscosus mostraram padrão de suscetibilidade intermediário contra EM. Algumas cepas de E. faecalis e E. faecium foram resistentes a AZ e RI.ConclusãoAs cepas clínicas isoladas dos canais radiculares de dentes com insucesso endodôntico mostraram perfis diferentes de suscetibilidade antimicrobiana e nenhum isolado de E. faecalis e E. faeciumapresentou-se suscetível a AZ e EM.

  15. Identificação de espécies de Leishmania isoladas de casos humanos em Mato Grosso do Sul por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase Identification of Leishmania species isolated in human cases in Mato Grosso do Sul, by means of the polymerase chain reaction

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    Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima Junior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As leishmanioses são zoonoses endêmicas em Mato Grosso do Sul e têm por agentes etiológicos nessa região Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Como método para identificação de espécies de Leishmania, a reação em cadeia da polimerase é uma ferramenta com elevada especificidade e sensibilidade. Analisaram-se 39 isolados de Leishmania criopreservados, obtidos por meio de aspirado medular e/ou biópsia de lesão, conforme a suspeita clínica. Os isolados foram submetidos à extração de DNA e à reação em cadeia da polimerase com os iniciadores: RV1/RV2 para Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, a1/a2 para a identificação de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis e b1/b2 para Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi foi a única espécie identificada em 37 casos de leishmaniose visceral. Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis foi identificada em dois isolados de pacientes com diagnóstico de leishmaniose tegumentar. Os resultados obtidos confirmam a possibilidade do uso dos três pares de iniciadores como uma ferramenta na caracterização de isolados de Leishmania.Leishmaniases are endemic zoonoses in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Their etiological agents in this region of Brazil are Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a tool with high specificity and sensitivity for identifying Leishmania species. This study examined 39 cryopreserved isolates of Leishmania that had been collected by bone marrow aspiration and/or lesion biopsy, depending on the clinical suspicion. The isolates were subjected to DNA extraction and PCR using the following primers: RV1/RV2 for identifying Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, a1/a2 for Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis and b1/b2 for Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis.Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi was the only species

  16. Fagotipagem de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes a antibióticos, isoladas de leite

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    Wanderley Pereira de Araújo

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de amostras de leite cru foram isoladas 201 cepas de S. aureus, as quais foram submetidas a provas de resistência a antibióticos pelo método dos discos impregnados com os seguintes antibacterianos: amicacina, ampicilina, cefalotina, cefoxitina, cloranfenicol, clindamicina, oxacilina, penicilina, tetraciclina, tobramicina e vancomicina. Com exceção de 88 (43,8%, 90 (44,8%, 24 (11,9% e 40 (19,9% cepas resistentes à penicilina, ampicilina, cloranfenicol e tetraciclina, respectivamente, a maioria das 201 cepas (95% ou mais foi sensível aos antibióticos utilizados. As cepas resistentes a estes quatro antibióticos foram fagotipadas, empregando-se os Conjuntos Básicos Internacionais de bacteriófagos para cepas de origem humana e bovina, verificando-se que houve predomínio de cepas sensíveis a fagos dos grupos III e III/NC do conjunto básico humano e a fagos dos grupos III, IV e da associação III/IV do conjunto bovino.

  17. Antibiótico antifungico produzido por um estreptomiceto da região de Araraquara

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    K. Ujikawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Com o aumento significativo na incidência de infecções fúngicas invasivas durante a última década, principalmente em pacientes com câncer, AIDS, ou hospitalizados por período prolongado em unidades de terapia intensiva, há a necessidade da pesquisa de novos agentes antifúngicos com qualidade superior aos existentes. Esta pesquisa objetivou a procura de um microrganismo produtor de substâncias antibacterianas e antifúngicas. Microrganismos das amostras de solo da região de Araraquara, Brasil, foram coletados e analisados quanto ao seu potencial antimicrobiano contra microrganismos padrões (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Aspergillus oryzae. Das 64 cepas isoladas, 34 apresentaram atividade antimicrobiana. A cepa Ar 4014 foi escolhida para dar continuidade ao trabalho por apresentar boa atividade antimicrobiana contra Candida albicans. Estudos fermentativos mostraram que os Meios 608-K e 602- B foram os melhores para produção e extração de substâncias antifúngicas de Ar 4014. Após cromatografia em coluna de sílica do extrato bruto, as frações ativas obtidas mostraram picos de absorção UV-VIS característicos de pentaenos normais. O antibiótico foi denominado provisoriamente Ara 4014-75. Palavras-chave: Antibiótico Ara 4014-75, Streptomyces, pentaenos, antifúngico, rastreamento.

  18. Evaluation of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from two visceral leishmaniasis-endemic areas in Brazil using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis Avaliação de amostras de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos de duas áreas endêmicas de leishmaniose visceral no Brasil através da eletroforese de isoenzimas

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    Carlos Eduardo Ribeiro Coutinho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Domestic dogs are the most important reservoir in the peridomestic transmission cycle of Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. The genetic variability of subpopulations of this parasite circulating in dogs has not been thoroughly analyzed in Brazil, even though this knowledge has important implications in the clinical-epidemiological context. METHODS: The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the phenotypic variability of 153 L. chagasi strains isolated from dogs originating from the municipalities of Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 and Belo Horizonte (n = 96, where the disease is endemic. Strains isolated only from intact skin were selected and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis using nine enzyme systems (6PG, GPI, NH1 and NH2, G6P, PGM, MDH, ME, and IDHNADP. RESULTS: The electrophoretic profile was identical for all isolates analyzed and was the same as that of the L. chagasi reference strain (MHOM/BR/74/PP75. Phenetic analysis showed a similarity index of one for all strains, with the isolates sharing 100% of the characteristics analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that the L. chagasi populations circulating in dogs from Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte belong to a single zymodeme.INTRODUÇÃO: Cães domésticos são considerados os reservatórios mais importantes no ciclo peridoméstico de transmissão de Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi. No entanto, a variabilidade genética de sub-populações que circulam neste hospedeiro é ainda pouco explorada no Brasil, sendo tal conhecimento de grande importância no contexto clínico-epidemiológico. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar a variabilidade fenotípica de 153 amostras de L. chagasi isoladas de cães oriundos dos municípios do Rio de Janeiro (n = 57 e Belo Horizonte (n = 96, onde a doença é endêmica. Foram selecionadas somente amostras isoladas de pele íntegra e analisadas por eletroforese de isoenzimas (MLEE empregando nove

  19. Diferenciação de cepas de Candida albicans pelo sistema killer

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    Regina Celia Cândido

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito killer de 9 cepas padrão de leveduras sobre 146 amostras de Candida albicans isoladas dos seguintes espécimes clínicos: mucosa bucal, fezes, lavado brônquico, escarro, secreção vaginal, urina, lesão de pele, lesão de unha e sangue. Usando este sistema foi possível diferenciar 23 biotipos de C. albicans. Os biotipos 211, 111 e 811 foram os mais freqüentemente isolados. A maioria das amostras de C. albicans (98,6% foi sensível a pelo menos uma ou mais das 9 cepas killer. Empregando- se este sistema foi possível demonstrar que 2 pacientes albergavam mesmo biotipo killer, respectivamente, 111 e 211, em diferentes espécimes clínicos, e em outro paciente, o mesmo biotipo (211 foi isolado de hemoculturas realizadas em ocasiões distintas. O uso do sistema killer para diferenciar os tipos entre as espécies de leveduras patogênicas, pode ser um método útil para estabelecer a eventual fonte de infecção, constituindo uma ajuda valiosa para o controle e vigilância de infecções nosocomiais causadas por leveduras.The authors studied the killer effect of nine standard strains of yeasts on 146 samples of Candida albicans isolated from the following clinical specimens: oral mucosa, feces, bronchial wash, sputum, vaginal secretion, urine, skin lesion, nail lesion and blood. Using this system it was possible to differentiate 23 biotypes of Candida albicans. The biotypes 211, 111 and 811 were most frequently isolated. Most of the samples of C. albicans (98.6% were sensitive to at least one or more of the nine killer strains. Using the killer system it was possible to show that two patients harbored the same killer biotypes, 111 and 211, respectively, in different clinical specimens and another patient harbored the same biotype (211 in blood cultures effected in different ocasions. The utilization of the killer system to differentiate types among species of pathogenic yeasts can be a useful method to stablish the eventual

  20. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, is able to grow as budding yeasts or filamentous forms, such as hyphae. The ability to switch morphology has been attributed a crucial role for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. To mimic disseminated candidiasis in humans, the mou...

  1. CARACTERIZAÇÃO BIOQUÍMICA DE AMOSTRAS DE Haemophilus parasuis ISOLADAS DE SUÍNOS NA REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL

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    Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar amostras não hemolíticas de bactérias do gênero Haemophilus isoladas de suínos. As bactérias foram isoladas de material clínico de animais com suspeita da doença de Glässer, de leitões aparentemente sadios provenientes de quatro rebanhos com suspeita clínica desta doença e de casos de poliartrites. Além das características culturais e morfotintoriais, foram utilizados os seguintes testes para a identificação: dependência de NAD(fator V, CAMP, produção de hemolisina, indol, urease e catalase, redução do nitrato e produção de ácido dos carboidratos: glicose, sacarose, arabinose e manose. Dezessete dentre 24 amostras foram classificadas como Haemophilus parasuis (dez isoladas de animais clinicamente doentes e sete de leitões normais. Cinco destas amostras foram classificadas nos sorogrupos 2, 4, 7, ND4 e uma foi não tipável. Quatro das 24 amostras apresentaram características do grupo taxonômico C (teste de arabinose positivo e três produziram urease. Os testes realizados não permitiram distinguir as amostras urease positivas do gênero Haemophilus das amostras não hemolíticas de Actinobacilius pleuropneumoniae. Mais de 60% das amostras apresentaram sensibilidade in vitro a: ampicilina, cefalotina, cloranfenicol, danofioxacina, nitrofurantoína, penicilina G, polimixina B e tetraciclina.

  2. Candida albicans hyphal invasion: thigmotropism or chemotropism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Stacey, A J; Gilligan, C A

    1999-02-15

    Hyphae of the human pathogenic fungus Candida albicans exhibit thigmotropic behaviour in vitro, in common with phytopathogenic and saprotrophic fungi. An examination of the literature on C. albicans hyphal penetration of epithelial and endothelial membranes does not support the premise that hyphal thigmotropism plays a major role in tissue invasion. Further experimentation is now required to assess thigmotropic behaviour on host membranes and vaginal epithelial cells are suggested as a test model. It is proposed that while thigmotropism may and invasion of tissue invaginations, chemotropism can explain C. albicans hyphal invasion patterns of both endothelium and epithelium.

  3. Influência do nível hidrológico sobre a assembléia de peixes em lagoa sazonalmente isolada da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná Influence of the hydrological level on an assemblage of fishes at a seasonally isolated lagoon of the Upper Paraná River floodplain

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    Samuel Veríssimo

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes períodos hidrológicos na estrutura da assembléia de peixes da lagoa Canal do Meio, planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, considerando-se alguns atributos das assembléias, tais como: riqueza, diversidade, eqüitabilidade, densidade e standing crop. A densidade específica foi estimada em anos com diferentes níveis hidrológicos, utilizando-se o método de verossimilhança máxima de Zippin. O primeiro ano analisado, 1996, foi caracterizado por baixos níveis de cheia, curto período de inundação e inundação interrompida. Em 1998, o oposto foi observado. As diferenças entre as assembléias de peixes foram atribuídas aos diferentes níveis de cheia. Riqueza das espécies, densidade total e, especialmente, a densidade de peixes migradores foi menor em 1996. Esses resultados demonstram a importância da continuidade e da duração do período de inundação (como observado em 1998 para a conservação da biodiversidade de peixes em ecossistemas de planície de inundação.The purpose of this paper was to assess the effect of different hydrological periods on the structure of a fish assemblage at Canal do Meio Lagoon (Upper Paraná River floodplain, taking into account richness, diversity, equitability, density and standing crop. Specific density was estimated in years with different hydrological regimes, by using the Zippin maximum likelihood method. The first year analyzed, 1996, was characterized by low water levels, short inundation period and interrupted floods. In 1998, the opposite was observed. The differences in the fish assemblages was attributed to these differences in hydrological regimes. Species richness, overall density and, specially, the density of migratory fishes was lower in 1996. These results demonstrate the importance of uninterrupted and long floods (as observed in 1998 to the conservation of fish biodiversity in floodplain ecosystems.

  4. Fatores de risco na gagueira desenvolvimental familial e isolada Risk factors in the familial and sporadic developmental stuttering

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    Cristiane Moço Canhetti de Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar e comparar os achados dos fatores de risco para a cronicidade da gagueira em crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental familial e isolada. MÉTODOS: participaram 60 crianças de ambos os gêneros, divididas em dois grupos: GI - 30 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental familial; GII - 30 crianças com gagueira desenvolvimental isolada. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio do Protocolo de Risco para a Gagueira do Desenvolvimento - PRGD (Andrade, 2006, que considera os seguintes fatores de risco: idade, gênero, tipo de surgimento e tempo de duração das disfluências, tipologia das disfluências, fatores comunicativos e qualitativos associados, histórico mórbido pré, peri e pós natal, fatores estressantes que ocorreram próximo ao surgimento do distúrbio, histórico familial, reação pessoal, familiar e social e atitudes familiares. RESULTADOS: quando o grupo I (GI foi comparado com o grupo II (GII, a única diferença estatisticamente significante foi com relação aos fatores estressantes que ocorreram próximo ao surgimento do distúrbio. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados confirmam a natureza complexa da gagueira, bem como a necessidade de se investigar os vários fatores considerados como de risco para o distúrbio, com intuito de melhorar a compreensão de suas possíveis etiologias.PURPOSE: to investigate and compare the risk factors for stuttering between children with familial developmental stuttering and children with sporadic developmental stuttering. METHODS: 60 children of both genders with stuttering took part, divided in two groups: GI - 30 children with familial developmental stuttering; GII - 30 children with sporadic developmental stuttering. Data were gathered through the Protocol of Risk for the Developmental Stuttering - PRGD (Andrade, 2006, which considers the following factors: age; gender; manner of onset and time of duration for the disfluencies; typology of the disfluencies; associated communicative

  5. Atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas isoladas da Acacia mangium e suas variações em função do PH Allelopathic activity of chemical substances isolated from Acacia mangium and its variations in function of PH

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    S.M. Luz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas produzidas por Acacia mangium, além de determinar as variações na atividade das substâncias em função da variação do pH da solução. A atividade alelopática foi avaliada em bioensaios de germinação (25 ºC de temperatura e fotoperíodo de 12 horas e crescimento de radícula e hipocótilo (25 ºC de temperatura e fotoperíodo de 24 horas das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e mata-pasto (Senna obtusifolia. Avaliou-se a interferência do pH (3,0 e 9,0 da solução na atividade alelopática das substâncias sobre a germinação das sementes da espécie malícia. Os triterpenoides lupenona (3-oxolup-20(29-eno e lupeol (3β-hidroxilup-20(29-eno, obtidos das folhas caídas da planta doadora, isolados e em par, evidenciaram baixo efeito alelopático inibitório da germinação de sementes e do crescimento do hipocótilo, especialmente do primeiro, cujos efeitos não ultrapassaram o valor de 2,0%. Os efeitos promovidos sobre o crescimento da radícula foram de maior magnitude, atingindo valores superiores a 40%, com destaque para as inibições promovidas pela substância lupenona. Isoladamente, as substâncias promoveram efeitos superiores aos efetivados pelas substâncias analisadas em pares, indicando a existência de antagonismo. O pH da solução influenciou a atividade alelopática das substâncias; para lupenona os efeitos foram mais intensos em pH ácido, enquanto para lupeol os melhores resultados foram verificados em condições alcalinas, mostrando que este fator é ponto importante a ser considerado em trabalhos de campo.The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and characterize the allelopathic activity of the substances produced by Acacia mangium and to determine the variations of this activity according to the pH variation of the solution. The allelopathic activity was evaluated in germination

  6. Triclosan antagonises fluconazole activity against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    MORAN, GARY

    2012-01-01

    Epub October 4th Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L) triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1? and cdr2? strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole upt...

  7. Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, microbial cells (including bacteria, archaea, and fungi) greatly outnumber host cells. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota; this species asymptomatically colonizes many areas of the body, particularly the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. Alterations in host immunity, stress, resident microbiota, and other factors can lead to C. albicans overgrowth, causing a wide range of infections, from superficial mucosal to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. To date, most studies of C. albicans have been carried out in suspension cultures; however, the medical impact of C. albicans (like that of many other microorganisms) depends on its ability to thrive as a biofilm, a closely packed community of cells. Biofilms are notorious for forming on implanted medical devices, including catheters, pacemakers, dentures, and prosthetic joints, which provide a surface and sanctuary for biofilm growth. C. albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to conventional antifungal therapeutics, the host immune system, and other environmental perturbations, making biofilm-based infections a significant clinical challenge. Here, we review our current knowledge of biofilms formed by C. albicans and closely related fungal species. PMID:26488273

  8. Ensaios sôbre lepra experimental: inoculações de três amostras de bacilos ácido-álcool resistentes (amostras "Chaves II", "Emilia" e "Hecke" isoladas de leprosos, em trinta doentes da Colônia Mirueira

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    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o fim de produzir o fenômeno de KOCH, os A. A. inocularam em 30 leprosos da Colônia Mirueira (Recife, de várias idades e formas clínicas, emulsões vivas de três culturas de bacilos ácido-álcool resistentes isolados de leprosos pro um dêles (S.A.. As doses inoculadas foram de 0,2 cc., por via intradérmica, em cada doente, das amostras "CII", "E" e "H" e mais da Leprolina S.A. (antígeno morto. No 10º dia da inoculação verificou-se que 24 dos 30 pacientes tiveram reação geral intensa; 2, reação moderada e 4, nenhuma reação geral. 16 dos 30 tiveram reação leprótica, sendo 10 em casos ativos (lepromatosos e 6 em inativos, e 17 dos 30 tiveram adenopatias inguinais. O inóculo "CII" produziu escaras de 1 x 1 e 2 x 2 cm. de diâmetro, com destruição total da pele, nos 30 pacientes (o total dêles; o inóculo "E" produziu escaras de igual intensidade em 29, o inóculo "H", escaras muitos mais benignas em 23, e a Leprolina em 10, naturalmente por ação concomitante de um dos outros três inóculos. No 10º dia foram semeadas em meio de LOEWENSTEIN secreções das escaras de sete dos 30 doentes, num total de 20 tubos, dos quais 19 produziram retroculuras, a amioria contaminada por fungos ou por bactérias cianófilas. De um doente foi obtido retrocultura cromogênica da escara produzida na intradérmoreação pela "Leprolina S. A.", macro e microscòpricamente indiferencável das amostras "CII" e "E". Aliás, pela extensiva experimentação feita com estas duas amostras, estamos nos inclinando por considerá-las como idênticas. No 18º dia da inoculação foram feitos 30 esfregaços de secreções de lesões experimentais de 13 doentes, com 15 resultados positivos (50%, apesar do exame tardio. As morfologias macro e microscópica das retroculturas obtidas em Recife confirmam os caracteres descritos nas culturas originais. Dêste rápido ensaio se conclui que a maioria dos pacientes apresentou o fenômeno de KOCH parcial ou

  9. Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli strains carrying enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC markers, isolated from children in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil Análise genética de amostras de Escherichia coli carreadoras de marcadores da Escherichia coli Enteropatogênica (EPEC, isoladas de crianças na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

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    Adriana Hamond Regua-Mangia

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 47 enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains identified according to serotyping, presence of eae, bfp and EAF sequences, adherence phenotype and ability to induce attaching-effacing lesions were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE, and the presence of LEE genes (eae, espA, espB, tir as well as the respective alleles. Amplification of LEE genes subtypes revealed 18 different pathotypes. Typing of the eae gene showed that most strains contained nontypable intimin (42% followed by beta (35%, gamma and alpha genes (12% each. PFGE analysis revealed a variable degree of polymorphism among isolates and, in general, no clear correlation was observed among PFGE profiles and the virulence markers identified. Otherwise, grouping based on MLEE analysis showed a close association between eae allele and clonal cluster distribution leading us to indicate the eae profile as a promising marker to establish relatedness among such microorganisms.No presente estudo, 47 amostras enteropatogênicas de Escherichia coli, previamente caracterizadas pelo sorotipo, fenótipo de aderência, habilidade de induzir a formação da lesão histopatológica e presença das seqüências genéticas eae, bfp e EAF, foram analisadas de acordo com o perfil de fragmentação do DNA cromossômico pela técnica de eletroforese em campo pulsado (PFGE, as variantes isoenzimáticas através da eletroforese de isoenzimas (MLEE e a presença de seqüências específicas da região LEE (eae, espA, espB, tir e respectivos alelos. A amplificação destas seqüências mostrou a presença de 18 padrões genéticos distintos. A tipagem do gene eae revelou que a maior parte das amostras apresentou intimina não-tipável (42% seguida dos tipos alélicos beta (35%, gama e alfa (12% cada. A fragmentação do DNA cromossômico detectou um elevado polimorfismo genético entre as amostras estudadas e não foi observada uma

  10. Plasticity of Candida albicans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Karla J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Candida albicans, the most pervasive fungal pathogen that colonizes humans, forms biofilms that are architecturally complex. They consist of a basal yeast cell polylayer and an upper region of hyphae encapsulated in extracellular matrix. However, biofilms formed in vitro vary as a result of the different conditions employed in models, the methods used to assess biofilm formation, strain differences, and, in a most dramatic fashion, the configuration of the mating type locus (MTL). Therefore, integrating data from different studies can lead to problems of interpretation if such variability is not taken into account. Here we review the conditions and factors that cause biofilm variation, with the goal of engendering awareness that more attention must be paid to the strains employed, the methods used to assess biofilm development, every aspect of the model employed, and the configuration of the MTL locus. We end by posing a set of questions that may be asked in comparing the results of different studies and developing protocols for new ones. This review should engender the notion that not all biofilms are created equal. PMID:27250770

  11. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on C. albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. PMID:26276374

  12. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Avaliação in vitro da eficácia de desinfetantes comerciais utilizados no pré e pós-dippingfrente amostras de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas de mastite bovina In vitro evaluation of the efficacy of commercial disinfectants used in pre and post-dipping against Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine mastitis

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    Elizabeth Sampaio de Medeiros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar a sensibilidade in vitro de Staphylococcus spp.frente a alguns desinfetantes comerciais utilizados no pré e pós-dipping em vacas leiteiras. Foram testados um total de 60 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. identificados como S. aureus (50 e Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (10 recuperados de glândulas mamárias de vacas com mastite subclínica procedentes das regiões Metropolitana do Recife, Agreste e Zona da Mata do Estado de Pernambuco. O estudo da eficácia dos desinfetantes utilizados no pré e pós-dipping foi realizado utilizando-se os seguintes princípios ativos: cloro (2,5%, iodo (0,57%, clorexidine (2,0%, amônia quaternária (4,0% e ácido lático (2,0% em quatro tempos distintos (15", 30", 60" e 300". Observou-se que 100% de S. aureus foram sensíveis ao iodo, 93,3% sensíveis a clorexidine, 80% sensíveis a amônia, 35,6% sensíveis ao ácido lático e 97,8% resistentes ao cloro no tempo de 60". Com relação a Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP, 100% dos isolados foram sensíveis ao iodo, 81,8% sensíveis a amônia quaternária, 99,9% sensíveis ao ácido lático, 72,7% sensíveis a clorexidine e 100% resistentes ao cloro no tempo de 60". Conclui-se que a maior atividade desinfetante in vitro foi verificada para o iodo e clorexidine frente a S. aureus e do iodo e ácido lático frente aos SCP e que há necessidade de avaliação periódica dos desinfetantes utilizados nas propriedades leiteiras nas regiões estudadas, pois, existem variações no perfil de sensibilidade e resistência aos desinfetantes que podem comprometer os programas de controle da mastite bovina causada por Staphylococcus spp.The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the in vitro sensibility of Staphylococcus spp. to several commercially available disinfectants used for pre and post dipping. A total of 60 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., identified as Staphylococcus aureus (50 and Positive coagulase

  14. Análise genética de Salmonella typhimurium ferment adoras de lactose isoladas no Rio de Janeiro

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    Fernando Portela Câmara

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella typhimurium fermentadoras de lactose são comuns em São Paulo, porém, raras no Rio de Janeiro, onde descrevemos dois isolamentos. Um plasmídeo de 7,4 megadáltons, não auto-transferível, termorresistente e não eliminável pelo alaranjado de acridinafoi identificado em cada uma das duas linhagens isoladas no Rio de Janeiro. O fato de uma dessas linhagens ser derivada de um plasmídeo que originalmente não expressa o caráter fermentação de lactose, permite-nos especular acerca da origem deste caráter nas Salmonellas brasileiras.Lactose fermenting Salmonella typhimurium are endemic in São Paulo, but not in Rio de Janeiro Two isolations are described from the latter city. These Rio de Janeiro strains have a plasmid of 7.4 megadaltons. These plasmids were not auto-transferable, were thermostable and were not eliminated by acridine orange. One of these strains arose from a plasmid that had the lactose operon repressed, leading us to speculate about the evolution of the lactose fermenting character in Brazilian Salmonella.

  15. Sensibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias aeróbicas isoladas de úlceras leishmanióticas, em Corte de Pedra, BA

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    Vera Luis Angel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo prospectivo, sobre a sensibilidade antimicrobiana da flora bacteriana em úlceras cutâneas leishmanióticas, foi realizado em pacientes portadores de leishmaniose tegumentar, em Corte de Pedra, Bahia. Foram estudados 84 pacientes, principalmente adolescentes e adultos dedicados à lavoura, apresentando lesão cutânea única. Staphylococcus aureus predominou (83% nas culturas, sendo sensível à maioria dos antibióticos testados. Flora bacteriana mista esteve presente na úlcera em 37 (44,1% pacientes. Entre as bactérias Gram-negativas isoladas, foram mais freqüentes Enterobacter sp (13,1%, Proteus sp (8,3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7,1% e Klebsiella sp (7,1%, sendo sensíveis principalmente à ciprofloxacina, aminoglicosídeos, cefalosporinas de terceira geração e carbapenêmicos.

  16. Molecular analysis of the iap gene of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Análise molecular do gene iap de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas de queijos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Jozi Fagundes de Mello

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The polymorphic region sequences in the iap gene were analyzed in 25 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from cheeses in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and compared with reference strains. This investigation distinguished two clusters of L. monocytogenes: I (20 strains and II (5 strains.A seqüência da região polimórfica do gene iap foi analisada em 25 cepas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas de queijo no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e comparadas com cepas referências. Esta investigação distinguiu L. monocytogenes em dois grupos: I (20 cepas e II (5 cepas.

  17. Anti-adherent activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on Candida albicans: an SEM analysis = Atividade antiaderente do óleo essencial de Rosmarinus officinalis em Candida albicans: uma análise por MEV

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    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: O óleo essencial de R. officinalis apresentou atividade antiaderente sobre C. albicans. Maior inibição da aderência foi observada para o estado de agregação celular (t=24 h e maior concentração do produto natural

  18. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. For writing this review, Google Scholar -a scholarly search engine- (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future.

  19. Relação entre leitura de palavras isoladas e compreensão de leitura textual em crianças

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    Corso, Helena Vellinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os inúmeros processos que se inter-relacionam durante a atividade da leitura, o reconhecimento das palavras e a compreensão do que é reconhecido são identificados como fundamentais. Uma das perspectivas expostas na literatura é a de que a fluência na leitura de palavras é condição fundamental para a compreensão da leitura, embora não suficiente, posto que a leitura eficiente de palavras não garante a compreensão de leitura textual. O presente trabalho examinou também a possibilidade inversa, a saber: é possível haver uma boa compreensão textual apesar de fracas habilidades de leitura de palavras? A pesquisa comparou o desempenho de crianças de 2ª série do EF em leitura de palavras isoladas e em compreensão de leitura textual, investigando, assim, as correlações e a possibilidade de dissociações entre estes dois processos. A análise dos dados mostrou uma forte correlação entre as habilidades em questão. Enquanto foi possível verificar a presença de algumas crianças com competência no reconhecimento de palavras e com baixa capacidade de compreensão de texto, os dados não sugerem uma dissociação visível no sentido inverso, ou seja, categorias altas de compreensão de texto apesar de baixos escores em leitura de palavras isoladas. Implicações para intervenção clínica e educacional são discutidas

  20. Candidíase laríngea isolada em paciente imunocompetente: relato de caso e revisão literária pertinente

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    Perazzo Paulo S. L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Através de revisão de literatura, confirma-se que infecção laríngea por cândida é uma entidade rara e usualmente associada a infecção pulmonar ou candidíase disseminada¹. Candidíase em laringe de forma isolada (C.L.I. é uma patologia ainda mais rara, e comumente relacionada a pacientes imunodeficientes². Sabe-se que à laringoscopia direta, a candidíase pode apresentar achados físicos pobres como simples hiperemia local ou mesmo leucoplasia, mimetizando patologias como DRGE até neoplasias, fazendo, pois, parte do diagnóstico diferencial. Encontramos e documentamos em nosso serviço um caso de infecção por cândida de forma isolada em laringe (C.L.I. em paciente imunocompetente. Havia comprometimento laríngeo importante, inclusive com lesão deformante em epiglote, simulando processo neoplásico. O diagnóstico foi estabelecido por videolaringoscopia e 2 biópsias da lesão encontrada, sendo os materiais obtidos submetidos a 2 estudos histopatológicos. Tomamos o cuidado de afastar síndromes imunodeficitárias, inclusive de etiologia viral, através de pesquisa sorológica e investigação sobre abuso de corticoesteróides ou antibióticos sistêmicos. Fizemos o follow-up do paciente "per" e pós tratamento com antifúngico sistêmico, acompanhando evolução e melhora através da endoscopia e sinais clínicos.

  1. Investigação da Sensibilidade ao Fluconazol e Produção de Enzimas Hidrolíticas por Candida sp. Isoladas do Trato Respiratório de Pacientes Internados em um Hospital no Sul de Minas Gerais Investigation of Fluconazole Sensibility and Hydrolytic Enzimes Production by Candida sp. Isolated from the Respiratory Tract of Patients Admitted to a Hospital in Southern Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda Fernandes Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar e caracterizar isolados de Candida do trato respiratório de pacientes, em relação à sensibilidade ao fluconazol e produção de enzimas hidrolíticas (fosfolipase e proteinase. Materiais e Métodos: 52 espécies de amostras do trato respiratório no período de 2001 a 2007 foram identificadas pelo método ChroMagar®. As amostras foram submetidas a teste de provas enzimáticas, para obtenção do grau de virulência e testadas quanto à susceptibilidade ao fluconazol, através do método Etest®. Resultados: Candida albicans foi a espécie prevalente, enquanto as demais somaram um total de 67,3%. Todas as amostras foram produtoras de proteinase e 88,5% de fosfolipase e a maioria sensível ao fluconazol, com exceção de C. glabrata que apresentou relevante resistência. Conclusão: Os resultados demonstraram um aumento de isolamento das espécies de Candida nãoalbicans em amostras clínicas, além de uma relevante resistência ao fluconazol por C. glabrata. Objective: Identification and characterization of Candida isolates from respiratory tract of patients in relation to fluconazole sensitivity and production of hydrolytic enzymes (phospholipase and proteinase. Material and Methods: 52 species originated from respiratory tract samples in the period 2001 to 2007 were identified by CHROMagar ® method. The samples were subjected to enzymatic test to evaluate the virulence degree of strains and tested for susceptibility to fluconazole by Etest® method. Results: Candida albicans was the prevalent specie, while Candida non-albicans amounted to a total of 67.3%. All samples were proteinase producers and 88.5% of phospholipase, and majority were susceptible to fluconazole, highlighting only C. glabrata with relevant resistance. Conclusion: The results showed an increased isolation of Candida non-albicans in clinical samples, and a significant resistance to fluconazole by C. glabrata.

  2. Descompressão neural isolada ou associada à fusão póstero-lateral nas afecções degenerativas lombossacras: avaliação da qualidade de vida e incapacidade funcional pós-operatória Descompresión neural aislada o combinada con la fusión posterolateral en las enfermedades degenerativas lumbosacras: evaluación de la calidad de vida e incapacidad funcional después de la operación Neural decompression alone or combined with posterolateral fusion in lumbosacral degenerative diseases: assessment of postoperative quality of life and functional disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ofenhejm Gotfryd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a qualidade de vida, a dor e a satisfação pessoal de pacientes submetidos à descompressão neural lombar isolada àqueles que tiveram a fusão póstero-lateral associada. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 44 indivíduos com diagnóstico de hérnia de disco e/ou estenose degenerativa central ou foraminal da coluna lombossacra tratados cirurgicamente. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos: "descompressão" (D e "descompressão e fusão" (DF. O critério utilizado para definir a necessidade da artrodese foi a presença de deformidades ou instabilidade segmentar, mensurada através de radiografias simples e dinâmicas. Os pacientes preencheram questionários referentes ao acompanhamento pós-operatório (uso de medicamentos analgésicos e satisfação com o tratamento e escala analógica visual de dor lombar e ciática. Além disto, foram aplicados os questionários Oswestry e SF-36 para avaliação da qualidade de vida. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados excelentes resultados no questionário Oswestry, bons níveis para os domínios "Dor" e "Capacidade Funcional" do SF-36, além de baixa intensidade de dor lombar e ciática em ambos os grupos analisados, não havendo diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre eles. CONCLUSÕES: Não encontramos diferenças em relação à qualidade de vida, à dor e à satisfação pessoal em pacientes submetidos à descompressão neural lombar isolada àqueles que tiveram a fusão associada, utilizando como critério indicativo para artrodese a presença de deformidades e/ou instabilidade segmentar.OBJETIVO: Comparar la calidad de vida, el dolor y la satisfacción personal de los pacientes sometidos a la descompresión neural aislada con aquellos que tuvieron la fusión posterolateral asociadas. MÉTODOS: El estudio reclutó a 44 pacientes con hernias discales y/o estenosis degenerativa central o foraminal de la columna lumbosacra, tratados quirúrgicamente. Los pacientes fueron divididos

  3. Interplay between Candida albicans and the Mammalian Innate Host Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is both the most common fungal commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and the major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in at-risk populations, especially immunocompromised patients. In this review, we summarize the interplay between the host innate system and C. albicans, ranging from how the host recognizes, responds, and clears C. albicans infection to how C. albicans evades, dampens, and escapes from host innate immunity. PMID:22252867

  4. Alternative Candida albicans lifestyles: growth on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Carol A; Vinces, Marcelo D

    2005-01-01

    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, causes a wide variety of human diseases such as oral thrush and disseminated candidiasis. Many aspects of C. albicans physiology have been studied during liquid growth, but in its natural environment, the gastrointestinal tract of a mammalian host, the organism associates with surfaces. Growth on a surface triggers several behaviors, such as biofilm formation, invasion, and thigmotropism, that are important for infection. Recent discoveries have identified factors that regulate these behaviors and revealed the importance of these behaviors for pathogenesis.

  5. Mycosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Candida albicans and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To produce and characterize silver nanoparticles using Candida albicans and evaluate its antibacterial properties. Methods: Extracellular silver nanoparticles were biosynthesized using C. albicans. The biomass obtained from cultures of C. albicans was used to synthesize silver nanoparticles in 1.5 mM silver ...

  6. Diversidade de Trichocomaceae isoladas de solo em dois ecossistemas florestais.

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    Marcelo Elias Fraga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A família Trichocomaceae inclui os gêneros de fungos anamórficos, Aspergillus e Penicillium. Muitos membros dessa família são importantes causadores de degradação de alimentos, biodeterioração, patogênicos a animais, e algumas espécies são usadas em biotecnologia e podem produzir micotoxinas. O presente trabalho foi realizado em duas áreas, durante o período de um ano (2006-2007 com coletas em área de plantio de pinus (Pinus elliotti e Corymbia (Corymbia citriodora com idade aproximada de 20 anos, no campus da UFRRJ, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Na área de cada cobertura vegetal foi estabelecida uma parcela de aproximadamente 500 m2, onde foram coletadas aleatoriamente dez amostras simples, em intervalos regulares de 70 dias. No momento da coleta foram medidas as temperaturas do solo com geotermômetro digital. Durante o de estudo também foi quantificada a precipitação pluviométrica e a temperatura ambiente. No período, foi verificada uma pequena variação da temperatura do solo nas áreas, valores de 21,93 a 27,69oC na área de pinus e 22,22 a 26,58oC na área de Corymbia. A variação mensal da umidade relativa mínima foi de 27,2/20,5 e máxima de 82,6/63,2 e os maiores valores de precipitação observados foi no mês de janeiro (22 dias. Em relação à micobiota, foi observada uma variação crescente da unidade formadora de colônia (UFC nos período de maior temperatura e umidade relativa com índices variando de 12,8/58,2 e 20,3/83,3x103 para Corymbia e pinus respectivamente. O número total de fungos foi de 190 isolados, pertencentes a cinco gêneros e 54 espécies diferente, sendo 32 Penicillium spp., 19 Aspergillus spp., um Eupenicillium javanicu, um Eurotium chevalieri e um Sclerocleista ornata. A espécie mais abundante foi Penicillium decumbens, sendo encontrada em todas as coletas. Os períodos de maior concentração de UFC estão correlacionados com os períodos de chuva, umidade relativa e

  7. Concentração mínima inibitória de dez antimicrobianos para amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecção intramamária bovina

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    Brito M.A.V.P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a concentração mínima inibitória (CMI de ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, neomicina, norfloxacina, oxacilina, penicilina G, tetraciclina e tilosina para 112 amostras de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de infecções intramamárias bovina, em 33 rebanhos leiteiros da Zona da Mata do Estado de Minas Gerais. Foram isoladas 24 amostras de infecção clínica, 66 de subclínica e 22 de infecção crônica. As amostras de infecção crônica foram isoladas repetidas vezes dos mesmos quartos mamários de nove vacas de um rebanho, no período de 13 meses. A CMI foi realizada em ágar Mueller Hinton, com concentrações entre 0,015 e 128µgml-1 de cada antimicrobiano. As amostras da American Type Culture Collection (ATCC recomendadas para controle de qualidade, S. aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, foram incluídas em cada teste. Cem por cento das amostras foram susceptíveis à cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, norfloxacina e oxacilina, 91% à tetraciclina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 e à tilosina (CMI50: 2,0µgml-1, 65% à ampicilina (CMI50: 0,125µgml-1 e à penicilina G (CMI50: 0,06µgml-1. Todas foram susceptíveis à neomicina (CMI50: 0,5µgml-1 exceto uma amostra que apresentou um padrão intermediário. O nível de resistência para ampicilina e penicilina foi maior nas amostras isoladas de casos clínicos e nas de infecção subclínica com escores positivos no CMT (P ou = 0,125µgml-1 para penicilina foram positivas para produção de beta-lactamase.

  8. Comparative antifungal susceptibility analysis of Candida albicans versus non-albicans Candida corneal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; Dugar, Jyoti; Miller, Darlene; OʼBrien, Terrence P

    2015-05-01

    To compare the in vitro activity of topical amphotericin B (AMB), natamycin, voriconazole, and fluconazole against human corneal isolates of Candida sp. for guidance in the treatment of Candida keratitis. Sixty-eight Candida isolates (37 albicans and 31 non-albicans isolates) recovered from corneal scrapings submitted to rule out microbial keratitis, during the years 2005 to 2011, at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, were examined in this study. Corneal isolates were cultured on fungal agars for 48 hours. Each yeast isolate was dispensed into 4 microtiter wells, each containing 100 mL of commercial (natamycin 5%) or compounded (AMB 0.15%, voriconazole 1%, and fluconazole 0.2%) antifungal medications. A comparison of growth patterns was conducted. One hundred percent of the samples showed growth inhibition after treatment exposure with AMB or natamycin. The isolates treated with voriconazole demonstrated an 85% inhibition rate overall, with the Candida albicans samples showing a 77% inhibition rate and the non-albicans sp. a 93% inhibition rate. In the fluconazole group, there was only a 19.6% inhibition rate noted, with a 7.7% inhibition rate observed in the C. albicans group versus a 30% inhibition rate in the non-albicans group. AMB 0.2% and natamycin 5% have equal effectiveness and full inhibition against Candida keratitis isolates. Fluconazole 0.2% is not the drug of choice in both C. albicans and non-albicans keratitis. Voriconazole 1% may need a stronger concentration for higher effectiveness, but potentially may be helpful as a second agent in the treatment of Candida keratitis.

  9. Comparison of albicans vs. non-albicans candidemia in French intensive care units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Candidemia raises numerous therapeutic issues for intensive care physicians. Epidemiological data that could guide the choice of initial therapy are still required. This analysis sought to compare the characteristics of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species with those of ICU patients with candidemia due to Candida albicans. Methods A prospective, observational, multicenter, French study was conducted from October 2005 to May 2006. Patients exhibiting candidemia developed during ICU stay and exclusively due either to one or more non-albicans Candida species or to C. albicans were selected. The data collected included patient characteristics on ICU admission and at the onset of candidemia. Results Among the 136 patients analyzed, 78 (57.4%) had candidemia caused by C. albicans. These patients had earlier onset of infection (11.1 ± 14.2 days after ICU admission vs. 17.4 ± 17.7, p = 0.02), higher severity scores on ICU admission (SOFA: 10.4 ± 4.7 vs. 8.6 ± 4.6, p = 0.03; SAPS II: 57.4 ± 22.8 vs. 48.7 ± 15.5, P = 0.015), and were less often neutropenic (2.6% vs. 12%, p = 0.04) than patients with candidemia due to non-albicans Candida species. Conclusions Although patients infected with Candida albicans differed from patients infected with non-albicans Candida species for a few characteristics, no clinical factor appeared pertinent enough to guide the choice of empirical antifungal therapy in ICU. PMID:20507569

  10. Antibiotic resistance in Candida albicans and Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, vaginal candidiasis and bacterial vaginosis are frequently encountered in medical practice and antibiotic resistance in implicated pathogens has not been reported in Dschang. This study sought to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of 198 isolates of Candida albicans and 300 strains of ...

  11. Undecylenic Acid Inhibits Morphogenesis of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    McLain, Nealoo; Ascanio, Rhoda; Baker, Carol; Strohaver, Robert A.; Dolan, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  12. Undecylenic acid inhibits morphogenesis of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, N; Ascanio, R; Baker, C; Strohaver, R A; Dolan, J W

    2000-10-01

    Resilient liners are frequently used to treat denture stomatitis, a condition often associated with Candida albicans infections. Of 10 liners tested, 2 were found to inhibit the switch from the yeast form to hyphae and a third was found to stimulate this switch. The inhibitor was determined to be undecylenic acid.

  13. Fisiopatogenia, epidemiologia e diagnóstico laboratorial da candidemia Phisiopathogenesis, epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of candidemia

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    Muriel Padovani Giolo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Candidemia é a infecção da corrente sanguínea causada por leveduras do gênero Candida. As espécies mais comumente isoladas em amostras de sangue venoso de pacientes hospitalizados são C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. krusei. A finalidade desse estudo é fornecer uma revisão sobre candidemia, mostrando aspectos importantes sobre etioepidemiologia, relação fungo/hospedeiro e diagnóstico laboratorial desta infecção sistêmica emergente. Durante o processo de estabelecimento da candidemia, a levedura participa ativamente, expressando diversos fatores de virulência, o que acaba por favorecer a patogênese da candidemia. Entre esses fatores, destacam-se produção de enzimas extracelulares, dimorfismo, síntese de hemolisinas, capacidade de adesão e formação de biofilme. Nos pacientes acometidos, a intervenção medicamentosa deve ser precoce para minimizar os riscos de complicações e de resistência microbiana, portanto um diagnóstico laboratorial eficiente se faz necessário. O estudo e o conhecimento desses fatores, associados à genotipagem, podem contribuir de maneira decisiva para a descoberta de novos fármacos que possam atuar como profiláticos e/ou terapêuticos em pacientes com candidemia ou em risco de desenvolvê-la.Candidemia is a bloodstream infection caused by yeasts of the genus Candida spp. The most commonly isolated species in venous blood samples of hospitalized patients are: C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsiolosis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. This study aimed at providing a review of candidemia, showing some important aspects of etio-epidemiology, fungus/host relation, and laboratorial diagnosis of this emerging systemic infection. During the onset of candidemia, yeasts play a major role on several virulence factors, which ultimately promote its pathogenesis. Among them, it may be highlighted the extracellular enzyme production, dimorphism, hemolysin synthesis, adhesion ability

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial de alecrim-pimenta e do extrato bruto seco do barbatimão diante de bactérias isoladas do leite

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    João Paulo Ramos Costa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2011v24n4p1 Teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do óleo essencial do Lippia sidoides (OELs conhecido popularmente como “alecrim-pimenta” e do extrato bruto seco do Stryphnodendron adstringens (EBSSa “barbatimão” em bactérias isoladas do leite total de rebanho, provenientes de unidades agrícolas familiares do norte de Minas Gerais. O EBSSa foi obtido a partir da casca por extração estática em etanol 99.9% por oito dias. O OELs foi obtido por meio da hidro-destilação das folhas frescas. As bactérias foram isoladas do leite total do rebanho de amostras de leite de propriedades rurais do Norte de Minas Gerais e posteriormente foram identificadas por métodos padrões. Foram submetidas aos testes de disco-difusão e concentração bactericida mínima (CBM, utilizando as concentrações de 320, 160, 80, 40, 20 e 0µl/mL do OELs e 400, 200, 100, 50, 25 e 0mg/mL do EBSSa. Todas as bactérias se mostraram sensíveis aos extratos vegetais, exceto a Escherichia coli para os dois testes quando foi utilizado o EBSSa.

  15. Estudo da Incidência de Fungos Isolados de Amostras de Lavado Bronco Alveolar, Biópsia Transbrônquica e de Escarro / Study of the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy and sputum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thays Gabrielle Lins de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a incidência de fungos isolados de amostras de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e escarro de pacientes assistidos no Hospital Otávio de Freitas. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo descritivo com análise dos registros de 756 pacientes que realizaram exame direto e culturas de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e/ou escarro no Laboratório de Micologia Médica do Hospital Otávio de Freitas em Recife-PE, no período de março de 2012 a maio de 2015. Foram também analisados os resultados das sorologias para Aspergillus realizadas no mesmo período no Laboratório de Imunodiagnóstico de Micoses Sistêmicas do Departamento de Micologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Resultados: Foram isolados 248 (54,14% Candida albicans, 119 (25,98% Candida sp. e 41 (10,04% espécies Candida não albicans, 33 (7,21% Aspergillus fumigatus, dois (0,44% A. niveus, um (0,22% A. niger, 3 (0,65% A. japonicus, dois (0,44% A. flavus, duas (0,44% Paecilomyces variotii, um (0,22% Rhizomucor sp. e um (0,22% Rhizopus sp. Conclusões: Candida albicans e Aspergillus fumigatus continuam sendo as espécies mais comumente isoladas nas amostras estudadas, entretanto C. kefyr, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, A. niveus, A. japonicus, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor sp. e Rhizopus sp. indicam sua importância como patógenos oportunistas, sendo relatadas pela primeira vez em estudo realizado com pacientes acompanhados neste hospital. Houve comprovação de doença em cinco pacientes que realizaram cultura de fragmento de tecido pulmonar das quais foram isolados Candida albicans, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus fumigatus. Objective: To study the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue fragments and sputum of patients from Hospital Otavio de Freitas. Materials and methods: Descriptive retrospective observational study with analysis of records

  16. EFEITO DA TREALOSE NA MANUTENÇÃO DA VIABILIDADE DE CÉLULAS DE LEVEDURAS DESIDRATADAS POR LIOFILIZAÇÃO

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. ALCARDE; L.C. BASSO

    1997-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a influência da trealose endógena e também o uso da trealose como crioprotetor, na preservação da viabilidade celular de leveduras de interesse industrial quando submetidas ao processo de liofilização. Foram utilizadas as cepas TA (M-300-A) e SA (cepa isolada da Usina Santa Adélia S/A) da levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae e a cepa IZ-1904 da levedura Saccharomyces boulardii, as quais passaram por um tratamento de acúmulo da trealose endógena, atra...

  17. Molecular identification of Candida dubliniensis isolated from oral lesions of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in São Paulo, Brazil Identificação molecular de amostras de Candida dubliniensis isoladas de lesões orais de pacientes HIV positivos e negativos em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Kleber Chavasco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida dubliniensis is a new, recently described species of yeast. This emerging oral pathogen shares many phenotypic and biochemical characteristics with C. albicans, making it hard to differentiate between them, although they are genotypically distinct. In this study, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to investigate the presence of C. dubliniensis in samples in a culture collection, which had been isolated from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with oral erythematous candidiasis. From a total of 37 samples previously identified as C. albicans by the classical method, two samples of C. dubliniensis (5.4% were found through the use of PCR. This study underscores the presence of C. dubliniensis, whose geographical and epidemiological distribution should be more fully investigated.Candida dubliniensis é uma nova espécie recentemente descrita. Este patógeno oral emergente compartilha muitas características fenotípicas e bioquímicas com C. albicans dificultando assim a diferenciação entre elas. As mesmas, porém, mostram-se genotipicamente distintas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar, pela técnica de PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction, a possível presença de C. dubliniensis dentre amostras isoladas de candidose oral eritematosa, provenientes de pacientes HIV positivos e HIV negativos. Em um total de 37 amostras identificadas anteriormente, por método clássico, como C. albicans encontramos duas amostras de C. dubliniensis (5,4% utilizando a técnica do PCR. Esta técnica mostrou-se útil, prática e com identificação taxonômica mais acurada.

  18. Vasculite granulomatosa necrosante isolada de colo uterino associada à infecção por papilomavírus humano Isolated necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of the uterine cervix associated with human papillomavirus infection

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    Nilton Salles Rosa Neto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vasculites de órgão único, ou isoladas, já foram descritas em diversos órgãos e seu achado pode ser acidental. Relatamos um caso de vasculite granulomatosa necrosante isolada de colo uterino em uma paciente de meia-idade, previamente hígida, sexualmente ativa, e cuja pesquisa de DNA de papilomavírus humano (Human Papiloma Virus - HPV por captura híbrida foi positiva. Não foi identificado comprometimento sistêmico e, como houve excisão completa da lesão, optou-se pelo acompanhamento clínico. Há poucos relatos, na literatura, de acometimento do trato genital feminino de forma isolada, alguns com presença simultânea de lesões que podem ser causadas pelo HPV, postulando-se uma associação patogênica.Single organ vasculitis (SOV, or isolated vasculitis, has been described in several organs and it can be an accidental finding. We report a case of isolated necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis of the uterine cervix in a middle-aged woman, previously healthy, and sexually active, and whose human papillomavirus (HPV DNA hybrid capture assay was positive. Systemic involvement was not detected and, since the lesion was completely removed, we opted for a clinical follow-up. The literature has very few reports on the isolated involvement of the female genital tract, and some had concomitant lesions that could be caused by the HPV, indicati.

  19. Comparison of the hemolytic activity between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species

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    Rodnei Dennis Rossoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce enzymes, such as hemolysins, is an important virulence factor for the genus Candida.The objective of this study was to compare the hemolytic activity between C. albicansand non-albicans Candida species. Fifty strains of Candida species, isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with HIV were studied. The isolates included the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae, and C. guilliermondii. Hemolysin production was evaluated on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, blood, and glucose. A loop-full of pure Candidaculture was spot-inoculated onto plates and incubated at 37ºC for 24 h in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Hemolytic activity was defined as the formation of a translucent halo around the colonies. All C. albicansstrains that were studied produced hemolysins. Among the non-albicans Candidaspecies, 86% exhibited hemolytic activity. Only C. guilliermondiiand some C. parapsilosis isolates were negative for this enzyme. In conclusion, most non-albicans Candidaspecies had a similar ability to produce hemolysins when compared to C. albicans.

  20. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  1. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32 P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  2. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  3. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  4. Triclosan Antagonizes Fluconazole Activity against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, J.; Pinjon, E.; Oltean, H.N.; White, T.C.; Kelly, S.L.; Martel, C.M.; Sullivan, D.J.; Coleman, D.C.; Moran, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes. PMID:21972257

  5. Modified E-test by the addition of EDTA-Tris and dimethyl sulfoxide on the potentiation of the effects of some antimicrobials in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from bovine mastitis E-test modificado pela adição de Tris-EDTA e dimetilsulfóxido na potencialização do efeito de antimicrobianos em linhagens de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Ribeiro

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A concentração inibitória mínima-MIC em 30 estirpes de Pseudomonas aeruginosa isoladas de mastite bovina foi avaliada utilizando o E-test padrão e o método modificado, pela adição de Tris-EDTA e DMSO. Os métodos modificados apresentaram redução significativa da MIC das estirpes utilizando a gentamicina, a ciprofloxacina e a norfloxacina.

  6. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  7. Candida albicans Adherence to Glass Ionomer Restorative Dental Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lawaf, Shirin; Azizi, Arash

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims. It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the colonization and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable information about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little information available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investiga...

  8. Germ tube growth of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, N A

    1997-12-01

    The clinical pathogen Candida albicans is a budding yeast that is capable of forming a range of polarized and expanded cell shapes from pseudohyphae to true nonconstricted hyphae. Filamentous forms consist of contiguous uninucleated compartments that are partitioned by septa. It has long been held that the so-called "dimorphic transition" from a budding to a filamentous form may aid the fungus to penetrate epithelia and may therefore be a virulence factor. This review summarized new information regarding the physiology and ecology of hyphal growth in C. albicans. New evidence has demonstrated that hyphae of C. albicans have a sense of touch so that they grow along grooves and through pores (thigmotropism). This may aid infiltration of epithelial surfaces during tissue invasion. Hyphae are also aerotropic and can form helices when contacting solid surfaces. Growing evidence supports the view that hyphal growth is a response to nutrient deprivation, especially low nitrogen and that filamentous growth enables the fungus to forage for nutrients more effectively. Further insights into the growth of C. albicans have come from the analysis of genes and mutations of Saccharomyces which have begun to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the mechanisms of bud site selection, cell polarity and signal transduction pathways that lead to pseudohyphal development in this and other organisms. For example, it is now clear that a MAP-kinase cascade, homologous to the mating pathway in Saccharomyces, regulates filamentous growth in both fungi. However, this must be only one of several overlapping or separate signal transduction pathways for hyphal development because filamentous growth still occurs in mutants of Candida and Saccharomyces which are blocked in this pathway. Cell cycle analyses have shown that hyphal phase cell cycle of Candida is distinct from that in budding and pseudohyphal formation and so pseudohyphal growth of Saccharomyces is not a true model of germ tube

  9. Interactions Between Candida albicans and Host Interações entre Candida albicans e Hospedeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane De Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can cause grave infections in patients who are immunocompromised by diseases, by surgery, or by immunesupresive therapy. The high levels of morbidity and mortality resulting from those infections in hospitalized patients show that C. albicans became a prominent human pathogen. Although the host immune system is the major factor balancing the transition from commensalisms to pathogenicity, several virulence attributes expressed by C. albicans, such as adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, dimorphic behavior, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, might contribute to the persistence of colonization as well as the development of symptomatic episodes. Host defense against candidiasis relies mainly on the ingestion and elimination of C. albicans by phagocytic cells, which present receptors Toll-like 4, dectin–1 associated to receptors Toll-like2 and mannose receptors. The cytokine IL-10 (IL-10 produced by phagocytes has a crucial role on susceptibility of host fungal infection, whereas IL-10 produced by regulatory T cells is mainly responsible by commensalisms. In contrast, productions of tumour necrosis factor - α (TNF-α, interleukin–1 β (lL-1 β, (IL-6 and (Il-12 provided protective cell–mediated immunity. The interferon-γ produced by natural killer and TH1 cells stimulates migration of phagocytes and major efficacy on destruction of fungi. In epithelial cells from mucosas the NOD-like receptors and defensins-β cytoplasmatic prevent the translocation of C. albicans from microbiota to tissues, which are modulated by IL-1 β, Il-17 and Il-22 cytokines. to pathogenicity, several virulence attributes expressed by C. albicans, such as adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, dimorphic behavior, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, might contribute to the persistence of colonization as well as the development of symptomatic episodes. Host defense against candidiasis relies mainly on the ingestion and elimination of C. albicans

  10. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan, E-mail: yingyuanfu@126.com; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, increasing

  11. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca 2+ concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of 3 H-UdR, 3 H-TdR and 3 H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase, cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited 3 H-UdR, 3 H-TdR and 3 H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca 2+ concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca 2+ –Mg 2+ ATPase, increasing cytosolic Ca 2+ content and damaging the ultrastructure of C. albicans

  12. Candida albicans response to spaceflight (NASA STS-115)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans...

  13. Comparison of the clinical risk factors between Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species for bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Jikimoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hayama, Brian; Ohji, Goh; Iwata, Kentaro; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors and susceptibilities to antifungal agents of Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species (spp.) in candidemia cases in Kobe University Hospital. We investigated all consecutive patients with candida bloodstream infection (BSI) from 2008-2013 for whose full data were available for analyses, examining clinical factors such as gender, general complications, postoperative status or susceptibilities to antifungal agents. These factors were also compared between Candida albicans spp. and Candida non-albicans by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate analyses showed a significantly higher rate of Candida non-albicans species BSI patients cancer (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))=2.29 (1.04-5.06) and P=0.040), chemotherapy (OR=4.35 (1.11-17.1) and P=0.035), fluconazole (FLCZ) resistance (OR=77.3 (4.51-1324) and P=0.003), and itraconazole (ITCZ) resistance (OR=15.6 (5.39-45.1) and PCandida albicans. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. had significantly higher rate of chemotherapy (OR=4.44 (1.04-19.0) and P=0.045), FLCZ resistance (OR=5.87 (2.01-17.1) and P=0.001), and ITCZ resistance (OR=18.7(5.77-60.4) and PCandida albicans. In conclusion, this study revealed several risk factors for BSI with Candida albicans (underlying cardiovascular diseases and postoperative status) and Candida non-albicans spp. (cancer and chemotherapy), and demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. were more resistant to FLCZ and ITCZ than Candida albicans.

  14. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolates from patients with chronic periodontitis and from control patients Suscetibilidade in vitro aos antifúngicos em cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de pacientes com periodontite crônica e de indivíduos controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Yumi Koga Ito

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Superinfection by Candida can be refractory to conventional periodontal treatments in specific situations, such as in immunocompromised patients. In these cases, the systemic therapy with antifungal drugs could be indicated. The aim of this study was to analyse antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. strains isolated from chronic periodontitis patients and from control individuals. A total of 39 C. albicans isolates, 9 C. tropicalis, 2 C. glabrata and 5 Candida spp. from control individuals and 30 C. albicans, 3 C. tropicalis and 2 C. glabrata from periodontitis patients were tested. In the control group, 1 isolate of C. glabrata was resistant to ketoconazole and 1 Candida spp. was resistant to amphotericin B, ketoconazole and miconazole. Among the isolates of periodontitis group, 1 (3.33% C. albicans isolate was resistant to flucytosine and ketoconazole. According to the obtained results, it could be concluded that fluconazole was the most effective drug against the several Candida species studied. There were not expressive differences in the susceptibility of isolates from periodontitis patients or from control individuals.Em certas situações, tal como em pacientes imunocomprometidos, superinfecção por Candida pode ocorrer e ser refratária ao tratamento periodontal convencional. Nesses casos, a terapia sistêmica com antifúngicos pode ser indicada. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a suscetibilidade aos antifúngicos de cepas de leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de pacientes com periodontite crônica e de indivíduos controle. Um total de 39 isolados de C. albicans, 9 de C. tropicalis, 2 de C. glabrata e 5 de Candida spp. provenientes de indivíduos controle e 30 de C. albicans, 3 de C. tropicalis e 2 de C. glabrata de pacientes com periodontite foram testados. No grupo controle, uma amostra de C. glabrata foi resistente ao cetoconazol e uma de Candida spp. mostrou-se resistente a anfotericina B, cetoconazol e miconazol. Dentre

  15. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria isolated from corneal ulcers of dogs Identificação e susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de bactérias isoladas de úlceras de córnea em cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Prado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 clinical specimens were obtained from 19 dogs with corneal ulcer (16 unilateral and three bilateral for isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation of the isolated bacteria. Bacterial growth was observed in 100% of the samples (n=22. Staphylococcus intermedius was the predominant species (35.5%, followed by Corynebacterium xerosis (19.3%. Gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin had a high efficacy against all of the isolated bacteria. The results evidenced that 80.7% of the isolates were Gram positive cocci and Gram positive bacilli, and that those microorganisms were sensitive to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and tobramycin.Utilizaram-se 22 amostras de material, obtidas de 19 cães com úlcera de córnea, sendo 16 unilaterais e três bilaterais, para isolamento e avaliação da susceptibilidade antimicrobiana das bactérias isoladas. Observou-se crescimento bacteriano em 100% das amostras (n=22. A espécie predominante foi Staphylococcus intermedius (35,5% seguido de Corynebacterium xerosis (19,3%. Gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol e tobramicina apresentaram alta eficácia contra todas as bactérias isoladas. Os resultados evidenciam que 80,7% dos isolados foram cocos e bacilos Gram positivos e que estes microrganismos foram sensíveis à gentamicina, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol e tobramicina.

  16. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, nova amostra isolada de fezes de um pinguim (Pygoscelis adeliae Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a new strain isolated from a fecal matter of a penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilma Maciel Garcia

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam os resultados obtidos com a amostra "pinguim" de Paracoccidioides, isolada por GEZUELE et al. (1989 na Antártica uruguaia. Das fezes de um desses animais, foi isolado um fungo considerado, recentemente, como nova espécie de Paracoccididoides - P. antarclicus. Os exames micológico e imunoquímico demonstraram tratar-se de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, inclusive com a verificação da presença da glicoproteína 43 kDa pelos métodos de imunodifusão dupla, SDS-PAGE e imunoeletroforese. A possibilidade de se tratar de uma variedade do Paracoccididoides brasiliensis somente poderá ser confirmada através de outros estudos baseados na chamada taxonomía molecular, incluindo cariotipagem. Os Autores registram o significado epidemiológico deste achado, sugerindo uma revisão nos conhecimentos do nicho ecológico do P. brasiliensis.The Authors show lhe results obtained through the study of a Paracoccidioides strain isolated from a penguin in the Uruguaian An-lartide by GEZUELE et al. (1989. From the fecal matter it was isolated a fungus which was recently considered as a new species of the genus Paracoccidioides - P. antarcticus. However, the mycological and immunochemical studies including the demonstration of the 43 kDa glycoprotein by immunodiffusion test, SDS-PAGE and immunoelectrophoresis disclosed that such strain is similar to P. brasiliensis. Other studies, based on molecular taxonomy, including karyotyping, are the only tools to confirm Lhe possibility of such strain to be a variant of P. brasiliensis. The Authors report the epidemiological significance of that finding and suggest a review in the knowledge of the ecological "niche" of P. brasiliensis.

  17. PRODUCTION OF A HUMAN RECOMBINANT ANTIBODY AGAINST SEROTYPE A CANDIDA ALBICANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A. Jafari

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available After using 3 different generations of antibodies including human and non-human hyperimmune sera, monoclonal antibodies and chimeric antibodies, more recently a newer approach has been developed in which the antibody genes are cloned directly from a patient peripheral B-lymphocytes and expressed in a host like E. coli. In this study the Candida albicans serotype A (NCTC 3153 mannan was purified using a modified Fehling method and used for selection of human recombinant antibody from a C. albicans phage antibody library. After four rounds of affinity selecting (panning, 2 predominant clones were chosen by DNA fingerprinting and ELISA. A 248 amino acid DNA fragment coding for anti-C. albicans mannan scFv was sequenced and cloned in a pBAD-TOPO cloning vector to produce a soluble and phage free antibody. The analysis of antibody sequences by V base Index (DNAPLOT confirmed the human antibody origin with the VH4 family in V segment of heavy variable chain and VL3 (Lambda 3 in J segment of the light variable chain. This antibody fragment was purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography and inmmunoblotted as a 31kDa recombinant protein.

  18. Ribosomal RNA processing in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrak, Michael L; Roberts, David D

    2011-12-01

    Ribosome assembly begins with conversion of a polycistronic precursor into 18S, 5.8S, and 25S rRNAs. In the ascomycete fungus Candida albicans, rRNA transcription starts 604 nt upstream of the 18S rRNA junction (site A1). One major internal processing site in the 5' external transcribed spacer (A0) occurs 108 nt from site A1. The A0-A1 fragment persists as a stable species during log phase growth and can be used to assess proliferation rates. Separation of the small and large subunit pre-rRNAs occurs at sites A2 and A3 in internal transcribed spacer-1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae pre-rRNA. However, the 5' end of the 5.8S rRNA is represented by only a 5.8S (S) form, and a 7S rRNA precursor of the 5.8S rRNA extends into internal transcribed spacer 1 to site A2, which differs from S. cerevisiae. External transcribed spacer 1 and internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 show remarkable structural similarity with S. cerevisiae despite low sequence identity. Maturation of C. albicans rRNA resembles other eukaryotes in that processing can occur cotranscriptionally or post-transcriptionally. During rapid proliferation, U3 snoRNA-dependent processing occurs before large and small subunit rRNA separation, consistent with cotranscriptional processing. As cells pass the diauxic transition, the 18S pre-rRNA accumulates into stationary phase as a 23S species, possessing an intact 5' external transcribed spacer extending to site A3. Nutrient addition to starved cells results in the disappearance of the 23S rRNA, indicating a potential role in normal physiology. Therefore, C. albicans reveals new mechanisms that regulate post- versus cotranscriptional rRNA processing.

  19. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook; Koh, Yoon-Woo; Kim, Hee-Kyung; Park, Jung-Mi

    2008-01-01

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  20. Mass spectrometric analysis of the secretome of Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorgo, A.G.; Heilmann, C.J.; Dekker, H.L.; Brul, S.; de Koster, C.G.; Klis, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenic fungus Candida albicans secretes a considerable number of hydrolases and other proteins. In-depth studies of the C. albicans secretome could thus provide new candidates for diagnostic markers and vaccine development. We compared various growth conditions differing in pH, temperature

  1. Sensitivity pattern of clinical isolates of Candida albicans from hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the sensitivity pattern of clinical isolates of C. albicans from HIV/AIDS patients to combined P. grisea extract and tioconazole. Twenty isolates of C. albicans were obtained from high vaginal swab (HVS) from HIV/AIDS patients in Bishop Shanahan Hospital, Nsukka after their ...

  2. Antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida albicans | Bii | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to establish the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to commonly used antifungal drugs. Design: Laboratory based experiment. Setting: Mbagathi District Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Candida albicans isolated between 1998 ...

  3. Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative dental material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Lawaf

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the colonization and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable information about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little information available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative material. Materials and methods. In this experimental study adherence of Candida albicans strains was studied with and without human whole saliva. First, glass ionomer fragments were prepared; then yeast cells were inoculated and incubated with different incubation times. After incubation, the fragments were removed from the wells and stained with 0.1% calcofluor white. Adhesion was quantified by counting the total number of cells at 40, 80 and 120 minutes. The analysis of variance and Student's test were used to assess the significance of differences between the means. Results. In the absence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans showed an increase, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes. However, in the presence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer significantly decreased. Conclusion. The presence of human whole saliva is an important factor in the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer restorative material.

  4. Candida albicans Adherence to Glass Ionomer Restorative Dental Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawaf, Shirin; Azizi, Arash

    2009-01-01

    It is believed that adherence of Candida albicans to oral surfaces is a critical event in the coloni-zation and development of oral diseases such as candida-associated denture stomatitis. Although there is considerable infor-mation about the adherence of Candida albicans to buccal epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there is very little infor-mation available about the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer materials. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of Candida albicans adherence to glass ionomer restorative material. In this experimental study adherence of Candida albicans strains was studied with and without human whole saliva. First, glass ionomer fragments were prepared; then yeast cells were inoculated and incubated with differ-ent incubation times. After incubation, the fragments were removed from the wells and stained with 0.1% calcofluor white. Adhesion was quantified by counting the total number of cells at 40, 80 and 120 minutes. The analysis of variance and Stu-dent's test were used to assess the significance of differences between the means. In the absence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans showed an increase, reaching a maximum at the end of the experiment (120 minutes). However, in the presence of saliva, the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ionomer significantly decreased. The presence of human whole saliva is an important factor in the adherence of Candida albicans to glass ion-omer restorative material.

  5. Evaluation of Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on Various Parts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on Various Parts of Implant Material Surfaces. ... In general, yeast cells have remarkable potential to adhere to host surfaces, such as teeth or mucosa, and to artificial, non-biological surfaces, such as dental materials. C. albicans adhesion to denture materials is widely ...

  6. Evaluation of Candida albicans biofilm formation on various dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the susceptibility of six dental restorative materials to Candida albicans adhesion. Materials and methods: Cylindrical samples of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. The antifungal effect of the samples on C. albicans was determined with the disc-diffusion method.

  7. Emerging azole resistance among Candida albicans from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans is one of the most frequently isolated yeasts in clinical laboratories and accounts for up to 80 % of the yeasts recovered from sites of infection. The study was set out to determine antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to establish the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) to ...

  8. Comparison of the adhesion ability of Candida albicans strains to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the ability of oral Candida albicans strains to adhere to Caco-2 and Hep-2 epithelial cells, to produce slime using Congo red and Safranin methods and to form a biofilm on polymethylmethacrylate. A total of 20 C. albicans strains were tested in the present work. The biofilm ...

  9. Acid production by oral strains of Candida albicans and Lactobacilli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinke, T.; Kneist, S.; de Soet, J.J.; Kuhlisch, E.; Mauersberger, S.; Forster, A.; Klimm, W.

    2009-01-01

    Both Candida albicans and lactobacilli are common colonizers of carious lesions in children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to compare the velocity of acid production between C. albicans and several Lactobacillus species at different pH levels and concentrations of glucose. Washed,

  10. Infection-associated genes of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hube, Bernhard

    2006-08-01

    Advances in the medical treatment of life-threatening disorders have increased the population of patients that are more susceptible to opportunistic microbial infections, such as those caused by the Candida species, in particular Candida albicans. This fungus normally belongs to the microbial flora but may cause a range of diseases from superficial to disseminated. What exactly causes the transition from commensalism to pathogenesis is not clear and how this fungus switches from a commensal mode of growth to a parasitic lifestyle remains unknown. Identifying the genes and factors essential for the different stages of C. albicans infections will not only help understanding of the infection process but also provide information about those fungal factors that have to be inhibited, and those parts of the immune system that have to be stimulated, in order to control or prevent infections. Furthermore, knowledge of those genes whose expression is associated with infection but not commensalism may provide valuable information to improve our diagnostic tools. A number of methodologies and models have already been used to identify infection-associated genes. In addition to genes encoding classical virulence determinants, such as those involved in interactions with the immune system and immune evasion, scientists have monitored the expression of genes involved in nutrient acquisition, metabolism, stress response, physical interaction and hyphal formation in infection models and have begun to elucidate the roles of these genes.

  11. Isolation of Candida spp from vaginal microbiota of healthy canine females during estrous cycle Isolamento de Candida spp da microbiota vaginal de fêmeas caninas hígidas durante o ciclo estral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the skin, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, and other mucosa in mammalians. Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals. Yeast isolation from vaginal mucus is frequent in women, especially of Candida genus. In canine females, however, studies about vaginal fungal microbiota are rare and the connection with estrous cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate yeast 5 of Candida genus from healthy canine females and identify the isolated species, establishing their connection with estrous cycle phases. Two hundred twenty-four samples taken from vaginal mucus of 14 canine females were analyzed in this study. Candida spp was observed in 83 (37% from these samples; nine samples were taken in proestrus, 14 in oestrus, 31 in dioestrus, 24 in anoestrus and five samples were obtained during pregnancy. Candida parapsilosis the most frequently isolated specie (21.7%, followed by C. guillermondii (8.4%, C. kefir (6% and C. albicans (4.8%. We concluded that Candida spp is a commion component of healthy canine females' vaginal microbiota, and isolation varies according to the estrous cycle phase.As leveduras são organismos comensais da pele, trato genital e gastrointestinal, e de outras mucosas de mamíferos. O gênero Candida vem sendo isolado freqüentemente de animais domésticos e silvestres. O isolamento de Candida spp da mucosa vaginal de mulheres é freqüente, porém na espécie canina são escassos os estudos referentes à microbiota fúngica vaginal, especialmente do gênero candida, não se tendo conhecimento de sua relação com o ciclo reprodutivo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo isolar leveduras do gênero Candida em fêmeas caninas hígidas e identificar as espécies isoladas, relacionando-as com as diferentes fases do ciclo estral. Foram analisadas 224 amostras obtidas da mucosa vaginal de 14 fêmeas caninas. Candida spp foi observada em 83 (37

  12. Escolas isoladas e práticas de seriação: experiências híbridas (1929-1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Dias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados da pesquisa acerca dos tipos de escolas primárias existentes no município de Iguaçu, estado do Rio de Janeiro, entre 1929-1949. Com base na análise dos mapas de frequência escolar – ferramenta de inspeção estadual das escolas – foi possível recompor um perfil de escolas primárias existentes na região. A escola isolada predominou como tipo de organização das escolas no munícipio, em áreas tanto rurais quanto urbanas. Essas escolas apresentam, contudo, uma pluralidade de arranjos entre turnos, docentes, alunos, séries e classes que revela uma diversidade de experiências e intercessões com as perspectivas de seriação do ensino e os modos e condições de funcionamento das escolas.

  13. Captura híbrida negativa em displasia intraepitelial isolada de córnea Negative hybrid capture in a single intraepithelial corneal dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Taranta Martin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As displasias intraepiteliais de córnea correspondem a lesões de baixo risco de malignidade, dentro do espectro das neoplasias intraepiteliais da superfície ocular. Essas displasias se apresentam como áreas leucoplásicas e têm como um dos principais fatores de risco o papilomavírus humano (HPV. No presente trabalho, os autores descrevem um caso de displasia intraepitelial isolada de córnea, tratada através de excisão cirúrgica, com confirmação histológica e resultado negativo de hibridização de DNA para HPV.Cornea intraepithelial dysplasias are lesions with low risk of malignancy within the spectrum of intraepithelial neoplasia of the ocular surface. These areas are presented as dysplasias or leukoplasias and are associated with the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV, a major risk factor. In this report, the authors describe a case of a corneal intraepithelial dysplasia treated by surgical excision, with histological confirmation and negative DNA hybridization for HPV.

  14. Caracterização de sorotipos em linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de diferentes afecções em animais domésticos

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    Márcio G. Ribeiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram caracterizados os sorotipos, o perfil de sensibilidade microbiana e os achados clínico-epidemiológicos em 53 linhagens do gênero Salmonella isoladas de 41 cães, nove equinos e três bovinos, acometidos por diferentes manifestações clínicas entre 1997 e 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45,3%, Salmonella enterica (22,6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7,5%, Salmonella enterica subsp enterica 4,5,12i (5,7%, Salmonella Newport (5,7%, Salmonella Dublin (3,8%, Salmonella Agona (3,8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3,8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1,8% foram os sorotipos encontrados. Ciprofloxacina (100,0%, norfloxacina (100,0% e gentamicina (100,0% foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos, enquanto a maior resistência das linhagens foi observada para ceftiofur (28,5% e florfenicol (7,0%. As linhagens foram isoladas de animais com enterite, infecção do trato urinário, septicemia, piometra, pneumonia e conjuntivite. Ressalta-se para o predomínio do sorovar Typhimurium nas diferentes manifestações da salmonelose nos animais. Destaca-se, também, a identificação de sorotipos nos animais que também são observados em casos de salmonelose em humanosThe serotype characterization, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and clinical-epidemiological findings were evaluated in 53 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from 41 dogs, nine horses and three cattle presenting different clinical manifestations between 1997 at 2007. Salmonella Typhimurium (45.3%, Salmonella enterica (22.6%, Salmonella Enteritidis (7.5%, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12i (5.7%, Salmonella Newport (5.7%, Salmonella Dublin (3.8%, Salmonella Agona (3.8%, Salmonella Glostrup (3.8%, Salmonella Saintpaul (1.8% were the more common serotypes. Ciprofloxacin (100.0%, norfloxacin (100.0% and gentamicin (100.0% were more effective drugs while resistance of isolates was observed to ceftiofur (28.5% and florfenicol (7.0%. The strains were isolated from animals with enteritis, urinary tract infections

  15. O Ácido (8)17,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano302), diterpeno tipo labdano isolado de Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae) relaxa a traquéia isolada de cobaia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro,Luciano A. A.; Tavares,Josean F.; Andrade,Nilza C. de; Silva,Marcelo S. da; Silva,Bagnólia A. da

    2007-01-01

    A espécie Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil.. & Tul. é popularmente conhecida como "pimenteira-da-terra" no Sudeste do Brasil. A partir do fracionamento do extrato etanólico, obtido das cascas do caule desta espécie, foi isolado um diterpeno tipo labdano, identificado como sendo o ácido 8(17),12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico, e que neste trabalho é codificado como labdano302. O labdano302 relaxou o tônus basal dos anéis de traquéia isolada de cobaia com um valor de CE50 de 6,7 ± 0,5 x 10-8 ...

  16. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  17. Prevalence of yeast other than Candida albicans in denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro, Inês; Proença, Luis; Félix, Sérgio; Salema-Oom, Madalena

    2013-07-01

    The isolation of yeast species other than Candida albicans from the oral mucosa has been increasing in frequency, suggesting that those may constitute emerging potential oral colonizers. The purpose of this work was to determine whether yeast species other than C. albicans are associated with factors related to wearing of dental prostheses. tRNA-PCR fingerprinting and sequencing of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain were used to identify all yeasts isolated from CHROMagar™ Candida cultures of oral swabs collected from 178 patients. Besides C. albicans, 13 other species were identified, corresponding to 34% of the yeast isolates. The majority of the non-C. albicans species were not detected as single colonizers but rather in co-colonization with one or two other yeasts, often with C. albicans. No significant associations were found with non-C. albicans species. On the contrary, the best-fitted logistic regression model predicts that either wearing a denture (adjusted odds = 4.6) or insufficient oral hygiene (adjusted odds = 2.3) are risks for colonization by yeast, in general. The colonization with non-C. albicans species and co-colonization were not independently associated with any of the analyzed host-related factors. In particular, neither wearing a removable denture nor being elderly were significant predictors. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. AI-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Inhibits Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang W. Bachtiar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2, synthesized by LuxS, that plays an important role in expression of virulence factors, in intra- but also in interspecies communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AI-2 based signaling in the interactions between C. albicans and A. actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans adhered to C. albicans and inhibited biofilm formation by means of a molecule that was secreted during growth. C. albicans biofilm formation increased significantly when co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS, lacking AI-2 production. Addition of wild-type-derived spent medium or synthetic AI-2 to spent medium of the luxS strain, restored inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Addition of synthetic AI-2 significantly inhibited hypha formation of C. albicans possibly explaining the inhibition of biofilm formation. AI-2 of A. actinomycetemcomitans is synthesized by LuxS, accumulates during growth and inhibits C. albicans hypha- and biofilm formation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between bacteria and fungi may provide important insight into the balance within complex oral microbial communities.

  19. Caracterization of Aujeszky's disease virus isolated from South Brazil in the last twenty years by restriction enzyme analysis Caracterização de amostras do vírus de Aujeszky isoladas na região Sul do Brasil nos últimos vinte anos através de análise de restrição enzimática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane Schaefer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV belongs to Herpesviridae family and is an important etiological agent which infects pigs causing economic losses in swine producing countries worldwide and international trade restrictions to products of swine origin. An eradication program for ADV was established in Santa Catarina State since 2001. The last outbreak was reported in July 2004 and since then none has been reported. The disease has been controlled with the use of a genetic modified vaccine and elimination of seropositives. Aiming the characterization of ADV isolated in the South of Brazil in the last twenty years (1983-2003, a retrospective study based on the genomic analysis of the isolates through a digestion of viral genomic DNA with restriction enzyme Bam HI was done. Thirty-seven ADV samples isolated from swine from the States of Santa Catarina, Parana and Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. These isolates were compared to the reference strains NIA-4, Bartha and Begonia. The most predominant genomic arrangement was type II found in 33 samples isolated in Santa Catarina State and in one isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State. Genomic arrangement type I, characteristic of vaccine strains was identified in 2 isolates from Parana State and in 1 isolate from Rio Grande do Sul State.O vírus da doença de Aujeszky (VDA pertencente à família Herpesviridae é um importante agente etiológico que infecta suínos causando perdas na produção de suínos no mundo inteiro e restrições para o comércio internacional de suínos ou de seus subprodutos. No estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil, foi instituído em 2001 um programa de erradicação da doença de Aujeszky (DA. O último surto da DA foi reportado em julho de 2004 e desde então não foram notificados mais casos. A doença tem sido controlada com o uso de uma vacina geneticamente modificada e eliminação de animais soropositivos para o VDA. Visando caracterizar amostras do VDA isoladas nos últimos vinte

  20. Candida albicans infection of Caenorhabditis elegans induces antifungal immune defenses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans yeast cells are found in the intestine of most humans, yet this opportunist can invade host tissues and cause life-threatening infections in susceptible individuals. To better understand the host factors that underlie susceptibility to candidiasis, we developed a new model to study antifungal innate immunity. We demonstrate that the yeast form of C. albicans establishes an intestinal infection in Caenorhabditis elegans, whereas heat-killed yeast are avirulent. Genome-wide, transcription-profiling analysis of C. elegans infected with C. albicans yeast showed that exposure to C. albicans stimulated a rapid host response involving 313 genes (124 upregulated and 189 downregulated, ~1.6% of the genome many of which encode antimicrobial, secreted or detoxification proteins. Interestingly, the host genes affected by C. albicans exposure overlapped only to a small extent with the distinct transcriptional responses to the pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus, indicating that there is a high degree of immune specificity toward different bacterial species and C. albicans. Furthermore, genes induced by P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were strongly over-represented among the genes downregulated during C. albicans infection, suggesting that in response to fungal pathogens, nematodes selectively repress the transcription of antibacterial immune effectors. A similar phenomenon is well known in the plant immune response, but has not been described previously in metazoans. Finally, 56% of the genes induced by live C. albicans were also upregulated by heat-killed yeast. These data suggest that a large part of the transcriptional response to C. albicans is mediated through "pattern recognition," an ancient immune surveillance mechanism able to detect conserved microbial molecules (so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns or PAMPs. This study provides new information on the evolution and regulation of the innate

  1. Candida albicans Hyphae: From Growth Initiation to Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar V. Desai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a commensal resident of the human gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Under conditions such as dysbiosis, host immune perturbances, or the presence of catheters/implanted medical devices, the fungus may cause debilitating mucosal or fatal systemic infections. The ability of C. albicans to grow as long filamentous hyphae is critical for its pathogenic potential as it allows the fungus to invade the underlying substratum. In this brief review, I will outline the current understanding regarding the mechanistic regulation of hyphal growth and invasion in C. albicans.

  2. An Optimized Lock Solution Containing Micafungin, Ethanol and Doxycycline Inhibits Candida albicans and Mixed C. albicans – Staphyloccoccus aureus Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Livia; Peters, Brian M.; Walraven, Carla J.; Noverr, Mairi C.; Lee, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Due to the propensity of C. albicans to form drug-resistant biofilms, the current standard of care includes catheter removal; however, reinsertion may be technically challenging or risky. Prolonged exposure of an antifungal lock solution within the catheter in conjunction with systemic therapy has been experimentally attempted for catheter salvage. Previously, we demonstrated excellent in vitro activity of micafungin, ethanol, and high-dose doxycycline as single agents for prevention and treatment of C. albicans biofilms. Thus, we sought to investigate optimal combinations of micafungin, ethanol, and/or doxycycline as a lock solution. We performed two- and three-drug checkerboard assays to determine the in vitro activity of pairwise or three agents in combination for prevention or treatment of C. albicans biofilms. Optimal lock solutions were tested for activity against C. albicans clinical isolates, reference strains and polymicrobial C. albicans-S. aureus biofilms. A solution containing 20% (v/v) ethanol, 0.01565 μg/mL micafungin, and 800 μg/mL doxycycline demonstrated a reduction of 98% metabolic activity and no fungal regrowth when used to prevent fungal biofilm formation; however there was no advantage over 20% ethanol alone. This solution was also successful in inhibiting the regrowth of C. albicans from mature polymicrobial biofilms, although it was not fully bactericidal. Solutions containing 5% ethanol with low concentrations of micafungin and doxycycline demonstrated synergistic activity when used to prevent monomicrobial C. albicans biofilm formation. A combined solution of micafungin, ethanol and doxycycline is highly effective for the prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation but did not demonstrate an advantage over 20% ethanol alone in these studies. PMID:27428310

  3. A Candida albicans gene expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a distinct pattern of mRNA processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iborra, A; Sentandreu, R; Gozalbo, D

    1996-09-01

    Two plasmids (derived from YCplac22 and YEplac112) carrying a Candida albicans gene (including the 5' non-coding promoter sequences) coding for a 30 kDa membrane-bound protein, were used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. A 30 kDa protein was immunodetected by Western blot in the membrane fraction of transformants. Northern analysis showed the presence of three mRNA species (of about 1.1, 0.7 and 0.5 kb) hybridizing with the C. albicans gene as a probe. The same result was obtained using the 5' and 3' regions of the gene as probes, whereas only a 1.1 kb mRNA was found in C. albicans and none was detected in S. cerevisiae control transformants. Thus, heterologous expression of this gene in S. cerevisiae results in a distinct pattern of mRNA processing, either due to the location on plasmid vectors and/or to differences in the mRNA processing systems in the two microorganisms.

  4. Variabilidades fenotípica e genotípica de estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em casos de mastite subclínica bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Luciano Menezes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidas a PCR-Ribotipagem e aos testes de sensibilidade in vitro frente a 12 antimicrobianos 77 estirpes de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas em amostras de leite procedentes de 40 vacas da raça holandesa que apresentaram mastite subclínica, em uma propriedade rural localizada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os resultados obtidos revelaram quatro diferentes padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos, sendo observada a predominância de resistência à lincomicina entre 19 (24,7% estirpes de S.aureus. As 58 (75,3% estirpes restantes foram sensíveis aos 12 antimicrobianos testados. A PCR-ribotipagem revelou a ocorrência de nove padrões genotípicos distintos, além de apresentar uma capacidade discriminatória maior (D = 0,82 que a obtida nos antibiogramas (D = 0,42. Entre as 19 estirpes resistentes aos antimicrobianos, 14 (73,7% foram agrupadas em três padrões de ribotipagem e, destas, 13 (92,9% apresentaram resistência à eritromicina e à lincomicina, isoladamente ou em associação. O grande número de ribotipos e de padrões de resistência a antimicrobianos observados nesta propriedade demonstrou que há grande heterogeneidade genética em populações naturais de S. aureus, fato este que deve ser levado em consideração em programas de controle da mastite bovina.

  5. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew Z.

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, with Candida albicans being the most clinically relevant species. Candida albicans resides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation of C. albicans virulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and within Candida species), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein–DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics in C. albicans and discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  6. Candida albicans and napkin dermatitis: relationship and lesion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans and napkin dermatitis: relationship and lesion severity correlation. Amani Hussein Ahmed Karsani, Abdullateef Azolaibani, Yasser Farouq, Khalid Zedan, Mohammed Mohsen Alotaibi, Ghada Bin Saif, Ibrahim H. Babikir ...

  7. Molecular genetic techniques for gene manipulation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiu-Rong; Yan, Lan; Lv, Quan-Zhen; Zhou, Mi; Sui, Xue; Cao, Yong-Bing; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen in humans due to its high frequency as an opportunistic and pathogenic fungus causing superficial as well as invasive infections in immunocompromised patients. An understanding of gene function in C. albicans is necessary to study the molecular basis of its pathogenesis, virulence and drug resistance. Several manipulation techniques have been used for investigation of gene function in C. albicans, including gene disruption, controlled gene expression, protein tagging, gene reintegration, and overexpression. In this review, the main cassettes containing selectable markers used for gene manipulation in C. albicans are summarized; the advantages and limitations of these cassettes are discussed concerning the influences on the target gene expression and the virulence of the mutant strains. PMID:24759671

  8. Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyu; Jiang, Yuan-ying; Cao, Yongbing; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-01-01

    abstract Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly or disseminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27078171

  9. Global Identification of Biofilm-Specific Proteolysis in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Michael B; Salcedo, Eugenia C; Lohse, Matthew B; Hartooni, Nairi; Gulati, Megha; Sanchez, Hiram; Takagi, Julie; Hube, Bernhard; Andes, David R; Johnson, Alexander D; Craik, Charles S; Nobile, Clarissa J

    2016-09-13

    Candida albicans is a fungal species that is part of the normal human microbiota and also an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans cells proliferate in a planktonic (suspension) state, but they also form biofilms, organized and tightly packed communities of cells attached to a solid surface. Biofilms colonize many niches of the human body and persist on implanted medical devices, where they are a major source of new C. albicans infections. Here, we used an unbiased and global substrate-profiling approach to discover proteolytic activities produced specifically by C. albicans biofilms, compared to planktonic cells, with the goal of identifying potential biofilm-specific diagnostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. This activity-based profiling approach, coupled with proteomics, identified Sap5 (Candidapepsin-5) and Sap6 (Candidapepsin-6) as major biofilm-specific proteases secreted by C. albicans Fluorogenic peptide substrates with selectivity for Sap5 or Sap6 confirmed that their activities are highly upregulated in C. albicans biofilms; we also show that these activities are upregulated in other Candida clade pathogens. Deletion of the SAP5 and SAP6 genes in C. albicans compromised biofilm development in vitro in standard biofilm assays and in vivo in a rat central venous catheter biofilm model. This work establishes secreted proteolysis as a promising enzymatic marker and potential therapeutic target for Candida biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by the opportunistic fungal pathogen C. albicans is a major cause of life-threatening infections. This work provides a global characterization of secreted proteolytic activity produced specifically by C. albicans biofilms. We identify activity from the proteases Sap5 and Sap6 as highly upregulated during C. albicans biofilm formation and develop Sap-cleavable fluorogenic substrates that enable the detection of biofilms from C. albicans and also

  10. Purpurin suppresses Candida albicans biofilm formation and hyphal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Wai-Kei Tsang

    Full Text Available A striking and clinically relevant virulence trait of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is its ability to grow and switch reversibly among different morphological forms. Inhibition of yeast-to-hypha transition in C. albicans represents a new paradigm for antifungal intervention. We have previously demonstrated the novel antifungal activity of purpurin against Candida fungi. In this study, we extended our investigation by examining the in vitro effect of purpurin on C. albicans morphogenesis and biofilms. The susceptibility of C. albicans biofilms to purpurin was examined quantitatively by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. Hyphal formation and biofilm ultrastructure were examined qualitatively by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the expression of hypha-specific genes and hyphal regulator in purpurin-treated fungal cells. The results showed that, at sub-lethal concentration (3 µg/ml, purpurin blocked the yeast-to-hypha transition under hypha-inducing conditions. Purpurin also inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation and reduced the metabolic activity of mature biofilms in a concentration-dependent manner. SEM images showed that purpurin-treated C. albicans biofilms were scanty and exclusively consisted of aggregates of blastospores. qRT-PCR analyses indicated that purpurin downregulated the expression of hypha-specific genes (ALS3, ECE1, HWP1, HYR1 and the hyphal regulator RAS1. The data strongly suggested that purpurin suppressed C. albicans morphogenesis and caused distorted biofilm formation. By virtue of the ability to block these two virulence traits in C. albicans, purpurin may represent a potential candidate that deserves further investigations in the development of antifungal strategies against this notorious human fungal pathogen in vivo.

  11. Factors Supporting Cysteine Tolerance and Sulfite Production in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Hennicke, Florian; Grumbt, Maria; Lermann, Ulrich; Ueberschaar, Nico; Palige, Katja; Böttcher, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Staib, Claudia; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Monod, Michel; Hube, Bernhard; Hertweck, Christian; Staib, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid cysteine has long been known to be toxic at elevated levels for bacteria, fungi, and humans. However, mechanisms of cysteine tolerance in microbes remain largely obscure. Here we show that the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans excretes sulfite when confronted with increasing cysteine concentrations. Mutant construction and phenotypic analysis revealed that sulfite formation from cysteine in C. albicans relies on cysteine dioxygenase Cdg1, an enzyme with similar functions ...

  12. Avaliação dos resultados e complicações da sutura artroscópica da lesão SLAP

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki,Alberto Naoki; Fregoneze,Marcelo; Santos,Pedro Doneux; Silva,Luciana Andrade da; Val Sella,Guilherme do; Soares,André Lopes; Mendes Junior,Adriano Fernando; Checchia,Sérgio Luiz

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados e complicações da sutura artroscópica da lesão SLAP. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 71 pacientes submetidos à sutura artroscópica da lesão SLAP, entre julho de 1995 a maio de 2008, pelo Grupo de Ombro e Cotovelo do Departamento de Ortopedia e Traumatologia da Santa Casa de São Paulo - "Pavilhão Fernandinho Simonsen". Dos 71 pacientes avaliados, 68 (96%) tinham lesões associadas e em três (4%) a lesão SLAP era isolada. RESULTADOS: As lesões associadas mais frequentes ...

  13. Effectiveness of magnetic fluid hyperthermia against Candida albicans cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzik, Barbara; Miaskowski, Arkadiusz; Surowiec, Zbigniew; Czernel, Grzegorz; Duluk, Tomasz; Marczuk, Andrzej; Gagoś, Mariusz

    2016-12-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most frequently isolated fungal pathogens causing opportunistic infections in humans. Targeted magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) is a promising method in thermal therapy facilitating selective heating of pathogen cells like C. albicans. In the paper, we used meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and functionalised anti-C. albicans immunomagnetic nanoparticles (IMNPs) to investigate the potential of MFH in combating C. albicans cells in vitro. Using Mössbauer spectroscopy it was found that synthesised MNPs exhibited superparamagnetic phenomena. On the basis of calorimetric experiments, the maximum SAR (specific absorption rate) was found and a proper concentration of MNPs was established to control the temperature. MFH based on both DMSA-coated MNPs and functionalised anti-C. albicans IMNPs was more effective in combating C. albicans cells in vitro than thermostat hyperthermia. Especially promising results were obtained using functionalised IMNPs, which eradicated most of the pathogen colonies at the temperature of 43 °C.

  14. Candida albicans survival and biofilm formation under starvation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Y; Hu, X; Ling, J; Du, Y; Liu, J; Liu, H; Peng, Z

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the survival and biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans in starvation and under anaerobic conditions. Candida albicans growth and survival were monitored in vitro for up to 8 months. Fungal suspensions from late exponential, stationary and starvation phases were incubated on human dentine, polystyrene and glass slides. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the process of biofilm formation. 2,3-bis(2-Methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt (XTT) reduction assay was performed to quantify the biofilm formation capability, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to study and make semi-quantitative comparisons of the ultrastructure of biofilms formed on human dentine. 'XTT bioactivity' and 'COMSTAT results' were analysed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and one-way ANOVA, respectively. Candida albicans survived for over six months. SEM demonstrated that starving C. albicans produced mature biofilms on different substrata. C. albicans of the same growth phase incubated on human dentine displayed significantly higher biofilm formation capability than on polystyrene or glass slides (P roughness coefficient and surface/volume ratio (P < 0.05). Candida albicans cells can survive and form biofilms in anaerobic and nutrient-limited conditions and may pose a treatment challenge. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  15. Epidemiology of Candida albicans and non-C.albicans of neonatal candidemia at a tertiary care hospital in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinjian; Ding, Yanling; Wei, Ba; Wang, Lin; Xu, Shaolin; Qin, Peixu; Wei, Liuhua; Jiang, Lijun

    2017-05-06

    Although the majority of Candida infections occur in the developing world, candidemia epidemiology is poorly understood in these countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of non-Candida albicans (non-C. albicans) candidemia among neonates at Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital in China. A retrospective review of all positive blood culture about Candida species in neonatal intensive care unit was conducted between January 2012 and November 2015. Information about demographics, risk factors and outcome of candidemia were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors associated with the development of non-C.albicans candidemia. The prevalence of candidemia in infants was 1.4%. Non-C.albicans was responsible for 56.5% of neonatal candidemia. The predisposing factors for development of non-C.albicans candidemia among infants included mechanical ventilation [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 3.13, 1.07-9.14; P = 0.037] and use of assisted reproductive technology (OR, 95%CI = 4.52, 1.39-14.77; P = 0.012). The overall mortality rate of candidemia was 8.7% and non-C.albicans attributed to 83.3% of all mortalities. Non-C.albicans species are the major cause of candidemia in local neonatal group. The study highlights the urgent needs to evaluate the possibility of development of non-C.albicans candidemia in neonates exposed to these risk factors and much emphasis must be laid on the early implementation of medical intervention to reduce the incidences of candidemia in neonates.

  16. Luxação lateral bilateral isolada do cotovelo Elbow bilateral lateral dislocation

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    Leandro José Reckers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de luxação lateral bilateral isolada de cotovelo em uma paciente do sexo feminino de 48 anos. Optou-se pelo tratamento conservador através de redução fechada sob anestesia geral. Ambos os cotovelos foram imobilizados com gesso axilo-palmar e mantidos a 90º de flexão por três semanas, quando se iniciou a reabilitação. No seguimento de dezoito meses observou-se boa estabilidade e recuperação do arco de movimento de ambos os cotovelos.The authors present an isolated case of bilateral lateral dislocation of the elbow joint in a 48-year old female patient. The conservative treatment was chosen, through closed reduction under general anesthesia. Both elbows were placed in an axillopalmar splint cast and held at a 90 degree angle of flexion for three weeks when rehabilitation began. In the eighteen-month follow-up period, good stability as well as the recovery of the range of motion was observed in both elbows

  17. Simvastatin inhibits Candida albicans biofilm in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geoffrey; Vellucci, Vincent F; Kyc, Stephanie; Hostetter, Margaret K

    2009-12-01

    By inhibiting the conversion of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, statins impair cholesterol metabolism in humans. We reasoned that statins might similarly interfere with the biosynthesis of ergosterol, the major sterol of the yeast cell membrane. As assessed by spectrophotometric and microscopic analysis, significant inhibition of biofilm production was noted after 16-h incubation with 1, 2.5, and 5 muM simvastatin, concentrations that did not affect growth, adhesion, or hyphal formation by C. albicans in vitro. Higher concentrations (10, 20, and 25 muM simvastatin) inhibited biofilm by >90% but also impaired growth. Addition of exogenous ergosterol (90 muM) overcame the effects of 1 and 2.5 muM simvastatin, suggesting that at least one mechanism of inhibition is interference with ergosterol biosynthesis. Clinical isolates from blood, skin, and mucosal surfaces produced biofilms; biofilms from bloodstream isolates were similarly inhibited by simvastatin. In the absence of fungicidal activity, simvastatin's interruption of a critical step in an essential metabolic pathway, highly conserved from yeast to man, has unexpected effects on biofilm production by a eukaryotic pathogen.

  18. IFN-gamma in Candida albicans infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans is the most frequent etiologic agent that causes opportunistic infections called candidiasis, a disease whose systemic manifestation could prove fatal and whose incidence is increasing as a result of an expanding immunocompromised population. Here we review the role of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the host protection against invasive candidiasis. This cytokine plays an essential role in both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune response to candidiasis. We focus on recent progress on host-pathogen interactions at the molecular level, leading to the production of IFN-gamma by host cells. IFN-gamma is produced by CD4 Th1, CD8, gamma delta T, and natural killer (NK) cells, essentially in response to both IL-12 and/or IL-18, and plays an important role in the regulation of the immune system as well as in the control of the infectious process. IFN-gamma is required for optimal activation of phagocytes, collaborates in the generation of protective antibody response, and favours the development of a Th1 protective response.

  19. Candida albicans keratitis in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammed J Hassan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available H Mohammed J Hassan1, Theocharis Papanikolaou2, Georgios Mariatos1, Amany Hammad3, Hala Hassan41Ophthalmology Department, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, South Yorkshire, England, UK; 2Ophthalmology Department, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, England, UK; 3Ophthalmology Department, Rotherham Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, England, UK; 4Corneal and External Disease Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, England, UKPurpose: When investigating a case of unexplained corneal ulceration, we need to think of fungal infection and any predisposing factors.Methods: A case study of a corneal ulceration in a patient who was HIV positive with a devastating visual outcome.Results: Therapeutic corneal graft was necessary due to corneal perforation. Immunocompromised state of patient was retrospectively diagnosed.Conclusions: Candida albicans keratitis is an opportunistic infection of a compromised cornea, and sometimes unknowingly compromised host, which can be initially misdiagnosed. Despite intensive antifungal therapy, occasionally patients require corneal grafting to improve vision, and before it is possible to establish an accurate diagnosis.Keywords: fungal keratitis, corneal perforation, keratoplasty, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV

  20. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S.; Jamil, N.; Hafiz, S.; Siddiqui, S.; Saad, U.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Candida albicans in patients with funguria. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Patients urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candida species was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Results: Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6 percentage) were male patients and 85 (29.4 percentage) were female patients, with 165 (57.1 percentage) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9 percentage) from the in-patients. Five species of Candida were found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1 percentage) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9 percentage) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8 percentage) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8 percentage) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4 percentage) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2 percentage). Conclusion: In the present study, 30.1 percentage patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis (60.9 percentage), followed by other non-albicans Candida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of candiduria. (author)

  1. Cellular Components Mediating Coadherence of Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T; Cen, L; Kaplan, C; Zhou, X; Lux, R; Shi, W; He, X

    2015-10-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen found as part of the normal oral flora. It can be coisolated with Fusobacterium nucleatum, an opportunistic bacterial pathogen, from oral disease sites, such as those involved in refractory periodontitis and pulp necrosis. The physical coadherence between these 2 clinically important microbes has been well documented and suggested to play a role in facilitating their oral colonization and colocalization and contributing to polymicrobial pathogenesis. Previous studies indicated that the physical interaction between C. albicans and F. nucleatum was mediated by the carbohydrate components on the surface of C. albicans and the protein components on the Fusobaterium cell surface. However, the identities of the components involved still remain elusive. This study was aimed at identifying the genetic determinants involved in coaggregation between the 2 species. By screening a C. albicans SN152 mutant library and a panel of F. nucleatum 23726 outer membrane protein mutants, we identified FLO9, which encodes a putative adhesin-like cell wall mannoprotein of C. albicans and radD, an arginine-inhibitable adhesin-encoding gene in F. nucleatum that is involved in interspecies coadherence. Consistent with these findings, we demonstrated that the strong coaggregation between wild-type F. nucleatum 23726 and C. albicans SN152 in an in vitro assay could be greatly inhibited by arginine and mannose. Our study also suggested a complex multifaceted mechanism underlying physical interaction between C. albicans and F. nucleatum and for the first time revealed the identity of major genetic components involved in mediating the coaggregation. These observations provide useful knowledge for developing new targeted treatments for disrupting interactions between these 2 clinically relevant pathogens. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  2. Reparo artroscópico das lesões completas isoladas do subescapular Arthroscopic repair of complete, isolated lesions of the subscapularis tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niso Eduardo Balsini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o resultado retrospectivo de 12 pacientes submetidos ao reparo artroscópico de lesões completas isoladas do tendão do subescapular com seguimento mínimo de um ano. MÉTODOS: De 11 de abril de 2002 a 24 de setembro de 2004, realizou-se o reparo artroscópico de lesões completas do manguito rotador em 95 pacientes no Instituto Balsini. Pacientes com subescapular lesado somavam 31; 12 lesões isoladas compunham o grupo de estudo. Foram reavaliados com seguimento mínimo de um ano da cirurgia, considerando grau de elevação anterior ativa, escala da UCLA e satisfação do paciente. RESULTADOS: A elevação anterior ativa pré-operatória atingiu a média de 102º, o grau de elevação anterior ativa pós-operatória obteve a média de 175º. O ganho médio na elevação anterior ativa foi de 73º (p OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the retrospective result of 12 patients submitted to arthroscopic repair of complete, isolated lesions of the subscapularis tendon with minimum follow-up of one year. METHODS: From April 11, 2002 to September 24, 2004, the authors performed the arthroscopic repair of complete rotator cuff lesions in 95 patients at the Balsini Institute. Patients with lesioned subscapularis amounted to 31, and 12 isolated lesions were included in the study group. They were re-analyzed with a minimum follow-up of one year after surgery to evaluate the degree of active anterior elevation, according to the UCLA scale and to patient satisfaction. RESULTS: Pre-operative active anterior elevation had a mean of 102º, and the degree of active anterior elevation after surgery presented a mean of 175º. The mean gain in active anterior elevation was 73º (p < 0.0001. Preoperative UCLA had a mean of 15.25 score points, and after surgery, a mean of 31.66 score points. The mean UCLA index was 16 score points (p < 0.0001; 10 excellent results, one good, and one poor. Satisfactory results: 10, unsatisfactory: 1. CONCLUSION: 1 The

  3. The antioxidant activity of a prenyl flavonoid alters its antifungal toxicity on Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Mariana Andrea; Ortega, María Gabriela; Cabrera, José Luis; Paraje, María Gabriela

    2018-02-21

    The antioxidant effect of 8PP, a prenylflavonoid from Dalea elegans on Candida albicans biofilms, was investigated. We previously reported that sensitive (SCa) and resistant C. albicans (RCa) biofilms were strongly inhibited by this compound, in a dose-depending manner (50 μM-100 μM), with a prooxidant effect leading to accumulation of endogenous oxidative metabolites and increased antioxidant defenses. In this work, the antifungal activity of high concentrations of 8PP (200-1000 μM), the cellular stress imbalance and the architecture of biofilms were evaluated. Biofilms were studied by crystal violet and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) with COMSTAT analysis. Superoxide anion radical, the activity of the superoxide dismutase and the total antioxidant capacity were measured. Intracellular ROS were detected by a DCFH-DA and visualized by CSLM; reactive nitrogen intermediates by Griess. An antioxidant effect was detected at 1000 μM and levels of oxidant metabolites remained low, with major changes in the SCa. COMSTAT analysis showed that biofilms treated with higher concentrations exhibited different diffusion distances with altered topographic surface architectures, voids, channels and pores that could change the flow inside the matrix of biofilms. We demonstrate for first time, a concentration-dependent antioxidant action of 8PP, which can alter its antifungal activity on biofilms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

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    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens Sensibilidade antimicrobiana de estirpes de Clostridium perfringens isoladas de aves de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. S. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1% were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant.Clostridium perfringens é um habitante normal da microbiota intestinal de frangos, sendo um agente potencialmente patogênico, causador de enterite necrótica e colangio-hepatite. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de sete drogas utilizadas na terapêutica, como agentes promotores de crescimento ou na prevenção de coccidiose foi determinada pelo método de diluição em ágar para 55 estirpes de C. perfringens isoladas do intestino de frangos de corte. Todas as estirpes revelaram alta sensibilidade à penicilina, avilamicina, narasin e monensina, apenas 7,3% demonstraram CIM intermediário para lincomicina e 89.1% foram consideradas sensíveis. Para tetraciclina e bacitracina, 41,8% e 47.3% das amostras, respectivamente, foram consideradas resistentes.

  6. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

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    Shiyu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs. Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans, and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers.

  7. Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases in virulence and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglik, Julian R; Challacombe, Stephen J; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-09-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions. Extracellular proteolytic activity plays a central role in Candida pathogenicity and is produced by a family of 10 secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap proteins). Although the consequences of proteinase secretion during human infections is not precisely known, in vitro, animal, and human studies have implicated the proteinases in C. albicans virulence in one of the following seven ways: (i) correlation between Sap production in vitro and Candida virulence, (ii) degradation of human proteins and structural analysis in determining Sap substrate specificity, (iii) association of Sap production with other virulence processes of C. albicans, (iv) Sap protein production and Sap immune responses in animal and human infections, (v) SAP gene expression during Candida infections, (vi) modulation of C. albicans virulence by aspartyl proteinase inhibitors, and (vii) the use of SAP-disrupted mutants to analyze C. albicans virulence. Sap proteins fulfill a number of specialized functions during the infective process, which include the simple role of digesting molecules for nutrient acquisition, digesting or distorting host cell membranes to facilitate adhesion and tissue invasion, and digesting cells and molecules of the host immune system to avoid or resist antimicrobial attack by the host. We have critically discussed the data relevant to each of these seven criteria, with specific emphasis on how this proteinase family could contribute to Candida virulence and pathogenesis.

  8. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  9. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Ren, Biao; He, Jinzhi; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans , and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers.

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the seryl-tRNA synthetase from Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Rita; Barbosa Pereira, Pedro José; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The seryl-tRNA synthetase from C. albicans was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 1 22 and diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution at a synchrotron source. The seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) from Candida albicans exists naturally as two isoforms resulting from ambiguity in the natural genetic code. Both enzymes were crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using 3.2–3.4 M ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 1 22 and contained one monomer per asymmetric unit, despite the synthetase existing as a homodimer (with a molecular weight of ∼116 kDa) in solution. Diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution at a synchrotron source and the crystal structures of unliganded SerRS and of its complexes with ATP and with a seryl-adenylate analogue were solved by molecular replacement. The structure of C. albicans SerRS represents the first reported structure of a eukaryotic cytoplasmic SerRS

  11. Candidose úlcero-vegetante da perna

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    Luis Carlos Cucé

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available Os Autores apresentam caso de paciente portadora de lesão única, úlcero-vegetante, localizada no 1/3 inferior da perna direita, causada pela Candida albicans. Submetida à terapêutica com Ketoconazol na dose de 400 mg diários durante o primeiro mês de tratamento e 200 mg diários no segundo mês, evoluiu para cura, sem recidiva e com negativação do título de anticorpos anti Candida albicans (fixação do complemento.

  12. Potencial alelopático de duas neolignanas isoladas de folhas de Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae Allelopathy potential of two neolignans isolated from Virola surinamensis (Myristicaceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Borges

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos isolar, identificar e caracterizar a atividade alelopática de substâncias químicas presentes nas folhas de Virola surinamensis. O processo de isolamento e identificação das substâncias químicas envolveu o uso de solventes orgânicos e de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear (RMN ¹H, RMN 13C e RMN 13C-DEPT, espectro de COSY e de HETCOR. A avaliação da atividade alelopática foi realizada em bioensaios de germinação de sementes, em condições de 25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 12 horas, e de desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo, com 25 ºC de temperatura constante e fotoperíodo de 24 horas, empregando-se concentrações variando de 1,0 a 8,0 mg L-1. Como plantas receptoras, foram utilizadas as espécies daninhas Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia e Senna occidentalis. Foram isoladas e identificadas duas neolignanas: a surinamensina e a virolina. A tendência geral observada nos resultados foi de aumento da intensidade dos efeitos alelopáticos inibitórios em função do aumento da concentração, com inibições máximas obtidas, sempre, na concentração de 8,0 mg L-1. A surinamensina apresentou maior potencial para inibir a germinação e o desenvolvimento da radícula e do hipocótilo do que a virolina, independentemente da espécie receptora e do fator da planta analisado. Considerando-se as intensidades dos efeitos promovidos sobre os três fatores das plantas, o desenvolvimento da radícula e o do hipocótilo foram mais intensamente inibidos pelas duas substâncias do que a germinação das sementes. À exceção dos efeitos verificados sobre o desenvolvimento do hipocótilo, malícia foi a espécie de maior sensibilidade aos efeitos alelopáticos das duas neolignanas, enquanto mata-pasto foi aquela que evidenciou inibições de menor magnitude.The objective of this research was to isolate, identify and characterize the allelopathic activity of chemical compounds in Virola

  13. Electrophoretic protein patterns and numerical analysis of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boriollo Marcelo Fabiano Gomes

    2003-01-01

    restricted dissemination route of these microorganisms in some groups of healthy scholars, which may be dependent of either socioeconomic categories or geographic site of each child. In contrast to the higher similarity, the lower similarity or higher polymorphism degree (0.499 < S D < 0.788 of protein profiles was shown in 23 (30.6% C. albicans oral isolates. Considering the social epidemiological aspect, 42.1%, 41.7%, 26.6%, 23.5%, and 16.7% were isolates from children concerning to socioeconomic categories A, D, C, B, and E, respectively, and geographically, 63.6%, 50%, 33.3%, 33.3%, 30%, 25%, and 14.3% were isolates from children from schools LAE (Liceu Colégio Albert Einstein, MA (E.E.P.S.G. "Prof. Elias de Melo Ayres", CS (E.E.P.G. "Prof. Carlos Sodero", AV (Alphaville, HF (E.E.P.S.G. "Honorato Faustino, FMC (E.E.P.G. "Prof. Francisco Mariano da Costa", and MEP (E.E.P.S.G. "Prof. Manasses Ephraim Pereira, respectively. Such results suggest a higher protein polymorphism degree among some strains isolated from healthy children independent of their socioeconomic strata or geographic sites. Complementary studies, involving healthy students and their families, teachers, servants, hygiene and nutritional habits must be done in order to establish the sources of such colonization patterns in population groups of healthy children. The whole-cell protein profile obtained by SDS-PAGE associated with computer-assisted numerical analysis may provide additional criteria for the taxonomic and epidemiological studies of C. albicans.

  14. Análise in vitro da expressão de proteínas da matriz extracelular (MEC) e de metaloproteinases da matriz (MMPs) em células-tronco adultas de polpa dentária humana

    OpenAIRE

    Sueli Patricia Harumi Miyagi

    2008-01-01

    Células-tronco adultas podem ser isoladas de vários tecidos, dentre eles a polpa dentária humana, tecido originado na papila dentária do dente em desenvolvimento. Estas linhagens multipotentes podem ser estudadas sob vários aspectos, como na elucidação da histogênese de tumores. O objetivo deste estudo foi inferir a histogênese do mixoma odontogênico, neoplasia odontogênica benigna, analisando a expressão de proteínas da matriz extracelular (MEC) e de metaloproteinases da matriz (MMPs) em cél...

  15. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  16. Genome-wide functional analysis in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, Thabiso E.; Ells, Ruan; Pohl, Carolina H.; Albertyn, Jacobus; Tsilo, Toi J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans is an important etiological agent of superficial and life-threatening infections in individuals with compromised immune systems. To date, we know of several overlapping genetic networks that govern virulence attributes in this fungal pathogen. Classical use of deletion mutants has led to the discovery of numerous virulence factors over the years, and genome-wide functional analysis has propelled gene discovery at an even faster pace. Indeed, a number of recent studies using large-scale genetic screens followed by genome-wide functional analysis has allowed for the unbiased discovery of many new genes involved in C. albicans biology. Here we share our perspectives on the role of these studies in analyzing fundamental aspects of C. albicans virulence properties. PMID:28277904

  17. Psd1 Effects on Candida albicans Planktonic Cells and Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Silva, Patrícia M; Felício, Mário R; de Medeiros, Luciano N; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Santos, Nuno C

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is an important human pathogen, causing opportunistic infections. The adhesion of planktonic cells to a substrate is the first step for biofilm development. The antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Ps d1 is a defensin isolated from Pisum sativum seeds. We tested the effects of this AMP on C. albicans biofilms and planktonic cells, comparing its activity with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Three C. albicans variants were studied, one of them a mutant deficient in glucosylceramide synthase, conferring resistance to Ps d1 antifungal action. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to assess morphological and biomechanical changes on fungal cells. Surface alterations, with membrane disruption and leakage of cellular contents, were observed. Cytometry assays and confocal microscopy imaging showed that Ps d1 causes cell death, in a time and concentration-dependent manner. These results demonstrate Ps d1 pleiotropic action against a relevant fungal human pathogen, suggesting its use as natural antimycotic agent.

  18. [Adhesion of clinical Candida albicans isolate to buccal epithelial cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, A

    1999-01-01

    Mucosal adherence and germ tube formation are considered to be important virulence factors of C. albicans. Adherence is a precondition for colonisation and invasion. We investigated 11 clinical isolates (among them 5 cases recovered from oesophageal thrush) for quantification of the two characteristics and correlated the results with clinical data. Adherence was measured on buccal epithelial cells and the continuous flow culture was used for quantification of germ tube formation. Adherence of strains recovered from clinically, culturally and serologically confirmed oesophageal thrush adhered stronger to buccal epithelial cells than isolates from patients with heavy colonisation without signs of candidosis. Strains with stronger adherence showed a significantly faster and an increased germ tube formation in the continuous flow culture. Strains from oesophageal thrush therefore show a more marked expression of the investigated virulence factors. Therefore a good adherence is a necessity for infection of the oesophagus by C. albicans. The preferential isolation of C. albicans from oesophageal thrush (> 90%) supports this assumption.

  19. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  20. Perfil de sensibilidade de bactérias patogênicas isoladas de cães frente a antimicrobianos

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Adriana Resmond [UNESP

    2009-01-01

    A passagem de bactérias resistentes dos animais ao homem é possível. As amostras foram coletadas de cães, machos e fêmeas, de diferentes raças e idade, com infecções bacterianas variadas. Foram realizados cultura e antibiograma das bactérias isoladas (n=100), sendo avaliadas como sensíveis ou resistentes. Grupo das bactérias Gram-negativas: tetraciclina 83,02%, azitromicina 81,48%, doxiciclina 77,78%, ampicilina 62,96%, ceftiofur e florfenicol 50%, cefalexina 46,3%, enrofloxacino 44,44%, norf...

  1. Perfis de DNA de Salmonella spp. isoladas de produtos de frango e fezes de frango e humanas

    OpenAIRE

    TEJADA, Talita Schneid

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella é um dos principais agentes causadores de doenças transmitidas por alimentos e os produtos a base de frango tem destaque importante neste contexto, podendo servir de veículo desse micro-organismo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar dados quanto à propagação de Salmonella na cadeia avícola, verificar a ocorrência de Salmonella e de suas diferentes sorotipos isoladas de fezes de frango, produtos de frango e fezes humanas, bem como para verificar a similaridade entre os...

  2. Invasive candidiasis in intensive care units in China: Risk factors and prognoses of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoying; Luan, Ting; Wu, Xingmao; Li, Guofu; Qiu, Haibo; Kang, Yan; Qin, Bingyu; Fang, Qiang; Cui, Wei; Qin, Yingzhi; Li, Jianguo; Zang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the risk factors and prognoses of patients with invasive Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) infection in intensive care units (ICUs) in China. Between November 2009 and April 2011, we performed a prospective study of critically ill patients with invasive Candida infection from 67 ICUs across China to compare the risk factors and mortality between patients with C albicans and NAC infection. There were 306 patients with proven invasive Candida; 244 cases (a total 389 Candida isolates) were sent to laboratory for strain identification (C albicans, 40.1%; NAC, 59.9%). More patients admitted for surgery or trauma had NAC infection than C albicans infection. C albicans infection was more common in patients with subclavian vein catheters or peritoneal drainage tubes. Compared with patients with C albicans infection, patients with NAC infection had longer antifungal therapy (P albicans remains the most common pathogen in candidiasis in critical care patients. However, the number of NAC infections exceeded C albicans infections. Compared with patients with C albicans infection, patients with NAC infection had heavier disease burdens. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors supporting cysteine tolerance and sulfite production in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennicke, Florian; Grumbt, Maria; Lermann, Ulrich; Ueberschaar, Nico; Palige, Katja; Böttcher, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Staib, Claudia; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Monod, Michel; Hube, Bernhard; Hertweck, Christian; Staib, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The amino acid cysteine has long been known to be toxic at elevated levels for bacteria, fungi, and humans. However, mechanisms of cysteine tolerance in microbes remain largely obscure. Here we show that the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans excretes sulfite when confronted with increasing cysteine concentrations. Mutant construction and phenotypic analysis revealed that sulfite formation from cysteine in C. albicans relies on cysteine dioxygenase Cdg1, an enzyme with similar functions in humans. Environmental cysteine induced not only the expression of the CDG1 gene in C. albicans, but also the expression of SSU1, encoding a putative sulfite efflux pump. Accordingly, the deletion of SSU1 resulted in enhanced sensitivity of the fungal cells to both cysteine and sulfite. To study the regulation of sulfite/cysteine tolerance in more detail, we screened a C. albicans library of transcription factor mutants in the presence of sulfite. This approach and subsequent independent mutant analysis identified the zinc cluster transcription factor Zcf2 to govern sulfite/cysteine tolerance, as well as cysteine-inducible SSU1 and CDG1 gene expression. cdg1Δ and ssu1Δ mutants displayed reduced hypha formation in the presence of cysteine, indicating a possible role of the newly proposed mechanisms of cysteine tolerance and sulfite secretion in the pathogenicity of C. albicans. Moreover, cdg1Δ mutants induced delayed mortality in a mouse model of disseminated infection. Since sulfite is toxic and a potent reducing agent, its production by C. albicans suggests diverse roles during host adaptation and pathogenicity.

  4. Síntese de derivados da artemisinina e estudos da atividade in vitro contra Schistosoma mansoni

    OpenAIRE

    Sinésio Boaventura Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Resumo:A esquistossomose é uma doença crônica negligenciada causada por trematodeos do gênero Schistosoma. O praziquantel é o fármaco de referência, mas é imprescindível prosseguir na pesquisa de novos quimioterápicos, pois há relatos de resistência na literatura. A síntese de compostos potencialmente esquistossomicidas, como os derivados da artemisinina contribuirão para evitar resistência, seja na ação isolada ou na associação com o praziquantel. Desta forma, o presente estudo teve como obj...

  5. A radiolabel release microassay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistoni, F.; Baccarini, M.; Blasi, E.; Marconi, P.; Puccetti, P.

    1982-01-01

    The chromium-51 release technique for quantifying intracellular killing of radiolabelled Candida albicans particles was exploited in a microassay in which murine and human phagocytes acted as effectors under peculiarly simple conditions. At appropriate effector: target ratios and with a 4 h incubation, up to 50% specific chromium release could be detected in the supernatant with no need for opsonization or lysis of phagocytes. This simple microassay permits easy-to-perform, simultaneous testing of a variety of different phagocytes even if only available in limited amounts, and provides an objective measurement of intracellular killing of Candida albicans. (Auth.)

  6. Actin and phosphoinositide recruitment to fully formed Candida albicans phagosomes in mouse macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, Sigrid E. M.; Kamen, Lynn A.; Taylor, Philip R.; Brown, Gordon D.; Swanson, Joel; Gordon, Siamon

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast that enters macrophages (Mphi) via the beta-glucan receptor dectin-1. Phagocytosis of C. albicans is characterized by actin polymerization, Syk kinase activation and rapid acquisition of phagolysosomal markers. In mice, C. albicans are able to resist the harsh

  7. Variable recognition of Candida albicans strains by TLR4 and lectin recognition receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Gow, N.A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Verschueren, I.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Kullberg, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The role of TLR4 in the recognition of Candida albicans has been brought into question. In order to assess whether discrepancies in the literature are due to differences in the recognition of various C. albicans strains, we selected 14 different isolates of C. albicans to evaluate their recognition

  8. Atividade antimicrobiana de bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial frente a microrganismos indicadores

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes Neto,L.G.; Souza,M.R.; Nunes,A.C.; Nicoli,J.R.; Santos,W.L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Quatro cepas de Lactobacillus spp. e duas cepas de Lactococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho artesanal e industrial foram testadas quanto às suas atividades antimicrobianas. Observou-se atividade antagonista dessas bactérias ácido-lácticas frente a elas, a outras bactérias ácido-lácticas isoladas de queijo de coalho, aos patógenos isolados dos mesmos queijos e a cepas de patógenos de referência. Verificou-se diferença (P

  9. Bactérias endofíticas isoladas de soja no controle in vitro de patógenos fúngicos e bacterianos

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Henrique Oro

    2015-01-01

    Bactérias endofíticas são microrganismos que habitam o interior de tecidos vegetais sem causar danos ao hospedeiro. Esses microrganismos podem ser utilizados no controle biológico de pragas e doenças como alternativa ao uso de produtos químicos. O objetivos do trabalho foi testar o potencial de bactérias endofíticas isoladas de soja RR e convencional no controle, in vitro, de patógenos fúngicos e bacterianos. 223 bactérias endofíticas foram isoladas de raízes, caules e folhas de cultivares d...

  10. EFEITO DOS COMPOSTOS ORAGANOCALCOGÊNEOS (PhSe2 E (p-Cl-PhSe2 SOBRE A VIABILIDADE DO BIOFILME FORMADO POR Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Toledo Braga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Os fungos do gênero Candida são capazes de produzir infecções superficiais ou sistêmicas em indivíduos com baixa resposta imunológica. Estes fungos promovem infecções a partir da sua capacidade de formar biofilmes. Os biofilmes formados por C. albicans são mais resistentes aos tratamentos antifúngicos convencionais. Portanto o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar e comparar o potencial antifúngico dos compostos organocalcogêneos (PhSe2 e (p­-Cl-PhSe2 sobre os biofilmes de C. albicans. Suspensões de C. albicans foram incubadas para a formação do biofilme e estes foram tratados com os compostos organocalcogêneos por 24 horas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram o potencial antifúngico de ambos compostos sobre o biofilme formado por C. albicans, inibindo a viabilidade do biofilme e reduzindo a quantidade de células planctônicas. Esses compostos apresentaram uma resposta terapêutica promissora, uma vez que as opções para tratamento de infecções fúngicas é limitado.

  11. Antimicrobial Resistance of Shigella spp. isolated in the State of Pará, Brazil Resistência Antimicrobiana de Shigella spp. isoladas no Estado do Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Corrêa Bastos

    2011-10-01

    á, Brasil. A resistência antimicrobiana das amostras isoladas de coprocultura, foi determinada pelo método de difusão em disco e pelo sistema Vitek II. RESULTADOS: A maior resistência foi observada em relação à tetraciclina (93,8%, seguida de cloranfenicol (63,9%, e trimetoprimsulfametoxazol (63,1%. Multirresistência a pelo menos três antimicrobianos foi mais comum em S. flexneri comparada a S. sonnei (39,5% vs. 10%. Seis (4,9% amostras foram sensíveis a todos antimicrobianos testados. Todas as amostras apresentaram sensibilidade a cefotaxima, ceftazidima, ciprofloxacina, ácido nalidixico e nitrofurantoína. CONCLUSÕES: As altas taxas de multirresistência de Shigella spp. são um sério problema de saúde pública no Brasil. Sendo assim, torna-se extremamente importante um monitoramento contínuo da resistência antimicrobiana de Shigella spp. para uma terapia efetiva e medidas de controle contra shigelose.

  12. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais em cepas isoladas de infecção urinária Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Santos Pereira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise da atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de ervas medicinais (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf. e Salvia officinalis, L. foi verificada frente a 100 cepas de bactérias isoladas de indivíduos da comunidade com diagnóstico de infecção urinária. Os microrganismos foram semeados em ágar Muller Hinton e os extratos aplicados com replicador de Steers e incubados a 37°C por 24 horas. Verificou-se que Salvia officinalis, L. apresentou ação inibitória superior às outras ervas, tendo eficácia de 100% quando testadas em espécies de Klebsiella e Enterobacter, 96% em Escherichia coli, 83% contra Proteus mirabilis e 75% contra Morganella morganii.The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L. was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii.

  13. Purificação de saxitoxinas partir de extratos da cepa de Cylindrospermopsis sp. isoladas no Brasil-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alves Colvara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Florações de cianobactérias representam um risco para a saúde pública devido à produção de cianotoxinas, como as saxitoxinas que são neurotóxicas. Métodos de controle dependem de padrões destas toxinas, que tem um custo elevado e devem ser importados. Além disso, os métodos tradicionais de purificação de saxitoxina baseiam-se na extração de toxinas bioacumuladas em tecidos de mariscos. Neste contexto, este trabalho apresenta um novo método cromatográfico, relativamente simples e eficiente, para a produção de padrão de saxitoxina, utilizando como matéria prima cepas de cianobactérias.  Foi utilizada uma coluna empacotada com C18 e a fase móvel contém acetonitrila e ácido clorídrico, obtendo-se um padrão de pureza superior a 95%.

  14. Analysis of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine mastitic milk Análise de Escherichia coli isolada de leite de vacas com mastite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rangel

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis has been recognized for some time as the most costly disease in dairy herds. From February to November 2004, 670 samples of bovine mastitic milk from which 231 Escherichia coli strains were isolated, were collected from two Brazilian states. The strains were screened for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing (stx 1 and stx 2 and intimin (eae genes. Twenty (8.6% strains were detected by PCR to harbor the Shiga toxin genes (8 the stx 1 gene, 12 the stx 2 gene and none both of them. Two (0.8% of the Escherichia coli strains studied were eae positive non Shiga toxin-producing. The strains were also examined for resistance to 12 antimicrobial agents. The predominantly observed resistance was to tetracycline (92.2%, streptomycin (90.4%, nalidixic acid (88.3%, amikacin (86.5% and cephalothin (84.8%. Multidrug resistance was found among 152 isolates (65.8%.A um longo tempo a mastite tem sido reconhecida como a doença que provoca as maiores perdas econômicas nos rebanhos leiteiros. De fevereiro a novembro de 2004, foram coletadas 670 amostras de leite mastítico de vacas, provenientes de dois estados brasileiros, das quais foram isoladas 231 cepas de Escherichia coli. Estas cepas foram analisadas para a detecção dos genes de produção de Shiga toxina (stx 1 e stx 2 e do gene da intimina (eae. Vinte cepas (8,6% foram detectadas através de PCR como contendo os genes da Shiga toxina (8 stx 1, 12 stx 2 e nenhuma delas ambos os genes. Duas cepas (0,8% de E. coli eram eae positivo não produtoras de Shiga toxina. As cepas de E. coli foram também examinadas para detectar a resistência a 12 agentes antimicrobianos. As resistências mais freqüentes foram para tetraciclina (92,2%, estreptomicina (90,4%, ácido nalidixico (88,3%, amicacina (86,5% e cefalotina (84,8%. A resistência a múltiplas drogas foi encontrada em 152 cepas (65,8%.

  15. Estrutura tridimensional da bothropasina, uma metaloprotease/desintegrina do veneno de bothrops jararaca

    OpenAIRE

    João Renato Carvalho Muniz

    2007-01-01

    A bothropasina é uma proteína hemorrágica de 48 kDa, pertencente à classe P-III das metaloproteases, isolada a partir do veneno bruto da serpente brasileira Bothrops jararaca, e que possui os domínios adesivos desintegrina (D) e rico em cisteína (C). Neste trabalho, nós apresentamos a estrutura cristalográfica da bothropasina complexada ao inibidor POL647. O domínio catalítico , metaloprotease (M), pode ser dividido em dois subdomínios, dispostos de maneira muito similar aos descritos para es...

  16. POTENSI ANTIFUNGI TANGKAI DAUN JARAK PAGAR TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Niagita Wiratni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tangkai daun Jarak pagar merupakan bagian dari Jarak pagar yang bisa dimanfaatkan sebagai pengobatan herbal oleh masyarakat untuk mengatasi masalah keputihan. Keputihan adalah gejala yang umum dialami oleh sebagian besar wanita yang disebabkan oleh infeksi Candida albicans. Penelitian ini eksperimen murni dengan desain kontrol posttest yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia dan potensi antijamur ekstrak tangkai daun jarak pagar terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Ekstrak tangkai daun jarak pagar dalam penelitian ini diperoleh melalui proses ekstraksi pelarut dengan menggunakan etanol 96% dengan metode maserasi. Metode yang digunakan untuk uji fitokimia adalah metode kualitatif, sedangkan untuk uji potensi antijamur dilakukan dengan metode difusi dengan konsentrasi 10%, 25%, 30%, 40% dan 50%. Hasil uji fitokimia menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak tangkai daun jarak pagar mengandung saponin, tanin, dan flavonoid, namun tidak ditemukan senyawa alkaloid, namun hasil uji potensi antijamur menunjukkan bahwa diameter rata-rata zona inhibisi terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 0 mm . Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah ekstrak tangkai daun jarak pagar tidak dapat menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Peneliti selanjutnya disarankan untuk melakukan uji fitokimia secara kuantitatif dan untuk menguji potensi antijamur tangkai daun jarak pagar dengan metode pengenceran.

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of Five Medicinal Plants on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Masomi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogenic fungi has been increased. Medicinal plants are one way to overcome antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of five medicinal plants on the growth of Candida albicans. Methods: This study was done in the Microbiology Lab of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran in 2015. Five medicinal plants include: Trachyspermum ammi (seed, Teucrium polium (leaf, Piper nigrum (seed, Pistachia vera (skin, Camelia sinensis (leaf were collected. Collected plant materials were extracted by ethanol and methanol solvent with maceration method. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts was evaluated by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Besides, MIC and MBC of each extract was determined. Results: All plant extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of P. vera had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans (ZOI: 40 mm. The lowest antifungal effect between these five plants related to Piper nigrum (ZOI: 13 mm. Besides, the P. vera extracts had the best MIC and MBC values (6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: This study strongly evidence the maximum antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against C. albicans that this inhibitory effect varies with the different solvent-extract form. A more comprehensive study need to identify the effective compounds that have these antifungal properties.

  18. Hyphal content determines the compression strength of Candida albicans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen among species causing biofilm-related clinical infections. Mechanical properties of Candida biofilms have hitherto been given no attention, despite the fact that mechanical properties are important for selection of treatment or

  19. Incidence Of Candida Albicans Infection Among Women Having ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This work was carried out to ascertain the incidence of candida albicans among women in Anambra State. Design: High vaginal swab (HVS) samples were collected from women that attend six hospitals in Anambra State between the months of June and September 2006. Settings: The samples were collected ...

  20. Evaluation of Candida Albicans Biofilm Formation on Various Dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Aims: Candida adhesion to any oral substrata is the first and essential stage in ... in the oral cavity of 20-40% of healthy individuals[1] .... colonizing bacteria.[24] Higher numbers of C. albicans are found on rough surfaces than on polished, smooth surfaces.[25] Theoretically, and as a consequence, dental.

  1. PERTUMBUHAN CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PERMUKAAN POLIESTER EBP-2421

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin has been the only polymeric material for denture base for many years. One of the requirements for an ideal polymeric denture base material. It should be resistant to bacterial growth. The growth of Candida albicans on the surface of dentures is a concern for many denture wearers. This organism often is associated with denture stomatitis. A preliminary study showed polyester EBP-2421, a polymeric material for statues can also be manipulated to denture base. This research examined the growth of Candida albicans on the surface of EBP-2421. Research was carried out on strips of polyester EBP-2421 and Selton acrylic resin. Strips were contaminated with Candida albicans for 24 hours. Examinations on polyester EBP-2421 and acrylic resin immersed in saliva significantly differ from the not immersed strips (p<0,05. The lowest frequency were Candida albicans adhered on stripes of polyester EBP-2421 immersed in saliva. This result related with the fact that polyester EBP-2421 has smoother surface topography than acrylic resin.

  2. CandidaDB: a genome database for Candida albicans pathogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Enfert, C; Goyard, S; Rodriguez-Arnaveilhe, S; Frangeul, L; Jones, L; Tekaia, F; Bader, O; Albrecht, Antje; Castillo, L; Dominguez, A; Ernst, J F; Fradin, C; Gaillardin, C; Garcia-Sanchez, S; de Groot, P; Hube, B; Klis, F M; Krishnamurthy, S; Kunze, D; Lopez, M-C; Mavor, A; Martin, N; Moszer, I; Onésime, D; Perez Martin, J; Sentandreu, R; Valentin, E; Brown, A J P

    2005-01-01

    CandidaDB is a database dedicated to the genome of the most prevalent systemic fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans. CandidaDB is based on an annotation of the Stanford Genome Technology Center C.albicans genome sequence data by the European Galar Fungail Consortium. CandidaDB Release 2.0 (June 2004) contains information pertaining to Assembly 19 of the genome of C.albicans strain SC5314. The current release contains 6244 annotated entries corresponding to 130 tRNA genes and 5917 protein-coding genes. For these, it provides tentative functional assignments along with numerous pre-run analyses that can assist the researcher in the evaluation of gene function for the purpose of specific or large-scale analysis. CandidaDB is based on GenoList, a generic relational data schema and a World Wide Web interface that has been adapted to the handling of eukaryotic genomes. The interface allows users to browse easily through genome data and retrieve information. CandidaDB also provides more elaborate tools, such as pattern searching, that are tightly connected to the overall browsing system. As the C.albicans genome is diploid and still incompletely assembled, CandidaDB provides tools to browse the genome by individual supercontigs and to examine information about allelic sequences obtained from complementary contigs. CandidaDB is accessible at http://genolist.pasteur.fr/CandidaDB.

  3. Iron-dependency of biological properties of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Leonov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candidal infections occur in individuals with humoral or cell immunity deficiency. Any disorders of iron metabolism promote immune deficiency and abnormal sensitivity to infections. Potential modification of biological properties of Candida spp. in disorders of iron metabolism has not been discussed. Aim: To clarify the effects of iron metabolism disorders on the modification of biological properties of C.  albicans. Materials and methods: Growth kinetics of reference strain (24433 АТСС and clinical isolates of C.  albicans (n=20 depending on the concentration of Fe2+ ions in the broth and serum of blood donors with various types of iron metabolism (n=2 was studied by turbidimetry. We also assessed the expression of the adhesion gen (als3, hemolytic phospholipase C genes (plb1, plb2, plс and aspartic protease gene (sap1 in serum of donors with various iron levels. Results: Growth parameters of all C. albicans strains studied depends on the iron levels in the medium. The calculated constant of affinity to Fe2+ (Ks for C. albicans strains was in the range from 179.5 to 1863.3 μM. Clinical isolates are more iron-dependent (179.5albicans and is associated with overexpression of all virulence genes studied. Incubation of C.  albicans with iron-deficient and iron-loaded sera results in an increase in the growth rate up to 0.017 h-1 and 0.012 h-1, respectively, but is associated with a  reduction in expression of the major virulence genes. Conclusion: Biological properties of C. albicans are modified depending on the iron metabolism of the host. In those with normal iron metabolism, immune system suppresses Candida growth. Excess iron levels may promote candidiasis, whereas in iron

  4. Identification of genes differentially expressed in hyphae of Candida albicans Identificação de gases em hifa de Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analy Salles de Azevedo Melo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to switch from yeast to hyphal forms is essential for Candida albicans virulence. This morphological switch involves the expression of hyphal-specific genes under the control of transcriptional factors. To contribute to the discovery of hyphal-specific genes, we used a differential screening method where clones of a genomic DNA library were hybridized with yeast and hyphal cDNA probes. Two clones with increased expression in hyphae were selected for study. Sequencing these clones, we found that they encoded two important metabolic genes, CaHXT7 (high-affinity hexose transporter and CaYLL34 (member of the AAA ATPase family. CaHXT7 and CaYLL34 ORFs were completely determined. Analyses of the putative proteins show that: (1 CaHxt7p has one hexose transporter domain and (2 CaYll34p has two AAA ATPase domains. These results show, for the first time, increased expression of metabolic genes in C. albicans hyphae. Also, because the proteins encoded by CaHXT7 and CaYLL34 may be necessary for the switching to hyphae, they could be new targets for antifungal drugs.A transição morfológica de levedura para hifa é essencial para a virulência de Candida albicans. Esta transição envolve a expressão de genes hifa-específicos que estão sob o controle de fatores transcricionais. Para descobrir genes hifa-específicos utilizamos um método de triagem diferencial, onde clones de biblioteca de DNA genômico foram hibridizados com sondas de cDNA de levedura e hifa. Dois clones com aumento de expressão em hifa foram selecionados. O sequenciamento dos insertos destes clones permitiu a identificação de dois genes metabólicos importantes: CaHXT7 (high-affinity hexose transporter e CaYLL34 (da família AAA ATPase. As ORFs completas destes genes foram caracterizadas e a análise das proteínas hipotéticas revelou que: (1 CaHxt7p tem um domínio de transportador de hexose e (2 CaYll34 tem dois domínios AAA ATPase. Este é o primeiro estudo que

  5. The antibacterial agent, moxifloxacin inhibits virulence factors of Candida albicans through multitargeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Ashwini; Bansode, Bhagyashree; Phule, Datta; Shelar, Amruta; Patil, Rajendra; Gade, Wasudev; Kharat, Kiran; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2017-05-01

    Fluoroquinolines are broad spectrum fourth generation antibiotics. Some of the Fluoroquinolines exhibit antifungal activity. We are reporting the potential mechanism of action of a fluoroquinoline antibiotic, moxifloxacin on the growth, morphogenesis and biofilm formation of the human pathogen Candida albicans. Moxifloxacin was found to be Candidacidal in nature. Moxifloxacin seems to inhibit the yeast to Hyphal morphogenesis by affecting signaling pathways. It arrested the cell cycle of C. albicans at S phase. Docking of moxifloxacin with predicted structure of C. albicans DNA Topoisomerase II suggests that moxifloxacin may bind and inhibit the activity of DNA Topoisomerase II in C. albicans. Moxifloxacin could be used as a dual purpose antibiotic for treating mixed infections caused by bacteria as well as C. albicans. In addition chances of developing moxifloxacin resistance in C. albicans are less considering the fact that moxifloxacin may target multiple steps in yeast to hyphal transition in C. albicans.

  6. Hidroxiapatita e quitosana isoladas e associadas à medula óssea no reparo do tecido ósseo em coelhos. Estudo histológico e morfométrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adílio Santos de Azevedo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o processo de regeneração óssea em coelhos através da utilização da hidroxiapatita e da quitosana isoladas e associadas à medula óssea. Foram utilizados 20 coelhos adultos, de ambos os sexos, da raça Nova Zelândia e pesando em média 3,0±0,4kg. Os animais foram divididos ao acaso de acordo com dois momentos experimentais, sendo que 10 animais foram submetidos à eutanásia 30 dias após a cirurgia, e 10, 60 dias após a cirurgia. Foram utilizados quatro implantes que constituíram os grupos. Os materiais foram introduzidos em defeitos criados cirurgicamente na metáfise proximal (MP e distal (MD de cada fêmur, de modo que a quitosana foi introduzida na MP e a hidroxiapatita na MD do membro esquerdo e, no membro direito, além dos implantes, foi adicionada medula óssea. Na avaliação histológica descritiva comparativa, constatou-se que os grupos QUI e QUIMO, em ambos os momentos estudados, estimularam reações mais acentuadas e aceleraram o reparo ósseo. Na análise morfométrica, os grupos QUI e QUIMO diferiram estatisticamente dos outros grupos, tendo sido observada maior formação óssea (P<0,05.

  7. Serum repressing efflux pump CDR1 in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jen-Chung

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past decades, the prevalence of candidemia has increased significantly and drug resistance has also become a pressing problem. Overexpression of CDR1, an efflux pump, has been proposed as a major mechanism contributing to the drug resistance in Candida albicans. It has been demonstrated that biological fluids such as human serum can have profound effects on antifungal pharmacodynamics. The aim of this study is to understand the effects of serum in drug susceptibility via monitoring the activity of CDR1 promoter of C. albicans. Results The wild-type C. albicans cells (SC5314 but not the cdr1/cdr1 mutant cells became more susceptible to the antifungal drug when the medium contained serum. To understand the regulation of CDR1 in the presence of serum, we have constructed CDR1 promoter-Renilla luciferase (CDR1p-RLUC reporter to monitor the activity of the CDR1 promoter in C. albicans. As expected, the expression of CDR1p-RLUC was induced by miconazole. Surprisingly, it was repressed by serum. Consistently, the level of CDR1 mRNA was also reduced in the presence of serum but not N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, a known inducer for germ tube formation. Conclusion Our finding that the expression of CDR1 is repressed by serum raises the question as to how does CDR1 contribute to the drug resistance in C. albicans causing candidemia. This also suggests that it is important to re-assess the prediction of in vivo therapeutic outcome of candidemia based on the results of standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing, conducted in the absence of serum.

  8. Direct bioethanol production by amylolytic yeast Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, A; Nagavalli, M; Girijashankar, V; Ponamgi, S P D; Swathisree, V; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2015-03-01

    An attempt was made to produce bioethanol using optimized fermentation parameters and mutationally improved strain of Candida albicans. The mutant strain OMC3E6 obtained by UV irradiation followed by ethidium bromide successive mutations showed 2.6 times more glucoamylase secretion and 1.5 times more bioethanol production via direct conversion of starch. Enhanced hydrolysis of insoluble starch (72%) and potato starch (70%) was achieved with glucoamylase enzyme preparation from mutant C. albicans. In fermentation medium, the use of maltose, corn steep liquor, NaH2 PO4 , NaCl + MgSO4 and Triton X-100 has increased the glucoamylase production by the microbe. Under optimized conditions, C. albicans eventually produced 437 g ethanol kg(-1) potatoes. Earlier reports mentioned the use of thrice the quantity of starch as reported by us followed by more fermentation period (3-4 days) and demanded pretreatment of starch sources with alpha-amylase as well. Here, we simplified these three steps and obtained 73% conversion of insoluble starch into ethanol via direct conversion method in a period of 2 days without the involvement of cell immobilizations or enzyme pretreatment steps. Due to fast depletion of fossil fuels in the modern world, bioethanol usage as an alternate energy source is the need of the hour. For the first time, we report bioethanol production by Candida albicans via direct conversion of starchy biomass into ethanol along with enhanced starch-hydrolysing capacity and ethanol conversion ratio. So far, C. albicans was dealt in the field of clinical pathology, but here we successfully employed this organism to produce bioethanol from starchy agri-substrates. Optimizing fermentation parameters and improving the microbial strains through successive mutagenesis can improve the end product yield. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Associação entre esquistossomose mansônica e infecções microbianas: estudo da translocação microbiana em camundongos na fase crônica, submetidos à esplenectomia

    OpenAIRE

    de Magalhães Lima, Kedma

    2011-01-01

    Translocação bacteriana (TB) é a passagem de micro-organismos viáveis ou endotoxinas através da mucosa e lamina própria do trato digestório para os linfonodos mesentéricos e outros órgãos. Para que TB ocorra há necessidade da existência isolada ou em conjunto de fatores como queda da imunidade, alteração da microbiota e quebra da barreira defensiva da mucosa intestinal. Apesar dos inúmeros relatos sobre doenças bacterianas em esquistossomóticos, não foram encontrados trabalhos ...

  10. A mônada isolada: a sociedade civil como problema

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Pereira Raymundo

    2012-01-01

    Certos aspectos da vida institucional de uma república constitucional contemporânea podem ser compreendidos à luz de três conceitos extraídos de Sobre a Questão Judaica (1844) e da Introdução da Crítica da Filosofia do Direito de Hegel (1843), ambos os textos de Karl Marx: a separação entre a sociedade civil e o Estado político, o isolamento do cidadão na sociedade civil e a distinção entre revolução social e revolução política. Nossa agenda de pesquisas mostra que os três conceitos se integr...

  11. Photoinactivation of single and mixed biofilms of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species using Photodythazine® [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmello, Juliana Cabrini; Alves, Fernanda; Mima, Ewerton Garcia de Oliveira; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Bagnato, Vanderlei Salvador; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by Photodithazine ® (PDZ) formulated in hydrogel, in the inactivation of mono and duo-species biofilms of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis. Standardized suspensions of each strain were prepared and after biofilm formation, mono-species were treated with 150 and 175mg/L of PDZ for 20min (pre-irradiation time), and exposed to LED light at a dose of 37.5J/cm 2 (660nm). The duo-species biofilms (C. albicans+C. glabrata and C. albicans+C. tropicalis) were treated with 150mg/L of PDZ and light. Additional samples were treated with PDZ or light only, and the control did not receive any treatment. Next, microbiological evaluation was performed by spreading the cells on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and CHROMagar Candida for colony forming units (CFU/mL). Moreover, the total biomass of biofilm was verified using the crystal violet staining assay (CV). The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc (α=0.05). The use of PDZ 150mg/L promoted a reduction of 1.0, 1.2, 1.5 log 10 in the viability of C. glabrata, C. albicans and C. tropicalis, respectively. The same concentration reduced in 1.0 log 10 the viability of each species grown as duo-species biofilms. The crystal violet assay showed that the use of 150mg/L reduced 24.4%, 39.2% and 43.7% of the total biomass of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata, respectively. aPDT did not reduce the total biomass to the duo-species biofilms. Thus, PDZ-mediated aPDT was more effective in the inactivation of mono-species biofilms of Candida spp. compared with duo-species biofilm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antigenic typing of brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000 Tipificação antigênica de amostras brasileiras de vírus rábico isoladas de animais e humanos, no período de 1989 a 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Regina FAVORETTO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog, 3 (Desmodus rotundus, 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis, 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela, 6 (Lasiurus cinereus and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies. Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus. These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species.Amostras de vírus rábico isoladas de animais e humanos no período de 1989 a 2000 foram tipificadas antigenicamente com a utilização de um painel de anticorpos monoclonais contra a nucleoproteína viral, pré-estabelecido para o estudo da epidemiologia molecular do vírus rábico isolado nas Américas. As amostras testadas foram isoladas no laboratório de diagnóstico do Instituto Pasteur e outros centros de diagnóstico de raiva no Brasil. Além das cepas de vírus rábico fixo CVS-31/96-IP, mantida em cérebro de camundongos e a PV-BHK/97, mantida em cultura de células, cepas de vírus rábico isoladas de cães, gatos, bovinos, eqüinos, morcegos, ovinos, caprino, suínos, raposa, sagüí, coat

  13. Antifungal activity of a prenylated flavonoid from Dalea elegans against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, Mariana Andrea; da Silva, María Angel; Ortega, María Gabriela; Cabrera, José Luis; Paraje, María Gabriela

    2015-10-15

    The continuing emergence of infections with antifungal resistant Candida strains requires a constant search for new antifungal drugs, with the plant kingdom being an important source of chemical structures. The present study investigated the antifungal effect of 2',4'-dihydroxy-5'-(1''',1'''-dimethylallyl)-8-prenylpinocembrin (8PP, formerly 6PP), a natural prenylflavonoid, on Candida albicans biofilms, and compared this with an azole antifungal (fluconazole) by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response. The fluconazole sensitive (SCa) and azole-resistant (RCa) C. albicans strains were used, with biofilm formation being studied using crystal violet (CV) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The minimal inhibitory concentration for sessile cells (SMIC) was defined as the concentration of antifungal that caused a 50% (SMIC 50) and 80% (SMIC 80) reduction of treated biofilms. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT), and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) were determined by the Griess assay. The activities of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzymes and the total antioxidant capacity of the biofilms were measured by spectrophotometric methods. ROS accumulation was also detected inside biofilms by using the fluorogenic dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which was visualized by CSLM. The SCa and RCa biofilms were strongly inhibited by 8PP at 100 µM (SMIC 80). We observed that cellular stress affected biofilms growth, resulting in an increase of ROS and also of reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI), with SOD and CAT being increased significantly in the presence of 8PP. The basal level of the biofilm total antioxidant capacity was higher in RCa than SCa. Moreover, in SCa, the total antioxidant capacity rose considerably in the presence of both 8PP and fluconazole. Our data suggest that 8PP may be useful for the treatment of biofilm

  14. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G.; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata. PMID:27029023

  16. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Tati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC, we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  17. Comparative transcript profiling of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis identifies SFL2, a C. albicans gene required for virulence in a reconstituted epithelial infection model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spiering, Martin J

    2010-02-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are closely related species displaying differences in virulence and genome content, therefore providing potential opportunities to identify novel C. albicans virulence genes. C. albicans gene arrays were used for comparative analysis of global gene expression in the two species in reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHE). C. albicans (SC5314) showed upregulation of hypha-specific and virulence genes within 30 min postinoculation, coinciding with rapid induction of filamentation and increased RHE damage. C. dubliniensis (CD36) showed no detectable upregulation of hypha-specific genes, grew as yeast, and caused limited RHE damage. Several genes absent or highly divergent in C. dubliniensis were upregulated in C. albicans. One such gene, SFL2 (orf19.3969), encoding a putative heat shock factor, was deleted in C. albicans. DeltaDeltasfl2 cells failed to filament under a range of hypha-inducing conditions and exhibited greatly reduced RHE damage, reversed by reintroduction of SFL2 into the DeltaDeltasfl2 strain. Moreover, SFL2 overexpression in C. albicans triggered hyphal morphogenesis. Although SFL2 deletion had no apparent effect on host survival in the murine model of systemic infection, DeltaDeltasfl2 strain-infected kidney tissues contained only yeast cells. These results suggest a role for SFL2 in morphogenesis and an indirect role in C. albicans pathogenesis in epithelial tissues.

  18. EXTRATO DE Thymus vulgaris L. (TOMILHO ATUA SOBRE BIOFILME POLIMICROBIANO DE Candida albicans e Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Lugli Sper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As folhas de tomilho são utilizadas como condimento, conservante alimentício e para fins medicinais. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a ação antimicrobiana do extrato de tomilho sobre biofilme composto por C. albicans e S. mutans. Para tanto, suspensões de cada micro-organismo foram ajustadas a 107 UFC/mL e adicionadas (100 µL/poço de cada em placa de microtitulação. Após 90 min de incubação, o sobrenadante foi substituído por 200 µL/poço de BHI+YNB (1:1. O biofilme de 48 h foi exposto por 5 min ao extrato de tomilho ou à solução salina. Após lavagens com salina, 100 µL/poço de solução de MTT foi adicionada e incubada por 1 h, esta solução foi substituída por dimetilsulfóxido (100 µL/poço e a placa foi incubada por mais 10 min e agitada por outros 10 min. Os valores de densidade óptica (DO foram obtidos em λ = 570nm e convertidos em percentual de viabilidade, analisados estatisticamente por T-Test (p ≤ 0,05. O extrato de tomilho reduziu significativamente a viabilidade do biofilme polimicrobiano (64 ± 11%. Com isso, foi constatado o efeito antimicrobiano do extrato de tomilho sobre o biofilme composto por C. albicans e S. mutans.

  19. Isolated Richter's syndrome in central nervous system: case report Sindrome de Richter isolada em sistema nervoso central: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene S.R. Resende

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL, or Richter's syndrome, is a rare and serious complication. Isolated Richter's syndrome in the central nervous system is very rare; only 12 cases have been reported. We describe a 74-year-old patient with diffuse large cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma in the right frontal region with the appearance of multiform glioblastoma.Linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em paciente portador de leucemia linfóide crônica (LLC, ou síndrome de Richter, é complicação rara e grave nesta leucemia. Síndrome de Richter isolada no sistema nervoso central é muito rara, tendo sido encontrados apenas 12 casos descritos. Descrevemos paciente de 74 anos, que apresentou linfoma não Hodgkin difuso de grandes células em região frontal direita, simulando glioblastoma multiforme.

  20. Pathogenicity characteristics of stocked and fresh yeasts strains Características de patogenicidade de amostras de leveduras preservadas e recém-isoladas

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    Guilherme Maranhão Chaves

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the pathogenicity of yeasts of medical importance, 15 strains stocked in mineral oil at the URM Culture Collection of the Department of Mycology, Biological Sciences Centre, Federal University of Pernambuco and 15 fresh strains isolated from AIDS patients interned at the Clinical Hospital, Centre of Health Sciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, were selected. As pathogenicity characteristics, the ability to grow at 37ºC and production of phospolipase and proteinase were tested. All samples grew at 37ºC and exhibited proteinase activity. However when tested on solid medium, the proteinase activity was negative. Among 15 stocked samples, 13 (86.66% were phospholipase positive and two (13.34% were phospholipase negative. From the 15 samples isolated from AIDS patients, four (26.66% were phospholipase positive and 11 (73.34% were phospholipase negative.Com o objetivo de avaliar a patogenicidade de leveduras de interesse médico, foram selecionadas 15 amostras preservadas em óleo mineral na Micoteca URM, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco e 15 isolados recentes, provenientes de amostras clínicas de pacientes com AIDS, internados no Hospital das Clínicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Com relação as características de patogenicidade, foram avaliados a capacidade desses microorganismos crescerem a 37ºC, bem como apresentarem atividade de fosfolipase e protease. As 30 amostras cresceram a 37ºC e apresentaram atividade quantitativa de protease, entretanto não apresentaram essa atividade quando testadas em meio sólido. Das 15 amostras preservadas, 13 (86,66% apresentaram atividade fosfolipase positiva e duas (13,34% atividade fosfolipásica negativa e das 15 amostras isoladas de pacientes com AIDS, quatro (26,66% apresentaram atividade de fosfolipase positiva e 11 (73,34% apresentaram atividade fosfolipásica negativa.

  1. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: a mycologic and immunochemical study of a sample isolated from an armadillo (Dasipus novencinctus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: estudo micológico e imunoquímico de amostra isolada de tatu (Dasipus novencinctus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Scarpelli Martinelli Vidal

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available A sample of P. brasiliensis isolated from the spleen and the liver of an armadillo (Dasipus novencinctus has been analysed under a mycological and immunochemical viewpoint. The armadillo was captured in an area of Tucuruí (State of Pará, Brazil, the animal being already established as an enzootic reservoir of P. brasiliensis at that region of the country. This sample maintained in the fungal collection of the Tropical Medicine Institute of São Paulo (Brazil numbered 135, has got all the characteristics of P. brasiliensis, with a strong antigenic power and low virulence for guinea-pigs and Wistar rats. The specific exoantigen of P. brasiliensis - the glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 43 kDa - was easily demonstrated with double immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and immunobloting techniques.Amostra de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis isolada de vísceras (baço e fígado de um tatu (Dasipus novencinctus foi estudada do ponto de vista micológico e imunoquímico. O tatu havia sido capturado em área da usina hidroelétrica de Tucuruí (Estado do Pará. Este já havia sido considerado como reservatório enzoótico do Paracoccidioides brasiliensis naquela região. Esta amostra, conservada na Micoteca do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo sob o número 135, apresenta todas as características de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, com elevado poder antigênico e baixa virulência para cobaios e ratos Wistar. A demonstração do exo-antígeno específico do P. brasiliensis, representado pela glicoproteína de peso molecular 43 kDa, foi evidente através das técnicas de Imunodifusão Dupla, Imunoeletroforese, SDS-PAGE e Imunoblotting.

  2. Avaliação da capacidade probiótica de uma linhagem de Ruminococcus gnavus da microbiota fecal de seres humanos contra Clostridium perfringens

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Barbosa; Larissa Paula Jardim de Lima Barbosa; Jacques Robert Nicoli

    2011-01-01

    Probióticos são microrganismos utilizados com o propósito de beneficiar a saúde do hospedeiro, seja na prevenção ou tratamento de doenças. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar uma cultura de Ruminococcus gnavus quanto ao seu efeito probiótico frente a um alvo patogênico in vivo por meio de avaliação histopatológica e perfil de hidrofobicidade da parede celular. A linhagem de R. gnavus foi isolada da microbiota fecal dominante de um adulto sadio. Uma amostra padrão de Clostridium perfri...

  3. CANDIDA ALBICANS AND NON-ALBICANS SPECIES AS ETIOLOGICAL AGENT OF VAGINITIS IN PREGNANT AND NONPREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Mirela; Hukić, Mirsada

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidosis. The objectives of our study were: to make determination of the microscopic findings of vaginal swab, frequency of Candida species in the culture of pregnant women and patients who are not pregnant, determine the Candida species in all cultures, and to determine the frequency and differences in the frequency of C. albicans and other non-albicans species. In one year study performed during 2006 year, we tested patients of Gynaecology and Obstetrics clinic of the Clinical Centre in Sarajevo and Gynaecology department of the General hospital in Sarajevo. 447 woman included in the study were separated in two groups: 203 pregnant (in the last trimester of pregnancy), and 244 non-pregnant woman in period of fertility. Each vaginal swab was examined microscopically. The yeast, number of colonies, and the species of Candida were determined on Sabouraud dextrose agar with presence of antibiotics. For determination of Candida species, we used germ tube test for detection of C. albicans, and cultivation on the selective medium and assimilation tests for detection of non-albicans species. The results indicated positive microscopic findings in the test group (40,9%), as well as greater number of positive cultures (46,8%). The most commonly detected species for both groups was C. albicans (test group 40.9% and control group 23,0%). The most commonly detected non-albicans species for the test group were C. glabrata (4,2 %) and C. krusei (3,2%), and for the control group were C. glabrata (3,2%) and C. parapsilosis (3,2%). The microscopic findings correlated with the number of colonies in positive cultures. In the test group, we found an increased number of yeasts (64,3%), and the pseudopyphae and blastopores by microscopic examination as an indication of infection. In the control group, we found a small number of yeasts (64,6%), in the form of blastopores, as an indication of the candida colonisation. Our

  4. An immunological link between Candida albicans colonization and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Romain; Sendid, Boualem; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Poulain, Daniel; Jouault, Thierry

    2015-06-01

    The etiology of Crohn's disease (CD), an autoimmune, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which affects approximately one million people in Europe, is still unclear. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that CD could result from an inappropriate inflammatory response to intestinal microorganisms in a genetically susceptible host. Most studies to date have concerned the involvement of bacteria in disease progression. In addition to bacteria, there appears to be a possible link between the commensal yeast Candida albicans and disease development. In this review, in an attempt to link the gut colonization process and the development of CD, we describe the different pathways that are involved in the progression of CD and in the host response to C. albicans, making the yeast a possible initiator of the inflammatory process observed in this IBD.

  5. Genetics of Candida albicans, a diploid human fungal pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Suzanne M; Johnson, Alexander D

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans is a species of fungus that typically resides in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It is also the most common human fungal pathogen, causing a variety of skin and soft tissue infections in healthy people and more virulent invasive and disseminated diseases in patients with compromised immune systems. How this microorganism manages to persist in healthy hosts but also to cause a spectrum of disease states in the immunocompromised host are questions of significant biological interest as well as major clinical and economic importance. In this review, we describe recent developments in population genetics, the mating process, and gene disruption technology that are providing much needed experimental insights into the biology of C. albicans.

  6. Host response to Candida albicans bloodstream infection and sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Seána; Leonhardt, Ines; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major cause of bloodstream infection which may present as sepsis and septic shock - major causes of morbidity and mortality world-wide. After invasion of the pathogen, innate mechanisms govern the early response. Here, we outline the models used to study these mechanisms and summarize our current understanding of innate immune responses during Candida bloodstream infection. This includes protective immunity as well as harmful responses resulting in Candida induced sepsis. Neutrophilic granulocytes are considered principal effector cells conferring protection and recognize C. albicans mainly via complement receptor 3. They possess a range of effector mechanisms, contributing to elimination of the pathogen. Neutrophil activation is closely linked to complement and modulated by activated mononuclear cells. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms will help in creating an individualized approach to patients suffering from systemic candidiasis and aid in optimizing clinical management. PMID:25785541

  7. Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

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    Demet Toprak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration.

  9. The Antifungal Effect of Endocyn Against Candida albicans Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-13

    quantitatively by microbiological plate count and qualitatively by confocal microscopy using Live/Dead staining. XTT data was analyzed by two-way analysis...wells of a 24-well plate containing 2 ml of sterile RPMI media . In order to achieve mature fungal biofilm formation, the plate was placed in a...exhibits rapid antifungal efficacy in vitro. C. albicans biofilms were cultivated on polystyrene, washed, and treated with Endocyn (white bar) over a

  10. Hydrolytic enzymes as virulence factors of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Martin; Borelli, Claudia; Korting, Hans C; Hube, Bernhard

    2005-11-01

    Candida albicans is a facultative pathogenic micro-organism that has developed several virulence traits enabling invasion of host tissues and avoidance of host defence mechanisms. Virulence factors that contribute to this process are the hydrolytic enzymes. Most of them are extracellularly secreted by the fungus. The most discussed hydrolytic enzymes produced by C. albicans are secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps). The role of these Saps for C. albicans infections was carefully evaluated in numerous studies, whereas only little is known about the physiological role of the secreted phospholipases (PL) and almost nothing about the involvement of lipases (Lip) in virulence. They may play an important role in the pathogenicity of candidosis and their hydrolytic activity probably has a number of possible functions in addition to the simple role of digesting molecules for nutrition. Saps as the best-studied member of this group of hydrolytic enzymes contribute to host tissue invasion by digesting or destroying cell membranes and by degrading host surface molecules. There is also some evidence that hydrolytic enzymes are able to attack cells and molecules of the host immune system to avoid or resist antimicrobial activity. High hydrolytic activity with broad substrate specificity has been found in several Candida species, most notably in C. albicans. This activity is attributed to multigene families with at least 10 members for Saps and Lips and several members for PL B. Distinct members of these gene families are differentially regulated in various Candida infections. In future, prevention and control of Candida infections might be achieved by pharmacological or immunological tools specifically modulated to inhibit virulence factors, e.g. the family of Saps.

  11. Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases in Virulence and Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Naglik, Julian R.; Challacombe, Stephen J.; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen of humans and has developed an extensive repertoire of putative virulence mechanisms that allows successful colonization and infection of the host under suitable predisposing conditions. Extracellular proteolytic activity plays a central role in Candida pathogenicity and is produced by a family of 10 secreted aspartyl proteinases (Sap proteins). Although the consequences of proteinase secretion during human infections is not precisely known,...

  12. Alteramide B is a microtubule antagonist of inhibiting Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanjiao; Li, Yaoyao; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Juanli; Lu, Chunhua; Wang, Haoxin; Shen, Yuemao; Du, Liangcheng

    2016-10-01

    Alteramide B (ATB), isolated from Lysobacter enzymogenes C3, was a new polycyclic tetramate macrolactam (PTM). ATB exhibited potent inhibitory activity against several yeasts, particularly Candida albicans SC5314, but its antifungal mechanism is unknown. The structure of ATB was established by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including high-resolution mass spectrometry, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and CD spectra. Flow cytometry, fluorescence microscope, transmission electron microscope, molecular modeling, overexpression and site-directed mutation studies were employed to delineate the anti-Candida molecular mechanism of ATB. ATB induced apoptosis in C. albicans through inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by disrupting microtubules. Molecular dynamics studies revealed the binding patterns of ATB to the β-tubulin subunit. Overexpression of the wild type and site-directed mutants of the β-tubulin gene (TUBB) changed the sensitivity of C. albicans to ATB, confirming the binding of ATB to β-tubulin, and indicating that the binding sites are L215, L217, L273, L274 and R282. In vivo, ATB significantly improved the survival of the candidiasis mice and reduced fungal burden. The molecular mechanism underlying the ATB-induced apoptosis in C. albicans is through inhibiting tubulin polymerization that leads to cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. The identification of ATB and the study of its activity provide novel mechanistic insights into the mode of action of PTMs against the human pathogen. This study shows that ATB is a new microtubule inhibitor and a promising anti-Candida lead compound. The results also support β-tubulin as a potential target for anti-Candida drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptation of Candida albicans to Reactive Sulfur Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaro, Yasmin; Lorenz, Michael; Fa, Alice; Zheng, Rui; Gustin, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that is highly resistant to different oxidative stresses. How reactive sulfur species (RSS) such as sulfite regulate gene expression and the role of the transcription factor Zcf2 and the sulfite exporter Ssu1 in such responses are not known. Here, we show that C. albicans specifically adapts to sulfite stress and that Zcf2 is required for that response as well as induction of genes predicted to remove sulfite from cells and to increase the intracellular amount of a subset of nitrogen metabolites. Analysis of mutants in the sulfate assimilation pathway show that sulfite conversion to sulfide accounts for part of sulfite toxicity and that Zcf2-dependent expression of the SSU1 sulfite exporter is induced by both sulfite and sulfide. Mutations in the SSU1 promoter that selectively inhibit induction by the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) nitrite, a previously reported activator of SSU1 , support a model for C. albicans in which Cta4-dependent RNS induction and Zcf2-dependent RSS induction are mediated by parallel pathways, different from S. cerevisiae in which the transcription factor Fzf1 mediates responses to both RNS and RSS. Lastly, we found that endogenous sulfite production leads to an increase in resistance to exogenously added sulfite. These results demonstrate that C. albicans has a unique response to sulfite that differs from the general oxidative stress response, and that adaptation to internal and external sulfite is largely mediated by one transcription factor and one effector gene. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  14. Candida albicans in patients with oronasal communication and obturator prostheses

    OpenAIRE

    MATTOS, Beatriz Silva Câmara; SOUSA, Andréa Alves de; MAGALHÃES, Marina Helena C. G. de; ANDRÉ, Marcia; BRITO E DIAS, Reinaldo

    2009-01-01

    Patients using obturator prostheses often present denture-induced stomatitis. In order to detect the presence of oral Candida albicans in patients with oronasal communications and to evaluate the effectiveness of a topical antifungal treatment, cytological smears obtained from the buccal and palatal mucosa of 10 adult patients, and from the nasal acrylic surface of their obturator prostheses were examined. A therapeutic protocol comprising the use of oral nystatin (Mycostatin®) and prosthesis...

  15. Regulatory networks controlling nitrogen sensing and uptake in Candida albicans.

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    Shruthi Ramachandra

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the key nutrients for microbial growth. During infection, pathogenic fungi like C. albicans need to acquire nitrogen from a broad range of different and changing sources inside the host. Detecting the available nitrogen sources and adjusting the expression of genes for their uptake and degradation is therefore crucial for survival and growth as well as for establishing an infection. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional response of C. albicans to nitrogen starvation and feeding with the infection-relevant nitrogen sources arginine and bovine serum albumin (BSA, representing amino acids and proteins, respectively. The response to nitrogen starvation was marked by an immediate repression of protein synthesis and an up-regulation of general amino acid permeases, as well as an up-regulation of autophagal processes in its later stages. Feeding with arginine led to a fast reduction in expression of general permeases for amino acids and to resumption of protein synthesis. The response to BSA feeding was generally slower, and was additionally characterized by an up-regulation of oligopeptide transporter genes. From time-series data, we inferred network interaction models for genes relevant in nitrogen detection and uptake. Each individual network was found to be largely specific for the experimental condition (starvation or feeding with arginine or BSA. In addition, we detected several novel connections between regulator and effector genes, with putative roles in nitrogen uptake. We conclude that C. albicans adopts a particular nitrogen response network, defined by sets of specific gene-gene connections for each environmental condition. All together, they form a grid of possible gene regulatory networks, increasing the transcriptional flexibility of C. albicans.

  16. Limonene inhibits Candida albicans growth by inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Archana; Zore, Gajanan; Kodgire, Santosh; Kazi, Rubina; Mulange, Shradha; Patil, Rajendra; Shelar, Amruta; Santhakumari, Bayitigeri; Kulkarni, Mahesh; Kharat, Kiran; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2017-10-09

    Anti-Candida potential of limonene was evaluated against planktonic growth, biofilm (adhesion, development and maturation) and morphogenesis of Candida albicans in this study. Limonene is a major constituent of citrus oil and most frequently used terpene in food and beverage industry due to its pleasant fragrance, nontoxic, and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) flavoring agent as well as treatment option in many gastrointestinal diseases.Limonene exhibited excellent anti-Candida activity and was equally effective against planktonic growth of C. albicans isolates differentially susceptible to FLC (N = 35). Limonene inhibited morphogenesis significantly at low concentration. However, it showed stage dependent activity against biofilm formation, that is, it was more effective against adhesion followed by development and maturation. Limonene also exhibited excellent synergy with FLC against planktonic and biofilm growth. SWATH-MS analysis led to identification of limonene responsive proteins that provided molecular insight of its anti-Candida activity. Proteomic analysis revealed upregulation of proteins involved in cell wall glucan synthesis (Kre6); oxidative stress (Rhr2, Adh7 and Ebp1); DNA damage stress (Mbf1 and Npl3); nucleolar stress (Rpl11, Rpl7, Rpl29, Rpl15) and down regulation of cytoskeleton organization (Crn1, Pin3, Cct8, Rbl2), and so forth, in response to limonene. Limonene mediated down regulation of Tps3 indicates activation of caspase (CaMca1) and induction of apoptosis in C. albicans. These results suggest that limonene inhibits C. albicans growth by cell wall/membrane damage induced oxidative stress that leads to DNA damage resulting into modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis through nucleolar stress and metacaspase dependent pathway. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Regulatory networks controlling nitrogen sensing and uptake in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Shruthi; Linde, Jörg; Brock, Matthias; Guthke, Reinhard; Hube, Bernhard; Brunke, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the key nutrients for microbial growth. During infection, pathogenic fungi like C. albicans need to acquire nitrogen from a broad range of different and changing sources inside the host. Detecting the available nitrogen sources and adjusting the expression of genes for their uptake and degradation is therefore crucial for survival and growth as well as for establishing an infection. Here, we analyzed the transcriptional response of C. albicans to nitrogen starvation and feeding with the infection-relevant nitrogen sources arginine and bovine serum albumin (BSA), representing amino acids and proteins, respectively. The response to nitrogen starvation was marked by an immediate repression of protein synthesis and an up-regulation of general amino acid permeases, as well as an up-regulation of autophagal processes in its later stages. Feeding with arginine led to a fast reduction in expression of general permeases for amino acids and to resumption of protein synthesis. The response to BSA feeding was generally slower, and was additionally characterized by an up-regulation of oligopeptide transporter genes. From time-series data, we inferred network interaction models for genes relevant in nitrogen detection and uptake. Each individual network was found to be largely specific for the experimental condition (starvation or feeding with arginine or BSA). In addition, we detected several novel connections between regulator and effector genes, with putative roles in nitrogen uptake. We conclude that C. albicans adopts a particular nitrogen response network, defined by sets of specific gene-gene connections for each environmental condition. All together, they form a grid of possible gene regulatory networks, increasing the transcriptional flexibility of C. albicans.

  18. Competitive Fitness of Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Candida albicans Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Christina; Hampe, Irene A I; Hertlein, Tobias; Ohlsen, Knut; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Resistance is often caused by gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factors Mrr1 and Tac1, which result in constitutive overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps, and Upc2, which result in constitutive overexpression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes. However, the deregulated gene expression that is caused by hyperactive forms of these transcription factors also reduces the fitness of the cells in the absence of the drug. To investigate whether fluconazole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates have overcome the fitness costs of drug resistance, we assessed the relative fitness of C. albicans isolates containing resistance mutations in these transcription factors in competition with matched drug-susceptible isolates from the same patients. Most of the fluconazole-resistant isolates were outcompeted by the corresponding drug-susceptible isolates when grown in rich medium without fluconazole. On the other hand, some resistant isolates with gain-of-function mutations in MRR1 did not exhibit reduced fitness under these conditions. In a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, three out of four tested fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates did not exhibit a significant fitness defect. However, all four fluconazole-resistant isolates were outcompeted by the matched susceptible isolates in a mouse model of gastrointestinal colonization, demonstrating that the effects of drug resistance on in vivo fitness depend on the host niche. Collectively, our results indicate that the fitness costs of drug resistance in C. albicans are not easily remediated, especially when proper control of gene expression is required for successful adaptation to life within a mammalian host. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  20. Tuberculose ileocecal isolada simulando neoplasia maligna e doença de Crohn Isolated ileocecal tuberculosis simulating malignant neoplasia and Crohn's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. BROMBERG

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: No Brasil, a tuberculose ileocecal isolada, na ausência de tuberculose pulmonar ativa ou cicatrizada, é rara, sendo freqüentemente confundida com neoplasia e a doença de Crohn. MÉTODOS: Os autores apresentam oito doentes com essas características, tratados por cirurgia, em período de 20 anos. A dor abdominal na fossa ilíaca direita foi o principal sintoma (100%, seguido da presença de perda de peso (62,5%, febre, náuseas e vômitos e fadiga em 50% dos doentes. Sete enfermos (87,5% apresentaram massa palpável na fossa ilíaca direita. A duração média dos sintomas foi de 14,7 meses, variando de 5 a 36 meses. Todas as lesões foram detectadas pelo enema opaco e mimetizavam aspecto neoplásico. A colonoscopia foi realizada em três doentes, evidenciando lesões sub-oclusivas da região íleo-cecal em dois; as biópsias foram sugestivas de tuberculose, não sendo possível diferenciá-las da doença de Crohn. RESULTADOS: Seis enfermos com diagnóstico presuntivo de neoplasia foram submetidos a cirurgia eletiva, realizando-se neles a colectomia direita clássica. Os outros dois, com suspeita de tuberculose, foram operados na vigência de obstrução intestinal, sendo submetidos a ressecção limitada (ileocecectomia. O estudo anatomopatológico estabeleceu o diagnóstico final pelo encontro de necrose caseosa e de bacilos álcool ácido-resistentes no intestino ou nos linfonodos. A evolução pós-operatória foi satisfatória, com pequena morbidade resolvida clinicamente. Posteriormente, todos os doentes receberam o esquema tríplice por 12 meses, variando a droga de acordo com a época do tratamento. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de rara, a tuberculose hipertrófica ileocecal isolada freqüentemente é confundida com neoplasias e com a doença de Crohn, devendo ser lembrada no diagnóstico diferencial das lesões localizadas no quadrante inferior direito do abdome.BACKGROUND: Isolated ileocecal involvement by tuberculosis in the absence

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative Staphylococci isolated from mastitic cattle in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa isoladas de leite de bovinos com mastite no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R.O. Machado

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 109 cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativa foi isolado de leite de vacas com mastite clínica e subclínica, em 35 fazendas, situadas em nove estados brasileiros, no período de fevereiro a maio de 2005. Os isolados foram investigados em relação a susceptibilidade in vitro a diversos agentes antimicrobianos. A resistência à penicilina foi a observação mais freqüente (93,5%, seguida por sulfonamida (88,9%, novobiocina (88,6% e ampicilina (85,3%. Todas as cepas examinadas mostraram resistência a pelo menos uma das drogas antimicrobianas testadas. Cepas apresentando resistência múltipla foram extremamente comuns, com 10,0% dos microrganismos isolados apresentando resistência a todas as drogas antimicrobianas. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as cepas de Staphylococci coagulase-negativas, isoladas no Brasil, apresentaram um alto grau de resistência a antimicrobianos. Estes resultados são, provavelmente, uma conseqüência da pressão devida ao uso intensivo de drogas antimicrobianas.

  2. Occurrence of adhesin-encoding operons in Escherichia coli isolated from breeders with salpingitis and chicks with omphalitis Ocorrência de operons codificadores de adesinas em Escherichia coli isolada de aves reprodutoras com salpingite e de pintinhos com onfalite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Knöbl

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of fim, pap and sfa operons in Escherichia coli isolated from breeders with salpingitis and chicks with omphalitis was evaluated. Analysis of 100 E. coli isolates, by colony hybridization tests, showed that 78 (78% were fim+, one (1% was sfa+, seven (7% were fim+ associated with pap+, eigth (8% were fim+ and sfa+, one (1% was fim+pap+sfa+ and five (5% isolates did not hybridize with any probe. These results suggest that fim adhesion-encoding operon plays an important role in pathogenesis of E. coli infection in chickens with salpingitis and omphalitis.Ocorrência dos operons fim, pap e sfa em amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de reprodutoras com salpingite e pintinhos com onfalite foi avaliada. A análise de 100 amostras através dos testes de hibridização de colônia mostrou que 78 (78% amostras eram fim+, uma (1% era sfa+, sete (7% eram fim+ associada a pap+, oito (8% eram fim+ e uma (1% era fim+pap+sfa+ e cinco (5% amostras não hibridizaram com nenhuma sonda. Estes resultados sugerem que o operon fim pode ter um importante papel na patogenia da infecção de Escherichia coli em reprodutoras com salpingite e pintinhos com onfalite.

  3. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  4. Studies on effect of Microbial Iron Chelators on Candida Albican

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehmani, Fouzia S.; Milicent, S.; Zaheer-Uddin

    2005-01-01

    Iron is an essential for the life of all microbe cells. It generally exists in the oxidized form Fe(III). Even under anaerobic reducing condition the metal appear to be taken up as Fe(III). Thus free-living microorganisms require specific and effective ferric ion transport system to cope with low availability of the metal. In iron deficient environment they produce a low molecular weight specific chelators called siderphores or microbial iron chelators. Siderphores compete for limited supplied of iron. These compounds came out of the cell but can not re-enter without iron due to high affinity of these siderphores often have more than one catechol/hydroxamate functions and are multidentate (usually hexadentate ligands). The aim of the present research is to check the effect of iron chelators, namely gallic acid and salisyl hydroxamate on the growth of Candida albican in vitro. C. albican is the opportunistic paltogen present as the normal flora inside human body. In vivo the growth of C. albican is distributed by the use of antibiotics and immuno suppressers. In cases of iron over-dosage in human being, the patients are treated with certain a-iron chelators. Hence an attempt is made to notice the effect that might be inhibition or enhancement of the organism in vitro. (author)

  5. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  6. Germ tube-specific antigens of Candida albicans cell walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundstrom, P.R.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to characterize the surface differences between blastospores and germ tubes of the pathogenic, dimorphic yeast, Candida albicans, and to identify components of yeast cells responsible for these differences. Investigation of surfaces differences of the two growth forms was facilitated by the production of rabbit antiserum prepared against Formalin-treated yeast possessing germ tubes. To prepare antiserum specific for germ tubes, this serum was adsorbed with stationary phase blastospores. Whereas the unadsorbed antiserum reacted with both blastospore and germ tube forms by immunofluorescence and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the adsorbed antiserum did not react with blastospores but detected germ tube-specific antigens in hyphal forms. The differences between blastospores and germ tubes of Candida albicans, were further studied by comparing enzymatic digests of cell walls of both growth forms in radiolabeled organisms. Organisms were labeled either on the surface with 125 I, or metabolically with [ 35 S] methionine or [ 3 H] mannose. Three-surface-located components (as shown by antibody adsorption and elution experiments) were precipitated from Zymolase digests. All three components were mannoproteins as shown by their ability to bind Concanavalin A, and to be labeled in protein labeling procedures, and two of these (200,000 and 155,000 molecular weight) were germ tube specific, as shown by their ability to be precipitated by germ tube-specific antiserum. Monoclonal antibodies were prepared to C. albicans, using blastospores bearing germ tubes as immunogen

  7. Inhibition of human natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity by Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, S.; Hudig, D.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were initiated to determine whether human NK cells are cytotoxic to C. albicans with similar activity observed for mouse NK cells against the yeast Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis. In 48 hour assays using limiting dilutions of C. albicans, strain 3153A, mononuclear leukocytes with NK activity had only marginal effects on yeast outgrowth, whereas granulocytes killed most of the yeast. However, these yeast were able to block NK activity in 4 hr 51 Cr release assays with K562 cells, at yeast to K562 ratios of 10:1 and 100:1. Yeast pretreated with the serum of the majority of donors blocked the NK activity more than untreated yeast. Two of the 7 donors did not enhance NK inhibition after pretreatment of the yeast with their serum. Serum antibody to C. albicans and complement consumption by the yeast correlated with the relative efficiency of NK inhibition for most donors. This report suggests that there may be in vivo interactions between NK cells of the immune system and opportunistic fungal pathogens, which may compromise NK cell function

  8. Alcohols inhibit translation to regulate morphogenesis in C. albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbe, Nkechi E; Paget, Caroline M; Wang, Hui; Ashe, Mark P

    2015-04-01

    Many molecules are secreted into the growth media by microorganisms to modulate the metabolic and physiological processes of the organism. For instance, alcohols like butanol, ethanol and isoamyl alcohol are produced by the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans and induce morphological differentiation. Here we show that these same alcohols cause a rapid inhibition of protein synthesis. More specifically, the alcohols target translation initiation, a complex stage of the gene expression process. Using molecular techniques, we have identified the likely translational target of these alcohols in C. albicans as the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, which supports the exchange reaction where eIF2.GDP is converted to eIF2.GTP. Even minimal regulation at this step will lead to alterations in the levels of specific proteins that may allow the exigencies of the fungus to be realised. Indeed, similar to the effects of alcohols, a minimal inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide also causes an induction of filamentous growth. These results suggest a molecular basis for the effect of various alcohols on morphological differentiation in C. albicans. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Human-Curated Annotation of the Candida albicans Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes. We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6,354 genes and to identify 246 genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors (or possibly mutations that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy. We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. albicans genome are especially rich in short sequence repeats. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. albicans has a far greater catabolic range, encoding respiratory Complex 1, several novel oxidoreductases and ketone body degrading enzymes, malonyl-CoA and enoyl-CoA carriers, several novel amino acid degrading enzymes, a variety of secreted catabolic lipases and proteases, and numerous transporters to assimilate the resulting nutrients. The results of these efforts will ensure that the Candida research community has uniform and comprehensive genomic information for medical research as well as for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  10. O Ácido (817,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico (labdano302, diterpeno tipo labdano isolado de Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil. & Tul. (Annonaceae relaxa a traquéia isolada de cobaia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano A. A. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A espécie Xylopia langsdorffiana St. Hil.. & Tul. é popularmente conhecida como "pimenteira-da-terra" no Sudeste do Brasil. A partir do fracionamento do extrato etanólico, obtido das cascas do caule desta espécie, foi isolado um diterpeno tipo labdano, identificado como sendo o ácido 8(17,12E,14-labdatrieno-18-óico, e que neste trabalho é codificado como labdano302. O labdano302 relaxou o tônus basal dos anéis de traquéia isolada de cobaia com um valor de CE50 de 6,7 ± 0,5 x 10-8 M. O diterpeno labdano302 relaxou de maneira dependente de concentração os anéis pré-contraídos com carbacol (10-6 M, tanto na presença (CE50 = 1,4 ± 0,7 x 10-5 M como na ausência de epitélio funcional (CE50 = 1,5 ± 0,3 x 10-5 M, bem como anéis pré-contraídos com 18 ou 60 mM de KCl, apresentando valores de CE50 de 2,3 ± 0,4 x 10(7 M e 1,8 ± 0,8 x 10-5 M, respectivamente. Este efeito relaxante, sobre as contrações induzidas por 18 mM de KCl, tanto foi significantemente mais potente quanto mais eficaz quando comparado ao efeito sobre as contrações induzidas por 60 mM de KCl. Assim, labdano302 mostra um efeito relaxante em traquéia isolada de cobaia, tanto em seu tônus basal como sob estímulo contrátil, aparentemente sem a participação dos fatores relaxantes derivados do epitélio, contudo com possível participação dos canais de K+.

  11. [Study on andrographolide-induced apoptosis of Candida albicans biofilm dispersion cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changzhong; Han, Ning; Xu, Zhenhua; Cheng, Huijuan; Guan, Yan; Yun, Yun; Wang, Yan

    2012-02-01

    To detect the effect of andrographolide on apoptosis of Candida albicans biofilm dispersion cells. The morphological changes of apoptotic C. albicans biofilm cells were observed by using Hoechst 33258 staining Fluorescence microscope; changes of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of C. albicans biofilm cells were detected by rhodamine 123 staining flow cytometry; and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by DHR staining flow cytometry. 1 000, 100 micromol x L(-1) of andrographolide could cause pyknosis and dense staining of C. albicans biofilm cells, 1 000, 100, 10 micromol x L(-1) of andrographolide could decrease MMP and increase ROS of C. albicans biofilm cells. Andrographolide of appropriate concentrations could induce apoptosis of dispersion cells of C. albicans biofilms.

  12. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de plantas frente a linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus e Escherichia coli isoladas de casos clínicos humanos Antibacterial activity of plant essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains isolated from human specimens

    OpenAIRE

    M.T.N. Silva; P.I. Ushimaru; L.N. Barbosa; M.L.R.S. Cunha; A. Fernandes Junior

    2009-01-01

    A ação antibacteriana in vitro de óleos essenciais de seis plantas foi verificada por meio da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM=%v/v) pela diluição dos óleos em meio de cultura Mueller Hinton Agar, frente a linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus (n=16) e Escherichia coli (n=16) isoladas de casos clínicos humanos, além de 1 amostra padrão ATCC para cada espécie (Sa ATCC 25923 e Ec ATCC 25922), e determinação de curvas de sobrevivência em concentrações equivalentes a CIM90% dos respectivos óleos....

  13. Molecular subtyping of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni strains isolated from different animal species in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Subtipagem molecular de estirpes de Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isoladas de diferentes espécies animais do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Scarcelli

    2005-12-01

    laboratórios de análises clínicas da cidade de São Paulo. As 66 estirpes de C. jejuni isoladas foram submetidas à caracterização genética. Oligonucleotídeos baseados no gene fla A foram usados na reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR e amplificou um fragmento de 702 pb. Os produtos obtidos pela PCR foram avaliados pelas técnicas de seq��enciamento e análise genealógica. Análise da variabilidade genética das 66 estirpes revelou 44 diferentes subtipos de C. jejuni. Um subtipo de origem humana apresentou seqüência idêntica à de C. jejuni depositada no GenBank (GENBANK acesso número AF050186. A subtipagem das estirpes de C. jejuni baseadas no seqüenciamento da região variável do gene fla A e na análise do alinhamento das seqüências pelo método da Máxima Parcimônia, mostraram-se altamente discriminatórios fornecendo melhores condições para a correta diferenciação entre estirpes originárias de surto e as isoladas esporadicamente. Este foi o primeiro estudo de subtipagem molecular de estirpes de C. jejuni de origem humana e animal utilizando a técnica do seqüenciamento com análise genealógica realizado no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.

  14. Antifungal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Buchenavia tomentosa on Candida albicans and non-albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Guilherme R; Brighenti, Fernanda L; Delbem, Alberto C Botazzo; Delbem, Ádina Cléia B; Khouri, Sonia; Gontijo, Aline Vidal L; Pascoal, Aislan Crf; Salvador, Marcos J; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Buchenavia tomentosa extract and bioactive compounds on six Candida species. The antimicrobial activity of extract was evaluated using standard strains and clinical isolates. Cytotoxicity was tested in order to evaluate cell damage caused by the extract. Extract was chemically characterized and the antifungal activity of its compounds was evaluated. Extract showed antifungal activity on Candida species. Candida non-albicans were more susceptible than Candida albicans. Low cytotoxicity for extract was observed. The isolated compounds presented antifungal activity at least against one Candida spp. and all compounds presented antifungal effect on Candida glabrata. Extracts from Buchenavia tomentosa showed promising antifungal activity on Candida species with low cytotoxicity. Gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid showed promising inhibitory activity on Candida glabrata.

  15. CARACTERIZAÇÃO FENOTÍPICA DE BACTÉRIAS DIAZOTRÓFICAS ENDOFÍTICAS ISOLADAS DE CANA DE AÇÚCAR PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIAS ISOLATED OF SUGARCANE

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    Robson Cavalcante de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inoculantes contendo microrganismos diazotróficos na cana-de-açúcar pode contribuir para a promoção do crescimento destas plantas e promover ganhos significativos na produtividade. Objetivou-se no presente trabalho caracterizar bactérias diazotróficas isoladas de colmos cana-de-açúcar. Foram utilizados os meios de cultivo semi-sólidos NFb e JNFb sem adição de nitrogênio. Foram isoladas cinco estirpes nativas de bactérias diazotróficas as quais foram avaliadas microscopicamente pela coloração de Gram e em relação à resistência intrínseca aos antibióticos; fungicida furadan (i.a. carbofuran e inseticida regente (i.a. fipronil, e à capacidade de fixar o nitrogênio em condições de casa-de-vegetação e campo. Os resultados obtidos permitiram observar que todos os isolados apresentaram características de bacilos Gram-negativos, e ampla resistência aos antibióticos. A estirpe nativa UCCBc5 apresentou resistência ao fungicida furadan e ao inseticida regente. As bactérias isoladas UCCBc1 e UCCBc5 apresentam capacidade e eficiência de fixar o nitrogênio atmosférico em condições de casa-de-vegetação. Verificou-se que a estirpe UCCBc5, resistente ao furadan e ao regente apresentou capacidade fixadora do nitrogênio atmosférico, em condições de campo. Na avaliação de doses de inoculante observou-se que existe relação dose de inoculante/ eficiência de fixação de nitrogênio. Estes resultados permitiram afirmar que as bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas podem ser utilizadas, em alguns casos, como substituto da adubação nitrogenada, na cultura de cana-de- açúcar.The use of inoculants containing diazotrophic microorganism in sugarcane can contribute to promoting the growth of these plants and tp promote significant gains in productivity. The objective of this study was to characterize diazotrophic bacteria isolated from stalks of sugarcane. We used the means of a semi-solid NFB and JNFb

  16. Essential Functional Modules for Pathogenic and Defensive Mechanisms in Candida albicans Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu-Chao; Tsai, I-Chun; Lin, Che; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Lan, Chung-Yu; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The clinical and biological significance of the study of fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans) has markedly increased. However, the explicit pathogenic and invasive mechanisms of such host-pathogen interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the essential functional modules involved in C. albicans-zebrafish interactions were investigated in this study. Adopting a systems biology approach, the early-stage and late-stage protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for bo...

  17. Quercetin Sensitizes Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans To Induce Apoptotic Cell Death by Modulating Quorum Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, B. N.; Upreti, D. K.; Singh, B. R.; Pandey, G.; Verma, S.; Roy, S.; Naqvi, A. H.; Rawat, A. K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) regulates group behaviors of Candida albicans such as biofilm, hyphal growth, and virulence factors. The sesquiterpene alcohol farnesol, a QS molecule produced by C. albicans, is known to regulate the expression of virulence weapons of this fungus. Fluconazole (FCZ) is a broad-spectrum antifungal drug that is used for the treatment of C. albicans infections. While FCZ can be cytotoxic at high concentrations, our results show that at much lower concentrations, quercetin (QC...

  18. Sputum Candida albicans presages FEV₁ decline and hospital-treated exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H

    2010-11-01

    The role of Candida albicans in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway is underexplored. Considered a colonizer, few question its pathogenic potential despite high isolation frequencies from sputum culture. We evaluated the frequency and identified the strongest predictors of C albicans colonization in CF. Independent associations of colonization with clinical outcomes were determined, and the longitudinal effects of C albicans acquisition on BMI and FEV₁ were evaluated.

  19. Effect of Xylitol on Candida albicans resistance in serum (in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ria Puspitawati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol is reported to inhibit the growth of C. albicans. Objectives: Investigating serum factor role in inhibiting the growth of C. albicans and the effect of 1%, 5%, 10% xylitol on C. albicans resistance in serum in vitro. Methods: Identification of C. albicans (oral swab of candidiasis patient was conducted using CHROMAgar, confirmed by germ tube test. The cultures were serially diluted, inoculated in Saburoud Dextrose Broth (SDB contained 0% (control, 1%, 5%, or 10% xylitol, and kept for 3 or 7 days. These inoculations were then exposed to either active or inactive serum (Fetal Bovine Serum heated in 65ºC for 30 minutes for 2 hours in 37ºC. The colony forming unit (CFU of C. albicans in Saburoud Dextrose Agar (SDA were counted after 2 days. C. albicans ATCC 10231 strain was used as a comparison. One-way ANOVA with 0.05 was used. Results: After 3 days cultured in media with or without xylitol, the CFU of C. albicans exposed to active serum were significantly lower than those exposed to inactive serum (p=0.032. Although not statistically significant (p=0.689, increased concentration of xylitol lead to increased resistance of C. albicans in active serum. Only 7 day exposure of 10% xylitol resulted in significantly higher growth of C. albicans (p=0.034. No significant difference of C. albicans CFU in active or inactive serum (p=0.404. Conclusion: Serum factor has role in inhibiting C. albicans growth in vitro. Exposure of 1%, 5%, or 10% xylitol for 3 or 7 days has no significant effect on C. albicans resistance in serum.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.98

  20. Bacterial GtfB Augments Candida albicans Accumulation in Cross-Kingdom Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, K; Liu, Y; Cao, T; Koo, H; Seneviratne, C J

    2017-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen commonly associated with dental caries. Clinical studies have shown that S. mutans is often detected with Candida albicans in early childhood caries. Although the C. albicans presence has been shown to enhance bacterial accumulation in biofilms, the influence of S. mutans on fungal biology in this mixed-species relationship remains largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how the presence of S. mutans influences C. albicans biofilm development and coexistence. Using a newly established haploid biofilm model of C. albicans, we found that S. mutans augmented haploid C. albicans accumulation in mixed-species biofilms. Similarly, diploid C. albicans also showed enhanced biofilm formation in the presence of S. mutans. Surprisingly, the presence of S. mutans restored the biofilm-forming ability of C. albicans bcr1Δ mutant and bcr1Δ/Δ mutant, which is known to be severely defective in biofilm formation when grown as single species. Moreover, C. albicans hyphal growth factor HWP1 as well as ALS1 and ALS3, which are also involved in fungal biofilm formation, were upregulated in the presence of S. mutans. Subsequently, we found that S. mutans-derived glucosyltransferase B (GtfB) itself can promote C. albicans biofilm development. Interestingly, GtfB was able to increase the expression of HWP1, ALS1, and ALS3 genes in the C. albicans diploid wild-type SC5314 and bcr1Δ/Δ, leading to enhanced fungal biofilms. Hence, the present study demonstrates that a bacterial exoenzyme (GtfB) augments the C. albicans counterpart in mixed-species biofilms through a BCR1-independent mechanism. This novel finding may explain the mutualistic role of S. mutans and C. albicans in cariogenic biofilms.

  1. Inhibitory Effect of Alpha-Mangostin on Adhesion of Candida albicans to Denture Acrylic

    OpenAIRE

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting denture wearers. It is characterized by the presence of yeast biofilm on the denture, primarily associated with C. albicans. The investigation of agents that can reduce C. albicans adhesion may represent a significant advancement in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic and germ tube ...

  2. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Jintae

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO), which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...

  3. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans após transplante penetrante de córnea: relato de caso Candida albicans endophthalmitis following penetrating corneal graft: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucio de Godoy

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente submetida a transplante penetrante de córnea por ceratocone que evoluiu com resposta inflamatória exacerbada durante o período pós-operatório, suspeitando-se, inicialmente, de rejeição atípica e intensa ao botão doador. Houve períodos de melhora, seguidos por períodos de piora a cada tentativa de se reduzir o corticóide tópico. Iniciou-se terapia imunossupressora com ciclosporina via oral e altas doses de corticóide tópico, porém, a paciente desenvolveu endoftalmite por Candida albicans com acometimento do segmento anterior do olho e do corpo vítreo, mas sem surgimento de lesões coriorretinianas. Evoluiu de forma satisfatória após três injeções de anfotericina B 5µg intravítrea, cetoconazol 400 mg/dia via oral e clotrimazol tópico de 4/4 horas. Os autores discutem também as principais possibilidades de contaminação da paciente, sendo o quadro infeccioso provavelmente relacionado ao procedimento cirúrgico.The authors report a case of a patient submitted to penetrating corneal graft for keratoconus with an exaggerated inflammatory response during the postoperative period. The patient was suspected of having an atypical rejection to the donor button. There were periods of improvement, followed by periods of worsening of the inflammation at each attempt of reducing the topical corticosteroid. After initiating immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporin and high doses of topical corticosteroid, the patient developed Candida albicans endophthalmitis affecting the anterior segment of the eye and the vitreous body, but sparing the chorioretina. The patient improved after three injections of 5 µg intravitreal amphotericin B, 400 mg oral ketoconazole daily and topical clotrimazole every four hours. The authors also discuss the main possibilities of contamination of the patient, the infectious picture probably being related to the surgical procedure.

  4. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  5. Cranberry proanthocyanidins inhibit the adherence properties of Candida albicans and cytokine secretion by oral epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral candidiasis is a common fungal disease mainly caused by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A-type cranberry proanthocyanidins (AC-PACs) on pathogenic properties of C. albicans as well as on the inflammatory response of oral epithelial cells induced by this oral pathogen. Methods Microplate dilution assays were performed to determine the effect of AC-PACs on C. albicans growth as well as biofilm formation stained with crystal violet. Adhesion of FITC-labeled C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and to acrylic resin disks was monitored by fluorometry. The effects of AC-PACs on C. albicans-induced cytokine secretion, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 activation and kinase phosphorylation in oral epithelial cells were determined by immunological assays. Results Although AC-PACs did not affect growth of C. albicans, it prevented biofilm formation and reduced adherence of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells and saliva-coated acrylic resin discs. In addition, AC-PACs significantly decreased the secretion of IL-8 and IL-6 by oral epithelial cells stimulated with C. albicans. This anti-inflammatory effect was associated with reduced activation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylation of specific signal intracellular kinases. Conclusion AC-PACs by affecting the adherence properties of C. albicans and attenuating the inflammatory response induced by this pathogen represent potential novel therapeutic agents for the prevention/treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:22248145

  6. Gene expression profile of THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-De; Wei, Ting-Ting; Tang, Qing-Qin; Ma, Ning; Wang, Li-Li; Qin, Bao-Dong; Yin, Jian-Rong; Zhou, Lin; Zhong, Ren-Qian

    2016-05-01

    Mechanisms under immune response against Candida albicans (C. albicans) remain largely unknown. To better understand the mechanisms of innate immune response against C. albicans, we analyzed the gene expression profile of THP-1 cells stimulated with heat-killed C. albicans. THP-1 cells were stimulated with heat-killed C. albicans for 9 hours at a ratio of 1:1, and gene expression profile of the cells was analyzed using Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarray. Differentially expressed genes were defined as change folds more than 2 and with statistical significance. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway analysis were used to systematically identify biological connections of differentially expressed genes, as well as the pathways associated with the immune response against C. albicans. A total of 355 genes were up-regulated and 715 genes were down-regulated significantly. The up-regulated genes were particularly involved in biological process of RNA processing and pathway of the spliceosome. In case of down-regulated genes, the particularly involved immune-related pathways were G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway and Ras pathway. We depict the gene expression profile of heat-killed C. albicans stimulated THP-1 cells, and identify the major pathways involved in immune response against C. albicans. These pathways are potential candidate targets for developing anti-C. albicans agent.

  7. The role of pattern recognition receptors in the innate recognition of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan-Xin; Wang, Yan; Hu, Dan-Dan; Yan, Lan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and a major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Yeast-hypha morphological transition is a well known virulence trait of C. albicans. Host innate immunity to C. albicans critically requires pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this review, we summarize the PRRs involved in the recognition of C. albicans in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and phagocytic cells separately. We figure out the differential recognition of yeasts and hyphae, the findings on PRR-deficient mice, and the discoveries on human PRR-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). PMID:25714264

  8. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicans colony forming units at a depth of 0–100 µm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100–200 µm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans. PMID:23538639

  9. Factors Influencing Non-albicans Candidemia: A Case-Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Valachis, Antonis; Dimopoulou, Dimitra; Andrianaki, Angeliki M; Christidou, Athanasia; Maraki, Sofia; Spernovasilis, Nikolaos A; Samonis, George

    2017-08-01

    The study identified factors predisposing to non-albicans candidemia with special interest to prior antimicrobial treatment. A retrospective, case-case-control study was performed at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Greece, from November 2007 through September 2011 including adult patients. The study had three groups. The first included 58 patients with non-albicans candidemia, the second 48 with C. albicans candidemia, while the third (control) 104 without candidemia. Each of the two candidemia groups was compared with the control using multivariate logistic regression model. The mean (SD) age of the non-albicans, the albicans and the control patients was 67 (12), 67 (18) and 59 (19) years, respectively. The most common non-albicans Candida spp. isolated were C. parapsilosis in 19 patients (33%), C. glabrata in 17 (29%) and C. tropicalis in 15 (26%). Independent risk factors for non-albicans candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p candidemia were prior treatment with quinolones (p candidemia groups. The study reveals the role of antimicrobial exposure as a risk factor for candidemia caused by different species. Prior treatment with b-lactam-b-lactamase inhibitors was associated with non-albicans, while with carbapenems with C. albicans candidemia. Prior use of quinolones was associated with candidemia in general.

  10. Genetic relationships of Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains isolated from a diphtheria case and carriers by restriction fragment length polymorphism of rRNA genes Relação genética de cepas de Corynebacterium diphtheriae isoladas de caso e seus contatos por RLFP de rRNA gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tavares Sacchi

    1995-08-01

    do nariz tiveram padrões idênticos com as 4 enzimas de restrição usadas, ribotipo B. A distância genética deste ribotipo e o ribotipo A (cepa isolada da garganta do caso, que nós inicialmente assumimos ser responsável pela doença do paciente, foi de 0,450 mostrando pouca relação genética entre estes dois ribotipos. Nós não encontramos diferenças relativas à produção de toxina usando método de cultura celular entre as cepas. Em conclusão, o uso de RLFP de rRNA gene foi satisfatório em detectar pequenas diferenças em cepas de C. diphtheriae toxigênicas epidemiologicamente relacionadas e em fornecer informação sobre a relação genética entre elas.

  11. EFEITO AGUDO DA REEDUCAÇÃO POSTURAL GLOBAL SOBRE A ESCOLIOS CONGENITA

    OpenAIRE

    BARACAT, P. J. F.

    2015-01-01

    A escoliose é uma deformidade tridimensional da coluna vertebral1 que pode ocorrer em qualquer fase da vida, por diferentes razões, porém, quando iniciada de forma prematura, na infância ou durante o período gestacional, maior o risco de se tornar grave3 e necessitar de tratamento cirúrgico. A Reeducação Postural Global (RPG) tem sido bastante utilizada no tratamento conservador das escolioses2 , de forma isolada ou aliada ao uso de colete de Milwaukee quando ainda exis...

  12. Tecnologia da obtenção de comprimidos de digoxina

    OpenAIRE

    Yvone Baptista Pompeo

    1983-01-01

    Foi realizado um estudo de pré-formulação, empregando adjuvantes escolhidos por preencherem pré-requisitos tecnológicos e econômicos, sendo determinada a formulação mais viável tecnologicamente. A formulação proposta foi avaliada quanto a estabilidade do princípio ativo e parâmetros de qualidade da forma farmacêutica frente a diversos fatores externos. Vários métodos de doseamento foram estudados quanto a viabilidade de aplicação na quantificação da digoxina isolada e contida nas diversas fas...

  13. Arachidonic acid affects biofilm formation and PGE2 level in Candida albicans and non-albicans species in presence of subinhibitory concentration of fluconazole and terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nripendra Nath; Ali, Shakir; Shukla, Praveen K

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans utilizes arachidonic acid (AA) released during the course of infection (Candidiasis) from phospholipids of infected host cell membranes and synthesizes extracellular prostaglandin(s) which play an important role in hyphae formation and host cell damage. C. albicans biofilms secrete significantly more prostaglandin(s) and evidence suggests that Candida biofilms have dramatically reduced susceptibility to majority of antifungal drugs. AA influences the saturation level of lipids and fluidity of yeast cell membranes. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AA alone or in combination with antifungal agents on biofilm formation and production of prostaglandin (PGE2) in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, and C. albicans amphotericin B resistant strain (AmBR). Maximum biofilm formation was found to be in the case of C. albicans compared to C. non-albicans species. However, among the non-albicans species C. tropicalis exhibited highest biofilm formation. Treatment with AA in combination with subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole and terbinafine separately exhibited significant (p<0.05) reduction in biofilm formation against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and AmBR as compared to their individual effect. Further, these two antifungal agents in combination with AA caused an increase in production of prostaglandin from fungal cell itself which was significant (p<0.05) in case of all the strains tested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. The MP65 gene is required for cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation in Candida albicans

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    Girolamo Antonietta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MP65 gene of Candida albicans (orf19.1779 encodes a putative β-glucanase mannoprotein of 65 kDa, which plays a main role in a host-fungus relationship, morphogenesis and pathogenicity. In this study, we performed an extensive analysis of a mp65Δ mutant to assess the role of this protein in cell wall integrity, adherence to epithelial cells and biofilm formation. Results The mp65Δ mutant showed a high sensitivity to a range of cell wall-perturbing and degrading agents, especially Congo red, which induced morphological changes such as swelling, clumping and formation of hyphae. The mp65Δ mutant showed an activation of two MAPKs (Mkc1p and Cek1p, a high level of expression of two stress-related genes (DDR48 and SOD5, and a modulated expression of β-glucan epitopes, but no gross changes in cell wall polysaccharide composition. Interestingly, the mp65Δ mutant displayed a marked reduction in adhesion to BEC and Caco-2 cells and severe defects in biofilm formation when compared to the wild type. All of the mentioned properties were totally or partially recovered in a revertant strain, demonstrating the specificity of gene deletion. Conclusions We demonstrate that the MP65 gene of Candida albicans plays a significant role in maintaining cell wall integrity, as well as in adherence to epithelia and biofilm formation, which are major virulence attributes of this fungus.

  15. Suscetibilidade in vitro a antibióticos de cepas de Staphylococcus spp e Micrococcus spp isoladas a partir de mucosa oral de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella mantidos em cativeiro

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    Daniel Aspis

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado com 29 macacos-pregos (Cebus apella. Foram colhidas 50 amostras de suabe da mucosa oral, junto à transição muco-gengival maxilar, com auxílio de zaragatoas esterilizadas, embebidas em caldo Brain Heart Infusion (BHI. Todos os animais foram submetidos a exame clínico para avaliação periodontal. As amostras obtidas foram cultivadas em meios apropriados: caldo simples, caldo BHI, e ágar sangue para o isolamento de cocos Gram-positivos aeróbios da família Micrococcaceae. Para sua classificação utilizou-se as provas de catalase, Staphy-test (teste rápido para caracterização de Staphylococcus aureus e sensibilidade à bacitracina. Foram identificados 73,1% de Staphylococcus spp; 15,4% de Staphylococcus aureus; e 11,5% Micrococcus spp. As cepas isoladas foram testadas em relação à sua suscetibilidade a antibióticos pela técnica de difusão em ágar. Verificou-se para as cepas de Staphylococcus spp, 94,7% de sensibilidade a cefalotina e resistência de 89,5% à penicilina, 97,4% à oxacilina, 55,3% à tetraciclina, 57,9% à clindamicina e 63,2% à amoxicilina. Os dados obtidos demonstraram que a cefalotina foi o antibiótico para o qual as amsotras de Staphylococcus spp estudadas apresentaram, in vitro, maior grau de sensibilidade.

  16. Study of bacteria isolated from the foot pad of Spheniscus magellanicus with and without bumblefoot Estudo de bactérias isoladas de coxins plantares de Spheniscus magellanicus com e sem bumblefoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Osório

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bumblefoot or pododermatitis is among the diseases with the highest morbidity in Magellanic penguins, sometimes evolving to septicemia and death. Therefore, this study aimed to relate the main species involved in the disorder, as well as the in vitro susceptibility profile of the microorganisms against routine antimicrobial usage in Veterinary Medicine. During two years in vivo material was harvested from 200 footpads (n=100 animals for microbiological analysis and in vitro susceptibility tests against the Antibiotic enrofloxacin, streptomycin, penicillin and cephalosporin. Bacteria have been identified both as part of permanent and transient microbiota, also being associated to 100% of the pododermatitis cases. The most prevalent genus were Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. The antibiograms of all the isolated bacteria resulted in greater susceptibility of the strains facing cephalosporin, followed by enrofloxacin, streptomycin and penicillin.O bumblefoot ou pododermatite está entre as afecções de maior morbidade em pinguins-de-magalhães, podendo evoluir para septicemia e óbito. Portanto, o presente estudo objetivou relacionar as principais espécies bacterianas envolvidas na afecção, bem como o perfil de susceptibilidade in vitro destes microrganismos frente a antimicrobianos de uso rotineiro em medicina veterinária. Durante o período de dois anos, foi realizada colheita de material in vivo de 200 coxins plantares (n=100 animais para análise microbiológica e testes de susceptibilidade in vitro frente aos antibióticos enrofloxacina, estreptomicina, penicilina e cefalosporina. Bactérias foram identificadas tanto como parte da microbiota permanente quanto da transitória, bem como estiveram associadas a 100% dos casos de pododermatite. Os gêneros mais prevalentes foram Staphylococcus e Corynebacterium. Os antibiogramas de todas as bactérias isoladas resultaram em maior sensibilidade das cepas frente à cefalosporina, seguida

  17. Adherence of yeast and filamentous forms of Candida albicans to cultured enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Stephen M; Bendel, Catherine M; Hess, Donavon J; Erlandsen, Stanley L; Wells, Carol L

    2002-03-01

    Systemic candidiasis is a major cause of complicating infections in intensive care units. Morbidity and mortality are high, even in those who receive appropriate antifungal therapy. Because the intestinal tract is considered a major portal of entry for systemic candidiasis, experiments were designed to clarify the ability of yeast and filamentous forms, as well as the INT1 gene product, to influence adherence of Candida albicans to the intestinal epithelium. Controlled. University teaching hospital research laboratory. Mature Caco-2 and HT-29 cultured enterocytes. C. albicans INT1 mutant strains, defective in filament production, were used to observe the ultrastructural surface interactions of C. albicans with cultured intestinal epithelial cells, namely Caco-2 and HT-29 cells. These mutant strains also were used to quantify the effect of the INT1 gene product on C. albicans adherence (yeast and filamentous forms) to cultured enterocytes. Ultrastructural surface interactions of C. albicans with cultured enterocytes were observed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy. C. albicans adherence to cultured enterocytes was quantified by using a colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Both yeast and filamentous forms of C. albicans appeared tightly adherent to the apical surface of cultured enterocytes, and INT1 appeared to have little, if any, effect on these ultrastructural surface interactions. The distal ends of C. albicans filaments appeared to mediate adherence to enterocyte apical microvilli, and thigmotropism (contact guidance) appeared to play a role in C. albicans adherence. The absence of functional INT1 was associated with decreased adherence of C. albicans yeast forms to cultured enterocytes. Although functional INT1 appeared to facilitate adherence of C. albicans yeast forms to cultured enterocytes, the role of INT1 in adherence of filamentous forms was unclear, and both yeast and filamentous forms could adhere to, and perhaps invade, the

  18. Genes de enterotoxinas e perfil antimicrobiano de Escherichia coli isoladas de suínos hígidos no Distrito Federal

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    V.O. Drummond

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 127 cepas de Escherichia coli foi isolado de suínos no Distrito Federal, testado para a presença de genes de enterotoxinas (STa, LT-I, LT-II, Stx1 e Stx2 e para resistência antimicrobiana. Das cepas isoladas, oito (6,3% possuíam genes para enterotoxinas, sendo quatro (3,2% positivas somente para LT-I, três (2,4% somente para STa e uma (0,8% positiva para STa e LT-I. Nenhuma das cepas isoladas apresentou genes para LT-II, Stx1 ou Stx2. Quanto ao perfil de resistência antimicrobiano, os antibióticos com maiores porcentagens de resistência foram lincomicina (100%, sulfonamidas (74,8% e tetraciclina (70,1%, enquanto os maiores índices de sensibilidade foram observados na norfloxacina (82,7%, gentamicina (75,6% e sulfametoxazol + trimetoprim (63%. Esses resultados demonstraram a presença de genes de enterotoxinas e altas taxas de resistência antimicrobiana em E. coli isoladas de suínos hígidos no DF.

  19. Candida albicans biofilm development in vitro for photodynamic therapy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Luis Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a phototherapy based on the use of a photo sensitizer (PS) in the presence of low intensity light with resonant wavelength of absorption of the PS and biological systems that can raise awareness, generating reactive oxygen species. Studies show that PDT has a lethal effect on Candida albicans. The biofilm formed by C. albicans is the cause of infections associated with medical devices such as catheters, with a proven resistance to antifungal agents, and the removal of the catheter colonized almost always is necessary. However, few studies in literature report the behavior and response of biofilm organized by C. albicans against PDT. The aims of this study were to develop a methodology for in vitro biofilm formation of C. albicans, evaluate the sensitivity of the biofilm of C. albicans to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using PS as the methylene blue (MB) and hypocrellin B: La +3 (HBL a+3 ) and analyze the biofilm by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For biofilm formation, discs were made from elastomeric silicone catheters. The PS were dissolved in solution of PBS, and the MB had two different concentrations tested in the biofilm: 100μM and 1mM; HBLa +3 only one of 10μM. The irradiation of both dyes with the microorganism was done by two different LEDs, one with red emission at λ = 630nm ± 20nm and the other one blue emission at λ = 460nm ± 30nm. We performed a curve of survival fraction versus time of irradiation of each sample with biofilm and suspension of the microorganism in the yeast form to verify the susceptibility of the front PDT. The yeast showed 100% reduction using both PS, but at different times of irradiation (30s to HBLa +3 and 6 min for the MB at 100μM). When the therapy was applied in biofilm, the MB 100μM did not show any significant reduction, while at concentration of 1mM was reduced by 100% after 6 min of irradiation. The HBLa +3 biofilm group showed a lower reduction in the concentration of 10μM in

  20. Colonoscopia ou sigmoidoscopia: risco de lesões isoladas no cólon direito Colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy: risk of isolated right colon lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Shigueo NAKAO

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Racional — Atualmente existem dúvidas quanto ao método ideal de rastreio e vigilância para o câncer colorretal. A retossigmoidoscopia é preconizada, já que é barata, eficaz e causa pouco desconforto, mas não pode diagnosticar tumores do cólon proximal. Objetivo - Avaliar quantas lesões encontradas no cólon proximal seriam perdidas caso a colonoscopia só fosse empregada em pacientes com lesões detectadas durante sigmoidoscopia. Casuística e Método - Foram revistas as colonoscopias consecutivas com achado de pólipos ou neoplasia, realizadas no Setor de Endoscopia da Disciplina de Gastroenterologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo, excluindo pacientes repetidos, operados ou com doença inflamatória intestinal. Resultados - Cento e um exames foram elegíveis, sendo 45 pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade média foi 62 anos (DP ± 13,7 anos. Cento e oito fragmentos foram enviados separadamente para exame anatomopatológico, sendo 38 com suspeita de neoplasia e 70 pólipos. Ao se considerarem apenas os achados no cólon proximal, observou-se o total de 45 lesões, sendo 23 adenomas, 10 adenocarcinomas, 1 linfoma e 11 lesões benignas. Destas lesões, 28 eram isoladas, sendo 16 adenomas, 7 adenocarcinomas. Conclusão — Observaram-se que 23 pacientes (22,77% tinham adenoma ou adenocarcinoma apenas no cólon direito, que não seriam diagnosticados se sigmoidoscopia flexível fosse usada isoladamente.Background — Colorectal cancer is an important cause of death in western countries. Screening methods are based on flexible sigmoidoscopy, a cheap, effective, and less painful procedure, but some important lesions on the right colon can be missed. Aim - Evaluate how many important lesions would be missed if colonoscopy indicated only for patients with distal lesions identified during flexible sigmoidoscopy. Material and Methods - All consecutive colonoscopy performed in the Endoscopy Unit of the Gastroenterology Division of Federal

  1. Susceptibilidade in vitro a antimicrobianos da Mannheimia haemolytica e da Pasteurella multocida isoladas de ovinos sadios e com doenças respiratórias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leomar Viana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida e Mannheimia haemolytica (P. haemolytica estão associadas a enfermidades no sistema respiratório de ovinos. Com o objetivo de avaliar a susceptibilidade in vitro destes microrganismos frente aos antimicrobianos, foram colhidas amostras de nasofaringe (n=180 e orofaringe (n=82 de ovinos com e sem enfermidade respiratória. Dentre os antimicrobianos testados, a sensibilidade foi maior para enrofloxacina (100% e florfenicol (100%, considerando-se ambas as espécies bacterianas. Observou-se resistência de M. haemolytica e P. multocida à tetraciclina (15,64% e 17,65%, respectivamente e penicilina (1.82% e 4.2%, respectivamente.

  2. The challenges of sustainable rural electrification in isolated communities of the Amazonia; Os desafios da eletrificacao rural sustentavel em comunidades isoladas da Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Rubem Cesar Rodrigues; Bacellar, Atlas Augusto; Seye, Omar; Goncalves, Cristiano; Cunha, Yasmine dos Santos Ribeiro; Souza, Fernando Cesar Rodrigues; Mota, Sheila Cordeiro; Sardinha, Marcia Drumond; Cunha, Priscila de Sa Leitao; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira; Costa, Whillison Bentes da; Silveira Junior, Wellyghan Assis [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Centro de Desenvolvimento Energetico Amazonico

    2008-07-01

    In this article some important elements are discussed in the challenge to make possible the isolated of the Amazon electric supply in maintainable bases. The discussion is made fundamentally starting from the experience lived in the project 'Model for Electric Power Enterprise in Isolated Communities in the Amazon - NERAM', financed by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq in the extent of the program 'Luz para Todos', being implemented by the Amazonian Center of Energy Development - CDEAM of Amazon Federal University - UFAM. The reading of the problem is focused in two aspects considered fundamental for the discussion, which they are: the generation of income and the generation, distribution and electric power sale. (author)

  3. Candida albicans biofilm on titanium: effect of peroxidase precoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois1,21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 2UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: The present study aimed to document Candida albicans biofilm development on titanium and its modulation by a peroxidase-precoated material which can generate antimicrobials, such as hypoiodite or hypothiocyanite, from hydrogen peroxide, iodide, or thiocyanate. For this purpose, titanium (powder or foil was suspended in Sabouraud liquid medium inoculated with C. albicans ATCC10231. After continuous stirring for 2–21 days at room temperature, the supernatant was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm and titanium washed three times in sterile Sabouraud broth. Using the tetrazolium salt MTT-formazan assay, the titanium-adherent fungal biomass was measured as 7.50 ± 0.60 × 106 blastoconidia per gram of titanium powder (n = 30 and 0.50 ± 0.04 × 106 blastoconidia per cm² of titanium foil (n = 12. The presence of yeast on the surface of titanium was confirmed by microscopy both on fresh preparations and after calcofluor white staining. However, in the presence of peroxidase systems (lactoperoxidase with substrates such as hydrogen peroxide donor, iodide, or thiocyanate, Candida growth in both planktonic and attached phases appeared to be inhibited. Moreover, this study demonstrates the possible partition of peroxidase systems between titanium material (peroxidase-precoated and liquid environment (containing peroxidase substrates to limit C. albicans biofilm formation.Keywords: adhesion, material, oral, yeast

  4. Property differences among the four major Candida albicans strain clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, Donna M; Castillo, Luis; Nather, Kerstin; Munro, Carol A; Brown, Alistair J P; Gow, Neil A R; Odds, Frank C

    2009-03-01

    A selection of 43 Candida albicans isolates, chosen to represent the four major strain clades of the species and also intraclade diversity, was screened for their virulence in the murine intravenous challenge model of C. albicans infection, for a range of properties measurable in vitro that might relate to virulence, and for the numbers of midrepeat sequences in genes of the ALS and HYR families. Heterozygosity at the mating type locus and low whole-cell acid phosphatase activity and growth rate at 40 degrees C were found to be significantly positively associated with the most virulent isolates. Acid phosphatase activity and growth in 2 M NaCl were statistically significant variables between clades by univariate analysis. Isolates in different clades also differed significantly in midrepeat sequence alleles of ALS2, ALS4, ALS6, ALS7, ALS9, HYR1, and HYR2. There was no association between the midrepeat alleles of any ALS or HYR gene and the virulence of isolates to mice. Genome-wide transcript profiles of 20 isolates (5 per clade) grown under two conditions showed considerable variation between individual isolates, but only a small number of genes showed statistically significant differential gene expression between clades. Analysis of the expression profiles by overall strain virulence revealed 18 open reading frames differing significantly between isolates of high, intermediate, and low virulence. Four of these genes encoded functions related to phosphate uptake and metabolism. This finding and the significant association between whole-cell acid phosphatase activity and virulence led us to disrupt PHO100, which encodes a predicted periplasmic acid phosphatase. The pho100Delta mutant was mildly but significantly attenuated in terms of survival curves in the mouse model. The study has extended the range of properties known to differ between C. albicans clades and suggests a possible but minor role of phosphate metabolism in the virulence of the species.

  5. Optimization and Validation of Multilocus Sequence Typing for Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Gow, Neil A. R.; Senesi, Sonia; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Odds, Frank C.

    2003-01-01

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was applied to 75 Candida albicans isolates, including 2 that were expected to be identical, 48 that came from diverse geographical and clinical sources, and 15 that were sequential isolates from two patients. DNA fragments (≈500 bp) of eight genes encoding housekeeping functions were sequenced, including four that have been described before for C. albicans MLST, and four new gene fragments, AAT1a, AAT1b, MPI, and ZWF1. In total, 87 polymorphic sites were found among 50 notionally different isolates, giving 46 unique sequence types, underlining the power of MLST to differentiate isolates for epidemiological studies. Additional typing information was obtained by detecting variations in size at the transcribed spacer region of the 25S rRNA gene and tests for homozygosity at the mating type-like (MTL) locus. The stability of MLST was confirmed in two sets of consecutive isolates from two patients. In each set the isolates were identical or varied by a single nucleotide. Reference strain SC5314 and a derived mutant, CAF2, gave identical MLST types. Heterozygous polymorphisms were found in at least one isolate for all but 16 (18.4%) of the variable nucleotides, and 35 (41%) of the 87 individual sequence changes generated nonsynonymous amino acids. Cloning and restriction digestion of a gene fragment containing heterozygous polymorphisms indicated that the heterozygosity was genuine and not the result of sequencing errors. Our data validate and extend previous MLST results for C. albicans, and we propose an optimized system based on sequencing eight gene fragments for routine MLST with this species. PMID:12904388

  6. Selection of aptamers for Candida albicans by cell-SELEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Alessandra Nunes Duarte

    2017-01-01

    The growing concern with invasive fungal infections, responsible for an alarming mortality rate of immunosuppressed patients and in Intensive Care Units, evidences the need for a fast and specific method for the Candida albicans detection, since this species is identified as one of the main causes of septicemia. Commonly, it is a challenge for clinicians to determine the primary infection foci, the dissemination degree, or whether the site of a particular surgery is involved. Although scintigraphic imaging represents a promising tool for infectious foci detection, it still lacks a methodology for C. albicans diagnosis due to the absence of specific radiotracers for this microorganism. Aptamers are molecules that have almost ideal properties for use as diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals, such as high specificity for their molecular targets, lack of immunogenicity and toxicity, high tissue penetration and rapid blood clearance. Aptamers can also be labeled with different radionuclides. This work aims to obtain aptamers for specific binding to C. albicans cells for future application as a radiopharmaceutical. It was used a variation of the SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential Enrichment) technique, termed cell-SELEX, in which cells are the targets for selection. A selection protocol was standardized using a random library of single-stranded oligonucleotides, each containing two fixed regions flanking a sequence of 40 random nucleotides. This library was incubated with C. albicans cells in the presence of competitors. Then, the binding sequences were separated by centrifugation, resuspended and amplified by PCR. The amplification was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. After that, the ligands were purified to obtain a new pool of ssDNA, from which a new incubation was carried out. The selection parameters were gradually modified in order to increase stringency. This cycle was repeated 12 times to allow the selection of sequences with the maximum

  7. Genoma de Candida albicans y resistencia a las drogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cruz Quintana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans es un importante patógeno fúngico en los humanos tanto por su importan - cia clínica como por su uso como un modelo experimental para la investigación científica. La comprensión de la biología de este patógeno es un requisito importante para la identificación de nuevas dianas de medicamentos para la terapia antifúngica. En esta revisión nos proponemos profundizar en las características del genoma de Candida albicans, su relación con la virulen - cia y cómo influye en la resistencia a las drogas antifùngicas, que nos permita comprender los mecanismos por los cuales ejerce su acción patógena y desarrollar otros enfoques en la búsqueda de nuevos antifúngicos. La revisión se realizó a través de los buscadores y plataformas HINARI , SciELO y MEDLINE . Se revisaron 40 revistas de impacto de la Web of Science relacionadas con el tema. Los descriptores empleados fueron: “genome of Candida albicans”, “drug resistance genes”, “dimorphism”, “virulence” y la combinación entre ellos y sus equivalentes en español. El análisis de los genomas fúngicos hace posible predecir el rol de genes con potencial terapéu - tico, con la secuenciación del genoma de Candida albicans ha aumentado la información sobre la función de los genes, entre los que destacan los posibles objetivos farmacológicos. El estudio del genoma de Candida albicans resulta imprescindible para diseñar en el futuro protocolos diagnósticos seguros, así como hallar nuevas dianas antifúngicas que permitan formular te - rapias más efectivas.

  8. Analgesic effects of crude extracts of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, M A Lemos; Ferreira, D da Silva; Andrade e Silva, M L; Veneziani, R Cassio Sola; Cunha, W R

    2003-10-01

    The present study describes the analgesic effects of the crude extracts (hexane, methylene chloride and ethanol) obtained from the aerial parts of Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae) using the writhing test and the hot plate models for pain in mice. The extracts in hexane and methylene chloride, given orally, produced significant antinociception in the writhing test. On the other hand, none of the extracts had a significant effect on the hot plate test, a fact suggesting that the substances present in the extracts may rather have peripheral analgesic activity.

  9. Screening antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of Iris albicans extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Işıl Hacıbekiroğlu; Ufuk Kolak

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of the extracts prepared from the rhizomes and flowering aerial parts of Iris albicans were determined in this study. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes was rich in total phenolic contents (431.98 ± 0.49 μgPEs/mg), and the chloroform extract of the aerial parts in total flavonoid contents (663.05 ± 0.32 μgQEs/mg). Although the chloroform extract of the rhizomes exhibited the best antioxidant effect in β -carotene bleaching and CUPRAC metho...

  10. A trypsin inhibitor from Tecoma stans leaves inhibits growth and promotes ATP depletion and lipid peroxidation in Candida albicans and Candida krusei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydianne Leite de Siqueira Patriota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tecoma stans (yellow elder has shown medicinal properties and antimicrobial activity. Previous reports on antifungal activity of T. stans preparations and presence of trypsin inhibitor activity from T. stans leaves stimulated the investigation reported here. In this work, we proceeded to the purification and characterization of a trypsin inhibitor (TesTI, which was investigated for anti-Candida activity. Finally, in order to determine the potential of TesTI as a new natural chemotherapeutic product, its cytotoxicity to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was evaluated. TesTI was isolated from saline extract by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by ion exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. Antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory (MIC and fungicide (MFC concentrations using fungal cultures containing only yeast form or both yeast and hyphal forms. Candida cells treated with TesTI were evaluated for intracellular ATP levels and lipid peroxidation. Cytotoxicity of TesTI to PBMCs was evaluated by MTT assay. TesTI (39.8 kDa, pI 3.41, Ki 43 nM inhibited similarly the growth of both C. albicans and C. krusei culture types at MIC of 100 µg/mL. The MFCs were 200 µg/mL for C. albicans and C. krusei. Time-response curves revealed that TesTI (at MIC was more effective at inhibiting the replication of C. albicans cells. At MIC, TesTI promoted reduction of ATP levels and lipid peroxidation in the Candida cells, being not cytotoxic to PBMCs. In conclusion, TesTI is an antifungal agent against C. albicans and C. krusei, without toxicity to human cells.

  11. Effects of depomedroxyprogesterone acetate on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agenor Storti-Filho

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA on the development and maintenance of Candida albicans in the vagina of oophorectomized Wistar rats. The animals were divided into negative control groups (NCG, which received injections of sterile saline; positive control groups (PCG, which were given injections of estradiol valerate; and progesterone groups (PG, which were given injections of Depo-Provera®. After one week of hormonal induction, vaginal infection by C. albicans was induced in all the groups and detected by vaginal yeast culture and Papanicolaou smear. In addition, scanning and transmission electron microscopy images were obtained to confirm the vaginal infection by yeast in PG. A difference in progesterone levels in PG was observed between the basal level and after hormonal induction (PO objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar os efeitos do acetato de depomedroxyprogesterona (ADMP no desenvolvimento e manutenção de Candida albicans na vagina de ratas Wistar ooferectomizadas. Os animais foram divididos em grupos controle negativos (GCN, que receberam injeções de salina estéril; grupos controle positivos (GCP, que receberam injeções de valerato de estradiol; e grupos progesterona (GP, nos quais foram feitas injeções de Depo-Provera®. Após uma semana da aplicação hormonal, foi induzida a infecção vaginal por C. albicans em todos os grupos, detectada por cultura para leveduras vaginais e esfregaço de Papanicolaou. Foram feitas ainda imagens por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e transmissão para confirmar a infecção pela levedura no GP. Foram observados diferentes níveis de progesterona em GP, entre os valores basais e após a indução hormonal (P<0,0001. Neste grupo, 100,0% das ratas contraíram a infecção vaginal na primeira semana, mas não a mantiveram até a terceira semana. A forma farmacêutica de ADMP foi efetiva em induzir as fases de metaestro e

  12. Candida albicans septicemia in a premature infant successfully treated with oral fluconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodé, S; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Lars; Hjelt, K

    1992-01-01

    A premature male infant, birth-weight 1460 g, was treated successfully for a Candida albicans septicemia with orally administered fluconazole for 20 days. Dosage was 5 mg/kg/day. No side effects were seen. Fluconazole may present a major progress in treatment of invasive C. albicans infections in...... in neonatology....

  13. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Silveira-Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. METHODS: Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. RESULTS: Our results showed that 17 (21.5% isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4% of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  14. Candida albicans septicemia in a premature infant successfully treated with oral fluconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodé, S; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Lars; Hjelt, K

    1992-01-01

    A premature male infant, birth-weight 1460 g, was treated successfully for a Candida albicans septicemia with orally administered fluconazole for 20 days. Dosage was 5 mg/kg/day. No side effects were seen. Fluconazole may present a major progress in treatment of invasive C. albicans infections...

  15. The efficacy of crude extract of Aloe secundiflora on Candida Albicans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In- vitro studies on the efficacy of crude extracts of Aloe secundiflora on Candida albicans was conducted. Five mature leaves of Aloe secundiflora were collected and the crude extract was prepared, then autoclaved. The extract was then tested on Candida albicans grown on solid media. The results from these studies ...

  16. Effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy on Candida albicans biofilms: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hang; Li, Jiyang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Hongying

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the photoinactivation of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) has been investigated on Candida albicans biofilms in vitro. After culture and proliferation of Candida albicans biofilms in vitro, the metabolic activity was confirmed using XTT reduction assay. Then, the suitable incubation time and concentration of ALA were determined by measuring PpIX accumulation quantities. Photosensitivity of the biofilms treated with ALA solution was studied in optical doses of 50, 100, 200 and 300J/cm(2) while light irradiation was applied by a red light semiconductor. Finally, rapid immunofluorescence staining method using the LIVE/DEAD FungaLight Yeast Viability Kit and XTT assay were conducted to visualize and quantify the antifungal effect of ALA-PDT on Candida albicans biofilms. A 5h incubation time and 15mM ALA concentration were determined for this study. Photoinactivation of ALA-PDT on Candida albicans biofilms showed a significant increase of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in the biofilms. The metabolic activity of Candida albicans biofilms tread with ALA-PDT confirmed the inhibition efficacy compared with control groups. Upon radiation at 300J/cm(2), cells in Candida albicans biofilms were 74.45% inhibited. PpIX can be absorbed in biofilm-grown Candida albicans in vitro and under appropriate parameters, photochemistry can be triggered by light in combination with ALA and inhibits Candida albicans biofilms effectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal ...

  18. Dynamic Transcript Profiling of Candida albicans Infection in Zebrafish: A Pathogen-Host Interaction Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fu-Chen; Hsu, Po-Chen; Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Peng, Shih-Chi; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Lan, Chung-Yu; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Wong, David Shan Hill

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is responsible for a number of life-threatening infections and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Previous studies of C. albicans pathogenesis have suggested several steps must occur before virulent infection, including early adhesion, invasion, and late tissue damage. However, the mechanism that triggers C. albicans transformation from yeast to hyphae form during infection has yet to be fully elucidated. This study used a systems biology approach to investigate C. albicans infection in zebrafish. The surviving fish were sampled at different post-infection time points to obtain time-lapsed, genome-wide transcriptomic data from both organisms, which were accompanied with in sync histological analyses. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the dynamic gene expression profiles of significant variations in both C. albicans and zebrafish. The results categorized C. albicans infection into three progressing phases: adhesion, invasion, and damage. Such findings were highly supported by the corresponding histological analysis. Furthermore, the dynamic interspecies transcript profiling revealed that C. albicans activated its filamentous formation during invasion and the iron scavenging functions during the damage phases, whereas zebrafish ceased its iron homeostasis function following massive hemorrhage during the later stages of infection. Most of the immune related genes were expressed as the infection progressed from invasion to the damage phase. Such global, inter-species evidence of virulence-immune and iron competition dynamics during C. albicans infection could be crucial in understanding control fungal pathogenesis. PMID:24019870

  19. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion of mucosal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlecht, L.M.; Peters, B.M.; Krom, B.P.; Freiberg, J.A.; Hänsch, G.M.; Filler, S.G.; Jabra-Rizk, M.A.; Shirtliff, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated in cases of biofilm-associated infections. C. albicans can cause systemic disease through morphological switch from the rounded yeast to the invasive hyphal form. Alternatively, systemic S. aureus infections arise from seeding through

  20. A novel immunocompetent murine model for Candida albicans-promoted oral epithelial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, P P; Mallya, S; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2009-03-01

    Candida albicans is a common opportunistic pathogen found in the oral mucosa. Clinical observations indicate a significant positive association between oral Candida carriage or infection and oral epithelial dysplasia/neoplasia. The aim of this study was to test whether C. albicans is able to promote epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma in a mouse model of infection where a carcinogen (4 Nitroquinoline 1-oxide [4NQO]) was used as initiator of neoplasia. Mice were divided into four groups: group 1 received 4NQO alone; group 2 received 4NQO followed by C. albicans (ATCC 90234); group 3 received vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) followed by C. albicans and group 4 was untreated. Although 4NQO treated mice did not develop oral lesions, mice exposed to both 4NQO and C. albicans developed oral dysplastic lesions 19 weeks after exposure to 4NQO. Mice challenged with C. albicans only developed hyperplastic lesions. The expression of Ki-67 and p16, two cell-cycle associated proteins that are frequently deregulated in oral dysplasia/neoplasia, was also tested in these lesions. Ki-67 and p16 expression increased from normal to hyperplastic to dysplastic mucosa and was highest in the group exposed to both 4NQO and C. albicans. In conclusion, we showed that C. albicans plays a role in the promotion of oral dysplasia in a mouse model of infection when 4NQO was used as initiator of oral neoplasia.

  1. Stability of candida albicans over long and short term storage in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We thus,set out to study the stability of Candida albicans over long and short term storage in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: One hundred Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and oral candidiasis were preserved in triplicates using sterile distilled water,Chromagar plate ...

  2. Efek Penambahan Glukosa pada Saburoud Dextrose Broth terhadap Pertumbuhan Candida albicans (Uji In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi A. Leepel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate intake is one of predisposing factors of oral candidiasis. Objective: Investigating the effect of 1%,5%,10% glucose addition on the growth of C.albicans in vitro. Method: C.albicans sample was taken from oral swab of a male oral candidiasis patient. Identification of C.albicans was conducted using CHROMagar and confirmed by germ tube formation in serum. As a comparison, C.albicans ATCC10231 was used. After 2 days the cultures were serially diluted and inoculated in SDB without glucose, and with 1%,5%,10% addditional glucose, kept for 3 and 7 days in room temperature, then inoculated in SDA. The CFU/ml were counted after 2 days. ANOVA with α0.05 was used. Result: Statisticaly, additional 1% glucose for 3 days lead to significant decreased of growth of both clinical strain and ATCC 10231 C. albicans. However, only additional 5% and 10% glucose in clinical isolate for 7 days increased the growth of C.albicans significantly. Conclusion: The effect of additional glucose on the increased growth of C.albicans in vitro is influenced by the concentration, exposure duration of glucose, and by the strain of C.albicans.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i1.14

  3. Quantitative relationships of Candida albicans infections and dressing patterns in Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbe, I A; Elegbe, I

    1983-04-01

    Candida albicans colony counts were far higher in patients with vaginitis wearing tight fitting clothing than in patients wearing loose fitting clothing. In Ile-Ife, Nigeria, tight fitting dresses, woolen and corduroy jeans, coupled with nylon underwear, appear to create an environment favorable to Candida albicans colonization.

  4. The efficacy of gaseous ozone against different forms of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Zargaran

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Although ozone was highly effective on the yeast form of C. albicans and it can inhibit the formation of germ tubes in C. albicans, the complete removal of biofilms did not happen even after 60 min. It seems that ozone therapy induces resistance to amphotericin B.  

  5. Differentiation between Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis using hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Sarmento, Dayse Nogueira; Espírito-Santo, Elaine Patrícia Tavares do; Souza, Nádia de Oliveira; Pinto, Thifany Mendes; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2011-01-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised hosts are caused by Candida species, and the majority of such infections are due to Candida albicans. However, the emerging pathogen Candida dubliniensis demonstrates several phenotypic characteristics in common with C. albicans, such as production of germ tubes and chlamydospores, calling attention to the development of stable resistance to fluconazole in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of biochemistry identification in the differentiating between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, by phenotyping of yeast identified as C. albicans. Seventy-nine isolates identified as C. albicans by the API system ID 32C were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 30°C for 24-48h and then inoculated on hypertonic Sabouraud broth and tobacco agar. Our results showed that 17 (21.5%) isolates were growth-inhibited on hypertonic Sabouraud broth, a phenotypic trait inconsistent with C. albicans in this medium. However, the results observed on tobacco agar showed that only 9 (11.4%) of the growth-inhibited isolates produced characteristic colonies of C. dubliniensis (rough colonies, yellowish-brown with abundant fragments of hyphae and chlamydospores). The results suggest that this method is a simple tool for screening C. albicans and non-albicans yeast and for verification of automated identification.

  6. Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Candida albicans Increased Chitin Production and Modulated Human Fibroblast Cell Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humidah Alanazi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The predisposition of cigarette smokers for development of respiratory and oral bacterial infections is well documented. Cigarette smoke can also contribute to yeast infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC on C. albicans transition, chitin content, and response to environmental stress and to examine the interaction between CSC-pretreated C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. Following exposure to CSC, C. albicans transition from blastospore to hyphal form increased. CSC-pretreated yeast cells became significantly (P<0.01 sensitive to oxidation but significantly (P<0.01 resistant to both osmotic and heat stress. CSC-pretreated C. albicans expressed high levels of chitin, with 2- to 8-fold recorded under hyphal conditions. CSC-pretreated C. albicans adhered better to the gingival fibroblasts, proliferated almost three times more and adapted into hyphae, while the gingival fibroblasts recorded a significantly (P<0.01 slow growth rate but a significantly higher level of IL-1β when in contact with CSC-pretreated C. albicans. CSC was thus able to modulate both C. albicans transition through the cell wall chitin content and the interaction between C. albicans and normal human gingival fibroblasts. These findings may be relevant to fungal infections in the oral cavity in smokers.

  7. Comparison of Adherence of Candida Albicans on Amalgam, Light Cure Composite and Glass Ionomer: an In vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi A.; Falahati M.; Heshmat H.; Entezari N.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in the human oral cavity. 85% of this infection is caused by Candida albicans. Although there is considerable information about the adhesion of Candida albicans to the epithelial cells and prosthetic materials, there are very few studies in regard to the adhesion of Candida albicans to various restorative dental materials.Purpose: This study aimed to compare the adhesion of Candida albicans to three restorative materials, a...

  8. Resultados do reparo artroscópico das roturas isoladas do tendão do músculo subescapular Results from arthroscopic repair of isolated tears of the subscapulars tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaydson Gomes Godinho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados funcionais, clínicos e identificar fatores prognósticos nos pacientes operados com rotura isolada do tendão subescapular por via artroscópica MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 2003 a maio de 2009, identificamos 18 ombros com roturas-desinserções isoladas, completas ou de pelo menos um terço do tendão subescapular submetidos ao reparo artroscópico. RESULTADOS: Três ombros (17% apresentaram lesão do 1/3 superior do subescapular; nove ombros (50%, 2/3 superiores e desinserção completa em seis ombros (33%. Ao comparar-se a amplitude de rotação lateral do membro acometido no momento pré-operatório e no momento da reavaliação, não houve diferença estatística (p = 0,091. Houve o acometimento do TCLB em 11 ombros, 61%. De acordo com a validação do escore de Constant, obtivemos 83% de resultados excelentes e bons e 17%, razoáveis. Três pacientes no momento da reavaliação apresentaram ressonância magnética com re-rotura. A acromioplastia foi realizada em 10 casos. Não foi observada influência estatística deste procedimento nos resultados, p = 0,57. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação à rotação lateral pré-operatória comparando-se o lado acometido com o contralateral. Não houve perda significativa da rotação lateral pós-operatória. O TCLB pode apresentar-se normal nas desinserções do tendão do subescapular. A acromioplastia não influenciou os resultados. O índice de re-rotura do reparo artroscópico do tendão do subescapular foi de 16,6%.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional and clinical outcomes and identify prognostic factors in patients undergoing arthroscopic repair of isolated tears of the subscapularis tendon tear. METHODS: Between January 2003 and May 2009, we identified 18 shoulders with isolated tears or deinsertions that were complete or affected at least one third of the subscapularis tendon and underwent arthroscopic repair

  9. Biochemical characteristics of typical and atypical Staphylococcus aureus in mastitic milk and environmental samples of Brazilian dairy farms Características bioquímicas de cepas típicas e atípicas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de leite mastítico e de amostras ambientais de fazendas leiteiras brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Padilha da Silva

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports results on the biochemical characteristics of 274 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from mastitic milk, hands of milkmen and milking machines. Features included colony morphology on Baird Parker agar (BPA, catalase, coagulase and thermonuclease tests. API-Staph (bioMérieux, France was used as reference identification system. 39.4% of the colonies on BPA identified as S.aureus were atypical. They were more frequent in milk samples (94.4%. All S.aureus strains were coagulase positive but intensity of the test varied according to the source: environmental strains were 3+ or 4+, while 17.1% of strains isolated from milk presented only 1+ or 2+ results. The majority of atypical S.aureus strains presented a 4+ coagulase result. 2.2% of S.aureus strains were thermonuclease negative. Sixteen thermonuclease positive and coagulase positive strains were identified as S.hyicus.Esse trabalho relata as características bioquímicas de 274 cepas de Staphylococcus aureus isoladas de leite mastítico, de mãos de ordenhadores e de ordenhadeiras mecânicas. Foram avaliadas as características morfológicas em agar Baird Parker (BPA e os resultados para os testes de catalase, coagulase e termonuclease. API-Staph foi empregado como sistema de referência para identificação. 39,4% das colônias em BPA identificadas como S.aureus apresentaram morfologia atípica, sendo mais freqüentes em leite (94,4%. Todas as cepas identificadas como S.aureus foram coagulase positivas mas a intensidade da reação variou de acordo com a fonte: cepas isoladas de amostras ambientais foram 3+ ou 4+, enquanto 17,1% daquelas isoladas de leite foram apenas 1+ ou 2+. A maioria das cepas de S aureus com morfologia atípica em agar Baird-Parker apresentaram coagulase 4+. 2,2% das cepas de S.aureus foram termonuclease negativas. 16 cepas termonuclease positivas e coagulase positivas foram identificadas como S.hyicus.

  10. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC and Maternal Relatedness.

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    Jin Xiao

    Full Text Available Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC. The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and the maternal relatedness.Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S/dmft(s caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B. Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses were implemented with SAS 9.4.A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%. Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were seen when compared

  11. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert; Koo, Hyun; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were seen when compared with C

  12. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of antifungal therapy for primary treatment of invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Huang-Tz; Lee, Tsung-Ying; Chen, Yee-Chun; Charbonneau, Claudie

    2017-07-10

    Cost-effectiveness studies of echinocandins for the treatment of invasive candidiasis, including candidemia, are rare in Asia. No study has determined whether echinocandins are cost-effective for both Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species. There have been no economic evaluations that compare non-echinocandins with the three available echinocandins. This study was aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of individual echinocandins, namely caspofungin, micafungin, and anidulafungin, versus non-echinocandins for C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species, respectively. A decision tree model was constructed to assess the cost-effectiveness of echinocandins and non-echinocandins for invasive candidiasis. The probability of treatment success, mortality rate, and adverse drug events were extracted from published clinical trials. The cost variables (i.e., drug acquisition) were based on Taiwan's healthcare system from the perspective of a medical payer. One-way sensitivity analyses and probability sensitivity analyses were conducted. For treating invasive candidiasis (all species), as compared to fluconazole, micafungin and caspofungin are dominated (less effective, more expensive), whereas anidulafungin is cost-effective (more effective, more expensive), costing US$3666.09 for each life-year gained, which was below the implicit threshold of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in Taiwan. For C. albicans, echinocandins are cost-saving as compared to non-echinocandins. For non-albicans Candida species, echinocandins are cost-effective as compared to non-echinocandins, costing US$652 for each life-year gained. The results were robust over a wide range of sensitivity analyses and were most sensitive to the clinical efficacy of antifungal treatment. Echinocandins, especially anidulafungin, appear to be cost-effective for invasive candidiasis caused by C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species in Taiwan.

  13. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

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    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  14. Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans

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    Devi Rianti

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experimental study conducted on antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium Infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Effective concentration of Coleus amboinicus, Lour to decrease the quantities Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies is expected to be found out in this study. This study was using Coleus Amboinicus, Lour folium infusum with 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% concentrations. Sterilized aquadest used as a control. Candida albicans and S. mutans quantities was enumerated by counting the amount of Candida albicans and S. mutans growth in the Sabouraud ,s dextrose agar and Tryptone and yeast Agar media, using Colony Forming Unit per milliliter (CFU/ ml unit. Data analysis was using a One-Way ANOVA and LSD with 5% degree of significance. The result showed 22.5% concentration of CAL folium infusum was the most effective in decreasing the quantity Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies.

  15. Candida albicans orf19.3727 encodes phytase activity and is essential for human tissue damage.

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    Paul Wai-Kei Tsang

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a clinically important human fungal pathogen. We previously identified the presence of cell-associated phytase activity in C. albicans. Here, we reveal for the first time, that orf19.3727 contributes to phytase activity in C. albicans and ultimately to its virulence potency. Compared with its wild type counterpart, disruption of C. albicans orf19.3727 led to decreased phytase activity, reduced ability to form hyphae, attenuated in vitro adhesion, and reduced ability to penetrate human epithelium, which are the major virulence attributes of this yeast. Thus, orf19.3727 of C. albicans plays a key role in fungal pathogenesis. Further, our data uncover a putative novel strategy for anti-Candidal drug design through inhibition of phytase activity of this common pathogen.

  16. Immunosensing during colonization by Candida albicans: does it take a village to colonize the intestine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Carol A; Pierce, Jessica V

    2011-06-01

    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a component of the normal flora of the gastrointestinal tract, is a frequent colonizer of humans. Is C. albicans capable of sensing the immune status of its host, a process we term immunosensing, and, if so, how? C. albicans causes serious disease only in immunocompromised hosts and therefore the ability to immunosense would be advantageous to an organism. We propose a speculative model whereby, during colonization, C. albicans produces phenotypic variants that vary in relative concentration depending on host status. One variant is optimized for persistence as a commensal, whereas the other variant has higher capacity to initiate pathogenic interactions. When the ratio of the two variants changes, the pathogenic potential of the population changes. The critical element of this model is that the C. albicans colonizing population is not uniform but is composed of subpopulations of phenotypic variants that are advantageous under different host conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans differentiation by colony morphotype in Sabouraud-triphenyltetrazolium agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra, Soledad; Mancilla, Estefanía; Dudiuk, Catiana; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a germ tube and chlamydoconidia producing Candida species that may be misidentified as Candida albicans. Molecular-based methods are the most reliable techniques for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis differentiation. However, accurate, quick and inexpensive phenotypic tests are needed to be used in low-complexity mycology laboratories. To evaluate colony morphotypes on Sabouraud-triphenyltetrazolium agar as a tool for C. dubliniensis and C. albicans differentiation. The morphology of 126 C. albicans and C. dubliniensis strains was evaluated and compared with their identification by molecular methods. The method showed 100% sensitivity and specificity when color and the presence or absence of large white mycelial halo was evaluated. Colony morphotype on Sabouraud-triphenyltetrazolium agar should be considered as a new tool to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. albicans. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and regulation of single- and multi-species Candida albicans biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Gulati, Megha; Johnson, Alexander D.; Nobile, Clarissa J.

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is among the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota and asymptomatically colonizes healthy individuals. However, it is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe, and often fatal, bloodstream infections. The medical impact of C. albicans typically depends on its ability to form biofilms, which are closely packed communities of cells that attach to surfaces, such as tissues and implanted medical devices. In this Review, we provide an overview of the processes involved in the formation of C. albicans biofilms and discuss the core transcriptional network that regulates biofilm development. We also consider some of the advantages that biofilms provide to C. albicans in comparison with planktonic growth and explore polymicrobial biofilms that are formed by C. albicans and certain bacterial species. PMID:29062072

  19. A Case Report of Penile Infection Caused by Fluconazole- and Terbinafine-Resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongxuan; Hu, Yanqing; Lu, Yan; Huang, Shiyun; Liu, Kangxing; Han, Xue; Mao, Zuhao; Wu, Zhong; Zhou, Xianyi

    2017-04-01

    Candida albicans is the most common pathogen that causes balanoposthitis. It often causes recurrence of symptoms probably due to its antifungal resistance. A significant number of balanitis Candida albicans isolates are resistant to azole and terbinafine antifungal agents in vitro. However, balanoposthitis caused by fluconazole- and terbinafine-resistant Candida albicans has rarely been reported. Here, we describe a case of a recurrent penile infection caused by fluconazole- and terbinafine-resistant Candida albicans, as well as the treatments administered to this patient. The isolate from the patient was tested for drug susceptibility in vitro. It was sensitive to itraconazole, voriconazole, clotrimazole and amphotericin B, but not to terbinafine and fluconazole. Thus, oral itraconazole was administrated to this patient with resistant Candida albicans penile infection. The symptoms were improved, and mycological examination result was negative. Follow-up treatment of this patient for 3 months showed no recurrence.

  20. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of essential oils against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandras, Narcisa; Nostro, Antonia; Roana, Janira; Scalas, Daniela; Banche, Giuliana; Ghisetti, Valeria; Del Re, Simonetta; Fucale, Giacomo; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Tullio, Vivian

    2016-08-30

    The management of Candida infections faces many problems, such as a limited number of antifungal drugs, toxicity, resistance of Candida to commonly antifungal drugs, relapse of Candida infections, and the high cost of antifungal drugs. Though azole antifungal agents and derivatives continue to dominate as drugs of choice against Candida infections, there are many available data referring to the anticandidal activity of essential oils. Since we have previous observed a good antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against filamentous fungi, the aim of this study was to extend the research to evaluate the activity of the same oils on Candida albicans, C.glabrata and C.tropicalis clinical strains, as well as the effects of related components. Essential oils selection was based both on ethnomedicinal use and on proved antibacterial and/or antifungal activity of some of these oils. Fluconazole and voriconazole were used as reference drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of essential oils (thyme red, fennel, clove, pine, sage, lemon balm, and lavender) and their major components were investigated by the broth microdilution method (BM) and the vapour contact assay (VC). Using BM, pine oil showed the best activity against all strains tested, though C.albicans was more susceptible than C.glabrata and C.tropicalis (MIC50-MIC90 = 0.06 %, v/v). On the contrary, sage oil displayed a weak activity (MIC50-MIC90 = 1 %, v/v). Thyme red oil (MIC50-MIC90 ≤ 0.0038 %, v/v for C.albicans and C.tropicalis, and 0.0078- Candida spp., including fluconazole/voriconazole resistant strains. These data encourage adequately controlled and randomized clinical investigations. The use in vapour phase could have additional advantages without requiring direct contact, resulting in easy of environmental application such as in hospital, and/or in school.

  1. Cell wall proteinaceous components in isolates of Candida albicans and non-albicans species from HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribot, J L; Kirkpatrick, W R; McAtee, R K; Revankar, S G; Patterson, T F

    1998-09-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) remains a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. Candida albicans is the most frequent causative agent of OPC. However, non-albicans spp. are being increasingly isolated. Candidal cell wall proteins and mannoproteins play important roles in the biology and patogenesis of candidiasis. In the present study, we have analyzed the proteinaceous components associated with cell wall extracts from C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida pseudotropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida rugosa obtained from HIV-infected patients with recurrent OPC. Cell wall proteinaceous components were extracted with beta-mercaptoethanol and analyzed using electrophoresis, immunoblotting (with antisera generated against C. albicans cell wall components, and with serum samples and oral saline rinses from patients with OPC), and lectin-blotting (concanavalin A) techniques. Numerous molecular species were solubilized from the various isolates. Major qualitative and quantitative differences in the polypeptidic and antigenic profiles associated with the cell wall extracts from the different Candida spp. were discernible. Some of the antibody preparations generated against C. albicans cell wall components were able to recognize homologous materials present in the extracts from non-albicans spp. Information on cell wall antigens of Candida species may be important in the therapy and prevention of HIV-related OPC.

  2. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (poral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (poral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  3. Streptococcus mutans Can Modulate Biofilm Formation and Attenuate the Virulence of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; de Alvarenga, Janaína Araújo; Velloso, Marisol dos Santos; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are found together in the oral biofilms on dental surfaces, but little is known about the ecological interactions between these species. Here, we studied the effects of S. mutans UA159 on the growth and pathogencity of C. albicans. Initially, the effects of S. mutans on the biofilm formation and morphogenesis of C. albicans were tested in vitro. Next, we investigate the influence of S. mutans on pathogenicity of C. albicans using in vivo host models, in which the experimental candidiasis was induced in G. mellonella larvae and analyzed by survival curves, C. albicans count in hemolymph, and quantification of hyphae in the host tissues. In all the tests, we evaluated the direct effects of S. mutans cells, as well as the indirect effects of the subproducts secreted by this microorganism using a bacterial culture filtrate. The in vitro analysis showed that S. mutans cells favored biofilm formation by C. albicans. However, a reduction in biofilm viable cells and inhibition of hyphal growth was observed when C. albicans was in contact with the S. mutans culture filtrate. In the in vivo study, injection of S. mutans cells or S. mutans culture filtrate into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, a reduction in hyphal formation was observed in larval tissues when C. albicans was associated with S. mutans culture filtrate. These findings suggest that S. mutans can secrete subproducts capable to inhibit the biofilm formation, morphogenesis and pathogenicity of C. albicans, attenuating the experimental candidiasis in G. mellonella model. PMID:26934196

  4. A novel immune evasion strategy of candida albicans: proteolytic cleavage of a salivary antimicrobial peptide.

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    Timothy F Meiller

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection considered to be a harbinger of AIDS. The etiologic agent Candida albicans is a fungal species commonly colonizing human mucosal surfaces. However, under conditions of immune dysfunction, colonizing C. albicans can become an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial or even life-threatening infections. The reasons behind this transition, however, are not clear. In the oral cavity, salivary antimicrobial peptides are considered to be an important part of the host innate defense system in the prevention of microbial colonization. Histatin-5 specifically has exhibited potent activity against C. albicans. Our previous studies have shown histatin-5 levels to be significantly reduced in the saliva of HIV+ individuals, indicating an important role for histatin-5 in keeping C. albicans in its commensal stage. The versatility in the pathogenic potential of C. albicans is the result of its ability to adapt through the regulation of virulence determinants, most notably of which are proteolytic enzymes (Saps, involved in tissue degradation. In this study, we show that C. albicans cells efficiently and rapidly degrade histatin-5, resulting in loss of its anti-candidal potency. In addition, we demonstrate that this cellular activity is due to proteolysis by a member of the secreted aspartic proteases (Sap family involved in C. albicans pathogenesis. Specifically, the proteolysis was attributed to Sap9, in turn identifying histatin-5 as the first host-specific substrate for that isoenzyme. These findings demonstrate for the first time the ability of a specific C. albicans enzyme to degrade and deactivate a host antimicrobial peptide involved in the protection of the oral mucosa against C. albicans, thereby providing new insights into the factors directing the transition of C. albicans from commensal to pathogen, with important clinical implications for alternative therapy. This report characterizes the

  5. Chloroquine sensitizes biofilms of Candida albicans to antifungal azoles

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    Ravikumar Bapurao Shinde

    Full Text Available Biofilms formed by Candida albicans, a human pathogen, are known to be resistant to different antifungal agents. Novel strategies to combat the biofilm associated Candida infections like multiple drug therapy are being explored. In this study, potential of chloroquine to be a partner drug in combination with four antifungal agents, namely fluconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin, was explored against biofilms of C. albicans. Activity of various concentrations of chloroquine in combination with a particular antifungal drug was analyzed in a checkerboard format. Growth of biofilm in presence of drugs was analyzed by XTT-assay, in terms of relative metabolic activity compared to that of drug free control. Results obtained by XTT-metabolic assay were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The interactions between chloroquine and four antifungal drugs were determined by calculating fractional inhibitory concentration indices. Azole resistance in biofilms was reverted significantly (p < 0.05 in presence of 250 µg/mL of chloroquine, which resulted in inhibition of biofilms at very low concentrations of antifungal drugs. No significant alteration in the sensitivity of biofilms to caspofungin and amphotericin B was evident in combination with chloroquine. This study for the first time indicates that chloroquine potentiates anti-biofilm activity of fluconazole and voriconazole.

  6. Candida albicans mannoprotein influences the biological function of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrella, Donatella; Bistoni, Giovanni; Corbucci, Cristina; Perito, Stefano; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2006-04-01

    Cell wall components of fungi involved in induction of host immune response are predominantly proteins and glycoproteins, the latter being mainly mannoproteins (MP). In this study we analyse the interaction of the MP from Candida albicans (MP65) with dendritic cells (DC) and demonstrate that MP65 stimulates DC and induces the release of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and the activation of IL-12 gene, with maximal value 6 h post treatment. MP65 induces DC maturation by increasing costimulatory molecules and decreasing CD14 and FcgammaR molecule expression. The latter effect is partly mediated by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4, and the MyD88-dependent pathway is involved in the process. MP65 enables DC to activate T cell response, its protein core is essential for induction of T cell activation, while its glycosylated portion primarily promotes cytokine production. The mechanisms involved in induction of protective response against C. albicans could be mediated by the MP65 antigen, suggesting that MP65 may be a suitable candidate vaccine.

  7. Candida albicans susceptibility to lactoperoxidase-generated hypoiodite

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    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium and UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: In vivo, lactoperoxidase produces hypothiocyanite (OSCN- from thiocyanate (SCN- in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; in vitro, iodide (I- can be oxidized into hypoiodite (OI- by this enzyme. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the anti-Candida effect of iodide versus thiocyanate used as lactoperoxidase substrate to prevent Candida biofilms development. Candida albicans ATCC 10231 susceptibility upon both peroxidase systems was tested in three different experimental designs: (i in a liquid culture medium, (ii in an interface model between solid culture medium and gel containing the enzymic systems, (iii in a biofilm model onto titanium and acrylic resin. Yeast growth in liquid medium was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm. Material-adherent yeast biomass was evaluated by the tetrazolium salt MTT method. The iodide-peroxidase system has been shown to inhibit Candida biofilm formation at lower substrate concentrations (~200 fold less H2O2 donor and for longer incubation periods than the thiocyanate-peroxidase system. In conclusion, efficiency of lactoperoxidase-generated OI- to prevent C. albicans biofilm development allows refining iodine antifungal use in ex vivo conditions.Keywords: denture, iodide, oral, peroxidase, saliva, titanium

  8. Candida albicans spondylodiscitis following an abdominal stab wound: forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall, Frederic; Dedouit, Fabrice; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Candida albicans spondylodiscitis is a fungal infection of the spine which is still unusual in spite of the increasing frequency of predisposing factors. A 22-year-old man received an abdominal stab wound during a physical assault. Initial medical care included surgery, prolonged use of indwelling vascular catheters with administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and hospitalization in intensive care. Two months after the event, the victim experienced back pain in the right lumbar region and septic spondylodiscitis secondary to C. albicans was diagnosed three weeks later. This case is noteworthy because of its clinical forensic context. In France, the public prosecutor orders a medico-legal assessment after an assault for all living victims in order to establish a causal relationship between the assault and its complications. In our case, the patient presented numerous risk factors for candidemia and the forensic specialist reasonably accepted that the causal relationship was certain but indirect. We have only found one published case of spondylodiscitis after an abdominal penetrating injury and the pathogenic agent was not mentioned. We have found no case reported in a forensic context. This unusual observation shows that it may be genuinely difficult to prove the causal relationship between an abdominal penetrating injury and an unusual infectious complication such as fungal spondylodiscitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanism of iron uptake by the pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.

    1986-01-01

    C. albicans requires iron for growth and phenotypic development. When deprived of iron, mycelium and bud formation was suppressed. Survival of the organism was also reduced under iron-limiting conditions. The combination of elevated temperature and iron-deprivation further reduced phenotypic development and survival of the yeast. The combination of elevated temperature and iron starvation resulted in a decrease in both the growth rate and siderophore production. However, with time, the cells were able to show partial recovery in the growth rate which occurred concomitantly with an increase in siderophore production. In order for siderophores to be utilized, ferri-siderophore receptors must be produced. The receptor was shown to be located in the plasma membrane of the yeast. Scatchard analysis of the binding of ferri-siderophores to plasma membrane receptors showed an increase in receptor affinity and number of binding sites in iron-starved cells when compared to control cells. Autoradiograms of the 58 Fe-siderophore-protein complex following SDS-PAGE separation of candidal proteins revealed the presence of a ferri-siderophore receptor of approximately 10,000 daltons. C. albicans strains which lacked the ability to synthesize phenolate siderophore maintained a phenolate receptor and bound candidal phenolate siderophore better than non-candidal phenolate siderophores

  10. Molecular methods for strain typing of Candida albicans: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghrouni, F; Ben Abdeljelil, J; Boukadida, J; Ben Said, M

    2013-06-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most medically important fungi because of its high frequency as a commensal and pathogenic microorganism causing superficial as well as invasive infections. Strain typing and delineation of the species are essential for understanding its biology, epidemiology and population structure. A wide range of molecular techniques have been used for this purpose including non-DNA-based methods (multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis), conventional DNA-based methods (electrophoretic karyotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA, amplified fragment length polymorphism, restriction enzyme analysis with and without hybridization, rep-PCR) and DNA-based methods called exact typing methods because they generate unambiguous and highly reproducible typing data (including microsatellite length polymorphism and multi-locus sequence typing). In this review, the main molecular methods used for C. albicans strain typing are summarized, and their advantages and limitations are discussed with regard to their discriminatory power, reproducibility, cost and ease of performance. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fabio Boatto

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relacionar as leveduras identificadas aos sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e investigar a importância dos parceiros sexuais na reincidência da infecção. MÉTODOS: foi desenvolvido estudo prospectivo de julho de 2001 a julho de 2003 com uma amostra de mulheres residentes na Grande São Paulo. Foram avaliadas 179 pacientes com suspeita clínica de vaginite fúngica, com idade entre 18 e 65 anos. Os critérios para exclusão foram: gravidez, comprometimento imunológico intrínseco e extrínseco, incluindo AIDS, diabetes, imunossupressão, pacientes em terapia com corticosteróides, antibióticos ou hormônios, em pós-menopausa, em uso de dispositivo intra-uterino e duchas vaginais ou espermicidas. Amostras de secreções vaginais ou da glande dos parceiros sexuais de pacientes com vaginite de repetição foram coletadas para microscopia e cultura de fungos. Colônias fúngicas isoladas em CHROMagar Candida foram identificadas por provas clássicas. O teste exato de Fisher foi usado para correlacionar o quadro clínico com as leveduras isoladas das pacientes. RESULTADOS: os sinais e sintomas clínicos mais relevantes na candidíase vulvovaginal foram prurido e corrimento, seguidos por eritema e edema, estatisticamente independente do agente etiológico. Leveduras foram diagnosticadas por microscopia direta em 77 pacientes com vulvovaginites, sendo obtidos 40 cultivos de Candida spp. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% e C. guilliermondii (2,5% foram identificadas. As leveduras prevalentes nos parceiros foram C. albicans e C. glabrata. As mesmas espécies foram detectadas nas companheiras e parceiros em 87% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: as vulvovaginites fúngicas foram mais freqüentes em mulheres entre 18 e 34 anos de idade. Não foi observada correlação entre as espécies de leveduras detectadas e a sintomatologia clínica. Os parceiros sexuais podem ser importantes

  12. Competitive Interactions between C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei during Biofilm Formation and Development of Experimental Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis.

  13. Competitive Interactions between C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei during Biofilm Formation and Development of Experimental Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; dos Santos, Jéssica Diane; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the interactions between Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in mixed infections. Initially, these interactions were studied in biofilms formed in vitro. CFU/mL values of C. albicans were lower in mixed biofilms when compared to the single biofilms, verifying 77% and 89% of C. albicans reduction when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. After that, we expanded this study for in vivo host models of experimental candidiasis. G. mellonella larvae were inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic Candida suspensions for analysis of survival rate and quantification of fungal cells in the haemolymph. In the groups with single infections, 100% of the larvae died within 18 h after infection with C. albicans. However, interaction groups achieved 100% mortality after 72 h of infection by C. albicans-C. glabrata and 96 h of infection by C. albicans-C. krusei. C. albicans CFU/mL values from larvae hemolymph were lower in the interacting groups compared with the monoespecies group after 12 h of infection. In addition, immunosuppressed mice were also inoculated with monotypic and heterotypic microbial suspensions to induce oral candidiasis. C. albicans CFU/mL values recovered from oral cavity of mice were higher in the group with single infection by C. albicans than the groups with mixed infections by C. albicans-C. glabrata and C. albicans-C. krusei. Moreover, the group with single infection by C. albicans had a higher degree of hyphae and epithelial changes in the tongue dorsum than the groups with mixed infections. We concluded that single infections by C. albicans were more harmful for animal models than mixed infections with non-albicans species, suggesting that C. albicans establish competitive interactions with C. krusei and C. glabrata during biofilm formation and development of experimental candidiasis. PMID:26146832

  14. O papel da Fludarabina no tratamento dos linfomas não Hodgkin de baixo grau de malignidade

    OpenAIRE

    Santini,Gino; Souza,Cármino A.

    2001-01-01

    Dentro das perspectivas futuras do tratamento dos linfomas não Hodgkin (LMH) está aquela de melhorar os resultados com os denominados linfomas de baixo grau de malignidade. Dentro do estado-da-arte atual, este grupo de linfomas pode ser considerado incurável. Desde o observar-e-esperar até o transplante alogênico de medula óssea, muitas dúvidas existem e devem ser esclarecidas. O objetivo desta revisão é de apresentar e discutir a utilização da Fludarabina , isolada ou associada à antraciclín...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Listeria monocytogenes human strains isolated from 1970 to 2008 in Brazil Susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas humanas de Listeria monocytogenes isoladas no período de 1970 a 2008 no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhiane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2011-04-01

    ampicilina a um aminoglicosídeo além de outros, em segunda escolha, representados por cloranfenicol, eritromicina, tetraciclina e rifampicina. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar o perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de amostras de origem humana isoladas nas últimas quatro décadas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionadas 68 cepas provenientes de casos clínicos humanos ocorridos em diferentes regiões do país no período de 1970-2008. A susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados foi determinada através dos critérios estabelecidos por Soussy pelo método de Kirby-Bauer e a concentração mínima inibitória realizada através do E-Test. RESULTADOS: A amostragem constituiu-se de 68 cepas, isoladas principalmente de líquido cefalorraquidiano, e hemocultura no período, pertencentes ao Laboratório de Zoonoses Bacterianas/LABZOO/Fiocruz. O sorovar L4b (60,3% foi o mais prevalente, seguido do sorovar 1/2a (20,6%, 1/2b (13,2% e aqueles mais raros representados por 1/2c, 3b e 4ab (5,9%. Todas as cepas foram sensíveis à ampicilina, cefalotina, eritromicina, gentamicina, teicoplanina e vancomicina. Apenas uma cepa (1,5% apresentou resistência à rifampicina, enquanto duas (3% foram resistentes à associação de sulfametoxazol-trimetoprim. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar de o estudo ter demonstrado uma baixa prevalência de amostras resistentes aos antimicrobianos indicados na terapêutica da listeriose humana, o sistema de monitoramento do perfil de resistência antimicrobiana é de extrema importância para a orientação do tratamento adequado, principalmente nas infecções em pacientes imunocomprometidos.

  16. Some virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolated from cloacal swabs of healthy Alagoas Curassows (Pauxi mitu in Brazil Alguns genes de virulência de Escherichia coli isoladas de mutuns-do-nordeste (Pauxi mitu sadios no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A.B. Saidenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds of the Cracidae family (curassows, guans, and chachalacas are endemic of the Neotropics and 50 species are currently classified. Brazil has 22 species, seven of which are considered threatened. The Alagoas Curassow (Pauxi mitu species is considered extinct in the wild; but about 120 birds are alive in captivity. Conservation of this species depends entirely on correct management. Health reports of both wildlife and captive curassows are rare. In this study the presence of Escherichia coli was evaluated in 23 healthy Alagoas Curassows from two private breeding centres. E. coli was isolated from cloacal swabs, and the presence of genes encoding cytotoxic necrotising factor 1 (cnf1, alpha-haemolysin (hly, aerobactin (iuc, serum resistance (iss and the following adhesions: S fimbriae (sfa, pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap and temperature-sensitive haemagglutinin (tsh were investigated. E. coli was isolated from 78.3% (18/23 of the birds, and the percentage of curassows colonized by E. coli was similar between the two facilities. From the 22 E. coli isolates, 15 (68.2% were positive for at least one virulence factor by PCR, and the most frequently found gene was iss (50%. No curassows had clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, the presence of some E. coli strains may be a concern to the wildlife in captivity. Additional health surveillance studies are essential to guarantee successful conservation programmes for threatened cracids in Brazil.Aves da família Cracidae (mutuns, jacutingas e aracuãs são endêmicas da região Neotropical com 50 espécies atualmente classificadas. O Brasil possui 22 espécies nesta família e sete delas são consideradas ameaçadas de extinção. O mutum-do-nordeste (Pauxi mitu é considerado extinto na natureza, no entanto, aproximadamente 120 indivíduos são mantidos em cativeiro. A conservação desta espécie depende inteiramente de um manejo correto. Informações sobre o status sanitário de mutuns

  17. Ambientes terrestres da ilha da Trindade, Atlântico Sul: Caracterização do solo e do meio físico como subsídio para criação de uma Unidade de Conservação

    OpenAIRE

    Clemente, Eliane de Paula

    2006-01-01

    As ilhas oceânicas brasileiras possuem grande importância ambiental, tanto do ponto de vista da biodiversidade quanto do interesse científico, em virtude do isolamento geográfico. Dentre estas, a ilha da Trindade destaca-se por ser a mais isolada e úmida do conjunto das ilhas oceânicas brasileiras. Foram estudados os principais solos que ocorreram na ilha da Trindade, com ênfase em suas características químicas, físicas, mineralógicas e micromorfológicas peculiares, nos diferentes estratos am...

  18. The effect of squalene on inflammation factors induced by candida albicans in vivo studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Haeng [Dept. of Radiology, Nambu University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In the present study, whether squalene treatment relives inflammatory reactions induced by Candida albicans was checked. The experiment was conducted in vivo using seven experimental animals (ICR mice) per experimental group. Among C. albicans-induced inflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-6, and NO were observed using the ELISA kits method. Through the experiment, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. In the group infected with C. albicans, it could be identified that squalene treatment was inducing NO generation in renal tissues both on the 1st and 3rd days (p < 0.05). 2. In the group pre-treated(intraperitoneal administration) with SQ (80ml/kg) once per day for seven days and infected with C. albicans, it could be identified that squalene treatment was inducing TNF-α generation in renal tissues only on the 3rd day(p < 0.05). 3. In the group pre-treated(intraperitoneal administration) with SQ (80ml/kg) once per day for seven days and infected with C. albicans, it could be identified that squalene treatment was inducing IL-6 generation in renal tissues only on the 3rd day(p < 0.05). In conclusion, it could be seen that for squalene to suppress C. albicans-induced inflammatory factors, preemptively supplying SQ should be effective. Therefore, effects for recovery from C. albicans-induced immunodepression can be expected from SQ treatment.

  19. Modulation of Candida albicans virulence by bacterial biofilms on titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Wilson, Melanie; Lewis, Michael; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; da Silva, Wander José; Williams, David W

    2016-01-01

    Whilst Candida albicans occurs in peri-implant biofilms, its role in peri-implantitis remains unclear. This study therefore examined the virulence of C. albicans in mixed-species biofilms on titanium surfaces. Biofilms of C. albicans (Ca), C. albicans with streptococci (Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mutans) (Ca-Ss-Sm) and those incorporating Porphyromonas gingivalis (Ca-Pg and Ca-Ss-Sm-Pg) were developed. Expression of C. albicans genes associated with adhesion (ALS1, ALS3, HWP1) and hydrolytic enzymes (SAP2, SAP4, SAP6, PLD1) was measured and hyphal production by C. albicans quantified. Compared with Ca biofilms, significant (pbiofilms containing streptococci (Ca-Ss-Sm). In Ca-Pg biofilms, down-regulation of HWP1 and SAP4 expression, with reduced hyphal production occurred. Ca-Ss-Sm-Pg biofilms had increased hyphal proportions and up-regulation of ALS3, SAP2 and SAP6. In conclusion, C. albicans expressed virulence factors in biofilms that could contribute to peri-implantitis, but this was dependent on associated bacterial species.

  20. Candida albicans Hom6 is a homoserine dehydrogenase involved in protein synthesis and cell adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Wen Tsai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose: Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen in humans. In healthy individuals, C. albicans represents a harmless commensal organism, but infections can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients. The complete genome sequence of C. albicans is extremely useful for identifying genes that may be potential drug targets and important for pathogenic virulence. However, there are still many uncharacterized genes in the Candida genome database. In this study, we investigated C. albicans Hom6, the functions of which remain undetermined experimentally. Methods: HOM6-deleted and HOM6-reintegrated mutant strains were constructed. The mutant strains were compared with wild-type in their growth in various media and enzyme activity. Effects of HOM6 deletion on translation were further investigated by cell susceptibility to hygromycin B or cycloheximide, as well as by polysome profiling, and cell adhesion to polystyrene was also determined. Results: C. albicans Hom6 exhibits homoserine dehydrogenase activity and is involved in the biosynthesis of methionine and threonine. HOM6 deletion caused translational arrest in cells grown under amino acid starvation conditions. Additionally, Hom6 protein was found in both cytosolic and cell-wall fractions of cultured cells. Furthermore, HOM6 deletion reduced C. albicans cell adhesion to polystyrene, which is a common plastic used in many medical devices. Conclusion: Given that there is no Hom6 homologue in mammalian cells, our results provided an important foundation for future development of new antifungal drugs. Keywords: Candida albicans, cell adhesion, Hom6, homoserine dehydrogenase, protein synthesis

  1. Essential Functional Modules for Pathogenic and Defensive Mechanisms in Candida albicans Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and biological significance of the study of fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans has markedly increased. However, the explicit pathogenic and invasive mechanisms of such host-pathogen interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the essential functional modules involved in C. albicans-zebrafish interactions were investigated in this study. Adopting a systems biology approach, the early-stage and late-stage protein-protein interaction (PPI networks for both C. albicans and zebrafish were constructed. By comparing PPI networks at the early and late stages of the infection process, several critical functional modules were identified in both pathogenic and defensive mechanisms. Functional modules in C. albicans, like those involved in hyphal morphogenesis, ion and small molecule transport, protein secretion, and shifts in carbon utilization, were seen to play important roles in pathogen invasion and damage caused to host cells. Moreover, the functional modules in zebrafish, such as those involved in immune response, apoptosis mechanisms, ion transport, protein secretion, and hemostasis-related processes, were found to be significant as defensive mechanisms during C. albicans infection. The essential functional modules thus determined could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions during the infection process and thereby devise potential therapeutic strategies to treat C. albicans infection.

  2. Essential functional modules for pathogenic and defensive mechanisms in Candida albicans infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Chao; Tsai, I-Chun; Lin, Che; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Lan, Chung-Yu; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The clinical and biological significance of the study of fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans) has markedly increased. However, the explicit pathogenic and invasive mechanisms of such host-pathogen interactions have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the essential functional modules involved in C. albicans-zebrafish interactions were investigated in this study. Adopting a systems biology approach, the early-stage and late-stage protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for both C. albicans and zebrafish were constructed. By comparing PPI networks at the early and late stages of the infection process, several critical functional modules were identified in both pathogenic and defensive mechanisms. Functional modules in C. albicans, like those involved in hyphal morphogenesis, ion and small molecule transport, protein secretion, and shifts in carbon utilization, were seen to play important roles in pathogen invasion and damage caused to host cells. Moreover, the functional modules in zebrafish, such as those involved in immune response, apoptosis mechanisms, ion transport, protein secretion, and hemostasis-related processes, were found to be significant as defensive mechanisms during C. albicans infection. The essential functional modules thus determined could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions during the infection process and thereby devise potential therapeutic strategies to treat C. albicans infection.

  3. Antifungal activity of Piper aduncum and Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract against Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Utami Sri; Ummah, Yunita Putri Irsadul; Khasanah, Henny Nurul

    2017-05-01

    This research was done to 1) examine the effect of Piper aduncum leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations against Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) examine the effect of Peperomia pellucida leaf ethanol extract at certain concentrations toward Candida albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 3) determine the most effective concentration of P. aduncum and P. pellucida leaves ethanol extract against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro. These plant extracts were prepared by the maceration technique using 95% ethanol, and then sterile filtered and evaporated to obtain the filtrate. The filtrate was diluted with sterile distilled water at certain concentrations, i.e.: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 405, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%. The antifungal effect of each leaf extract concentration was examined by the agar diffusion method on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The research results are: 1) the P.aduncum leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 2) the P.pellucida leaf ethanol extract at some concentrations has an effect against C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; 3) the P. aduncum leaf ethanol extract at 80% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro; and 4) the P. pellucida leaf ethanol extract at 70% is the most effective for C. albicans colony growth inhibition in vitro.

  4. The effect of squalene on inflammation factors induced by candida albicans in vivo studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jun Haeng

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, whether squalene treatment relives inflammatory reactions induced by Candida albicans was checked. The experiment was conducted in vivo using seven experimental animals (ICR mice) per experimental group. Among C. albicans-induced inflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-6, and NO were observed using the ELISA kits method. Through the experiment, the following conclusions were obtained. 1. In the group infected with C. albicans, it could be identified that squalene treatment was inducing NO generation in renal tissues both on the 1st and 3rd days (p < 0.05). 2. In the group pre-treated(intraperitoneal administration) with SQ (80ml/kg) once per day for seven days and infected with C. albicans, it could be identified that squalene treatment was inducing TNF-α generation in renal tissues only on the 3rd day(p < 0.05). 3. In the group pre-treated(intraperitoneal administration) with SQ (80ml/kg) once per day for seven days and infected with C. albicans, it could be identified that squalene treatment was inducing IL-6 generation in renal tissues only on the 3rd day(p < 0.05). In conclusion, it could be seen that for squalene to suppress C. albicans-induced inflammatory factors, preemptively supplying SQ should be effective. Therefore, effects for recovery from C. albicans-induced immunodepression can be expected from SQ treatment

  5. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  6. Regulation of Candida albicans Interaction with Macrophages through the Activation of HOG Pathway by Genistein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuna Cui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The severity of infections caused by Candida albicans, the most common opportunistic human fungal pathogen, needs rapid and effective antifungal treatments. One of the effective ways is to control the virulence factors of the pathogen. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of genistein, a natural isoflavone present in soybeans, on C. albicans. The genistein-treated C. albicans cells were then exposed to macrophages. Although no inhibition effect on the growth rates of C. albicans was noted an enhancement of the immune response to macrophages has been observed, indicated by phagocytosis and release of cytokines TNF-α and IL-10. The effect of genistein on the enhanced phagocytosis can be mimicked by the fungicides fludioxonil or iprodione, which inhibit the histidine kinase Cos1p and lead to activation of HOG pathway. The western blot results showed a clear phosphorylation of Hog1p in the wild type strain of C. albicans after incubation with genistein. In addition, effects of genistein on the phosphorylation of Hog1p in the histidine kinase mutants Δcos1 and Δsln1 were also observed. Our results thus indicate a new bio-activity of genistein on C. albicans by activation of the HOG pathway of the human pathogen C. albicans.

  7. Morphological and physiological changes induced by contact-dependent interaction between Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Batbileg; Cen, Lujia; Agnello, Melissa; Shi, Wenyuan; He, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum are well-studied oral commensal microbes with pathogenic potential that are involved in various oral polymicrobial infectious diseases. Recently, we demonstrated that F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 coaggregates with C. albicans SN152, a process mainly mediated by fusobacterial membrane protein RadD and Candida cell wall protein Flo9. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential biological impact of this inter-kingdom interaction. We found that F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 inhibits growth and hyphal morphogenesis of C. albicans SN152 in a contact-dependent manner. Further analysis revealed that the inhibition of Candida hyphal morphogenesis is mediated via RadD and Flo9 protein pair. Using a murine macrophage cell line, we showed that the F. nucleatum-induced inhibition of Candida hyphal morphogenesis promotes C. albicans survival and negatively impacts the macrophage-killing capability of C. albicans. Furthermore, the yeast form of C. albicans repressed F. nucleatum-induced MCP-1 and TNFα production in macrophages. Our study suggests that the interaction between C. albicans and F. nucleatum leads to a mutual attenuation of virulence, which may function to promote a long-term commensal lifestyle within the oral cavity. This finding has significant implications for our understanding of inter-kingdom interaction and may impact clinical treatment strategies. PMID:27295972

  8. Alternative Mating Type Configurations (a/α versus a/a or α/α) of Candida albicans Result in Alternative Biofilms Regulated by Different Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantha, Thyagarajan; Huang, Guanghua; Garnaas, Adam M.; Soll, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Similar multicellular structures can evolve within the same organism that may have different evolutionary histories, be controlled by different regulatory pathways, and play similar but nonidentical roles. In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, a quite extraordinary example of this has occurred. Depending upon the configuration of the mating type locus (a/α versus a/a or α/α), C. albicans forms alternative biofilms that appear similar morphologically, but exhibit dramatically different characteristics and are regulated by distinctly different signal transduction pathways. Biofilms formed by a/α cells are impermeable to molecules in the size range of 300 Da to 140 kDa, are poorly penetrated by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and are resistant to antifungals. In contrast, a/a or α/α biofilms are permeable to molecules in this size range, are readily penetrated by PMNs, and are susceptible to antifungals. By mutational analyses, a/α biofilms are demonstrated to be regulated by the Ras1/cAMP pathway that includes Ras1→Cdc35→cAMP(Pde2—|)→Tpk2(Tpk1)→Efg1→Tec1→Bcr1, and a/a biofilms by the MAP kinase pathway that includes Mfα→Ste2→ (Ste4, Ste18, Cag1)→Ste11→Hst7→Cek2(Cek1)→Tec1. These observations suggest the hypothesis that while the upstream portion of the newly evolved pathway regulating a/a and α/α cell biofilms was derived intact from the upstream portion of the conserved pheromone-regulated pathway for mating, the downstream portion was derived through modification of the downstream portion of the conserved pathway for a/α biofilm formation. C. albicans therefore forms two alternative biofilms depending upon mating configuration. PMID:21829325

  9. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  10. Relevância da infiltração analgésica para o alívio da dor na artroplastia total do joelho

    OpenAIRE

    Znojek-Tymborowska,Justyna; Kęska,Rafał; Paradowski,Przemysław T.; Witoński,Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de anestesia sobre a intensidade da dor no período pós-operatório inicial. MÉTODOS: Um total de 87 pacientes (77 mulheres, 10 homens) a serem submetidos à artroplastia total de joelho (ATJ) foi distribuído para receber anestesia subaracnoidea isolada ou combinada com anestesia local de tecidos moles, anestesia local de tecidos moles e bloqueio de nervo femoral e bloqueio do nervo femoral preventivo com anestesia local de tecidos moles. Avaliamos ...

  11. Caracterização taxonômica e fisiológica de bactérias ácido-láticas isoladas de pescado marinho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Poffo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL constituem um grupo diverso, associado à produção de alimentos, incluindo fermentados de peixe. Por meio de processos fermentativos, é possível obter produtos mais saborosos e saudáveis. Estas bactérias também são importantes na medicina por suas atividades probióticas. Neste contexto, nove linhagens de bactérias ácido-láticas foram isoladas de sardinha e guaivira. Destas, duas linhagens foram caracterizadas fisiologicamente, juntamente com Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC8293. Lactobacillus homohiochii F3 apresentou ótimo crescimento a 40 ºC, diferente de Lactobacillus intestinalis G1 e Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC8293, que tiveram ótimo crescimento a 30 ºC. Em relação à tolerância ao NaCl, L. homohiochii F3 e L. mesenteroides ATCC8293 toleraram uma concentração de 5% de NaCl no meio. A espécie L. intestinalis G1 tolerou uma concentração de 7,5%, podendo ser considerada mais halotolerante que as demais espécies. L. mesenteroides ATCC8293, por causa do aumento da taxa de crescimento, pode ser considerada levemente halofílica. Na presença de concentrações não ótimas de NaCl, a adição de solutos orgânicos foi eficaz na restauração do balanço osmótico das células

  12. Uso de PCR e sequenciamento do rDNA 16S para identificação de bactérias do gênero Staphylococcus isoladas de mastite bovina

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    Carla C. Lange

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar espécies de Staphylococcus (n=100 isoladas de mastite em rebanhos bovinos do Estado de Minas Gerais. Para esta finalidade foram utilizadas reações de PCR empregando oligonucleotídeos iniciadores descritos anteriormente para amplificar genes específicos de S. aureus (femA, S. intermedius (rDNA 16S e S. hyicus (rDNA 16S-23S e o sequenciamento do rDNA 16S. De acordo com as reações de PCR, 83 isolados foram identificados como S. aureus, 13 isolados como S. intermedius, dois como S. hyicus e dois isolados não foram identificados. Foram submetidos ao sequenciamento do rDNA 16S seis isolados identificados como S. aureus e os 17 restantes. Os seis isolados identificados como S. aureus confirmaram essa identificação. Dos outros 17 isolados, 13 foram identificados como S. chromogenes e quatro como S. hyicus, com similaridade igual ou superior a 99%. Baseando-se nos resultados da reação de PCR do gene femA e do sequenciamento do rDNA 16S, foram identificados 83 S. aureus, 13 S. chromogenes e quatro S. hyicus. Neste estudo os oligonucleotídeos iniciadores empregados na reação de PCR para S. intermedius não foram específicos, pois amplificaram também S. chromogenes; e os empregados na reação de PCR para S. hyicus não foram sensíveis, pois falharam na identificação de dois isolados de S. hyicus. A identificação definitiva das duas últimas espécies somente foi possível pelo sequenciamento do rDNA 16S.

  13. Inibição do crescimento de Escherichia coli isolada de Queijo "Minas Frescal" por Lactobacillus acidophilus Inhibition of the growth of Escherichia coli isolated from 'Minas Frescal' cheese by Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Priscilla Chioda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli faz parte da microbiota anaeróbica facultativa normal, sendo também considerada um dos maiores patógenos entéricos predominantes no cólon dos animais e homem. Neste trabalho, realizaram-se ensaios "in vitro" para avaliar o grau de atividade antagonista de cinco cepas de Lactobacillus acidophilus, com capacidade probiótica sobre Escherichia coli BIA 26 (STEC isolada de queijo "Minas Frescal". Para tanto, foi utilizado o teste de inibição através do método de dupla camada em triplicata para avaliar zonas de inibição de crescimento. Todas as cepas de Lactobacillus mostraram-se capazes de inibir a E. coli, com zonas de inibição variando de 12 a 15mm de diâmetro, sendo que a maioria apresentou 14mm de diâmetro, consideradas como fortes halos de inibição.Escherichia coli is part of the normal facultative anaerobic microflora and one of the major enteric pathogens in the colon of animals and humans. In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the level of antagonistic activity of five strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus with probiotic effect on Escherichia coli BIA 26 (STEC, which was isolated from 'Minas frescal' cheese. Inhibition assays were carried out using the double layer method in triplicates to evaluate growth inhibition zones. All L. acidophilus strains were capable to inhibit E. coli, with inhibition zones ranging from 12 to 15mm, but mostly around 14mm in diameter, and considered strong inhibition halos.

  14. Paeonia lactiflora Inhibits Cell Wall Synthesis and Triggers Membrane Depolarization in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Shick; Kim, Younhee

    2017-02-28

    Fungal cell walls and cell membranes are the main targets of antifungals. In this study, we report on the antifungal activity of an ethanol extract from Paeonia lactiflora against Candida albicans , showing that the antifungal activity is associated with the synergistic actions of preventing cell wall synthesis, enabling membrane depolarization, and compromising permeability. First, it was shown that the ethanol extract from P. lactiflora was involved in damaging the integrity of cell walls in C. albicans . In isotonic media, cell bursts of C. albicans by the P. lactiflora ethanol extract could be restored, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the P. lactiflora ethanol extract against C. albicans cells increased 4-fold. In addition, synthesis of (1,3)-β- D -glucan polymer was inhibited by 87% and 83% following treatment of C. albicans microsomes with the P. lactiflora ethanol extract at their 1× MIC and 2× MIC, respectively. Second, the ethanol extract from P. lactiflora influenced the function of C. albicans cell membranes. C. albicans cells treated with the P. lactiflora ethanol extract formed red aggregates by staining with a membrane-impermeable dye, propidium iodide. Membrane depolarization manifested as increased fluorescence intensity by staining P. lactiflora -treated C. albicans cells with a membrane-potential marker, DiBAC 4 (3) (( bis -1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol). Membrane permeability was assessed by crystal violet assay, and C. albicans cells treated with the P. lactiflora ethanol extract exhibited significant uptake of crystal violet in a concentration-dependent manner. The findings suggest that P. lactiflora ethanol extract is a viable and effective candidate for the development of new antifungal agents to treat Candida -associated diseases.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Alpha-Mangostin on Adhesion of Candida albicans to Denture Acrylic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting denture wearers. It is characterized by the presence of yeast biofilm on the denture, primarily associated with C. albicans. The investigation of agents that can reduce C. albicans adhesion may represent a significant advancement in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic and germ tube formation by C. albicans and to compare its activity with clotrimazole which is a topical antifungal agent commonly used for the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Alpha-mangostin was extracted by thin layer chromatography. The effect of alpha-mangostin on adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic was determined by using a colorimetric tetrazolium assay and germ tube formation by C. albicans was determined by using the counting chamber. A significant reduction of C. albicans adhesion to denture acrylic was evident after exposure to 2,000 µg/ml of alpha-mangostin for only 15 min. In addition, the 2,000 µg/ml of the alpha-mangostin-treated C. albicans had a reduced ability for germ tube formation. These inhibitory effects of alpha-mangostin were as effective as clotrimazole. Alpha-mangostin has antifungal property against C. albicans by inhibiting the adhesion to denture acrylic and germ tube formation in vitro. These results suggest the potential application of alpha-mangostin as a topical medication or a natural oral hygiene product for treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  16. Streptococcus pneumoniae: estudo das cepas isoladas de liquor Streptococcus pneumoniae: a study of strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid

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    Ataiza C. Vieira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência dos sorotipos capsulares e a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, assim como dar suporte à indicação de vacinas disponíveis e ao uso de antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo retrospectivo, foram adotadas metodologias padronizadas para identificar, sorotipar e determinar a susceptibilidade à penicilina, cefotaxima e vancomicina. O estudo foi realizado com cepas de pneumococo isoladas de liquor em pacientes atendidos nos hospitais públicos e em três hospitais particulares do Distrito Federal no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2004. A identificação e a determinação de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos foi realizada no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública no Distrito Federal. A sorotipagem foi realizada no Instituto Adolfo Lutz. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas 232 cepas de pneumococo, compreendendo 126 cepas (54,31% de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade dos pacientes variou de 0 a 62 anos, sendo agrupados em faixas etárias de 0 a 5, 6 a 17, 18 a 50 e acima de 50 anos. Identificaram-se 36 sorotipos distintos. Desses destacaram-se oito: 14, 6B, 18C, 5, 19F, 23F, 9V e 6A. O teste de oxacilina caracterizou 67 cepas resistentes à penicilina; dessas, 47 foram confirmadas pelo E teste com resistência de nível intermediário. Nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência de alto nível. CONCLUSÃO: A resistência do pneumococo à penicilina apresentou um aumento gradativo nos últimos 10 anos no Distrito Federal. Os sorotipos mais isolados na faixa etária de 0 a 5 anos foram também os mais envolvidos na resistência à penicilina, e estão incluídos na vacina 7-valente.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of capsular serotypes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as to provide recommendations on the use of available vaccines and antimicrobial drugs. METHODS: In this retrospective study, standard procedures were followed

  17. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E.

    1990-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed

  18. Influence of radiation therapy on oral Candida albicans colonization: a quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossie, K.M.; Taylor, J.; Beck, F.M.; Hodgson, S.E.; Blozis, G.G.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in quantity of oral Candida albicans was documented in patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy during and after therapy, as assessed by an oral-rinse culturing technique. The amount of the increase was greater in denture wearers and directly related to increasing radiation dose and increasing volume of parotid gland included in the radiation portal. A significant number of patients who did not carry C. albicans prior to radiation therapy developed positive cultures by 1 month after radiation therapy. The percentage of patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy who carried C. albicans prior to radiation therapy did not differ significantly from matched dental patient controls

  19. A 51Chromium release assay for phagocytic killing of Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, M.; Boler, J.; Valdimarsson, H.

    1976-01-01

    Intracellular killing of Candida albicans was measured by a chromium release technique. Appropriate conditions were equal numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and 51 Chromium labelled C. albicans (10 6 /ml), fresh plasma at a final concentration of 2.5%, incubated at 37degC for 60 min. Using normal PMNs, 35-71% of releasable chromium was liberated into the supernatant under these conditions. This assay is easy to perform, requires a small amount of blood and offers an objective measurement of intracellular killing of C. albicans

  20. Adherence of Candida albicans to bladder mucosa: development and application of a tissue explant assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, C A; Navarro, E; Garrett, K F; Roberts, D D; Pizzo, P A; Walsh, T J

    1999-01-01

    In order to study the interactions between Candida species and uroepithelial tissue, a tissue explant assay was developed using bladder mucosa harvested from New Zealand white rabbits. Blastoconidia of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata attached to the uroepithelial tissue in similar quantities. However, there was significantly more adherence to the uroepithelium by pre-germinated C. albicans compared with C. albicans blastoconidia. Furthermore, the amount of uroepithelial tissue injury was directly related to the length of exposure of the tissue to Candida. Thus, this tissue explant assay may provide a useful method for investigating properties related to fungal adherence to transitional uroepithelium and organism-mediated tissue injury.

  1. 17-β-Estradiol Upregulates the Stress Response in Candida albicans: Implications for Microbial Virulence

    OpenAIRE

    C. O’Connor; M. Essmann; B. Larsen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: The influence of 17-β-estradiol on the stress response of Candida albicans was studied.Methods: The survival of clinical isolates of C. albicans treated with 17-β-estradiol after heat and oxidative stress was measured by viable plate counts. Cellular proteins were analyzed via SDSPAGE.Results: The heat stress response induced by 17-β-estradiol in C. albicans grown at 25 ℃ protected the organisms against the lethal temperature of 48.5 ℃, as shown by viable plate counts. 17-β-estradi...

  2. 17-beta-estradiol upregulates the stress response in Candida albicans: implications for microbial virulence.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, C; Essmann, M; Larsen, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The influence of 17-beta-estradiol on the stress response of Candida albicans was studied. METHODS: The survival of clinical isolates of C. albicans treated with 17-beta-estradiol after heat and oxidative stress was measured by viable plate counts. Cellular proteins were analyzed via SDS-PAGE. RESULTS: The heat stress response induced by 17-beta-estradiol in C. albicans grown at 25 degrees C protected the organisms against the lethal temperature of 48.5 degrees C, as shown by viabl...

  3. Estradiol impairs the Th17 immune response against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relloso, Miguel; Aragoneses-Fenoll, Laura; Lasarte, Sandra; Bourgeois, Christelle; Romera, Gema; Kuchler, Karl; Corbí, Angel L; Muñoz-Fernández, M Angeles; Nombela, César; Rodríguez-Fernández, José L; Diez-Orejas, Rosalia

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal opportunistic pathogen that is also a member of gastrointestinal and reproductive tract microbiota. Exogenous factors, such as oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and estradiol, may affect susceptibility to Candida infection, although the mechanisms involved in this process have not been elucidated. We used a systemic candidiasis model to investigate how estradiol confers susceptibility to infection. We report that estradiol increases mouse susceptibility to systemic candidiasis, as in vivo and ex vivo estradiol-treated DCs were less efficient at up-regulating antigen-presenting machinery, pathogen killing, migration, IL-23 production, and triggering of the Th17 immune response. Based on these results, we propose that estradiol impairs DC function, thus explaining the increased susceptibility to infection during estrus.

  4. Chromosome 1 trisomy compromises the virulence of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Magee, B B; Dawson, Dean; Magee, P T; Kumamoto, Carol A

    2004-01-01

    Although increases in chromosome copy number typically have devastating developmental consequences in mammals, fungal cells such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae seem to tolerate trisomies without obvious impairment of growth. Here, we demonstrate that two commonly used laboratory strains of the yeast Candida albicans, CAI-4 and SGY-243, can carry three copies of chromosome 1. Although the trisomic strains grow well in the laboratory, Ura+ derivatives of CAI-4, carrying three copies of chromosome 1, are avirulent in the intravenously inoculated mouse model, unlike closely related strains carrying two copies of chromosome 1. Furthermore, changes in chromosome copy number occur during growth in an animal host and during growth in the presence of growth-inhibiting drugs. These results suggest that chromosome copy number variation provides a mechanism for genetic variation in this asexual organism.

  5. Perfil de suscetibilidade a antimicrobianos de amostras Campylobacter spp isoladas de diferentes espécies animais em Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Pinheiro Toscano de Brito

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available padrão de sensibilidade de 45 amostras de Campylobacter spp, incluindo 16 amostras de C. jejuni, 8 de C. coli e 21 C. fetus, isoladas de diferentes espécies de animais do Brasil, foi determinado para doze antimicrobianos. Todas as amostras de Campylobacter spp foram sensíveis à gentamicina, sulfadiazina e sulfametoxazol. C. jejuni e C. coli foram também sensíveis ao cloranfenicol, enquanto todas as amostras de C. fetus foram sensíveis à canamicina. Cefoperazona mostrou o maior percentual de resistência entre C. jejuni (68,75%, seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (31,25%, ampicilina (37,50%, tetraciclina (37,50%, eritromicina (12,50% e canamicina (6,25%. Similarmente, cefoperazona também exibiu o maior percentual de resistência entre as amostras de C. coli (75,00%, seguido pelo ácido nalidíxico (50,00%, tetraciclina (50,00%, eritromicina (37,50%, ampicilina (12,50% e canamicina (12,50%. Entre os isolados de C. fetus, ácido nalidíxico apresentou maior taxa de resistência (85,71%, seguido de cefoperazona (71,43%, tetraciclina (42,86%, ampicilina (19,05%, cloranfenicol (9,52% e eritromicina (4,76%. Assim, os nossos resultados mostraram que a maioria das amostras de Campylobacter spp isolados de animais foram sensíveis à gentamicina, cloranfenicol, canamicina e sulfonamidas. No entanto, uma proporção elevada das amostras apresentou susceptibilidade reduzida ao ácido nalidíxico, ampicilina, cefoperazona e tetraciclina. Além disso, C. coli e C. fetus mostraram uma alta porcentagem de amostras resistentes a múltiplas drogas.

  6. Some adhesins of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC isolated from septicemic poultry in Brazil Algumas adesinas de Escherichia coli aviária (APEC isoladas de aves com colisepticemia no Brasil

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    Terezinha Knöbl

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Three hundred and fifty strains of E. coli isolated from septicemic poultry from seven states of Brazil were examined for presence of nine adhesion-encoding genes, hemagglutination and adherence to chicken tracheal cells (in vitro. Analysis of the strains by colony hybridization tests demonstrated that 93.7% of the isolates were fim +, 17% pap+ and 5.7% were sfa+. The mannose sensitive fimbriae occur with similar frequency in APEC isolated from all Brazilians states, while significant differences among pap and sfa genes distributions were observed. The results showed that 0.85% and 0.28% of APEC were positive for genes that encoded enteroaggregative adhesins and EPEC adherence factor, respectively. None of APEC was positive for DA, afa, Bfp and Eae probes. The adherence to chicken tracheal cells showed 96% positive strains, while hemagglutination assays showed 26.5% of the isolates were mannose sensitive and 21.7% were mannose resistant.Trezentas e cinqüenta amostras de E. coli isoladas de aves com septicemia em sete estados do Brasil foram examinadas para a presença de nove genes codificadores de adesinas, hemaglutinação e aderência em células da traquéia (in vitro. A análise das amostras pela hibridização de colônias demonstrou que 93,7% dos isolados eram fim +, 17% pap+ e 5,7% eram sfa+. As fímbrias manose sensíveis apresentaram uma distribuição uniforme em todos os estados do Brasil. No entanto, diferenças significativas na distribuição dos genes pap e sfa foram observadas. Os resultados mostraram que 0,85% e 0,28% das APEC foram positivas para os genes que codificam as adesinas enteroagregativas e o fator de aderência de EPEC, respectivamente. Nenhuma amostra foi positiva para as sondas DA, afa, Bfp e Eae. A aderência em células de traquéia de aves revelou 96% de amostras positivas, enquanto os testes de hemaglutinação mostraram 26,5% dos isolados mannose sensíveis e 21,7% manose resistentes.

  7. Trehalose accumulation, invertase activity and physiological characteristics of yeasts isolated from 24 h fermentative cycles during the production of artisanal Brazilian cachaça Acúmulo de trealose, atividade invertásica e características fisiológicas de leveduras isoladas do ciclo fermentativo de 24 horas durante a produção de cachaça artesanal brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pataro

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Trehalose accumulation, invertase activity and physiological characteristics of 86 yeast isolates from short fermentative cycles during the production of cachaça in three artisanal distilleries of the State of Minas Gerais were studied. Among these isolates, 70% were able to grow at temperatures between 40 and 42ºC. Only Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates were able to grow over 40ºC. Lower temperatures (As características fisiológicas, acúmulo de trealose e produção de invertase de 86 leveduras isoladas do ciclo fermentativo durante a produção artesanal de cachaça em três destilarias no Estado de Minas Gerais foram estudadas. Destes isolados 70% foram capazes de crescer acima de 40 e 42ºC. Somente os isolados de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram capazes de crescer acima de 40ºC. Baixas temperaturas (<40ºC favoreceram o crescimento de leveduras como Candida parapsilosis-like, C. maltosa-like, Kloeckera japonica, S. exiguus and C. bombicola-like. Os isolados das três destilarias foram tolerantes ao etanol, produziram invertase e acumularam trealose na presença de glicose. As linhagens isoladas da destilaria A apresentaram maior resistência ao etanol (cerca de 84.2% das linhagens foram capazes de crescer na presença de 12% de etanol quando comparadas àquelas das destilarias B e C (nenhuma linhagem e 9,5%, respectivamente. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae isoladas das três destilarias apresentaram uma alta capacidade para produzir invertase e acumular trealose na presença de glicose. Com base nos resultados dos experimentos de estresse térmico e de etanol, foi possível observar uma forte relação entre acúmulo de trealose intracelular e viabilidade celular. O aumento da viabilidade celular foi mais pronunciado quando as linhagens foram submetidas a um pré-tratamento em temperaturas sub-letais.

  8. Isolamento e caraterização genotipica e fenotipica de amostras de Escherichia coli isoladas de bezerros no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lela Aidar Ugrinovich

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: Foram isoladas 98 amostras de Escherichia coli, portadoras dos genes eae, stx, ou ambos, entre 264 bezerros diarréicos e 282 bezerros sadios, com idade entre 4 a 5 meses. Uma vez positivas em PCR para 1 ou ambos os genes, as amostras foram estudadas quanto presença de genes que codificam para enterotoxinas e citotoxinas: Termo lábil I (LT-I), Termo lábil li (LT-lI), Termo estável a (Sta), Termo estável b (STh), Fator necrotizante citotóxico 1 (CNF1), Fator necrotizante citotóxico 2 (C...

  9. Normas de desempenho em tarefa de leitura de palavras/pseudopalavras isoladas (LPI) para crianças de 1º ano a 7º ano

    OpenAIRE

    Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles; Luciane da Rosa Piccolo; Renata de Souza Zamo; Rudineia Toazza

    2013-01-01

    O instrumento de avaliação de leitura de palavras/pseudopalavras isoladas (LPI), de fácil aplicação e baixo custo, avalia a habilidade de leitura oral (reconhecimento de palavras/ pseudopalavras). São estímulos criteriosamente selecionados conforme regularidade, extensão, frequência e lexicalidade, permitindo avaliar a funcionalidade das rotas de leitura (modelos de dupla-rota). Este estudo apresenta a construção das normas de desempenho (escores totais, em palavras regulares, irregulares e p...

  10. Atividade antagônica a microrganismos patogênicos por bactérias endofíticas isoladas de Echinodorus scaber Rataj

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Ricardo Douglas de; Mendonça, Elisabeth Aparecida Furtado de; Soares, Marcos Antônio

    2015-01-01

    Os objetivos desse trabalho foram identificar e avaliar o potencial antagônico in vitro de bactérias endofíticas isoladas de Echinodorus scaber (chapéu de couro) sobre alguns patógenos e verificar sua capacidade de controlar o desenvolvimento de fungos em grãos de soja. Um total de 113 linhagens foi confrontado com cinco fungos patogênicos (método de cultura dupla), e quatro bactérias patogênicas (método de sobrecamada). O controle de crescimento de fungo em grãos de soja foi realizado por mi...

  11. In Vitro Effect of Local Anesthetics on Candida albicans Germ Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Rodrigues

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned to clarify the in vitro effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolates from cases of clinical vaginal candidiasis.

  12. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  13. Impact of oxidative and osmotic stresses on Candida albicans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmaraju, Suma C; Padmapriya, Kumar; Pruthi, Parul A; Prasad, R; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Candida albicans possesses an ability to grow under different host-driven stress conditions by developing robust protective mechanisms. In this investigation the focus was on the impact of osmotic (2M NaCl) and oxidative (5 mM H2O2) stress conditions during C. albicans biofilm formation. Oxidative stress enhanced extracellular DNA secretion into the biofilm matrix, increased the chitin level, and reduced virulence factors, namely phospholipase and proteinase activity, while osmotic stress mainly increased extracellular proteinase and decreased phospholipase activity. Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of mannan isolated from the C. albicans biofilm cell wall revealed a decrease in mannan content and reduced β-linked mannose moieties under stress conditions. The results demonstrate that C. albicans adapts to oxidative and osmotic stress conditions by inducing biofilm formation with a rich exopolymeric matrix, modulating virulence factors as well as the cell wall composition for its survival in different host niches.

  14. Biochemical characterization of recombinant dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zameitat, E.; Gojkovic, Zoran; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans, and recently it has become increasingly resistant to the current antifungal agents. In this study we investigated C. albicans dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH, EC 1.3.99.11), which catalyzes the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine...... lacks the targeting sequence and the transmembrane domain, were subcloned from C. albicans, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized for their kinetics and substrate specificity. An inhibitor screening with 28 selected compounds was performed. Only the dianisidine...... derivative, redoxal, and the biphenyl quinoline-carboxylic acid derivative, brequinar sodium, which are known to be potent inhibitors of mammalian DHODH, markedly reduced C. albicans DHODH activity. This study provides a background for the development of antipyrimidines with high efficacy for decreasing...

  15. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Curcumin uptake enhancement using low dose light illumination during incubation in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Renan A.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; da Silva, Ana P.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Guimarães, Francisco E. G.

    2017-07-01

    A new PDI protocol is presented in this study. C. albicans cells pre-illuminated with a low dose light demonstrated an increase of curcumin uptake when compared to dark incubation, leading to a higher PDI efficacy.

  17. Differential virulence of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis: A role for Tor1 kinase?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sullivan, Derek J

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are two very closely related species of pathogenic yeast. C. albicans is the most prevalent species in the human gastrointestinal tract and is responsible for far more opportunistic infections in comparison with C. dubliniensis. This disparity is likely to be due to the reduced ability of C. dubliniensis to undergo the yeast to hypha transition, a change in morphology that plays an important role in C. albicans virulence. We have recently shown that hypha formation by C. dubliniensis is specifically repressed by nutrients at alkaline pH. In this article, we present new data showing that this can be partly reversed by treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the nutrient sensing kinase Tor1 (Target Of Rapamycin). We also provide a speculative model to describe why C. albicans filaments more efficiently in nutrient rich environments, citing recently described data on Mds3, a pH responsive regulator of Tor1 kinase activity.

  18. DAYA ANTIFUNGAL DEKOK KAYU MANIS (Cinnamomum burmanni TERHADAP Candida Albicans SECARA IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lailia Nur Rachma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most oportunis fungi that cause flour albus. Cinnamomum burmanni have been widely known as therapy for flour albus. This efect caused by its chemical compound such as cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, cinnamic acid, limonene, cathecin, coumarin, linalool, and tannin. This research aims was to know the comparison of antifungal potency of Cinnamomum burmanni on Candida albicans in vitro. The design was true experimental. The decoction concentrations of Cinnamomum burmanni that were used were 8%, 4%, 2%, 1%, 0.5%, 0.25%, and 0.125% with three time repetition. The data was analized with One-way ANOVA test with convidence interval 95% (p < 0.05. One-way ANOVA test gave result Cinnamomum burmanni had antifungal potency against Candida albicans. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of Cinnamomum burmanni was 1%. Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC of Cinnamomum burmanni was 2%. The conclusion was Cinnamomum burmanni had antifungal potency against Candida albicans in vitro.

  19. Manipulation of Host Diet To Reduce Gastrointestinal Colonization by the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsalus, Kearney T W; Tornberg-Belanger, Stephanie N; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Kumamoto, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal drugs prevents C. albicans-associated mortalities. C. albicans provides a clinically relevant system for studying the relationship between diet and the microbiota as it relates to commensalism and pathogenicity. As a first step toward a dietary intervention to reduce C. albicans GI colonization, we investigated the impact of dietary lipids on murine colonization by C. albicans. Coconut oil and its constituent fatty acids have antifungal activity in vitro; we hypothesized that dietary coconut oil would reduce GI colonization by C. albicans. Colonization was lower in mice fed a coconut oil-rich diet than in mice fed diets rich in beef tallow or soybean oil. Switching beef tallow-fed mice to a coconut oil diet reduced preexisting colonization. Coconut oil reduced colonization even when the diet also contained beef tallow. Dietary coconut oil also altered the metabolic program of colonizing C. albicans cells. Long-chain fatty acids were less abundant in the cecal contents of coconut oil-fed mice than in the cecal contents of beef tallow-fed mice; the expression of genes involved in fatty acid utilization was lower in C. albicans from coconut oil-fed mice than in C. albicans from beef tallow-fed mice. Extrapolating to humans, these findings suggest that coconut oil could become the first dietary intervention to reduce C. albicans GI colonization. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. C. albicans is part of the normal gut flora, but when a patient's immune system is compromised, it can leave the gut and cause infections. By reducing the amount of C. albicans in the gut of susceptible

  20. Rare presentation of Candida albicans: infective endocarditis and a pulmonary coin lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner, Taliha; Korun, Oktay; Çelebi, Ahmet

    2018-04-01

    We present a case of a rare association of infective endocarditis and a coin lesion in the lung caused by Candida albicans. The lesion disappeared after 6 weeks of treatment with 5 mg/kg/day amphotericin B.

  1. Functional genomics identifies type I interferon pathway as central for host defense against Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Ng, Aylwin; Kumar, Vinod; Johnson, Melissa D.; Plantinga, Theo S.; van Diemen, Cleo; Arts, Peer; Verwiel, Eugene T. P.; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Fransen, Karin; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Oosting, Marije; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Hoischen, Alexander; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Scott, William K.; Perfect, John R.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and systemic infections. However, human antifungal immunity remains poorly defined. Here by integrating transcriptional analysis and functional genomics, we identified Candida-specific host defence mechanisms in humans.

  2. Phenotypic aspects of oral strains of Candida albicans in children with down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to characterize the biological aspects of oral strains of C. albicans in children with Down's syndrome. These yeasts were analyzed as to their macromorphological and enzymatic aspects and were tested as to their in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs using broth microdilution to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The morphotyping revealed that all oral C. albicans isolates from children with Down's syndrome promoted the formation of fringes regardless of size, while the control group presented smaller fringes. All oral C. albicans strains produced proteinase, but those with phospholipolytic activity showed greater enzyme capacity in the test group. In vitro susceptibility showed that all oral C. albicans isolates were sensitive to the drugs used.

  3. Candida krusei and Candida glabrata reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans by downregulating expression of HWP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Freire, Fernanda; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C. albicans. Firstly, the capacity of reference and clinical strains of C. albicans in forming hyphae was tested in vitro. After that, the expression of HWP1 (hyphal wall protein 1) gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. For both reference and clinical strains, a significant inhibition of the hyphae formation was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of C. krusei or C. glabrata compared to the control group composed only by C. albicans. In addition, the culture mixed of C. albicans-C. krusei or C. albicans-C. glabrata reduced significantly the expression of HWP1 gene of C. albicans in relation to single cultures of this specie. In both filamentation and gene expression assays, C. krusei showed the higher inhibitory activity on the morphogenesis of C. albicans compared to C. glabrata. C. krusei and C. glabrata are capable to reduce the filamentation of C. albicans and consequently decrease the expression of the HWP1 gene.

  4. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  5. Antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans

    OpenAIRE

    Rianti, Devi; Yogyarti, Sri

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory experimental study conducted on antimicrobial effects of Coleus amboinicus, Lour folium Infusum towards Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Effective concentration of Coleus amboinicus, Lour to decrease the quantities Candida albicans and S. mutans colonies is expected to be found out in this study. This study was using Coleus Amboinicus, Lour folium infusum with 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% concentrations. Sterilized aquadest used as a control. Candida al...

  6. A Virtual Infection Model Quantifies Innate Effector Mechanisms and Candida albicans Immune Escape in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Kristin; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment–model–experiment cycles allowed

  7. Comparison of dielectric barrier discharge modes fungicidal effect on candida albicans growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slama, J.; Kriha, V.; Fantova, V.; Julak, J.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentary and quasi-homogeneous mode of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was investigated as a plasma source with fungicidal effect on Candida albicans yeast inoculated on Sabouraud agar wafers. As compared with the filamentary DBD mode, the quasi-homogeneous mode had significantly better results: shorter exposition time needed for inhibiting C. albicans yeast, moreover the quasi-homogeneous mode had gentle influence on the agar surface structure.

  8. Influence of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans gene expression in in vitro biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Ribeiro, Felipe Camargo; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the interactions between the species Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata in monotypic and mixed biofilm models formed in vitro as well as the relative expression of the ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1, TEC1, SAP5, PLB2 and LIP9 genes. Mixed (C. albicans/C. krusei and C. albicans/C. glabrata) and monotypic biofilms were cultured for 0, 12 and 24h. Gene expression was analyzed in the same biofilm model in which the number of CFU/mL was counted. The C. albicans CFU/mL values were lower at the 12 and 24h time points in the mixed biofilms compared with the monotypic biofilms, and decreases of 56.23% and 64.4% in C. albicans were observed when this species was associated with C. glabrata and C. krusei, respectively. In the presence of C. krusei, the expression of the ALS3, HWP1, BCR1, EFG1 and TEC1 genes of C. albicans was completely inhibited, indicating both transcriptome and the phenotypic antagonism between these two species, but genes related to the secretion of enzymes were stimulated. In the presence of C. glabrata, C. albicans showed a similar gene expression profile to that obtained in association with C. krusei, though it was altered to a lesser degree. We conclude that C. krusei and C. glabrata may alter or inhibit the mechanisms involved in the in vitro adherence and formation of C. albicans biofilms, influencing the pathogenicity of this species and suggesting a competitive interaction with C. krusei and C. glabrata in biofilm formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Oral Immunization Against Candidiasis Using Lactobacillus casei Displaying Enolase 1 from Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Tafuku, Senji; Aoki, Wataru; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell surface by using poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex A from Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring protein. The Eno1p-displaying L. casei cells were used to immunize mice, which were later chall...

  10. Adding Biotin to Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Without Lipid Accelerates the Growth of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Kaneda, Shinya; Shimono, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously demonstrated that Candida albicans requires multivitamins (MVs) or lipid to increase rapidly in parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions. In this study, in detail, the effects of vitamins on the growth of C. albicans in PN solutions without lipid were investigated. Methods: In the 1st experiment, a commercial PN solution without lipid was supplemented with water-soluble vitamins (SVs: vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C, folic acid, nicotinamide, biotin and panthenol), water-insoluble vitamins (IVs: vitamins A, D, E and K) or both (MVs). In the 2nd experiment, the test solutions were prepared by supplementing the PN solution with one of each or all of the SVs. In the 3rd experiment, another commercial peripheral PN (PPN) solution without lipid was supplemented with SVs, nicotinic acid, biotin or both nicotinic acid and biotin. In each of the experiments, a specified number of C. albicans organisms was added to each test solution, and all of the test solutions were allowed to stand at room temperature (23-26ºC). The number of C. albicans was counted at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the addition of the organism. Results: In the 1st experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PN solution supplemented with the SVs, but increased slowly without the SVs, regardless of the addition of the IVs. In the 2nd experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PN solution supplemented with the SVs or biotin, but increased slowly with each of the other water-soluble vitamins. In the 3rd experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PPN solution supplemented with the SVs or biotin, but increased slowly with the addition of nicotinic acid. Conclusions: These results suggested that adding MVs or SVs to PN solutions without lipid promotes the growth of C. albicans, and that this effect is mostly attributable to biotin. PMID:27648003

  11. Quantification and Optimization of Candida albicans DNA in Blood Samples Using Real- Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nabili

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans (C. albicans is a major cause of candidaemia in people with impaired immunity. Blood culture is a “gold standard” for candidaemia detection but is time-consuming and relatively insensitive. We established a real-time PCR assay for C. albicans detection in blood by LightCycler PCR and melting curve analysis. Methods: Five milliliter blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with 100-106 C. albicans cells to determine the detection limit of our method. DNA was extracted from whole blood using glass beads and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden Germany. DNA from C. albicans isolates were amplified with primers and inserted into Escherichia coli (E. coli DH5α.1 cells with the TA cloning vector (Invitrogen. The plasmid was used for standardization and optimization. A quantitative PCR assay with the LightCycler amplification and detection system based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET with two different specific probes was established. To assess the precision and reproducibility of real-time PCR the intra-assay precision was determined in six consecutive assays. Results: No cross-reactivity of the hybridization probes with the DNA of non-C. albicans species or human genomic DNA was observed, which confirmed its 100% specificity. The minimum limit detected was one C. albicans cell or 100 CFU/ml (10 fg per PCR reaction. The real-time PCR efficiency rate for Candida was high (E = 1.95. Melting curve analysis of C. albicans showed a specific melting peak temperature of 65.76 °C. Conclusion: The real-time PCR assay we developed is highly specific and sufficiently sensitive to detect the fungal load for early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  12. Adding Biotin to Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Without Lipid Accelerates the Growth of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Kaneda, Shinya; Shimono, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Candida albicans requires multivitamins (MVs) or lipid to increase rapidly in parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions. In this study, in detail, the effects of vitamins on the growth of C. albicans in PN solutions without lipid were investigated. In the 1st experiment, a commercial PN solution without lipid was supplemented with water-soluble vitamins (SVs: vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C, folic acid, nicotinamide, biotin and panthenol), water-insoluble vitamins (IVs: vitamins A, D, E and K) or both (MVs). In the 2nd experiment, the test solutions were prepared by supplementing the PN solution with one of each or all of the SVs. In the 3rd experiment, another commercial peripheral PN (PPN) solution without lipid was supplemented with SVs, nicotinic acid, biotin or both nicotinic acid and biotin. In each of the experiments, a specified number of C. albicans organisms was added to each test solution, and all of the test solutions were allowed to stand at room temperature (23-26ºC). The number of C. albicans was counted at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the addition of the organism. In the 1st experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PN solution supplemented with the SVs, but increased slowly without the SVs, regardless of the addition of the IVs. In the 2nd experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PN solution supplemented with the SVs or biotin, but increased slowly with each of the other water-soluble vitamins. In the 3rd experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PPN solution supplemented with the SVs or biotin, but increased slowly with the addition of nicotinic acid. These results suggested that adding MVs or SVs to PN solutions without lipid promotes the growth of C. albicans, and that this effect is mostly attributable to biotin.

  13. Candida albicans CUG Mistranslation Is a Mechanism To Create Cell Surface Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Isabel; Silva-Dias, Ana; Rocha, Rita; Teixeira-Santos, Rita; Coelho, Carolina; Gon?alves, Teresa; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Pina-Vaz, Cid?lia; Solis, Norma V.; Filler, Scott G.; Rodrigues, Ac?cio G.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the CUG codon is translated 97% of the time as serine and 3% of the time as leucine, which potentially originates an array of proteins resulting from the translation of a single gene. Genes encoding cell surface proteins are enriched in CUG codons; thus, CUG mistranslation may influence the interactions of the organism with the host. To investigate this, we compared a C.?albicans strain that misincorporates 28% of leucine at CUGs with a ...

  14. Antifungal activity of Cymbopogon winterianus jowitt ex bor against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Wylly Ara?jo; de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; de Luna, Giliara Carol Diniz Gomes; Lima, Igara Oliveira; Wanderley, Paulo Alves; de Lima, Rita Baltazar; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic yeast and a member of the normal human flora that commonly causes infections in patients with any type of deficiency of the immune system. The essential oils have been tested for antimycotic activity and pose much potential as antifungal agents. This work investigated the activity of the essential oil of Cymbopogon winterianus against C. albicans by MIC, MFC and time-kill methods. The essential oil (EO) was obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-t...

  15. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  16. Quantification and optimization of Candida albicans DNA in blood samples using Real- Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabili, Mojtaba; Ashrafi, Mohsen; Janbabaie, Ghasem; Hedayati, Mohamad Taghi; Ali-Moghaddam, Kamran; Shokohi, Tahereh

    2013-10-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is a major cause of candidaemia in people with impaired immunity. Blood culture is a "gold standard" for candidaemia detection but is time-consuming and relatively insensitive. We established a real-time PCR assay for C. albicans detection in blood by LightCycler PCR and melting curve analysis. Five milliliter blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with 10(0)-10(6) C. albicans cells to determine the detection limit of our method. DNA was extracted from whole blood using glass beads and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden Germany). DNA from C. albicans isolates were amplified with primers and inserted into Escherichia coli (E. coli) DH5α.1 cells with the TA cloning vector (Invitrogen). The plasmid was used for standardization and optimization. A quantitative PCR assay with the LightCycler amplification and detection system based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) with two different specific probes was established. To assess the precision and reproducibility of real-time PCR the intra-assay precision was determined in six consecutive assays. No cross-reactivity of the hybridization probes with the DNA of non-C. albicans species or human genomic DNA was observed, which confirmed its 100% specificity. The minimum limit detected was one C. albicans cell or 10(0) CFU/ml (10 fg) per PCR reaction. The real-time PCR efficiency rate for Candida was high (E = 1.95). Melting curve analysis of C. albicans showed a specific melting peak temperature of 65.76 °C. The real-time PCR assay we developed is highly specific and sufficiently sensitive to detect the fungal load for early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  17. A role for Candida albicans superoxide dismutase enzymes in glucose signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, Chynna N; He, Bixi; Bruno, Vincent M; Culotta, Valeria C

    2018-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans yeasts have evolved to differentially use glucose for fermentation versus respiration. S. cerevisiae is Crabtree positive, where glucose represses respiration and promotes fermentation, while the opportunistic fungal pathogen C. albicans is Crabtree negative and does not repress respiration with glucose. We have previously shown that glucose control in S. cerevisiae involves the antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), where H 2 O 2 generated by SOD1 stabilizes the casein kinase YCK1 for glucose sensing. We now demonstrate that C. albicans SODs also participate in glucose regulation. C. albicans expresses two cytosolic SODs, Cu/Zn SOD1 and Mn containing SOD3, and both complemented a S. cerevisiae sod1Δ mutant in stabilizing YCK1. Moreover, in C. albicans cells, both SODs functioned to repress glucose transporter genes in response to glucose. However, the action of SODs in glucose control has diverged in the two yeasts. In S. cerevisiae, SOD1 specifically functions in the glucose sensing pathway involving YCK1 and the RGT1 repressor, but the analogous YCK/RGT1 pathway in C. albicans shows no control by SOD enzymes. Instead C. albicans SODs work in the glucose repression pathway involving the MIG1 transcriptional repressor. In C. albicans, the SODs repress glucose uptake, while in S. cerevisiae, SOD1 activates glucose uptake, in accordance with the divergent modes for glucose utilization in these two distantly related yeasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans based on flow cytometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhengxin; Chen, Jing; Wang, Xianling; Zhao, Bohua; Hou, Tianwen

    2015-04-01

    To establish a whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis assay for Candida albicans (C.albicans) based on flow cytometry (FCM). C.albicans of mid-logarithmic growth phase was labeled by fluorescence probe carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE), and then added into CD45-PC5 pre-stained human whole blood cells at a 10:1 multiplicity of infection (MOI) in 37DegreesCelsius. The cells were incubated for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. Phagocytosis rate of C.albicans by the CD45 positive cells in the blood was determined by FCM. In yeast extract peptone dextrose medium (YPD) and under the conditions of 37DegreesCelsius and 50 mL/L CO2, the logarithmic growth phase of C.albicans SC5314 was from the 5th to 11th hour. C.albicans were well stained by 10 mmol/L CFDA-SE after 30-minute incubation. After 10-, 30- and 60-minute incubation with SC5314 C.albicans with CD45⁺ cells, the phagocytosis rates measured by FCM were (80.1 ± 6.1)%, (83.8 ± 7.7)% and (92.3 ± 11.2)% for the neutrophils, (11.2 ± 3.6)%, (15.8 ± 4.4)% and (27.7 ± 6.8)% for the monocytes and (0.9 ± 0.3)%, (0.8 ± 0.4)% and (5.2 ± 1.6)% for the lymphocytes. The method for measuring whole blood leukocyte phagocytosis of C.albicans based on FCM is successfully established, and 30 minutes are the proper incubation time for the phagocytosis assay.

  19. Distribution of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species in oral candidiasis patients: Correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muadcheingka, Thaniya; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to study the prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) species from oral candidiasis patients and evaluate the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and biofilm forming capacity of the clinical isolates Candida species from oral cavity. This study identified a total of 250 Candida strains isolated from 207 oral candidiasis patients with PCR-RFLP technique. CSH value, total biomass of biofilm and biofilm forming ability of 117 oral Candida isolates were evaluated. C. albicans (61.6%) was still the predominant species in oral candidiasis patients with and without denture wearer, respectively, followed by C. glabrata (15.2%), C. tropicalis (10.4%), C. parapsilosis (3.2%), C. kefyr (3.6%), C. dubliniensis (2%), C. lusitaniae (2%), C. krusei (1.6%), and C. guilliermondii (0.4%). The proportion of mixed colonization with more than one Candida species was 18% from total cases. The relative CSH value and biofilm biomass of NAC species were greater than C. albicans (poral isolates NAC species had biofilm forming ability, whereas 78% of C. albicans were biofilm formers. Furthermore, the significant difference of relative CSH values between biofilm formers and non-biofilm formers was observed in the NAC species (poral cavity was gradually increasing. The possible contributing factors might be high cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming ability. The relative CSH value could be a putative factor for determining biofilm formation ability of the non-albicans Candida species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uso do fluconazol endovenoso no tratamento da endoftalmite fúngica endógena: relato de caso Intravenous fluconazole use in the treatment of fungic endogenous endophthalmitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Freitas Dotto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans, em recém-nascido prematuro, refratária ao tratamento com anfotericina B endovenosa e que apresentou resolução com o uso do fluconazol endovenoso. Ressaltam ainda os aspectos clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans por meio de revisão da literatura.The authors describe a case of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis in one extremely low birth-weight newborn refractory to endovenous amphotericin B treatment that presented resolution with the use of endovenous fluconazole. Clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis are also pointed out by a review of the literature.

  1. Efeito da inoculação de bactérias diazotróficas de vida- livre e fungo micorrízico arbuscular (Glomus clarum) em arroz (Orysa sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Milena Pupo Raimam

    2004-01-01

    O arroz é cultivado normalmente em solos deficientes em nitrogênio, exigindo que este elemento seja acrescentado à cultura através de fertilizantes nitrogenados a base de uréia e nitrato, causando problemas de poluição ambiental. A utilização da tecnologia da fixação biológica de nitrogênio (FBN) pode diminuir a aplicação destes fertilizantes, reduzindo riscos ambientais. Este estudo avaliou os efeitos de quatro gêneros de bactérias fixadoras de N, isoladas da planta carnívora Drosera villosa...

  2. Global transcriptome sequencing identifies chlamydospore specific markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Palige

    Full Text Available Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2 which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  3. Role of Ess1 in growth, morphogenetic switching, and RNA polymerase II transcription in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanushki Samaranayake

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a fungal pathogen that causes potentially fatal infections among immune-compromised individuals. The emergence of drug resistant C. albicans strains makes it important to identify new antifungal drug targets. Among potential targets are enzymes known as peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases that catalyze isomerization of peptide bonds preceding proline. We are investigating a PPIase called Ess1, which is conserved in all major human pathogenic fungi. Previously, we reported that C. albicans Ess1 is essential for growth and morphogenetic switching. In the present study, we re-evaluated these findings using more rigorous genetic analyses, including the use of additional CaESS1 mutant alleles, distinct marker genes, and the engineering of suitably-matched isogenic control strains. The results confirm that CaEss1 is essential for growth in C. albicans, but show that reduction of CaESS1 gene dosage by half (δ/+ does not interfere with morphogenetic switching. However, further reduction of CaEss1 levels using a conditional allele does reduce morphogenetic switching. We also examine the role of the linker α-helix that distinguishes C. albicans Ess1 from the human Pin1 enzyme, and present results of a genome-wide transcriptome analysis. The latter analysis indicates that CaEss1 has a conserved role in regulation of RNA polymerase II function, and is required for efficient termination of small nucleolar RNAs and repression of cryptic transcription in C. albicans.

  4. Person-to-person transfer of Candida albicans in the spacecraft environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Magee, B. B.; Mishra, S. K.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the exchange of Candida albicans among crew members during 10 Space Shuttle missions. Throat, nasal, urine and faecal specimens were collected from 61 crew members twice before and once after space flights ranging from 7 to 10 days in duration; crews consisted of groups of five, six or seven men and women. Candida albicans was isolated at least once from 20 of the 61 subjects (33%). Candida strains were identified by restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) after digestion by the endonucleases EcoRI and HinfI; further discrimination was gained by Southern blot hybridization with the C. albicans repeat fragment 27A. Eighteen of the 20 Candida-positive crew members carried different strains of C. albicans in the specimens collected. Possible transfer of C. albicans between members of the same crew was demonstrated only once in the 10 missions studied. We conclude that the transfer of C. albicans among crew members during Space Shuttle flights is less frequent than had been predicted from earlier reports.

  5. The role of Candida albicans in the severity of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroukolaei, Shahla Amri; Ghabaee, Mojdeh; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Badiei, Alireza; Ghourchian, Shadi

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the specific activity of proteinase A in Candida albicans (C. albicans) between multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and controls. A total of 135 and 100 C. albicans strains were isolated from superficial surfaces of MS patients and healthy controls. Analytical models (regression and neural network) were applied to predict the severity of MS considering specific enzyme activity (SEA) and other factors which affect the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). The SEA of C. albicans in MS patients (3466.95 ± 277.25 μmol min -1 mg -1 ) was significantly more than that of healthy controls (1108.98 ± 294.51 μmol min -1 mg -1 ) that was confirmed by regression model (P albicans in MS patients was significantly more than the healthy controls. The results suggest that the level of SEA of proteinase A and probably the capacity of C. albicans isolates to invade the host tissue is associated with the severity of MS. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Genotyping and Persistence of Candida albicans from Pregnant Women with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Cecilia V; Hermosilla, Germán; Fortes, Paula; Alburquenque, Claudio; Bucarey, Sergio; Salinas, Hugo; Rodas, Paula I; Díaz, María Cristina; Magne, Fabien

    2017-04-01

    To study Candida albicans genotypes using RAPD and their susceptibility to fluconazole in healthy pregnant women and in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) patients after topical treatment with clotrimazole. Vaginal swabs were collected at t = 0 and t = 1 (1 month later) in pregnant women (control group, n = 33), and before (t = 0), at 1 month (t = 1) and at 2 months (t = 2) after clotrimazole treatment in pregnant women with VVC. Candida albicans was isolated in 30% of healthy pregnant women and 80% of patients with VVC. A high genetic heterogeneity was observed in C. albicans genotypes between individuals. In patients with VVC, topical antifungal treatment with clotrimazole was clinically effective, but only in a 62% C. albicans was eradicated. In patients in which C. albicans was not eradicated, this microorganism persisted for 1 or 2 months after the antifungal treatment. The persistent colonies were not associated with a specific genotype, but they were associated with higher MICs in comparison with colonies isolated from the control group. Therapy with topical clotrimazole, despite a good clinical outcome, could not eradicate completely C. albicans allowing the persistence of genotypes, with higher MICs to fluconazole. More studies with higher number of patients are needed to validate this preliminary finding.

  7. Hyphal formation of Candida albicans is controlled by electron transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Toshihiko; Ogasawara, Ayako; Mikami, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Tatsuji

    2006-01-01

    Most Candida albicans cells cultured in RPMI1640 medium at 37 deg. C grow in hyphal form in aerobic conditions, but they grow in yeast form in anaerobic conditions. The hyphal growth of C. albicans was inhibited in glucose-deficient conditions. Malonic acid, an inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, enhanced the yeast proliferation of C. albicans, indicating that the hyphal-formation signal was derived from the glycolysis system and the signal was transmitted to the electron transfer system via the citric acid cycle. Thenoyl trifluoro acetone (TTFA), an inhibitor of the signal transmission between complex II and Co Q, significantly inhibited the hyphal growth of C. albicans. Antimycin, KCN, and oligomycin, inhibitors of complex III, IV, and V, respectively, did not inhibit the hyphal growth of C. albicans. The production of mRNAs for the hyphal formation signal was completely inhibited in anaerobic conditions. These results indicate that the electron transfer system functions upstream of the RAS1 signal pathway and activates the expression of the hyphal formation signal. Since the electron transfer system is inactivated in anaerobic conditions, C. albicans grew in yeast form in this condition

  8. The inhibitory activity of linalool against the filamentous growth and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Kuei-Chin; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-07-01

    Candida spp. are part of the natural human microbiota, but they also represent important opportunistic human pathogens. Biofilm-associated Candida albicans infections are clinically relevant due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the ability of linalool to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms and reduce existing C. albicans biofilms. Linalool exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 14053, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mM. Sub-MIC concentrations of linalool also inhibited the formation of germ tubes and biofilms in that strain. The defective architecture composition of C. albicans biofilms exposed to linalool was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The expression levels of the adhesin genes HWP1 and ALS3 were downregulated by linalool, as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYR1 and CPH1, which encode components of the cAMP-PKA and MAPK hyphal formation regulatory pathways, respectively, were also suppressed by linalool, as was the gene encoding their upstream regulator, Ras1. The expression levels of long-term hyphae maintenance associated genes, including UME6, HGC1, and EED1, were all suppressed by linalool. These results indicate that linalool may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of candidiasis associated with medical devices because it interferes with the morphological switch and biofilm formation of C. albicans.

  9. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of candidemia isolates of non-albicans Candida species from cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping-Feng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Hsieh, Min-Han; Hii, Ing-Moi; Lee, Yu-Lin; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Ho, Mao-Wang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Fu-Der

    2017-01-01

    Candidemia is a growing concern worldwide, and its species distribution has shifted toward non-albicans Candida in recent decades, especially in patients with malignancy. This study aimed to update the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans candidemia isolates from the cancer patients. Adult cancer patients with non-albicans candidemia were recruited, and clinical data were retrospectively collected from five medical centers in Taiwan from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2014. In vitro susceptibility was determined by the broth dilution method using a Sensititre YeastOne system and interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A total of 346 episodes of non-albicans candidemia were identified in cancer patients. Candida tropicalis was the most common species (n=145, 41.9%) and had the highest resistance rate to fluconazole (n=17, 13.9%) among all the preserved isolates, including C. tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. A higher Charlson comorbidity index, non-albicans candidemia due to C. tropicalis, neutropenia and septic shock were independent predictors of 28-day mortality. In conclusion, the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans candidemia isolates in our study differed from those in Western countries, providing useful information about local epidemiology for the selection of empirical antifungal agents for cancer patients. PMID:29018251

  10. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  11. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  12. Antibiofilm and Antihyphal Activities of Cedar Leaf Essential Oil, Camphor, and Fenchone Derivatives against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can form biofilms composed of yeast, hyphal, and pseudohyphal elements, and C. albicans cells in the hyphal stage could be a virulence factor. The present study describes the chemical composition, antibiofilm, and antihyphal activities of cedar leaf essential oil (CLEO, which was found to possess remarkable antibiofilm activity against C. albicans but not to affect its planktonic cell growth. Nineteen components were identified in CLEO by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and phenolics were the main constituents. Of these, camphor, fenchone, fenchyl alcohol, α-thujone, and borneol significantly reduced C. albicans biofilm formation. Notably, treatments with CLEO, camphor, or fenchyl alcohol at 0.01% clearly inhibited hyphal formation, and this inhibition appeared to be largely responsible for their antibiofilm effects. Transcriptomic analyses indicated that camphor and fenchyl alcohol downregulated some hypha-specific and biofilm related genes (ECE1, ECE2, RBT1, and EED1. Furthermore, camphor and fenchyl alcohol reduced C. albicans virulence in a Caenorhabditis elegans nematode model. These results demonstrate CLEO, camphor, and fenchyl alcohol might be useful for controlling C. albicans infections.

  13. An in vitro antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles activated by diode laser to Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, S. D.; Kharisma, D. H.; Kholimatussa'diah, S.; Zaidan, A. H.

    2017-09-01

    Microbial infectious diseases and increased resistance to antibiotics become urgent problems requiring immediate solutions. One promising alternative is the using of silver nanoparticles. The combination of the microbial inhibition characteristic of silver nanotechnology enhances the activity of antimicrobial effect. This study aims to determine effectiveness of antifungal silver nanoparticles with the activation of the diode laser on Candida albicans. The samples were culture of Candida albicans. Candida albicans cultures were incubated with silver nanoparticles (concentration 10-4 M) and treated with various exposure time of diode laser (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90)s. The suspension was planted on Sabouraud Dextrone Agar sterile media and incubated for 24 hours at temperature of 37oC. The number of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) was determined after incubation. The results were log-transformed and analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In this analysis, P value ≤0.05 was considered to indicate a statistically significant difference. The result of this study showed the quantum yield of silver nanoparticles with diode laser 450 nm was 63,61%. Irradiating with diode laser 450 nm for 75 s resulted in the highest decreasing percentage of Candida albicans viability 65,03%. Irradiating with diode laser 450 nm 75 s with silver nanoparticles resulted in the higest decreasing percentage of Candida albicans viability 84,63%. Therefore, silver nanoparticles activated with diode laser irradiation of 450 nm resulted antifungal effect to Candida albicans viability.

  14. Tratamiento opcional de la diarrea producida por Cándida albicans en el cerdito (Optional treatment of scout caused for Candida albicans in piglets)

    OpenAIRE

    Montejo Cuenca, Emilio; Martínez Yero, Orlando; Duverger Rosseaux, Jorge; Ramírez sánchez, Waldo; Sosa Tamayo, William

    2007-01-01

    Resumen Con el objetivo de comparar la eficacia de los tratamientos con la tintura de la hojas de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.), tintura de las flores de manzanilla (Chrysantellum americanum L) y el Hefrotrin 120 en las diarreas producidas por Candida albicans en el cerdito. Se trataron 80 crías porcinas entre 7 y 33 días de nacidas, afectadas por diarreas producidas por Candida albicans. Los resultados se analizaron utilizándose una comparación de proporciones mediante un análisis de varianza...

  15. Differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans with the use of killer toxins Avaliação das toxinas killer na diferenciação entre Candida albicans e Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane A. Scheid

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to report the ability of killer toxins, previously used as biotyping techniques, as a new tool to differentiate C. albicans from C. dubliniensis. The susceptibility of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis to killer toxins ranged from 33.9 to 93.3% and from 6.67 to 93.3%, respectively.Avaliou-se a capacidade das toxinas killer, previamente utilizadas na biotipagem de C. albicans, como método para diferenciar C. albicans de C. dubliniensis. A susceptibilidade de C. albicans e C. dubliniensis às toxinas killer variou de 33,9% a 93,3% para C. albicans e de 6,67% a 93,3% para C. dubliniensis.

  16. Detecção de genes toxigênicos em amostras de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho Detection of toxigenic genes in samples of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from rennet cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Figueiroa Lyra de Freitas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho isolar quantificar e investigar em amostras de Staphylococcus spp. isoladas de queijos de coalho, a presença dos genes toxigênicos sea-see, seg-sej, tst, eta e etb através da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR. Foram verificadas contagens de Staphylococcus coagulase positiva (SCP variando de 10² a 10(6 UFC.g-1. Os genes toxigênicos tst, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei e sej foram identificados em 18 dos 20 isolados de Staphylococcus spp. com os seguintes percentuais 5, 11, 9, 20, 16, 25 e 14% respectivamente. A presença de elevado percentual de isolados contendo diferentes genes toxigênicos é preocupante para a saúde do consumidor pela possibilidade de produzirem toxinas responsáveis por intoxicações alimentares. A ocorrência de vários genes toxigênicos em amostras de Staphylococcus coagulase negativa é outro fato importante, pois no Brasil não existe legislação com determinação de limites para Staphylococcus coagulase negativa em alimentos.The aim of this study was to isolate, quantify, and investigate samples of Staphylococcus spp from rennet or coalho cheese (a firm but very lightweight cheese produced in Brazil and determine the presence of the toxigenic genes sea-see, seg-sej, tst, eta, and etb by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS were found varying from 10² to 10(6 CFU.g-1. The toxigenic genes tst, sec, sed, seg, seh, sei, and sej were identified in 18 of the 20 isolates of Staphylococcus spp at the following percentages: 5, 11, 9, 20, 16, 25, and 14%, respectively. The presence of a high percentage of isolates containing different toxigenic genes is a matter of concern for the health of the consumer due to the possible production of toxins responsible for food poisoning. The presence of various toxigenic genes in samples of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus is another important fact because there are no laws in Brazil regarding limitations

  17. Perspectivas de controle da esquistossomose no Brasil

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    José Rodrigues da Silva

    1967-02-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta uma revisão sôbre o estado atual das possibilidades de controle da esquistossomose no Brasil. Baseado em experiências anteriores sôbre o assunto no Brasil e em outros países, apresenta a descrição de um plano pilôto, visando a iniciar um programa de controle organizado com a finalidade de solucionar problemas de natureza médica social, não somente favorecendo o desenvolvimento agrícola do País como também evitando a disseminação do foco a áreas não endêmicas. O propósito basico do projeto é a interrupção da transmissão da doença, utilizando vários métodos, isolada ou associadamente, de acôrdo com as diferentes con-dições epidemiológicas.

  18. Relacionamentos externos no âmbito da inovação empresarial : modelo aplicado aos avanços inovadores

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria José Madeira; Raposo, Mário Lino Barata; Ferrão, Maria Eugenia; Jiménez Moreno, Juan José

    2005-01-01

    A inovação assume-se cada vez mais como um factor chave da competitividade empresarial. Várias abordagens teóricas, desenvolvidas nos últimos anos, sustentam que a inovação não é algo que resulta da acção isolada de um único actor, mas é vista como um processo não linear, complexo, evolucionário e interactivo entre as empresas e o seu meio envolvente. Esta investigação tern por finalidade analisar se a capacidade inovadora empresarial, ao nível dos avanços inovadores, e estimulada pelos...

  19. Inhibitors of the glyoxylate cycle enzyme ICL1 in Candida albicans for potential use as antifungal agents.

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    Hong-Leong Cheah

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes candidiasis in humans. In recent years, metabolic pathways in C. albicans have been explored as potential antifungal targets to treat candidiasis. The glyoxylate cycle, which enables C. albicans to survive in nutrient-limited host niches and its. Key enzymes (e.g., isocitrate lyase (ICL1, are particularly attractive antifungal targets for C. albicans. In this study, we used a new screening approach that better reflects the physiological environment that C. albicans cells experience during infection to identify potential inhibitors of ICL. Three compounds (caffeic acid (CAFF, rosmarinic acid (ROS, and apigenin (API were found to have antifungal activity against C. albicans when tested under glucose-depleted conditions. We further confirmed the inhibitory potential of these compounds against ICL using the ICL enzyme assay. Lastly, we assessed the bioavailability and toxicity of these compounds using Lipinski's rule-of-five and ADMET analysis.

  20. Purification and comparison of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in Candida albicans isolates from Malaysian and Iranian patients and infected mice.

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    Khalili, V; Shokri, H; Khosravi, A R; Akim, A; Amri Saroukolaei, S

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to purify and compare the concentration ratios of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in clinical isolates of Candida albicans (C. albicans) obtained from Malaysian and Iranian patients and infected mice. Hsp90 was extracted using glass beads and ultracentrifugation from yeast cells and purified by ion exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose) and followed by affinity chromatography (hydroxyapatite). Purity of Hsp90 was controlled by SDS-PAGE and its identification was realized by immunoblotting test. The graphs of ion exchange and affinity chromatography showed one peak in all C. albicans isolates obtained from both Malaysian and Iranian samples, infected mice and under high-thermal (42°C) and low-thermal (25°C) shock. In immunoblotting, the location of Hsp90 fragments was obtained around 47, 75 and 82kDa. The least average concentration ratios of Hsp90 were 0.350 and 0.240mg/g for Malaysian and Iranian isolates at 25°C, respectively, while the highest average concentration ratios of Hsp90 were 3.05 and 2.600mg/g for Malaysian and Iranian isolates at 42°C, respectively. There were differences in the ratio amount of Hsp90 between Malaysian isolates (1.01±0.07mg/g) and mice kidneys (1.23±0.28mg/g) as well as between Iranian isolates (0.70±0.19mg/g) and mice kidneys (1.00±0.28mg/g) (Pisolates, samples treated with temperatures (25°C or 42°C) and before and after infecting the mice (37°C), indicating higher virulent nature of this yeast species in high temperature in human and animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Genes associated with pathogenicity of avian Escherichia coli (APEC isolated from respiratory cases of poultry Genes associados à patogenicidade de Escherichia coli patogênica para aves (APEC isoladas de frangos de corte com sintomatologia clínica respiratória

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    Ana C.G.P. Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The virulence mechanisms of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC have been continually studied and are believed to be multi-factorial. Certain properties are primarily associated with virulent samples and have been identified in avian isolates. In this study a total of 61 E. coli, isolates from chicken flocks with respiratory symptomatology, were probed by Polimerase Chain Reation (PCR for the presence of genes responsible for the adhesion capacity, P fimbria (papC e F11 fimbria (felA, colicin production (cvaC, aerobactin presence (iutA, serum resistance (iss, temperature-sensitive hemagglutinin (tsh, and presence of K1 and K5 capsular antigens (kpsII. The iss gene was detected in 73,8%, tsh in 55,7%, iutA in 45,9%, felA in 39,3%, papC in 24,3%, cvaC in 23% and kpsII in18%.Os mecanismos de virulência das amostras de Escherichia coli potencialmente patogênicas para aves (APEC têm sido continuamente estudados e acredita-se ser multifatorial. Certas propriedades são associadas primariamente a amostras virulentas e vêm sendo identificadas em amostras de E. coli isoladas de aves. Neste estudo um total de 61 amostras de E. coli, isoladas de frangos de corte com problemas respiratórios, foram testadas através da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR, para a presença dos genes responsáveis pela capacidade de adesão, fimbria P (papC e fimbria F11 (felA, produção de colicinas (cvaC, presença de aerobactina (iutA, resistência sérica (iss, hemaglutinina temperatura sensível (tsh e presença de dos antígenos capsulares K1 e K5 (kpsII. O gene iss foi detectado em 73,8%, tsh em 55,7%, iutA em 45,9%, felA em 39,3%, papC em 24,3%, cvaC em 23% e kpsII em 18%.

  2. Selective photoinactivation of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis with hypericin

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    Bernal, C.; Rodrigues, J. A. O.; Guimarães, A. P. P.; Ribeiro, A. O.; de Oliveira, K. T.; Imasato, H.; Perussi, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The genus Candida includes different species that have the potential to invade and colonize the human body and C. albicans is the most common cause of skin, nail and mucous infections. The increasing resistance against antifungal drugs has renewed the search for new treatment procedures and antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is a propitious candidate. Hypericin (HY) has several wanted properties to be used as a photosensitizer in this technique including a high quantum yield of singlet oxygen generation, a high extinction coefficient near 600 nm, and a relatively low dark toxicity. Although the phototoxicity of HY on several tumor cells has been reported, the data concerning its photoactivity on microorganisms are scarce. The aim of this study was to obtain the experimental parameters to achieve an acceptable selective hypericinphotoinactivation of two species of Candida comparing with fibroblasts and epithelial cells which are the constituents of some potential host tissues, such mucosas, skin and cavities. Microorganisms and cells were incubated with the same HY concentrations and short incubation time followed by irradiation with equal dose of light. The best conditions to kill just Candida were very low HY concentration (0.1-0.4 μg ml-1) incubated by 10 min and irradiated with LED 590 nm with 6 J cm-2.

  3. Integrating Candida albicans metabolism with biofilm heterogeneity by transcriptome mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Ranjith; May, Ali; Sherry, Leighann; Kean, Ryan; Williams, Craig; Jones, Brian L.; Burgess, Karl V.; Heringa, Jaap; Abeln, Sanne; Brandt, Bernd W.; Munro, Carol A.; Ramage, Gordon

    2016-10-01

    Candida albicans biofilm formation is an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of disease, a characteristic which has been shown to be heterogeneous in clinical isolates. Using an unbiased computational approach we investigated the central metabolic pathways driving biofilm heterogeneity. Transcripts from high (HBF) and low (LBF) biofilm forming isolates were analysed by RNA sequencing, with 6312 genes identified to be expressed in these two phenotypes. With a dedicated computational approach we identified and validated a significantly differentially expressed subnetwork of genes associated with these biofilm phenotypes. Our analysis revealed amino acid metabolism, such as arginine, proline, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, were predominantly upregulated in the HBF phenotype. On the contrary, purine, starch and sucrose metabolism was generally upregulated in the LBF phenotype. The aspartate aminotransferase gene AAT1 was found to be a common member of these amino acid pathways and significantly upregulated in the HBF phenotype. Pharmacological inhibition of AAT1 enzyme activity significantly reduced biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that biofilm phenotype is associated with differential regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding and targeting such pathways, such as amino acid metabolism, is potentially useful for developing diagnostics and new antifungals to treat biofilm-based infections.

  4. Activity of Novel Synthetic Peptides against Candida albicans.

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    Lum, Kah Yean; Tay, Sun Tee; Le, Cheng Foh; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran; Sabri, Nadia Hanim; Velayuthan, Rukumani Devi; Hassan, Hamimah; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2015-05-12

    Candida spp. are the most common causes of fungal infections worldwide. Among the Candida species, Candida albicans remains the predominant species that causes invasive candidiasis in most countries. In this study, we used two peptides, KABT-AMP and uperin 3.6 as templates to develop novel antifungal peptides. Their anticandidal activity was assessed using a combination of MIC, time-killing assay and biofilm reduction assay. Hybrid peptides, KU2 and KU3 containing a mixed backbone of KABT-AMP and Uperin 3.6 demonstrated the most potent anticandidal activity with MIC values ranging from 8-16 mg/L. The number of Trp residues and the amphipathic structure of peptides probably enhanced the anticandidal activity of peptides. Increasing the cationicity of the uperin 3.6 analogues resulted in reduced MIC from the range of 64-128 mg/L to 16-64 mg/L and this was also correlated with the antibiofilm activity and killing kinetics of the peptides. Peptides showed synergistic effects when used in combination with conventional antifungals. Peptides demonstrated low haemolytic activity but significant toxicity on two normal human epithelial cell lines. This study provides us with a better understanding on the structure-activity relationship and the balance between cationicity and hydrophobicity of the peptides although the therapeutic application of the peptides is limited.

  5. Screening antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of Iris albicans extracts

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    Işıl Hacıbekiroğlu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of the extracts prepared from the rhizomes and flowering aerial parts of Iris albicans were determined in this study. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes was rich in total phenolic contents (431.98 ± 0.49 μgPEs/mg, and the chloroform extract of the aerial parts in total flavonoid contents (663.05 ± 0.32 μgQEs/mg. Although the chloroform extract of the rhizomes exhibited the best antioxidant effect in β -carotene bleaching and CUPRAC methods among the tested extracts at all concentrations, it was found inactive in the metal chelating assay. The methanol extract of the aerial parts indicated moderate metal chelating activity (60% at 100 μg/mL. The chloroform extract of the rhizomes showed moderate anticholinesterase effect at 200 μg/mL. The chloroform extract of the aerial parts showed significantly inhibition against butyrylcholinesterase (78.44 ± 0.51%.

  6. A DNA-binding protein from Candida albicans that binds to the RPG box of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the telomeric repeat sequence of C. albicans.

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    Ishii, N; Yamamoto, M; Lahm, H W; Iizumi, S; Yoshihara, F; Nakayama, H; Arisawa, M; Aoki, Y

    1997-02-01

    Electromobility shift assays with a DNA probe containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ENO1 RPG box identified a specific DNA-binding protein in total protein extracts of Candida albicans. The protein, named Rbf1p (RPG-box-binding protein 1), bound to other S. cerevisiae RPG boxes, although the nucleotide recognition profile was not completely the same as that of S. cerevisiae Rap 1p (repressor-activator protein 1), an RPG-box-binding protein. The repetitive sequence of the C. albicans chromosomal telomere also competed with RPG-box binding to Rbf1p. For further analysis, we purified Rbf1p 57,600-fold from C. albicans total protein extracts, raised mAbs against the purified protein and immunologically cloned the gene, whose ORF specified a protein of 527 aa. The bacterially expressed protein showed RPG-box-binding activity with the same profile as that of the purified one. The Rbf1p, containing two glutamine-rich regions that are found in many transcription factors, showed transcriptional activation capability in S. cerevisiae and was predominantly observed in nuclei. These results suggest that Rbf1p is a transcription factor with telomere-binding activity in C. albicans.

  7. Assessing the potential of four cathelicidins for the management of mouse candidiasis and Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Liu, Xuelian; Wang, Chen; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Sijin; Wang, Hui; Feng, Lan; Wang, Yipeng

    2016-02-01

    As the most common fungal pathogen of humans, severe drug resistance has emerged in the clinically isolated Candida albicans, which lead to the urgency to develop novel antifungal agents. Here, four our previously characterized cathelicidins (cathelicidin-BF, Pc-CATH1, Cc-CATH2, Cc-CATH3) were selected and their antifungal activities against C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using amphotericin B and LL-37 as control. Results showed that all four cathelicidins could eradicate standard and clinically isolated C. albicans strains with most MIC values ranging from 1 to 16 μg/ml, in less than 0.5 h revealed by time-kill kinetic assay. Four peptides only exhibited slight hemolytic activity with most HC50 > 200 μg/ml, and retained potent anti-C. albicans activity at salt concentrations below and beyond physiological level. In animal experiment, 50 mg/kg administration of the four cathelicidins could significantly reduce the fungal counts in a murine oral candidiasis model induced by clinically isolated C. albicans. The antibiofilm activity of cathelicidin-BF, the most potent among the five peptides was evaluated, and result showed that cathelicidin-BF strongly inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 20 μg/ml. Furthermore, cathelicidin-BF also exhibited potent anti-C. albicans activity in established biofilms as measured by metabolic and fluorescent viability assays. Structure-function analyses suggest that they mainly adopt an α-helical conformations, which enable them to act as a membrane-active molecule. Altogether, the four cathelicidins display great potential for antifungal agent development against candidiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Flexible Survival Strategies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Biofilms Result in Increased Fitness Compared with Candida albicans *

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    Purschke, Frauke Gina; Hiller, Ekkehard; Trick, Iris; Rupp, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms persist in nature as surface-attached communities often surrounded by an extracellular matrix, called biofilms. Most natural biofilms are not formed by a single species but by multiple species. Microorganisms not only cooperate as in some multispecies biofilms but also compete for available nutrients. The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the polymorphic fungus Candida albicans are two opportunistic pathogens that are often found coexisting in a human host. Several models of mixed biofilms have been reported for these organisms showing antagonistic behavior. To investigate the interaction of P. aeruginosa and C. albicans in more detail, we analyzed the secretome of single and mixed biofilms of both organisms using MALDI-TOF MS/MS at several time points. Overall 247 individual proteins were identified, 170 originated from P. aeruginosa and 77 from C. albicans. Only 39 of the 131 in mixed biofilms identified proteins were assigned to the fungus whereby the remaining 92 proteins belonged to P. aeruginosa. In single-species biofilms, both organisms showed a higher diversity of proteins with 73 being assigned to C. albicans and 154 to P. aeruginosa. Most interestingly, P. aeruginosa in the presence of C. albicans secreted 16 proteins in significantly higher amounts or exclusively among other virulence factors such as exotoxin A and iron acquisition systems. In addition, the high affinity iron-binding siderophore pyoverdine was identified in mixed biofilms but not in bacterial biofilms, indicating that P. aeruginosa increases its capability to sequester iron in competition with C. albicans. In contrast, C. albicans metabolism was significantly reduced, including a reduction in detectable iron acquisition proteins. The results obtained in this study show that microorganisms not only compete with the host for essential nutrients but also strongly with the present microflora in order to gain a competitive advantage. PMID

  9. Capric acid secreted by S. boulardii inhibits C. albicans filamentous growth, adhesion and biofilm formation.

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    Anna Murzyn

    Full Text Available Candidiasis are life-threatening systemic fungal diseases, especially of gastro intestinal track, skin and mucous membranes lining various body cavities like the nostrils, the mouth, the lips, the eyelids, the ears or the genital area. Due to increasing resistance of candidiasis to existing drugs, it is very important to look for new strategies helping the treatment of such fungal diseases. One promising strategy is the use of the probiotic microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit. Such a probiotic microorganism is yeast Saccharomyces boulardii, a close relative of baker yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii cells and their extract affect the virulence factors of the important human fungal pathogen C. albicans, its hyphae formation, adhesion and biofilm development. Extract prepared from S. boulardii culture filtrate was fractionated and GC-MS analysis showed that the active fraction contained, apart from 2-phenylethanol, caproic, caprylic and capric acid whose presence was confirmed by ESI-MS analysis. Biological activity was tested on C. albicans using extract and pure identified compounds. Our study demonstrated that this probiotic yeast secretes into the medium active compounds reducing candidal virulence factors. The chief compound inhibiting filamentous C. albicans growth comparably to S. boulardii extract was capric acid, which is thus responsible for inhibition of hyphae formation. It also reduced candidal adhesion and biofilm formation, though three times less than the extract, which thus contains other factors suppressing C. albicans adherence. The expression profile of selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by real-time PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, INO1 and CSH1 genes in C. albicans cells treated with capric acid and S. boulardii extract. Hence capric acid secreted by S. boulardii is responsible for inhibition of C. albicans filamentation and partially also adhesion and

  10. Comparative Phenotypic Analysis of the Major Fungal Pathogens Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda M.; Schröder, Markus S.; Turner, Siobhán A.; Taff, Heather; Andes, David; Grózer, Zsuzsanna; Gácser, Attila; Ames, Lauren; Haynes, Ken; Higgins, Desmond G.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans are human fungal pathogens that belong to the CTG clade in the Saccharomycotina. In contrast to C. albicans, relatively little is known about the virulence properties of C. parapsilosis, a pathogen particularly associated with infections of premature neonates. We describe here the construction of C. parapsilosis strains carrying double allele deletions of 100 transcription factors, protein kinases and species-specific genes. Two independent deletions were constructed for each target gene. Growth in >40 conditions was tested, including carbon source, temperature, and the presence of antifungal drugs. The phenotypes were compared to C. albicans strains with deletions of orthologous transcription factors. We found that many phenotypes are shared between the two species, such as the role of Upc2 as a regulator of azole resistance, and of CAP1 in the oxidative stress response. Others are unique to one species. For example, Cph2 plays a role in the hypoxic response in C. parapsilosis but not in C. albicans. We found extensive divergence between the biofilm regulators of the two species. We identified seven transcription factors and one protein kinase that are required for biofilm development in C. parapsilosis. Only three (Efg1, Bcr1 and Ace2) have similar effects on C. albicans biofilms, whereas Cph2, Czf1, Gzf3 and Ume6 have major roles in C. parapsilosis only. Two transcription factors (Brg1 and Tec1) with well-characterized roles in biofilm formation in C. albicans do not have the same function in C. parapsilosis. We also compared the transcription profile of C. parapsilosis and C. albicans biofilms. Our analysis suggests the processes shared between the two species are predominantly metabolic, and that Cph2 and Bcr1 are major biofilm regulators in C. parapsilosis. PMID:25233198

  11. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  12. Flavodoxin-Like Proteins Protect Candida albicans from Oxidative Stress and Promote Virulence.

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    Lifang Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Candida albicans causes lethal systemic infections in humans. To better define how pathogens resist oxidative attack by the immune system, we examined a family of four Flavodoxin-Like Proteins (FLPs in C. albicans. In agreement with previous studies showing that FLPs in bacteria and plants act as NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductases, a C. albicans quadruple mutant lacking all four FLPs (pst1Δ, pst2Δ, pst3Δ, ycp4Δ was more sensitive to benzoquinone. Interestingly, the quadruple mutant was also more sensitive to a variety of oxidants. Quinone reductase activity confers important antioxidant effects because resistance to oxidation was restored in the quadruple mutant by expressing either Escherichia coli wrbA or mammalian NQO1, two distinct types of quinone reductases. FLPs were detected at the plasma membrane in C. albicans, and the quadruple mutant was more sensitive to linolenic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid that can auto-oxidize and promote lipid peroxidation. These observations suggested that FLPs reduce ubiquinone (coenzyme Q, enabling it to serve as an antioxidant in the membrane. In support of this, a C. albicans coq3Δ mutant that fails to synthesize ubiquinone was also highly sensitive to oxidative stress. FLPs are critical for survival in the host, as the quadruple mutant was avirulent in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis under conditions where infection with wild type C. albicans was lethal. The quadruple mutant cells initially grew well in kidneys, the major site of C. albicans growth in mice, but then declined after the influx of neutrophils and by day 4 post-infection 33% of the mice cleared the infection. Thus, FLPs and ubiquinone are important new antioxidant mechanisms that are critical for fungal virulence. The potential of FLPs as novel targets for antifungal therapy is further underscored by their absence in mammalian cells.

  13. Elevated Cell Wall Chitin in Candida albicans Confers Echinocandin Resistance In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keunsook K.; MacCallum, Donna M.; Jacobsen, Mette D.; Walker, Louise A.; Odds, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans cells with increased cell wall chitin have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether C. albicans cells with elevated chitin levels have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vivo. BALB/c mice were infected with C. albicans cells with normal chitin levels and compared to mice infected with high-chitin cells. Caspofungin therapy was initiated at 24 h postinfection. Mice infected with chitin-normal cells were successfully treated with caspofungin, as indicated by reduced kidney fungal burdens, reduced weight loss, and decreased C. albicans density in kidney lesions. In contrast, mice infected with high-chitin C. albicans cells were less susceptible to caspofungin, as they had higher kidney fungal burdens and greater weight loss during early infection. Cells recovered from mouse kidneys at 24 h postinfection with high-chitin cells had 1.6-fold higher chitin levels than cells from mice infected with chitin-normal cells and maintained a significantly reduced susceptibility to caspofungin when tested in vitro. At 48 h postinfection, caspofungin treatment induced a further increase in chitin content of C. albicans cells harvested from kidneys compared to saline treatment. Some of the recovered clones had acquired, at a low frequency, a point mutation in FKS1 resulting in a S645Y amino acid substitution, a mutation known to confer echinocandin resistance. This occurred even in cells that had not been exposed to caspofungin. Our results suggest that the efficacy of caspofungin against C. albicans was reduced in vivo due to either elevation of chitin levels in the cell wall or acquisition of FKS1 point mutations. PMID:21986821

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