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Sample records for alberta swine farm

  1. Farm-level risk factors for the presence of Salmonella in 89 Alberta swine-finishing barns

    OpenAIRE

    Rajić, Andrijana; O’Connor, Brendan P.; Deckert, Anne E.; Keenliside, Julia; McFall, Margaret E.; Richard J Reid-Smith; Dewey, Catherine E.; Scott A McEwen

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated potential risk factors for the presence of Salmonella on 89 Alberta swine-finishing farms with the use of a questionnaire. Salmonella status was regressed on each fixed effect in a logistic mixed regression model, with farm as the random effect. Eleven variables were significant at the 10% level: farm type, number of square feet per pen, number of pigs per pen, source of feed, ration type, dust control measures, cat presence, reported effective mouse-control measures, ...

  2. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm man

  3. Computerized management support for swine breeding farms.

    OpenAIRE

    Huirne, R.B.M.

    1990-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTIONThe investigations described in this thesis have been directed towards computerized management support for swine breeding farms, focused on sow productivity and profitability. The study is composed of three basic parts: (1) basic description and definition of farm management and management information systems (MIS), (2) individual farm analysis, and (3) sow replacement optimization. As part of the study, a MIS on the personal computer named CHESS ( C omputerized H erd E valuati...

  4. Using wastewater from swine farm on cultivation of Moina macrocopa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimentation on cultivation of Moina macrocopa by using waste water from swine farm compared with general formula feed was conducted by using the circular concrete tank with the area of 1.13 m2. and 35 cm. height. The results showed that the waste water from swine farm with concentration of 10-20% could grow green algae and produce Moina production. It was found that the production of Moina by using the waste water from swine farm was not different from general formula feed, waste water from UCAT swine farm (with the concentration 20%) and from Mitrthai swine farm (concentration of 20% and 10%) and general formula feed. The production of Moina were 233.33, 191.33, 189.00 and 198.00 grams per concrete tank respectively. The water quality analysis was performed by monitoring the BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand). The result showed the BOD were reduced 81-96% (3.6-24 mg./litre) after cultivating the Moina. The result of this experiment had shown that the waste water from swine farm could cultivate the Moina, reduce the waste water problem and pollution to the environment. More ever, the Moina produced by using waste water from swine farm to feed the STR (Sec Reversal Tilapia) fingerling and hybrid catfish compared with the Moina Produced by using general formula feed. The result showed the growth performance and survival rate of STR and hybrid catfish fingerling were not significantly different. The gain in weight of STR fingerling fed with the Moina produced from waste water from swine farm were 1.40 grams and the survival rate was 79.5%, while the gain in length of hybrid catfish fingerling were 2.50 cm. and the survival rate was 56%. The gain in weight of STR fingerling fed with the Moina produced from general formula feed were 1.26 grams and the survival rate was 81.3%, while the gain in length of hybrid catfish fingerling were 2.61cm. and the survival rate was 58% respectively. Moreover, when using the waste water from swine farm to nurse the STR fingerling

  5. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza-Gómez, María F; Adriana Pulido-Villamarín; Angélica Barbosa-Buitrago; Moisés Aranda-Silva

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig....

  6. Farming styles and cooperatives disputes of swine farmers under economic pressure in southern France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, M.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    In Southern France, the regression of swine farms and swine is ongoing. It involves reorientation of socio-professional networks, especially the farmers’ cooperatives. For understanding the various ways of maintaining swine production under the regressive circumstances, we focus on the farmers’ init

  7. Immunologic mechanisms in the adaptation of swine farm workers to their work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønløkke, Jakob Hjort; Cormier, Yvon; Veillette, Marc;

    2013-01-01

    Swine building exposure causes inflammatory reactions that appear to be attenuated with prolonged periods of contact. The mechanisms behind this adaptation to a dusty and endotoxin-rich environment are poorly understood. Our aim was to compare levels of selected inflammatory mediators in swine farm...... for these proteins in adaptation to the swine building environment after repeated exposures....

  8. Pork and Carcasses Quality in Swine Exploited in Family Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Heber

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Maximum values of dry matter and fat (% of the carcass weight is achieved in swine exploited on small private family farms at 137 kg of dry matter and 115 kg of protein. Slaughtering swine at higher weight results in an increase of the dry matter and of the caloric value because of the increase of the amount of fat in the muscular fibber; thus, pork is of low quality because of the massive accumulation fat substance and the economic efficiency of producing pork is improper, with supplementary expenses on feed. Fattening swine on small family exploitations up to over 11 kg results in changes of the meat /fat ratio, detrimental to pork meat because of both thickening of lard on the animals' back and of fat depositions in the muscular fibber; though this improves pork quality, it is done with high expenses of energy, resulting in inefficient exploitation on private family farms that in most cases only supply for their families and rarely sell extra production.

  9. Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, P.N.; Fanning, E A; Hopf, H B; Church, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in...

  10. Antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus among swine farm residents in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuchen; Yin, Xin; Rao, Baizhong; Xie, Chunfang; Zhang, Pengchao; Qi, Xian; Wei, Ping; Liu, Huili

    2014-04-01

    In 2007, the avian-like H1N1 virus (A/swine/Zhejiang/1/07) was first isolated in pigs in China. Recently, it was reported that a 3-year-old boy was infected with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) in Jiangsu Province, China. To investigate the prevalence of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection among swine farm residents in eastern China, an active influenza surveillance program was conducted on swine farms in this region from May 21, 2010 through April 22, 2012. A total of 1,162 participants were enrolled, including 1,136 persons from 48 pig farms, as well as 26 pig farm veterinarians. A total of 10.7% and 7.8% swine farm residents were positive for antibodies against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV by HI and NT assay, respectively, using 40 as the cut-off antibody titer. Meanwhile, all the serum samples collected from a control of healthy city residents were negative against avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. As the difference in numbers of antibody positive samples between the swine farm residents and health city residents controls was statistically significant (P = 0.002), these data suggest that occupational exposure to pigs may increase swine farm residents' and veterinarians' risk of avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection in eastern China. This study provides the first data on avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infections in humans in China; the potential for avian-like A (H1N1) SIV entering the human population should also be taken into consideration.

  11. Presence of gastrointestinal parasites in swine and human of four swine production farms in Cundinamarca- Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María F Mendoza-Gómez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Determine the presence and the type of endoparasites with zoonotic potential in swine and human of two technified and two semi-technified farms in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Materials and methods. Three serial samplings of feces were taken in a pen row within intervals of 15 days, in two technified and two semi-technified farms in different age groups distributed as follows: pregnant-sows, nursing-females, boars, weaners, suckling-piglets, and growing-pig. By means of informed consent thirty-three people agreed to enter the study. Thirty-three samples from men and women of different ages were received. The pool and individual samples of fecal were evaluated by direct analysis, qualitative flotation and sedimentation techniques and modified ZiehlNeelsen stain. Results. For the porcine population, on the average, the results obtained from both technified farms showed that Balantidium coli (42%, Endolimax nana (21.9% and Iodamoeba bütschlii (7.8% were the most common parasites. In semi-technified farms they were: Entamoeba coli (40%, Endolimax nana (35%, Iodamoeba bütschlii (25% and Balantidium coli (5%. By means of the test chi2 it is possible to conclude that there is a significant difference between the parasites species and the type of farm. The results obtained in human showed the presence of parasites as: E. coli (42.2%, Entamoeba hystolitica/dispar (12.1%, E. nana (9.1%, B. coli (9.1%, I. bütschlii (3.0% and Blastocystis hominis (3.0%. Conclusions. The presence of parasites such as Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Entamoeba coli in swine and human suggests a possible rotation of parasitic species between hosts.

  12. Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145

  13. Fate of tetracyclines in swine manure of three selected swine farms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Qiao; Wangda Chen; Jianqiang Su; Bing Zhang; Cai Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics can enter the environment due to the common practice of land application of manure from treated animals.The environmental fate of tetracyclines in swine manure after composting and field application remains largely unknown.This study analyzed the concentrations of tetracyclines in manure,manure-based compost and compost amended soil in selected swine farms from Beijing,Jiaxing and Putian,China to determine the dilution effects of antibiotics when released into the soil environment.The results demonstrate that residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples and chlortetracycline as well as its degradation products should be regarded critically concerning their potential ecotoxicity.Application of manure-based compost to soil could reduce the possible risk posed by antibiotic contamination,but the trigger value of 100 μg/kg was still exceeded in soil samples (776.1 μg/kg dw) from Putian City after application of compost.Field studies such as the present one can help to improve the routine administration of antibiotic-containing composted manure.

  14. Molecular epidemiology study of swine influenza virus revealing a reassorted virus H1N1 in swine farms in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lester J; Perera, Carmen Laura; Coronado, Liani; Rios, Liliam; Vega, Armando; Frías, Maria T; Ganges, Llilianne; Núñez, José Ignacio; Díaz de Arce, Heidy

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe the emergence of reassorted H1N1 swine influenza virus, originated from a reassortment event between the H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (H1N1p/2009) and endemic swine influenza virus in Cuban swine population. In November 2010, a clinical respiratory outbreak was reported on a pig fattening farm in Cuba. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the genes of one of the isolate obtained, with the exception of neuraminidase, belonged to the H1N1p/2009 cluster. This finding suggests that H1N1pdm has been established in swine and has become a reservoir of reassortment that may produce new viruses with both animal and public health risks.

  15. Interspecies interactions and potential Influenza A virus risk in small swine farms in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCune Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent avian influenza epidemic in Asia and the H1N1 pandemic demonstrated that influenza A viruses pose a threat to global public health. The animal origins of the viruses confirmed the potential for interspecies transmission. Swine are hypothesized to be prime "mixing vessels" due to the dual receptivity of their trachea to human and avian strains. Additionally, avian and human influenza viruses have previously been isolated in swine. Therefore, understanding interspecies contact on smallholder swine farms and its potential role in the transmission of pathogens such as influenza virus is very important. Methods This qualitative study aimed to determine swine-associated interspecies contacts in two coastal areas of Peru. Direct observations were conducted at both small-scale confined and low-investment swine farms (n = 36 and in open areas where swine freely range during the day (n = 4. Interviews were also conducted with key stakeholders in swine farming. Results In both locations, the intermingling of swine and domestic birds was common. An unexpected contact with avian species was that swine were fed poultry mortality in 6/20 of the farms in Chancay. Human-swine contacts were common, with a higher frequency on the confined farms. Mixed farming of swine with chickens or ducks was observed in 36% of all farms. Human-avian interactions were less frequent overall. Use of adequate biosecurity and hygiene practices by farmers was suboptimal at both locations. Conclusions Close human-animal interaction, frequent interspecies contacts and suboptimal biosecurity and hygiene practices pose significant risks of interspecies influenza virus transmission. Farmers in small-scale swine production systems constitute a high-risk population and need to be recognized as key in preventing interspecies pathogen transfer. A two-pronged prevention approach, which offers educational activities for swine farmers about sound hygiene and

  16. Observations on animal and human health during the outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis in game farm wapiti in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, P N; Fanning, E A; Hopf, H B; Church, T L

    1999-02-01

    This report describes and discusses the history, clinical, pathologic, epidemiologic, and human health aspects of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic wapiti in Alberta between 1990 and 1993, shortly after legislative changes allowing game farming. The extent and seriousness of the outbreak of M. bovis in wapiti in Alberta was not fully known at its onset. The clinical findings in the first recognized infected wapiti are presented and the postmortem records for the herd in which the animal resided are summarized. Epidemiologic findings from the subsequent field investigation are reviewed, the results of recognition and investigation of human exposure are updated, and recommendations for reduction of human exposure are presented. PMID:10065319

  17. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Questions & Answers Language: English ...

  18. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR DISCUSSING FARM BUSINESS INTERRUPTION INSURANCE FOR CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER

    OpenAIRE

    M.P.M. Meuwissen; Skees, J.R.; Black, J R; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies farm business interruption insurance for Classical Swine Fever epidemics. Insight into the size of risk is obtained by a very detailed Monte-Carlo simulation model that includes both epidemiological and economic factors. The paper also considers issues such as farmers' and governments' influence on the size of risk.

  19. Swine farm wastewater and mineral fertilization in corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela A. M. Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the long run, swine wastewater can provide benefits to the soil-plant relationship, when its use is planned and the potential environmental impacts are monitored. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous application of swine wastewater, associated with mineral fertilization, after six years of management in no-tillage and crop rotation (14 production cycles, on the chemical conditions of the soil and the corn crop. The doses of wastewater were 0, 100, 200, 300 m3 ha-1 during the cycle. The effects of the association between mineral fertilization at sowing and swine wastewater were evaluated simultaneously. Swine wastewater at the dose of 100 m3 ha-1 promoted availability and absorption of P, K+, Mg2+ and Zn2+ without causing toxicity to plants or damage to the soil, constituting a viable, low-cost alternative of water reuse and fertilization for farmers. The nutrients N, P, K+ and B must be complemented with mineral fertilization. Special attention should be directed to the accumulation of Zn2+ in the soil along the time of swine wastewater application.

  20. Avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus antibodies among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Cao, Zhenpeng; Tan, Likai; Fu, Xinliang; Lu, Gang; Qi, Wenbao; Ke, Changwen; Wang, Heng; Sun, Lingshuang; Zhang, Guihong

    2014-01-01

    Infection of human with avian-like A (H1N1) swine influenza virus (SIV) occasionally occurs in China, suggesting a potential risk of cross-species transmission of the swine influenza H1N1 virus from pigs to humans, particularly to those having direct contact with pigs. A seroepidemiological study was conducted to assess the prevalence of antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV among swine farm residents and pigs in southern China to evaluate the risk of infection to swine farm workers. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays revealed that 11.17% (61/546) of the sera samples from swine farm residents in southern China were positive for antibodies against the avian-like A (H1N1) SIV. The difference in numbers of antibody-positive samples obtained from swine farm residents and a control group of healthy city residents was statistically significant (P = 0.031). In addition, 219 of the 1,180 serum samples from pigs were positive for the antibodies against an avian-like A (H1N1) SIV, A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2013(H1N1), as assessed by HI. The data suggest that occupational exposure of swine farm residents and veterinarians in southern China to pigs may increase their risk of acquiring avian-like A (H1N1) SIV infection. According to a special pig farming model in southern China, the staff and residents are in close contact with infected pigs and may be among the first to become infected.

  1. Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from the environment of swine farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the level of heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from environment of swine farms in China. A total of 284 bacteria were isolated, 158 from manure, 62 from soil and 64 from wastewater in different swine farm samples. All the isolates were tested for resistant against eight heavy metals. From the total of 284 isolates, maximum bacterial isolates were found to be resistant to Zn/sup 2+/ (98.6%) followed by Cu/sup 2+/ (97.5%), Cd/sup 2+/ (68.3%), Mn/sup 2+/ (60.2%), Pb/sup 2+/(51.4%), Ni/sup 2+/(41.5%) and Cr/sup 2+/(45.1%). However, most of the isolates were sensitive to Co/sup 2+/. Meanwhile,all the isolates were tested for sensitively to nine antibiotics. The results shows that most isolates were sensitive to cefoxitin and oxacillin, but resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, gentamicin, amikacin, erythromycin, clindamycin were widespread. Multiple resistant to metals and antibiotics were also observed in this study. Most isolates were tolerant to different concentrations of various heavy metals and antibiotics. Our results confirmed that environment of swine farms in China has a significant proportion of heavy metal and antibiotic resistant bacteria, and these bacteria constitute a potential risk for swine health and public health. (author)

  2. A simplified model for assessing the impact to groundwater of swine farms at regional level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massabo, Marco; Viterbo, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Swine manure can be an excellent source of nutrients for crop production. Several swine farms are present in the territory of Regione Umbria and more than 200.000 of swine heads are present yearly in the whole territory while some municipalities host more than 30.000 heads over a relatively limited land. Municipality with elevated number of swine heads has registered particularly higher Nitrate concentration in groundwater that requires a management plan and intervention in order to determine the maximum allowed N loads in the specific region. Use of manure and fertilizers in agricultural field produce diffuse nitrogen (N) losses that are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters and have been of concern since decades. Excessive nitrate concentrations in groundwater can have toxic effects when used as drinking water and cause eutrophication in surface waters. For management and environmental planning purposes, it is necessary to assess the magnitude of diffuse N losses from agricultural fields and how they are influenced by factors such as management practices, type of fertilizers -organic or inorganic - climate and soil etc. There are several methods for assessing N leaching, they span from methods based on field test to complex models that require many input data. We use a simple index method that accounts for the type of fertilizer used - inorganic, swine or cattle manure- and hydrological and hydrogeological conditions. Hydrological conditions such as infiltration rates are estimated by a fully distributed hydrological model. Data on inorganic and organic fertilization are estimated at municipal level by using the nutrient crops needs and the statistics of swine and cattle heads within the municipality. The index method has been calibrated by using groundwater concentration as a proxy of N losses from agriculture. A time series of three years of data has been analyzed. The application of the simple index method allowed to

  3. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus by swine and poultry farm workers in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, R; Faísca, V M; Carolino, E; Veríssimo, C; Viegas, C

    2012-01-01

    Aspergillus is among a growing list of allergens that aggravate asthmatic responses. Significant pulmonary pathology is associated with Aspergillus-induced allergic and asthmatic lung disease. Environments with high levels of exposure to fungi are found in animal production facilities such as for swine and poultry, and farmers working with these are at increased risk for occupational respiratory diseases. Seven Portuguese poultry and seven swine farms were analyzed in order to estimate the prevalence, amount, and distribution of Aspergillus species, as well as to determine the presence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases in these highly contaminated settings. From the collected fungal isolates (699), an average incidence of 22% Aspergillus was detected in poultry farms, while the prevalence at swine farms was 14%. The most frequently isolated Aspergillus species were A. versicolor, A. flavus, and A. fumigatus. In poultry farms, A. flavus presented the highest level of airborne spores (>2000 CFU/m³), whereas in swine farms the highest was A. versicolor, with an incidence fourfold greater higher than the other mentioned species. Eighty workers in these settings were analyzed, ranging in age from 17 to 93 yr. The potentially hazardous exposure of poultry workers to mold allergens using sensitization markers was evaluated. Although no significant positive association was found between fungal contamination and sensitization to fungal antigens, a high incidence of respiratory symptoms in professionals without asthma was observed, namely, wheezing associated with dyspnea (23.8%) and dyspnea after strenuous activities (12.3%), suggesting underdiagnosed respiratory disturbances. Further, 32.5% of all exposed workers noted an improvement of respiratory ability during resting and holidays. From all the analyzed workers, seven were previously diagnosed with asthma and four reported the first attack after the age of 40 yr, which may be

  4. Tracing nitrate transport and environmental impact from intensive swine farming using delta nitrogen-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr, J D; Showers, W J; Gilliam, J W; Andres, A S

    2001-01-01

    Natural-abundance delta15N showed that nitrate generated from commercial land application of swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) waste within a North Carolina Coastal Plain catchment was being discharged to surface waters by ground water passing beneath the sprayfields and adjacent riparian buffers. This was significant because intensive swine farms in North Carolina are considered non-discharge operations, and riparian buffers with minimum widths of 7.6 m (25 ft) are the primary regulatory control on ground water export of nitrate from these operations. This study shows that such buffers are not always adequate to prevent discharge of concentrated nitrate in ground water from commercial swine farms in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain, and that additional measures are required to ensure non-discharge conditions. The median delta15N-total N of liquids in site swine waste lagoons was +15.4 +/- 0.2% vs. atmospheric nitrogen. The median delta15N-NO3 values of shallow ground water beneath and adjacent to site sprayfields, a stream draining sprayfields, and waters up to 1.5 km downstream were + 15.3 +/- 0.2 to + 15.4 +/- 0.2%. Seasonal and spatial isotopic variations in lagoons and well waters were greatly homogenized during ground water transport and discharge to streams. Neither denitrification nor losses of ammonia during spraying significantly altered the bulk ground water delta15N signal being delivered to streams. The lagoons were sources of chloride and potassium enrichment, and shallow ground water showed strong correlation between nitrate N, potassium, and chloride. The 15N-enriched nitrate in ground water beneath swine waste sprayfields can thus be successfully traced during transport and discharge into nearby surface waters.

  5. Welfare and biosecurity standards for dairy cow and pig farms: Cattle and swine rearing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Slavča

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the essential elements concerning cattle and swine rearing and growing conditions were given in order to establish welfare and biosecurity standards. These elements were formed according to detailed annual investigations on 11 cattle and 5 swine farms and include relevant spatial, microclimate and hygienic conditions. In order to establish welfare standards, certain spatial conditions have higher importance, such as correct construction and maintenance of beds, pens and yards, and type and quality of materials used to build beds and walls. It is necessary to enable movement of animals in stables and yards as basic physiological and ethologic needs, according to latest scientific data. Also, optimal temperature, relative humidity and air velocity insuring have to be considered, as well as quality ventilation in order to establish and preserve optimal microclimate conditions. Also, it must be pointed out that hygiene maintenance of stable surfaces and animal bodies on a regular bases is essential. Basic principles and criteria for welfare level assessment are given in this paper. According to results obtained in previous investigations, special attention is given to possibilities to correct rearing and growing conditions in cattle and swine farms in our country. .

  6. Diversity, abundance, and spatial distribution of riverine microbial communities response to effluents from swine farm versus farmhouse restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen

    2014-09-01

    The 454 pyrosequencing technique was applied to evaluate microbial community composition in sediment and water samples collected from the river receiving effluents from a swine farm and a farmhouse restaurant, respectively. For each sample, 4,600 effective sequences were selected and used to do the bacterial diversity and abundance analysis, respectively. Bacterial phylotype richness in the river sediment sample without effluent input was higher than the other samples, and the river water sample with addition of effluent from the swine farm had the least richness. Effluents from both the swine farm and the farmhouse restaurant have the potential to decrease the bacterial diversity and abundance in the river sediment and water, especially it is more significant in the river sediment. Effect of effluent from the swine farm on riverine bacterial communities was more significant than that from the farmhouse restaurant. Characterization of bacterial community composition in sediments from two tributaries of the downstream river showed that various effluents from the swine farm and the farmhouse restaurant have the similar potential to reduce the natural variability in riverine ecosystems, and contribute to the biotic homogenization in the river sediment. PMID:24818690

  7. The influence of between-farm distance and farm size on the spread of classical swine fever during the 1997-1998 epidemic in The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Jan Boender

    Full Text Available As the size of livestock farms in The Netherlands is on the increase for economic reasons, an important question is how disease introduction risks and risks of onward transmission scale with farm size (i.e. with the number of animals on the farm. Here we use the epidemic data of the 1997-1998 epidemic of Classical Swine Fever (CSF Virus in The Netherlands to address this question for CSF risks. This dataset is one of the most powerful ones statistically as in this epidemic a total of 428 pig farms where infected, with the majority of farm sizes ranging between 27 and 1750 pigs, including piglets. We have extended the earlier models for the transmission risk as a function of between-farm distance, by adding two factors. These factors describe the effect of farm size on the susceptibility of a 'receiving' farm and on the infectivity of a 'sending' farm (or 'source' farm, respectively. Using the best-fitting model, we show that the size of a farm has a significant influence on both farm-level susceptibility and infectivity for CSF. Although larger farms are both more susceptible to CSF and, when infected, more infectious to other farms than smaller farms, the increase is less than linear. The higher the farm size, the smaller the effect of increments of farm size on the susceptibility and infectivity of a farm. Because of changes in the Dutch pig farming characteristics, a straightforward extrapolation of the observed farm size dependencies from 1997/1998 to present times would not be justified. However, based on our results one may expect that also for the current pig farming characteristics in The Netherlands, farm susceptibility and infectivity depend non-linearly on farm size, with some saturation effect for relatively large farm sizes.

  8. An analysis of water samples surrounding swine farms in Timis County – A practical guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin L. Ordodi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important role in biological soil pollution is allocated to the untreated waste water used to ground’s fertirigation from livestock farms, and in particular of swine units. Applying of arbitrary measures, and national and European legislation’s non-compliance are main factors that often makes from this issue a public health problem by the great impact it can generate and create in large agglomerations and animals. The diluted manures are able to affect the quality of the environment mainly by: nitrous oxide, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide, volatile organic compounds, etc. and they, being administered in soils, may cause epizootic and epidemiological aspects and also those relating to environmental protection. In this respect it rise the need for all livestock farms to apply appropriate measures for certain manure treatment, different to species of animals and depending on the collection and discharge systems used. This paper is an original research work and it intends to be also a practical guide to follow for those interested in field research of environmental pollution. There are presented current investigation methodologies of water’s quality from swine farms vicinity in Timis County. In four chapters are presented: primary water analysis methodology, the determination of chlorides, nitrates and phosphates for each substance being presented methodology, kits and reagents necessary specific results and their interpretation and conclusions for each study. The last chapter was allocated to the description of the potentially polluting compounds determination by GC-MS technique.

  9. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in pigs and farm workers on conventional and antibiotic-free swine farms in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tara C; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Abley, Melanie J; Harper, Abby L; Forshey, Brett M; Male, Michael J; Martin, H Wayne; Molla, Bayleyegn Z; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Thakur, Siddhartha; Thiruvengadam, Madhumathi; Davies, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    Much uncertainty remains about the origin and public health implications of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA). This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of MRSA in general and LA-MRSA in particular in pigs and farm workers in five states. We collected nasal swabs from pigs and farm workers at 45 swine herds (21 antibiotic-free herds; 24 conventional herds) in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Carolina and Ohio. MRSA was isolated from 50 of 1085 pigs (4.6%) and 31 of 148 (20.9%) of farm workers. MRSA-positive pigs and people were clustered in four conventional swine farms in Iowa and Illinois. Based on genotyping, spa type t034, a common livestock associated variant, was predominant among both human and swine isolates. These results confirm the presence of LA-MRSA in pigs and swine farm workers in the USA, but the prevalence found is relatively low compared with European studies.

  10. Simultaneous Detection of Group A Rotavirus in Swine and Rat on a Pig Farm in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma de Oliveira Tonietti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence of rotavirus in porcine and Rattus norvegicus, at the same time, on a pig farm in the city of Jaguariúna, São Paulo, Brazil. Swine ( and rat ( fecal samples were analyzed by nested RT-PCR assay. Rotavirus occurred in seven porcine and two rat samples. A total of three pig and one rat samples were further submitted to genetic sequencing. The partial NSP5 gene phylogeny showed that all strains were segregated in the genotype H1. These results point toward a cross-species transmission between rats and pigs on the surveyed farm and represent the first detection of rotavirus in Rattus norvegicus in Brazil.

  11. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  12. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species) were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest) to 5 (highest). Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT), Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD), Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR). Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF), Enzootic Pneumonia (EP), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers and

  13. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kuster

    Full Text Available Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively. Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock disease specialists (8 for each species were interviewed. The experts were asked to rank biosecurity measures that were written on cards, by allocating a score from 0 (lowest to 5 (highest. Experts ranked biosecurity measures based on their importance related to Swiss legislation, feasibility, as well as the effort required for implementation and the benefit of each biosecurity measure. The experts also ranked biosecurity measures based on their effectiveness in preventing an infectious agent from entering and spreading on a farm, solely based on transmission characteristics of specific pathogens. The pathogens considered by cattle experts were those causing Bluetongue (BT, Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD and Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR. Swine experts expressed their opinion on the pathogens causing African Swine Fever (ASF, Enzootic Pneumonia (EP, Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS, as well as FMD. For cattle farms, biosecurity measures that improve disease awareness of farmers were ranked as both most important and most effective. For swine farms, the most important and effective measures identified were those related to animal movements. Among all single measures evaluated, education of farmers was perceived by the experts to be the most important and effective for protecting both Swiss cattle and swine farms from disease. The findings of this study provide an important basis for recommendation to farmers

  14. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach-Regula, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock ...

  15. Expert Opinion on the Perceived Effectiveness and Importance of On-Farm Biosecurity Measures for Cattle and Swine Farms in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuster, Karin; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Jemmi, Thomas; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Magouras, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Biosecurity is crucial for safeguarding livestock from infectious diseases. Despite the plethora of biosecurity recommendations, published scientific evidence on the effectiveness of individual biosecurity measures is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of Swiss experts about the effectiveness and importance of individual on-farm biosecurity measures for cattle and swine farms (31 and 30 measures, respectively). Using a modified Delphi method, 16 Swiss livestock ...

  16. Spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli from a swine farm to the receiving river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Song, Wengang; Zhou, Yufa; Tang, Yujing; Gao, Yanxia; Miao, Zengmin

    2015-09-01

    The dissemination of drug-resistant bacteria into different environments has posed a grave threat to public health, but data on the spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from animal farms to the receiving river are limited. Here, 57 ESBL-producing E. coli isolated from a pig farm and the receiving river were analyzed in terms of drug resistance, ESBL genes, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC). The results showed that ESBL-producing E. coli from swine feces and downstream water of the pig farm outfall overlapped substantially in drug resistance and ESBL genes. Additionally, six ESBL-producing E. coli from the downstream water exhibited 100 % genetic similarity with strains from the swine feces. In conclusion, effluents of animal farms are a likely contributor to the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in aquatic environments. PMID:25921760

  17. Bridging academic research and agribusiness in the recovery of byproducts from swine farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela de Oliveira Nunes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, food production has the challenging mission to encourage the growth of the rural economy assuring long term sustainability of their natural resources. The qualification of human resources and the generation of new knowledge are the main pillars that give sustainability to agribusiness. Animal protein production is one of the branches of the agribusiness sector. Swine production is recognized as an activity of high pollution potential, producing a large quantity of waste. This study aimed to identify the activities developed in partnership among academic, research and extension institutes in a midsize company of the agribusiness sector, more specifically a swine farm (São Roque Farm in its sustainable restructuring. An exploratory and quantitative research was developed, which comprehended literature reviews, data collection and analysis of documents from the São Roque Farm. It was considered the period that includes the beginning of the sustainable restructuring of the property (2003 until December 2011. During the analysis of the Sustainable Restructuring Project, special attention was given to the readjustment of the wastewater treatment system and to the energy management and carbon credits, being innovative and pilot projects in the state of Santa Catarina. For this purpose, technologies and knowledge are being developed and applied in treatment of three routes: gaseous, liquid and solid. This pilot project allowed the development of applied studies at undergraduate, masters and PhD level and the main results achieved are the improvement of understanding and the achievement of technical and financial benefits by connecting agribusiness, academia and government research institutions.

  18. Hemodynamic parameters of anesthetized pigs: a comparative study of farm piglets and Göttingen and Yucatan miniature swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benharkate, M; Zanini, V; Blanc, R; Boucheix, O; Coyez, F; Genevois, J P; Pairet, M

    1993-02-01

    We studied the evolution in time of the main hemodynamic parameters in farm piglets and Göttingen and Yucatan miniature swine anesthetized with droperidol, flunitrazepam, and alpha-chloralose. Measurements included arterial pressure, heart rate, intraventricular pressure, and maximum rate of increase during contraction (dp/dt max). For each parameter and each strain of swine, we determined the mean stability period defined as the longest period of time during which the observed values ranged between their mean value +/- 15% and the mean absolute values during the stability period. In our experimental conditions, the parameters remained constant for 2 to 3.5 hours. Only minor interstrain variations were noticed. PMID:8459680

  19. Quantification of Lincomycin Resistance Genes Associated with Lincomycin Residues in Waters and Soils Adjacent to Representative Swine Farms in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang eLi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lincomycin is commonly used on swine farms for growth promotion as well as disease treatment and control. Consequently, lincomycin may accumulate in the environment adjacent to the swine farms in many ways, thereby influencing antibiotic resistance in the environment. Levels of lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues in water and soil samples collected from multiple sites near wastewater discharge areas were investigated in this study. Sixteen lincomycin-resistance and 16S rRNA genes were detected using real-time PCR. Three genes, lnu(F, erm(A and erm(B, were detected in all water and soil samples except control samples. Lincomycin residues were determined by rapid resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with concentrations detected as high as 9.29 ng/mL in water and 0.97 ng/g in soil. A gradual reduction in the levels of lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues in the waters and soils were detected from multiple sites along the path of wastewater discharging to the surrounding environment from the swine farms. Significant correlations were found between levels of lincomycin-resistance genes in paired water and soil samples (r = 0.885, p = 0.019, and between lincomycin-resistance genes and lincomycin residues (r = 0.975, p < 0.01. This study emphasized the potential risk of dissemination of lincomycin-resistance genes such as lnu(F, erm(A and erm(B, associated with lincomycin residues in surrounding environments adjacent to swine farms.

  20. Molecular detection of hepatitis E virus in feces and slurry from swine farms, Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasconcelos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is highly disseminated among swine herds worldwide. HEV is also a threat to public health, since particularly genotypes 3 and 4 may cause acute hepatitis in human beings. No previous studies were done on the occurrence of HEV in environmental samples in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the present study, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was employed to detect the presence of HEV in swine feces and in effluents from slurry lagoons in farms located in the municipality of Teutônia, inside the area of swine husbandry in the state. Pooled fecal samples from the floor of pig barns from 9 wean-to-finish farms and liquid manure samples were collected from the slurry lagoons from 8 of these farms. From the pooled fecal samples, 8/9 were positive for the HEV ORF1 gene by RT-PCR; all the slurry lagoon samples were positive for HEV RNA (100%. The identity of the HEV ORF1 amplicons was confirmed by sequencing belonging to HEV genotype 3, which was previously shown to be circulating in South America.

  1. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Christopher L; Kraus, Brian R; Garza, Sarah J; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E

    2015-01-01

    Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S.) can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS) that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of biosecurity issues, emergency-response planning, and conflicts between livestock and other natural resources.

  2. Dynamics of bacterial metabolic profile and community structure during the mineralization of organic carbon in intensive swine farm wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Land application of intensive swine farm wastewater has raised serious environmental concerns due to the accumulation and microbially mediated transformation of large amounts of swine wastewater organic C (SWOC. Therefore, the study of SWOC mineralization and dynamics of wastewater microorganisms is essential to understand the environmental impacts of swine wastewater application. We measured the C mineralization of incubated swine wastewaters with high (wastewater H and low (wastewater L organic C concentrations. The dynamics of bacteria metabolic profile and community structure were also investigated. The results showed that SWOC mineralization was properly fitted by the two-simultaneous reactions model. The initial potential rate of labile C mineralization of wastewater H was 46% higher than that of wastewater L, whereas the initial potential rates of recalcitrant C mineralization of wastewaters H and L were both around 23 mg L-1 d-1. The bacterial functional and structural diversities significantly decreased for both the wastewaters during SWOC mineralization, and were all negatively correlated to specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; P < 0.01. The bacteria in the raw wastewaters exhibited functional similarity, and both metabolic profile and community structure changed with the mineralization of SWOC, mainly under the influence of SUVA254 (P < 0.001. These results suggested that SWOC mineralization was characterized by rapid mineralization of labile C and subsequent slow decomposition of recalcitrant C pool, and the quality of SWOC varied between the wastewaters with different amounts of organic C. The decreased bio-availability of dissolved organic matter affected the dynamics of wastewater bacteria during SWOC mineralization.

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDIES REGARDING THE NITROGEN COMPOUNDS IN WASTE WATERS FROM SMITHFIELD – PERIAM SWINE FARM, TIMIS COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA NISTOR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented study was to analyse and compare the nitrogen compounds in waste waters from a swine farm from the west of Romania and the environmental impact on the quality of surface water and groundwater. Water samples were taken from sites likely to be potentially sensitive to pollution, above, near and below the waste water discharge in the Mureş river and biopond units. Nitrogen concentrations from 652 mg/l at the pomp station 1 to 12.1 mg/l downstream 1 km after the discharge in the Mureş stream exceed the standard limits accepted for the surface waters. As regarding the ammonia concentrations are also very high, in the analysed samples for the old cleaning system, but lies under the admitted limits in the new system of wastewater cleaning. In conclusion, wastewater from Periam swine farm had a minor pollution impact for surface waters including for Mureş River, while in the new system some values for the nitrogen compounds lies over those obtained in the old system of wastewater cleaning.

  4. Assessing the Impact of Manure Application in Commercial Swine Farms on the Transmission of Antimicrobial Resistant Salmonella in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsukarom, Suchawan; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2016-01-01

    Land application of swine manure in commercial hog farms is an integral part of their waste management system which recycles the nutrients back to the soil. However, manure application can lead to the dissemination of bacterial pathogens in the environment and pose a serious public health threat. The aim of this study was to determine the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in the environment due to manure application in commercial swine farms in North Carolina (n = 6) and Iowa (n = 7), two leading pork producing states in the US. We collected manure and soil samples twice on day 0 (before and after manure application) from four distinct plots of lands (5 soil samples/plot) located at 20 feet away from each other in the field. Subsequent soil samples were collected again on days 7, 14, 21 from the same plots. A total of 1,300 soil samples (NC = 600; IA = 700) and 130 manure samples (NC = 60; IA = 70) were collected and analyzed in this study. The overall Salmonella prevalence was 13.22% (189/1,430), represented by 10.69% and 38.46% prevalence in soil and manure, respectively. The prevalence in NC (25.45%) was significantly higher than in IA (2.73%) (P<0.001) and a consistent decrease in Salmonella prevalence was detected from Day 0-Day 21 in all the farms that tested positive. Salmonella serotypes detected in NC were not detected in IA, thereby highlighting serotype association based on manure storage and soil application method used in the two regions. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by the broth microdilution method to a panel of 15 antimicrobial drugs. A high frequency of isolates (58.73%) were multidrug resistant (resistance to three or more class of antimicrobials) and the most frequent resistance was detected against streptomycin (88.36%), sulfisoxazole (67.2%), and tetracycline (57.67%). Genotypic characterization by pulse field gel electrophoresis revealed clonally related Salmonella in both manure and soil at multiple time

  5. Simulating the Distribution of Individual Livestock Farms and Their Populations in the United States: An Example Using Domestic Swine (Sus scrofa domesticus Farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Burdett

    Full Text Available Livestock distribution in the United States (U.S. can only be mapped at a county-level or worse resolution. We developed a spatial microsimulation model called the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS that simulated the distribution and populations of individual livestock farms throughout the conterminous U.S. Using domestic pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus as an example species, we customized iterative proportional-fitting algorithms for the hierarchical structure of the U.S. Census of Agriculture and imputed unpublished state- or county-level livestock population totals that were redacted to ensure confidentiality. We used a weighted sampling design to collect data on the presence and absence of farms and used them to develop a national-scale distribution model that predicted the distribution of individual farms at a 100 m resolution. We implemented microsimulation algorithms that simulated the populations and locations of individual farms using output from our imputed Census of Agriculture dataset and distribution model. Approximately 19% of county-level pig population totals were unpublished in the 2012 Census of Agriculture and needed to be imputed. Using aerial photography, we confirmed the presence or absence of livestock farms at 10,238 locations and found livestock farms were correlated with open areas, cropland, and roads, and also areas with cooler temperatures and gentler topography. The distribution of swine farms was highly variable, but cross-validation of our distribution model produced an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve value of 0.78, which indicated good predictive performance. Verification analyses showed FLAPS accurately imputed and simulated Census of Agriculture data based on absolute percent difference values of < 0.01% at the state-to-national scale, 3.26% for the county-to-state scale, and 0.03% for the individual farm-to-county scale. Our output data have many applications for

  6. Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Documents (General) Workers Employed at Commercial Swine Farms Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Information on Swine Influenza/Variant Influenza Viruses Language: English Español Recommend ...

  7. Using remote sensing to calculate plant available nitrogen needed by crops on swine factory farm sprayfields in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Serre, Marc

    2015-10-01

    North Carolina (NC) is the second largest producer of hogs in the United States with Duplin county, NC having the densest population of hogs in the world. In NC, liquid swine manure is generally stored in open-air lagoons and sprayed onto sprayfields with sprinkler systems to be used as fertilizer for crops. Swine factory farms, termed concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), are regulated by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) based on nutrient management plans (NMPs) having balanced plant available nitrogen (PAN). The estimated PAN in liquid manure being sprayed must be less than the estimated PAN needed crops during irrigation. Estimates for PAN needed by crops are dependent on crop and soil types. Objectives of this research were to develop a new, time-efficient method to identify PAN needed by crops on Duplin county sprayfields for years 2010-2014. Using remote sensing data instead of NMP data to identify PAN needed by crops allowed calendar year identification of which crops were grown on sprayfields instead of a five-year range of values. Although permitted data have more detailed crop information than remotely sensed data, identification of PAN needed by crops using remotely sensed data is more time efficient, internally consistent, easily publically accessible, and has the ability to identify annual changes in PAN on sprayfields. Once PAN needed by crops is known, remote sensing can be used to quantify PAN at other spatial scales, such as sub-watershed levels, and can be used to inform targeted water quality monitoring of swine CAFOs.

  8. Occurrence of Salmonella-specific bacteriophages in swine feces collected from commercial farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella is one of the primary foodborne pathogens associated with swine production and represents a significant threat to human health. Bacteriophage are naturally-occurring viruses that prey on bacteria and have been suggested as a potential intervention strategy to reduce Salmonella in food an...

  9. Complete genome sequencing of a genotype 3 hepatitis E virus strain identified in a swine farm in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monini, Marina; Maione, Ester; Marrone, Raffaele; Ostanello, Fabio; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in piglets sampled in two farms in southern Italy. The virus was detected in 11 out of 15 animals tested. Based on sequence analysis, the 6 Italian strains examined belonged to two clusters containing both swine and human strains of either genotype 3 subtype e or f from Europe and Japan. The two Italian strain clusters shared nucleotide identity of 81.8% and 87.5% in the ORF2 (capsid protein) and ORF1 (RdRp) diagnostic fragments, respectively, confirming the heterogeneity of genotype 3 viruses circulating in pigs in Italy. The complete genome of one genotype 3 subtype e strain and the full ORF2 and ORF3 coding regions of one of the genotype 3f strains, obtained in this study, were compared to other HEV sequences available on line (NCBI database). The results of analysis showed that porcine strains clustered together with human and swine strains detected in Europe. Most changes in the coding region corresponded to synonymous mutations, and only the ORF3 showed a positive selection. Further, analyses are needed to understand the clinical significance of HEV genotypes and subtypes.

  10. Comparative study of heavy metal and pathogenic bacterial contamination in sludge and manure in biogas and non-biogas swine farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phitsanu Tulayakul; Sutha Khaodhiar; Alongkot Boonsoongnern; Suwicha Kasemsuwan; Srisamai Wiriyarampa; Juree Pankumnoed; Suwanna Tippayaluck; Hathairad Hananantachai; Ratchaneekorn Mingkhwan; Ramnaree Netvichian

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine and compare the heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) and bacterial (E.coli, coliform and Salmonella spp.) contamination between swine farms utilizing biogas and non-biogas systems in the central part of Thailand.Results showed that average levels of E.coli, coliform, BOD, COD, Zn, Cu and Pb in sludge from the post-biogas pond were higher than the standard limits.Moreover, the levels of E.coli, coliform, Cd and Pb were also higher than the standard limits for dry manure.The levels of E.coli, coliform and BOD on biogas farms were lower than on non-biogas farms.Following isolation of Salmonella spp., it was found that Salmonella serovars Rissen was the most abundant at 18.46% (12/65), followed by Anatum 12.31% (8/65), and Kedougou 9.23% (6/65).The pathogenic strains of Salmonella serovars Paratyphi B var.java and Typhimurium were present in equal amounts at 4.62% (3/65) in samples from all swine farms.This study revealed that significant reduction in E.coli and coliform levels in sludge from covered lagoon biogas systems on swine farms.The presence of Salmonella as well as Cd and Pb, in significant amount in dry manure, suggests that there is a high probability of environmental contamination if it is used for agricultural purposes.Thus, careful waste and manure disposal from swine farms and the regular monitoring of wastewater is strongly recommended to ensure the safety of humans, other animals and the environment.

  11. Comparative study of heavy metal and pathogenic bacterial contamination in sludge and manure in biogas and non-biogas swine farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulayakul, Phitsanu; Boonsoongnern, Alongkot; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Wiriyarampa, Srisamai; Pankumnoed, Juree; Tippayaluck, Suwanna; Hananantachai, Hathairad; Mingkhwan, Ratchaneekorn; Netvichian, Ramnaree; Khaodhiar, Sutha

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine and compare the heavy metal (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) and bacterial (E. coli, coliform and Salmonella spp.) contamination between swine farms utilizing biogas and non-biogas systems in the central part of Thailand. Results showed that average levels of E. coli, coliform, BOD, COD, Zn, Cu and Pb in sludge from the post-biogas pond were higher than the standard limits. Moreover, the levels of E. coli, coliform, Cd and Pb were also higher than the standard limits for dry manure. The levels of E. coli, coliform and BOD on biogas farms were lower than on non-biogas farms. Following isolation of Salmonella spp., it was found that Salmonella serovars Rissen was the most abundant at 18.46% (12/65), followed by Anatum 12.31% (8/65), and Kedougou 9.23% (6/65). The pathogenic strains of Salmonella serovars Paratyphi B var. java and Typhimurium were present in equal amounts at 4.62% (3/65) in samples from all swine farms. This study revealed that significant reduction in E. coli and coliform levels in sludge from covered lagoon biogas systems on swine farms. The presence of Salmonella as well as Cd and Pb, in significant amount in dry manure, suggests that there is a high probability of environmental contamination if it is used for agricultural purposes. Thus, careful waste and manure disposal from swine farms and the regular monitoring of wastewater is strongly recommended to ensure the safety of humans, other animals and the environment. PMID:22066222

  12. Economic analysis and energy balance of biogas at swine farms; Analise economica e balanco energetico do biogas em granja de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lira, Joao Carlos U.; Marra, Enes G. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Domingues, Elder G. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Goias (IFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents the analyse of a case taking advantage of biogas generated from the swine dejects. Performed in a farm at southeast of the state of Goias, Brazil, it evaluates the viability of utilization of biogas for generation of electric energy, for heating, or both. The process presents environmental and economic benefits as the carbon emissions are reduced and their credits can be negotiated. (author)

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance in Generic Escherichia coli Isolates from Wild Small Mammals Living in Swine Farm, Residential, Landfill, and Natural Environments in Southern Ontario, Canada▿

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Samantha E.; Boerlin, Patrick; Janecko, Nicol; Lumsden, John S; Barker, Ian K; Pearl, David L; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Jardine, Claire

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impacts of different types of human activity on the development of resistant bacteria in the feces of wild small mammals, we compared the prevalences and patterns of antimicrobial resistance and resistance genes in generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica isolates from fecal samples collected from wild small mammals living in four environments: swine farms, residential areas, landfills, and natural habitats. Resistance to antimicrobials was observed in E. coli isolates f...

  14. Evaluation of CO2 Application Requirements for On-Farm Mass Depopulation of Swine in a Disease Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Baird

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available When an emergency swine disease outbreak, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, occurs, it will be necessary to rapidly and humanely depopulate and dispose of infected and susceptible pigs to limit viral replications and disease spread. Methods other than handling individual pigs will be required to achieve the necessary rapidity. Suitable and practical on-farm methods will require depopulating large numbers of pigs at a time outside confinement buildings. The process must be easily implemented with readily available materials and equipment, while providing for the safety and well-being of personnel. Carbon dioxide gas (CO2 is the means of choice, and this study analyzed the methods and requirements for delivering the gas into large volume truck bodies, corrals, dumpsters or other such chambers that may be used. The issues studied included: How the gas should be introduced to achieve the needed spatial distribution; whether plenums are required in the chambers; and the importance of sealing all chamber cracks and edges except around the top cover to limit CO2 dilution and leakage. Analysis was done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD software, and primary results were verified experimentally. The CFD findings and experimental results are compared, and recommendations are discussed.

  15. On-farm characteristics and biosecurity protocols for small-scale swine producers in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, N; Hernandez-Jover, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Holyoake, P K

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are considered high risk for the introduction and spread of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Australia. Facilities where animals from different origins are commingled, such as saleyards, pose a high risk for disease spread. Sound on-farm management practices and biosecurity protocols are the first line of defence against a potential on-farm disease outbreak. This study evaluated the practices of 104 producers (vendors who sold pigs and purchasers of live pigs for grow-out) who traded pigs at 6 peri-urban and rural saleyards in eastern Australia. Specifically, management and on-farm biosecurity practices were assessed using an in-depth questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate (1) producer associations: producer type, State, motivation to keep pigs, farm type, gender, years having owned pigs, and the acquisition of formal livestock qualifications; and (2) pig associations: herd size, housing, management (husbandry and feeding) practices and biosecurity (including pig movement) practices. Backyard operations (footwear precautions (P=0.007) and ask visitors about prior pig contacts (P=0.004). Approximately 40% of backyard and small-scale producers reported not having any quarantine practices in place for incoming pigs, compared to only 9.1% among larger producers. The main reasons cited for not adopting on-farm biosecurity practices in this study included having no need on their property (43.1%) and a lack of information and support (by the industry and/or authorities; 18.5%). Up to three-quarters of all producers maintained an open breeding herd, regularly introducing new pigs to the main herd. Saleyards are an important source of income for backyard and small-scale producers as well as an important risk factor for the introduction and dissemination of endemic and emerging animal diseases. Differing management and biosecurity practices as well as the motivations of these producers keeping pigs in small

  16. Using of Gamma Radiation to Improve the Bacterial Efficiency for Treatment of Swine Farm Wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequencing activated sludge (AS) and trickling filter (TF) reactor system was used as a model to remove organic matter and nutrients in pig farm wastewater. The AS reactor was operated at sludge age 10 days and hydraulic retention time (HRT) 2 days. The results indicated that most organic matter were removed in AS reactor and had removal efficiency in term of COD, TKN, and TP 60%, 65%, and 15%, respectively. Moreover, it was also found that nitrification occurred in AS reactor more than that in TF reactor.

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDIES REGARDING THE HEAVY METALS IONS AND CONDUCTIBILITY, IN WASTE WATERS FROM SMITHFIELD –PERIAM SWINE FARM, TIMIS COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEONORA NISTOR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the results of the investigation for the surface waters pollution with different ions, Ph, electric conductibility and organic substances from Smithfield-Periam swine breeding complex. Concentrations of magnesium, sulphates, sodium and potassium are situated under the limits accepted for the first class of the surface waters in the new system of cleaning. Electric conductivity values are over the limits accepted by STAS for the surface waters in the old cleaning system and framed in standard limits in the new wastewaters cleaning system. Ph of the analyzed wastewaters is framed in the standard of the surface waters for both cleaning wastewaters systems. With the exception of organic substances, the new system of wastewaters cleaning used in the Smithfield–Periam swine farm is better and in the same is avoiding the pollution for surface waters.

  18. Tetracycline residues in porcine stomach after administration via drinking water on a swine farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Danielle; Wu, Huali; Mason, Sharon; Yeatts, Jim; Brooks, Jim; Barlow, Beth; Schill, Kaitlyn; Baynes, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to treat infections in swine. The maximum residue levels of tetracycline in pork stomach tissue in Russia, Europe, and the United States are 10, 200, and 2,000 ppb, respectively. This difference in accepted safety levels may be the reason why stomach tissues that the United States exports continue to be residue violators in overseas markets. In this study, 30 pigs at two different stages of production (weanling and finisher) were treated with tetracycline at 22 mg/kg of body weight per day for a total of 5 days via a water medicator. Blood samples were collected at 0, 72, 78, 96, and 102 h after the start of medication. The medication was stopped at 120 h, and blood samples were again collected at 126, 144, 168, 192, and 216 h after exposure. Five animals were slaughtered for stomach tissue 0, 24, 48, 96, and 192 h after the drug was flushed from the water line. All blood and tissue samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-UV methods. The tetracycline levels in plasma were below the level of detection after the U.S.-labeled withdrawal time of 4 days. The stomach tissue residues averaged 671.72, 330.31, 297.77, 136.36, and 268.08 ppb on withdrawal days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8, respectively. Using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tolerance limit method and a population-based pharmacokinetic model with Monte Carlo simulation, a withdrawal interval was estimated. This study demonstrated that tetracycline residues are still detectable in the stomach tissues after the established United States withdrawal time of 4 days. These residue levels may explain why stomach tissues tested in Russia and Europe show positive residues for tetracycline, even though the meat may pass inspection here in the United States prior to export.

  19. Impact of Season, Demographic and Environmental Factors on Salmonella Occurrence in Raccoons (Procyon lotor) from Swine Farms and Conservation Areas in Southern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondo, Kristin J; Pearl, David L; Janecko, Nicol; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Parmley, Jane; Jardine, Claire M

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been detected in the feces of many wildlife species, including raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the epidemiology of Salmonella in wildlife living in different habitat types. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal, and climatic factors associated with the carriage of Salmonella in raccoons and their environment on swine farms and conservation areas. Using a repeated cross-sectional study design, we collected fecal samples from raccoons and environmental samples (soil, manure pits, dumpsters) on 5 swine farms and 5 conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013. Salmonella was detected in 26% (279/1093; 95% CI 22.9-28.2) of raccoon fecal samples, 6% (88/1609; 95% CI 4.5-6.8) of soil samples, 30% (21/69; 95% CI 20.0-42.7) of manure pit samples, and 23% (7/31; 95% CI 9.6-41.0) of dumpster samples. Of samples testing positive for Salmonella, antimicrobial resistance was detected in 5% (14/279; 95% CI 2.8-8.3) of raccoon fecal, 8% (7/89; 95% CI 3.2-15.5) of soil, 10% (2/21; 95% CI 1.2-30.4) of manure pit, and 0/7 dumpster samples. Using multi-level multivariable logistic regression analyses, we found location type (swine farm or conservation area) was not a significant explanatory variable for Salmonella occurrence in raccoon feces or soil (p > 0.05). However, detection of Salmonella in raccoon feces was associated with rainfall, season, and sex with various interaction effects among these variables. We detected a variety of Salmonella serovars that infect humans and livestock in the feces of raccoons indicating that raccoons living near humans, regardless of location type, may play a role in the epidemiology of salmonellosis in livestock and humans in southwestern Ontario. PMID:27611198

  20. Asphyxiation Incidents by Hydrogen Sulfide at Manure Storage Facilities of Swine Livestock Farms in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihoon; Kang, Taesun; Jin, Suhyun; Heo, Yong; Kim, Kyungran; Lee, Kyungsuk; Tsai, Perngjy; Yoon, Chungsik

    2016-01-01

    Livestock workers are involved in a variety of tasks, such as caring for animals, maintaining the breeding facilities, cleaning, and manure handling, and are exposed to health and safety risks. Hydrogen sulfide is considered the most toxic by-product of the manure handling process at livestock facilities. Except for several reports in developed countries, the statistics and cause of asphyxiation incidents in farms have not been collected and reported systematically, although the number of these incidents is expected to increase in developing and underdeveloped countries. In this study, the authors compiled the cases of work-related asphyxiation incidents at livestock manure storage facilities and analyzed the main causes. In this survey, a total of 17 incidents were identified through newspapers or online searches and public reports. Thirty workers died and eight were injured due to work-related tasks and rescue attempts from 1998 to 2013 in Korea. Of the 30 fatalities, 18 occurred during manure handling/maintenance tasks and 12 during rescue attempts. All incidents except for one case occurred during the warm season from the late spring (April) to early autumn (September) when manure is likely to decompose rapidly. It is important to train employees involved in the operation of the facilities (i.e., owners, managers, employees) regarding the appropriate prevention strategies for confined space management, such as hazard identification before entry, periodical facility inspection, restriction of unnecessary access, proper ventilation, and health and safety. Sharing information or case reports on previous incidents could also help prevent similar cases from occurring and reduce the number of fatalities and injuries. PMID:26765950

  1. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  2. Risk factors for farm-level African swine fever infection in major pig-producing areas in Nigeria, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, F O; Agbaje, M; Ajani, F L; Talabi, O A; Lazarus, D D; Gallardo, C; Thompson, P N; Bastos, A D S

    2012-11-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an economically devastating disease for the pig industry, especially in Africa. Identifying what supports infection on pig farms in this region remains the key component in developing a risk-based approach to understanding the epidemiology of ASF and controlling the disease. Nigeria was used for this matched case-control study, because there is perpetual infection in some areas, while contiguous areas are intermittently infected. Risk factors and biosecurity practices in pig farms were evaluated in association with ASF infection. Subsets of farms located in high-density pig population areas and high-risk areas for ASF infection were randomly selected for analysis. Most plausible risk factor variables from the univariable analysis included in the multivariable analysis include: owner of farm had regular contact with infected farms and other farmers, untested pigs were routinely purchased into the farm in the course of outbreaks, there was an infected neighbourhood, other livestock were kept alongside pigs, there was a presence of an abattoir/slaughter slab in pig communities, wild birds had free access to pig pens, tools and implements were routinely shared by pig farmers, there was free access to feed stores by rats, and feed was purchased from a commercial source. Only the presence of an abattoir in a pig farming community (OR=8.20; CI(95%)=2.73, 24.63; Prisk of ASF infection and sharing farm tools and equipment (OR=0.35; CI(95%)=0.12, 1.01; P=0.05). Of the 28 biosecurity measures evaluated, food and water control (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.46; Pcontrol were positively associated with ASF infection of Nigerian farms (OR=4.94; CI(95%)=1.84, 13.29; P=0.002). The presentation of sick and unthrifty pigs for slaughter at abattoirs, farmers' inadvertent role, an infected neighbourhood, a pig to pig contact, rodents and wild birds may contribute to infections of farms, whereas washing, disinfection of tools, food and water control, and

  3. Genetic Characterization and Evolution of H1N1pdm09 after Circulation in a Swine Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Boni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the emergence of the A(H1N1pdm09 in humans, this novel influenza virus was reverse transmitted from infected people to swine population worldwide. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of A(H1N1pdm09 virus identified in pigs reared in a single herd. Nasal swabs taken from pigs showing respiratory distress were tested for influenza type A and A(H1N1pdm09 by real-time RT-PCR assays. Virus isolation from positive samples was attempted by inoculation of nasal swabs samples into specific pathogen free embryonated chicken eggs (ECE and complete genome sequencing was performed on virus strains after replication on ECE or from original swab sample. The molecular analysis of hemagglutinin (HA showed, in four of the swine influenza viruses under study, a unique significant amino acid change, represented by a two-amino acid insertion at the HA receptor binding site. Phylogenetic analysis of HA, neuraminidase, and concatenated internal genes revealed a very similar topology, with viruses under study forming a separate cluster, branching outside the A(H1N1pdm09 isolates recognized until 2014. The emergence of this new cluster of A(H1N1pdm09 in swine raises further concerns about whether A(H1N1pdm09 with new molecular characteristics will become established in pigs and potentially transmitted to humans.

  4. Electricity competition in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of Alberta's electric power industry was presented with particular focus on the deregulation process within the industry, the new market structure and future evolution of the industry. A series of graphs and tables were presented for illustration purposes. They indicated that in 1998, coal was the major source of energy for electric power generation, followed by natural gas and hydro. The total installed capacity for utility generation was 7367 megawatts. The three major power utilities in Alberta are Alberta Power, Edmonton Power and TransAlta Utilities. Several viewgraphs highlighted important milestones in the evolution of Alberta's Electricity Supply Industry (ESI) from 1970 to 1995. On January 1, 1996 Alberta ESI adopted a wholesale market structure. This paper also discussed issues regarding the independent transmission administrator (TA). Basically, a TA is legislated to provide open access to the transmission system, whereas the power pool administrator is responsible for the adminis tration of the pool energy market. 1 tab., 2 figs

  5. 猪瘟控制(净化)对母猪分娩率的影响%Influence of Controlling (Eradicating) Classic Swine Fever to Sow Parturition Rate in a Large Scale Pig Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗才庆

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Investigate and analyze whether the sow parturition rate could be improved by controlling (eradicating) classic swine fever in a large scale pig farm. Method:The antibodies of classic swine fever of sow were detected with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on a large scale pig farm in Longyan city. The sows which the antibodies of classic swine fever were below standard were sifted out controlling (eradicating) classic swine fever. The data of the sow parturition rate were analyzed before controlling (eradicating) classic swine fever and after. Results:The numbers of the sows which showed returning to estrus, abortion and non-pregnancy have reduced and the sow parturition rate was improved obviously by controlling (eradicating) classic swine fever. Con-clusion:Controlling (eradicating) classic swine fever can improve the sow parturition efficiency. It is of a great sig-nificance for a large scale pig farm to control (eradicate) classic swine fever.%目的:通过对某猪场母猪实施猪瘟控制(净化)方案,研究分析能否提高该猪场的母猪分娩率。方法:采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)对龙岩市某规模化猪场的母猪进行猪瘟抗体检测,对猪瘟抗体检测不合格(阻断率小于40%)且同时满足两条及以上淘汰标准的种猪实行淘汰以达到猪瘟控制(净化)目的,并对猪瘟控制(净化)前后配种分娩结果进行收集、统计。结果:猪瘟控制(净化)后,母猪返情、流产、空胎数量减少,分娩率明显提升。结论:猪瘟控制(净化)可以提高母猪分娩率,实行猪瘟控制(净化)对规模化猪场具有重大意义。

  6. Is Alberta`s gas running out?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, G.

    1995-09-18

    The state of Alberta`s natural gas resources were reviewed and according to certain groups of experts reserves and resources were found to be less plentiful than generally believed. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) also reported that gas reserves in non-frontier areas declined by 1.8% lat year, to 67.4 trillion cubic feet. It was estimated that this supply would last for 13 years. The National Energy Board (NEB) indicated that thousands of Alberta`s unconnected pools may not be economical to develop. The CAPP annual reserves report also indicated that average gas pools found in recent times were only one quarter of the size of gas pools found before 1980. It was argued by this same group of experts that low gas prices, particularly for Alberta exports, have made drilling uneconomical, while others maintained that price fluctuations must be accepted as part of selling a commodity that is marketed world-wide. Ed Wolf, an independent geologist, estimated that gas prices,factoring in environmental costs, should be increased to $4 per mcf to justify exporting Canadian natural gas. However, others have argued that reserve figures have been underestimated. As proof of that they point to the fact that there is no shortage of investment capital; exploration and production activities, funded by investment, would not continue if natural gas production were not cost-effective. The Ziff Energy Group estimated that discovered and frontier reserves total 426 tcf, or 65 years` supply, excluding tight gas from low porosity formations which have been estimated to provide up to 300 years of supply at current levels of demand. As well, new technologies have improved the industry`s ability to find new reserves. The debate between economic nationalists and free marketeers continues.

  7. Spatio-temporal patterns and movement analysis of pigs from smallholder farms and implications for African swine fever spread, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasina, Folorunso O; Mokoele, Japhta M; Spencer, B Tom; Van Leengoed, Leo A M L; Bevis, Yvette; Booysen, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Infectious and zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to increasing volumes of legal and illegal trade. Spatio-temporal and trade network analyses have been used to evaluate the risks associated with these challenges elsewhere, but few details are available for the pig sector in South Africa. Regarding pig diseases, Limpopo province is important as the greater part of the province falls within the African swine fever control area. Emerging small-scale pig farmers in Limpopo perceived pig production as an important means of improving their livelihood and an alternative investment. They engage in trading and marketing their products with a potential risk to animal health, because the preferred markets often facilitate potential longdistance spread and disease dispersal over broad geographic areas. In this study, we explored the interconnectedness of smallholder pig farmers in Limpopo, determined the weaknesses and critical control points, and projected interventions that policy makers can implement to reduce the risks to pig health. The geo-coordinates of surveyed farms were used to draw maps, links and networks. Predictive risks to pigs were determined through the analyses of trade networks, and the relationship to previous outbreaks of African swine fever was postulated. Auction points were identified as high-risk areas for the spread of animal diseases. Veterinary authorities should prioritise focused surveillance and diagnostic efforts in Limpopo. Early disease detection and prompt eradication should be targeted and messages promoting enhanced biosecurity to smallholder farmers are advocated. The system may also benefit from the restructuring of marketing and auction networks. Since geographic factors and networks can rapidly facilitate pig disease dispersal over large areas, a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the complexities that exist around the animal disease epidemiology becomes mandatory. PMID:26842362

  8. Spatio-temporal patterns and movement analysis of pigs from smallholder farms and implications for African swine fever spread, Limpopo province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folorunso O. Fasina

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious and zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to increasing volumes of legal and illegal trade. Spatio-temporal and trade network analyses have been used to evaluate the risks associated with these challenges elsewhere, but few details are available for the pig sector in South Africa. Regarding pig diseases, Limpopo province is important as the greater part of the province falls within the African swine fever control area. Emerging small-scale pig farmers in Limpopo perceived pig production as an important means of improving their livelihood and an alternative investment. They engage in trading and marketing their products with a potential risk to animal health, because the preferred markets often facilitate potential longdistance spread and disease dispersal over broad geographic areas. In this study, we explored the interconnectedness of smallholder pig farmers in Limpopo, determined the weaknesses and critical control points, and projected interventions that policy makers can implement to reduce the risks to pig health. The geo-coordinates of surveyed farms were used to draw maps, links and networks. Predictive risks to pigs were determined through the analyses of trade networks, and the relationship to previous outbreaks of African swine fever was postulated. Auction points were identified as high-risk areas for the spread of animal diseases. Veterinary authorities should prioritise focused surveillance and diagnostic efforts in Limpopo. Early disease detection and prompt eradication should be targeted and messages promoting enhanced biosecurity to smallholder farmers are advocated. The system may also benefit from the restructuring of marketing and auction networks. Since geographic factors and networks can rapidly facilitate pig disease dispersal over large areas, a multi-disciplinary approach to understanding the complexities that exist around the animal disease epidemiology becomes mandatory.

  9. Nonpoint source pollution by swine farming wastewater in bean crop Poluição difusa da água residuária de suinocultura do feijoeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F. Doblinski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the environmental impact of the application of swine farming wastewater in bean crop, an experiment was set up in the Experimental Farm of PUCPR - Toledo, PR, Brazil. Runoff and soil samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Four wastewater treatments were utilized during the experiment (50, 100, 150 and 200 m³ ha-1 and the without wastewater as the control. The results demonstrate that (i the amounts of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen in runoff are exponential, (ii that phosphorus has a seven-fold polluting potential compared to potassium and three-fold compared to nitrogen, and (iii that the mobility of potassium in the soil profile is the largest, followed by those of nitrogen and phosphorus.Visando verificar o impacto ambiental da aplicação de água residuária de suinocultura na cultura do feijoeiro, instalou-se um experimento na Fazenda Experimental da PUCPR - Toledo, PR, Brasil; para isto, amostras do solo e do escoamento superficial foram coletadas ao final do experimento e se utilizaram quatro taxas de aplicação de água residuária durante o experimento, 50, 100, 150 e 200 m³ ha-1, sem aplicação de água residuária como testemunha. Os resultados demonstraram que: (i as perdas de potássio, fósforo e nitrogênio no escoamento superficial são exponenciais; (ii o fósforo apresenta potencial poluidor sete vezes maior que o potássio e três vezes maior que o nitrogênio; (iii a mobilidade do potássio no perfil do solo é maior, seguida do nitrogênio e do fósforo.

  10. Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in slurry applied to clay soil on a Danish swine farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boes, J.; Alban, L.; Bagger, J.;

    2005-01-01

    the survival times of E. coli and Salmonella in the soil surface following deposition of naturally contaminated pig slurry; and (3) simulate survival of Salmonella in different infection levels using E. coli data as input estimates. Slurry was deposited by four different methods: (1) hose applicator on black...... amended with contaminated pig slurry was an effective means to reduce environmental exposure to E. coli and Salmonella on this clay-soil farm....

  11. Congestion management in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The challenges facing Alberta regarding electricity market design and congestion management were described. The electricity market in the province consists of a central power pool, an open access transmission network, and a single pool price, unlike many other jurisdictions in North America which have adopted a location margin price (LMP) design with significant price differences between various locations within the power network. Alberta's transmission network is regulated and provides carrier functions. Power moves freely throughout Alberta's power pool network with no congestion, therefore the common pool price signals market participants throughout the entire network with no segregation into zones. Alberta is currently at a cross road in choosing between a single pool price model or a nodal price model. In the first instance, the province would have to strengthen the transmission network to maintain the market at a reasonable size. The alternative would permit Alberta to use market-based techniques to deal with the evolution of many smaller markets in the province, but these would be very small by North American standards and their ability to compete would be questionable

  12. The immunosuppressive impact of PRRS virus on the immune response following anti - erysipelas vaccination in swine from various farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Chiurciu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PRRS virus, the etiologic agent of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome by immunosuppressive action can significantly affect the immune response after vaccination. It was intended the following of the immunological reaction induced by the Erysipelothrix rhusopathiae vaccination from pigs from intensive system and from households. The biological material studied was provided from clinically healthy pigs of different ages. The animals were from four different locations. Serological examinations were performed by blood sampling [gathered from the confluence of jugular vein] before and after the vaccination. The investigations were performed by ELISA method. In the industrial breeding system, seroprevalence of anti PRRS presented high levels, in contrast to the low level of postvaccinal E. rhusopathiae antibodies. In households the incidence of PRRS virus was low and the seroconversion after the vaccination was raised. The morphopathological and bacteriological examinations performed from the lesions in various organs [lungs, lymph nodes, liver, spleen and intestine] has revealed the presence of germ association, pathogenic or potentially pathogenic. The results point the link between the existence of PRRS virus in the swine populations and post-vaccinal response, its presence interfering significantly with the vaccination protocols efficacy.

  13. Alberta Unites on Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Education policy in the province of Alberta is set by Alberta Education, a ministry led by the province's minister of education. There are two key policies or ministerial orders that guide professional learning in Alberta. The Teaching Quality Standard outlines the knowledge, skills, and attributes that teachers are expected to possess. The…

  14. Inhibitory effect of biogas slurry from swine farm on some vegetable pathogen%猪场沼液对蔬菜病原菌的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚斌; 陈永杏; 陶秀萍; 董红敏; 黄宏坤

    2011-01-01

    In recent years , the ecological environment of west China has encountered serious problems. On one hand , large piles of manure from livestock have caused environmental pollution , while a large amount of vegetation has been destroyed to meet the rural energy shortage,which leads to further ecological degradation. Biogas projects have been rapidly developed because they can deal with the animal wastes while providing energy. However, the rapid development of biogas projects has also introduced a further difficulty of biogas slurry treatment and utilization ,which has became the primary limiting factor for further development of biogas projects and the sustainable development of agriculture in west China. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct research on the technologies for biogas slurry treatment and utilization. The effects of application of biogas slurry from swine farms on seven different vegetable pathogens , namely Fulvia fulva, Botrytis cinerea pers ,Aletnaria solani , Phytophthora capsici Len, Pythium aphanidermatum, Glomerella cingulata var orbicularis Jenkins Winstead et mc Combs,Botrytis cinerea, were studied in vitro using the plate diffusion method. The results showed that the inhibition of biogas slurry was different for different pathogens. The fresh biogas slurry strongly inhibited the growth of Botrytis cinerea pers , Aletnaria solani , Phytophthora capsici Len, Glomerella cingulata var orbicularis Jenkins Winstead et mc Combs and Botrytis cinerea. The fresh filtrate of biogas slurry had obvious inhibitory effects on Botrytis cinerea pers and Botrytis cinerea.The inhibitory rates were affected by the time the biogas slurry was applied, and the inhibitory rates on Botrytis cinerea pers,Aletnaria solani, Botrytis cinerea did not change significantly with the time of the application. The biogas slurry application at certain time had higher inhibitory rates on Phytophthora capsici Len and Glomerella cingulata var orbicularis Jenkins Winstead et mc

  15. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: Reduction of emissions from water-holding structures at two candidate superior technologies for waste treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Arya, S. Pal; Rumsey, Ian C.; Kim, D.-S.; Bajwa, K. S.; Williams, C. M.

    Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen) was an integrated study of the emissions of ammonia (NH 3), odor and odorants, and pathogens from potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) for swine facilities in eastern North Carolina. This paper, as part of program OPEN, focuses on quantifying emissions of NH 3 from water-holding structures at two of the best ESTs and compares them with the projected emissions from two conventional lagoon and spray technologies (LSTs). The evaluated ESTs are: (1) Super Soils at Goshen Ridge; and (2) Environmental Technologies at Red Hill. The water-holding structures for these two ESTs contained no conventional anaerobic lagoon. A dynamic flow-through chamber was used to measure NH 3 fluxes from the water-holding structures at both the ESTs and at the conventional LST farms. In order to compare the emissions from the water-holding structures at the ESTs with those from the lagoons at the conventional sites under similar conditions, a statistical-observational model for lagoon NH 3 emissions was used. A mass-balance approach was used to quantify the emissions. All emissions were normalized by nitrogen-excretion rates. The percentage reductions relative to the conventional lagoons were calculated for the two ESTs. Results showed substantial reductions in NH 3 emissions at both ESTs. Super Soils had reductions of 94.7% for the warm season and 99.0% for the cool season. Environmental Technologies had slightly larger reductions of 99.4% and 99.98% for the cool and warm season, respectively. As a result of such large reductions in ammonia emissions, both technologies meet the criteria to be classified as ESTs for ammonia emissions.

  16. The Study of Immunization Effects on Classical Swine Fever in Some Scale Pig Farms%规模化种猪场猪瘟免疫情况调研

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟萍; 姚敬明; 吴忻; 孟帆; 韩一超; 刘文俊; 樊振华; 米瑞娟; 程海龙

    2012-01-01

    Classical swine fever caused by classical swine fever virus is a high fever, bleeding as the main feature of the potent, highly contagious disease and still widely popular in China. Vaccination is the most fundamental methods of the disease prevention and control, in order to identify the immunization effects of classical swine fever in large-scale pig farms of Shanxi, the classical swine fever immune antibody of 465 breast-feeding pigs, 456 nursery pigs, 436 finishing pigs and 419 sows in the 42 scale pig farms of eight cities were detected by ELISA kits. The test identified the antibody positive rate of breast-feeding pigs averaged of 70. 11%, the antibody positive rate of nursery pigs averaged 40. 57%, the antibody positive rate of finishing pigs averaged 50. 22% and the antibody positive rate of sows averaged 69. 69%. It was seized that the immune antibody of the swinery detected was not ideal, especially lower antibody levels in nursery pigs. While the immune antibody of 133 breast-feeding pigs, 110 nursery pigs, 105 finishing pigs and 135 sows with four different types of classical swine fever vaccine immunity in the 12 large-scale pig farms was detected. The results showed that porket were hyper immunized firstly six copies of classical swine fever efficient cell-free vaccine at birth, then piglets were immunized secondly four copies at two 21-day-old, at last piglets were immunized thirdly two copies at 60-day-old, besides, it was best that postpartum sows were immunized with fetal immunity after 21 days, so that the antibody positive rate of nursery pigs could reach 89. 29% , therefore, the mortality of nurser-y pigs reduced evidently and the growth and development of pigs walk gradually up to normal after using this immune method in some pig farms, while the use of the worst method that the first immunization of piglets between 28-day-old and 35-day-old with four copies of classical swine fever normal cell-free vaccine after ablactation, the second

  17. Generation opportunities in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid-Carlson, D. [Optimum Energy Management Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Optimum Energy Management Inc. (OEMI) specializes in: (1) energy management services and training, (2) regulatory consulting, and (3) energy economics and forecasting. As an example of the company`s special expertise, this historical account and future supply and demand forecast for electricity, and for oil and gas in Alberta was presented. The exercise included a review of the Alberta Pool price study and power generation opportunities in a deregulated market, including risks. A rise in pool prices to $25 to $30 per MWh by the year 2000, and a softening of prices beyond the turn of the century were predicted, along with continued regulatory reform and increased levels of competition. Natural gas convergence is expected to drive electricity prices in the future. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  18. Helium in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    Helium is found in small quantities in natural gas in Alberta and most natural gases throughout the world. This report outlines its properties and its present day uses such as the space program, welding of metals, controlled atmospheres for growing crystals for semi-conductors, chromatography, heat transfer, leak-testing, and research and medical-biological applications. It also appears that liquid helium will be necessary to provide a practical source of the low temperature necessary for the many potential applications of superconductivity. These offer many possibilities for savings in energy-related applications. This report also examines helium supply and demand in the USA, the principal source of supply to the Western world, Japan, which must import all its requirements, and Canada. Since the failure of Canadian Helium's Saskatchewan plant in 1977, Canada has no indigenous supply and no apparent sources which are viable under current technology. Alberta had 33.1 billion feet/sup 3/ of helium as of December 31, 1977 contained in its proved reserves of natural gas. None of this is economically recoverable under current commercial technology. By 1985, when a commercial plant would come on stream, 72% of the ultimate reserve of 47 Bcf will still be available. Alberta now has a process being field-tested which has an energy requirement only 25-30% of that of the presently available method. Should the test be successful, it will make possible the economic recovery of helium from the province's pipeline gases and the sale of the technology to other countries. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Identifiction and Detection of Classical Swine Fever Virus in A Pig Farm of Xinxiang%新乡市某猪场猪瘟病毒的鉴别检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔令芸; 陈玲丽; 李冲; 孙相和; 李鹏; 王选年; 银梅

    2015-01-01

    新乡市某猪场发生疑似猪瘟病例,为了鉴别其为疫苗毒还是野毒,采用细胞免疫化学方法和RT-PCR,并对其NS5B基因进行序列测定,序列比对并构建进化树,结果表明,猪只为猪瘟野毒感染,且分离的猪瘟病毒与石门(Shimen)株在基因序列上未发生大的变异。%The suspicious cases of classical swine fever occurred in a pig farm of Xinxiang.The virus was i-dentified by cell immunochemistry method and RT-PCR.The results of the sequence alignment and phylo-genetic tree of NS5B gene showed that the pigs were infected with classical swine fever virus field strain, and the gene sequence variation of this isolate was not obvious.

  20. 部分猪场H1和H3亚型猪流感的血清学调查%Serological Survey of H1 and H3 Subtypes of Swine Influenza in Some Pig Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈锦成; 张丹琳; 陈敏鸿; 张显浩; 贺东生

    2012-01-01

    To survey the epidemics of H1, H3 subtypes of swine influenza virus in some scale pig farms in some provinces, 799 swine serum samples were collected from 28 factory pig farms on 12 cities in Guangdong, Hunan and Henan provinces. The antibodies against H1 and H3 subtypes of SIV were determined by HI assay. The results showed that the positive rate of H1 subtype antibody of pigs was 0 to 83. 33% , the average positive rate of pigs was 46. 18% (369/799) and the positive rate of pig farms was 89. 29% (25/28). The positive rate of H3 subtype antibody of pigs was 0 to 100% > the average positive rate of pigs was 61. 33% (490/799) and the positive rate of pig farms was 85. 71% (24/28). The average positive rate of H1 subtype antibody of pigs of Guangdong, Hunan and Henan provinces respectively was 48. 91% , 40. 26% and 50. 67% , the rate of H3 subtype antibody was 58. 55%, 70. 78% and 78. 67%. It showed that the infection of H1 and H3 subtypes of swine influenza virus was widespread in the surveyed pigs of the 3 above regions. The infection rate of H3 subtype was higher than H1 subtype. The epidemics of swine influenza varied in different region.%为了解中国部分省市规模化猪场H1和H3亚型猪流感病毒的流行情况,采用血凝抑制试验对采集于广东、湖南、河南省12个市县28个规模化猪场的799份血清进行H1和H3亚型猪流感病毒的抗体检测.结果表明,H1亚型抗体阳性率在0~83.33%之间,猪抗体总阳性率为46.18%(369/799),猪场阳性率为89.29%(25/28).H3亚型抗体阳性率在0~100.00%之间,猪抗体总阳性率为61.33%(490/799),猪场阳性率为85.71%(24/28).广东、湖南和河南地区H1亚型抗体阳性率分别为48.91%、40.26%和50.67%,H3亚型抗体阳性率分别为58.55%、70.78%和78.67%.在被调查的上述3个地区的猪群中,H1和H3亚型猪流感病毒的感染较为普遍,其中H3亚型感染率高于H1亚型,且各地区猪流感病毒的流行情况存在地域性差异.

  1. Proceedings: The Alberta Soil Science Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A total of 46 papers were presented at this two-day conference dealing with all aspects of soil science. Some topics discussed included: Soil fertility; Soil testing; Emissions from fertilizer and manure in agricultural fields; Environmental farm plans; Wetland law and policy in Alberta; Feedlot manure composting; Knowledge gaps in agricultural greenhouse gas research; Effects of cattle manure applications on soil properties; Nitrogen and phosphorus losses through surface runoff from manured soils; Modeling carbon balance of barley-fallow systems; Salt movement in capped composite tailings; Evaluation of soil structures in reclaimed oil sands soils; Scoping key soil issues for the Suncor Voyageur oil sands project; Regulatory considerations in remediation of salt-impacted soil and groundwater at upstream oil and gas facilities; Development of as method to estimate potential N mineralization across Alberta; Restorative capacity of topsoil replacement depths and organic amendments on decommissioned wellsites; Effects of compost application on the level of soil carbon dioxide concentration and the growth of Cinnamomum camphora seedlings; and others. Abstracts of all papers available on the Internet at http://www.soilsworkshop.ab.ca.abstract.

  2. Investigation on infection of NSP2 mutant PRRSV on scale swine farms in Shandong province%山东省规模化猪场PRRSV NSP2变异株的感染情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成岩; 赵梦娇; 王美君; 聂兆晶; 刘少宁; 周恩民; 姜世金; 田夫林

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with NSP2 mutants,the NSP2 genes were amplified and sequenced from 830 serum samples of clinical healthy pigs collected from twenty scale swine farms in Shandong province during 2010 to 2011,which were immunized with imported and domestic attenuated vaccines respectively.The results showed that the NSP2 mutant PRRSVs were commonly detected on those clinical healthy scale piggery.However,the positive rates of mutant PRRSVs were the highest in the unimmunized swine herds and the lowest in the swine herds immunized with domestic attenuated vaccine.The NSP2 mutant wild virus and vaccine virus were also detected in the same swine herd.%为了解山东省规模化猪场猪繁殖与呼吸障碍综合征病毒(PRRSV) NSP2变异株的感染情况,2010~2011年本研究从山东省未免猪繁殖与呼吸障碍综合征(PRRS)疫苗猪场、免疫进口PRRS弱毒苗猪场和免疫国产PRRS弱毒苗猪场选择20个临床表观健康的规模化猪场,采集830份血清,利用RT-PCR方法对其进行PRRSV NSP2变异株病原学检测.结果表明山东省规模化猪场普遍存在PRRSV NSP2变异株感染,而且临床表观健康的未免疫PRRS疫苗猪场、免疫进口PRRS弱毒苗猪场及免疫国产PRRS弱毒苗猪场中PRRSV NSP2变异株的检出率由高到低,同一猪群中存在PRRSV NSP2变异株野毒和疫苗毒.

  3. Alberta's new oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A massive expansion of Canada's oil sands and the oil-mining business is underway. The prediction is that within five years there will be at least three, possibly six, huge new open pit mines north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It was suggested that within 20 years, possibly half of Canada's oil supply will come from the oil sands industry which has already attracted $10 billion worth of developments. Unlike conventional crude, the oil sands contain bitumen, water, clay, minerals and lots of sands. Shallow deposits are mined like coal. Deeper formations make use of in-situ thermal recovery techniques. Extraction costs are presently at $15 per barrel, aiming for $12 by 1999. Return on investment is in double digits. Estimates of reserves in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca deposits go as high as 1.7 trillion barrels, or about twice as much as Saudi Arabia's conventional crude reserves. Syncrude has built a $5 billion production facility and two pipelines have already been proposed to transport the oil sands crude to midwestern US refineries. US refineries prize synthetic crude as excellent mixing stock. The major problem with oil sands is that unlike conventional oil, these reserves require an enormous amount of energy to exploit, which in turn means lots of foul air and greenhouse gases. There are many environmental unknowns, and without a clear management framework in sight the addition of two or three Syncrude-size operations has the potential to create a real and significant acid rain problem in the Western Canada Basin

  4. Diarréia em leitões lactentes por Clostridium perfringens tipo A em granjas tecnificadas nos estados de Minas Gerais e São Paulo Clostridium perfringens type A diarrhea in suckling piglets in industrial swine farms in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea in suckling piglets caused by Clostridium perfringens type A was diagnosed in industrial (technified swine farms of the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo (Brazil, based on isolation and identification of bacterium by biochemical tests, detection of alpha toxin in animal bioassays, and PCR. This seems to be the first report of clostridial enterotoxaemia in piglets by C. perfringens type A in Brazil and allowed specific procedures to control the disease.

  5. Comparative activity of some veterinary pharmaceutical products in swine dysentery

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina, T.Romeo; Villa, R.; Olimpia-Ines Lupu (Pauta),; Doma, A.

    2010-01-01

    One of the diseases that cause great damage in the pig breeding farms, Brachyspyra swine dysentery has a special importance because involve great losses both by growth failure and high mortality andsignificant costs to the prevention and control. The study was conducted in a swine farm in Timis County, where the disease was originally identified in autumn of year 2009. Cumulative adverse conditions have affected the rate of morbidity and mortality. Themost common clinical developments in the ...

  6. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  7. Ecological-photosynthetic system for the treatment of swine wastewater in farm; Proceso ecologico-fotosintetico para la depuracion de purines en grajas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran Barrantes, M. M.; Alvarez Mateos, P.; Carta Escobar, F.; Romero guzman, F. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Fiestas Ros de Ursinos, J. A. [Instituto de la Grasa. Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The Ecological-Photosynthetic System (Paten n. 8901368, C.S.I.C.) is a low cost process of operational simplicity; his only energetic source is solar radiation. It is based on the ecological development of different communities of microorganisms in order to avoid negative interactions between them, immobilized on clayey support. The present work went in pursuit of the study of an integral biological plant in a piggery farm, from October of 1993 to June of 1995. Its high purification performance and nil running costs make it ideal for treating waste water from small farms. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Disinfection effects of ultraviolet on supernatants of flocculated digestate from swine farm%猪场沼液絮凝上清液的紫外线杀菌效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同; 董红敏; 陶秀萍

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of microorganisms in the liquid digestate from a swine farm. The liquid digestate should be disinfected prior to discharge or utilization for sanitary and environmental safety, but there is a lack of literature on the disinfection of liquid digestate from animal feeding operations. In view of the high turbidity and chromaticity, the transmittance (T254) of liquid digestate from swine farm is nearly zero, and liquid digestate must be treated prior to ultraviolet disinfection. Flocculation was applied to pre-treat liquid digestate in this study in order to obtain supernatants with different transmittances (T254) for the following disinfecting trials. In terms of total bacteria count, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, experiments were conducted to investigate the disinfecting feasibility and the effectiveness of ultraviolet on the supernatants of flocculated digestate under 60 experimental conditions, which were formed by 4×3×5 factorial combinations of transmittances (T254) (0.01%, 0.69%, 3.78%and 8.54%), water depth (WD) (1, 2 and 3 cm), and hydraulic retention times (HRT) (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min). Results showed that T254, WD, and HRT all significantly affected (P<0.01) the disinfection effects of ultraviolet on the supernatants of flocculated digestate, and significant interactions (P<0.01) were also detected among the experimental factors. The disinfection rates of ultraviolet on total bacteria count, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms were (99.99±1.20)%, (99.99±1.43)%, and (100.00±0.01)%respectively, under the condition of 0.69%T254, 2 cm WD, and 15 min HRT. In such cases, the fecal coliforms in the supernatant of flocculated digestate decreased from 3.9×106 count/L to less than 3 count/L. Therefore, ultraviolet could be applied for the disinfection of the supernatants of flocculated digestate from swine farms, and the disinfected effluent could meet the sanitary requirements of the current national standards. It is

  9. Maternally Derived Immunity Extends Swine Influenza A Virus Persistence within Farrow-to-Finish Pig Farms: Insights from a Stochastic Event-Driven Metapopulation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cador, Charlie; Rose, Nicolas; Willem, Lander; Andraud, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Swine Influenza A Viruses (swIAVs) have been shown to persist in farrow-to-finish pig herds with repeated outbreaks in successive batches, increasing the risk for respiratory disorders in affected animals and being a threat for public health. Although the general routes of swIAV transmission (i.e. direct contact and exposure to aerosols) were clearly identified, the transmission process between batches is still not fully understood. Maternally derived antibodies (MDAs) were stressed as a possible factor favoring within-herd swIAV persistence. However, the relationship between MDAs and the global spread among the different subpopulations in the herds is still lacking. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the mechanisms induced by MDAs in relation with swIAV spread and persistence in farrow-to-finish pig herds. A metapopulation model has been developed representing the population dynamics considering two subpopulations—breeding sows and growing pigs—managed according to batch-rearing system. This model was coupled with a swIAV-specific epidemiological model, accounting for partial passive immunity protection in neonatal piglets and an immunity boost in re-infected animals. Airborne transmission was included by a between-room transmission rate related to the current prevalence of shedding pigs. Maternally derived partial immunity in piglets was found to extend the duration of the epidemics within their batch, allowing for efficient between-batch transmission and resulting in longer swIAV persistence at the herd level. These results should be taken into account in the design of control programmes for the spread and persistence of swIAV in swine herds. PMID:27662592

  10. Diversidad genética de cepas de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App aisladas desde planteles de producción intensiva de cerdos en Chile Genetic diversity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App strains in intensive swine farms in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Neira-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    strains were evaluated, isolated from 9 intensive swine farms distributed in Chile. These isolates were obtained from lungs of pigs with lesions of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia. All the strains were isolated during the years 2007, 2008 and 2009, by means of conventional bacteriology and confirmed by API. A multiplex PCR for Apx toxin genes was performed to differentiate the App serotypes. The results showed genotypes detected only for serotypes 4, 6 and 7, first described in Chile. The most frequently isolated was serotype 7. Also, there was no predominant serotype in the different geographical zones, except in the regions of O'Higgins and Biobío where it was most frequently isolated serotype 7. The present study is the first approach in order to know the distribution of App serotypes in Chile. Studies including greater numbers of farms and isolates per farm are necessary to know the real diversity of App serotypes and genotypes in Chilean swine production farms.

  11. A smart electricity policy for Alberta : enhancing the Alberta advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promotion of sustainable energy technologies under a competitive electricity market in Alberta was discussed. The electric power industry in Alberta is currently in a crisis with rising electricity prices. The government has tried to mitigate the impacts by providing large rebates to help ease the financial burden on consumers. The author argued that unless the fundamental causes of the problem are dealt with, Albertans will soon face even larger problems. This paper described a new approach to electricity sector planning in Alberta. In particular, the approach focused on conserving energy and improving energy efficiency as well as on increasing the use of low-impact renewable energy such as small hydro, wind, solar, geothermal, biomass and waste fuel generators and cogenerators. New policies would protect consumers from price and resource instability as well as from human health and environmental degradation. Additional policies would promote diversity in electricity supply and competition. Competition encourages electricity suppliers to work through market based mechanisms instead of government regulation or intervention. Competition in the electricity markets may also lead to increased customer choice, a larger number players in the electricity generation sector, and greater opportunities for trade. Increased competition may force producers to develop cost effective technologies that promote sustainable development to mitigate some environmental impacts. 3 tabs

  12. Real time detection of farm-level swine mycobacteriosis outbreak using time series modeling of the number of condemned intestines in abattoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Yasumoto; Makita, Kohei

    2015-09-01

    Mycobacteriosis in swine is a common zoonosis found in abattoirs during meat inspections, and the veterinary authority is expected to inform the producer for corrective actions when an outbreak is detected. The expected value of the number of condemned carcasses due to mycobacteriosis therefore would be a useful threshold to detect an outbreak, and the present study aims to develop such an expected value through time series modeling. The model was developed using eight years of inspection data (2003 to 2010) obtained at 2 abattoirs of the Higashi-Mokoto Meat Inspection Center, Japan. The resulting model was validated by comparing the predicted time-dependent values for the subsequent 2 years with the actual data for 2 years between 2011 and 2012. For the modeling, at first, periodicities were checked using Fast Fourier Transformation, and the ensemble average profiles for weekly periodicities were calculated. An Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model was fitted to the residual of the ensemble average on the basis of minimum Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The sum of the ARIMA model and the weekly ensemble average was regarded as the time-dependent expected value. During 2011 and 2012, the number of whole or partial condemned carcasses exceeded the 95% confidence interval of the predicted values 20 times. All of these events were associated with the slaughtering of pigs from three producers with the highest rate of condemnation due to mycobacteriosis. PMID:25913899

  13. Assessment of the efficacy and quality of evidence for five on-farm interventions for Salmonella reduction in grow-finish swine: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Barbara; Rajić, Andrijana; Parker, Sarah; Waddell, Lisa; Sanchez, Javier; Fazil, Aamir; Wilkins, Wendy; McEwen, Scott A

    2012-11-01

    Five on-farm practices for reduction of Salmonella shedding or sero-prevalence in grow-finish swine were selected through scoping study and expert consultation. Specific examples were selected based on supporting evidence from at least one controlled trial (CT), and availability to Canadian swine producers. Efficacy was evaluated using systematic review and meta-analysis (SR-MA) methodology. A modified Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was applied to assess the quality of evidence for each intervention, and a 'summary of findings' table was developed to present findings 'at-a-glance'. MA of the small dataset of CTs investigating feeding meal, and measuring serology, yielded a significant summary estimate of efficacy (odds ratio (OR)=0.21; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.14, 0.31) with non-significant heterogeneity (P>0.10). MA of the dataset investigating inclusion of organic acids in the ration, measuring serology, yielded a significant summary estimate with significant heterogeneity across studies (PSalmonella spp. vaccination contained inconsistent findings (OR Range: 4.5 (1.3, 15); 0.07 (0.008, 0.68)), with significant heterogeneity across studies (P=0.005, I(2)=82), assessed measuring fecal culture. MA of the dataset investigating inclusion of in-feed tetracyclines yielded a significant OR indicating a potential harmful effect, measuring fecal culture, (OR Range: 14 (1.9, 108); 1.0 (0.43, 2.5)) with significant heterogeneity (P=0.003, I(2)=82%) across studies, suggesting some potential for withdrawal of in-feed tetracyclines to reduce Salmonella shedding. Therefore our ranking of intervention efficacy is: feeding meal>inclusion of acids in ration, feeder pen disinfection or Salmonella spp. vaccination>in-feed tetrayclines. Study design characteristics increasing risk of bias, including failure to justify sample size (19 of 31 studies) and failure to report random or systematic sampling (13 of 31 studies), resulted in

  14. Screening of Dual Resistant Strains of Antibiotic and Heavy Metal from Swine Farm Effluent%养猪废水中重金属-抗生素双抗菌的筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽金; 郭海珊; 谢秀祯

    2015-01-01

    In order to screen cross-resistant strains of heavy metals and antibiotics(H-B), dominant strains were isolated from swine farm effluent collected in the suburb of Haikou. 10 strains with dual resistance of antibiotic and heavy metal were screened from the colonies growing on cross H-B agar medium. Among them, strain 7# is the most resistant one, it could grow on 11 H-B media, and others have different performances on different H-B media. The results showed that most of dominant bacteria are resistant to tetracycline hydrochloride, sulfadimidine, bacitracin zinc, NaAsO2 resistant, CuCl2, ZnSO4· 7H2O, which are the most regularly used in swine feed supplements. It reflects that the adaptation and microevolution have been taking place in the bacteria under long-term coselective pressure of heavy metals and antibiotics.%为了筛选重金属-抗生素双抗菌,从海口市郊某养猪场养猪废水中分离优势菌,将优势菌株涂布在二元交叉抗性试验培养基上,观察菌株生长情况。结果显示,从养猪废水中分离出的优势菌共有10株,其中7#菌株能在11种交叉抗性板上生长,是交叉抗性最多的菌。其他菌株对不同交叉培养基有不同的抗性结果。结果表明,筛选出的优势菌中,大多数对养猪业最常用的饲料添加剂盐酸四环素、磺胺二甲嘧啶、杆菌肽锌、NaAsO2、CuCl2、ZnSO4·7H2O产生抗性;这是微生物长期处于抗生素和重金属微污染环境下产生适应和微进化的结果。

  15. A retailer's perspective on generation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several reasons for a retailer to invest in power generation. This investment acts as a risk management hedge against fixed price retail load, while improving competitiveness in illiquid wholesale markets. Investing in power generation leverages the retailer's wholesale trading capabilities. It also provides appropriate returns. Some of the factors that ensure the success of a retailer investing in power generation are low cost structure, low risk, strong forward commodity market, owners with large healthy balance sheets, and willingness to finance projects entirely with equity. A cost comparison was presented for different generation technologies. ENMAX chose to invest in wind power since the costs were comparable to that of other technologies. In addition, green credits will lower the cost of wind power. With low environmental impacts and no fuel risk, wind energy fitted ENMAX's retail strategy. Green power at ENMAX (GREENMAX) was the first to implement a Green Power Residential program in 1998, followed by the Green Power Commercial program in 2000. The author discussed the McBride Lake Wind Farm located near Fort MacLeod, Alberta. figs

  16. 规模化猪场种猪猪瘟免疫方式和剂量的探讨%Immunity Method and Dose of Breeding Pigs against Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) on Large-scale Pig Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗才庆

    2012-01-01

      对福建某公司2010年、2011年“一刀切”免疫(一年春、秋各免疫1次,每头每次免疫剂量1.5头份猪瘟兔化弱毒脾淋苗)的4561份种猪血清样品采用 HerdChek 猪瘟抗体检测试剂盒进行抗体检测,评价种猪猪瘟免疫效果,保证猪瘟免疫合格率达到80%以上,为规模化猪场种猪进行猪瘟免疫提供科学依据.结果显示:2010年、2011年种猪抗体检测合格率为86.70%、84.32%,对抗体不合格种猪再一次加强免疫后抗体检测总合格率91.28%、89.74%.由此表明:种猪猪瘟全群采用“一刀切”免疫猪瘟兔化弱毒脾淋苗,可以起到良好的免疫效果%  To evaluate the status of the immunity in breeding pigs against classical swine fever virus (CSFV), en-sure that the satisfactory levels of immunity was higher than 80% and provide a scientific basis for the immunity in breeding pigs against CSFV on the large-scale pig farms, 4561 serum samples from a large-scale pig farms in Fu-jian were collected and tested by HerdChek ELISA , which were immunized by "impose uniformity" method. The breeding pigs immunized with the HCLV bovine testis Lymph tissue origin vaccine at dose of 1.5ml/sow/time, ev-ery year twice on spring and autumn respectively. The results showed that the satisfactory levels of antibodies a-gainst CSFV in 2011 and 2012 were 86.70% and 84.32%, respectively. After immunizing once again to the unsat-isfactory levels of antibodies of breeding pigs, the total satisfactory levels of antibodies were 91.28% and 89.74%, respectively. The primary result reveals that the breeding herd immunized with the HCLV bovine testis Lymph tis-sue origin vaccine by "impose uniformity" method could play a good immune effect.

  17. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain ST398 is present in midwestern U.S. swine and swine workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara C Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent research has demonstrated that many swine and swine farmers in the Netherlands and Canada are colonized with MRSA. However, no studies to date have investigated carriage of MRSA among swine and swine farmers in the United States (U.S.. METHODS: We sampled the nares of 299 swine and 20 workers from two different production systems in Iowa and Illinois, comprising approximately 87,000 live animals. MRSA isolates were typed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using SmaI and EagI restriction enzymes, and by multi locus sequence typing (MLST. PCR was used to determine SCCmec type and presence of the pvl gene. RESULTS: In this pilot study, overall MRSA prevalence in swine was 49% (147/299 and 45% (9/20 in workers. The prevalence of MRSA carriage among production system A's swine varied by age, ranging from 36% (11/30 in adult swine to 100% (60/60 of animals aged 9 and 12 weeks. The prevalence among production system A's workers was 64% (9/14. MRSA was not isolated from production system B's swine or workers. Isolates examined were not typeable by PFGE when SmaI was used, but digestion with EagI revealed that the isolates were clonal and were not related to common human types in Iowa (USA100, USA300, and USA400. MLST documented that the isolates were ST398. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that colonization of swine by MRSA was very common on one swine production system in the midwestern U.S., suggesting that agricultural animals could become an important reservoir for this bacterium. MRSA strain ST398 was the only strain documented on this farm. Further studies are examining carriage rates on additional farms.

  18. CBM split title in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Laurin, W.

    2006-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) coal underlies most of central and southern Alberta. This article discussed disputes surrounding CBM ownership and split-titles. Historically, ownership of lands in Alberta implied possession and rights of all under- and overground substances. Surface estates are now typically separated from the subsurface estate, and subsurface estates are further divided either on the basis of substances or stratigraphically to create a split-title. Mineral severances are used to separate respective mineral rights among owners. While there is a relative certainty that under provincial Crown tenure CBM is included in natural gas tenure, there is currently no Canadian jurisprudence in respect of CBM entitlement on split-title private lands. Where compressed natural gas (CNG) and coal are separately held, and CBM ownership is not specifically addressed in the mineral severance, there is no Canadian law respecting CBM ownership. Resolution of ownership issues has proceeded on a case by case basis. Coal owners argue that there is a distinct interrelationship between CBM and its host coal strata. Gas owners argue that the chemical composition of CBM is identical to CNG, and that the recovery method is similar to that of CNG. Courts have historically applied the vernacular test to resolve mineral substance ownership disputes, which considers the meanings of the word coal and coalbed methane as defined by industry. The most recent and relevant application of the vernacular test were the Borys/Anderson, which effectively implemented a gas-oil interface ownership determination, which if applied to a coal grant or reservation, may lead to the conclusion that the coal strata includes CBM. It was concluded that there are 26,000 individual mineral owners in Alberta that may become involved in CBM litigation. and could become parties to litigation. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Is Alberta's gas running out?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of Alberta's natural gas resources were reviewed and according to certain groups of experts reserves and resources were found to be less plentiful than generally believed. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) also reported that gas reserves in non-frontier areas declined by 1.8% lat year, to 67.4 trillion cubic feet. It was estimated that this supply would last for 13 years. The National Energy Board (NEB) indicated that thousands of Alberta's unconnected pools may not be economical to develop. The CAPP annual reserves report also indicated that average gas pools found in recent times were only one quarter of the size of gas pools found before 1980. It was argued by this same group of experts that low gas prices, particularly for Alberta exports, have made drilling uneconomical, while others maintained that price fluctuations must be accepted as part of selling a commodity that is marketed world-wide. Ed Wolf, an independent geologist, estimated that gas prices,factoring in environmental costs, should be increased to $4 per mcf to justify exporting Canadian natural gas. However, others have argued that reserve figures have been underestimated. As proof of that they point to the fact that there is no shortage of investment capital; exploration and production activities, funded by investment, would not continue if natural gas production were not cost-effective. The Ziff Energy Group estimated that discovered and frontier reserves total 426 tcf, or 65 years' supply, excluding tight gas from low porosity formations which have been estimated to provide up to 300 years of supply at current levels of demand. As well, new technologies have improved the industry's ability to find new reserves. The debate between economic nationalists and free marketeers continues

  20. Alberta Associations for Bright Children Members' Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Association for Bright Children, Edmonton.

    This handbook is designed to provide information to parents of gifted children in Alberta, Canada. The handbook outlines the mission and objectives of the Alberta Associations for Bright Children and describes the structure of the non-profit organization. The booklet then addresses: (1) the characteristics of gifted children; (2) the rights of…

  1. Interaction between mycotoxins and causative agents of swine infective diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanov-Radulović Jasna Z.; Došen Radoslav Đ.; Stojanov Igor M.; Pušić Ivan M.; Živkov-Baloš Milica M.; Ratajac Radomir D.

    2011-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can contaminate animal feeds at all stages of food production chain. Consumption of feed contaminated with mycotoxins may result in immunosuppression, which represents a predisposing factor for occurence of infectious diseases in livestock. The influence on immune system is of special interest in swine industry. The technology on swine farms demands frequent vaccinations, which may be a problem in the case of immunocompromised animals. ...

  2. A seroepidemiologic study of Reston ebolavirus in swine in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayama Yusuke

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola viruses cause viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates and are endemic in Africa. Reston ebolavirus (REBOV has caused several epizootics in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis but is not associated with any human disease. In late 2008, REBOV infections were identified in swine for the first time in the Philippines. Methods A total of 215 swine sera collected at two REBOV-affected farms in 2008, in Pangasinan and Bulacan, were tested for the presence of REBOV-specific antibodies using multiple serodiagnosis systems. A total of 98 swine sera collected in a non-epizootic region, Tarlac, were also tested to clarify the prevalence of REBOV infection in the general swine population in the Philippines. Results Some 70 % of swine sera at the affected farms were positive for REBOV antibodies in the multiple serodiagnosis systems. On the other hand, none of the swine sera collected in Tarlac showed positive reactions in any of the diagnosis systems. Conclusions The high prevalence of REBOV infection in swine in the affected farms in 2008 suggests that swine is susceptible for REBOV infection. The multiple serological assays used in the study are thought to be useful for future surveillance of REOBV infection in swine in the Philippines.

  3. Microbiological Water Quality Assessment of Watershed Associated with Swine Production in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Catarina State has the largest pig producers in Brazil and its West region has the highest concentration of swine production. Diagnostic assessment conducted by Embrapa Swine and Poultry Scientists in 2003 reported that more than 90% of 3,821 pig farms didn't have the required environmental li...

  4. Los roedores como reservorios de Leptospiras en planteles porcinos de la zona central cafetera de Colombia Rodents as Leptospira reservoirs at swine farms of the central coffee growers area of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. GIRALDO DE LEÓN

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la positividad a leptospirosis en roedores silvestres capturados en explotaciones porcícolas de la zona central cafetera de Colombia, utilizando trampas Sherman para atraparlos vivos. Se capturaron 75 ejemplares en 12 de 16 porcícolas, por lo cual se considera que la infestación por roedores es alta en la región. Clasificados los roedores, se halló como especie modal R. rattus y en menor proporción R. novergicus y M. musculus. Una alta proporción de los roedores fue hallada positiva a leptospira, tanto por microscopía de campo oscuro como por cultivo, siendo esta última técnica más eficiente para el diagnóstico. Adicionalmente, se encontró una prevalencia puntual de infección por leptospiras, en la orina, mayor que la obtenida por serología (MAT. En cuanto a los resultados de la vísceras, se encontró que la probabilidad de un diagnóstico positivo por visualización directa fue: pulmón 0.307, hígado 0.221 y riñón 0.211, mientras que la probabilidad de positivos por cultivo fue: riñón 0.300, hígado 0.260 y pulmón 0.227. Se concluye del estudio que la alta infestación por roedores en el área de estudio es un factor de riesgo para la infección por leptospiras, tanto para animales domésticos como para humanos, y que los productores de cerdos se deben esforzar al máximo para controlar esta plaga de severo impacto económico y sanitarioThe positivity to leptospirosis in wild rodents, captured at swine farms from the central coffee growers area of Colombia, by mean of Sherman traps was investigated. Seventy five rats and mice were trapped at 12 out of 16 farms, which indicates that rodents's infestation at the area is high. Once the rodents were classified, the specie R. rattus was found more frequently than R. norvegicus and musculus. A high proportion of the rodents was found Leptospira positive by dark field examination, as well as by cultivation, being this last technique more efficient for the diagnosis

  5. 规模化猪场肺炎支原体、鼻支原体与蓝耳病病毒感染情况调查%Investigation on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasmahyorhins and PRRSV Infections in Large-scale Swine Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于淼; 王洪利; 王新福; 王涛; 王克伟; 于江; 张玉玉; 韩红; 吴家强

    2015-01-01

    [目的]为分析猪肺炎支原体(MHP)、猪鼻支原体(MHR)与猪蓝耳病病毒(PRRSV)在临床感染中的相互关系。[方法]对从山东省规模化猪场收集的213份疑似病料进行PRRSV、MHP和MHR的检测,结合猪场的免疫背景对结果进行分析。[结果]发现在猪肺炎支原体免疫猪场,猪肺炎支原体感染比例显著降低,而在猪肺炎支原体非免疫猪场,猪鼻支原体与猪肺炎支原体、猪蓝耳病病毒的混合感染率极高。无论在肺炎支原体免疫场还是非免疫场,猪蓝耳病病毒与猪鼻支原体的混合感染率,都超过了猪蓝耳病病毒与猪肺炎支原体的混合感染率。[结论]PRRSV与MHP和MHR之间有着密切的关系,除猪肺炎支原体外,猪鼻支原体目前已成为危害养猪业的又一重要因素。%Objective] In order to analysis the relationship of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae(MHP)、Mycoplasma-hyorhins(MHR)and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV)in clinical infection. [Method] A total of 213 suspected samples were collected from large-scale swine farms in Shandong province and MHP,MHR and PRRSV were detected by PCR. The detection reports were analyzed on the basis of immunization background of swine herds. [Result] The results showed that positive rate of MHP infection reduced largely in the vaccinated swine herds. The mixed infection rate of MHP,MHR and PRRSV was very high in the non-vaccinated swine herds. The mixed infection rate of MHR and PRRSV was higher than that of MHP and PRRSV whether in the vaccinated or non-vaccinated swine herds. [Conclusion] Those results indicated that MHR had become another important factor threaten-ing pig industry.

  6. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Zhou; Jining Zhang; Guoyan Zou; Shohei Riya; Masaaki Hosomi

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD) system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT) and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure trea...

  7. National Swine Genetic Improvement: An overview of essential program components and organizational structure needed for success

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John; MABRY

    2005-01-01

    The swine industry in China is a thrivingand evolving industry that has shown phenome-nal growth over the past10years.Newand mod-ern swine farms have been started in locationsacross the country.Genetics has been importedfrom many different countries in an effort to up-grade the quality and efficiency of the traditionalbreeds of swine.But to insure long term successand viability in a worldwide competitive industrysuch as pork,there is need for a National SwineGenetic Improvement Program.This programneeds to ...

  8. Vacuum pyrolysis of swine manure : biochar production and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Godbout, S.; Larouche, J.P.; Lemay, S.P.; Pelletier, F. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Solomatnikova, O. [Centre de recherche industrielle du Quebec, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Brar, S.K. [Inst. national de la recherche scientifique, eau, terre et environnement, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Quebec accounts for nearly 25 per cent of swine production in Canada. The issue of swine manure is addressed through land spreading and conversion into fertilizer. However, current regulations restrict the use of swine manure as fertilizer on most farmlands due to the problem of surplus phosphorus and nitrogen. Although many technologies exist to separate phosphorus and nitrogen from the organic-rich dry matter in swine manure, about 40 per cent of the treated waste matter must still be disposed in an environmentally sound manner. This study investigated the technical feasibility of pretreating the swine manure solids into biofuels on a farm-scale basis using vacuum pyrolysis process. A custom built stainless steel pressure vessel was used to carry out pyrolysis reaction of swine manure biomass at a temperature range between 200 to 600 degrees C under vacuum. The pyrolytic vapour was condensed in 2 glass condensers in series. The biochar was collected directly from the pyrolysis vessel following completion of the pyrolysis batch. The non condensable vapour and gases were considered as losses. Biochar, bio-oil, an aqueous phase and a gas mixture were the 4 products of the pyrolysis process. A thermogravimetric analysis of the swine manure samples was conducted before the pyrolysis tests. The study showed that 238 degrees C is the optimal pyrolysis temperature for biochar production.

  9. Fertilizing cotton with P recovered from swine wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from waste on swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) farms. Our objective was to compare this recovered P to triple superphosphate and broiler litter for soil availability, leaching, and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plant P concentration. A...

  10. The Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Crewdson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Southern Alberta Information Resources (SAIR is a collaborative bibliography of published resources significant to southern Alberta. Objectives and progress with evolving methodology, technology, issues and challenges are explored within the context of the library field. We investigate a collaborative digital library that allows librarians and non-librarians alike to share information on specific topics through MARC records. An outcome of a collaborative digital library is how to create and sustain interest within the library community. Southern Alberta region was selected based on the authors’ familiarity with the region. Some issues and questions remain to be resolved. Digital formats present a number of challenges in terms of selection and presentation. Legal issues relating to technology such as linking and location information have emerged. Basic technical issues remain, such as, how best to update links.

  11. Alberta producers' gas export prices slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Alberta gas producers have approved a new contract with California buyers that includes slightly lower wellhead prices and more flexible pricing terms. The 1 year agreement, will apply a flexible price formula to gas sales. A basic volume of 212 MMcfd will receive $1.52 (U.S.)/Mcf. A and S also will buy 200 MMcfd at prices paid for other Alberta gas in the California market. It will have the right to buy added volumes at prices indexed to gas sold into California from the U.S. Southwest. Ballots cast by producers were to be verified by regulatory agencies in Alberta and British Columbia. The more flexible price terms in the new contract are seen as a positive development for negotiations in a dispute over long term contracts

  12. Swine flu in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2009-01-01

    Emerging swine flu (variant H1N1 influenza virus infection)is a new problem in medicine.The outbreaks in Mexico,USA and Canada bring attention to medical scientists that thing infection might finalize in the global pandemic situation.In this specific paper,the author hereby discusses on the situation of swine flu in Asia.

  13. Energy Alberta 1994: A review of Alberta energy resources in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of Alberta's energy industry for the year 1994 was provided. Included in the review were remarks from the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) co-chairmen and the chairman for the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB). Changes in the direction of energy regulations were highlighted, followed by a review of production, reserves, sales, markets and other business information for the year 1994. Activities of ERCB undertaken to regulate Alberta's energy resources, including environmental regulation, were summarized for all sectors. An accounting of revenues and expenditures of the Board during the fiscal year ending March 31, 1994 were also provided

  14. Alberta report says airborne sulphur may reduce fertility in dairy cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-03-01

    According to a new report from the University of Alberta airborne sulphur in the gas from sour gas plants may reduce fertility levels in dairy cattle. The report found no differences in mortality rates or milk production levels in dairy herds located near sour gas plants or far away from them, but there was evidence that dairy heifers on farms near sour-gas plants took longer to have their first calf, or for adult cows to become pregnant again. No similar effects were observed in beef cattle. The debate over the effects of sour gas on human and animal health has been going on for some 30 years with sometimes contradictory results. Recent regulations by the Alberta government require the oil industry to reduce flaring by 25 per cent. Beef industry experts acknowledge that the oil industry is complying with the new rules, nevertheless, public concern about sour gas continues unabated.

  15. Update on the Alberta Surface Rights Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, C.J. [Surface Rights Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    The difference between surface and mineral rights in Alberta was defined. Surface rights give ownership of the surface of the land and the right to work it. Mineral rights, on the other hand, give ownership and the right to explore and develop or extract minerals beneath the surface. Oil and gas are the most common minerals in Alberta, however, gold, silver, uranium and salt are also included under mineral rights. Sand, gravel, clay, marl and peat, are excluded. The conditions which apply to the mineral owner`s right to explore and develop were summarized. Some case studies of appeals to the court regarding mineral and surface right were presented as illustrations.

  16. CNPC, Alberta Ink Deal to Boost Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Keyu

    1996-01-01

    @@ At the invitation of the Provincial Government of Alberta, Canada, a petroleum delegation led by Vice President of China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) Zhou Yongkang arrived in Calgary, a petroleum city in Canada, on June 8,1996 for a one-week visit.

  17. Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Kathy; Ettrich, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The Alberta K-12 ESL Proficiency Benchmarks are organized by division: kindergarten, grades 1-3, grades 4-6, grades 7-9, and grades 10-12. They are descriptors of language proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The descriptors are arranged in a continuum of seven language competences across five proficiency levels. Several…

  18. Erros de anotações na elaboração de índices de produção em granjas industriais de suínos no Sul do Brasil The human effect on data collection of birth-related production indices in Brazilian swine industrial farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Schneider

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas observações em quatro granjas de suinocultura industrial nas 24 horas do dia, registrando-se o número de fetos mumificados, de natimortos, de nascidos vivos e total segundo as observações feitas por funcionários da granja (FUN e por pesquisadores (AO. Foram também registrados resultados de um número semelhante de anotações das mesmas características no período imediatamente anterior à pesquisa, obtidas dos relatórios das granjas. Verificaram-se diferenças entre as avaliações dos FUN e dos AO quanto aos registros dos mumificados e total de nascidos em todas as granjas (PObservational studies were carried out in four industrial swine farms. The observations were performed on a 24 hours basis and mummified fetuses, stillborn and born alive piglets were recorded by observers (OB and by employees (EM. In all farms, it was also obtained a retrospective data previous to the observational study period, comprising the same number of farrowings. Differences among mummified fetuses and total born piglets recorded by OB and EM in all farms (P<0.05 were observed. The recorded number of stillborn piglets differed between OB and EM in three farms (P<0.05 and the number of born alive piglets in one unit (P<0.05. In all farms during the analysis period, the maximal percentage of recorded mummified fetuses, stillborn, born alive and total born piglets, were 67.8%, 34.5%, 1.8% and 5.1%, respectively. The comparison of retrospective and EM data showed a maximal percentage of not recorded mummified fetuses, stillborn, born alive and total born piglets by EM of 70.4%, 82.1%, 10.5% e 16.5%, respectively. These errors can induce to a wrong interpretation of the farm data and the efforts to maximize the productivity could be directed to other sectors than the farrowing house.

  19. Factors associated with participation of Alberta dairy farmers in a voluntary, management-based Johne's disease control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Kwong, G P S; Wolf, R; Pickel, C; Slomp, M; Flaig, J; Mason, S; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Jansen, J; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2015-11-01

    The Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI) is a voluntary, management-based prevention and control program for Johne's disease (JD), a wasting disease in ruminants that causes substantial economic losses to the cattle industry. Despite extensive communication about the program's benefits and low cost to participating producers, approximately 35% of Alberta dairy farmers have not enrolled in the AJDI. Therefore, the objective was to identify differences between AJDI nonparticipants and participants that may influence enrollment. Standardized questionnaires were conducted in person on 163 farms not participating and 61 farms participating in the AJDI. Data collected included demographic characteristics, internal factors (e.g., attitudes and beliefs of the farmer toward JD and the AJDI), external factors (e.g., farmers' JD knowledge and on-farm goals and constraints), as well as farmers' use and influence of various information sources. Nonparticipants and participants differed in at least some aspects of all studied categories. Based on logistic regression, participating farms had larger herds, higher self-assessed knowledge of JD, better understanding of AJDI details before participation, and used their veterinarian more often to get information about new management practices and technologies when compared with nonparticipants. In contrast, nonparticipants indicated that time was a major on-farm constraint and that participation in the AJDI would take too much time. They also indicated that they preferred to wait and see how the program worked on other farms before they participated. PMID:26342983

  20. Swine Fecal Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metagenomic approaches are providing rapid and more robust means to investigate the composition and functional genetic potential of complex microbial communities. In this study, we utilized a metagenomic approach to further understand the functional diversity of the swine gut. To...

  1. Prevalence and Abundance of Florfenicol and Linezolid Resistance Genes in Soils Adjacent to Swine Feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Zheng; Du, Xiang-Dang; Jiang, Haiyang; Xia, Xi; Shen, Zhangqi; Ding, Shuangyang; Wu, Congming; Zhou, Bingrui; Wu, Yongning; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Florfenicol is extensively used in livestock to prevent or cure bacterial infections. However, it is not known whether the administration of florfenicol has resulted in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance genes (FRGs, including fexA, fexB, cfr, optrA, floR, and pexA) in microbial populations in surrounding farm environments. Here we collected soil samples for the detection of FRGs and the residue of florfenicol from six swine farms with the record of florfenicol usage. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing revealed a significantly higher relative abundance of FRGs in the soils adjacent to the three swine farms where florfenicol was heavily used compared with the other sites. Meanwhile, the detectable levels of florfenicol were also identified in soils from two of these three farms using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. It appears that amount of florfenicol used on swine farms and the spreading of soils with swine waste could promote the prevalence and abundance of FRGs, including the linezolid resistance genes cfr and optrA, in adjacent soils, and agricultural application of swine manure with florfenicol may have caused a residual level of florfenicol in the soils. PMID:27573068

  2. Insights from social network analysis are helping to build understanding of African Swine Fever epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Lichoti, Jacqueline K.; Davies, Jocelyn; Okoth, Edward; Maru, Yiheyis; Bishop, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pig movements are likely to play a signficant role in the spread of important infectious diseases such as the African Swine Fever. Characterization of movement networks from farm-to-farm and through other types of farm or household operations can provide useful information on the role that networks play in acquiring and spreading infectious diseases. Analysis of social networks that underpin these pig movements can also reveal structures that are important in the transmission of disease, trad...

  3. SWINE '95 PART I: REFERENCE OF 1995 SWINE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Eric J.

    1995-01-01

    This report is the first of a three-part release of national information from the second National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) swine study, the Swine '95 Grower/Finisher. The first national study, 1990 National Swine Survey, focused on farrowing sows and preweaning piglets. For the Swine '95 Study, the USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collaborated with Veterinary Services (VS) to select a producer sample that was statistically designed to provide inferences to...

  4. Farmers' preferences for water policy reforms: Results from a survey in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Bjornlund, H.; Klein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Facing increasingly urgent stress on global water scarcity, many reforms have been launched in countries around the world. As the biggest group of natural resource managers, farmers' behaviour is drawing increasingly wide attention. Satisfying new demands for water will depend on farmers' support since, generally, water will need to be transferred from farmers who have historically secure rights. Although water pricing reform is widely considered to lead to water conservation, the uncertainty of its potential impacts hinders the process of reform. This farmer-level empirical research explores farmers' possible responses to introduction of reforms in water pricing. A survey was conducted of about 300 farm households that use water for irrigating crops in Southern Alberta, an area that is facing water shortages and has had to stop issuing new water licences. By using structural equation modelling, the strength and direction of direct and indirect relationships between external, internal and behavioural variables as proposed in general attitude theory have been estimated. Farming as a family engagement, family members' and family unit's characteristics doubtlessly affect farming practice and farm decisions. Farmers' behaviour was explored under the family and farm context. In developing and testing conceptual models that integrate socio-demographic, psychological, farming context and social milieu factors, we may develop a deeper understanding of farmers' behaviour. The findings and recommendations will be beneficial for environmental practitioners and policy makers.

  5. Longitudinal Study of Salmonella Dispersion and the Role of Environmental Contamination in Commercial Swine Production Systems▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dorr, Paul M.; Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zewde, Bayleyegn Molla; Fry, Pamela; Thakur, Siddhartha; Wondwossen A Gebreyes

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of various environmental sources, such as truck-washing systems, waste-processing lagoons, and other sources, as potential contributors to the exposure and dissemination of Salmonella in commercial swine production systems. Four cohorts of nursery age swine herds which originated from distinct farm flows were selected. In addition, cross-sectional sampling of four truck wash stations selected based on the types of disinfectants and sources of water used for s...

  6. Short communication: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk of dairy cows and effect of swine population density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, C; Cremonesi, P; Bertocchi, L; Zanoni, M G; Barberio, A; Drigo, I; Varisco, G; Castiglioni, B; Bronzo, V; Moroni, P

    2016-03-01

    The methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently frequently been reported in dairy cattle, usually with low prevalence. The livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) ST398 is especially involved in cases of subclinical and clinical mastitis. Swine carry LA-MRSA without clinical symptoms and are considered its reservoir and shedder. People exposed to swine are particularly at risk of LA-MRSA colonization. Environments with relevant livestock density are a demonstrated risk factor for humans to be carriers of a LA-MRSA. This work investigated dairy farms located in an area with a high livestock density, mainly represented by swine. Bulk tank milk samples from 224 dairy farms were collected, and their status was defined as MRSA-positive or MRSA-negative based on culture on chromogenic medium. The number of fattening swine and of fattening swine herds was calculated in an area of 3 km around each dairy farm through georeferencing. The probability of a Staphylococcus aureus-positive dairy farm to be MRSA positive based on the extent of potential infective pressure due to swine density was calculated. Both the number of swine herds and the number of swine were associated with the MRSA status of dairy herds. The 9 MRSA isolated were typed by multi-locus sequence typing and spa-typing, and characterized for their virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance profiles. The ST and spa-types detected are consistent with those present in the Italian swine population. Virulence and resistance profiles are mostly consistent with the types detected. This work provides the first evidence of the epidemiological challenge exerted by the density of the swine population on MRSA in dairy cows. PMID:26805972

  7. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a 15 month assessment of Alberta's new competitive electricity market. It also presents lessons that Ontario customers could learn from Alberta's experience. The goal for restructuring is to achieve lower electricity prices, competitive retail markets, increased flexibility of contracts, and to remove investment risks from consumers. Alberta's restructured market includes power generation, high voltage transmission, low voltage transmission and retail sales. Economists agree that deregulation has brought lower prices and other consumer benefits despite some imperfections. After one year, prices in Alberta have gone down from $130/MWh to $30/MWh. Power supply has increased along with demand response, market competitiveness, liquidity, and thermal and economic efficiency. In 2001, Alberta was a net exporter of electricity. In 2001, it was ranked by the Center for Advancement of Energy Markets (CAEM) which ranks states and provinces by 22 attributes for how they are restructuring their power markets. Alberta ranked first overall in North America. Ontario ranked sixteenth. 4 tabs., 5 figs

  8. Status of woodland caribou in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edmonds

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of woodland caribou {Rangifer tarandus caribou status in Alberta estimated that there are between 3600 and 6700 caribou occupying 113 000 km2 of habitat. There are two ecotypes of caribou in Alberta; the mountain ecotype in the west central region and the boreal ecotype primarily in the north. Mountain caribou populations are stable or declining and boreal populations, where data are available, appear to be stable or declining slowly. A major initiative in caribou management in Alberta has been the development of the Woodland Caribou Conservation Strategy. This document was developed over two and a half years by a committee of multi-stakeholder representatives. The past five years has seen an increase in baseline inventory and applied research jointly funded by government, industry and universities, addressing a wide range of management issues from caribou response to logging to interactions of moose, wolves and caribou in the boreal ecosystem. Land use conflicts on caribou range remain high with timber harvesting, oil and gas development, peat moss extraction, coal mining, agricultural expansion and increasing road access overlapping. Cumulative effects of these disturbances are poorly understood and have received little attention to date.

  9. Short communication: Herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is not associated with participation in a voluntary Alberta Johne's disease control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, C; Wolf, R; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Pickel, C; Mason, S; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2016-03-01

    Johne's disease (JD) control programs for dairy farms have the general objective of reducing both cow- and herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). An important aspect of many programs is herd testing for MAP to determine the infection status of participating farms. However, it is uncertain whether MAP herd-level prevalence on farms voluntarily participating in a JD control program is different from that on nonparticipating farms. Therefore, the aim was to compare MAP infection status of participants and nonparticipants in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI), a voluntary JD control program initiated in 2010 in Alberta, Canada. Between September 2012 and August 2013, environmental fecal samples were collected from 93 randomly selected farms not enrolled in the AJDI. Additionally, 81 farms that initially enrolled in the AJDI during the same time interval were also sampled. Samples were collected from 6 defined locations on each farm and cultured for MAP. Results were confirmed using conventional IS900 PCR and F 0285 quantitative PCR. Overall, 51% of participating and 51% of nonparticipating farms were identified as being MAP-infected. Furthermore, based on multivariable logistic regression, the number of MAP-positive samples was not associated with AJDI participation (taking herd size into account as a potentially modifying or confounding variable). In conclusion, there was no indication that voluntary participation in the AJDI was associated with herd-level MAP prevalence.

  10. Thermochemical conversion of livestock wastes: carbonization of swine solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, K S; Cantrell, K B; Hunt, P G; Ducey, T F; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A

    2009-11-01

    Slow pyrolysis or carbonization promotes the conversion of animal manures such as swine manure into charcoal. In this paper, the carbonizing kinetics of swine solids taken from different treatment stages were investigated with a thermogravimetric analyzer. Compared to their biologically stabilized counterpart (lagoon sludge) with an activation energy of 160 kJ mol(-1), the activation energies for fresh swine solid samples such as homogenized flushed manure and dewatered solids were much lower between 92 and 95 kJ mol(-1). Compared to the kinetics of first order decomposition of cellulose, the pyrolytic decomposition of the swine manures were more complex with the reaction orders varying at 3.7 and 5.0. The two different mathematical methods employed in this paper yielded the similar values of activation energy (E) and pre-exponential factor (A), confirming the validity of these methods. The results of this study provide useful information for development of farm-scale swine solid carbonization process. PMID:19442517

  11. Molecular diagnostics of swine infection caused by Mycoplasma suis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potkonjak Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two types of haemoplasm can be established in the swine population. Pathogenic haemoplasm, named Mycoplasma suis (previously called Eperythrozoon suis is the cause of swine eperythrozoonosis or swine ichtheroanaemia. The cause of this disease can also infect humans. The disease has spread all over the world. The most frequent form is latent infection of swine caused by M. suis. The disease is clinically manifest following action by the stress factor. The acute course of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of a febrile condition and ichtheroanaemia. The disease is usually diagnosed based on an epizootiological poll, a clinical examination, and a microscopic examination of a blood smear stained most often according to Giemsa. Contemporary methods of molecular biology have been developed, such as PCR, which are more sensitive and specific in making a diagnosis of swine infection caused by M. suis. In these investigations, the presence of M. suis on pig farms in the Republic of Serbia has been determined using the PCR test. .

  12. Implementation of the clean air strategy for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, H.S.; Angle, R.P. [Alberta Dept. of Environmental Protection, Alberta (Canada); Kelly, M. [Clean Air Strategic Alliance, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Air quality and its effects on the environment and human health have received considerable attention during the last three decades in Alberta, Canada. Among the issues receiving a high priority are acid deposition, smog and global warming. There are various sources of emissions to Alberta`s atmosphere, many of which relate to the extraction, processing, and burning of fossil fuels; pulp and paper manufacture; and transportation. There are also natural sources of contaminants, such as particulates from forest fires and methane from bogs. The extraction, processing and combustion of fossil fuels play an important role in Alberta`s economy. The province produces over 80 % of the oil and natural gas in Canada, and nearly half the coal. Low sulphur coal is used in power plants to supply more than 90 % of the electricity used in this province by nearly three million people. As a result, Alberta is responsible for about 27 % of the CO{sub 2}, 23 % of the nitrogen oxides, and 16 % of the SO{sub 2} emissions generated in Canada. Alberta`s air quality is monitored by the Government of Alberta at nine continuous, eight intermittent, over 250 static, and 12 precipitation monitoring stations. Parameters such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, particulates, and ion-content of precipitation are measured. Industry operates a large number of ambient and static SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S monitoring stations across Alberta, with monitoring costs estimated at 56-80 million USD annually. The unique features of the Clean Air Strategy for Alberta (CASA) have already been published elsewhere. This presentation discusses the mechanism and progress on its implementation. (author)

  13. Circle of Courage Infusion into the Alberta Indigenous Games 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Dawn Marie

    2011-01-01

    Thousands of indigenous people from across North America came to the Enoch Cree Nation for the Alberta Indigenous Games, six days of sport, education, and cultural awakening. The vision of the Alberta Indigenous Games is to recognize the value and potential of Indigenous culture and the young people. Activities include sports, indigenous arts,…

  14. Learning and Technology in Alberta (1975 to 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alberta's education system is a leader in the use of technology in teaching and learning. New information technologies create options for how teachers teach, how students learn, and how classrooms look and operate. This document chronicles the history of computer technology in Alberta from 1975-2009. The information is arranged in a tabulated…

  15. Dante in Alberta: chronicle of an oil addicted civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the author, Alberta, an heavenly province of Western Canada, is the theater of the biggest ecological crime of the moment in the form of oil exploitation. Alberta gathers all the aberrations and dramas that have been seen before in other oil producing countries, in particular in Africa, Middle-East and Asia: corruption, defiance of minority rights, terror threats, environment destruction etc

  16. Worldwide market developments : lessons for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percival, J.F. [KWM U.K. Ltd., Worcester, (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    A review of competitive retail electricity markets in Argentina, New Zealand, Australia and California were discussed, highlighting lessons for Alberta policy makers, market designers and electricity retailers. Some of the emerging strategies in the retail electricity marketplace such as horizontal integration, generation retailing, defensive retailing and virtual vertical integration were explored. Emphasis was on showing that electricity retailing is not an easy business. It is a business for large and existing players, and although horizontal and vertical integration have growth and profit potential, there are also risks.

  17. Alberta petroleum equipment and services directory, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A directory is presented of Alberta companies that provide equipment and services to the oil industry. In the main section, companies are listed alphabetically by name, along with their addresses, phone/fax numbers, contact personnel, and lists of products and/or services. A separate alphabetical name index and a product/service index are included. A section covering provincial and territorial government agencies and non-governmental associations and institutes is appended, giving name, address, phone/fax number, leading personnel, and a summary of activities

  18. Farm Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... variants of bird or swine flu may have fever, chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, and ... the disease. Others will have flu-like signs (fever, headache, chills, vomiting, rash) within 2-7 days after exposure. ...

  19. Serum acute phase proteins and swine health status

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Fung, Hang-Pong; Ho, Lin-Lin; Yang, Ping-Chin; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Lee, Yan-Pai; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between swine health status and the concentration of the serum acute phase proteins, haptoglobin (HP), and C-reactive protein (CRP). A total of 378 clinically healthy pigs from farms A and B, plus 20 pigs culled from farm A due to poor growth, were used in this experiment. Each pig was examined and blood samples were collected during slaughter. The HP concentration was measured by using an HP-hemoglobin binding assay. The CRP conce...

  20. Swine Influenza Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    On April 24, 2009, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) confirmed an influenza epidemic was occurring in people and the genetic lineage was most closely related to influenza viruses known to be circulating in swine. The outbreak epicenter appeared to be in central Mexico and the virus spread to th...

  1. Swine Brucellosis: Current Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucella suis is a significant zoonosis that is present in domestic livestock and wildlife in many countries worldwide. Transmission from animal reservoirs is the source of human infection as human to human transmission is very rare. Although swine brucellosis causes economic losses in domestic liv...

  2. Comparación de técnicas diagnósticas de tuberculosis porcina en dos establecimientos de cría confinada en Argentina Comparison of swine tuberculosis diagnostics tests in two confinement pig farms in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.G. Magnano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El diagnóstico de tuberculosis en animales vivos se realiza casi exclusivamente mediante la prueba intradérmica tuberculínica (IDR, aunque en los porcinos son escasos los reportes de resultados utilizando dicha técnica. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar resultados obtenidos realizando la IDR en porcinos con hallazgos patológicos y microbiológicos. Se tuberculinizaron 307 hembras con DPP aviar y DPP bovino. Del total, 171 se inspeccionaron a la faena tomando muestras para exámenes bacteriológicos e histopatológicos. Los resultados de la IDR fueron: 14.4% (44 positivos a DPP aviar, 1.9% (6 a DPP bovino, 3.9% (12 a ambos DPP y 79.8% (245 negativos. Cuatro muestras fueron positivas al cultivo, tipificándose como Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. flavescens y M. scrofulaceum. En la observación macroscópica e histopatológica no se hallaron lesiones compatibles. Concluimos que la IDR sería útil para indicar una infección predial aunque tendría limitaciones en el diagnóstico individual y en el estudio comparativo con la presencia de lesiones y aislamiento del agente.The diagnosis of tuberculosis in live animals is carried out using primarily by the tuberculin test (TT, however only few reports only show the results of this diagnostic test in swine. The objective of this study was to compare the TT with pathological and microbiological findings in swine. A total of 307 sows were injected with avium PPD and bovine PPD following the standard technique. Tissues samples for bacteriological tests and histological exams were collected from 171 animals after slaughter. The following results were obtained: 14.4% (44 tested positive to avium PPD, 1.9% (6 to bovine PPD, 3.9% (12 to both PPD and 79.8% (245 were negatives. Only 4 samples were culture positives typified by Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. fl avescens y M. scrofulaceum. Neither macroscopic nor histological examinations revealed lesions compatible with TB.

  3. Vision 20/20 : saving for the future Alberta advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Alberta Vision 20/20 project, Alberta's past and present spending patterns on natural resources and choices for the future were examined. Trust funds in Alberta, Alaska, and Norway were also compared, in order to learn from other jurisdictions. This report presented findings from Phase 3 of Vision 2020. The objectives of the study were to provide insight on what Alberta's economic, social and policy landscape might look like in the coming decades given expected demographic changes; benchmark Alberta's performance on key economic and social indicators and analyze government performance in related policy areas; supply useful, accessible information and possible solutions to Albertans about some of the challenges that demographic change is likely to bring; encourage discussion of issues among Albertans, including legislators and the media; and, where appropriate, encourage actions to mitigate or alleviate foreseeable problems. The guiding principles of the Vision 20/20 were first presented. Alberta's fiscal context and labyrinth of savings funds were examined. A detailed explanation and literature review of resource trust funds in Norway, Alaska, and Alberta were then provided followed by a comparison of the Alberta, Alaska, and Norway funds. Last, the report presented Alberta's options and discussion as well as recommendations. It was recommended that Alberta's annual per capita spending should not exceed population growth and inflation; the province should consider transfers of additional resource revenue into the Heritage Fund in the manner of the state of Alaska; and the province should deposit between 30 per cent and 40 per cent of all nonrenewable resource revenues in the Heritage Fund annually. 38 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs., 4 appendices

  4. Alberta's transmission development policy : review and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta's Department of Energy (ADOE) released a policy paper in November 2003 regarding power transmission development for the province. The transmission development policy (TDP) is intended to promote economic growth in Alberta while ensuring consumers with reliable, reasonably priced electricity. This presentation reviewed the main features of the policy and then focused on the allocation of costs to generation customers. The author argued that the proposed changes would result in a sub-optimal development of generation and higher total electricity bills for consumers. He argued that the policy will spare generation customers of any obligation to pay wire-related costs other than local interconnection costs. This would weaken a long-standing ADOE policy which requires generators to pay costs that depend on their location on the transmission system. With the new proposal, generators would not be responsible for ancillary service costs even when they provide direct benefits, and they would pay for system losses on a zonal basis. The author recommended that location charges should be large enough to influence the siting decisions of generators. He also recommended that generators should pay their fare share of transmission use-of-system charges, including ancillary services that provide benefits to generators in the form of a stable, reliable transmission system. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  5. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Adrienne L; Carlson, Daniel F.; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs...

  6. Swine Flu: Prevention to Pandemic

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Padda

    2015-01-01

    Swine flu, also known as swine influenza, pig influenza, hog flu and pig flu, is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behaviour. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Mostly people who are closely associated with pigs (for example, pork processors and farmers) acquire the infection and similarly pigs ...

  7. Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present TLÜ Akadeemilises Raamatukogus / Sander Jürisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jürisson, Sander

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli Akadeemilises Raamatukogus on üleval näitus "Alberta's Estonians 1899 - Present", mis annab ülevaate Kanada Alberta provintsi eestlaste loost. Näitus valmis Alberta Eesti Kultuuripärandi Seltsi koostöös Alberta Provintsi Arhiivi Kultuuripärandi Osakonnaga Edmontonis

  8. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the first year of electric power industry deregulation in Alberta was presented. The way in which electricity is bought and sold in Ontario and throughout North America is changing. Costs are no longer fixed and regulated. Electricity is becoming a commodity with high levels of price volatility. The paper presented hedging options for Alberta consumers, contracting lessons, market issues and lessons for Ontario. A comparison of Alberta's deregulation schedule with that of Ontario's was included. One year after market opening in Alberta, power prices have dropped significantly. There is a greater than expected demand side response, increased development in power generation, and a decrease in natural gas prices. Issues that still need to be addressed in Alberta include billing and load settlement issues, invoicing/billing standards, the lack of competition at the retail level, and future balancing of pool charges. Energy Advantage Inc. (EA) does not foresee the same drastic increase in price as seen in Alberta market opening, but suggests that uncertainty and volatility will exist in Ontario. In Alberta, customers who did nothing and stayed on default were the ones who benefited, but took a great risk. EA suggests that customers must understand how and when they use electricity, how much is used during on- and off-peak hours, and in the summer versus the winter. When electricity is priced hourly, it is important to know consumption patterns. 7 figs

  9. Dam safety practice in Alberta for Alberta Environment owned water management dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, Mohan; Wog, Karyn [Alberta environment, Edmonton, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Water management operations operates and maintains over 200 water management structures throughout Alberta. It includes around 30 extreme consequence, very high consequence and high consequence dams according to the Canadian Dam Association's (CDA) dam safety guidelines 2007. The safety of these structures is very important for the water management operations. This paper presented dam safety practise at water management operations dams. A historic perspective review of dam safety in Alberta was made. A framework of plant-implement-review-improve-report was developed and is currently used by the infrastructure support dam safety (ISDS) engineers. This dam safety work priority framework encourages an integrated decision making process and gives the dam safety team a tool for using and sharing information. This project made recommendations to rectify deficiencies, including with respect to priorities and timeframes, which are based on the severity of the issue, risk assessment and the consequences of failure.

  10. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  11. Discharge of swine wastes risks water quality and food safety: Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes from swine sources to the receiving environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liang-Ying; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Su, Hao-Chang; Chen, Jun; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Swine feedlots are widely considered as a potential hotspot for promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. ARGs could enter the environment via discharge of animal wastes, thus resulting in contamination of soil, water, and food. We investigated the dissemination and diversification of 22 ARGs conferring resistance to sulfonamides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicols, and macrolides as well as the occurrence of 18 corresponding antibiotics from three swine feedlots to the receiving water, soil environments and vegetables. Most ARGs and antibiotics survived the on-farm waste treatment processes in the three swine farms. Elevated diversity of ARGs was observed in the receiving environments including river water and vegetable field soils when compared with respective controls. The variation of ARGs along the vertical soil profiles of vegetable fields indicated enrichment and migration of ARGs. Detection of various ARGs and antibiotic residues in vegetables fertilized by swine wastes could be of great concern to the general public. This research demonstrated the contribution of swine wastes to the occurrence and development of antibiotic resistance determinants in the receiving environments and potential risks to food safety and human health. PMID:27107226

  12. Precious grasses : Alberta Research Council releases new native species for reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2006-03-15

    The Alberta Research Council has released 6 new varieties of native plant species suitable for reclamation in Alberta's Parkland region, which is characterized by sandy soils. The Parkland stretches for 37,000 kilometres and is the most densely populated of the province's 6 ecoregions. Because of farming, grazing, oil and gas development and recreation, only 5 per cent of the area remains undisturbed. It was anticipated that the native grasses will help disturbed sites eventually resemble their original state. Varieties included: Aspen Milk Vetch; Centennial Canada Wild Rye; Hillbilly Nodding Brome; Butte Rocky Mountain Fescue; Porter Indian Rice Grass; and Metisko Awned Wheatgrass. The varieties were evaluated for their ability to provide rapid cover and their ability to compete with invading weeds, as well as their ability to allow recruitment of other native species. Multi-environmental testing trials were established to evaluate the species' seed production potential. Seeds were tested for germination in species-specific growth chambers, grown in greenhouses and then taken to an agricultural setting where data on forage density; ground cover; vigour; and biomass were then recorded. The species have also been targeted to ensure that the oil and gas industry has better options for reclaiming disturbed sites. In addition to their ability to combat threats from invasive species, the native plant species have been investigated for their ability to remediate hydrocarbon and salt contaminants and sequester carbon dioxide. Details of Alberta's current reclamation criteria for wellsites and associated facilities were also presented. 4 figs.

  13. Live poultry market workers are susceptible to both avian and swine influenza viruses, Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidang; Ma, Jun; White, Sarah K; Cao, Zhenpeng; Zhen, Yun; He, Shuyi; Zhu, Wanjun; Ke, Changwen; Zhang, Yongbiao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2015-12-31

    Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinarians, and controls not exposed to animals were enrolled in this study and 11 (4 human, 3 swine, 3 avian, and 1 canine) influenza A viruses were used in hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays (7 strains) and the cross-reactivity test (9 strains) in which 5 strains were used in both tests. Univariate analysis was performed to identify which variables were significantly associated with seropositivity. Odds ratios (OR) revealed that swine workers had a significantly higher risk of elevated antibodies against A/swine/Guangdong/L6/2009(H1N1), a classical swine virus, and A/swine/Guangdong/SS1/2012(H1N1), a Eurasian avian-like swine virus than non-exposed controls. Poultry farm workers were at a higher risk of infection with avian influenza H7N9 and H9N2. LPM workers were at a higher risk of infection with 3 subtypes of avian influenza, H5N1, H7N9, and H9N2. Interestingly, the OR also indicated that LPM workers were at risk of H1N1 swine influenza virus infection, perhaps due to the presence of pigs in the LPM. While partial confounding by cross-reactive antibodies against human viruses or vaccines cannot be ruled out, our data suggests that animal exposed people as are more likely to have antibodies against animal influenza viruses.

  14. 9 CFR 94.10 - Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... IMPORTATIONS § 94.10 Swine from regions where classical swine fever exists. (a) Classical swine fever is known... swine fever exists. 94.10 Section 94.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL......

  15. RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESIDUES AND RESISTANCE IN SWINE IN ABA ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. NWIYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials are used by livestock farmers to prevent and control infection. Antimicrobials are also included at sub-therapeutic doses in animal feed as growth promoters and to improve feed efficiency in intensive farming. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial residues and resistance that could arise due to antimicrobial use in swine. The study was carried out between September 10th and December 10th 2013 in some selected swine farms in Ogbor Hill water side in Aba, Abia state. The study involved visiting the various farms, evaluating the records of previous treatment. Also the state zonal veterinary clinics visited and record of farms was collected for analysis. From the result obtained, in raining season in a given year, the frequency of tetracycline usage recorded 83.3%, penicillin recorded 75.0%, while sulfonamide recorded 25.0%. Tylosin and ivermox were the least and recorded 8.4% usage each. The swine treatment was done by the farmers hence there was consistent over-dosage of antimicrobials to the pigs as the manufacture’s guide was not complied with. The report from the records showed that some of the pigs were slaughtered and sold in the market at any time without recourse to drug with-draw. This result could be one of the responsible reasons for antimicrobial residues and resistance in swine and indeed livestock.

  16. Herd sensitivity in relation to test-sensitivity in Swine Vesicular Disease serological tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.

    2005-01-01

    After the swine vesicular disease (SVD) outbreaks in 1992 in the Netherlands a national monitoring programme was initiated, testing 12 samples from every pig farm three times per year. In this monitoring a slightly higher cut-off was used than the cut-off agreed on within the European community. The

  17. 模块标准化设计在规模化猪场猪栏制造中的应用%The Application of Modular and Standardized Design of Pigsty in Large-scale Swine Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 陈银清; 陈德勇

    2015-01-01

    根据猪场建设规模化发展的需要,将猪栏进行模块化分解,对每个模块进行标准化设计,实现猪舍产品的模块化、标准化设计制造,从而缩短猪栏设计制造周期、提高猪舍建设效率。%In order to meet the need of developing large -scale pig farms ,modular pigsty is designed by standardized methods to realize modularization and standardization of design and manufacture ,which shortens the cycle of the pigsty design and manufacture ,improving the efficiency of piggery construction .

  18. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essay first introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  19. Animal Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蓉蓉

    2015-01-01

    This essayfirst introduce the background of Animal Farm and a brief introduction of the author.Then it discuss three thesis about this novel and briefly discussed about it.At last it give highly review on Animal Farm.

  20. Virus survival in slurry: Analysis of the stability of foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, bovine viral diarrhoea and swine influenza viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette; Belsham, Graham

    2012-01-01

    of an outbreak of disease before it has been recognized. The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus, classical swine fever virus, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and swine influenza virus, which belong to three different RNA virus families plus porcine parvovirus (a DNA virus) was examined under controlled...... conditions. For each RNA virus, the virus survival in farm slurry under anaerobic conditions was short (generally ≤1h) when heated (to 55°C) but each of these viruses could retain infectivity at cool temperatures (5°C) for many weeks. The porcine parvovirus survived considerably longer than each of the RNA...

  1. Muscle fibre ontogenesis in farm animal species

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Brigitte; Lefaucheur, Louis; Berri, Cécile; Duclos, Michel

    2002-01-01

    International audience In farm animals (bovine, ovine, swine, rabbit and poultry), muscle fibre characteristics play a key role in meat quality. The present review summarises the knowledge on muscle fibre characteristics and ontogenesis in these species. Myofibre ontogenesis begins very early during embryonic life, with the appearance of two or three successive waves of myoblasts which constitute the origin of the different types of muscle fibres. In small animals (rodents and poultry), a ...

  2. Utility of specific biomarkers to assess safety of swine manure for biofertilizing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, G; Viancelli, A; Magri, M E; Elmahdy, E M; Biesus, L L; Kich, J D; Kunz, A; Barardi, C R M

    2014-05-01

    Swine production is an important economic activity in Brazil, and there is interest in the development of clean production mechanisms to support sustainable agro-industrial activities. The biomass derived from swine manure has good potential to be used as a biofertilizer due to its high nutrient concentration. However, the land application of manure should be based on safety parameters such as the presence of pathogens that can potentially infect animals and people. This study was designed to assess the presence of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV2), porcine adenovirus (PAdV), rotavirus-A (RV-A) and Salmonella spp. in liquid manure, as well the infectivity of two genotypes of circovirus-2 (PCV2a and PCV2b) present in liquid manure. Three swine farms were evaluated: 1) a nursery production farm (manure analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), 2) a grow-finish production farm (analyzed before and after anaerobic biodigestion), and 3) a second grow-finish production farm (raw manure-affluent). PCV2, PAdV and RV-A were present before and after anaerobic biodigestion (either affluent or effluent) at all farms. Salmonella spp. were detected at farm 1 (affluent and effluent) and farm 3 (raw manure-affluent) but not farm 2 (affluent and effluent). When the ability of the anaerobic biodigestion process to reduce viral concentration was evaluated, no significant reduction was observed (P>0.05). Both the PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes were detected, suggesting viral co-infection in swine production. The results revealed infectious PCV2 even after anaerobic biodigestion treatment. The presence of Salmonella spp. and enteric viruses, especially infectious PCV2, in the final effluent from the anaerobic biodigester system suggests that the process is inefficient for pathogen inactivation. Due to the prevalence and infectivity of PCV2 and considering the successful use of molecular methods coupled to cell culture for detecting infectious PCV2, we suggest that this virus can be used

  3. Is the restructuring of Alberta's power market on the right track? Evaluating Alberta's first two years of deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of Alberta's restructured electricity market was evaluated since its move to wholesale competition in January 2001. This paper presents the following eight conclusions that the authors arrived at following the evaluation: (1) To meet growing demand, the electricity prices in Alberta would have increased regardless of the type of environment (regulated or not). Capacity investment was required, and it was believed that moving to competition was the best way to attract investors. (2) Success in attracting private investment was attained as a result of Alberta's open market. It has restored reliability of supply and moderated prices. (3) Price comparisons must take into account what the prices would have been if the market had remained regulated. Due to unique generation costs and regulatory environments, comparisons with other regulated jurisdictions is inappropriate. (4) Convergence with other energy rates that would have been seen under regulation is being noted with respect to Alberta's market prices. (5) Under deregulation, prices increase according to the need for new investment and fall after the investment is made. Alberta has been on a path toward continued reduction in wholesale prices since 2001. (6) The non-price benefits of restructuring include improved generation efficiency, captured residual value from regulated assets, and shifting investment risk of new capacity additions from consumers to generators. (7) Downward pressure on prices was noted as a result of deregulation, as expected. (8) Significant value for consumers was captured through Alberta's restructuring process. 7 tabs., 7 figs

  4. Evaluation of preventive homeopathic treatment against Colibacillosis in swine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carolina Souza Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is the most important etiologic agent implied in neonatal diarrhea in swine; colibacillosis is the disease with highest impact in production of swine. The demands of consumers for meat without chemical residues and the ban on the use of antibiotics and chemotherapics in production of swine compelled to find alternative therapeutic and preventive treatments. Aims: to assess homeopathic treatment as preventive against colibacillosis in swine. Methods: the study was conducted in a farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil; stools of 4 piglets with diarrhea were collected to establish the presence of E. coli; concomitantly it was performed a clinical exam to identify the symptoms leading to the choice of a homeopathy remedy. Newborn piglets were divided into 4 groups (n= 11 or 12: 1 control, subjected to antibiotic treatment against diarrhea; 2 homeopathic treatment, performed with Phosphorus 30cH according to the symptoms collected; 3 biotherapic treatment, performed with Escherichia coli 30cH prepared from the locally obtained bacteria; 4 homeopathic + biotherapics treatment. Results: all 3 groups treated with homeopathy/isotherapy presented a significant reduction of diarrhea compared to the control group (p=0.02; the group treated with Phosphorus 30cH + Escherichia coli 30cH presented the highest weight gain which was significant by comparison to all other groups (p=0.001. Conclusion: homeopathic and biotherapics treatment were more effective than antibiotics in the control of diarrhea in newborn piglets; combination of homeopathic and isopathic treatment resulted in the highest weight gain. These results suggest that homeopathy and isopathy are effective alternatives for the treatment of diarrhea by E. coli in newborn swine.

  5. Alberta Reclamation Research annual report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reclamation Research Technical Advisory Committee (RRTAC) was appointed by the Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council to assist in technical matters related to the development and administration of the Council's research program. RRTAC develops reclamation research under four major program areas, and activities in these areas during the year are described in this report. The Plains Coal Reclamation Research Program addresses questions relating to groundwater and soil reconstruction in plains coal mining zones. The Mountain and Foothills Reclamation Research Program focuses on water management, soil reconstruction, reforestation, and wildlife habitat development, with objectives including control of erosion on a variety of disturbances such as coal mines and ash pits. The Oil Sands Reclamation Research Program is attempting to develop techniques to establish self-sustaining, erosion-free cover on oil sand tailings pond dikes, and to return tailings sand storage and overburden dumps to productive forests. The Oil and Gas Reclamation Research Program is concerned with disposal of drilling wastes and reclamation of lands disturbed by oil and gas activities. Under each program, the objectives, basic problems investigated, and research approach are presented, followed by description of specific projects involving such subjects as hydrology, revegetation, soil-water interactions, landscape and watershed design, soil reconstruction and amendment, and soil compaction. A list of research reports is included. 69 refs., 8 figs

  6. Alberta Reclamation Research annual report, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reclamation Research Technical Advisory Committee (RRTAC) was appointed by the Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council to assist in technical matters related to the development and administration of the Council's research program. RRTAC develops reclamation research under four major program areas, and activities in these areas during the year are described in this report. The Plains Coal Reclamation Research Program addresses questions relating to groundwater and soil reconstruction in plains coal mining zones. The Mountain and Foothills Reclamation Research Program focuses on water management, soil reconstruction, reforestation, and wildlife habitat development, with objectives including control of erosion on a variety of disturbances such as coal mines and ash pits. The Oil Sands Reclamation Research Program is attempting to develop techniques to establish self-sustaining, erosion-free cover on oil sand tailings pond dikes, and to return tailings sand storage and overburden dumps to productive forests. The Oil and Gas Reclamation Research Program is concerned with disposal of drilling wastes and reclamation of lands disturbed by oil and gas activities. Under each program, the objectives, basic problems investigated, and research approach are presented, followed by description of specific projects involving such subjects as hydrology, revegetation, soil-water interactions, tailings dewatering, drilling waste landfarming, landscape and watershed design, soil reconstruction and amendment, and soil compaction. An annotated list of research reports is included. 76 refs., 7 figs

  7. The potential for coalbed methane (CBM) development in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents fiscal and regulatory recommendations of the coalbed methane (CBM) Advisory Committee which consists of representatives from Alberta's oil and gas industry who participated in a study to determine the potential for coalbed methane development in the province. CBM is a natural gas produced as a by-product of the coal formation process. This study examined the CBM reserve base in Alberta along with the necessary steps and strategies required to develop it. There is increased interest in natural gas from Alberta's coal resources because of the forecast for reasonable natural gas prices coupled with an increase in energy demand. The remaining established natural gas reserves are estimated at 43 trillion cubic feet and unconventional supplies of natural gas will be needed by 2008 to meet this increasing demand. The recoverable reserves of CBM are estimated to be between 0 and 135 trillion cubic feet. This report discussed the following mitigation strategies suggested by industry that may applicable to CBM development in Alberta: (1) potential technical mitigation strategies, (2) potential land access and tenure strategies, (3) potential water disposal and diversion mitigation strategies, (4) potential non-technical mitigation strategies, and (5) potential economic mitigation strategies. The study concluded that since no two CBM basins are the same, it is necessary to have good baseline resource inventory data. It was also noted that evolving management, drilling and completion techniques will continue to enhance the economic understanding of Alberta's extensive coal beds. It was suggested that lessons from CBM development in the United States can be useful for development in Alberta since there are currently no publicly recognized commercial production of CBM in Alberta. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 25 figs

  8. Occupational exposure to particulate matter and respiratory symptoms in Portuguese swine barn workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, S; Mateus, V; Almeida-Silva, M; Carolino, E; Viegas, C

    2013-01-01

    Certain environmental conditions in animal and plant production have been associated with increased frequency in respiratory illnesses, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, in farmers occupationally exposed in swine production. The aim of this study was to characterize particulate matter (PM) contamination in seven Portuguese swine farms and determine the existence of clinical symptoms associated with asthma and other allergy diseases, utilizing the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire. Environmental assessments were performed with portable direct-reading equipment, and PM contamination including five different sizes (PM0.5, PM1.0, PM2.5, PM5.0, PM10) was determined. The distribution of particle size showed the same trend in all swine farms, with high concentrations of particles with PM5 and PM10. Results from the questionnaire indicated a trend such that subjects with diagnosis of asthma were exposed to higher concentrations of PM with larger size (PM2.5, PM5, and PM10) while subjects with sneezing, runny nose, or stuffy nose without a cold or flu were exposed to higher concentrations of PM with smaller size (PM0.5 and PM1). Data indicate that inhalation of PM in swine farm workers is associated with increased frequency of respiratory illnesses. PMID:24168036

  9. Sustainable Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, David

    2009-01-01

    Marketing organic vegetables completes production achievements. The Pfenning family is no newcomer to organic and biodynamic vegetable farming. Using these farming methods since 1981, they helped to develop standards for the Ontario Crop Improvement Association (OCIA). The Pfenning's farming practices have aroused the attention of curious farmers and researchers; equally as important, local consumers intereste in changing their diet to include more organically-grown produce are also findi...

  10. Validation of a Real Time PCR for Classical Swine Fever Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Natanael Lamas Dias; Antônio Augusto Fonseca Júnior; Anapolino Macedo de Oliveira; Érica Bravo Sales; Bruna Rios Coelho Alves; Fernanda Alves Dorella; Marcelo Fernandes Camargos

    2014-01-01

    The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF), caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CS...

  11. Alberta Chamber of Resources : 1997 resources guide and directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources (ACR) is composed of 140 member companies from the oil and gas industry, forestry, pulp and paper, mining, oil sands, utilities, contractors, suppliers, consultants, banking and other service groups, as well as representatives from universities and governments. ACR's activities during 1996 were reviewed. These included supporting or sponsoring a careers forum, and various other networking and information sharing opportunities, a study of the potential for Alberta's minerals industry, and exploring opportunities for research in the forestry sector and the further development of Alberta's oil sands. Studies of the transportation and infrastructures strategies for Alberta's resources, royalty regimes, tenure and compensation issues associated with oil sands reservoirs that are 'capped' by natural gas reservoirs, taxation issues related to oil sands development, mineral rights tenure, and toll design and royalty issues affecting Alberta's natural gas sector rounded out the Chamber's activities. The annual review also profiled a number of ACR member companies, among them Koch Oil Company Ltd., Pardee Equipment Ltd., Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Clearwater Welding and Fabricating Ltd., and Weldwood of Canada. A listing of all ACR members was also provided

  12. Heating up in Alberta : climate change, energy development and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages and disadvantages of energy sources for the future have been discussed in Alberta for several years. The heavy reliance of the province's economy on extracting oil, gas and bitumen has led politicians and industrialists to support these activities, despite the environmental cost. However, a large percentage of Alberta's citizens would like to see a switch to an economy based on cleaner, less environmentally damaging sources of energy. This report discussed Alberta's climate change challenge with particular reference to greenhouse gas emissions, changing precipitation, and water use for energy production in Alberta. The report discussed water use for electricity production, such as coal-fired electricity generation; electricity from gas; nuclear energy; hydroelectricity and run-of-river hydro; and other types of renewable energy. Water use for gas and oil production was examined. This included well development; natural gas production; conventional oil production; oil from bitumen; and future water demands for the oil and gas sector. The report concluded with a discussion of implications for Alberta's energy production and recommendations. The report also recommended that efforts should be increased to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and practical steps should be taken to reduce fresh water use. 349 refs., 2 tabs., 22 figs

  13. Harmonization of industrial and oilfield waste management issues in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been an ongoing discussion concerning the harmonization of waste management requirements within Alberta between the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV), with the ultimate goal of publishing a memorandum of understanding (MOU) that will lay out the division of responsibilities between the two authorities on this matter. An overview is included of waste management in Alberta and of the harmonization agreements attained to date, with a stress on oil field waste issues. The EUB and AENV developed a MOE on the harmonization of waste management in Alberta, and a discussion is made of the concept of equivalency, which is used in the development of 'EUB guide 58: oilfield waste management requirements for the upstream petroleum industry' and will be a guiding principle for the MOU. Although the EUB's processes for waste management will not be exactly the same as AENV's, the EUB has made the commitment that, as a minimum, the requirements will provide the same level of environmental protection and public safety equivalent to that provided by AENV

  14. Power Pool of Alberta annual report 2000 : building a market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As of January 1, 2001, deregulation of the electricity market in Alberta became a reality, and was accompanied by steady growth in demand for electricity combined with other factors that pushed the price of electricity upward. The Power Pool of Alberta ensures that market operations are open and fair. Its mandate, under the Electric Utilities Act, is the overall market surveillance in Alberta's electric industry. It is accomplished by working closely with industry and seeking feedback through four standing committees: Human Resources, Operations, Finance and Audit, and Balancing Pool. The goal for the coming years is to build confidence in the market, whereby consumers are confident about the fairness of the market price for electricity in Alberta, the choices available, and the continued reliability of the electric system in Alberta. The Energy Trading System was explained with information about system control and customer service, and details provided on the consultation and collaboration processes. The financial analysis of the year 2000 was provided, as well as a statement of operation, a balance sheet, and a statement of cash flows. tabs., figs

  15. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever (CSF). We are also adding Liechtenstein to the... United States of various animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF), swine vesicular disease..., AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  16. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    OpenAIRE

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  17. Swine Flu Threatens the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The epidemic spreads from Mexico to other countries at an alarming rate How serious is the swine flu? It is so sensitive that the White House had to reassure reporters that U.S. President Barack Obama is still in good health after visiting Mexico in mid-April. Besides the United States and Canada, swine flu cases have appeared in Europe and Asia. The world now faces a "public health emergency of

  18. Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund : 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund as it operated under the new investment framework established in 1997 was presented. The new statutory mission of the Fund is to provide stewardship of the savings from Alberta's non-renewable resources by providing the greatest financial returns on those savings for current and future generations of Albertans. In 1998, the Fund earned $947 million in income with nearly $25 million of income being retained to ensure that the value of the Fund grows to off-set the effects of inflation. Net assets of the Fund on March 31, 1998 was $ 12.3 billion. Operation of the Fund, the accounting method used, and details about the Transition Portfolio and the Endowment Portfolio are provided. An assessment of Alberta's economic climate accompanies the auditor's report and the detailed financial statements of the Fund. tabs

  19. Evaluation of occupational exposure to free silica in Alberta foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalp, A; Myroniuk, D

    1982-11-01

    The Occupational Hygiene Branch of Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation conducted a comprehensive study of the foundry industry in Alberta. The surveys assessed both the degree of health hazards present and the effectiveness of existing control systems for airborne contaminants. All nine of Alberta's ferrous foundries were surveyed in the course of the project. The foundries varied from those which were small with limited mechanization to those which were large and highly automated. The concentrations of free silica in the work environment are correlated to the different attempts to control silica using substitution and various ventilation systems. The particular foundry processes evaluated for airborne free silica were sand preparation, shakeout, dry sand transport and sand molding. Workers' exposure to free airborne silica was evaluated by personal and area samples. The free silica content of the samples was determined by infra-red spectrophotometry. The results indicated most control systems were inadequate. Effective control methods are described to reduce the health hazard.

  20. Farm Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Debra

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Philadelphia high school in which urban students study agricultural sciences to prepare for college and careers. The campus has a complete working farm, and students are exposed to a wide range of agricultural career opportunities while also studying core academic subjects. The school's farm units are real businesses, so students are…

  1. 77 FR 10502 - MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission MATL LLP; Montana Alberta Tie, Ltd; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that on February 13, 2012, MATL LLP (MATL) and Montana Alberta Tie Ltd (Montana Alberta...

  2. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

  3. Alberta Surface Rights Board; CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, C.J. [Surface Rights Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1996-06-01

    The difference between surface and mineral rights in Alberta was defined. By definition, surface rights give ownership only to the surface of the land and the right to work it. Mineral rights in contrast give ownership and the right to explore and develop or extract minerals beneath the surface. Oil and gas are the most common minerals in Alberta, however, gold silver, uranium and salt are also included under mineral rights, but sand, gravel, clay, marl and peat, are not. Conditions which limit the mineral owner`s right to explore and develop were summarized. Some case studies of appeals to the court regarding mineral and surface rights were presented.

  4. A microbiological survey of selected Alberta-grown fresh produce from farmers' markets in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohaychuk, V M; Bradbury, R W; Dimock, R; Fehr, M; Gensler, G E; King, R K; Rieve, R; Romero Barrios, P

    2009-02-01

    Previously there was no available information on the levels of indicator bacteria and the prevalence of pathogens in fresh produce grown in Alberta, Canada. Baseline information on the occurrence and levels of Escherichia coli and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in selected produce items available to consumers from farmers' and public markets in two large urban centers and surrounding areas in Alberta was obtained. A total of 10 large markets with between 1 and 12 produce vendors and 26 small markets with between 1 and 6 produce vendors were sampled from 21 June to 7 October 2007. Lettuce (128 samples), spinach (59 samples), tomatoes (120 samples), carrots (206 samples), green onions (129 samples), and strawberries (31 samples) were analyzed for E. coli, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. Lettuce, spinach, green onion, and strawberry samples were also tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. Information on whether produce was grown using organic or conventional practices was obtained from the produce vendors. E. coli was isolated from 8.2% of the samples that included lettuce, spinach, carrots, and green onions. The bacterial counts ranged from 3.04 Log most probable number per g. E. coli was not isolated from tomatoes or strawberries. The percentage of positive samples ranged from 4.4% for carrots to 27.1% for spinach. Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Cryptosporidium was identified by PCR in one sample of spinach (0.6% of the samples).

  5. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  6. Dairy farm methane emissions using a dispersion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to know whole-farm methane (CH(4)) emissions since confined animal facilities such as beef cattle feedlots and dairy farms are emission "hot spots" in the landscape. However, measurements of whole-farm CH(4) emissions can differ between farms because of differences in contributing sources such as manure handling, number of lactating and nonlactating cows, and diet. Such differences may limit the usefulness of whole-farm emissions for national inventories and mitigation purposes unless the variance between farms is taken into account or a large number of farms can be examined. Our study describes the application of a dispersion model used in conjunction with field measurements of CH(4) concentration and stability of the air to calculate whole-farm emissions of CH(4) from three dairy farms in Alberta, Canada, during three sequential campaigns conducted in November 2004 and May and July 2005. The dairy farms ranged in herd size from 208 to 351 cows (102 to 196 lactating cows) and had different manure handling operations. The results indicate that the average CH(4) emission per cow (mixture of lactating and nonlactating) from the three dairy farms was 336 g d(-1), which was reduced to 271 g d(-1) when the emission (estimated) from the manure storage was removed. Further separation of source strength yielded an average CH(4) (enteric) emission of 363 g d(-1) for a lactating cow. The estimated CH(4) emission intensities were approximately 15 g CH(4) kg(-1) dry matter intake and 16.7 L CH(4) L(-1) of milk produced. The approach of understanding the farm-to-farm differences in CH(4) emissions as affected by diet, animal type, and manure management is essential when utilizing whole-farm emission measurements for mitigation and inventory applications. PMID:22218175

  7. Vancomycin-intermediate livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398/t9538 from swine in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Dutra, Mauricio C; Moreno, Marina; Ferreira, Thais SP; da Silva, Givago FR; Matajira, Carlos EC; Silva, Ana Paula S; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-01-01

    Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been mainly related with pig farming, in Europe and North America, with the ST398 as the most commonly identified type of LA-MRSA. Here we present the draft genome of the first vancomycin-intermediate MRSA ST398/t9538 isolated from a swine presenting exudative epidermitis in Brazil.

  8. Farm Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Bodil Stilling; Nielsen, Niels Christian; Nissen, Kathrine Aae;

    2011-01-01

    , our study suggests that it is problematic to threat farm tourism enterprises as if they have much in common with both larger corporations and other types of SMTEs. Farm tourism enterprises seem to differ significantly from other enterprises as the hosts are not in the tourism business because......This paper draws on a study of one specific type of small tourism enterprises (i.e. farm tourism enterprises) and argues that these enterprises differ from other enterprises in relation to a series of issues other than merely size. The analysis shows that enterprises such as these are characterized...

  9. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  10. SWINE FLU - A DESCRIPTIVE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nain Parminder

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Swine influenza, also called pig influenza, swine flu, hog flu and pig flu, is an infection by any one of several types of swine influenza virus. Swine influenza virus (SIV or S-OIV (swine-origin influenza virus is any strain of the influenza family of viruses that is endemic in pigs. In H1N1, the ‘H’ refers to the hemagglutinin protein, and the ‘N’ refers to the neuraminidase protein. While at present the virus is causing a mild disease, the next wave may be more severe. Influenza is a simple virus, with just eight genes, but it makes poor copies of itself, leading to constant mutation. Influenza viruses are by nature unstable and unpredictable and have the unique capability of changing their antigenic characteristics by mutation. Occasionally, novel strains also emerge, often through re-assortment or exchange of genetic material among influenza viruses from different animal, human or bird sources. Such genetic restructuring occurs regularly in nature and, at times, provides the virus with the capability of causing widespread disease in immunologically naïve populations.

  11. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  12. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: An Intensive Individualized Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souveny, Dwaine

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this third part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for providing intensive, individualized support and instruction for the small percentage of students requiring a high degree of intervention. This system of individual…

  13. Issues and strategies for large power buyers in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    America's leading commodity risk management company, Enron has 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It operates EnronOnline, the largest e-commerce site in the world. With some corporate profile information on Enron and Enron Canada and its involvement in the Alberta electricity market, the author proceeded to discuss risk management issues and program development. It was stated that Enron believes that future outcomes can be changed, and risk management is a dynamic and iterative process used as a tool to decrease uncertainty. The risk appetite is defined and electricity risks clarified, then a review of physical operation characteristics is conducted. The risk management program and policy are defined, as well as the controls and reporting. The tools and tactics are defined and one is now ready for the implementation phase. The next section was devoted to credit and contracting issues before moving to the Alberta electricity market fundamentals and pricing and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, prices in Alberta. The last section of the presentation touched on EnronOnline which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. tabs., figs

  14. Framing a New Standard for Teaching in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John E.

    2013-01-01

    A research panel asked to frame the discussion for a new Teaching Quality Standard in Alberta assumes this task requires a paradigm shift away from the status quo efficiency movement. As a member of the panel, the author provides an analysis of paradigm shifts in education and recounts important lessons to be learned. The author challenges the…

  15. Issues and strategies for large power buyers in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D. [ENRON Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    America's leading commodity risk management company, Enron has 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2000. It operates EnronOnline, the largest e-commerce site in the world. With some corporate profile information on Enron and Enron Canada and its involvement in the Alberta electricity market, the author proceeded to discuss risk management issues and program development. It was stated that Enron believes that future outcomes can be changed, and risk management is a dynamic and iterative process used as a tool to decrease uncertainty. The risk appetite is defined and electricity risks clarified, then a review of physical operation characteristics is conducted. The risk management program and policy are defined, as well as the controls and reporting. The tools and tactics are defined and one is now ready for the implementation phase. The next section was devoted to credit and contracting issues before moving to the Alberta electricity market fundamentals and pricing and some insight provided on questions such as import/export in Alberta, regulatory issues, prices in Alberta. The last section of the presentation touched on EnronOnline which is a free, Internet-based global transaction system where one can view real time prices. tabs., figs.

  16. A Review of School Board Cyberbullying Policies in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosworthy, Nicole; Rinaldi, Christina

    2012-01-01

    An online search for school board cyberbullying/bullying policies in Alberta was conducted. The results showed that while only five school boards had a bullying policy, many schools had technology or Internet use guidelines. The online search included an assessment of one extensive school board cyberbullying policy as well as Internet use…

  17. Geotechnical assessments for trenchless water crossings in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinz, H.K.; Moore, T.; Cullum-Kenyon, S. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In order to plan, design and install trenchless water crossings for pipelines, engineers must have a broad understanding of the geological processes involved in the formation of the valley to be crossed, and of the interaction between the geological features and the installation of the pipeline crossing. In Alberta, the use of trenchless methods for pipeline crossings has increased considerably in recent years due to strict water protection regulations. This paper presented a discussion of the current state of practice for geotechnical investigations of trenchless projects in Alberta. It was suggested that geotechnical assessment for pipeline water crossings should be conducted in successive stages, beginning with a desk study during route selection, a site reconnaissance and a field exploration stage that involves borehole drilling and sampling. Geophysical surveys can supplement the borehole investigations. This paper described how each stage interacts with, and is dependent on the others. The advantages and limitations of drilling and sampling techniques currently used in Alberta were also reviewed with reference to continuous flight and hollow stem augering, wet rotary, and cased down-hole air percussion methods. These principles were recently applied to pipeline crossing in Alberta. It was concluded that they facilitated the identification of risks associated with the use of trenchless methods without an expensive drilling and sampling program. 6 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  18. Alberta High School, College Elevate Learning with Rare Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, George

    2012-01-01

    The refusal by a group of parents in Olds, Alberta, in 2003 to accept a provincial grant to renovate their high school set in motion a remarkable collaboration that spawned an innovative learning campus for an entire community and beyond. The new Olds High School, which opened in 2010, is part of a new Community Learning Campus (CLC), a joint…

  19. Market making vs. market manipulation : an Alberta perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Stock Exchange's (ASE's) filing and disclosure requirements for market making and promotion contracts are outlined. The discussion focuses on the differences between market making and market manipulation, acceptable and unacceptable methods of market making and promotion and common trading and securities legislation violations associated with these types of activities

  20. Alberta Energy Minister swings to virtuoso of limited government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    1997-05-01

    The views of the newly appointed energy minister of Alberta, Steven West (nicknamed Stevie Wonder) concerning the role of government in business and industry were discussed. Summed up, the minister believes that governments should confine themselves to co-ordinate services and programs that are more advantageously provided on a collective basis, i.e. health care, education, law and order, and safety and protection measures. Specifically, in the case of the Alberta energy industry, government`s role should be directed to foster an `Alberta advantage`, comprising minimal taxes to effect the services and infrastructure required, minimum regulations to protect the environment and the resource itself, maximize sustainability and the return on natural resources of the province to the people of Alberta. According to the minister, natural resources such as oil and gas are a public trust rather than private property. He also expressed his vision of the petroleum industry`s role not only as one of the `main pillars` of the economy, but also as the supplier of raw materials for a wider strategy of economic diversification for the province.

  1. Coal-bed methane in Alberta : ownership and incidental production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, A.

    2006-04-05

    Some of the challenges facing the emerging coal-bed methane (CBM) industry in Alberta include concerns regarding water protection, compression noise, well spacing and fracturing issues. One of the most fundamental questions regarding CBM is who in fact owns the resource and what rules oversee its production. The characteristics, development potential and origins of split title ownership of CBM in North America were examined in this paper. The history of freehold and Crown-owned land and the law regarding ownership and incidental production of petroleum, natural gas and bitumen in split-title situations were reviewed. The legal status of CBM in other jurisdictions was also examined. The issues of ownership and incidental production in Alberta were also discussed. The basic common law ownership principles regarding mineral ownership were applied to the characteristics of CBM in situ to conclude its possible owner in Alberta. The extension of established incidental mineral production principles to CBM were examined in the context of its characteristics. The official governmental position on CBM issues and the prospect of future legislative intervention were identified and the implications for industry and resource companies were also presented. The paper presented several recommendations including that Alberta should legislate to eliminate any right of recovery for historical or current venting of CBM during coal mining in order to remove a cloud of uncertainty over the industry. refs.

  2. School Identity in the Context of Alberta Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Merlin; Gereluk, Dianne; Kowch, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The central tenet of this investigation is that educational institutions possess their own school identity. Acknowledging that school identity is influenced by institutional mechanisms and personal dynamics, we examine school identity in the context of 13 Alberta charter schools. Narratives of 73 educational stakeholders across the network of…

  3. Cancer incidence in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta : 1995-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y. [Alberta Cancer Board, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Division of Population Health and Information Surveillance

    2009-02-15

    A high number of cases of cholangiocarcinoma, a rare form of bile duct cancer, as well as high rates of other cancers were reported by a physician working in Fort Chipewyan, Alberta in 2006. Concerns were raised by local residents, attributing cancers in their community to environmental contamination from a range of industrial development including the oil sands development, uranium mining and pulp mills. However, an initial review of the Alberta Cancer Registry did not confirm an increased incidence of cancer in Fort Chipewyan. In the summer/fall of 2007, a working group was formed to support the Alberta Cancer Board in doing a cluster investigation based on the guidelines of the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. This report presented an investigation to determine if there was an elevated rate of cholangiocarcinoma in Fort Chipewyan and whether there was an elevated rate of cancers overall in Fort Chipewyan. The report provided background information on the Athabasca oil sands, uranium mining, and Fort Chipewyan as well as previous investigations of cancer incidence in Fort Chipewyan. Study methods were also presented with particular reference to study and comparison populations; cancer classification and inclusion criteria; active case ascertainment and verification; methods of analysis; and ethical approval. Results were also presented. The specific cancers that were discussed were cholangiocarcinoma, leukemia, colon cancer, and cancer in First Nations in Alberta. It was concluded that the observed number of cases of cholangiocarcinoma was within the expected range. 121 refs., 12 tabs., 3 figs., 5 appendices.

  4. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A Classroom Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaya-Moore, Dana

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this second part of the three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information and strategies for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour in the classroom. A proactive approach to classroom management is designed to provide…

  5. Essential Inclusive Education-Related Outcomes for Alberta Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreman, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the knowledge, skills, and attributes (KSAs) that Alberta preservice teachers need to develop over the course of their teacher preparation programs in order to work effectively in inclusive classrooms. Inclusive classrooms are those where all students regardless of diversity learn in the same contexts. These KSAs are…

  6. Molecular farming

    OpenAIRE

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J M

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the possible benefits and disadvantages to a great extent. Discussions about Molecular Farming are often about technical and economic aspects, but other aspects like safety and ethical and societal aspects...

  7. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne L. Watson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications.

  8. Engineered Swine Models of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Adrienne L; Carlson, Daniel F; Largaespada, David A; Hackett, Perry B; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, the technology to engineer genetically modified swine has seen many advancements, and because their physiology is remarkably similar to that of humans, swine models of cancer may be extremely valuable for preclinical safety studies as well as toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals prior to the start of human clinical trials. Hence, the benefits of using swine as a large animal model in cancer research and the potential applications and future opportunities of utilizing pigs in cancer modeling are immense. In this review, we discuss how pigs have been and can be used as a biomedical models for cancer research, with an emphasis on current technologies. We have focused on applications of precision genetics that can provide models that mimic human cancer predisposition syndromes. In particular, we describe the advantages of targeted gene-editing using custom endonucleases, specifically TALENs and CRISPRs, and transposon systems, to make novel pig models of cancer with broad preclinical applications. PMID:27242889

  9. Unconventional attitudes: New thinking drives gas in south Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2002-05-01

    New natural gas wells under development and coming on stream in southern Alberta are discussed. These new wells are contrary to expectations since conventional wisdom holds that the future lies in the north frontier and the foothills of northwestern Alberta and northeastern British Columbia. Among these new developments are the wells of the Okotoks field which have been producing for years, but over 100 Bcf of gas remains to be exploited. The same company (Compton Petroleum Inc) is continuing to develop its deep gas Hooker play by drilling 15 successful wells in 2001 and acquiring additional land. The average stabilized rate on the Hooker wells is 1.7 MMcf/d, with expected decline rates of 10 per cent. West of Calgary Compton holds some more speculative opportunities on the Tsuu Tina Reserve and the Stoney Reserve. Impact Energy is another player generating interest in southern Alberta with its Whisky Creek play in the historic Turner Valley area. Impact Energy hit pay dirt at Whisky Creek last year with the 7-5 discovery well which is currently producing at a restricted rate of 5.0 MMcf/d with 50 bbl/MMcf of liquids. Two more wells in the play are expected to potentially add 30 Bcf of reserves, if successful. EnCana Energy and Quicksilver Resources subsidiary MGV Energy are also pushing the technological frontier with their coalbed methane play in the Palliser triangle in southeastern Alberta. A 250 well development is planned within the Palliser Block for later in 2002. Government figures put the potential for coalbed methane on Alberta's plains between 125 and 250 Tcf, more gas than remains in conventional reserves.

  10. Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

  11. The regulatory context of gas flaring in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legislative and regulatory regime regarding gas flaring in Alberta was reviewed. The issue of gas flaring has received much attention from petroleum industry regulators in Alberta. Residents living in the vicinity of flares have identified them as sources of odour, smoke, noise and air quality-related health concerns. Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide emissions from the flare stacks may contribute to acid rain and the greenhouse effect. The Strosher Report, released by the Alberta Research Council in 1996, has also identified about 250 different compounds in flare emissions, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other products of incomplete combustion. The public opposition to solution gas flaring has caused regulators to consider new options designed to reduce the adverse economic and environmental impacts that may be associated with gas flaring. This paper discusses the roles of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection in administering legislation that impacts on gas flaring. In March 1999, the EUB released a guide containing the following five major points regarding gas flaring: (1) implementation of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance's (CASA's) recommendations to eventually eliminate flaring, by starting immediately to reduce flaring, and improve the efficiency of flares, (2) adoption of the CASA schedule of reduction targets for solution gas flaring, (3) conducting a review of the current approval process for small-scale electrical generation systems to encourage co-generation as a productive use of solution gas that is being flared, (4) creating better public notification requirements for new and existing facilities, and (5) discussing conflict resolution between operators and landowners. 26 refs

  12. Impact of single versus multiple policy options on the economic feasibility of biogas energy production: Swine and dairy operations in Nova Scotia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production was investigated for swine and dairy operations under Nova Scotia, Canada farming conditions, using net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and payback period (PP) economic decision criteria. In addition, the effects of selected environmental and 'green' energy policy schemes on co-generation of on-farm biogas energy production and other co-benefits from anaerobic digestion of livestock manure were investigated. Cost-efficiencies arising from economies of scale for on-farm anaerobic biogas production were found for swine farms, and less so for dairy production systems. Without incentive schemes, on-farm biogas energy production was not economically feasible across the farm size ranges studied, except for 600- and 800-sow operations. Among single policy schemes investigated, green energy credit policy schemes generated the highest financial returns, compared to cost-share and low-interest loan schemes. Combinations of multiple policies that included cost-share and green energy credit incentive schemes generated the most improvement in financial feasibility of on-farm biogas energy production, for both swine and dairy operations

  13. Overview of Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera, Classical Swine fever)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever is a contagious often fatal disease of pigs clinically characterized by high body temperature, lethargy, yellowish diarrhea, vomits and purple skin discoloration of ears, lower abdomen and legs. It was first described in the early 19th century in the USA. Later, a condition i...

  14. Clean Technique for Prolonged Nonsurvival Cardiothoracic Surgery in Swine (Sus scrofa)

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Maia M; Rabkin, David G.; Ida M Washington

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory animal regulations provide little guidance regarding duration of nonsurvival surgery requiring aseptic technique. We hypothesized that swine would experience no sepsis during nonsurvival cardiothoracic surgery accomplished by using clean technique and lasting 8 h or less. Incision sites of 5 male farm pigs (Sus scrofa) were shaved and then cleaned with alcohol and povidone–iodine. The surgeon wore sterile gloves, clean scrubs, and hair bonnet; assistants wore clean scrubs and nonst...

  15. Glasser’s disease in swine in Batam Island, Riau Province

    OpenAIRE

    Adin Priadi; L. Natalia; S Poernomo

    2004-01-01

    Glasser’s disease or Haemophilus parasuis in swine causes a considerable economic losses. This disease decreases farm production due to high mortality. In a field investigation, H. parasuis serotype 12 was isolated from the lung of a ten week old post weaning pig suffering from pneumonia in Bulan island, Riau Province. The isolation of H. parasuis in a pig herd showing increasing mortality is the first reported in Indonesia. Antibiotic sensitivity test using disc diffusion methods, showed tha...

  16. Evaluation of the risk factors contributing to the African swine fever occurrence in Sardinia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-López, Beatriz; Perez, Andres M.; Feliziani, Francesco; Rolesu, Sandro; Mur, Lina; José M. Sánchez-Vizcaíno

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the relation between hypothesized risk factors and African swine fever virus (ASFV) distribution in Sardinia (Italy) after the beginning of the eradication program in 1993, using a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model. Results indicate that the probability of ASFV occurrence in Sardinia was associated to particular socio-cultural, productive and economical factors found in the region, particularly to large number of confined (i.e., closed) farms (most of ...

  17. TOXOPLASMA GONDII IN U.S. SWINE OPERATIONS: AN ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xianfeng; James Kliebenstein; Sharon PATTON; Zimmerman, Jeffrey; Hallam, Arne; Roberts, Tanya; Eric BUSH

    1997-01-01

    Sera from hogs were analyzed using the modified direct agglutination test (MAT). Serum samples were collected from sows which were part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) swine survey. The blood sera on file represented 394 randomly selected hog farms throughout the United States. Additionally, the NAHMS survey included information on type of production facilities and level of cat, dog, or bird access to the facilities. Of the sows tested 19 percent tested positive for to...

  18. 9 CFR 85.6 - Interstate movement of pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be..., except swine from qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herds, not known to be infected with or exposed to pseudorabies. Pseudorabies vaccinate swine, except swine from qualified negative...

  19. Performance of UASB reactors in two stages under different HRT and OLR treating residual waters of swine farming Desempenho de reatores UASB em dois estágios sob diferentes TDH e COV tratando águas residuárias de suinocultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevão Urbinati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was evaluated the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT and Organic Loading Rate (OLR on the performance of UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactors in two stages treating residual waters of swine farming. The system consisted of two UASB reactors in pilot scale, installed in series, with volumes of 908 and 188 L, for the first and second stages (R1 and R2, respectively. The HRT applied in the system of anaerobic treatment in two stages (R1 + R2 was of 19.3, 29.0 and 57.9 h. The OLR applied in the R1 ranged from 5.5 to 40.1 kg CODtotal (m³ d-1. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS ranged, respectively, from 66.3 to 88.2% and 62.5 to 89.3% in the R1, and from 85.5 to 95.5% and 76.4 to 96.1% in the system (R1 + R2. The volumetric production of methane in the system (R1 + R2 ranged from 0.295 to 0.721 m³CH4 (m³ reactor d-1. It was found that the OLR applied were not limiting to obtain high efficiencies of CODtotal and TSS removal and methane production. The inclusion of the UASB reactor in the second stage contributed to increase the efficiencies of CODtotal and TSS removal, especially, when the treatment system was submitted to the lowest HRT and the highest OLR.Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito do tempo de detenção hidráulica (TDH e da carga orgânica volumétrica (COV no desempenho de reatores UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket, em dois estágios, tratando águas residuárias de suinocultura. O sistema foi constituído por dois reatores UASB em escala-piloto, instalados em série, com volumes de 908 e 188 L, para o primeiro e segundo estágios (R1 e R2, respectivamente. Os TDH, aplicados no sistema de tratamento anaeróbio, em dois estágios (R1 + R2, foram de 19,3; 29,0 e 57,9 h. As COVs aplicadas no R1 variaram de 5,5 a 40,1 kg DQOtotal (m³ d-1. As eficiências médias de remoção de demanda química de oxigênio total (DQOtotal e s

  20. 应用灰色系统GM(1,1)模型预测猪场中猪戊型肝炎的流行趋势%Forecasting the prevalence of swine hepatitis E in pig farms by a grey system GM (1,1) model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董世娟; 黄芬芬; 施标; 朱于敏; 于瑞嵩; 司伏生; 李震

    2012-01-01

    In order to predict the prevalence of swine hepatitis E,the data of swine hepatitis E in Shanghai area between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed by using the grey system theory,and a grey system GM( 1,1)model was established and evaluated. The results showed that the established GM(1,1) model had very good precision and could accurately simulate the prevalence of swine hepatitis E.The infection rates of swine hepatitis E in Shanghai in 2011 and 2012 forecasted by this model were 19. 25% and 18.34% respectively.%为研究猪戊型肝炎的流行趋势及其预测,应用灰色系统理论对上海市2005-2010年的猪戊型肝炎资料进行分析,建立了灰色系统GM(1,1)模型,并进行了模型评价.结果表明:GM(1,1)模型精度检验结果为优,能精确地模拟猪戊型肝炎的流行趋势.应用该模型预测上海市2011年、2012年猪戊型肝炎的感染率分别为19.25%和18.34%.

  1. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)

  2. Asthma-related productivity losses in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen X Thanh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nguyen X Thanh, Arto Ohinmaa, Charles YanInstitute of Health Economics, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaObjectives: To estimate the number and cost of asthma-related productivity loss days due to absenteeism and presenteeism (at work but not fully functioning in Alberta in 2005.Methods: Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, this study focused on people of working age (18–64 years, who reported having an asthma diagnosis. Total asthma-related disability days, including in-bed days and activity-restricted days, were estimated by multiplying the difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions by a multiple linear regression, with the number of asthmatics in the population. Number of productivity loss days was a sum between the number of in-bed days (absenteeism and the number of activity-restricted days multiplied by a reduction in functional level (presenteeism, adjusted for five working days per week. Other data from Alberta or Canadian published literature, such as a reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, a labor participation rate of 73%, and an average wage of $158 per day in 2005, were also used for analyses.Results: The prevalence of asthma was estimated at 8.5% among approximately 2.1 million people of working age in Alberta in 2005. The difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics was 0.487 (95% CI: 0.286–0.688 in a period of two weeks or 12.7 (7.5–17.9 in one year. With the reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, the number of asthma-related productivity loss days was estimated from 442 (259–624 to 533 (313–753 thousand, respectively. The corresponding cost was from $70 ($41–$99 to $84 ($49–$119 million. Of these, the presenteeism accounted for 42% to 52%.Conclusions: The results suggest that an improvement in the controlling of asthma could have a

  3. Fouling of a spiral-wound reverse osmosis membrane processing swine wastewater: effect of cleaning procedure on fouling resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri-Rumbau, M S; Masse, L; Dubreuil, J; Mondor, M; Christensen, K V; Norddahl, B

    2016-07-01

    Swine manure is a valuable source of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. After solid-liquid separation, the resulting swine wastewater can be concentrated by reverse osmosis (RO) to produce a nitrogen-potassium rich fertilizer. However, swine wastewater has a high fouling potential and an efficient cleaning strategy is required. In this study, a semi-commercial farm scale RO spiral-wound membrane unit was fouled while processing larger volumes of swine wastewater during realistic cyclic operations over a 9-week period. Membrane cleaning was performed daily. Three different cleaning solutions, containing SDS, SDS+EDTA and NaOH were compared. About 99% of the fouling resistance could be removed by rinsing the membrane with water. Flux recoveries (FRs) above 98% were achieved for all the three cleaning solutions after cleaning. No significant differences in FR were found between the cleaning solutions. The NaOH solution thus is a good economical option for cleaning RO spiral-wound membranes fouled with swine wastewater. Soaking the membrane for 3 days in permeate water at the end of each week further improved the FR. Furthermore, a fouling resistance model for predicting the fouling rate, permeate flux decay and cleaning cycle periods based on processing time and swine wastewater conductivity was developed. PMID:26698296

  4. Semi-empirical process-based models for ammonia emissions from beef, swine, and poultry operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilling, Alyssa M.; Adams, Peter J.

    2015-11-01

    Farm-level ammonia emissions factors in the literature vary by an order of magnitude due to variations in manure management practices and meteorology, and it is essential to capture this variability in emission inventories used for atmospheric modeling. Loss of ammonia to the atmosphere is modeled here through a nitrogen mass balance with losses controlled by mass transfer resistance parameters, which vary with meteorological conditions and are tuned to match literature-reported emissions factors. Variations due to management practices are captured by having tuned parameters that are specific to each set of management practices. The resulting farm emissions models (FEMs) explain between 20% and 70% of the variability in published emissions factors and typically estimate emission factors within a factor of 2. The r2 values are: 0.53 for swine housing (0.67 for shallow-pit houses); 0.48 for swine storage; 0.29 for broiler chickens; 0.70 for layer chickens; and 0.21 for beef feedlots (0.36 for beef feedlots with more farm-specific input data). Mean fractional error was found to be 22-44% for beef feedlots, swine housing, and layer housing; fractional errors were greater for swine lagoons (90%) and broiler housing (69%). Unexplained variability and errors result from model limitations, measurement errors in reported emissions factors, and a lack of information about measurement conditions.

  5. Proceedings of the 8. annual conference of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Alberta : Alberta's electricity market : best in the class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum for participants in North America's electric power industry to share their perspectives regarding the deregulation of the electricity market in Alberta and the impacts felt by consumers and power producers. Events that led to deregulation were reviewed. Many papers dealt with the development of power generation and power transmission projects, wholesale and retail pricing, features of the Alberta power pool, and the impact of increased competition. The conference was divided into seven sessions entitled: (1) Alberta's electricity market in 2011, (2) the evolving role of the balancing pool, (3) the north and south of transmission issues, (4) project development in Alberta, (5) evolution of customer choice, (6) Alberta's electricity retailers, and (7) wholesale markets and prices. More than 30 presentations were presented at the conference, of which 10 have been indexed separately for inclusion in the database. tabs., figs

  6. Food Scares, Market Power and Farm-Retail Price Spread: The Case of Pork Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Jiawu; Li, Xun; Wang, Xiuqing; Yu, Qiushuo; Mao, Xiaojie

    2015-01-01

    Pork market, as one of the most important food markets in China, is frequently exposed to food scare events such as Porcine Reproductive & Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS), Swine Influenza (SI), and Classical Swine Fever (CSF). This research first investigates the impact of food scare incidents on pork market in China with a theoretical framework, proving that if there is no market power, farm-retail price spread should be a function of marketing cost only. Using monthly data of pork retail price ...

  7. International Conference held at the University of Alberta

    CERN Document Server

    Strobeck, Curtis

    1983-01-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the International Conference in Population Biology held at The University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada from June 22 to June 30, 1982. The Conference was sponsored by The University of Alberta and The Canadian Applied Mathematics Society, and overlapped with the summer meeting of CAMS. The main objectives of this Conference were: to bring mathematicians and biologists together so that they may interact for their mutual benefit; to bring those researchers interested in modelling in ecology and those interested in modelling in genetics together; to bring in keynote speakers in the delineated areas; to have sessions of contributed papers; and to present the opportunity for researchers to conduct workshops. With the exception of the last one, the objec­ tives were carried out. In order to lend some focus to the Conference, the following themes were adopted: models of species growth, predator-prey, competition, mutualism, food webs, dispersion, age structure, stability, evol...

  8. Management of routine solution gas flaring in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberta's Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA) shares decision-making responsibilities with the Government of Alberta for strategic aspects of air quality. In 1997, the Alliance established the Flaring Project Team to develop recommendations that address potential and observed impacts associated with flaring, with particular focus on 'upstream solution gas' flaring. The upstream industry explores for, acquires, develops, produces and markets crude oil and natural gas. Essentially, solution gas at upstream sites is 'co-produced' during crude oil production. The project team was established to collect and summarize information on flaring and its impacts and to develop recommendations for short-term actions to minimize the practice of routine flaring of solution gas. Another goal of the team is to develop a research strategy to better understand flaring emissions and their effects on human, animal and environmental health. The team is working on developing long-term strategies for actions to address the gas flaring issue. 5 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  9. Occurrence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered swine in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lia Ettiene Peruch Lemos dos Santos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in swine slaughtered in Iporã, Northwest Paraná state. Blood samples were obtained from 500 finishing swine. All animals were raised under intensive farming; the blood samples were analyzed using the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Animals with titers of ?64 were considered positive for T. gondii infection. Of the tested samples, 63 (12.6% were positive by IFAT; 58 (92.06% of these showed titers of 64 (4.7%, with titers 256 and two (3.1% titers of 1024. These pigs might be considered a source of T. gondii infection for humans

  10. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical ... Consulting Agritourism Farm MAPPER Lyme Disease ROPS Rebate Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm ...

  11. Key operating and financial ratios for Alberta hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P; Hall, E M

    1994-01-01

    Comparative financial and operating ratios in Canadian hospitals are examined to reveal sources of increased efficiency. The study involved 70 Alberta hospitals, which were divided into three groups: teaching hospitals, regional hospitals and smaller rural hospitals. Data were obtained from HS-1 and HS-2 reports. Hospitals across Canada can calculate their own ratios to give them a general idea of how they compare with the hospitals in this report.

  12. Biodiversity offsets and caribou conservation in Alberta: opportunities and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Christine B. Robichaud; Knopff, Kyle H.

    2015-01-01

    The federal recovery strategy for boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) sets a goal of self-sustaining populations for all caribou ranges across Canada. All caribou herds in Alberta are currently designated as not self-sustaining and the recovery strategy requires an action plan to achieve self-sustaining status. At the same time, continued natural resource extraction in caribou ranges may be worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Some regulatory bodies have recognized an opport...

  13. Nutrition Education Practices and Opinions of Alberta Family Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, S. Ann; Joffres, Michel R

    1990-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 532 members of the Alberta Chapter of the College of Family Physicians in order to assess the role of physicians in providing nutrition education to their patients. Of the 255 respondents (53% response rate), over 97% agreed that “educating patients about nutrition is an important role for physicians.” Physicians most often gave nutrition information on obesity, constipation, heart disease and hypertension, alcohol, coffee, infant feeding, oste...

  14. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  15. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  16. Rooftop Farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, T.; Vischer, L.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. This manual tries to deliver basic insight in the topic of rooftop farms, the spectrum of options and what is or is not possible on your specific roof. The matrix on the first page serves you the overview. I

  17. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the poss

  18. Farm Auditing for Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Measures, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Policy makers have now established sustainability as the new aim for UK farming. The development of the Farm Audit for Sustainability involved identifying the objectives of sustainable farming, based on the Principles of organic farming as set out by the International Federation of Organic Farming Movements (IFOAM) and establishment of indicators to assess the effectiveness of individual farms in meeting these objectives. On-farm use of the Farm Audit demonstrated that the tool was able to pr...

  19. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  20. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, regulatory highlights for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new publication informs readers about what the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) did in the past year, including important regulatory issues, trends and initiatives. The EUB is an agency of the provincial government, established to regulate Alberta's energy resource and utility sectors. It is part of the Alberta Ministry of Energy. The four main functions of the Board are regulatory initiatives, license applications, enforcement and information. This publication summarized the EUB's position regarding flaring (both solution gas flaring and well test flaring), and Board activities in the areas of animal health concerns, the gas over bitumen controversy, the deregulation of the electric industry and what it means to the EUB, improvements in data quality as a result of improved industry compliance in reporting, and a variety of issues related to the oil sands and the negotiated settlement process. Also, the Board has been proactive in the area of oilfield waste management guidelines, proliferation policies for gas processing facilities, sulphur recovery guidelines, and the expansion of the orphan well program to include facilities and pipelines. As a measure of the success of the EUB, a recent survey of 19 randomly selected focus groups praised EUB for its impartiality, fair and equitable enforcement and independence. It was also praised for its technically competent and experienced staff, its access to quality information and the clarity of its mandate, regulatory requirements and processes. The Board's efforts in the area of timely stakeholder consultation was highlighted. tabs., figs

  1. Imports, exports, and Alberta's transmission system impact on price fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roles, responsibilities and objectives of ESBI, a private for-profit company, appointed by the Alberta Government to be the Independent Transmission Administrator in the province, is sketched, prior to a discussion of price volatility in electricity, Alberta interconnections, intertie issues, the economic theory and the reality impact on prices. Given that imports and exports constitute a relatively small proportion of total generation or load in Alberta, price volatility is considered to have been only minimally affected by imports/exports. In contrast, transmission constraints, i.e. the limits on physical capacity of the existing transmission system to accommodate all desired transactions, have significant impact on imports/exports. Factors underlying constraints and price volatility such as uncertainty of generation dispatch, leading to reduced interest to invest, which in turn leads to scarce capacity for imports/exports, and the actions required to reduce uncertainty and address other issues such as congestion management, tariff design and the creation of regional transmission organizations, are also discussed to provide further clarification of the issues. It is suggested that these and other related issues need to be resolved to provide the clarity around transmission access and the tools required to manage price fluctuations

  2. Biodiversity offsets and caribou conservation in Alberta: opportunities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine B. Robichaud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal recovery strategy for boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou sets a goal of self-sustaining populations for all caribou ranges across Canada. All caribou herds in Alberta are currently designated as not self-sustaining and the recovery strategy requires an action plan to achieve self-sustaining status. At the same time, continued natural resource extraction in caribou ranges may be worth hundreds of billions of dollars. Some regulatory bodies have recognized an opportunity for biodiversity offsets to help meet the caribou recovery strategy’s goals while still permitting economic benefits of development. In this review, we evaluate offset opportunities for caribou in Alberta and practical impediments for implementation. We conclude that a number of actions to offset impacts of development and achieve no net loss or net positive impact for caribou are theoretically feasible (i.e., if implemented they should work, including habitat restoration and manipulations of the large mammal predator-prey system. However, implementation challenges are substantial and include a lack of mechanisms for setting aside some resources for long periods of time, public opposition to predator control, and uncertainty associated with loss-gain calculations. A framework and related policy for offsets are currently lacking in Alberta and their development is urgently needed to guide successful design and implementation of offsets for caribou.

  3. Deregulation and the Alberta experience : the implications for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government of Alberta deregulated its electric power industry to introduce industry structure and regulatory reforms that would promote competitive electricity prices. The objective was to ensure fairness for customers and generating facilities. A graph depicting power pool prices shows the reality of soaring prices at the onset of deregulation in Alberta. Today, there remains uncertainty in the development of retail choice, additional rate riders, new generation, transmission expansion, other jurisdictions and future prices. Consumers are still poorly equipped to make decisions and farmers have no means of protection from fluctuating electricity prices. They see deregulation as a complete failure because costs are up and benefits are nowhere to be seen. Ontario can learn from the Alberta experience by adopting the recommendations to set financial penalties for incompetence, financial compensation to customers for errors, and to be fully ready with systems tested ahead of deregulation. Anticipated customer benefits should be clearly identified in advance. The future electric power industry in Ontario needs vision, stability, a cohesive plan, and leadership devoid of complacency. 1 fig

  4. Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis in Alberta: Two years of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lilley, Margaret; Christian, Susan; Hume, Stacey; Scott, Patrick; Montgomery, Mark; Semple, Lisa; Zuberbuhler, Peter; Tabak, Joan; Bamforth, Fiona; Somerville, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    On April 1, 2007, Alberta became the first province in Canada to introduce cystic fibrosis (CF) to its newborn screening program. The Alberta protocol involves a two-tier algorithm involving an immunoreactive trypsinogen measurement followed by molecular analysis using a CF panel for 39 mutations. Positive screens are followed up with sweat chloride testing and an assessment by a CF specialist. Of the 99,408 newborns screened in Alberta during the first two years of the program, 221 had a pos...

  5. An approach for measuring methane emissions from whole farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Flesch, T K; Harper, L A; Beauchemin, K A

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are typically measured by confining animals in large chambers, using head hoods or masks, or by a ratiometric technique involving sampling respired air of the animal. These techniques are not appropriate to evaluate large-scale farm emissions and the variability between farms that may be partly attributed to different farm management. This study describes the application of an inverse-dispersion technique to calculate farm emissions in a controlled tracer-release experiment. Our study was conducted at a commercial dairy farm in southern Alberta, Canada (total of 321 cattle, including 152 lactating dairy cows). Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and CH4 were released from 10 outlet locations (barn and open pens) using mass-flow controllers. A Lagrangian stochastic (LS) dispersion model was then used to infer farm emissions from downwind gas concentrations. Concentrations of SF6 and CH4 were measured by gas chromatography analysis and open path lasers, respectively. Wind statistics were measured with a three-dimensional sonic anemometer. Comparing the inferred emissions with the known release rate showed we recovered 86% of the released CH4 and 100% of the released SF6. The location of the concentration observations downwind of the farm was critically important to the success of this technique. PMID:16391273

  6. Swine in biomedical research. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the history of pigs; conceptual and operational history of the development of miniature swine; breeding program and population standards of the Gottingen miniature swine; moral, social and scientific aspects of the use of swine in research; fertility in gilts inseminated with frozen boar semen stored at -196 C for eight years; ultrastructure of piglet liver; porcine models in surgical research; anesthesia in swine; pulse monitoring, intravascular and instramuscular injection sites in pigs; collagen biosynthesis and collagen content as a measure of dermal healing in experimental wounds in domestic swine; methods for hair removal; swine as a cardiac surgical model; bone marrow transplantation in miniature swine; technical aspects of small intestinal transplantation in young pigs; models; the pig in studies of diarrhea pathophysiology; use of swine to validate airflow perturbation device for airways resistance measurements in humans; swine as a model for human diabetes; and the weanling Yorkshire pig as an animal model for measuring percutaneous penetration.

  7. Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) diversity in Sinclair and Hanford swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chak-Sum; Martens, Gregory W; Amoss, Max S; Gomez-Raya, Luis; Beattie, Craig W; Smith, Douglas M

    2010-03-01

    The swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) haplotype B is associated with increased penetrance of the tumor traits in Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma (SSCM). We established a series of SinclairxHanford swine crosses to facilitate genetic mapping of the tumor-associated loci. In this study, the SLA diversity in the founding animals was characterized for effective selection of maximum tumor penetrance in the pedigrees. Using the sequence-based typing (SBT) method we identified a total of 29 alleles at five polymorphic SLA loci (SLA-1, SLA-3, SLA-2, DRB1 and DQB1) representing six class I and five class II haplotypes. We subsequently developed a rapid PCR-based typing assay using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) to efficiently follow the SLA types of the crossbred progeny. In a total of 469 animals we identified three crossovers within the class I region and three between the class I and class II regions, which corresponded to recombination frequencies of 0.39% and 0.56%, respectively. We also confirmed the presence of two expressed SLA-1 loci in three of the class I haplotypes and were able to determine the relative chromosomal arrangement of the duplicated loci in two haplotypes. This study furthers our understanding of the allelic architecture and polymorphism of the SLA system and will facilitate the mapping of loci associated with the expression of SSCM.

  8. Advantage or illusion: is Alberta's progress sustainable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anielski, M. [Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    A new indicator of economic and environmental well-being, the Genuine Progress Indicators, of GPI, is discussed as part of an attempt to gauge the state of health of Alberta's economy, and to establish whether the tremendous apparent economic progress made by the province in recent decades is real or illusory. The GPI, an accounting system by which nations can measure real progress and real wealth, was developed by the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development of Alberta. It combines 51 indicators of economic, social and environmental measures, and is consistent with international efforts to find new measures of well-being and human development. Based on a study using the GPI system, real disposable income of Albertans was 5.5 per cent lower in 1999 than in 1982, despite a 36.3 per cent rise in Alberta's GDP per capita. This finding suggests that not all people are sharing in the the economic good times. Personal and household debt has also risen substantially and now exceeds real disposable income for the first time in history. Ability to save has been squeezed, resulting in protracted decline in personal savings, while Albertans pay 500 per cent more taxes in real dollars since 1961. Social and human health indicators highlight signs of social stress, such as rising levels of divorce, problem gambling and falling voter participation. Other indicators raise concerns about the condition of Alberta's natural capital, such as forests, agricultural soils, air and water quality, fish, wildlife and protected areas. Environmental GPIs show that Albertans have the fourth-highest ecological footprint in the world, exceeded only by the Arab Emirates, Singapore and the United States. The bigger the footprint the more is someone else on the planet shortchanged. The Pembina Institute report concludes that the development of Alberta's fossil fuel energy resources has come with a tremendous ecological price tag. It also shows that conventional crude oil

  9. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  10. The effects of climate and climate change on the economy of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are summarized from a study into the link between climate warming expected from a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide and the economy of Alberta. Part of the study quantified the impacts of the 1988 temperature anomaly in the province, using actual economic data for the same year. The 1988 temperatures averaged 3 C higher than normal for the year, and thus were similar to those projected (due to climate change) to be the new normals 4-5 decades from the present. In the agricultural sector, the overall economy is less dependent on climate due to the likelihood of offsetting positive and negative regional impacts. Adaptive methods appear to have the potential to mitigate any impacts by changing crop types and farming methods across regions, and by adjusting the mix of farming in any given region. In the forest sector, fire occurrence and frequency depend on seasonal distribution of precipitation; model predictions are probably not reliable enough to estimate the frequency or intensity of future fire occurrences. In the energy sector, total provincial electrical usage is not strongly climate-dependent, but 80% of natural gas consumption is dependent on climate. Under one scenario, the total provincial electrical energy saving is estimated at 0.5% annually and a 20% reduction in natural gas demand. In other sectors, general results suggest climate change would extend the seasonal and geographical range for many summer activities while the effects on winter activities are more uncertain. The links between climate and wildlife or human populations are not well defined. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. VALUE-ADDING 20 BILLION BY 2005: IMPACT AT THE ALBERTA FARM GATE

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.; Jeffrey, Scott R.; Quagrainie, Kwamena K.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction In recent years in Canada, direct support provided by governments to the agricultural sector has been decreasing due to international obligations under the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade/World Trade Organization (GATT/WTO) and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Consequently, governments and the agriculture industry are exploring ways of generating and sustaining farmers' revenue from the marketplace. In Western Canada, there is a renewed interest in the conce...

  12. Futuristic Farming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cross-strait agricultural relations look good judging by the founding of a Taiwanese-backed coffee farm in Hainan Lin Wen-ding's story is an ironic one. Once a leader of Taiwan's Democratic Progressive Party, which is often at odds with Chinese mainland policies, Lin Wen-ding now resides in south China's Hainan Province, a success story of better cross-strait relations. Lin Wen-ding, who dropped his politi-

  13. Swine Influenza in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Harsha K. K.; Wickramasinghe, Geethani; Cheung, Chung L; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Smith, David K.; Poon, Leo L M; Perera, Aluthgama K. C.; Ma, Siu K; Sunil-Chandra, Narapiti P.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. M.

    2013-01-01

    To study influenza viruses in pigs in Sri Lanka,we examined samples from pigs at slaughterhouses. Influenza (H3N2) and A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses were prevalent during 2004–2005 and 2009–2012, respectively. Genetic and epidemiologic analyses of human and swine influenza viruses indicated 2 events of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus spillover from humans to pigs.

  14. ON-FARM MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Jug

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The on-farm management systems under development in order to insure data collection, regular data processing needed on a farm as well as automatic data exchange between farm and computing centre. The core of information system presents relational database (RDBMS accompanied with tools developed in APIIS. A system analysis method has been done on two pig industrial units, on national selection program for swine in Slovenia, and compared with examples from other countries and species. Public domain software like PostgreSQL, Perl and Linux have been chosen for use on farms and can be replaced with commercial software like Oracle for more demanding central systems. The system contains at this stage applications for entering, managing, and viewing the data as well as transferring the information between local and central databases.

  15. Emergency vaccination for classical swine fever will not be cost-effective for countries with a large export

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Toft, Nils; Alban, Lis;

    2009-01-01

    the epidemiological and economic consequences of such control strategies under Danish conditions with respect to herd demographics and geography as well as to investigate the effect of extra biosecurity on farms. We used InterSpread Plus to model the effect of nine different control strategies: the minimum measures......,H.M., Smak,J.A., Pluimers,F.H., 1999. The classical swine fever epidemic 1997-1998 in The Netherlands: descriptive epidemiology, Prev.Vet.Med., 42, 157-184. Fritzemeier,J., Teuffert,J., Greiser,Wilke,I, Staubach,Ch, Schlüter,H., Moennig,V., 2000. Epidemiology of classical swine fever in Germany in the 1990s......, Vet.Microbiol. 77, 29-41. MacKinnon, J.D., 2001. Some clinical and epidemiological aspects of the outbreak of Classical Swine Fe-ver in East Anglia in 2000, State Vet.J,, 11, 2-7....

  16. Nasal Wipes for Influenza A Virus Detection and Isolation from Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolting, Jacqueline M; Szablewski, Christine M; Edwards, Jody L; Nelson, Sarah W; Bowman, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance for influenza A viruses in swine is critical to human and animal health because influenza A virus rapidly evolves in swine populations and new strains are continually emerging. Swine are able to be infected by diverse lineages of influenza A virus making them important hosts for the emergence and maintenance of novel influenza A virus strains. Sampling pigs in diverse settings such as commercial swine farms, agricultural fairs, and live animal markets is important to provide a comprehensive view of currently circulating IAV strains. The current gold-standard ante-mortem sampling technique (i.e. collection of nasal swabs) is labor intensive because it requires physical restraint of the pigs. Nasal wipes involve rubbing a piece of fabric across the snout of the pig with minimal to no restraint of the animal. The nasal wipe procedure is simple to perform and does not require personnel with professional veterinary or animal handling training. While slightly less sensitive than nasal swabs, virus detection and isolation rates are adequate to make nasal wipes a viable alternative for sampling individual pigs when low stress sampling methods are required. The proceeding protocol outlines the steps needed to collect a viable nasal wipe from an individual pig. PMID:26709840

  17. Diagnosis of Swine Encephalitis%猪乙型脑炎病的诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史秀春; 刁富花

    2012-01-01

    猪乙型脑炎又称流行性乙型脑炎、日本脑炎,是由流行性乙型脑炎病毒引起的一种急性、人畜共患的自然疫源性传染病.作者对某养殖户的病死猪进行临床症状观察,病理剖检及实验室诊断,通过病毒分离及鉴定,确诊病死猪为乙型脑炎病毒感染.鉴于养殖户中该病的存在及对养猪业的危害,建议加强对猪乙型脑炎病的诊断及监控.%Swine encephalitis also known as epidemic encephalitis, Japanese encephalitis,caused by an epidemic of acute viral encephalitis,the natural foci of zoonotic diseases. The paper introduced a pig farm. The clinical symptoms and pathological lesions and laboratory diagnosis were observed, and swine encephalitis was detected by virus isolation culture and RT-PCR, the final diagnosis result was swine encephalitis. Because the existence of the disease and the harm fulness to the pig industry, the diagnosis and monitoring of swine encephalitis should be strengthening.

  18. Mass and Energy Balances of Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion Treating Swine Manure Mixed with Rice Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility of swine manure treatment by a proposed Dry Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion (DT-AD system, we evaluated the methane yield of swine manure treated using a DT-AD method with rice straw under different C/N ratios and solid retention time (SRT and calculated the mass and energy balances when the DT-AD system is used for swine manure treatment from a model farm with 1000 pigs and the digested residue is used for forage rice production. A traditional swine manure treatment Oxidation Ditch system was used as the study control. The results suggest that methane yield using the proposed DT-AD system increased with a higher C/N ratio and shorter SRT. Correspondently, for the DT-AD system running with SRT of 80 days, the net energy yields for all treatments were negative, due to low biogas production and high heat loss of digestion tank. However, the biogas yield increased when the SRT was shortened to 40 days, and the generated energy was greater than consumed energy when C/N ratio was 20:1 and 30:1. The results suggest that with the correct optimization of C/N ratio and SRT, the proposed DT-AD system, followed by using digestate for forage rice production, can attain energy self-sufficiency.

  19. 75 FR 16641 - Swine Contract Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in the Federal Register on October 26, 2009 (74 FR 54928), inviting... and Stockyards Administration 9 CFR Part 206 RIN 0580-AB06 Swine Contract Library AGENCY: Grain... (1999 Act) by establishing the Swine Contract Library (SCL). The statutory authority for the...

  20. Advances in Swine biomedical Model Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease pro...

  1. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  2. Swine flu vaccination for patients with cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2011-01-01

    In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.

  3. Can Decommissioned Oil Pads in Boreal Alberta BE Reclaimed to Carbon Accumulating Peatlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, R.; Vitt, D. H.; Mowbray, S.

    2010-12-01

    In northern Alberta where peatland ecosystems are a dominant landscape feature, construction of oil drilling pads and access roads is a major disturbance. Reclamation of decommissioned oil pads has been hampered by the lack of research. At two decommissioned oil pads at Shell Oil’s Peace River Complex (northeastern Alberta), initially constructed in a bog/fen complex, we established a field experiment to assess reclamation approaches that could lead to a system reflecting undisturbed peatland structure (vegetation composition) and function (net carbon accumulation). In the fall of 2007, mineral soil was removed from two decommissioned pads in areas approximately 100-m x 30-m creating a mineral surface at or near the surrounding bog water table level. We established the following treatments: pad (fertilized vs. unfertilized); water table position (at and 5-cm above the surrounding bog water level); texture (tilling soil amendments into the mineral soil or not); amendment (controls; commercial peat, peat that had been stockpiled in a farmer’s field; landscape fabric; slough hay (native species hay from harvested from local farms), aspen wood chips); planting (in 1-m x 1-m subplots within 2-m x 2-m amendment plots: no planting, 9 Carex aquatilis plants, 5 C. aquatilis and 4 Salix lutea plants; 3 C. aquatilis, 3 S. lutea and 3 Larix laricina seedlings). Treatments were nested (planting within amendment, within texture, within water table level, within pad), with 6 replicate 2-m x 2-m plots of each amendment within each pad x texture x water level combination. Net CO2 exchange was quantified under a range of PAR conditions from full sunlight to complete darkness in each 1-m x 1-m planting subplot repeatedly during the summers of 2008, 2009 and 2010 using closed chambers and infrared gas analyzers. Both dark respiration and maximum net ecosystem production (NEPSAT; net CO2 sequestration when PAR>1000 μmol m-2 s-1) exhibited year x planting interactions (p<0.0001 and

  4. Recovery of gastrointestinal swine parasites in anaerobic biodigester systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañon-Franco, William Alberto; Henao-Agudelo, Ricardo Andrés; Pérez-Bedoya, José Leandro

    2012-01-01

    Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42.5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%), E. perminuta (12.5%), E. cerdonis (3.8%), and E. porci (2.5%). The additional finding of eggs of Taenia spp. in 10% of the samples was probably caused by a connection between the human sewage system and the biodigester. Although we observed a mean decrease of 65.6% of parasites, these levels were insufficient to meet the minimum requirement set by Engelberg's guidelines regarding water quality. This study demonstrates the serious environmental impact that an inadequately treated animal wastewater represents, and has important implications for water resources and human health.

  5. 9 CFR 166.6 - Swine feeding area standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine feeding area standards. 166.6 Section 166.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.6 Swine feeding...

  6. 9 CFR 206.2 - Swine contract library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine contract library. 206.2 Section... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWINE CONTRACT LIBRARY § 206.2 Swine contract library. (a) Do... swine contract library will be made available to the public? GIPSA will summarize the information it...

  7. Potential for enhanced geothermal systems in Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The province of Alberta has a high demand of thermal energy for both industrial and residential applications. Currently, the vast majority of the heat used in these applications is obtained by burning natural gas. Geothermal energy production from deep aquifer systems in the sedimentary basin could provide an alternative sustainable source of heat that would significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. To date there has been no geothermal field development in Alberta because the average geothermal gradient was considered to be too low for economic geothermal energy generation. However, with new technologies for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), it may be possible to develop geothermal resources from the sedimentary rocks in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). A numerical feasibility study based on a regional geological model and existing and newly gained data was conducted to identify scenarios for geothermal energy production in the region. In central Alberta, three Devonian carbonate formations (Cooking Lake, Nisku, Wabamun) and the Cambrian Basal Sandstone Unit were identified as the highest geothermal potential zones. Thermal-hydraulic reservoir simulations for a 5 km × 5 km site in the city of Edmonton were performed to evaluate reservoir development concepts for these four potential target formations; therefore, hydraulic fracturing treatments were also simulated. Different utilization concepts are presented for possible applications of geothermal energy generation in residential, industrial and agricultural areas. The Cooking Lake formation and the Basal Sandstone Unit are potentially the most promising reservoirs because the most heat can be extracted and the applications for the heat are widespread although the costs are higher than utilizing the shallower formations. Reservoir stimulation considerably improves the economics in all formations

  8. Transformation of Swine Manure and Algal Consortia to Value-added Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharara, Mahmoud A.

    The swine production sector is projected to grow globally. In the past, this growth manifested itself in increased herd sizes and geographically concentrated production. Although economically sound, these trends had negative consequences on surrounding ecosystems. Over-application of manure resulted in water quality degradation, while long-term storage of manure slurries was found to promote release of potent GHG emissions. There is a need for innovative approaches for swine manure management that are compatible with current scales of production, and increasingly strict environmental regulations. This study aims to investigate the potential for incorporating gasification as part of a novel swine manure management system which utilizes liquid-solid separation and periphytic algal consortia as a phycoremediation vector for the liquid slurry. The gasification of swine manure solids, and algal biomass solids generate both a gaseous fuel product (producer gas) in addition to a biochar co-product. First, the decomposition kinetics for both feedstock, i.e., swine manure solids, and algal solids, were quantified using thermogravimetry at different heating rates (1 ~ 40°C min-1) under different atmospheres (nitrogen, and air). Pyrolysis kinetics were determined for manure solids from two farms with different manure management systems. Similarly, the pyrolysis kinetics were determined for phycoremediation algae grown on swine manure slurries. Modeling algal solids pyrolysis as first-order independent parallel reactions was sufficient to describe sample devolatilization. Combustion of swine manure solids blended with algal solids, at different ratios, showed no synergistic effects. Gasification of phycoremediation algal biomass was studied using a bench-scale auger gasification system at temperatures between 760 and 960°C. The temperature profile suggested a stratification of reaction zones common to fixed-bed reactors. The producer gas heating value ranged between 2.2 MJ m

  9. ASPEN, the Alberta Special Education Network: Using Appropriate Technology to Bring the Community Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. Leigh; Anthony, Matthew

    1991-01-01

    The Alberta Special Education Network (ASPEN) is a computer-based communications and information network geared to the teaching and learning of exceptional children in rural Alberta, Canada. Network features include toll-free telephone access, a menu-driven user interface, training and awareness, electronic mail, weekly news, forums, and a…

  10. Maintaining the Momentum. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    Alberta's apprenticeship system offers training in 50 designated trades and 4 designated occupations and includes 40,398 registered apprentices and 11,1984 employers. The main components of Alberta's apprenticeship and training system are as follows: (1) a network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees in the designated occupations; (2)…

  11. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2005-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  12. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: 2005-06 Transfer Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In November of 2007, Alberta Advanced Education and Technology contracted Insightrix Research, Inc. to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from post-secondary institutions in Alberta in the fall of 2005 or the spring of 2006 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed through a separate initiative). The purpose of the survey is…

  13. Instructional Leadership in Alberta: Research Insights from Five Highly Effective Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Larry; Parsons, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews original research, sponsored by the Alberta Teachers Association (ATA), to gain evidence-based insights from five case studies of leadership in exemplary elementary schools in Alberta, Canada. Schools were identified by the ATA as sites where effective leadership was practiced. In this study, effective leadership was…

  14. Dr Malcolm King Honoured at University of Alberta Annual General Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 25, 2003, Dr Malcolm King, former Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS President and member, was honoured by the University of Alberta (U of A with the University of Alberta Board of Governors Award of Distinction for 2003. The following are highlights of an article written by Ryan Smith for ExpressNews.

  15. Vertical Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Núñez, Antonio José

    2012-01-01

    El fin de la instalación es producir frutas y verduras utilizando la menor superficie posible en planta, debido a la escasez y encarecimiento de esta, incremento de la población y desertificación. Para ello esta modalidad de plantación, Vertical farming, utiliza el desarrollo en altura, aprovechando la superficie lo máximo posible combinado con una nueva técnica, hidroponia, que es la forma de cultivar las plantas sin tierra. Facultad de Ciencias de la Empresa Universidad...

  16. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  17. Le Canada au miroir de l’Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    Boily, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    L’exploitation du pétrole des sables bitumineux, qui s’est intensifiée depuis quelques années dans le nord de la province albertaine, a amené le premier ministre Stephen Harper à décrire le Canada comme étant une « super puissance énergétique » en émergence. Cet article se propose de montrer comment la province de l’Alberta est devenue, en raison des impacts environnementaux ainsi que ceux sur les populations autochtones, l’enjeu principal quant à l’image, plus souvent négative que positive, ...

  18. Genetic evolution of recently emerged novel human-like swine H3 influenza A viruses (IAV) in United States swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major cause of respiratory disease in swine. IAV transmission from humans to swine is a major contributor to swine IAV diversity. In 2012, a novel H3N2 with an HA (hu-H3) and NA derived from human seasonal H3N2 was detected in United States (US) swine. The h...

  19. 77 FR 74555 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products; Estonia, Hungary, Slovakia, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ...-risk region for classical swine fever. We have determined that the 40-day holding period for swine... to prevent the introduction into the United States of various animal diseases, including classical swine fever (CSF), foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), swine vesicular disease (SVD), and rinderpest....

  20. Environmental Effectiveness of Swine Sewage Management: A Multicriteria AHP-Based Model for a Reliable Quick Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzari, Marco; Modica, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Environmental issues related to swine production are still a major concern for the general public and represent a key challenge for the swine industry. The environmental impact of higher livestock concentration is particularly significant where it coincides with weaker policy standards and poor manure management. Effective tools for environmental monitoring of the swine sewage management process become essential for verifying the environmental compatibility of farming facilities and for defining suitable policies aimed at increasing swine production sustainability. This research aims at the development and application of a model for a quick assessment of the environmental effectiveness of the pig farming sewage management process. In order to define the model, multicriteria techniques, and in particular, Saaty's analytic hierarchy process, were used to develop an iterative process in which the various key factors influencing the process under investigation were analyzed. The model, named EASE (Environmental Assessment of Sewages management Effectiveness), was optimized and applied to the Lake Trasimeno basin (Umbria, Italy), an area of high natural, environmental and aesthetic value. In this context, inadequate disposal of pig sewage represents a potential source of very considerable pollution. The results have demonstrated how the multicriteria model can represent a very effective and adaptable tool also in those decision-making processes aimed at the sustainable management of livestock production.

  1. Proceedings of the buying and pricing power in Alberta 2001 conference : making informed decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changing landscape of energy pricing and buying in Alberta provided the impetus for this conference, where a wide range of topics were covered. The presenters reflected on the importance of having comprehensive information in order to make a decision in this field. The eleven speakers represented power distribution companies and discussed: the new challenges in buying and selling power in Alberta; the evolving electricity market managing and energy portfolio; pricing of power in the new market; the impact on industrial/commercial customers; allocation of risk in power purchase agreements; paying for the transmission system; marketing under the changing rules of the game; forward markets in Alberta; new product and service offerings; alternatives to the grid: distributed generation, energy strategies; uncertainty and opportunity in Alberta's deregulated market, load allocation and financial settlement. The conference was an opportunity for all interested parties to exchange views and ideas pertaining to the marketing and the pricing of energy in Alberta. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Did you know? Petroleum industry fast facts: Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is part of a series of brochures published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, a non-profit society established in 1975. The foundation's objective is to stimulate public awareness and understanding of Canada's petroleum industry and its contribution to the economy of each of the provinces where the industry's presence and impact is substantial. This brochure provides brief, but useful, information about Alberta, about its area (661,190 sq.km), capital (Edmonton), population (2.914,918 in 1998) major industries (petroleum and mining, chemical products, agriculture, food, manufacturing, construction), revenue from natural resources (an estimated $ 3.4 billion from oil and natural gas in 1999-2000, or about 15 per cent of total government revenues), some facts about the petroleum industry in Alberta, (production, employment, pipelines, etc.), major exports (petroleum and natural gas, manufactured goods, primary agricultural products, chemicals and chemical products), and upstream industry expenditures in the province (about $ 12 billion in 1998). map, pie-chart, figs

  3. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  4. Spring Coulee, Alberta : geology, production and potential hydrocarbon bearing zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostridge, L.A.; Stewart, R.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    The mineral rights to 2 sections of land in the Spring Coulee area in southern Alberta are owned by the University of Calgary. Although the area is relatively unexplored, various pools in the area surrounding the University of Calgary's sections indicate that there is a potential for hydrocarbons to be located on the two sections. In order to examine the hydrocarbon potential on the two sections, the Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology (CREWES) Project shot an extensive 3C-2D seismic survey in January 2008. Gravity surveys across southern Alberta have observed anomalies and deep seismic data has indicated that Precambrian faulting is present on a large scale, which is then reflected in the younger Cretaceous sediments. This paper reported on a preliminary investigation into how the large-scale faulting occurs in the Spring Coulee area with respect to the University of Calgary land. The potential hydrocarbon bearing zones in the Spring Coulee area are the Bow Island, Base of Fish Scale, Sawtooth, Sunburst, Madison and Livingstone formations. Future work in the Spring Coulee area involves processing and interpreting the recently acquired seismic data, comparing large-scale basement faulting systems to seismic data and performing petrophysical and fluid replacement analyses of the area. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  5. The need for a marketing strategy for Alberta bitumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 15 years, government and industry have invested heavily in research and development of new technology for extracting bitumen from the Alberta oil sands. The results have been a dramatic increase in the fraction of oil sands deposits that could be economically exploited and a drop in production costs. However, no rapid increase in bitumen recovery has been achieved and most new bitumen production projects have been postponed or cancelled. This is the result of very variable prices for bitumen and the inadequacy of a marketing strategy which relies on the sale of raw bitumen. Options such as transport of bitumen to southern markets are limited by the need to reduce bitumen viscosity for pipelining and by the limited market for emulsified or diluted bitumen. Another possible strategy, conversion of the bitumen to synthetic crude oil, is limited by high costs, product characteristics (too much diesel and not enough gasoline), and a market limited to specialized refineries. A third strategy is to convert and refine bitumen to transportation fuels in Alberta, using inexpensive local natural gas, and transporting the products through existing pipeline facilities. 3 figs

  6. Improving the competitiveness of Alberta's retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navigant Consulting Limited (Navigant) was commissioned by Alberta Energy to provide an independent review of the issues and recommendations contained in the Report of the Retail Issues Subcommittee, published in September 2001, on the Alberta Retail Electricity Markets. It was also asked to identify and other significant issues, and making recommendations pertaining to the issues. The principles of a well-functioning retail market followed an introduction to the document. A definition of a competitive market, according to that used by the Retail Issues Subcommittee (RIS) was provided, and a discussion of each of the elements of such a market was included. Highlights from the United Kingdom retail electricity market were provided. A detailed discussion of each of the major issues identified in the RIS report was presented, and recommendations on each topic areas from the RIS report included. The expected impact of the recommendations was explored. A summary of the recommendations and implementation considerations was provided in the last section of the document. tabs., figs

  7. Community mental health nursing in Alberta, Canada: an oral history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschma, Geertje

    2012-01-01

    Community mental health nurses had a central role in the construction of new rehabilitative practices and community mental health services in the 1960s and 1970s. The purpose of this article is, first, to explore how nurses understood and created their new role and identity in the turbulent context of deinstitutionalization. The development of after care services for patients discharged from Alberta Hospital in Ponoka (AH-Ponoka), a large mental institution in Calgary, in the Canadian province of Alberta, will be used as a case study. I specifically focus on the establishment of outpatient services in a new psychiatric department at Foothills General Hospital in Calgary. Second, I examine how deinstitutionalization itself shaped community mental health nurses' work. Oral history interviews with nurses and other mental health professionals, who had a central role in this transformation process, provide a unique lens through which to explore this social change. The article concludes that new rehabilitative, community-based mental health services can better be understood as a transformation of former institutional practices rather than as a definite break with them.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira in wild mammals trapped on livestock farms in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Samantha E; Ojkic, Davor; Jardine, Claire M

    2014-07-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Leptospira serogroups circulating in wildlife on farms in Ontario, we tested samples from 51 raccoons (Procyon lotor), seven skunks (Mephitis mephitis), four rats (Rattus norvegicus), and three opossums (Didelphis virginiana) that were trapped on 27 livestock (swine [Sus scrofa], cattle [Bos taurus]) farms in 2010. Seventeen of 51 raccoons (33%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 21-48%) sampled were positive for at least one Leptospira serogroup using the microscopic agglutination test. None of the other 14 animals had detectable Leptospira antibodies. On swine farms, 13 of 30 raccoons (43%; 95% CI, 27-61%) were antibody positive, and on cattle farms, four of 21 raccoons (19%; 95% CI, 8-40%) were positive. Leptospira antibody prevalence in raccoons did not differ between swine and cattle farms. Raccoons were positive to serovars representative of serogroups Grippotyphosa, Australis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, and Pomona and were negative to serovars of serogroups Autumnalis, Canicola, and Sejroe. The prevalence of Leptospira antibodies in raccoons in this study is similar to what has been reported previously; however, the diversity of serogroups was higher in this study than what has been reported in raccoons from an urban area of Ontario, Canada. Understanding the prevalence and distribution of Leptospira serogroups in wildlife in Ontario, Canada, is important for the development and maintenance of appropriate disease management strategies in humans, livestock, and companion animals. PMID:24807356

  9. Comparison of API 20E and invA PCR for identification of Salmonella enterica isolates from swine production units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucera, Daniele M; Maddox, Carol W; Hoien-Dalen, Patricia; Weigel, Ronald M

    2006-09-01

    API 20E and invA PCR were evaluated for the identification of Salmonella enterica isolates from swine farms. API 20E had the highest agreement with other tests at the 99.9% likelihood level. Both tests had 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity compared to 16S rRNA sequencing. Compared to serotyping, both tests had 96% sensitivity; specificity was 86% for API 20E and 79% for invA PCR.

  10. The impact of swine welfare on some qualitative traits of meat and long cured animal derived products

    OpenAIRE

    Nannoni, Eleonora

    2013-01-01

    The present dissertation collects the results of three different research trials which have the common aim to understand the effects of swine welfare (both at farm level and during transport) on the main fresh and dry-cured meat characteristics. The first trial was carried out in order to compare the effects of illumination regimes differing in light duration or light intensity on meat and ham quality of Italian heavy pigs. The results of this trial support the conclusion that, within a m...

  11. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  12. Parameter Values for Epidemiological Models of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsley, Amy C.; Patterson, Gilbert; VanderWaal, Kimberly L.; Craft, Meggan E.; Perez, Andres M.

    2016-01-01

    In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain, and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection), probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread), and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 days; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Finally, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions. PMID:27314002

  13. Parameter values for epidemiological models of foot-and-mouth disease in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy C Kinsley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD incursion, response strategies are required to control, contain and eradicate the pathogen as efficiently as possible. Infectious disease simulation models are widely used tools that mimic disease dispersion in a population and that can be useful in the design and support of prevention and mitigation activities. However, there are often gaps in evidence-based research to supply models with quantities that are necessary to accurately reflect the system of interest. The objective of this study was to quantify values associated with the duration of the stages of FMD infection (latent period, subclinical period, incubation period, and duration of infection, probability of transmission (within-herd and between-herd via spatial spread, and diagnosis of a vesicular disease within a herd using a meta-analysis of the peer-reviewed literature and expert opinion. The latent period ranged from 1 to 7 days and incubation period ranged from 1 to 9 day; both were influenced by strain. In contrast, the subclinical period ranged from 0 to 6 days and was influenced by sampling method only. The duration of infection ranged from 1 to 10 days. The probability of spatial spread between an infected and fully susceptible swine farm was estimated as greatest within 5 km of the infected farm, highlighting the importance of possible long-range transmission through the movement of infected animals. Lastly, while most swine practitioners are confident in their ability to detect a vesicular disease in an average sized swine herd, a small proportion expect that up to half of the herd would need to show clinical signs before detection via passive surveillance would occur. The results of this study will be useful in within- and between-herd simulation models to develop efficient response strategies in the event an FMD in swine populations of disease-free countries or regions.

  14. Analysis of air pollution from swine production by using air dispersion model and GIS in Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Joachim H; Goïta, Kalifa; Desmarais, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Swine production, the second most important contributor to Quebec's agricultural revenue, faces many problems. Intensive piggeries, with up to 599 animal units, are used to raise finishing pigs for slaughter. Among the great number of gaseous species emitted to the atmospheric environment from livestock buildings and manure storage units is NH3, which is one of the most important and most offensive with respect to human health. Under appropriate meteorological and topographical conditions, gaseous contaminants can spread and cause a public nuisance--up to a 1-km radius around the farm. To mitigate these effects, the Quebec Government adopted regulations that set minimum buffer distances to be observed by any expansion of an existing or new pig farm. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficiency of the current buffer distance prescriptions in Quebec in mitigating effects of air pollution from swine units and (ii) to identify potential areas for establishing pig farm operations that will not be offensive to people. The air dispersion American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) with receptors distributed at 1.6 km around each source was used first, followed by a spatial geographic information system (GIS) model. Results from the dispersion model showed that the highest hourly concentration with a 99.5% compliance frequency for a single farm was 3078.1 microg/m3 and exceeded the NH3 odor criterion hourly standard set by the Quebec Government at 183.4 microg/m3. Thus, for public safety, densely populated areas like housing developments must be located >1300 m from a pig farm. This distance is in the range of setback distances (723 to 1447 m) obtained by using abacuses defined in the L'Erable Regional County Municipality. That is why we can say the current rules established by the Quebec Government, if rigorously applied, can prevent odor nuisance, due to NH3 emission, from swine farms. In the spatial model

  15. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Huan-cheng; Shi Zi-xue; Sun Jin-fu; Li Su; Tu Chang-chun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inocula...

  16. First detection and molecular characterization of sapoviruses and noroviruses with zoonotic potential in swine in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, are important human and animal enteric pathogens with zoonotic potential. In Ethiopia, no study has been done on the epidemiology of animal NoVs and SaVs. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize NoVs and SaVs from swine of various ages. Swine fecal samples (n = 117) were collected from commercial farms in Ethiopia. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region and the VP1 region of genome sequences of caliciviruses. Among 117 samples, potential caliciviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 17 samples (14.5 %). Of the RT-PCR-positive fecal samples, four were sequenced, of which two were identified as human NoV GII.1 and the other two as porcine SaV GIII. The porcine SaV strains that were detected were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden strain genogroup III (GIII), which is the prototype porcine SaV strain. No porcine NoVs were detected. Our results showed the presence of NoVs in swine that are most similar to human strains. These findings have important implications for NoV epidemiology and food safety. Therefore, continued surveillance of NoVs in swine is needed to define their zoonotic potential, epidemiology and public and animal health impact. This is the first study to investigate enteric caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses) in swine in Ethiopia. PMID:27424025

  17. The cholesterol system of the swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to characterize the dynamic system of adult female Large White swine. The content of this system and its relationships with both the external environment and between the different parts of the system were explained. The analysis of these results in terms of compared physiology showed that the structure of the cholesterol system was the same in man and in the swine. Consequently, the swine constitutes a good biological tool to study human cholesterol indirectly and to foresee the changes that might be induced in various physio-pathological cases. (author)

  18. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  19. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishtha Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition.

  20. Swine flu - A pandemic outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jini George

    Full Text Available Hippocrates had described influenza like outbreak in 412 B.C. and since then repeated influenza like epidemics and pandemics have been recorded in recent times. One of the greatest killers of all time was the pandemic of swine flu (Spanish flu of 1918-1919, when 230 million people died. Annual influenza epidemics are estimated to affect 5–15% of the global population, resulting in severe illness in 3–5 million patients causing 250,000–500,000 deaths worldwide. Severe illness and deaths occur mainly in the high-risk populations of infants, the elderly and chronically ill patients. The 2009 outbreak of swine flu is thought to be a mutation more specifically a reassortment of four known strains of influenza A virus subtype H1N1; one endemic in humans, one endemic in birds, and two endemic in pigs. WHO officially declared the outbreak to be a pandemic on June 11, 2009, but stressed that the new designation was a result of the global "spread of the virus," not its severity. [Vet World 2009; 2(12.000: 472-474

  1. Energy use in swine unit in the finishing system with waste treatment; Uso de energia em unidade suinicola em sistema de terminacao com tratamento de residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angonese, Andre Ricardo [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], Email: aangonese@yahoo.com.br; Campos, Alessandro Torres [Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM ), Diamantina, PR (Brazil)], Email: atcampos3@yahoo.com.br

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the energy flux and energetic balance related to the swine production and the recycling of residues generated by the system for utilization as organic fertilizers. The experiment was carried out at Vale dos Ipes Farm, located in the city of Ouro Verde do Oeste, in the Western of Parana State. One finishing phase swine unity containing 600 animals was monitored from January to June 2005. The treatment system is composed by one steel digester with capacity for 50 m{sup 3}, one sedimentation tank, one algae tank and one bio fertilizer storage tank. The swine barn cleaning is performed by dry scratching on a daily basis. The generated residues flow by gravitation through ducts towards the digester. The duration of the hydraulic retention period was 12 days. In the calculation of energetic efficiency, the energetic component ration is the greatest energetic cost in production system of finishing phase swine, corresponding to 95% from the total direct energy. At the way out of the energy system, the energetic component of swine for slaughtering corresponds to 56.8%. The system fitted into the features of an industrial agroecosystem, importing the majority of the consumed energy in the productive process and exporting more than 56% of the production as swine for slaughtering, while the remaining is used in the property as fertilizer. (author)

  2. Hepatitis E virus infection in central China reveals no evidence of cross-species transmission between human and swine in this area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a zoonotic pathogen of which several species of animal were reported as reservoirs. Swine stands out as the major reservoir for HEV infection in humans, as suggested by the close genetic relationship of swine and human virus. Since 2000, Genotype 4 HEV has become the dominant cause of hepatitis E disease in China. Recent reports showed that genotype 4 HEV is freely transmitted between humans and swine in eastern and southern China. However, the infection status of HEV in human and swine populations in central China is still unclear. This study was conducted in a rural area of central China, where there are many commercial swine farms. A total of 1476 serum and 554 fecal specimens were collected from the general human and swine populations in this area, respectively. The seroepidemiological study was conducted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Conserved genomic sequences of open reading frame 2 were detected using reverse transcription-PCR. The results indicated that the overall viral burden of the general human subjects was 0.95% (14/1476, while 7.0% (39/554 of the swine excreted HEV in stool. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG and IgM in the serum samples was 7.9% (117/1476 and 1.6% (24/1476, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 150 nt partial sequence of the capsid protein gene showed that the 53 swine and human HEV isolates in the current study all belonged to genotype 4, clustering into three major groups. However, the HEV isolates prevalent in the human and swine populations were classified into known distinct subgenotypes, which suggested that no cross-species transmission between swine and humans had taken place in this area. This result was confirmed by cloning and phylogenetic analysis of the complete capsid protein gene sequence of three representative HEV strains in the three major groups. The cross reactivity between anti-HEV IgG from human sera and the two representative strains from swine in

  3. Occurrence of multidrug resistant Salmonella in antimicrobial-free (ABF) swine production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Siddhartha; Tadesse, Daniel A; Morrow, Morgan; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A

    2007-12-15

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella species in swine reared in the intensive (indoor) and extensive (outdoor) ABF production systems at farm and slaughter in North Carolina, U.S.A. We sampled a total of 279 pigs at farm (extensive 107; intensive 172) and collected 274 carcass swabs (extensive 124; intensive 150) at slaughter. Salmonella species were tested for their susceptibility against 12 antimicrobial agents using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Serogrouping was done using polyvalent and group specific antisera. A total of 400 salmonellae were isolated in this study with a significantly higher Salmonella prevalence from the intensive (30%) than the extensive farms (0.9%) (Pslaughter, significantly higher Salmonella was isolated at the pre- and post-evisceration stages from extensively (29% pre-evisceration and 33.3% post-evisceration) than the intensively (2% pre-evisceration and 6% post-evisceration) reared swine (Ppressure. In addition, it also highlights the possible role played by slaughterhouse and other environmental factors in the contamination and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella in ABF production systems. PMID:17644277

  4. Organic farming at the farm level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Madsen, Niels; Ørum, Jens Erik

    The purpose of this report is to present possible impacts of new technology and changes in legislation on the profitability of different types of organic farms. The aim is also to look at both the current and future trends in the organic area in Denmark. The farm level analyses are carried out...... as part of a larger project entitled “Economic analyses of the future development of organic farming – effects at the field, farm, sector and macroeconomic level”. The project links effects at the field-level with analyses at the farm level. These effects are then used in sector and macroeconomic analyses...

  5. Biomass and biomass change in lodgepole pine stands in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monserud, Robert A; Huang, Shongming; Yang, Yuqing

    2006-06-01

    We describe methods and results for broad-scale estimation and mapping of forest biomass for the Canadian province of Alberta. Differences over successive decades provided an estimate of biomass change. Over 1500 permanent sample plots (PSP) were analyzed from across the range of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.), the major forest tree species of Alberta. The PSP network is densest in stands aged between 70 and 100 years and is well-represented by stands of all ages to 150 years of age. Stand biomass (Mg ha(-1)) was estimated for each PSP plot as the sum of the respective biomass components for each tree (live and standing dead). The biomass components for live trees were stem, bark, branches, foliage and roots. The components for standing dead trees excluded foliage. Equations from previous biomass studies were used for biomass component estimation. Biomass estimates of additional non-tree components were attempted, but without much success. Biomass of the soil organic layer was estimated once on 452 PSPs and a mean estimate of total dead fuels on the ground (28.4 Mg ha(-1)) was available only for the entire distribution of lodgepole pine. However, values of these two components were essentially constant over time and therefore did not alter the analysis or conclusions obtained by analyzing total tree biomass alone. We then used this spatial network of 1549 plots as the basis for mapping biomass across Alberta. Mapping methods were based on Australian National University SPLINe (ANUSPLIN) software, Hutchinson's thin-plate smoothing spline in four dimensions (latitude, longitude, elevation and biomass). Total tree biomass (mean = 172 Mg ha(-1)) was dominated by stem biomass (mean = 106 Mg ha(-1)), which was an order of magnitude greater than the mean estimates for the bark (11 Mg ha(-1)), branch (12 Mg ha(-1)) and foliage (12 Mg ha(-1)) components. A close relationship was found between total tree biomass and stand stem volume (R(2) = 0

  6. Prevalence of classical swine fever in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Choori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to know the current scenario of classical swine fever (CSF in Bengaluru Urban, Bengaluru Rural, Chikkaballapur, Madikeri, Mandya, Bagalkot, Gadag, Yadgir, Koppal, and Bidar districts of Karnataka with the using of both antigen and antibody ELISA. Materials and Methods: We collected 218 sera and 121 blood samples from pigs from 10 different districts of Karnataka. Screening of sera for CSF IgG antibody and whole blood for CSF virus antigen were carried out using the CSF virus (CSFV antibody and antigen ELISA kits, respectively. Results: The mean seroprevalence was 41% (89/218 and prevalence of CSFV antigen in blood samples was 32% (39/121 for the 10 districts of Karnataka. Seroprevalence of 61%, 29%, 20%, and 21%; and antigen prevalence of 40%, 50%, 13%, and 12% were recorded for Bangalore, Mysore, Belgaum, and Gulbarga divisions of Karnataka, respectively. Conclusions: The study revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of CSF, both for the antigen (32% and antibody (41% in Karnataka. Southern Karnataka has the highest seroprevalence (61% in Bangalore and 29% in Mysore divisions, which confirms the endemicity of the disease in that region. This could be attributed to the intensive pig farming practices in the region as compared to Northern Karnataka (Seroprevalence of 20% in Belgaum and 21% in Gulbarga divisions, where the commercial pig farming is still in infantile stages.

  7. Integrated anaerobic/aerobic biological treatment for intensive swine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortone, Giuseppe

    2009-11-01

    Manure processing could help farmers to effectively manage nitrogen (N) surplus load. Many pig farms have to treat wastewater. Piggery wastewater treatment is a complex challenge, due to the high COD and N concentrations and low C/N ratio. Anaerobic digestion (AD) could be a convenient pre-treatment, particularly from the energetic view point and farm income, but this causes further reduction of C/N ratio and makes denitrification difficult. N removal can only be obtained integrating anaerobic/aerobic treatment by taking into account the best use of electron donors. Experiences gained in Italy during development of integrated biological treatment approaches for swine manure, from bench to full scale, are reported in this paper. Solid/liquid separation as pre-treatment of raw manure is an efficient strategy to facilitate liquid fraction treatment without significantly lowering C/N ratio. In Italy, two full scale SBRs showed excellent efficiency and reliability. Current renewable energy policy and incentives makes economically attractive the application of AD to the separated solid fraction using high solid anaerobic digester (HSAD) technology. Economic evaluation showed that energy production can reduce costs up to 60%, making sustainable the overall treatment. PMID:19135363

  8. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source of the pandemic influenza ... in pigs in a small region of central Mexico, a new study reports. Researchers used genetic analysis ...

  9. Dissemination of plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases in antimicrobial resistant Salmonella serotypes originating from humans, pigs and the swine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this study was to characterize and determine the inter-serovar exchange of AmpC β-lactamase conferring plasmids isolated from humans, pigs and the swine environment. Plasmids isolated from a total of 21 antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Salmonella isolates representing human clinical cases (n=6), pigs (n=6) and the swine farm environment (n=9) were characterized by replicon typing and restriction digestion, inter-serovar transferability by conjugation, and presence of AmpC β-lactamase enzyme encoding gene blaCMY-2 by southern hybridization. Based on replicon typing, the majority (17/21, 81%) of the plasmids belonged to the I1-Iγ Inc group and were between 70 and 103kb. The potential for inter-serovar plasmid transfer was further confirmed by the PCR detection of AMR genes on the plasmids isolated from trans-conjugants. Plasmids from Salmonella serovars Anatum, Ouakam, Johannesburg and Typhimurium isolated from the same cohort of pigs and their environment and S. Heidelberg from a single human clinical isolate had identical plasmids based on digestion with multiple restriction enzymes (EcoRI, HindIII and PstI) and southern blotting. We demonstrated likely horizontal inter-serovar exchange of plasmid-encoding AmpC β-lactamases resistance among MDR Salmonella serotypes isolated from pigs, swine farm environment and clinical human cases. This study provides valuable information on the role of the swine farm environment and by extension other livestock farm environments, as a potential reservoir of resistant bacterial strains that potentially transmit resistance determinants to livestock, in this case, swine, humans and possibly other hosts by horizontal exchange of plasmids.

  10. Oldman dam (Alberta) : managing risk of spillway failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobkowicz, J. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Breunig, M. [MPE Engineering Ltd., Red Deer, AB (Canada); Wog, K. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dam Safety

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed repairs conducted at the Oldman Dam located 10 km northeast of Pincher Creek, Alberta. The dam is 76 m high and 1200 m long, and has a reservoir with a storage capacity of 490,000 dam{sup 3} of water. The repairs were conducted after a dam safety review determined that the concrete spillway was slowly deforming. As a result of the deformation, accumulated spillway movement and shearing of the foundation was significant. Minor distress was observed in the mud slab along the outside of the spillway. Moderate distress was observed in the lower drainage manholes. Possible causes of the deformation included shear displacement along a weak unit in the interbedded foundation mudstones. The downhill movement of the spillway slab has caused high compressive stresses. The study concluded by suggesting that considerable additional deformation will need to occur before the danger of slab compression failure becomes significant. 2 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  11. Alberta Consumers' Valuation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Red Meat Attributes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes Alberta consumers’ perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattle......, this study provides a “post-BSE” assessment of consumer perceptions toward selected bison meat attributes. The results from an attribute-based choice experiment provide little support that simple traceability assurance schemes have value to consumers of bison and beef steaks, thus confirming similar findings...... of earlier beef studies that have employed different methodological approaches. The results also suggest that consumers are willing to pay significant premiums for bison steaks that are certified as being produced without genetically modified organisms, an attribute that has so far been unexplored...

  12. Advances in Swine Biomedical Model Genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Lunney, Joan K.

    2007-01-01

    This review is a short update on the diversity of swine biomedical models and the importance of genomics in their continued development. The swine has been used as a major mammalian model for human studies because of the similarity in size and physiology, and in organ development and disease progression. The pig model allows for deliberately timed studies, imaging of internal vessels and organs using standard human technologies, and collection of repeated peripheral samples and, at kill, deta...

  13. Geochemical fate of arsenic in swine litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quazi, S.; Makris, K.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Punamiya, P.

    2007-12-01

    Swine diet is often supplemented by organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone to treat diseases and to promote growth. Recent data reported roxarsone degradation under anaerobic conditions in poultry litter, but no such data exist for swine wastes typically stored in unprotected lagoons in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, serious environmental health risk may arise upon significant arsenic (As) release into solution. The problem may be exacerbated under certain environmental conditions where organoarsenicals, such as roxarsone transform into the more toxic inorganic As, posing serious health risk to the surrounding ecosystem. The objective of this study were to analyze swine wastes collected from 19 randomly selected CAFOs in the USA for As concentrations, and to determine the geochemical fate of As in the swine waste suspensions. Swine wastes were analyzed for total-recoverable, total soluble, and water-extractable As, which were measured by ICP-MS. Speciation of As was performed following a well-established hyphenated technique using HPLC- ICPMS. Swine waste suspensions differed in solids contents; thus, the particulate matters with varying As concentrations were spiked with roxarsone and incubated under dark/light and aerobic/anaerobic conditions. Findings show the prevalence of inorganic As [As(V)] in swine waste suspension solutions. Roxarsone underwent degradation to both organoarsenicals, such as p-ASA, as well as inorganic arsenate and to a number of unidentified metabolites. Roxarsone degradation kinetics was influenced by the solids content and the air conditions (anaerobic/aerobic) of the swine waste suspensions. Maximum degradation rates were observed under anaerobic conditions, in suspensions which were low in solids content. Roxarsone degradation was primarily microbially-mediated, but in certain cases abiotic degradation was also observed, which were significantly slower.

  14. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    OpenAIRE

    Nishtha Singh; Sheetu Singh; Bharat Bhushan Sharma; Virendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric ...

  15. Análise da adequação ambiental e manejo dos dejetos de instalações para suinocultura em propriedades na região oeste do Paraná Analysis of the environmental adequacy and management of dejections on swine buildings in farms in the west region of the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacir Daga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dejetos de suínos são resíduos altamente poluidores, que prejudicam o meio ambiente, em especial a qualidade da água e o desenvolvimento de peixes e outros organismos aquáticos. Com isso, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o perfil da suinocultura, a análise da adequação das instalações, os sistemas de manejo dos dejetos, bem como a adequação à legislação ambiental das propriedades agrícolas localizadas na microbacia do Córrego Ajuricaba, selecionada e localizada na bacia hidrográfica do Rio São Francisco Verdadeiro, na região Oeste do Paraná. Os resultados apresentados neste trabalho referem-se a dez propriedades das 110 analisadas. O perfil da suinocultura é de 80% dos suinocultores com sistema de criação em terminação e 20% em ciclo completo; nenhuma das instalações possui o sistema de lâmina d’água; todas as instalações utilizam o sistema de limpeza por raspagem; a freqüência de limpeza das baias nas instalações é diária e, em 90% das instalações, não foi observado desperdício de ração. O principal problema detectado nas construções foi o acesso das águas da chuva nas canaletas. No aspecto da legislação ambiental, constatou-se que todas as propriedades da microbacia analisada possuem problemas com a mata ciliar.The swine dejections are polluting residues that harm the environment, in special the water quality and the development of fish and other aquatic organisms. The objective of this work was to verify the profile of the swine raise, analysis of the adequacy of the installations, the systems of the dejection handling, as well as the adequacy to the environmental legislation of the agricultural properties located in the microatchment of Ajuricaba stream, selected and located in the hydrographical basin of the São Francisco Verdadeiro River, in the western region of Paraná. The results presented in this work mention ten properties of 110 analyzed. The profile of the swine raise is

  16. Outbreaks of influenza A virus in farmed mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: molecular characterization of the viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona;

    2012-01-01

    diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings indicate that mink is highly susceptible for influenza A virus of human...

  17. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  18. Quantifying Sources of Methane in the Alberta Oil Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baray, S.; Darlington, A. L.; Gordon, M.; Hayden, K.; Li, S. M.; Mittermeier, R. L.; O'brien, J.; Staebler, R. M.; McLaren, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the summer of 2013, an aircraft measurement campaign led by Environment Canada with participation from university researchers took place to investigate the sources and transformations of gas pollutants in the Alberta oil sands region close to Fort McMurray, Alberta. Apart from its ability to change the radiative forcing of the atmosphere, methane is also a significant precursor to the formation of formaldehyde, an important radical source. Thus, emissions of methane from facilities need to be understood since they can have air quality implications through alteration of the radical budget and hence, the oxidation capacity of the air mass. Methane was measured, along with other gases, via a cavity ring-down spectroscopy instrument installed on the Convair-580 aircraft. In total, there were 22 flights with 82 hours of measurements in the vicinity of oil sands facilities between August 13 and September 7, 2013. Various tools have been used to visualize the spatial and temporal variation in mixing ratios of methane and other trace gases in order to identify possible sources of methane. Enhancements of methane from background levels of 1.9 ppm up to ~4 ppm were observed close to energy mining facilities in the oil sands region. Sources of methane identified include open pit mining, tailings ponds, upgrader stacks and in-situ mining operations. Quantification of the emission rates of methane from distinct sources has been accomplished from box flights and downwind screen flights by identifying the ratios of trace gases emitted and through use of the Top-down Emission Rate Retrieval Algorithm (TERRA). Methane emission rates for some of these sources will be presented.

  19. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  20. Phylogenetic analysis reveals common antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter coli population in antimicrobial-free (ABF and commercial swine systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena P Quintana-Hayashi

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the population biology of antimicrobial resistant (AR Campylobacter coli isolated from swine reared in the conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF swine production systems at farm, slaughter and environment. A total of 200 C. coli isolates selected from fecal, environmental, and carcass samples of ABF (n = 100 and conventional (n = 100 swine production systems were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST. Sequence data from seven housekeeping genes was analyzed for the identification of allelic profiles, sequence types (STs and clonal complex determination. Phylogenetic trees were generated to establish the relationships between the genotyped isolates. A total of 51 STs were detected including two novel alleles (glnA 424 and glyA 464 and 14 novel STs reported for the first time. The majority of the C. coli isolates belonged to ST-854 (ABF: 31, conventional: 17, and were grouped in clonal complex ST-828 (ABF: 68%, conventional: 66%. The mean genetic diversity (H for the ABF (0.3963+/-0.0806 and conventional (0.4655+/-0.0714 systems were similar. The index of association (I(A(S for the ABF (I(A(S= 0.1513 and conventional (I(A(S = 0.0991 C. coli populations were close to linkage equilibrium, indicative of a freely recombining population. Identical STs were detected between the pigs and their environment both at farm and slaughter. A minimum spanning tree revealed the close clustering of C. coli STs that originated from swine and carcass with those from the environment. In conclusion, our study reveals a genotypic diverse C. coli population that shares a common ancestry in the conventional and ABF swine production systems. This could potentially explain the high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. coli in the ABF system in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis reveals common antimicrobial resistant Campylobacter coli population in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and commercial swine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the population biology of antimicrobial resistant (AR) Campylobacter coli isolated from swine reared in the conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) swine production systems at farm, slaughter and environment. A total of 200 C. coli isolates selected from fecal, environmental, and carcass samples of ABF (n = 100) and conventional (n = 100) swine production systems were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sequence data from seven housekeeping genes was analyzed for the identification of allelic profiles, sequence types (STs) and clonal complex determination. Phylogenetic trees were generated to establish the relationships between the genotyped isolates. A total of 51 STs were detected including two novel alleles (glnA 424 and glyA 464) and 14 novel STs reported for the first time. The majority of the C. coli isolates belonged to ST-854 (ABF: 31, conventional: 17), and were grouped in clonal complex ST-828 (ABF: 68%, conventional: 66%). The mean genetic diversity (H) for the ABF (0.3963+/-0.0806) and conventional (0.4655+/-0.0714) systems were similar. The index of association (I(A)(S)) for the ABF (I(A)(S)= 0.1513) and conventional (I(A)(S) = 0.0991) C. coli populations were close to linkage equilibrium, indicative of a freely recombining population. Identical STs were detected between the pigs and their environment both at farm and slaughter. A minimum spanning tree revealed the close clustering of C. coli STs that originated from swine and carcass with those from the environment. In conclusion, our study reveals a genotypic diverse C. coli population that shares a common ancestry in the conventional and ABF swine production systems. This could potentially explain the high prevalence of antimicrobial resistant C. coli in the ABF system in the absence of antimicrobial selection pressure. PMID:22984540

  2. Swine in biomedical research. V. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbleson, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    This volume presents information on the following topics: the effect of dietary fiber on growing pigs; preparation of a cerebral perfusion model in the pig - anatomic considerations; a review of the utilization of lactose, glucose, sucrose, and cornstarch by neonatal piglets reared artificially; histology of piglet liver, swine hematology; use of swine as a model of musculoskeletal growth in animals; boar and human sperm as cellular models for membrane phospholipiid biosynthesis and degradation; a stereotaxic atlas of the developing swine (Sus Scrofa) forebrain; the effect of ethanol on liver mitochondrial Ca++-uptake; control of feed intake in pigs; the pig as a model of abberations associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; whey and cholesterol in swine; vitamin and mineral nutrition and malnutrition; cadmium absorption, distribution and excretion in young and adult minature swine; a piglet model for infant total parenteral nutrition studies; swine in perinatal research; the endocrine pancreas of the fetal pig; cardiovascular physiology of the pig fetus; and the effect of sow's milk versus formula on the superior mesenteric blood flow of newborn piglets.

  3. Input and leaching potential of copper, zinc, and selenium in agricultural soil from swine slurry

    OpenAIRE

    Comas Baron, Jordi; Dominguez, Carmen; Salas Vazquez, Dora Isela; Parera, Joan; Díez, S; Bayona, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements, such as copper, zinc, and selenium, used as feed additives were determined in samples of both fresh (N = 14) and anaerobically digested (N = 6) swine slurry collected on medium- to large-size farms in northeast Spain. Considering both fresh and anaerobically digested samples, mean concentrations of zinc (1,500 mg kg(-1) dry mass [dm]) were greater than those of copper (mean 239 mg kg(-1) dm), and the selenium concentrations detected were even lower (mean 139 mu g kg(-1) dm). Z...

  4. Swine flu: a Birmingham experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, James; Mcewen, Ruth; Mistry, Sanjay; Green, Chris; Osman, Husam; Bailey, Mark; Ellis, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    By the beginning of July 2009 the West Midlands had seen more cases of novel H1N1 influenza (swine flu) than any other region in the U.K. Over a three-week period almost 850 people presented to Heartlands Hospital with flu-like symptoms. Of those admitted 52 adults were subsequently confirmed as having H1N1 infection. Most were younger than 30 and not from traditional influenza risk groups. The main risk factor for severe disease was asthma, and to a lesser extent pregnancy and obesity. Seven patients were admitted to intensive care and five developed an acute lung injury requiring prolonged admission. Two patients required extra corporeal membrane oxygenation and one died. Despite increased workload normal clinical services were unaffected. The hospital was not closed to admissions nor was it paralysed by staff absence. With a predicted second wave expected at the end of 2009, efforts to maintain effective community assessment remain crucial.

  5. Mutations in classical swine fever virus NS4B affect virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), a virus causing a severe disease in swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of NS4B in highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor like domain (TIR...

  6. Patterns of gene expression in swine macrophages infected with classical swine fever virus detected by microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious disease of swine that is characterized by fever, hemorrhage, leukopenia, abortion, and high mortality. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is classified as a Pestivirus, along with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) and Border Disease Virus...

  7. Mutations in the classical swine fever virus NS4B protein affects virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    NS4B is one of the non-structural proteins of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), the etiological agent of a severe, highly lethal disease of swine. Protein domain analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of the NS4B protein of highly pathogenic CSFV strain Brescia (BICv) identified a Toll/Inte...

  8. The Epidemiology of Childhood Asthma in Red Deer and Medicine Hat, Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Hessel

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To document the prevalence of asthma among school-aged children in two Alberta communities, to understand host and indoor environmental factors associated with asthma, and to compare these factors between the two communities.

  9. Waterfowl breeding pair survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest Territories: 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey for northern Alberta, northeastern British Columbia, Yukon, and the Northwest...

  10. The vitamin A and vitamin E status of horses raised in Alberta and Saskatchewan.

    OpenAIRE

    Blakley, B R; Bell, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine normal baseline levels of vitamin A and vitamin E in clinically normal horses under typical field conditions in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Heparinized blood samples were collected from approximately 400 clinically healthy horses selected from 24 locations in Alberta and Saskatchewan during a two-year period. For each horse, historical information including feed type, vitamin supplementation, time of year, sex, and age were recorded. From each blood sam...

  11. Wetland habitat selection by woodland caribou as characterized using the Alberta Wetland Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    W. Kent Brown; W. James Rettie; Bob Wynes; Kim Morton

    2011-01-01

    We examined habitat selection by woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in northwestern Alberta based on a wetland classification system developed for the Alberta Vegetation Inventory. Our two objectives were to describe caribou habitat use, and to assess the utility of the wetland classification system in land-use planning on caribou range. We used a geographical information system to overlay the locations of radio-collared caribou on the habitat map. Using a "moving-window" analysis o...

  12. Career paths of academic administrators in Alberta colleges: travelling the highway or fording a stream?

    OpenAIRE

    Goates, Robin Christine

    2007-01-01

    Over the next several years it is assumed that there will be a large turnover in academic administrators in the Alberta public college system with many current administrators reaching retirement age. Looking at career paths of current academic administrators may help better prepare future academic administrators. The research questions this study asks are what are the career paths of current academic administrators in Alberta public colleges, and how can these paths inform us about preparing ...

  13. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    OpenAIRE

    H. S. Marey; Z. Hashisho; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-01-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the th...

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    OpenAIRE

    H. S. Marey; Z. Hashisho; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-01-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TI...

  15. Evaluation of the risk factors contributing to the African Swine Fever occurrence in Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz eMartínez-López

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the relation between hypothesized risk factors and African swine fever virus (ASFV distribution in Sardinia (Italy after the beginning of the eradication program in 1993, using a Bayesian multivariable logistic regression mixed model. Results indicate that the probability of ASFV occurrence in Sardinia was associated to particular socio-cultural, productive and economical factors found in the region, particularly to large number of confined (i.e. closed farms (most of them backyard, high roads density, high mean altitude, large number of open fattening farms, and large number of pigs per commune. Conversely, large proportion of open farms with at least one census and large proportion of open farms per commune, were found to be protective factors for ASFV. Results suggest that basic preventive and control strategies, such as yearly census or registration of the pigs per farm and better control of the public lands where pigs are usually raised, together with endanced effords of outreach and communication with pig producers should help in the success of the eradication program for ASF in the Island. Methods and results presented here will inform decision making to better control and eradicate ASF in Sardinia and in all those areas with similar management and epidemiological conditions.

  16. Competing in a deregulated market : what are we learning from the Alberta experience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A history of the deregulation schedule in Alberta was presented. The spot market in the province opened in January 1996. What Albertans wanted from deregulation was a competitive power generation market, a liquid spot market, a liquid forward market, competitive retail market, a clear transmission policy, transparent pricing, and innovation. They got a competitive power generation market and a liquid spot market, but with few buyers and an unclear transmission policy with only medium transparency in prices. Innovation was seen in the form of small power and distributed generation such as wind energy. In 2001, the Alberta government stepped in to subsidize consumers because wholesale prices were trading at record highs. In 2002 wholesale prices collapsed. It was shown that prices have declined in Alberta as supply and demand came into balance. The Keephills Generating Plants 3 and 4 will have a large impact on the market in 2005. It was emphasized that new transmission would unlock additional potential market for Alberta generation. The paper presented viewgraphs showing existing generation capacity and the high Alberta prices following deregulation. It was noted that commodity cycles dominate growth plans in the electric power industry. The four generation markets in Alberta were identified. The lesson learned from past experience is that price signals will attract new generators to the market and that government leadership must be consistent. 4 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Alberta's energy reserves 2007 and supply/demand outlook 2008-2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) was realigned into two separate regulatory bodies in January 2008, namely the Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) which regulates the oil and gas industry, and the Alberta Utilities Commission (AUC) which regulates the utilities industry. The ERCB issues a yearly report providing stakeholders with independent and comprehensive information on the state of reserves, supply, and demand for Alberta's diverse energy resources, including crude bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, coal, and sulphur. This report presented Alberta's energy reserves for 2007 as well as a supply and demand outlook for Alberta energy reserves for 2008 to 2017. The report provided estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential (reserves that have already been discovered plus those that have yet to be discovered). The report also included a 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources. In order to better understand supply and price relationships, some historical trends on selected commodities were also provided. tabs., figs., appendices

  18. Methane production potential (B0) of swine and cattle manures--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, S; Verma, M; Larouche, J P; Potvin, L; Chapman, A M; Lemay, S P; Pelletier, F; Brar, S K

    2010-11-01

    Canada's agricultural emissions accounted for 60 Mt or 8% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2007. The estimation of CH4 emission factor (B0) from manure management systems in Canada is prone to uncertainty owing to lack of B0 values for Canadian conditions. Therefore, in this study, manure samples from six Canadian animal farms, two each of swine, beef and dairy cattle, were investigated in order to estimate their methane production potential (B0). The ultimate anaerobic biodegradability was measured with ISO standard batch fermentation. The extent of biodegradation of the manure samples with or without sodium benzoate was always greater than 60% and hence showed no inhibitory effect on methane production by the manure. The impact of use of antibiotics in the animal feed on methane production was also considered; however, no inhibitory effect on methane production could be observed. The plateau of methane production in all cases was achieved by 63 d of anaerobic digestion process and the final pH was within 6-8. The calculated B0 were in the range of 0.47-0.42, 0.21-0.19 and 0.35-0.30 for swine, beef cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The uncertainties associated with B0 values were +/- 9% for swine, +/- 3% for beef cattle and, +/- 6 and +/- 2% for dairy cows.

  19. Bacterial community analysis of swine manure treated with autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Il; Congeevaram, Shankar; Ki, Dong-Won; Oh, Byoung-Taek; Park, Joonhong

    2011-02-01

    Due to the environmental problems associated with disposal of livestock sludge, many stabilization studies emphasizing on the sludge volume reduction were performed. However, little is known about the microbial risk present in sludge and its stabilized products. This study microbiologically explored the effects of anaerobic lagoon fermentation (ALF) and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) on pathogen-related risk of raw swine manure by using culture-independent 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing methods. In raw swine manure, clones closely related to pathogens such as Dialister pneumosintes, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, Succinivibrioan dextrinosolvens, and Schineria sp. were detected. Meanwhile, in the mesophilic ALF-treated swine manure, bacterial community clones closely related to pathogens such as Schineria sp. and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens were still detected. Interestingly, the ATAD treatment resulted in no detection of clones closely related to pathogens in the stabilized thermophilic bacterial community, with the predominance of novel Clostridia class populations. These findings support the superiority of ATAD in selectively reducing potential human and animal pathogens compared to ALF, which is a typical manure stabilization method used in livestock farms. PMID:20922382

  20. Performance evaluation of a full-scale innovative swine waste-to-energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiele; Adair, Charles W; Deshusses, Marc A

    2016-09-01

    Intensive monitoring was carried out to evaluate the performance of a full-scale innovative swine waste-to-energy system at a commercial swine farm with 8640 heads of swine. Detailed mass balances over each unit of the system showed that the system, which includes a 7600m(3) anaerobic digester, a 65-kW microturbine, and a 4200m(3) aeration basin, was able to remove up to 92% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), 99% of the biological oxygen demand (BOD), 77% of the total nitrogen (TN), and 82% of the total phosphorous (TP) discharged into the system as fresh pig waste. The overall biogas yield based on the COD input was 64% of the maximum theoretical, a value that indicates that even greater environmental benefits could be obtained with process optimization. Overall, the characterization of the materials fluxes in the system provides a greater understanding of the fate of organics and nutrients in large scale animal waste management systems. PMID:27268434

  1. Validation of a real time PCR for classical Swine Fever diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Natanael Lamas; Fonseca Júnior, Antônio Augusto; Oliveira, Anapolino Macedo; Sales, Erica Bravo; Alves, Bruna Rios Coelho; Dorella, Fernanda Alves; Camargos, Marcelo Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF), caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5'NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5'NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF. PMID:24818039

  2. Validation of a Real Time PCR for Classical Swine Fever Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Lamas Dias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The viral disease classical swine fever (CSF, caused by a Pestivirus, is one of the major causes of economic losses for pig farming. The aim of this work was to validate a RT-qPCR using Taqman for detection of CSF in swine tissues. The parameters for the validation followed the specifications of the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE and the guide ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005. The analysis of the 5′NTR region of CSF virus was performed in 145 samples from 29 infected pigs and in 240 samples from 80 pigs originated in the Brazilian CSF-free zone. The tissues tested were spleen, kidney, blood, tonsils, and lymph nodes. Sequencing of the positive samples for 5′NTR region was performed to evaluate the specificity of the RT-qPCR. Tests performed for the RT-qPCR validation demonstrated that the PCR assay was efficient in detecting RNA from CSF virus in all materials from different tissues of infected animals. Furthermore, RNA from CSF virus was not detected in samples of swine originated from the Brazilian CSF-free zone. Hence, it is concluded that RT-qPCR can be used as a complementary diagnostic for CSF.

  3. 9 CFR 78.31 - Brucellosis reactor swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis reactor swine. 78.31... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.31 Brucellosis reactor swine....

  4. 9 CFR 78.32 - Brucellosis exposed swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis exposed swine. 78.32... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.32 Brucellosis exposed swine....

  5. Towards an improved understanding of African swine fever virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso de Carvalho Ferreira, H.

    2013-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease of swine caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV). Estimates of virus transmission (direct or indirect) parameters for ASFV are necessary in order to model the spread of the virus, and to design more efficient control measures. Results presented on thi

  6. 9 CFR 93.508 - Articles accompanying swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Articles accompanying swine. 93.508 Section 93.508 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.508 Articles accompanying swine. No...

  7. Completion of the swine genome will simplify the production of swine as a large animal biomedical model

    OpenAIRE

    Walters Eric M; Wolf Eckhard; Whyte Jeffery J; Mao Jiude; Renner Simone; Nagashima Hiroshi; Kobayashi Eiji; Zhao Jianguo; Wells Kevin D; Critser John K; Riley Lela K; Prather Randall S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Anatomic and physiological similarities to the human make swine an excellent large animal model for human health and disease. Methods Cloning from a modified somatic cell, which can be determined in cells prior to making the animal, is the only method available for the production of targeted modifications in swine. Results Since some strains of swine are similar in size to humans, technologies that have been developed for swine can be readily adapted to humans and vice ver...

  8. Discovering up-regulated VEGF–C expression in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells by classical swine fever virus Shimen

    OpenAIRE

    Ning, Pengbo; Zhang, Yanming; Guo, Kangkang; Chen, Ru; Liang, Wulong; Lin, Zhi; Li, Helin

    2014-01-01

    International audience Infection of domestic swine with the highly virulent Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus causes hemorrhagic lymphadenitis and diffuse hemorrhaging in infected swine. We analyzed patterns of gene expression for CSFV Shimen in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVECs). Transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C gene (VEGF-C) and translation of the corresponding protein were significantly up-regulated in SUVECs. Our findings suggest ...

  9. Recoding classical swine fever virus (CSFV) structural glycoprotein E2 produces complete virus attenuation in swine and protects infected animals against disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling classical swine fever (CSF) involves vaccination in endemic regions and preemptive slaughter of infected swine herds during epidemics. Generally, live attenuated vaccines induce solid immunity. Using diverse approaches, reverse genetics has been useful in developing classical swine fever...

  10. Opportunities for CANDU for the Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta oil sands bitumen deposits comprise of one of the largest sources hydrocarbon in the world, and have emerged as the fastest growing, soon to be dominant, source of crude oil in Canada. The oil industry has made great strides in improving the effectiveness of gathering this resource. In particular, alternatives to open-pit mining have been developed which enable in-site recovery of underground deposits with a minimum of environmental disruption. The main challenge that remains is the large quantity of energy needed in the process of extracting the oil and upgrading it to commercial levels. For a typical in-situ extraction project, about 18% of the energy content of the oil produced is used up in the extraction process, while a further 5% is used in generating hydrogen to upgrade the bitumen to synthetic crude oil. Looking ahead, even as improvements in energy use efficiency, (and hydrocarbon use efficiency) counterbalance the increases in hydrocarbon demand from economic growth (particularly in the developing world), Canada and Alberta recognize that the oil sands resource will be needed, and both support the development of this resource in an environmentally responsible way. The large energy requirement for the oil sands extraction process represents a challenge with regard to both environmental impact and security of supply. The use of natural gas, the current energy supply, has impacts in terms of air quality (via NOX and other emissions) and also represents a large greenhouse gas emissions component. As the oil sands industry expands, the availability of natural gas also becomes a concern, as does price and price stability. With this background, the opportunity for nuclear reactors to provide an economical, reliable, virtually zero-emission source of energy for the oil sands becomes very important. Over the last few years, developments in oil sands extraction technology, and developments in CANDU technology through the Advanced CANDU Reactor, (ACR

  11. New biotechnological procedures in swine reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available New biotechnological procedures and the use of hormones in swine breeding are aimed at increasing the number of piglets in the litter. In small herds and groups, selected sows with 16 mammary complexes (tits can yield up to 32 piglets, or porkers, per year per sow. In order to achieve such reproduction results, special, individual stalls for sow deliveries are used, in addition to biotechnological methods, with a warm core and floor heating, phased diet and clean facilities. The ovulation value in swine is determined by their genetic and paragenetic effects, and it is often provoked and increased with injections and preparations for superovulation. However, the results vary, since any administration of hormone injecions can reduce the reproductive cycle, shorten the duration of estrus, or disrupt the work of ovaries and create cystic follicles. The use of follicle-stimulating hormones in quantities up to 1000 IU per animal for the induction and synchronization of estrus has become customary for sows and gilts, as well as the use of prostaglandins, the use of GnRH for increasing ovulation in swine and increasing the number of follicles >4 mm in diameter in the implementation of new biotechnologies in swine breeding, increases the number of ovulations and fertility in swine. In this way, reproduction is raised to the highest possible level, and artificial insemination of sows has 12 separate rules which enable better and more successful artificial insemination of sows.

  12. Effect of temperature on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liangwei; Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Yang, Hongnan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Ziai

    2016-07-15

    Laboratory-scale experiments were performed on the dry digestion of solid swine manure in a semi-continuous mode using 4.5 L down plug-flow anaerobic reactors with an organic loading rate of 3.46 kg volatile solids (VS) m(-3) d(-1) to evaluate the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 35 °C). At 15 °C, biogas production was the poorest due to organic overload and acidification, with a methane yield of 0.036 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and a volumetric methane production rate of 0.125 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1). The methane yield and volumetric methane production rate at 25 °C (0.226 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and 0.783 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1), respectively) were 6.24 times higher than those at 15 °C. However, the methane yield (0.237 L CH4 g(-1) VS added) and the volumetric methane production rate (0.821 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1)) at 35 °C were only 4.86% higher than those at 25 °C, which indicated similar results were obtained at 25 °C and 35 °C. The lower biogas production at 35 °C in dry digestion compared with that in wet digestion could be attributed to ammonia inhibition. For a single pig farm, digestion of solid manure is accomplished in small-scale domestic or small-farm bioreactors, for which operating temperatures of 35 °C are sometimes difficult to achieve. Considering biogas production, ammonia inhibition and net energy recovery, an optimum temperature for dry digestion of solid swine manure is 25 °C. PMID:27107950

  13. Outbreaks of Influenza A Virus in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison) in Denmark: Molecular characterization of the involved viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Trebbien, Ramona;

    or was circulating in Danish pigs. In 2010 and 2011, influenza virus was again diagnosed in diseased mink in a few farms. The genetic typing showed that the virus was similar to the pandemic H1N1 virus circulating in humans and swine. The H3N2 virus was not detected in 2010 and 2011. Taken together, these findings......Influenza in mink (Neovison vison) is assumed to be rare, but outbreaks have previously been reported in farmed mink. The first report was from Swedish mink farms in 1984 and the second was reported from Canadian mink farms. In 2009, influenza A of the subtype H3N2 was detected in several Danish...... mink farms with respiratory symptoms. Full-genome sequencing showed that the virus was a human/swine reassortant, with the H and N gene most related to human H3N2 viruses circulating in 2005. The remaining 6 genes were most closely related to H1N2 influenza viruses circulating in Danish swine...

  14. Ecotoxicological evaluation of swine manure disposal on tropical soils in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segat, Julia Corá; Alves, Paulo Roger Lopes; Baretta, Dilmar; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2015-12-01

    Swine production in Brazil results in a great volume of manure that normally is disposed of as agricultural fertilizer. However, this form of soil disposal, generally on small farms, causes the accumulation of large amounts of manure and this results in contaminated soil and water tables. To evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations of swine manure on earthworms, several ecotoxicological tests were performed using Eisenia andrei as test organism in different tropical soils, classified respectively as Ultisol, Oxisol, and Entisol, as well as Tropical Artificial Soil (TAS). The survival, reproduction and behavior of the earthworms were evaluated in experiments using a completely randomized design, with five replications. In the Ultisol, Oxisol and TAS the swine manure showed no lethality, but in the Entisol it caused earthworm mortality (LOEC=45 m(3)ha(-1)). In the Entisol, the waste reduced the reproductive rate and caused avoidance behavior in E. andrei (LOEC=30 m(3)ha(-1)) even in lower concentrations. The Entisol is extremely sandy, with low cation exchange capacity (CEC), and this may be the reason for the higher toxicity on soil fauna, with the soil not being able to hold large amounts of pollutants (e.g. toxic metals), but leaving them in bioavailable forms. These results should be a warning of the necessity to consider soil parameters (e.g. texture and CEC) when evaluating soil contamination by means of ecotoxicological assays, as there still are no standards for natural soils in tropical regions. E. andrei earthworms act as indicators for a soil to support disposal of swine manure without generating harm to agriculture and ecosystems. PMID:26218553

  15. Supercritical Ethanol Liquefaction of Swine Manure for Bio-Oils Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangning Xiu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Environmental problems associated with animal waste are the most critical challenges faced by the US intensive confinement livestock industries. There is an import and urgent need to develop an efficient way to reduce the pollution of animal waste while extracting valuable energy. Supercritical liquefaction processing of swine manure into a liquid fuel was considered as a cost-effective approach for reducing animal waste in swine farms while simultaneously increasing the farmer’s income. Approach: Swine manure was converted to bio-oils by using ethanol as a solvent in an autoclave in the reaction temperature range of 240-360°C without any catalyst. The effect of reaction temperatures on the bio-oil yield and properties was investigated. The oil product was evaluated by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, elemental analyses, heating values, water content analyses, ash content and solids content. Results: The experimental results show that the yield of the liquefaction products was significantly influenced by the reaction temperature. The maximum oil yield of 26.7% (of dry matter with low content of oxygen (11.48% and heating value of 33.98 MJ kg-1 was obtained at reaction temperature of 300°C. A low content of carbonyl and aliphatic groups and a high aromaticity in the bio-oil were found in the bio-oils from high temperature as determined by FTIR. The elemental composition of the bio-oil samples changes with reaction temperature. However, no particular trends in the elemental composition were found within the range of reaction temperature used. Conclusion: This research proved that supercritical ethanol liquefaction was an effective way to remove oxygen and utilize carbon and hydrogen in swine manure to produce energy condensed bio-fuel. Further work is needed to optimize the bio-oil production process in terms of oil yield and oil quality.

  16. Mapping quantitative trait loci for T lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhi-Peng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased disease resistance through improved general immune capacity would be beneficial for the welfare and productivity of farm animals. T lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood play an important role in immune capacity and disease resistance in animals. However, very little research to date has focused on quantitative trait loci (QTL for T lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood in swine. Results In the study, experimental animals consist of 446 piglets from three different breed populations. To identify QTL for T lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood in swine, the proportions of CD4+, CD8+, CD4+CD8+, CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+, and CD4-CD8- T cells and the ratio of CD4+:CD8+ T cells were measured for all individuals before and after challenge with modified live CSF (classical swine fever vaccine. Based on the combined data of individuals from three breed populations, genome-wide scanning of QTL for these traits was performed based on a variance component model, and the genome wide significance level for declaring QTL was determined via permutation tests as well as FDR (false discovery rate correction. A total of 27 QTL (two for CD4+CD8+, one for CD4+CD8-, three for CD4-CD8+, two for CD4-CD8-, nine for CD4+, two for CD8+, and eight for CD4+:CD8+ ratio were identified with significance level of FDR FDR FDR Conclusions Within these QTL regions, a number of known genes having potential relationships with the studied traits may serve as candidate genes for these traits. Our findings herein are helpful for identification of the causal genes underlying these immune-related trait and selection for immune capacity of individuals in swine breeding in the future.

  17. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-01-01

    The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera) has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortl...

  18. Clean air strategy for Alberta: Report to the ministers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a response to continuing discussions on the impact of fossil fuels on global warming, acid deposition, and smog, a clean air strategy consultation program was announced by Alberta's Ministers of Energy and Environment to encourage public discussion on air emissions resulting from the production and use of energy. The consultation program had three objectives: to help identify and clarify the most important issues associated with energy production and use which need to be addressed in developing a clean air strategy; to outline practical and achievable actions which can be taken to reduce emissions; and to develop program and policy recommendations to the provincial government. The consultation program included workshops and regional sessions, as well as background research. The discussions, findings, and conclusions from the program are summarized. Several air quality management challenges were identified, including the need for a more comprehensive system for managing air quality; the priority of local air quality issues and problems; the need to address cumulative regional emissions and impacts; and scientific and economic uncertainties. A number of goals have been developed to address these challenges, such as implementation of a comprehensive air quality management system, identification of cost-effective energy conservation and efficiency opportunities, development of innovative and targeted solutions to manage cumulative emissions, and improvement of the gathering and application of scientific and technical knowledge regarding atmospheric processes and effects. A glossary of terms is included. 12 figs., 17 tabs

  19. Solar thermal water heating : an application for Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, T. [Simple Solar Heating Ltd., Okotoks, AB (Canada); Lonseth, R.; Lonseth, A.; Jagoda, K. [Mount Royal College, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The use of renewable energy resources is an essential feature in curtailing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed solar thermal water heating applications for Alberta. In particular, it presented a case study of the successful commercial application of solar thermal water heating systems in households in the city of Calgary. The system used solar-thermal collectors with heat pipes mounted inside vacuum sealed glass cylinders. The devices collected heat and transferred it to a copper manifold even in extreme winter temperatures. The system included a solar storage tank integrated into a domestic hot water system. The solar fluid circulated through the solar tank. Fresh cold water entered the solar tank when hot water was used in the house in order to be preheated before entering the original water heating tank. A 25 watt pump was mounted in the closed solar loop to circulate the solar heat transfer fluid. An economic analysis demonstrated that a 2-panel system saved the equivalent of 2.4 acres of carbon-absorbing forest and had the same benefit as purchasing a hybrid car. The payback period for the system was 4 years. It was concluded that solar thermal systems are the best renewable energy method for domestic water heating in Calgary. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Shell's Caroline gas project on track in southwest Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that western Canada's biggest sour natural gas, sulfur, and natural gas liquids development project in 2 decades is on target to start up late this year. Shell Canada Ltd.'s $950 million (Canadian) Caroline project will produce 2 tcf of gas and associated products from the Swan Hills member of the middle Devonian Beaverhill Lake group. The price tag will reach about $1 billion, including some start-up costs. The project is designed to process an average 300 MMcfd of gas. It will produce 17,500 b/d of pentanes plus, 4,100 metric tons/day of sulfur, 90 MMcfd of sales gas, and 28,000 b/d of NGL-ethane, propane, and butane. A labor force that is peaking at about 2,400 workers is completing a network of processing plants, about 143 miles of pipeline, three field compressors, and other facilities covering an area of 161 sq miles. Dilcon Constructors Ltd., an arm of Delta Catalytic Corp., Calgary, is the main contractor for the project. About 85% of the services and equipment for Caroline are coming from Alberta suppliers, 7% from suppliers elsewhere in Canada, and only 8% from non-Canadian Sources

  1. University of Alberta targets tailings, accelerates forest growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-10-15

    The excess water contained in oilsand slurry pipelines results in man-made tailings ponds which could have environmental consequences. A team of researchers at the University of Alberta aims to reduce or eliminate tailings ponds by reducing water consumption and increasing the use of warm process water recycling. The broader scope of the research involves a study of the interactions of the complex mixtures of oil, sand and water during the transportation in pipelines and the prediction of slurry pipeline wear rates. Improvements in the pipeline process can increase the efficiency of the oilsands industry by reducing the bitumen lost during pipeline transport. Another research team at the University has been experimenting with 50 different plants that will survive and reproduce in tailings ponds to accelerate the reclamation of tailings ponds as well as the dikes that surround them. Plants such as sunflowers, some mustards and grasses that grow on tailings ponds draw water out of the ponds rendering them more hospitable to the environment. 1 fig.

  2. Review of Alberta Crown Crude Oil Marketing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains an independent evaluation of the operations of the private marketing agents that are currently marketing the Alberta Crown's share of royalty crude oil. The evaluation includes a review of pricing performance, working relationship, current issues and the overall performance of the marketing arrangements during the fiscal years of 1997 and 1998. Overall, the outsourcing of sales of Crown production to agents is judged to be successful. For example, it has been noted that agents are becoming more aggressive in maintaining and increasing their margins. On the other hand, the increased level of aggressiveness in marketing, while tending to maximize Crown revenues, is also creating a potential conflict on how margins should be shared between the Crown and its agents. Also, there has been evidence of some management issues between the agents and the Crown concerning the extent to which the Crown should share in any increased value which the agent generates by increased third party marketing activities. These differences need to be addressed in order to maintain the strong performance of the marketing program. The consultants also recommend additional guidelines on risk management issues that more clearly define the Crown's risk tolerance. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  3. The oil and gas industry in Alberta: drilling and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document outlined the impacts of drilling and production on the forest structure and integrity. The cumulative impact of all 11,898 wells drilled in 2000 in Alberta, coupled with previously drilled wells that is of primary concern. It is estimated that an 886 square kilometres area of the boreal forest has been cleared as a result of well drilling, based on an assumption of 1 hectare cleared per well site. No regulations govern the reforestation of the areas once the activities have been terminated, and nothing to regulate the cumulative road densities or pipeline densities. A progressive loss and fragmentation of habitat, increased access, and damage to aquatic systems are all consequences of the drilling and production activities. These activities also lead to the contamination of soil and water. Reductions in air quality are associated with drilling and production activities, mainly through the release of various gases in the atmosphere, such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, both responsible for acid rain deposition. Explicit limits on cumulative densities of well sites, pipelines and access roads are part of best practices that can result in a minimization of the negative environmental impacts. Integrated planning with the forest industry, the development and implementation of new operating practices, and a reduction in the pace of development would also go a long way toward the reduction of the ecological footprint

  4. Positioning anaerobic digestion systems in the swine sector in Quebec : a technical and economic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard, M.A.; Drolet, V.; Lachance, M.P.; Pouliot, F. [Centre de developpement du porc du Quebec Inc., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Laflamme, C.B. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, PQ (Canada). Inst. de recherche LTE; Charest, C. [Fertior, Saint-Bernard, PQ (Canada); Forcier, F. [Solinov, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, PQ (Canada); Pelletier, F.; Godbout, S.; Lemay, S.P. [Research and Development Inst. for the Agri-Environment, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Levasseur, P. [IFIP, Inst. du porc, Paris (France)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that investigated on-farm anaerobic digesters using technical and economic analyses based on scenarios adapted to the regulatory and economic context of the swine sector in the province of Quebec. Three scenarios were chosen to represent operating conditions in the swine sector. An economic analysis was conducted to determine the profitability of each scenario. Preliminary results showed that this type of project under current conditions in Quebec generates little profit. If thermal use of biogas is considered, the challenge lies in producing biogas at a lower cost than that of natural gas. The best-case scenario in the present study showed a production cost of $0.65 per m{sup 3} of methane giving a 5-year payback. If biogas is used to generate electricity, the challenge lies in producing electricity at a cost lower than $0.0746 per kWh when it is used directly at the farm, or to obtain a price of $0.112 per kWh so it can be resold on the power grid.

  5. Values in Organic Farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit

    The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted...

  6. The power of Alberta business : the impact of electricity deregulation on Alberta small and medium-sized business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulation of the electricity market came into effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. This deregulation affects the retail and generation fields of electricity. The intention was to introduce competition and apply downward pressure on electricity prices, but the reverse effect was witnessed: power prices increased. It resulted in a period of anxiety on the part of businesses, caused by the volatility of electricity prices. A survey of Canadian Federation of Independent Business (CFIB) members was conducted in May and June 2001 to better understand the impacts of electricity deregulation on small and medium-sized businesses. A broad range of businesses provided responses (951 responses) covering all sectors of industry and regions in Alberta. A large proportion of respondents were dissatisfied with deregulation, caused in part by the confusion created by the flurry of rebate and credit announcements designed to ease the transition. Small firms were faced with significant increases in electricity prices, and several could not estimate the size of the increase as it was too difficult to measure. Responses varied from a low of 5 per cent increase to a high of 400 per cent in power rates. Most respondents also indicated that the increases had an impact on their business. The impact of power rate increases by sector was examined. Another consequence of deregulation was the fact that billing moved from a single invoice received to the requirement to actively manage energy usage. It was discovered that a lack of information on electricity cost and consumption management impeded the the ability to make business decisions. The CFIB asked respondents to indicate the measures being considered to address management of electricity costs. Incorporating energy-saving devices and/or methods had been considered by slightly more than 40 per cent of respondents. Negotiating with power retailers represented another option under consideration by some. It was felt that government must

  7. Faecal shedding and strain diversity of Listeria monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurtado Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Listeria monocytogenes is among the most important foodborne bacterial pathogens due to the high mortality rate and severity of the infection. L. monocytogenes is a ubiquitous organism occasionally present in the intestinal tract of various animal species and faecal shedding by asymptomatically infected livestock poses a risk for contamination of farm environments and raw food at the pre-harvest stages. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and strain diversity of L. monocytogenes in healthy ruminants and swine herds. Results Faecal samples from 30 animals per herd were collected from 343 herds (120 sheep, 124 beef cattle, 82 dairy cattle and 17 swine in the Basque Country and screened in pools by an automated enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay (VIDAS® to estimate the prevalence of positive herds. Positive samples were subcultured onto the selective and differential agar ALOA and biochemically confirmed. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 46.3% of dairy cattle, 30.6% beef cattle and 14.2% sheep herds, but not from swine. Within-herd prevalence investigated by individually analysing 197 sheep and 221 cattle detected 1.5% of faecal shedders in sheep and 21.3% in cattle. Serotyping of 114 isolates identified complex 4b as the most prevalent (84.2%, followed by 1/2a (13.2%, and PFGE analysis of 68 isolates showed a highly diverse L. monocytogenes population in ruminant herds. Conclusion These results suggested that cattle represent a potentially important reservoir for L. monocytogenes in the Basque Country, and highlighted the complexity of pathogen control at the farm level.

  8. Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions from swine production facilities in North America: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Powers, W; Murphy, J; Maghirang, R

    2014-04-01

    Literature on NH3 and H2S emissions from swine production facilities in North America was reviewed, and a meta-analysis was conducted on measured emissions data from swine houses and manure storage facilities as well as concentration data in the vicinity of swine production facilities. Results from more than 80 studies were compiled with results from the 11 swine sites in the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Data across studies were analyzed statistically using the MIXED procedures of SAS. The median emission rates from swine houses across various production stages and manure handling systems were 2.78 and 0.09 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The median emission rates from swine storage facilities were 2.08 and 0.20 kg/yr per pig for NH3 and H2S, respectively. The size of swine farm that may trigger the need to report NH3 emissions under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) is 3,410 pigs on the basis of the median NH3 emission rate (4.86 kg/yr per pig), but the threshold can be as low as 992 pigs on the basis of the 90th-percentile emission rates (16.71 kg/yr per pig). Swine hoop houses had significantly higher NH3 emission rate (14.80 kg/yr per pig) than other manure-handling systems (P pig, P = 0.03). Farrowing houses had the highest H2S emission rate (2.50 kg/yr per pig), followed by gestation houses, and finishing houses had the lowest H2S emission rate (P < 0.01). Regression models for NH3 and H2S emission rates were developed for finishing houses with deep pits, recharge pits, and lagoons. The NH3 emission rates increased with increasing air temperature, but effects of air temperature on H2S emission rates were not significant. The recharge interval of manure pits significantly affected H2S but not NH3 emission rates. The H2S emission rates were also influenced by the size of the operation. Although NH3 and H2S concentrations at the edge of swine houses or lagoons were often higher than corresponding

  9. Reassortment patterns in Swine influenza viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khiabanian

    Full Text Available Three human influenza pandemics occurred in the twentieth century, in 1918, 1957, and 1968. Influenza pandemic strains are the results of emerging viruses from non-human reservoirs to which humans have little or no immunity. At least two of these pandemic strains, in 1957 and in 1968, were the results of reassortments between human and avian viruses. Also, many cases of swine influenza viruses have reportedly infected humans, in particular, the recent H1N1 influenza virus of swine origin, isolated in Mexico and the United States. Pigs are documented to allow productive replication of human, avian, and swine influenza viruses. Thus it has been conjectured that pigs are the "mixing vessel" that create the avian-human reassortant strains, causing the human pandemics. Hence, studying the process and patterns of viral reassortment, especially in pigs, is a key to better understanding of human influenza pandemics. In the last few years, databases containing sequences of influenza A viruses, including swine viruses, collected since 1918 from diverse geographical locations, have been developed and made publicly available. In this paper, we study an ensemble of swine influenza viruses to analyze the reassortment phenomena through several statistical techniques. The reassortment patterns in swine viruses prove to be similar to the previous results found in human viruses, both in vitro and in vivo, that the surface glycoprotein coding segments reassort most often. Moreover, we find that one of the polymerase segments (PB1, reassorted in the strains responsible for the last two human pandemics, also reassorts frequently.

  10. Subclinical Swine Fever and Antibody Titer Analyze on Piglets%仔猪散发亚临床猪瘟及其抗体效价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴凌; 白云龙; 冉旭华; 夏成; 邵红

    2014-01-01

    黑龙江某养猪户仔猪零星发病死亡,经PCR诊断为亚临床猪瘟。采集了60头母猪血,采用间接ELISA试剂盒检测60头母猪猪瘟免疫抗体水平。结果表明,该户母猪猪瘟免疫抗体水平较低,免疫抗体合格率仅为3.3%。因此,母猪免疫失败是导致仔猪散发猪瘟的主要原因。%Some piglets died in a pig farm sporadically, and diagnosed as subclinical swine fe-ver by a PCR test. Blood samples were collected from 60 sows for detecting immune antibody levels of swine fever. Results showed that swine fever antibody levels were low after vaccination in sow, the qualified rate of immune antibody is only 3.3%. Therefore, immune failure to swine fever in sows was the main reason caused swine fever occur sporadically in these piglets herd.

  11. Problems and Suggestions of Swine Artificial Insemination%我国猪人工授精存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长兴; 徐秋良

    2011-01-01

    论文立足于生产实践,从技术及服务两方面分析我国猪人工授精存在的问题,就猪人工授精的重要性、人工授精站建设和人工授精技术操作规范以及目前猪人工授精上门服务存在的隐患进行了综述,以期为猪人工授精技术的规范和推广提供借鉴.%In this paper, the problems of swine artificial insemination were analyzed from aspects of technology and service standard on the farm production. The suggestions, importance, standardized operations, and the hidden hazard of door to door service in current situation of artificial insemination were reviewed, expecting to guide the popularizing of swine artificial insemination in Chinese farms.

  12. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commerce, except at the time of slaughter as provided in 9 CFR 309.16(e). (g) Swine moving interstate... Department of Agriculture backtags, when used on swine moving to slaughter; (3) Official swine tattoos, when used on swine moving to slaughter, when the use of the official swine tattoo has been requested by...

  13. FutureFarm vision

    OpenAIRE

    K. Charvát; P. Gnip; Mayer, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper defines the first version of a vision of Future Farming project and also a knowledge management system used by European farms which will be designed and developed by the Future Farm project. An important part of the vision is a definition of external drivers and their influence on farm business in future. Paper is looking on a situation in three periods: short (2013), middle (2020) and long-term (2030). Our vision expects that the farming system will continuously converge to the si...

  14. Influenza exposure in United States feral swine populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J.S.; Minnis, R.B.; Campbell, T.A.; Barras, S.; DeYoung, R.W.; Pabilonia, K.; Avery, M.L.; Sullivan, H.; Clark, L.; McLean, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Swine play an important role in the disease ecology of influenza. Having cellular receptors in common with birds and humans, swine provide opportunities for mixed infections and potential for genetic reassortment between avian, human, and porcine influenza. Feral swine populations are rapidly expanding in both numbers and range and are increasingly coming into contact with waterfowl, humans, and agricultural operations. In this study, over 875 feral swine were sampled from six states across the United States for serologic evidence of exposure to influenza. In Oklahoma, Florida, and Missouri, USA, no seropositive feral swine were detected. Seropositive swine were detected in California, Mississippi, and Texas, USA. Antibody prevalences in these states were 1% in Mississippi, 5% in California, and 14.4% in Texas. All seropositive swine were exposed to H3N2 subtype, the predominant subtype currently circulating in domestic swine. The only exceptions were in San Saba County, Texas, where of the 15 seropositive samples, four were positive for H1N1 and seven for both H1N1 and H3N2. In Texas, there was large geographical and temporal variation in antibody prevalence and no obvious connection to domestic swine operations. No evidence of exposure to avian influenza in feral swine was uncovered. From these results it is apparent that influenza in feral swine poses a risk primarily to swine production operations. However, because feral swine share habitat with waterfowl, prey on and scavenge dead and dying birds, are highly mobile, and are increasingly coming into contact with humans, the potential for these animals to become infected with avian or human influenza in addition to swine influenza is a distinct possibility. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  15. Independent assessment team report to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board on implementing deregulation of electricity generation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particular aspect of deregulation of electricity generation in Alberta discussed is the economics of power purchase agreements (PPAs). There are various parameters associated with the PPAs that are emphasized including: technical characteristics; unit availability, capital costs and O and M costs; coal costs; gas costs; payment for flexible operation; hydro obligation amounts; income tax; property tax; and working capital, insurance and other costs. Chapter one of the Independent Assessment Team (IAT) report covers the report scope, and chapter two describes certain main principles underlying determination of PPAs. Chapter three discusses the IAT's determination of the PPA's forms and their main terms and conditions. Chapter four describes the IAT's determination of the underlying parameter values of the PPAs. Chapter five describes the ITA's determination of the allowed rate of return on equity and the capital structure of PPAs. An appendix covers a detailed description of the consultations carried out by the IAT; a report by HESI on the results of Pool modelling carried out to date (the HESI work was done to assist the IAT in determining PPAs, not the auction design); summary outputs of the IAT's financial model with indicative financial statements for each unit and company under the PPAs; and a document on shared services, common facilities and new units

  16. Recovery of gastrointestinal swine parasites in anaerobic biodigester systems Recuperação de parasitas gastrintestinais de suínos em biodigestores anaeróbicos

    OpenAIRE

    William Alberto Cañon-Franco; Ricardo Andrés Henao-Agudelo; José Leandro Pérez-Bedoya

    2012-01-01

    Solid and liquid wastes from livestock operations represent important challenges for animal production regarding their impact in the environment and public health. Parasitological tests performed on 80 samples of affluent and effluent waters from three anaerobic biodigestors with flexible structure from swine farms of Caldas - Colombia, showed the presence of Isospora suis (45%), Eimeria suis (42.5%), E. espinosa (35%), Strongyloides ransomi (28.8%), E. perminuta (12.5%), E. cerdonis (3.8%), ...

  17. Complete Genome Sequence of Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain JSZL, Belonging to a New Subgenotype, 2.1d, Isolated in China in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Feng, Liping; Liu, Chunxiao; Chen, Jiazeng; Leng, Chaoliang; Bai, Yun; Peng, Jinmei; An, Tongqing; Cai, Xuehui; Yang, Xufu; Tian, Zhijun; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of classic swine fever virus (CSFV) strain JSZL was determined in this study. JSZL was originally isolated from an immune pig farm in Jiangsu Province, China. JSZL is more closely related to subgenotype 2.1b than to 2.1a and 2.1c. Importantly, JSZL was classified into a new subgenotype, 2.1d. PMID:26294620

  18. Alberta Environment's performance measures and indicators - levels 1 and 2 : environmental indicators, behavioural indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industries in Alberta are required to monitor ambient air pollution concentrations near their facilities. The Alberta Sustainable Resource Development Department was created in March 2001 to oversee such measures as the air quality index, surface water quality index, reduction of municipal solid waste to landfills, pulp production versus the amount of substance (biochemical oxygen demand), government action on greenhouse gas emissions, and action by Alberta organizations to improve energy efficiency. This paper lists the performance measures for 2000-2001 based on data collected from 9 continuous monitoring stations in Alberta, 3 in Edmonton, 3 in Calgary, 1 in Beaverlodge, 1 in Fort Saskatchewan and 1 in Red Deer. In Edmonton and Calgary, carbon monoxide levels have decreased by more than 60 per cent over the past 2 decades, while nitrogen dioxide levels have decreased by more than 30 per cent over the same time period, and particulate levels have decreased from 40 to 50 per cent since 1986. Benzene levels have also decreased by 30 to 50 per cent over the last decade. For each of the other measures, this paper presented Alberta's goals, the data, the target, results, methodology, external factors, and comparison with other provinces. Responses to frequently asked questions regarding each measure are provided. 14 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Oil and gas planning and development in Alberta : new approaches to integrate grizzly bear conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenhouse, G. [Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research Program, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reported on a grizzly bear research program that was initiated in the province of Alberta to provide new knowledge and tools to ensure the long term survival of grizzly bears on a multiple use landscape. The Foothills Model Forest (FMF) Grizzly Bear Research Program was formed by scientists from across Canada from a variety of scientific disciplines. A strong partner base has been created to allow the FMF's research efforts to span the entire current distribution of grizzly bear habitat in Alberta. The FMF has provided new large scale seamless maps of grizzly bear habitat and, using detailed grizzly bear GPS movement data, has constructed and tested models that can identify key grizzly bear habitat. This presentation focused on the results of 9 years of applied research and described the new tools and models that are now available to program partners in Alberta. The products are currently being used by both industry and government in Alberta as new standards in landscape management planning in grizzly bear habitat. The author suggested that the approach taken with grizzly bears in Alberta could be used and adapted for a variety of wildlife species in the north. figs.

  20. Fertility in Alberta in a Context of Rapid Economic Growth, 1997-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Trovato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, birth rates in Alberta have followed closely the trajectory of change experienced by the other Canadian provinces. Its total fertility rate fell during the low point of the 1930s; it increased during the post-War baby boom in the 1950s and sixties, and thereafter fell to sub-replacement levels beginning in the mid 1970s. In recent years, especially since the early 2000s, the birth rate in Alberta has unexpectedly increased, such that by 2007, it had reached 1.90 children per woman---not far from the 2.1 level needed for generational replacement in the long term. During this same period both national and provincial fertility rates fluctuated at levels below those of Alberta (except Saskatchewan and Manitoba, whose rates have been higher. In this study, I examine the historical pattern of fertility change in Alberta, noting similarities and differences with the other provinces. I then look at the association of selected macro level factors (marriage, unemployment, wages, female labour force participation with change in total and parity-specific birth rates between 1997 and 2007, a period of unprecedented economic growth in Alberta. The statistical results show that although marriage is not significantly correlated with change in fertility rates, male and female wages and female labour force participation all show associations consistent with a procyclical interpretation of fertility change --- that is, periods of economic growth are conducive to fertility increase whereas bad economic times lead to reduced fertility.

  1. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  2. Economic Analysis of Classical Swine Fever Surveillance in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X; Claassen, G D H; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Loeffen, W; Saatkamp, H W

    2016-06-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious pig disease that causes economic losses and impaired animal welfare. Improving the surveillance system for CSF can help to ensure early detection of the virus, thereby providing a better initial situation for controlling the disease. Economic analysis is required to compare the benefits of improved surveillance with the costs of implementing a more intensive system. This study presents a comprehensive economic analysis of CSF surveillance in the Netherlands, taking into account the specialized structure of Dutch pig production, differences in virulence of CSF strains and a complete list of possible surveillance activities. The starting point of the analysis is the current Dutch surveillance system (i.e. the default surveillance-setup scenario), including the surveillance activities 'daily clinical observation by the farmer', 'veterinarian inspection after a call', 'routine veterinarian inspection', 'pathology in AHS', 'PCR on tonsil in AHS', 'PCR on grouped animals in CVI' and 'confirmatory PCR by NVWA'. Alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were proposed by adding 'routine serology in slaughterhouses', 'routine serology on sow farms' and 'PCR on rendered animals'. The costs and benefits for applying the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios were evaluated by comparing the annual mitigated economic losses because of intensified CSF surveillance with the annual additional surveillance costs. The results of the cost-effectiveness analysis show that the alternative surveillance-setup scenarios with 'PCR on rendered animals' are effective for the moderately virulent CSF strain, whereas the scenarios with 'routine serology in slaughterhouses' or 'routine serology on sow farms' are effective for the low virulent strain. Moreover, the current CSF surveillance system in the Netherlands is cost-effective for both moderately virulent and low virulent CSF strains. The results of the cost-benefit analysis for the

  3. Proteomic analysis of swine serum following highly virulent classical swine fever virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Huan-cheng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical swine fever virus (CSFV belongs to the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae. Virulent strains of classical swine fever virus (CSFV cause severe disease in pigs characterized by immunosuppression, thrombocytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which causes significant economic losses to the pig industry worldwide. Methods To reveal proteomic changes in swine serum during the acute stage of lethal CSFV infection, 5 of 10 pigs were inoculated with the virulent CSFV Shimen strain, the remainder serving as uninfected controls. A serum sample was taken at 3 days post-infection from each swine, at a stage when there were no clinical symptoms other than increased rectal temperatures (≥40°C. The samples were treated to remove serum albumin and immunoglobulin (IgG, and then subjected to two-dimension differential gel electrophoresis. Results Quantitative intensity analysis revealed 17 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold quantitative alteration in expression. Ten spots were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF MS or LTQ MS. Expression of 4 proteins was increased and 6 decreased in CSFV-infected pigs. Functions of these proteins included blood coagulation, anti-inflammatory activity and angiogenesis. Conclusion These proteins with altered expression may have important implications in the pathogenesis of classical swine fever and provide a clue for identification of biomarkers for classical swine fever early diagnosis.

  4. Transcription analysis on response of swine lung to H1N1 swine influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongtao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a mild, highly contagious, respiratory disease, swine influenza always damages the innate immune systems, and increases susceptibility to secondary infections which results in considerable morbidity and mortality in pigs. Nevertheless, the systematical host response of pigs to swine influenza virus infection remains largely unknown. To explore it, a time-course gene expression profiling was performed for comprehensive analysis of the global host response induced by H1N1 swine influenza virus in pigs. Results At the early stage of H1N1 swine virus infection, pigs were suffering mild respiratory symptoms and pathological changes. A total of 268 porcine genes showing differential expression (DE after inoculation were identified to compare with the controls on day 3 post infection (PID (Fold change ≥ 2, p Conclusions This study shows how the target organ responds to H1N1 swine influenza virus infection in pigs. The observed gene expression profile could help to screen the potential host agents for reducing the prevalence of swine influenza virus and further understand the molecular pathogenesis associated with H1N1 infection in pigs.

  5. Farming Practices Correctness Indicator for Family Farms in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Majewski, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine the state of affairs in farming practices in the sector of commercial farms in Polish Agriculture. Analysis of farming practices and farmers opinions on their appropriateness was based on the results of the survey in the sample of 721 farms from different regions of the country. Farming practices related to crop production, animal husbandry, farm management and environment were measured against the ideal model drawn from the Integrated Farming System guideli...

  6. Governance in Transformation: Alberta School Board Chairs’ Perspectives on Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Gibbons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available School boards are typically removed from nonprofit sector analyses because they are part of the “MUSH” set of organizations (municipalities, universities, schools, and hospitals that both stand outside of the more typical nonprofit sector and tend to be closely affiliated with government. Nevertheless, school boards offer a unique opportunity to examine the governance of a large system of regulated activity that affects millions of citizens. How such systems should be governed has been a matter of concern for nearly 40 years. This study presents data from Alberta school board chairs regarding their perception of governance transformation being brought about by legislative changes. Five dimensions of governance are proposed as defining the current and anticipated governance domain within which school boards operate. Tensions within and between these dimensions signify symbolic boundary constructions that need to be scrutinized in anticipation of the governance transformation and boundary spanning activities of school boards required by the new legislation. / Les conseils scolaires sont généralement retirés des analyses du secteur communautaire parce qu’ils font partie de l’ensemble d’organisations « MUSH » (les municipalités, les universités, les écoles et les hôpitaux; ces organisations se distinguent du secteur communautaire typique et ont tendance à être étroitement associées au gouvernement. Néanmoins, les conseils scolaires offrent une occasion unique d’observer la gouvernance d’un vaste système d’activités réglementées qui affecte des millions de citoyens. La façon dont de tels systèmes devraient être gérés fait l’objet de préoccupations depuis presque 40 ans. Cette étude présente les perceptions de présidents de conseils scolaires de l’Alberta en ce qui a trait à la transformation de la gouvernance apportée par des modifications à la loi. Cinq dimensions de la gouvernance sont propos

  7. [Diagnostic serology of swine leptospirosis in Mexico 1995-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    Results obtained from sample testing of 1970 swines from a number of Mexican farms were analyzed. Such samples had been received in the Leptospira Lab of Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana de Xochimilco from 1995 to 2000. Sera with titers equal to or higher than 1:1000 were considered positive; 39,8% of the animals were seropositive (784) and the most frequent serovarieties were bratislava, 22.5%; icterohaemorrhagiae strain Palo Alto, 14,5%; portland vere strain Sinaloa ACR, 13,8%; icterohaemorrhagiae, 11,1%; grippotyphosa, 8,9%; hardjo strain H89,7.2%; tarassovi,7.1%; panama, 5.8%, pomona and hardjo, 5.1%; wolffi, 3%; shermani, 2.4%; pyrogenes, 1.2%; canicola, 0.8%; hebdomadis, 0,5%. The bratislava serovariety has been reported as the cause of reproductive failure in several countries and it holds the first place in serological studies. Therefore, the present paper provides information for stating that this is one of the most significant serovarieties in Mexico. PMID:15846937

  8. Aerosol Characterisitics Over Alberta Using Modis and OMI Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z., Sr.; Fu, L.; Gille, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first detailed analysis of optical aerosol characterization over Alberta based on satellite data analysis. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm for 11 years (2003-2013), derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard NASA's Aqua satellite, was analyzed. Additionally, UV aerosol index (AI) data for 9 years (2005-2013) retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) onboard NASA's Aura satellite was used to examine absorbing aerosols. Comparing AERONET to MODIS 3 km and 10 km products indicated a stronger correlation (r=0.9 for the latter vs 0.7 for the former) thus 10 km product has been utilized for this study. Overall, gridded seasonal maps (0.1 deg.) of the 11 yr averaged AOD illustrate the highest AOD during summer, followed by spring, with the lowest observed values during fall (there is no enough valid MODIS data in winter due to cloud cover). Aerosol optical properties exhibited large spatio-temporal heterogeneity in the summer with mean AOD of 0.25, followed by spring, while the fall had less variability with mean AOD below 0.1 for the entire region. However, the spatial analysis indicated hot spots around Edmonton and Calgary cities even in the fall when AODs are very low (close to background). All of the datasets showed interannual variability with no significant trend. The AI values ranged from 0.5 during winter to as high as 5 during summer suggesting mid- and long range transport of boreal fire emissions. Map correlation between AOD and UV AI showed large variability (0.2 to 0.7) indicating presence of different types of aerosols. These low correlations imply the presence of non-absorbing particles (e.g. sulfate) that comprise a relatively large mass fraction of AOD and/or low altitude particles.

  9. Porosity and Velocity Relations of Grosmont Formation, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keehm, Y.; Hu, D.

    2010-12-01

    We present results on porosty-velocity relations of Grosmont formation, Alberta, Canada, which is one of largest bitumen carbonate reservoirs. Grosmont formation is divided into four units: LG; UG-1; UG-2; and UG-3 from the bottom. Two lower units are mainly imestone, while upper units are mostly dolomite with vuggy porosity and fractures, which makes the upper units be a good reservoir. Rock physics modeling was then performed to quantify porosity-velocity relations for the four units, which enables us to predict porosity from seismic data. To incorporate the pore-scale details in the modeling, we used DEM (differential effective medium) models. Two lower units are very similar in velocity-porosity domain, thus the relations can be represented by one velocity-porosity model, which is used as our reference model. For the UG-2 unit, we found that one model cannot represent the unit since the degree of fracturing are heterogeneous from location to location. We thus suggested three different DEM models for the UG-2 unit: vuggy-dominant; mildly-fractured; and heavily-fractured. The UG-3 units can be modeled with vuggy porosity, and fractures were not very noticeable. We also investigated the spatial variation of the UG-2 unit, and found that the degree of fracturing is generally proportional to the proximity to the unconformity boundary, where the fresh water invasion can be dominant. In conclusion, we proposed velocity-porosity relations for the four units in Grosmont formation, and believe that these models can help to characterize the reservoir quality. In addition, since the proximity of reservoir to the unconformity boundary highly affects the degree of fracturing, a careful analysis of spatial variation would be essential for the successful characterization of Grosmont formation. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the Energy R&D program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government

  10. Denitrification enzyme activity in swine wastewater lagoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic lagoons are typically used for treatment of swine wastewater. Although these anaerobic lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple in their physical, chemical, and biological processes, they are actually very sophisticated. Recent reports of high levels of di-nitrogen emissions and h...

  11. Swine Influenza Viruses: a North American Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Influenza is a zoonotic viral disease that represents a health and economic threat to both humans and animals worldwide. Swine influenza was first recognized clinically in pigs in the Midwestern U.S. in 1918, coinciding with the human influenza pandemic known as the Spanish flu. Since that time swin...

  12. Swine MRSA isolates form robust biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization of livestock animals is common and prevalence rates for pigs have been reported to be as high as 49%. Measures to prevent, control, or eliminate MRSA in swine is of considerable public health concern. Bacterial colonization ...

  13. Descriptive analysis of the inequalities of health information resources between Alberta's rural and urban health regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieda, Vivian; Colvin, Barb

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to understand the extent of the inequalities in health information resources across Alberta, SEARCH Custom, HKN (Health Knowledge Network) and IRREN (Inter-Regional Research and Evaluation Network) conducted a survey in December 2007 to determine what library resources currently existed in Alberta's seven rural health regions and the two urban health regions. Although anecdotal evidence indicated that these gaps existed, the analysis was undertaken to provide empirical evidence of the exact nature of these gaps. The results, coupled with the published literature on the impact, effectiveness and value of information on clinical practice and administrative decisions in healthcare management, will be used to build momentum among relevant stakeholders to support a vision of equitably funded health information for all healthcare practitioners across the province of Alberta.

  14. Proceedings of the 7. Independent Power Producers' Society of Alberta annual conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This conference provided to the delegates from across North America a forum where a wide array of perspectives with regard to the new electric market place of Alberta could be discussed. Speakers covered a lot of ground in their examination of the deregulation of the electricity market in Alberta and the impacts felt by consumers and producers alike. The recent events that led to the deregulation were reviewed and an emphasis was also placed on the successful development of power generation projects, wholesale pricing options and independent retail strategies. Open energy markets were discussed in a series of speaker panels where representatives from private organizations added their views on the topic. The conference was divided into seven sessions entitled: (1) the operation of Alberta's market, (2) panel discussion: defending the market, (3) competitive hurdles to successful development, (4) alternative energy solutions, (5) mechanics of retail choice, (6) wholesale pricing options, and (7) independent retailer strategies. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Developing Alberta's crudes - a review of provincial resource development policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly, Christopher J. [Alberta Energy (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Canada is endowed with important fossil fuel resources, most of them are located in Alberta's oil sands and heavy oil reservoirs. Although these deposits are considered as some of the most challenging ones to develop, most of them can now be economically exploited thanks to public policy approaches which have promoted innovation. The aim of the paper is to present the different public policies implemented in Alberta over the last century and to show the approaches employed to develop Alberta's crude depending upon the circumstances. This paper reviewed the different innovation directions taken in the past. The author stated that social and environmental objectives will have increasing importance in the future and that innovation will therefore be required to achieve these objectives. This paper presented the approaches applied in the past and concluded that more resources will need to be put into research and innovation in the future to meet the objectives.

  16. Spatiotemporal variability and predictability of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rengui; Xie, Jiancang; He, Hailong; Kuo, Chun-Chao; Zhu, Jiwei; Yang, Mingxiang

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most popular vegetation indices to monitor terrestrial vegetation productivity, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) has been widely used to study the plant growth and vegetation productivity around the world, especially the dynamic response of vegetation to climate change in terms of precipitation and temperature. Alberta is the most important agricultural and forestry province and with the best climatic observation systems in Canada. However, few studies pertaining to climate change and vegetation productivity are found. The objectives of this paper therefore were to better understand impacts of climate change on vegetation productivity in Alberta using the NDVI and provide reference for policy makers and stakeholders. We investigated the following: (1) the variations of Alberta's smoothed NDVI (sNDVI, eliminated noise compared to NDVI) and two climatic variables (precipitation and temperature) using non-parametric Mann-Kendall monotonic test and Thiel-Sen's slope; (2) the relationships between sNDVI and climatic variables, and the potential predictability of sNDVI using climatic variables as predictors based on two predicted models; and (3) the use of a linear regression model and an artificial neural network calibrated by the genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) to estimate Alberta's sNDVI using precipitation and temperature as predictors. The results showed that (1) the monthly sNDVI has increased during the past 30 years and a lengthened growing season was detected; (2) vegetation productivity in northern Alberta was mainly temperature driven and the vegetation in southern Alberta was predominantly precipitation driven for the period of 1982-2011; and (3) better performances of the sNDVI-climate relationships were obtained by nonlinear model (ANN-GA) than using linear (regression) model. Similar results detected in both monthly and summer sNDVI prediction using climatic variables as predictors revealed the applicability of two models for

  17. Nutrient recovery from swine waste and protein biomass production using duckweed ponds (Landoltia punctata): southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2012-01-01

    Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment.

  18. Deregulation and natural gas trade relationships: lessons from the Alberta-California experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 the US government moved to deregulate the American natural gas industry. The market changes that resulted from this initial step took time to ripple their way out to regional and subnational gas trading relationships. This ripple effect required subnational governments (state and provincial regulators) to rethink their gas regulatory policies. This article examines the restructuring of the Alberta-California gas trade. It explores how changes in US policy forced California and Alberta regulators to recast their policies. It concludes with several lessons that can be drawn from this case about the complex challenge of restructuring international gas trading relationships. (author)

  19. "Democracy was never intended for degenerates": Alberta's flirtation with eugenics comes back to haunt it.

    OpenAIRE

    Cairney, R

    1996-01-01

    An Alberta woman recently won a lawsuit against the government of Alberta for wrongful sterilization that took place when she was a 14-year-old ward at the Provincial Training School for Mental Defectives. It was the first time the province has been held accountable for actions taken under the Sexual Sterilization Act, a 1927 law that promoted the theory of eugenics and led to the sterilization of more than 2800 people. It has since been repealed. A physician who served on the province's Euge...

  20. The economic adaptation of Vietnamese refugees in Alberta: 1979-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R

    1987-01-01

    During 1979 and 1980, about 7500 South East Asian refugees entered Alberta. The number has been steadily rising since 1982 due to the sponsoring of family and relatives by those who came earlier; by mid-1984, there were an estimated 15,000 South East Asian immigrants in Alberta, 92% from Vietnam. Montgomery explores the situation of the Vietnamese in Alberta by administering a survey consisting of a structured interview schedule containing 249 questions. The actual field work took from mid-November 1983 to March 31, 1984. A quota of 500 was targeted; it was decided to apportion the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers were able to interview 148 of all the non-Edmonton Vietnamese; 389 interviews were conducted in Edmonton. All of the dependent variables used in the survey were cross-tabulated or correlated with English skill on arrival, current English skill, progress in English, education or training level on arrival, current marital status, escape trauma (where applicable), gender, age, population of municipality in which currently residing, ethnicity, level of involvement in ethnic social network, type of sponsorship, and length of residence in Canada. Montgomery compares Richmond's 1981 summary generalization from the 25 studies he reviewed of immigrant economic adaptation to Canada to his own study. Montgomery's findings are almost completely congruent with Richmond's. Richmond found that immigrants from the developing countries experienced the highest unemployment rates and the slowest economic integration; this is because they must contend with more, and more severe, obstacles than do other immigrants. This is precisely what has happened to the Vietnamese in Alberta. Richmond found that after 3 years, at least 1/3 of newcomers had not reached their intended occupations. In the present study, the Vietnamese had only hazy notions of what kinds of work

  1. Grisogonovo astronomsko zrcalo (Speculum astronomicum) i Zrcalo astronomije (Speculum astronomiae) Alberta Velikog

    OpenAIRE

    Girardi-Karšulin, Mihaela

    2010-01-01

    Iako Grisogono u Speculum astronomicum nigdje ne spominje Speculum astronomiae Alberta Velikog uočljive su sličnosti između ta dva spisa koje upućuju na to da je Speculum astronomiae Alberta Velikog, izravno ili neizravno, jedan od Grisogonovih izvora. Sličnosti koje govore u prilog toj tezi su sljedeće: Albert Veliki smatra da 1. Astrologija, kad odgovara na pitanja o prošlosti i sadašnjosti, ne tvrdi da je sve iz nužnosti i ne proturječi slobodi volje. 2. Kad astrologija savjetuje što je u ...

  2. The economic adaptation of Vietnamese refugees in Alberta: 1979-84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, R

    1987-01-01

    During 1979 and 1980, about 7500 South East Asian refugees entered Alberta. The number has been steadily rising since 1982 due to the sponsoring of family and relatives by those who came earlier; by mid-1984, there were an estimated 15,000 South East Asian immigrants in Alberta, 92% from Vietnam. Montgomery explores the situation of the Vietnamese in Alberta by administering a survey consisting of a structured interview schedule containing 249 questions. The actual field work took from mid-November 1983 to March 31, 1984. A quota of 500 was targeted; it was decided to apportion the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers as 350 Edmonton and 150 non-Edmonton. Ultimately, the interviewers were able to interview 148 of all the non-Edmonton Vietnamese; 389 interviews were conducted in Edmonton. All of the dependent variables used in the survey were cross-tabulated or correlated with English skill on arrival, current English skill, progress in English, education or training level on arrival, current marital status, escape trauma (where applicable), gender, age, population of municipality in which currently residing, ethnicity, level of involvement in ethnic social network, type of sponsorship, and length of residence in Canada. Montgomery compares Richmond's 1981 summary generalization from the 25 studies he reviewed of immigrant economic adaptation to Canada to his own study. Montgomery's findings are almost completely congruent with Richmond's. Richmond found that immigrants from the developing countries experienced the highest unemployment rates and the slowest economic integration; this is because they must contend with more, and more severe, obstacles than do other immigrants. This is precisely what has happened to the Vietnamese in Alberta. Richmond found that after 3 years, at least 1/3 of newcomers had not reached their intended occupations. In the present study, the Vietnamese had only hazy notions of what kinds of work

  3. Rats in Alberta: looking at pest-control posters from the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Lianne; Zheng, Jingjing

    2011-01-01

    How did the rat-control program, launched by the Government of Alberta in 1950, become associated with the identity and heritage of the province? The authors answer this question by undertaking close visual analyses of the anti-rat posters and pamphlets that were distributed by the government throughout the 1950s. Using a visual methodology inspired by semiotics, they argue that the early rat-control program ambitiously promoted Alberta as a unified, clean province that was both distinct from its prairie neighbours and for the most part populated with vigilant, hardworking citizens eager to remove unwanted intruders.

  4. Boosting Farm Produce Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of escalating inflation,securing farm produce supply and stablizing grain prices could help to alleviate economic pressure The Chinese Government has pledged to secure a stable supply of farm produce.According to a document released after the annual Central Rural Work Conference held on December 22-23 in Beijing,preventing short supplies of farm produce and avoiding"ex-

  5. ABOUT SPONGE FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Marijana Pećarević; Ana Bratoš Cetinić

    2005-01-01

    Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals. Farming of sponges is facilitated by their asexual reproduction and great ability of regeneration. Farming of filter-feeding sponges is environment friendly, and it can positively influence on environmental impact of other aquaculture activities. Natural populations of sponges in Mediterranean Sea are endangered by inappropriate overfishing. Farming of sponges is possible solution for regeneration and protection of natural populations.

  6. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A; Miles, D M

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram-, Gram+, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH3, CO2, CH4, N2O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram+ bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require practical, safe

  7. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, M R; Brooks, J P; Adeli, A; Miles, D M

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram-, Gram+, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH3, CO2, CH4, N2O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram+ bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require practical, safe

  8. Farm Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  9. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky;

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled...... with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential....... Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds...

  10. "Thirty-farm Project", Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin

    1995-01-01

    A whole-farm case study on 32 Norwegian farms, out of which most were dairy farms, showed that animal health was better on organic farms than the Norwegian average. This is probably due to dominantly spring calving, much lower rations of concentrate and lower milk yields. Roughage yields were ca 10% lower than on conventional farms in the same district.

  11. Development and assessment of the Alberta Context Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The context of healthcare organizations such as hospitals is increasingly accepted as having the potential to influence the use of new knowledge. However, the mechanisms by which the organizational context influences evidence-based practices are not well understood. Current measures of organizational context lack a theory-informed approach, lack construct clarity and generally have modest psychometric properties. This paper presents the development and initial psychometric validation of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT, an eight dimension measure of organizational context for healthcare settings. Methods Three principles guided the development of the ACT: substantive theory, brevity, and modifiability. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS framework and related literature were used to guide selection of items in the ACT. The ACT was required to be brief enough to be tolerated in busy and resource stretched work settings and to assess concepts of organizational context that were potentially modifiable. The English version of the ACT was completed by 764 nurses (752 valid responses working in seven Canadian pediatric care hospitals as part of its initial validation. Cronbach's alpha, exploratory factor analysis, analysis of variance, and tests of association were used to assess instrument reliability and validity. Results Factor analysis indicated a 13-factor solution (accounting for 59.26% of the variance in 'organizational context'. The composition of the factors was similar to those originally conceptualized. Cronbach's alpha for the 13 factors ranged from .54 to .91 with 4 factors performing below the commonly accepted alpha cut off of .70. Bivariate associations between instrumental research utilization levels (which the ACT was developed to predict and the ACT's 13 factors were statistically significant at the 5% level for 12 of the 13 factors. Each factor also showed a trend of

  12. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Nicola S.; Russell, Colin A.; Langat, Pinky; Tavis K Anderson; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F.; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigeni...

  13. Alberta 1905-2005 turning on the taps : the 100 year boom and bust saga of Alberta and its oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-15

    This commemorative Alberta centennial edition presents a series of articles exploring the history of the oil and gas industry in Alberta. The infancy of the oil and gas business was highlighted, with reference to the Turner Valley Conservation Act, which helped to build the framework for the creation of the Alberta Petroleum and Natural Gas Conservation Board, the predecessor of today's Energy and Utilities Board. A timeline of events linking world history with industry events was presented throughout the edition. Articles included: stories about oil and gas booms; exploration; the effects of World War 1 and 2; the first oil sands refineries; and the Great Depression. Political figures and business figures were also featured, as well as the early successes of businesses such as the Lloydminster Gas Company. Events of historic importance to the oil and gas industry, such as the Leduc discovery were also highlighted. The National Energy Program, low prices and economic recession were examined. Policy and regional reaction to Federal directives were also featured. Some companies advertised their services in this document, namely: Precision Drilling Corp; Halliburton; Wellco Energy Services Inc.; Gibson Energy Ltd.; National Oilwell; Lufkin; Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Rigstar; Safety Boss Inc.; and Esso. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Congenital limb deficiencies in Alberta-a review of 33 years (1980-2012) from the Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System (ACASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedard, Tanya; Lowry, Robert Brian; Sibbald, Barbara; Kiefer, Gerhard N; Metcalfe, Amy

    2015-11-01

    The birth prevalence of limb deficiencies in Alberta has been fluctuating. The objectives were to examine patterns and temporal trends of congenital limb deficiencies in Alberta and compare rates with those of other jurisdictions. The Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System data on live births, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancy (amelia, transverse, longitudinal (preaxial, postaxial, central, or mixed), intercalary, split hand/split foot, complex, or other type of limb deficiency. Phenotypes were classified as associated, which included cases with a known etiology and cases with at least one other type of anomaly, or isolated. From 1980 through 2012, 795 cases were ascertained from 1,411,652 live births and stillbirths, giving a prevalence of 5.6/10,000 total births. Mixed longitudinal deficiencies were the most common (22.4%). The upper limbs (63.9%) were affected more often than the lower limbs (25.3%). Isolated limb deficiencies occurred in 43.6% of cases, 28.4% had Mendelian or other known conditions, 21.9% had multiple congenital anomalies, 5.4% had chromosome abnormalities and 0.6% were due to teratogens. The associated group, showed a significant increasing trend (P =  0.023). While the overall limb deficiency rates show very little differences across diverse populations and differing time periods, comparisons of subgroups should be made with caution, because variations in terminology and classification contribute to reported differences. PMID:26171959

  15. History of ‘swine fever’ in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The histories of the two swine fevers in southern Africa differ widely. Classical swine fever (hog cholera has been known in the northern hemisphere since 1830 and it is probable that early cases of ‘swine fever’ in European settlers’ pigs in southern Africa were accepted to be that disease. It was only in 1921 that the first description of African swine fever as an entity different from classical swine fever was published after the disease had been studied in settlers’ pigs in Kenya. Shortly after that, reports of African swine fever in settlers’ pigs emerged from South Africa and Angola. In South Africa, the report related to pigs in the north-eastern part of the country. Previously (in 1905 or earlier a disease assumed to be classical swine fever caused high mortality among pigs in the Western Cape and was only eradicated in 1918. African swine fever was found over the following years to be endemic in most southern African countries. Classical swine fever, however, apart from an introduction with subsequent endemic establishment in Madagascar and a number of introductions into Mauritius, the last one in 2000, had apparently remained absent from the region until it was diagnosed in the Western and subsequently the Eastern Cape of South Africa in 2005. It was eradicated by 2007. The history of these diseases in the southern African region demonstrates their importance and their potential for spread over long distances, emphasising the need for improved management of both diseases wherever they occur.

  16. A swine SINE (PRE-1 sequence) distribution in swine-related animal species and its phylogenetic analysis in swine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasue, H; Wada, Y

    1996-04-01

    The distribution of PRE-1 sequence (a swine SINE) among the animal species related to Sus scrofa, i.e. Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu, was examined by dot-blot analysis using PRE-1 sequences as a probe. This revealed that Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu contained PRE-1 sequences, amounts of which in their genomes are almost the same as that in the swine genome, indicating that these species separated after PRE-1 sequences proliferated to diversify in the genome. In order to estimate the time when the PRE-1 started to diversify in the swine genome, PRE-1 sequences were extracted from GenBank DNA database by homology analysis using the PRE-1 consensus sequence as a probe. The 22 PRE-1 sequences obtained were aligned and their phylogenetic relation was calculated by the neighbour-joining method. The result of the calculation combined with the mutation rate of the pseudogenes (r = 4.6 x 10(-9)) indicated that the PRE-1 sequence diversified at least 43.2 million years ago. Taken together, the period of time since the separation of the three species, Sus scrofa, Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu, is currently estimated to be less than 43.2 million years. PMID:8856898

  17. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, M.R., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@ars.usda.gov; Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; Miles, D.M.

    2015-11-01

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH{sub 3}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require

  18. Using broiler litter and swine manure lagoon effluent in sawdust-based swine mortality composts: Effects on nutrients, bacteria, and gaseous emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposition of mortalities challenges confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), especially sow (farrowing) farms, which experience mortalities daily. Regulations and transportation costs may preclude incineration, landfill burial, and rendering; therefore, swine CAFOs in Mississippi in the Mid-South U.S. often compost mortalities. In this study, a farm-standard composting mix of sawdust (S) and water (W) was compared with mixes where N was supplied by broiler litter (L) and water was replaced with swine lagoon effluent (E). The objective was to assess the effects of these manure byproducts: 1) on nutrients and bacteria in composts destined for land application; and 2) on emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. Three replications of four mixes (SW, SLW, SE, SLE) were compared in microcosms comprising modified plastic recycling bins. The experiment was repeated three times in different seasons in one year. Mixes were compared for differences in temperature, water content, nutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), bacteria (Gram −, Gram +, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli), and emissions (NH3, CO2, CH4, N2O). Litter addition increased composting temperatures initially and after aerations; increased nutrient concentrations, except C, in start mixes and all except C and N, in finish mixes; increased Gram + bacteria, Salmonella, and E. coli in start mixes, but only Gram+s in finish mixes; and increased emissions. Effluent addition increased early composting temperatures; had no effect on nutrients or bacteria, except increased C. perfringens in start, but not finish mixes; and had no effect on emissions. Nutrients in finish composts did not differ among mixes for N (average 3.3%), but litter composts had more P and K, and lower N:P than composts without litter. Improving mortality composting is of global importance as increasing livestock populations and intensive animal production systems require practical, safe

  19. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dangers. If you're visiting a farm or live on one, being aware of potential hazards will help kids steer ... near baby animals. Helmets are an important safety feature when riding or ... after touching any animals. If you live on a farm, teach your kids to wash ...

  20. Not Your Family Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  1. Controlled Traffic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Controlled Traffic Farming Europe

    2011-01-01

    Metadata only record Controlled Traffic Farming (CTF) is a farming method used to reduce soil compaction, decrease inputs, and improve soil structure when coupled with reduced-till or no-till practices. This practices utilizes permanent traffic/wheel zones to limit soil compaction to a specific area. This website provides practical information on CTF, case studies, workshops, and links to additional resources.

  2. Alberta High School Counsellors' Knowledge of Homosexuality and Their Attitudes toward Gay Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, Kevin G.; Orzeck, Tricia L.; McEwen, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated Alberta high school counsellors' knowledge about homosexuality and their attitudes toward gay males. Three questionnaires were mailed to 648 high school counselling centres; 223 individuals returned the completed questionnaires. Most counsellors attained low scores in measured homo-negativity and high scores regarding…

  3. Generic market design issues highlighted: prices soar in Alberta as capacity tightens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many Alberta consumers, alarmed by enormous price increases, are asking questions about whether electric sector restructuring in the province has progressed far enough. The average cost of power in Alberta's spot market in October were $70.46 per MWH above the $20-$30 that consumers had paid in recent years. It is widely admitted that the high prices reflect an increasingly tight supply situation in which construction of new capacity has not kept pace with growth in demand. It is a standard case of what happens when the market design focuses on promoting short-term price competition to the detriment of creating compeition in the forward markets. A debate has been produced in Alberta with major power consumers calling for a breakup of the three major generators, and the government suggesting that such intervention would be like returning to the days before competition when government tried to control everything. Competition may not work unless divestiture is revisited. There is a hard time seeing the light at the end of the restructuring tunnel for industrial consumers. Ontario's Market Design Committee struggled with the same issue, believing that an industry composed of many smaller independent generating companies was the only way to achieve lasting and meaningful price competition. The best price protection for consumers is an active and competitive investment market for new capacity, and Alberta should not repeat Ontario's mistake and leave the work until price problems develop

  4. Cultural Competence in Alberta Schools: Perceptions of ESL Families in Four Major School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Hieu V.

    2012-01-01

    Complex linguistic, acculturative, and social needs of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners challenge the K-12 education system to develop cultural competence in working with culturally diverse families. This study surveyed 242 self-identified ESL students and their parents from four of Alberta's major school boards. Results of the survey…

  5. Outlook for Alberta production and deliverability in relation to domestic and export markets of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cautious optimism about the deliverability of Alberta natural gas during the 1993/1994 heating season is justified. There are not likely to be the shortages of the previous winter. These predictions are based on favourable reserve and production figures together with an increase in drilling activity. There are also more disciplined contracting practices and a positive outlook for available pipeline capacity. (author)

  6. Has the Alberta daily physical activity initiative been successfully implemented in Calgary schools?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Christine Diane; Cantell, Marja; Dewey, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In September 2005, the Alberta government introduced the daily physical activity (DPA) initiative, which requires that students from grades 1 to 9 be physically active in school for a minimum of 30 min per day. OBJECTIVE: To obtain information on whether and how the DPA initiative has

  7. WiFi in Schools, Electromagnetic Fields and Cell Phones: Alberta Health Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Wireless devices and the networks that support them are becoming more common in Alberta schools. WiFi is a wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. Typically the signal is carried by radio waves over an area of up to 100 meters. Through the implementation of a WiFi network,…

  8. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offsp

  9. Knowledge, Power, and Social Policy: John M. MacEachran and Alberta's 1928 Sexual Sterilization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puplampu, Korbla P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how academic knowledge and power have shaped the discourse on human classification and how political authorities use academic knowledge producers to legitimize public policy. Specifically, the article draws on the role of John M. MacEachran, a former academic at the University of Alberta, in the implementation of the Alberta…

  10. Complementary Social Sciences Courses in the Alberta High School Curriculum: A Conceptual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszenski, Donna; Smits, Hans

    2008-01-01

    In keeping with Alberta Education's goals and responsibilities to develop and evaluate curriculum and to set standards and assess outcomes, the Ministry is reviewing the status and purpose of social sciences courses as part of the high school curriculum. The present social sciences curriculum was revised in 1985. As part of the social sciences…

  11. Alberta's 2002 Teacher Strike: The Political Economy of Labor Relations in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnetson, Bob

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, approximately two thirds of school teachers in the Canadian province of Alberta went on strike. Drawing on media, government and union documents, this case study reveals some contours of the political economy of labor relations in education that are normally hidden from view. Among these features are that the state can react to worker…

  12. Solution gas flaring and venting at Alberta primary crude bitumen operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, C. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board is mandated by the Government of Alberta to ensure fair, responsible development and delivery of energy resources and utilities services in Alberta while maintaining the best public interest. One of the agencies' priorities is the reduction of solution gas flaring and venting. The performance of solution gas flaring and venting in Alberta and best practices respecting solution gas conservation are discussed. Data was presented on solution gas production, solution gas conserved, and solution gas conservation efficiency. The paper described best practices solutions such as increased gas to oil (GOR) test frequency; predetermination of economic gas conservation; collaboration with county gas utilities; and utilization of portable and scalable gas compression. The paper also presents a discussion of the Clean Air Strategic Alliance (CASA), a non-profit multistakeholder that recommended enhancements to Guide 60. Requirements discussed include the requirement to conserve solution gas at certain sites exceeding established flare and vent volumes, gas conservation prebuild requirements, and enhanced economic evaluation process. 5 figs.

  13. Alberta's reserves 2003 and supply/demand outlook 2004-2013. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents information on the state of reserves, supply, and demand for Alberta's energy resources including bitumen, crude oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids, coal, and sulphur. Estimates of initial reserves, remaining established reserves, and ultimate potential were also included, along with a 10-year supply and demand forecast for Alberta's energy resources. The development of Alberta's energy resources depends on reserve supply, costs of development, energy demands, conservation, and social, economic and environmental considerations. The energy development landscape in 2003 was largely determined by changes in energy prices, drilling activity, and planned investments in the range of billions of dollars in oil sands projects. Raw bitumen production continued to surpass the growth of conventional crude oil production. In 2003, 53 per cent of the province's crude oil and equivalent production was in the form of non-upgraded bitumen and synthetic crude oil production. This growth can be explained by increased bitumen production from oil sands mining. Approval was granted for several steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) schemes, and many more are under review by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). Higher volumes of commercial production are expected from those schemes in future years. Natural gas production declined in 2003 and is expected to stay the same in 2004. Continued growth in coalbed methane (CBM) development activity is expected for 2003 and for the next few years. A separate estimate of CBM reserves will be published for the first time in 2003. tabs., figs

  14. Alberta's evolving water use regulatory framework for energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, J.; Sultan, R. [Waterline Resources Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil and gas industry, water is a critical component of production; in Alberta, 75% of oil production is water-assisted. The use of water in Alberta is regulated by two organisms, Alberta Environment (AENV) and the Energy Resources and Conservation Board (ERCB), with the goal of sustainable management of water resources. AENV regulates the use of non-saline water by the industry and the ERCB regulates access to saline water for energy projects. Non-saline water is defined as having a concentration of less than 4,000 mg/L of total dissolved solids and saline water as having a concentration above 4,000mg/L. The regulatory framework is in constant evolution and the aim of this paper is to provide detail and clarity on the current and future situations. This paper highlights current and emerging regulations on water use in Alberta so that industrial operators can better understand what is and will be asked of them.

  15. Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools: A School-Wide Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on current research and best practices, this three-part resource, "Supporting Positive Behaviour in Alberta Schools," provides information, strategies, stories from schools and sample tools for systematically teaching, supporting and reinforcing positive behaviour. This integrated system of school-wide, classroom management, and individual…

  16. Post-Secondary Learning Priorities of Workers in an Oil Sands Camp in Northern Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Steel, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results to date of a three-year project by Athabasca University, intended to determine the education and training needs and interests of employees in a work camp in northern Alberta's oil sands. (Future reports will address results of efforts to provide programming suiting the needs identified, and the uptake, satisfaction,…

  17. Status of social economy provision of wind electric energy in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacArthur, J. [Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    The development of cooperatives in Canada's energy sector has been mapped and studied through research performed by a doctoral candidate in Political Science at Simon Fraser University. This document has been prepared as part of the research program of the BC-Alberta Social Economy Research Alliance (BALTA). 34 refs.

  18. Using Cognitive Coaching to Build School Leadership Capacity: A Case Study in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W. Todd; Hauserman, Cal P.; Skytt, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The impact of Cognitive Coaching? included as part of the Leader2Leader (L2L) Leadership Pilot Program for beginning principals in Alberta, Canada, was evaluated in the present study. Fifteen qualified principals (coaches) and 23 new principals completed the L2L Pilot Program that took place over 18 months. Questionnaires for coaches and new…

  19. Drawing Alberta's CCS map : a new three-way agreement puts central Alberta on the CO{sub 2} sequestration map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stastny, P.

    2007-12-15

    Provincial and federal governments recognize the significance of geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In the spring of 2007, the federal government pledged $150 million towards building a CO{sub 2} infrastructure in Alberta. In addition, in September 2007, North West Upgrading Inc. announced a joint venture with Enhance Energy Inc. to supply CO{sub 2} for a sequestration/enhanced recovery project at Fairborne Energy Trust's Clive oilfield north of Red Deer, Alberta. The three-way agreement represents the first use of CO{sub 2} from an upgrader in an enhanced oil recovery operation. Injection of CO{sub 2} will occur when North West's upgrader construction and pipeline are completed, sometime after 2010. Three oil and gas producers are currently testing the feasibility of CO{sub 2}, or acid gas-miscible floods, in Alberta and Saskatchewan. CO{sub 2}-miscible floods require a highly pure source of CO{sub 2}, typically 95 per cent pure or better. The companies include Penn West Energy Trust, Devon Canada Corp. and Apache Canada Ltd. In addition, 3 merchant upgraders are proposed for Alberta. Approximately two-thirds of North West's total CO{sub 2} stream will be sequestered at Clive, positioning North West as an industry leader in managing its greenhouse gas emissions from its operations. From the first phase of the upgrader, nearly 3,500 tonnes of CO{sub 2} per day will be sequestered at Clive. The arrangement provides North West Upgrading with revenue from the sale of the CO{sub 2}, as well as sharing in the credits achieved by storing CO{sub 2} underground. For Fairborne Energy, it revitalizes an old 122-million-barrel oilfield, potentially adding 10 to 20 per cent incremental recovery. The deal provides Enhance Energy with an opportunity to provide the industry with an option to outsource secondary/tertiary recovery schemes. This article also compared the Alberta project with

  20. A Cooperative Industry - Government Woodland Caribou Research Program in Northeastern Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair Rippin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of large scale logging and increasingly intensive petroleum exploration and development in northeastern Alberta prompted the establishment of a cooperative research program to investigate various aspects of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou biology. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop an effective plan that will ensure the long term survival of caribou while allowing for renewable and non-renewable resource development. There are three parts to the program. Part I began early in 1991 and makes use of conventional radio telemetry as a means of recording various parameters of general caribou biology. The study area encompasses approximately 4000 km2 of low relief, boreal mixedwood forest. Preliminary results from 2500 radio locations (involving 50 individuals indicate that woodland caribou inhabiting the study area are non-migratory and are strongly associated with some of the more scarce peatland forest types present in the area. Investigations to document the basic biology and ecology will continue for another two years. Part II began in early 1993 as a part of a two-year investigation into the disturbance effects of petroleum exploration and development on caribou movements and behaviour. One objective of this study is to develop a predictive model useful in determining the cumulative effects of varying intensities of disturbance on caribou. Part III began in early 1994 with a proposed three-year investigation to determine the mechanism of spatial and temporal separation of caribou and moose in the study area. These relationships may indicate the means by which caribou minimize the impact of wolf predation on their populations in northeastern Alberta. Results will be applied to industrial land use and specifically to large scale forest harvesting planned for the area. The research program is supported through cooperative funding contributed by 24 petroleum companies, 1 forest company, 2 peat companies and

  1. Human Noroviruses in Swine and Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mattison, Kirsten; Shukla, Anu; Cook, Angela; Pollari, Frank; Friendship, Robert; Kelton, David; Bidawid, Sabah; Farber, Jeffrey M.

    2007-01-01

    Human noroviruses are the predominant cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Strains of norovirus also exist that are uniquely associated with animals; their contribution to the incidence of human illness remains unclear. We tested animal fecal samples and identified GIII (bovine), GII.18 (swine), and GII.4 (human) norovirus sequences, demonstrating for the first time, to our knowledge, that GII.4-like strains can be present in livestock. In addition, we detected GII.4-like noroviral R...

  2. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  3. Establishment of swine interleukin-6 sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntaprasert, A; Mori, Y; Tsukiyama-Kohara, K; Kai, C

    2005-03-01

    We established a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for swine interleukin-6 (SwIL-6), which was applied for detection of SwIL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Anti-SwIL-6 rabbit- and goat-polyclonal antibodies, and monoclonal antibody (mAb) were prepared, conforming that all of the antibodies were reactive with recombinant SwIL-6 by Western blotting and indirect ELISA. A sandwich ELISA was developed using the mAb as a capture antibody and biotinylated goat-polyclonal antibody as a detection antibody. The detection limit of the sandwich ELISA for rSwIL-6 was 49pg/ml and did not show cross-reactivity with swine IL-1b, IL-4, IL-8, IL-18, IL-12, and IFN-g. Using the ELISA, SwIL-6 was detected in culture medium of the monocytes stimulated with PHA-P and PMA, and the plasma or the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. This ELISA for SwIL-6 may be useful for understanding the role of this cytokine in various swine diseases. PMID:15582688

  4. Sustainable Management of Effluents from Small Piggery Farms in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. de Victorica-Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, pig farming is the third most important livestock activity due to its contribution to the total meat production. However, it is estimated that around 38% of pig farms dispose their wastewaters without any treatment directly into the nation’s water bodies, which in turn has a severe impact in the environment. One reason for not treating is the high costs involved, especially for small pig farms. Therefore, a study was performed to develop a low cost and easy to operate treatment system suitable for this type of wastewater and with a quality that allows the reuse of the final effluent within the farm. The pilot study was performed in packed reactors to evaluate the influence of the hydraulic superficial charge on the removal of BOD and COD from a partially treated effluent produced in a small swine farm. BOD and COD initial concentrations ranged from 1,173-2,318 mg L-1 and 2,146-4,119 mg L-1, respectively. The reactors were three PVC columns, 10.16 cm in diameter and 1.32 M in height, each with 6.4 L of total volume and packed with a fixed bed of volcanic rock (tezontle, 47.7% porosity and 7 mm mean diameter. The columns were operated in sequence with download flow under Superficial Hydraulic Charges (SHC of 1, 3 and 5 m3/m2h, with recirculation. The results show treatment efficiencies of 97.3-98.9% for BOD and 84.8-92.6% for COD, with recirculation time between 16 and 27 days. The results of this study are being used to establish the basic elements for designing and implementing suitable wastewater treatment systems to recycle and reuse these effluents in small scale piggery farms in Mexico, to promote sustainable management and reduce water pollution.

  5. Empirical assessment of market power in the Alberta wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 1990s, many countries began to unbundle regulated electricity monopolies into generation, transmission, distribution and retail companies. Transmission and distribution services remained regulated, but generation and retail services were open for competition. Wholesale and retail electricity markets were created. This paper presented a newly developed competitiveness index specifically for the Alberta market through a simple and standard economic approach. The Alberta Electric Utilities Act came into effect in January 1996. This paper described how the Alberta wholesale electricity market works and demonstrated how to model market power in the electricity market. In this study, power generating companies in Alberta were divided into 2 groups. The first group contained the 5 largest firms called strategic firms, while the other group contained the small generating companies called non-strategic firms or the competitive fringe. In the sample years 2003 and 2004, strategic firms withheld capacity when price was above marginal cost and behaved within the range of competitive pricing. They were more likely to price competitively than to use unilateral market power prices. In addition, firms had higher price-cost margins during the off-peak season. This paper explained in detail the reason for this unusual off-peak pattern. The index to measure a firm's strategic behaviour in the Alberta electricity market was developed according to price-cost margin data where firm-behaviour effect was distinguished from the demand-elasticity effect. It was concluded that policy-makers and regulations should consider the magnitude and source of market power when designing market structure, rules and trading practices. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Alberta-BC interconnection studies : final report for Project 12862-21-00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arabi, S.; Morison, K. [Powertech Labs Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2001-08-29

    Recent and future changes in the Alberta power system configuration has prompted a study by ESBI Alberta Ltd. to review the transfer capability of the existing Alberta to British Columbia power tie for power export and power import. The tie includes one 500 kV and two 138 kV lines. The capability was determined from both voltage and transient security points of view. Several single and double contingencies/disturbances were considered. Voltage security assessments were carried out for twelve cases, of which four were selected for dynamic studies. The studies were based on computer simulations using the Interactive Power Flow Program, Voltage Stability Program, Transient Security Assessment Tool, and Small Signal Analysis Tool. The voltage security studies determined the limits corresponding to both Voltage Magnitude and Voltage Stability criteria, whereas the transient security studies determined the limits corresponding to both frequency and transient stability criteria. The required generation and direct load sheds in export and import situations were also computed. It was determined that pre-contingency low voltages in Calgary could significantly limit exports to BC, particularly during peak loads. The Langdon Static VAr Compensator and other reactive power sources in the area are very important in maintaining the necessary voltages. The eight new generating units that are expected to be in the area before the winter of 2001 can also increase export limits substantially. Transient security studies showed less export limitations during peak loads in Alberta than those of maintaining Calgary area voltages. The under-voltage tripping of the tie at Langdon and Cranbrook is needed for keeping high transient stability limits. It was concluded that the overall maximum export that can be achieved in the near future is between 235 and 910 MW from peak to light load situations in Alberta. 17 tabs., 34 figs.

  7. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  8. Alberta-BC interconnection studies : final report for Project 12862-21-00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent and future changes in the Alberta power system configuration has prompted a study by ESBI Alberta Ltd. to review the transfer capability of the existing Alberta to British Columbia power tie for power export and power import. The tie includes one 500 kV and two 138 kV lines. The capability was determined from both voltage and transient security points of view. Several single and double contingencies/disturbances were considered. Voltage security assessments were carried out for twelve cases, of which four were selected for dynamic studies. The studies were based on computer simulations using the Interactive Power Flow Program, Voltage Stability Program, Transient Security Assessment Tool, and Small Signal Analysis Tool. The voltage security studies determined the limits corresponding to both Voltage Magnitude and Voltage Stability criteria, whereas the transient security studies determined the limits corresponding to both frequency and transient stability criteria. The required generation and direct load sheds in export and import situations were also computed. It was determined that pre-contingency low voltages in Calgary could significantly limit exports to BC, particularly during peak loads. The Langdon Static VAr Compensator and other reactive power sources in the area are very important in maintaining the necessary voltages. The eight new generating units that are expected to be in the area before the winter of 2001 can also increase export limits substantially. Transient security studies showed less export limitations during peak loads in Alberta than those of maintaining Calgary area voltages. The under-voltage tripping of the tie at Langdon and Cranbrook is needed for keeping high transient stability limits. It was concluded that the overall maximum export that can be achieved in the near future is between 235 and 910 MW from peak to light load situations in Alberta. 17 tabs., 34 figs

  9. Socio-economic impact of Horseshoe Canyon coalbed methane development in Alberta : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarized the results of a socio-economic benefits analysis of coalbed methane (CBM) and natural gas from coal (NGC) development in the Horseshoe Canyon in Alberta. Economic analysis assumptions for evaluating the economic outcomes of different scenarios of future CBM development in the region were also provided. The data and forecasts were used to evaluate the socio-economic benefits of CBM development through the use of an economic impact assessment model. The study resulted in a revised resource assessment for the Horseshoe Canyon coals of approximately 36 trillion standard cubic feet (Tcf) of gas in place. Nine different development scenarios were run which predicted peak Horseshoe Canyon CBM rates of between 1.4 and 1.9 Bdf/day between 2011 and 2017, with sustained rates of approximately 185 MMcf/day as far into the future as 2050. The analysis indicated that CBM development in the region will result in approximately $9 billion of cumulative investment between 2006 and 2026, resulting in total production revenues of $80 to $106 billion. Between 2006 and 2064, CBM development will contribute between $97 and $123 billion to Alberta's gross domestic product (GDP), and another $7 to $12 billion in GDP outside of Alberta. GDP and other socio-economic impacts were distributed over 19 different economic sectors in the report. Results of the report suggested that over 650,000 man-years of employment, and between $15 to $19 billion in tax and royalty revenues will be created by CBM development in the region. Tax and royalty revenues include provincial, federal, and municipal governments. It was concluded that the development of CBM in Alberta will have a significant and positive impact on the future economy of Alberta and Canada. It was noted that there are non-economic impacts associated with the development, including environmental and sociological impacts, that were not addressed in the study. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  10. Forage and tree seedling growth in a soil with an encased swine sludge layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Chad J; Will, Rodney; Fultz, Lisa; Hamilton, Doug

    2013-10-15

    The closure of swine farms requires decommissioning of lagoons that contain large amounts of swine solids (sludge). Sludge is typically transported and land applied to soils. However, in some cases this process could be economically prohibitive and/or unpractical. An alternative idea is to encase sludge with lagoon soil berms after removing overlying effluent, followed by establishment of forages or short-rotation woody crops on the encased sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate growth potential for several forages and tree species into a pure layer of swine sludge. Alfalfa (Meticago sativa), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), and sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) were established in 40 cm deep pots consisting of a lagoon berm soil overlaying a sludge layer for 12 w followed by analysis of aboveground and belowground biomass production. "New" and "old" sludge was collected from an active 10 year old lagoon and decommissioned 50 year old lagoon, respectively. A control (soil only) was used. Encased sludge treatments increased forage biomass production. Sycamore and green ash were sensitive to new sludge but not old sludge as these species had less biomass production in new sludge than control and showed tissue trace nutrient deficiencies. While both sludge materials contained adequate nutrients, the new sludge had a salt concentration 1.8 times higher than old sludge as indicated by electrical conductivity (12.4 mS). Thus, the forage crops and black locust were able to thrive in new sludge due to their salt tolerance. PMID:23835521

  11. Genome-wide association study for cytokines and immunoglobulin G in swine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Lu

    Full Text Available Increased disease resistance through improved immune capacity would be beneficial for the welfare and productivity of farm animals. To identify genomic regions responsible for immune capacity traits in swine, a genome-wide association study was conducted. In total, 675 pigs were included. At 21 days of age, all piglets were vaccinated with modified live classical swine fever vaccine. Blood samples were sampled when the piglets were 20 and 35 days of age, respectively. Four traits, including Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and Interleukin 10 (IL-10 levels, the ratio of IFN-γ to IL-10 and Immunoglobulin G (IgG blocking percentage to CSFV in serum were measured. All the samples were genotyped for 62,163 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP using the Illumina porcineSNP60k BeadChip. After quality control, 46,079 SNPs were selected for association tests based on a single-locus regression model. To tackle the issue of multiple testing, 10,000 permutations were performed to determine the chromosome-wise and genome-wise significance level. In total, 32 SNPs with chromosome-wise significance level (including 4 SNPs with genome-wise significance level were identified. These SNPs account for 3.23% to 13.81% of the total phenotypic variance individually. For the four traits, the numbers of significant SNPs range from 5 to 15, which jointly account for 37.52%, 82.94%, 26.74% and 24.16% of the total phenotypic variance of IFN-γ, IL-10, IFN-γ/IL-10, and IgG, respectively. Several significant SNPs are located within the QTL regions reported in previous studies. Furthermore, several significant SNPs fall into the regions which harbour a number of known immunity-related genes. Results herein lay a preliminary foundation for further identifying the causal mutations affecting swine immune capacity in follow-up studies.

  12. FARM AND NONFARM FACTORS INFLUENCING FARM SIZE

    OpenAIRE

    Atwood, Joseph A.; Helmers, Glenn A.; Shaik, Saleem

    2002-01-01

    The impact of the price of capital, nonfarm employment opportunities, and returns in agriculture on farm size was analyzed. A 10 region panel model using data for 1950-2000 was used. The impact of agricultural government payments was also examined. The results demonstrated the capital-labor substitution phenomenon and the importance of nonfarm employment changes.

  13. Baseline scenario for gas, odor, dust and particulate matter emissions from swine buildings in Quebec : part 1 : emissions inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The livestock industry, particularly the swine sector, has taken measures to minimize the environmental impacts of meat production at both the local, regional and global scale. This paper reported on solutions to reduce emissions associated with animal production through animal waste management. The substances targeted by technological improvements for swine barns include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ammonia, dust, odors and particulate matters. Stakeholders in Quebec's swine sector have taken the initiative to evaluate and compare the environmental performances of various in-barn technologies and practices. This paper also presented a project aimed at defining baseline scenarios for gaseous wastes, odor, dust and particulate matter emissions from pig barns, using 2006 as the reference year. The study considered all stages of production of a typical farrow-to-finish farm in Quebec. The paper outlined a methodology based on emissions inventory in order to define this baseline scenario. The results and key limitations of this methodology were discussed. 26 refs., 5 tabs., 1 appendix.

  14. New knowledge in application of vaccines with Kina(Kstrain in control and curbing of classical swine fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanov Jasna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The program of curbing and outrooting classical swine fever (CSF in our country has for years been based on the vaccination of all categories of swine with the Kina (K strain of the CSF virus, and, after the establishment of the source of infection, with the non-harmful removal of the infected swine herd, as well as on the implementation of all measures prescribed by the valid regulations. However, in spite of the implementation of all the listed measures, CSF still occurs continually. The epizootiological situation in our country in the course of 2005 was extremely unfavorable from the aspect of the number of identified CSF crisis spots, and it can be pointed out at this time that the disease was diagnosed clinically, pathomorphologically and using laboratory methods in 51 farms in a single examined epizootiological district. Under conditions when CSF appears continually throughout the year, vaccination using a modified live vaccine must continue being the basic measure in preventing the appearance, spreading, curbing, and eradication of CSF. With the objective of securing a concept of the most efficient further strategy for control and curbing of this disease, the paper presents the most important aspects regarding efficacy, safety, as well as field experience in applying vaccines which are based on the K strain of the CSF virus. .

  15. Noble gases in CH 4-rich gas fields, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyagon, H.; Kennedy, B. M.

    1992-04-01

    The elemental and isotopic compositions of helium, neon, argon, and xenon in twenty-one CH 4-rich natural gas samples from Cretaceous and Devonian reservoirs in the Alberta, Canada, sedimentary basin were measured. In all but a few cases, radiogenic ( 4He, 40Ar, and 131-136Xe) and nucleogenic ( 21,22Ne) isotopes dominated. Based solely on the noble gas composition, two types of natural gas reservoirs are identified. One (Group B) is highly enriched in radiogenic-nucleogenic noble gases and varies little in composition: 3He /4He = 1.5 ± 0.5 × 10 -8, 40Ar /36Ar = 5000-6500 , 40∗Ar /4He = 0.10 , 136∗Xe /4He ~ 0.7 × 10 -9, and 21∗Ne /22∗Ne = 0.452 ± 0.041 (∗ denotes radiogenic or nucleogenic origin; all 4He is radiogenic). High nitrogen content with 4He /N 2 ~ 0.06 is also characteristic of Group B samples. The remaining samples (Group A) contain a radiogenic-nucleogenic component with a different composition and, relative to Group B samples, the extent of enrichment in this component is less and more variable: 3He /4He = 10-70 × 10 -8, 40Ar /36Ar Precambrian basement, consistent with a present-day mass flux into the overlying sedimentary basin. Inferred 40∗Ar /136∗Xe 4He ratios imply a basement source enriched in thorium relative to uranium and potassium (Th/U > 20). Combined, the overall lower total radiogenic-nucleogenic content of Group A reservoirs, the greater variability in composition, and the appearance of Group A noble gases in reservoirs higher in the sedimentary sequence relative to the underlying basement implies that the Group A radiogenic-nucleogenic noble gases are indigenous to the sediments. The most interesting aspect of the Group A noble gases are the very high 3He /4He ratios; ~ 10-70 times greater than expected if derived from average crust. The mantle, surface cosmogenic 3He production, cosmic dust, or production in a lithium-enriched environment as potential sources for the 3He excesses are evaluated. The present data set

  16. Economic feasibility and evaluation of a novel manure collection and anaerobic digestion system at a commercial swine finisher enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case study conducted at a commercial swine-finishing farm demonstrated that a novel manure management system increased economic feasibility of an anaerobic digester by eliminating the need for post-digestion manure storage construction at the farm. Uniquely designed underfloor manure storage pits collected manure for delivery to the digester, and then stored post-digested manure (digestate) in underfloor storage within the same swine houses. It was unknown if the introduction of biologically active digestate into these pits would produce pig living space air quality that was adverse to pig health, growth or survival, or if explosive methane levels would be generated within the buildings. Monitoring of air quality indicators both before and after digestate introduction to underfloor manure storage pits resulted in no observations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or methane (CH4) concentrations above critical safety levels in swine housing. Hourly mean ammonia (NH3) concentrations at pig level (0.15 m above the floor) before digestate was present in the buildings were higher (P < 0.05) compared to when digestate was present (24 ± 2.8 ppm vs. 17 ± 1.0 ppm). Air quality measures did not indicate that digestate introduction into underfloor manure pits caused degradations of air quality at pig level. No obvious etiologic effects on swine were observed. Evaluation of the electric cogeneration system showed that cost-savings of electricity produced from biogas combustion was approximately equal to the producer's debt service for capital investment. External funding and low interest financing were necessary for electric cost-savings to offset finance payments. - Highlights: • Swine dunging behavior used to collect 75% of manure for anaerobic digestion. • Digestate returned to housing without adverse etiologic or air quality effects. • System design offered some economic advantages. • Outside funding necessary for electric cost savings to offset capital

  17. Dairy farms testing positive for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis have poorer hygiene practices and are less cautious when purchasing cattle than test-negative herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2016-06-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne's disease, is present on most dairy farms in Alberta, causing economic losses and presenting a potential public health concern. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for Alberta dairy herds being MAP-positive based on environmental samples (ES). Risk assessments were conducted and ES were collected on 354 Alberta dairy farms (62% of eligible producers) voluntarily participating in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative. In univariate logistic regression, risk factors addressing animal and pen hygiene, as well as the use of feeding equipment to remove manure and manure application on pastures, were all associated with the number of positive ES. Furthermore, based on factor analysis, risk factors were clustered and could be summarized as 4 independent factors: (1) animal, pen, and feeder contamination; (2) shared equipment and pasture contamination; (3) calf diet; and (4) cattle purchase. Using these factor scores as independent variables in multivariate logistic regression models, a 1-unit increase in animal, pen, and feeder contamination resulted in 1.31 times higher odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Furthermore, a 1-unit increase in cattle purchase also resulted in 1.31 times the odds of having at least 1 positive ES. Finally, a 100-cow increase in herd size resulted in an odds ratio of 2.1 for having at least 1 positive ES. In conclusion, cleanliness of animals, pens, and feeders, as well as cattle purchase practices, affected risk of herd infection with MAP. Therefore, improvements in those management practices should be the focus of effective tools to control MAP on dairy farms. PMID:26995127

  18. APPLICATION OF REAL OPTIONS THEORY IN THE EVALUATION OF SWINE BIOGAS STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the real option of storing the biogas from swine biomass. We analyze deferring the immediate sale of this energy in the spot market to store it in the form of gas for future sale. We consider that once a storage tank reaches maximum capacity, the producer will sell all of the energy generated in either the spot market or regulated market for a minimum selling price. The farm we chose to study already produces energy and sells it in the spot market. The real options methodology was chosen to consider managerial flexibility and the uncertainty of the energy price. Additionally, considerations were made for the stochastic process applied to the price time series of the weekly Differences Settlement Price (Preço de Liquidação das Diferenças in Portuguese of low voltage power in southern Brazil. Our results indicate that the storage option has value for the power generation from swine biomass.

  19. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-07-09

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs.

  20. Changes in chemical properties of distrophic Red Latosol as result of swine wastewater application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez R. Cabral

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Swine wastewater (SW has characteristics that allow its disposal in the soil as a fertilizer. This is an alternative in order not to accumulate this material in the farm as well as it provides savings with mineral fertilizers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying swine wastewater on the chemical properties of a distrophic Red Latosol for two seasons. The experiment was carried out under field conditions with treatments defined as T0 = 0 (control, T1 = 150, T2 = 300, T3 = 450, T4 = 600, T5 = 750 m3 ha-1 of SW applied during the crop cycle of elephant grass. SW application contributed to the increase of magnesium and phosphorus and the reduction of soil aluminum in the first season. As for the second season when compared to the first one, there were reductions in K, Ca, and P concentrations. Hence applications of SW did not contribute to the increase in concentration of elements in the soil.

  1. Serum neutralization as a differential serological test for classical swine fever virus and other pestivirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes J.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum neutralization tests (SN were performed against classical swine fever virus (CSFV, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV and border disease virus (BDV on samples of swine serum collected for screening of antibodies to CSFV, in order to determine the SN value as a differential serological test. Ninety-nine sera out of a sample of 16,664 were positive for antibodies to pestiviruses in an ELISA test which did not distinguish antibodies to different pestiviruses. When submitted to SN, 81 sera were positive for CSFV antibodies only. In 17 sera, crossreactive antibodies to either CSFV, BVDV or BDV were detected. In most of these sera (13 out of 17 the differences between SN titres against the three viruses were not sufficient to estimate which was the most likely antibody-inducing virus. It was concluded that, for the SN to be useful in such differentiation, it is essential to examine a sample which must include a representative number of sera from the same farm where suspect animals were detected. When isolated serum samples are examined, such as those obtained with the sampling strategy adopted here, the SN may give rise to inconclusive results.

  2. Efficacy of a live attenuated vaccine in classical swine fever virus postnatally persistently infected pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-González, Sara; Perez-Simó, Marta; Muñoz, Marta; Bohorquez, José Alejandro; Rosell, Rosa; Summerfield, Artur; Domingo, Mariano; Ruggli, Nicolas; Ganges, Llilianne

    2015-01-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) causes major losses in pig farming, with various degrees of disease severity. Efficient live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever virus (CSFV) are used routinely in endemic countries. However, despite intensive vaccination programs in these areas for more than 20 years, CSF has not been eradicated. Molecular epidemiology studies in these regions suggests that the virus circulating in the field has evolved under the positive selection pressure exerted by the immune response to the vaccine, leading to new attenuated viral variants. Recent work by our group demonstrated that a high proportion of persistently infected piglets can be generated by early postnatal infection with low and moderately virulent CSFV strains. Here, we studied the immune response to a hog cholera lapinised virus vaccine (HCLV), C-strain, in six-week-old persistently infected pigs following post-natal infection. CSFV-negative pigs were vaccinated as controls. The humoral and interferon gamma responses as well as the CSFV RNA loads were monitored for 21 days post-vaccination. No vaccine viral RNA was detected in the serum samples and tonsils from CSFV postnatally persistently infected pigs for 21 days post-vaccination. Furthermore, no E2-specific antibody response or neutralising antibody titres were shown in CSFV persistently infected vaccinated animals. Likewise, no of IFN-gamma producing cell response against CSFV or PHA was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the absence of a response to vaccination in CSFV persistently infected pigs. PMID:26159607

  3. Genetic Analysis and Rescue of a Triple-reassortant H3N2 Influenza A Virus Isolated From Swine in Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian QI; Yong-jun JIAO; Hao PAN; Lun-biao CUI; Wei-xing FAN; Bao-xu HUANG; Zhi-yang SHI; Hua WANG

    2009-01-01

    One influenza H3N2 virus, A/swine/Shandong/3/2005 (Sw/SD/3/2005), was isolated from pigs with respiratory disease on a farm in eastern China. Genetic analysis revealed that Sw/SD/3/2005 was a triple-reassortant virus with a PB2 gene from human-like HIN1, NS from classical swine H1NI, and the remaining genes from human-like H3N2 virus. These findings further support the concept that swine can serve as reservoir or mixing vessels of influenza virus strains and maintain genetic and antigenic stability of viruses. Furthermore, we have successfully established a reverse genetics system based on eight plasmids and rescued Sw/SD/3/2005 through cell transfection. HI tests and RT-PCR confirmed that the rescued virus maintained the biological properties of the wild type Sw/SD/3/2005. The successful establishment of the reverse genetics system of Sw/SD/3/2005 will enable us to conduct extensive studies of the molecular evolution of H3N2 influenza viruses in swine.

  4. Using full-scale duckweed ponds as the finish stage for swine waste treatment with a focus on organic matter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, R A; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of swine has caused pronounced environmental impacts worldwide, especially on water resources. As an aggregate, smallholdings have an important role in South American pork production, contributing to the net diffusion of pollution. Thus, duckweed ponds have been successfully used for swine waste polishing, mainly for nutrient removal. Few studies have been carried out to assess organic matter degradation in duckweed ponds. Hence, the present study evaluated the efficiency of two full-scale duckweed ponds for organic matter reduction of swine waste on small pig farms. Duckweed ponds, in series, received the effluent after an anaerobic biodigester and storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3) day(-1). After 1 year of monitoring, an improvement in effluent quality was observed, with a reduction in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD), respectively, of 94.8 and 96.7%, operating at a loading rate of approximately 27 kgBOD ha(-1) day(-1) and 131 kgCOD ha(-1) day(-1). Algae inhibition due to duckweed coverage was strongly observed in the pond effluent, where chlorophyll a and turbidity remained below 25 μg L(-1) and 10 NTU. Using the study conditions described herein, duckweed ponds were shown to be a suitable technology for swine waste treatment, contributing to the environmental sustainability of rural areas.

  5. Quinupristin-Dalfopristin Resistance in Enterococcus faecium Isolates from Humans, Farm Animals, and Grocery Store Meat in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Donabedian, S. M.; Perri, M B; Vager, D.; Hershberger, E.; Malani, P.; Simjee, S.; Chow, J.; Vergis, E. N.; Muder, R R; Gay, K.; Angulo, F. J.; Bartlett, P.; Zervos, M J

    2006-01-01

    Three hundred sixty-one quinupristin-dalfopristin (Q-D)-resistant Enterococcus faecium (QDREF) isolates were isolated from humans, turkeys, chickens, swine, dairy and beef cattle from farms, chicken carcasses, and ground pork from grocery stores in the United States from 1995 to 2003. These isolates were evaluated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine possible commonality between QDREF isolates from human and animal sources. PCR was performed to detect the streptogramin resi...

  6. Fertilizing cotton with recovered P from swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new treatment technology has been developed to recover soluble P from liquid swine manure. Our objective was to compare P availability and leaching distribution in soils using the recovered P from swine wastewater (31% P2O5) compared with triple superphosphate (46% P2O5) and broiler litter (2.6% P...

  7. Lysozyme as an alternative to antibiotics in swine feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotics have been fed at subtherapeutic levels to swine as growth promoters for more than 60 years, and the majority of swine produced in the U.S. receive antibiotics in their feed at some point in their production cycle. These compounds benefit the producers by minimizing production losses by ...

  8. 78 FR 27937 - Environmental Impact Statement; Feral Swine Damage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... organizations at the State level to accommodate varying local laws and management objectives for feral swine... and organizations to meet local management objectives, which may include reducing statewide... practices (40 CFR 1502.14(d)). Under the no action alternative, current APHIS feral swine damage...

  9. PREVALENCE OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN AN INTEGRATED SWINE OPERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Isolation of C. difficile was performed u...

  10. Varied prevalence of Clostridium difficile in an integrated swine operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of Clostridium difficile among different age and production groups of swine in a vertically integrated swine operation in Texas in 2006 and to compare our isolates to other animal and human isolates. Preliminary results are based on 131 C. d...

  11. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  12. The global antigenic diversity of swine influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nicola S; Russell, Colin A; Langat, Pinky; Anderson, Tavis K; Berger, Kathryn; Bielejec, Filip; Burke, David F; Dudas, Gytis; Fonville, Judith M; Fouchier, Ron AM; Kellam, Paul; Koel, Bjorn F; Lemey, Philippe; Nguyen, Tung; Nuansrichy, Bundit; Peiris, JS Malik; Saito, Takehiko; Simon, Gaelle; Skepner, Eugene; Takemae, Nobuhiro; Webby, Richard J; Van Reeth, Kristien; Brookes, Sharon M; Larsen, Lars; Watson, Simon J; Brown, Ian H; Vincent, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza presents a substantial disease burden for pig populations worldwide and poses a potential pandemic threat to humans. There is considerable diversity in both H1 and H3 influenza viruses circulating in swine due to the frequent introductions of viruses from humans and birds coupled with geographic segregation of global swine populations. Much of this diversity is characterized genetically but the antigenic diversity of these viruses is poorly understood. Critically, the antigenic diversity shapes the risk profile of swine influenza viruses in terms of their epizootic and pandemic potential. Here, using the most comprehensive set of swine influenza virus antigenic data compiled to date, we quantify the antigenic diversity of swine influenza viruses on a multi-continental scale. The substantial antigenic diversity of recently circulating viruses in different parts of the world adds complexity to the risk profiles for the movement of swine and the potential for swine-derived infections in humans. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12217.001 PMID:27113719

  13. Global migration of influenza A viruses in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic virus underscores the importance of understanding how influenza A viruses evolve in swine on a global scale. To reveal the frequency, patterns and drivers of the spread of swine influenza virus globally, we conducted the largest phylogenetic analysis of swin...

  14. Close Relationship of Ruminant Pestiviruses and Classical Swine Fever Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Postel, Alexander; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Oguzoglu, Tuba Cigdem; Indenbirken, Daniela; Alawi, Malik; Fischer, Nicole; Grundhoff, Adam; Becher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To determine why serum from small ruminants infected with ruminant pestiviruses reacted positively to classical swine fever virus (CSFV)–specific diagnostic tests, we analyzed 2 pestiviruses from Turkey. They differed genetically and antigenically from known Pestivirus species and were closely related to CSFV. Cross-reactions would interfere with classical swine fever diagnosis in pigs.

  15. Wind farm design optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carreau, Michel; Morgenroth, Michael; Belashov, Oleg; Mdimagh, Asma; Hertz, Alain; Marcotte, Odile

    2010-09-15

    Innovative numerical computer tools have been developed to streamline the estimation, the design process and to optimize the Wind Farm Design with respect to the overall return on investment. The optimization engine can find the collector system layout automatically which provide a powerful tool to quickly study various alternative taking into account more precisely various constraints or factors that previously would have been too costly to analyze in details with precision. Our Wind Farm Tools have evolved through numerous projects and created value for our clients yielding Wind Farm projects with projected higher returns.

  16. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...... of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  17. Glasser’s disease in swine in Batam Island, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adin Priadi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Glasser’s disease or Haemophilus parasuis in swine causes a considerable economic losses. This disease decreases farm production due to high mortality. In a field investigation, H. parasuis serotype 12 was isolated from the lung of a ten week old post weaning pig suffering from pneumonia in Bulan island, Riau Province. The isolation of H. parasuis in a pig herd showing increasing mortality is the first reported in Indonesia. Antibiotic sensitivity test using disc diffusion methods, showed that the isolate was sensitive to bacitracin, baytril, erythromycin and was resistance to neomycin, kanamycin, doxycyclin, ampicillin and sulphamethoxazol-trimethoprim. Vaccination in weaned piglet using commercial inactivated vaccine was monitored using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Crude extract of culture H. parasuis serotype 12 was used as the ELISA coating antigen. There was no significant immune response detected by ELISA 3 months after vaccination.

  18. The Black of Strei – a Swine Population on the Verge of Extinction in Banat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Matiuti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Black of Strei swine was declared to be extinct in 1974, but research conducted in 2008-2010 proved that there are still 61 specimens (Black of Strei proper and hybrids in the Hatzeg county and in the Lugoj area. Body measurements have been made in the case of those specimens and they showed that the specimens are a morphoproductive type. The local people appreciate the Black of Strei especially for its fat and bard which are very dry and used in order to obtain the traditional food products in the area. Prolificacy of sows farrowing is an 8 piglets per gestation. This breed is best kept in organic farms. The Black of Strei females are usually cross-bred with wildboar (Sus scrofa ferus males, the hybrids’ meat being very appreciated.

  19. A new subgenotype 2.1d isolates of classical swine fever virus in China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Leng, Chaoliang; Feng, Liping; Zhai, Hongyue; Chen, Jiazeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Bai, Yun; Ye, Chao; Peng, Jinmei; An, Tongqing; Kan, Yunchao; Cai, Xuehui; Tian, Zhijun; Tong, Guangzhi

    2015-08-01

    The lapinized attenuated vaccine against classical swine fever (CSF) has been used in China for over half a century and has generally prevented large-scale outbreaks in recent years. However, since late 2014, a large number of new cases of CSF were detected in many immunized pig farms in China. Several of these CSV viruses were isolated and characterized. Phylogenetic and genomic sequence analyses indicate that these new isolates, as well as some reference isolates, form a new subgenotype named 2.1d, and share several consistent molecular characteristics. Since these new isolates emerged in disparate geographic regions within 5 months, this suggests that these isolates may be widespread. Given that current vaccines do not appear to provide effective protection against this new subgenotype, further investigation of these strains is urgently needed. PMID:26031602

  20. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  1. 78 FR 9028 - Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies Proposed Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Swine Brucellosis and Pseudorabies... approach to managing swine brucellosis and pseudorabies available for public review and comment. Swine brucellosis and pseudorabies have been eliminated from commercial swine herds within the United States,...

  2. Comparison of fecal culture and Danish Mix-ELISA for determination of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica prevalence in growing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J A; Harris, I T; Davies, P R

    2005-04-25

    In the USA, control of food-borne salmonellosis associated with meat consumption has been predominantly focused at slaughter and processing. It is expected that standards at slaughter and processing will become more stringent, creating pressure to reduce prevalence of Salmonella-positive food animals through on-farm interventions. The aim of this study was to compare traditional fecal culture and the Danish Mix-ELISA (DME) for determination of Salmonella prevalence pre-harvest in swine. In Trial 1, five cohorts of individually identified pigs were longitudinally sampled during the growing period to compare the kinetics of prevalence as estimated by fecal culture and the DME. In Trial 2, the correlation between fecal prevalence and seroprevalence was estimated pre-marketing in 49 groups of pigs. In Trial 1, fecal prevalence and seroprevalence showed similar kinetics, with a tendency of a higher OD% cut-off to more closely approximate fecal prevalence. In Trial 2, correlations between fecal culture and the DME were 0.40, 0.36, 0.43, and 0.43 (p or =10, 20, 30, and 40, respectively. Based on these results, a higher OD% cut-off would be recommended if more approximate estimation of fecal prevalence is desired and longitudinal sampling would be suggested for evaluating the impact of on-farm interventions for Salmonella reduction whether utilizing fecal culture or the DME. Further evaluation of the impact of Salmonella serovar present on farms on seroprevalence and the relationship of on-farm seroprevalence with food safety risk are needed prior to utilizing the DME for pre-harvest Salmonella diagnostics in the US swine herd. PMID:15795083

  3. Optimization of Swine Breeding Programs Using Genomic Selection with ZPLAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, B M; Kang, H S; Kim, T H; Viterbo, V S; Kim, H S; Na, C S; Seo, K S

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the present conventional selection program of a swine nucleus farm and compare it with a new selection strategy employing genomic enhanced breeding value (GEBV) as the selection criteria. The ZPLAN+ software was employed to calculate and compare the genetic gain, total cost, return and profit of each selection strategy. The first strategy reflected the current conventional breeding program, which was a progeny test system (CS). The second strategy was a selection scheme based strictly on genomic information (GS1). The third scenario was the same as GS1, but the selection by GEBV was further supplemented by the performance test (GS2). The last scenario was a mixture of genomic information and progeny tests (GS3). The results showed that the accuracy of the selection index of young boars of GS1 was 26% higher than that of CS. On the other hand, both GS2 and GS3 gave 31% higher accuracy than CS for young boars. The annual monetary genetic gain of GS1, GS2 and GS3 was 10%, 12%, and 11% higher, respectively, than that of CS. As expected, the discounted costs of genomic selection strategies were higher than those of CS. The costs of GS1, GS2 and GS3 were 35%, 73%, and 89% higher than those of CS, respectively, assuming a genotyping cost of $120. As a result, the discounted profit per animal of GS1 and GS2 was 8% and 2% higher, respectively, than that of CS while GS3 was 6% lower. Comparison among genomic breeding scenarios revealed that GS1 was more profitable than GS2 and GS3. The genomic selection schemes, especially GS1 and GS2, were clearly superior to the conventional scheme in terms of monetary genetic gain and profit. PMID:26954222

  4. Learning in Organic Farming An Application on Finnish Dairy Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilainen, Timo; Oude Lansink, Alfons G. J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Organic farming technology may be relatively unknown to farmers at the time when they switch from conventional into organic farming. Therefore, experience gained over time and learning by doing may be important determinants in the efficiency of organic farming. It may also take time to reach the optimal nutrient stock of soil and optimal nutrient supply for arable crops under organic farming. Thus, efficiency of organic farming can either grow or decrease over time depending on the nature of ...

  5. Empirical model of odor emission from deep-pit swine finishing barns to derive a standardized odor emission factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauberger, Günther; Lim, Teng-Teeh; Ni, Ji-Qin; Bundy, Dwaine S.; Haymore, Barry L.; Diehl, Claude A.; Duggirala, Ravi K.; Heber, Albert J.

    2013-02-01

    Odor emission from swine housing is influenced by the herd characteristics and building environment. The following three specific factors were identified as inputs to a swine house odor emission model: indoor temperature, barn ventilation rate, and pig activity. Model input parameters were determined based on tests of four, identical, 1000-head, mechanically-ventilated swine finishing houses. Each building had two sidewall curtains, a curtain on the west end wall, five exhaust fans on the east end wall, four pit ventilation fans, and long-term manure storage beneath a fully slatted floor. Odor concentrations of 112 odor samples were determined using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry with four to six trained panelists. The emission model showed that the standard live mass specific odor emission factor was 48 OU s-1 per 500 kg live mass or animal unit (AU), and it corresponded to an indoor temperature of T0 = 20 °C, a ventilation rate of V0 = 200 m3 h-1 (55.6 × 10-3 m3 s-1) per pig (maximum capacity for summer time), and the daily mean animal activity. The rate of odor emission from a swine finishing house can be calculated based on these parameters coupled with the number of animals, the mean live mass, and the standard live mass specific odor emission factor. Using this process-based odor emission model, the odor emission estimation and therefore the input for odor dispersion models can be improved to obtain more reliable estimates of separation distance for siting future pig farms.

  6. Dispersion modeling to compare alternative technologies for odor remediation at swine facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Susan S; Graham, Brevick G; Williams, C Mike

    2008-09-01

    The effectiveness of 18 alternative technologies for reducing odor dispersion at and beyond the boundary of swine facilities was assessed in conjunction with an initiative sponsored through agreements between the Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms, and Frontline Farmers. The trajectory and spatial distribution of odor emitted at each facility were modeled at 200 and 400 m downwind from each site under two meteorological conditions (daytime and nighttime) using a Eulerian-Lagrangian model. To predict the dispersion of odor downwind, the geographical area containing the odorant sources at each facility was partitioned into 10-m2 grids on the basis of satellite photographs and architectural drawings. Relative odorant concentrations were assigned to each grid point on the basis of intensity measurements made by the trained odor panel at each facility using a 9-point rating scale. The results of the modeling indicated that odor did not extend significantly beyond 400 m downwind of any of the test sites during the daytime when the layer of air above the earth's surface is usually turbulent. However, modeling indicated that odor from all full-scale farms extended beyond 400 m onto neighboring property in the evenings when deep surface cooling through long-wave radiation to space produces a stable (nocturnal) boundary layer. The results also indicated that swine housing, independent of waste management type, plays a significant role in odor downwind, as do odor sources of moderate to moderately high intensity that emanate from a large surface area such as a lagoon. Human odor assessments were utilized for modeling rather than instrument measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or particulates less than 10 microm in diameter (PM10) because these physical measurements obtained simultaneously with human panel ratings were not found to accurately predict human odor intensity in the field.

  7. Social network analysis provides insights into African swine fever epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichoti, Jacqueline Kasiiti; Davies, Jocelyn; Kitala, Philip M; Githigia, Samuel M; Okoth, Edward; Maru, Yiheyis; Bukachi, Salome A; Bishop, Richard P

    2016-04-01

    Pig movements play a significant role in the spread of economically important infectious diseases such as the African swine fever. Characterization of movement networks between pig farms and through other types of farm and household enterprises that are involved in pig value chains can provide useful information on the role that different participants in the networks play in pathogen transmission. Analysis of social networks that underpin these pig movements can reveal pathways that are important in the transmission of disease, trade in commodities, the dissemination of information and the influence of behavioural norms. We assessed pig movements among pig keeping households within West Kenya and East Uganda and across the shared Kenya-Uganda border in the study region, to gain insight into within-country and trans-boundary pig movements. Villages were sampled using a randomized cluster design. Data were collected through interviews in 2012 and 2013 from 683 smallholder pig-keeping households in 34 villages. NodeXL software was used to describe pig movement networks at village level. The pig movement and trade networks were localized and based on close social networks involving family ties, friendships and relationships with neighbours. Pig movement network modularity ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 and exhibited good community structure within the network implying an easy flow of knowledge and adoption of new attitudes and beliefs, but also promoting an enhanced rate of disease transmission. The average path length of 5 defined using NodeXL, indicated that disease could easily reach every node in a cluster. Cross-border boar service between Uganda and Kenya was also recorded. Unmonitored trade in both directions was prevalent. While most pig transactions in the absence of disease, were at a small scale (10km. The close social relationships between actors in pig movement networks indicate the potential for possible interventions to develop shared norms and mutually accepted

  8. Sumoylation of the Core Protein in Classical Swine Fever Virus is Essential for Virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The classical swine fever virus core protein makes up the nucleocapsid of the virus, and is serves both as a protective function for the viral RNA and a transcriptional regulator in the host cell. To identify host proteins that interact with the viral Core protein we utilized the yeast two-hybrid to...

  9. Classical Swine Fever Virus p7 protein is a viroporin involved in virulence in swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The non-structural protein p7 of Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) is a hydrophobic polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 7 kDa. The protein contains two hydrophobic stretches of amino acids interrupted by a short charged segment that are predicted to form transmembrane helices and a cytos...

  10. Farm accidents in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogbill, T H; Busch, H M; Stiers, G R

    1985-10-01

    During a 6 1/2 year period, 105 children were admitted to the hospital as the result of trauma that occurred on farms. The mechanism of injury was animal related in 42 (40%), tractor or wagon accident in 28 (26%), farm machinery in 21 (20%), fall from farm building in six (6%), and miscellaneous in eight (8%). Injury Severity Score was calculated for each patient. An Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 25 was determined for 11 children (11%). Life-threatening injuries, therefore, are frequently the result of childhood activities that take place in agricultural environments. The most common injuries were orthopedic, neurologic, thoracoabdominal, and maxillofacial. There was one death in the series, and only one survivor sustained major long-term disability. Such injuries are managed with optimal outcome in a regional trauma center. Educational programs with an emphasis on prevention and safety measures may reduce the incidence of farm accidents. PMID:4047799

  11. CONTRACT BROILER FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todsadee Areerat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, poultry sector is the main economic growth of livestock sector, especially broiler production. The rapid expansion in broiler production has been made possible by the increase in the number of commercial farms or contract farming. The objective of this research was to understand better how contract farming works, who gets involved and why and who benefits from the agreement. The study is based on the broiler file survey in Chiang Mai province of Thailand. As the results, contract farming looks quite attractive for farmers as well as for private companies but most of the farmers complained about long waiting until the delivery of the next cycle of chicks have started.

  12. FarmStats_CNTYFARM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This datalayer contains Vermont agricultural data describing changes in farming activity (1860-1997), by county, extracted from U.S. Census of Agriculture. Initial...

  13. Patterns of Cellular Gene Expression in Swine Macrophages Infected with Highly Virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus Strain Brescia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental exposure of swine to highly virulent Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) strain Brescia causes an invariably fatal disease of all infected animals by 8 to 14 days post-infection. Host mechanisms involved in this severe outcome of infection have not been clearly established. To understa...

  14. Chronic Hepatitis C in Western Canada: A Survey of Practice Patterns among Gastroenterologists in Alberta and British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To survey gastroenterologists in British Columbia and Alberta with regard to awareness of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV management and practice patterns among physicians who treat and do not treat HCV-infected patients.

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Marey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR and the thermal-infrared (TIR radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT are examined for the 12 year period from 2002–2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System aircraft CO profiles (April 2009–December 2011 are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO

  16. Socio-economic status and types of childhood injury in Alberta: a population based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenson Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood injury is the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and permanent disability in children in the developed world. This research examines relationships between socio-economic status (SES, demographics, and types of childhood injury in the province of Alberta, Canada. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using administrative health care data provided by Alberta Health and Wellness on all children, aged 0 to 17 years, who had injuries treated by a physician, either in a physician's office, outpatient department, emergency room and/or as a hospital inpatient, between April 1st. 1995 to March 31st. 1996. Thirteen types of childhood injury were assessed with respect to age, gender and urban/rural location using ICD9 codes, and were related to SES as determined by an individual level SES indicator, the payment status of the Alberta provincial health insurance plan. The relationships between gender, SES, rural/urban status and injury type were determined using logistic regression. Results Twenty-four percent of Alberta children had an injury treated by physician during the one year period. Peak injury rates occurred about ages 2 and 13–17 years. All injury types except poisoning were more common in males. Injuries were more frequent in urban Alberta and in urban children with lower SES (receiving health care premium assistance. Among the four most common types of injury (78.6% of the total, superficial wounds and open wounds were more common among children with lower SES, while fractures and dislocations/sprains/strains were more common among children receiving no premium assistance. Conclusion These results show that childhood injury in Alberta is a major health concern especially among males, children living in urban centres, and those living on welfare or have Treaty status. Most types of injury were more frequent in children of lower SES. Analysis of the three types of the healthcare premium subsidy allowed a more

  17. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  18. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  19. Urban farming in Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Stolhandske, Sharla

    2010-01-01

    There is a new generation of urban agriculture emerging in North America. Labelled urban farming, this modern urban agriculture industry is tapping into the economic potential for local, organic food. An ethnographic study of six urban farmers growing food in Metro Vancouver reveals that the act of growing and marketing food in the city is an expanding and dedicated business. The study focused particularly on newly emerging highly urbanized farm enterprises in the Vancouver area. Urban far...

  20. Welfare in farmed fish

    OpenAIRE

    Damsgård, Børge; Juell, Jon-Erik; Braastad, Bjarne Olai

    2006-01-01

    The interest of fish welfare is increasing, both in Norway and internationally, leading to an increasing need for scientific knowledge about basic and applied questions related to how farmed fish are produced. The strategic institute programme (SIP) ”Welfare in farmed fish” was financed by the Research Council of Norway, for the five years period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. The core partners in the SIP were the Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (Fiskerifor...