Reference is made to the NCRP Report No. 34 'Medical X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Protection for Energies up to 10 MeV' and also to the NCRP's philosophy of 'as low as practicable' which appear to the author to be at variance. The cost incurred in shielding the operators booth of a typical hospital x-ray installation is considered from both stand points. The futility of making rigorous definitions and applying objective logic and manipulations to terms, which by their very nature, are subjectively viewed and differently interpreted by different persons is considered. (U.K.)
A unique method has been developed for radiation exposure usage accounting at the N Reactor. This method accounts for exposure usage by specific job and working crafts. The accounting system provides information for use in job planning, exposure resource management, and ALAP (ALARA) analysis. It provides justification for ALAP expenditures, documentation of the effectiveness of exposure reduction efforts, and can be used to establish priorities for ALAP efforts
Full Text Available Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi- isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala. The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one's internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects' internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic experience and may be an important process supporting 'social' effects of temporally regular music.
Will, Udo; Clayton, Martin; Wertheim, Ira; Leante, Laura; Berg, Eric
Pulse is often understood as a feature of a (quasi-) isochronous event sequence that is picked up by an entrained subject. However, entrainment does not only occur between quasi-periodic rhythms. This paper demonstrates the expression of pulse by subjects listening to non-periodic musical stimuli and investigates the processes behind this behaviour. The stimuli are extracts from the introductory sections of North Indian (Hindustani) classical music performances (alap, jor and jhala). The first of three experiments demonstrates regular motor responses to both irregular alap and more regular jor sections: responses to alap appear related to individual spontaneous tempi, while for jor they relate to the stimulus event rate. A second experiment investigated whether subjects respond to average periodicities of the alap section, and whether their responses show phase alignment to the musical events. In the third experiment we investigated responses to a broader sample of performances, testing their relationship to spontaneous tempo, and the effect of prior experience with this music. Our results suggest an entrainment model in which pulse is understood as the experience of one's internal periodicity: it is not necessarily linked to temporally regular, structured sensory input streams; it can arise spontaneously through the performance of repetitive motor actions, or on exposure to event sequences with rather irregular temporal structures. Greater regularity in the external event sequence leads to entrainment between motor responses and stimulus sequence, modifying subjects' internal periodicities in such a way that they are either identical or harmonically related to each other. This can be considered as the basis for shared (rhythmic) experience and may be an important process supporting 'social' effects of temporally regular music.
Dickson, H.W.; Cottrell, W.D.; Jacobs, D.G.
The application of the as-low-as-practicable (ALAP) concept to radiation exposure of workers at light-water reactors (LWR's) has recently received increased attention. The purpose of the project described is to investigate the means by which occupational exposure at operating LWR's can be reduced to the lowest practicable levels. Nine LWR stations, including 16 operating reactors, were studied in Phase I of the project to identify significant sources of exposure and to determine the magnitude of the exposures. A complete site review consists of compiling information from safety analysis reports, plant technical specifications, and radiation exposure records coupled with an on-site visit for discussions with plant personnel, observation of procedures, and measurement of radiation levels. In Phase II, specific problem areas are being studied in-depth with regard to corrective measures to reduce exposure. Information has been collected on exposure from valve maintenance and repair. Corrective measures will be evaluated with respect to ease of application and cost effectiveness. The results presented will serve as technical backup for the preparation of regulatory guides
Dickson, H.W.; Cottrell, W.D.; Jacobs, D.G.
The application of the as-low-as-practicable (ALAP) philosophy to radiation exposure of workers at light-water reactors (LWR's) has recently received increased attention. The purpose of this project is to investigate the means by which occupational exposure at operating LWR's can be reduced to the lowest practicable levels. Nine such LWR stations, including 16 operating reactors, have been studied in phase I of the project to identify significant sources of exposure and to determine the magnitude of the exposures. A complete site review consists of compiling information from safety analysis reports (SAR's), plant technical specifications, and radiation exposure records and then making an on-site visit for discussions with plant personnel, observation of procedures, and measurement of radiation levels. In phase II, specific problem areas are being studied in-depth with regard to corrective measures to reduce exposure. Information has been collected on solving the problem of exposure from valve maintenance and repair. These corrective measures will be evaluated with respect to ease of application and cost effectiveness. The results of this study will serve as technical backup for the preparation of regulatory guides
Csapody, Tamás. 2014. Bortól Szombathelyig - Tanulmányok a bori munkaszolgálatról és a bori munkaszolgálatosok részleges névlistája ('From Bor to Szombathely- Studies on the Forced Labor Service at Bor Camp and the Partial List of the Forced Laborers in Bor'. Budapest: Zrinyi Kadó. 254 pp. ; Csapody, Tamás. 2015. A Cservenkai tömeggyilkosság ('The Mass Murder at Cservenka'. Budapest: Zsidó Tudományok Szabadegyeteme Alapítvány. 150 pp.
Full Text Available Csapody, Tamás. 2014. Bortól Szombathelyig - Tanulmányok a bori munkaszolgálatról és a bori munkaszolgálatosok részleges névlistája ('From Bor to Szombathely- Studies on the Forced Labor Service at Bor Camp and the Partial List of the Forced Laborers in Bor'. Budapest: Zrinyi Kadó. 254 pp. ; Csapody, Tamás. 2015. A Cservenkai tömeggyilkosság ('The Mass Murder at Cservenka'. Budapest: Zsidó Tudományok Szabadegyeteme Alapítvány. 150 pp. (e-book; a shorter version is accessible at: http://zsido.com/konyvek/a-cservenkai-tomeggyilkossag/.
Full Text Available This paper is part of the author’s series of papers presenting and analysing personal names in the Deed of Foundation of Tihany Abbey. In medieval Hungarian sources, three layers of hagionyms (‘saints’ names’ can be discerned: 1. Hagionyms proper. The denotatum of the name is the particular saint. 2. Patrocinies in the strict sense. These are created by metonymic extension of the saint’s name to the church (less frequently, the religious community of which the saint is the patron. 3. Place names (typically names of settlements based on patrocinies. Given that these three uses can be traced back to one another, in-between cases can also be found. In the text of the Deed of Foundation of Tihany Abbey, examples of all three types can be attested. Although it is a transitional case as far as its connotation is concerned, I take the following to be a hagionym proper: “sanct mari sanctique aniani episcopi & confessoris (sc. ecclesia” – ‘(church dedicated to the Holy Virgin and St Anianus, bishop and confessor’. The following examples represent patrocinies in the strict sense: “qu simul ad sanctum clementem terminantur”– ‘both (roads end at St Clement’; “tercia namque sancti mich(aelis” – ‘the third (lake belongs to St Michael’; and on the verso of the document: “sanct mari scilicet & sancti aniani” – ‘(ecclesiastic objects of the Holy Virgin and St Anianus’. An instance of a settlement name based on a patrociny is the name of Tihany itself. We can observe that both the Deed of Foundation of Tihany Abbey and the medieval practice of writing charters in general use names of the first two types exclusively in Latin (alternatively, Greek, whereas names of settlements based on patrocinies are typically mentioned in Hungarian (or in the relevant vernacular. In this, medieval ecclesiastic and official use of names certainly follows the system of name use of theonyms.
Full Text Available hnical replicate) || strain=Balb/c || age=30 days old ||...ges and give rise to SPERMATOZOA. 39717488,91.7,61.8,401 GSM740674: H2A.Lap1-2 ChIPSeq source_name=Chromatin IP against H2A.Lap1 (tec
... Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule implements the Asparagus Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment (ALAP) Program authorized by the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm...
... Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Farm Service... to implement the new Asparagus Revenue Market Loss Assistance Payment (ALAP) Program authorized by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill). The purpose of the program is to...
Gilchrist, R.L.; Selby, J.M.; Wedlick, H.L.
Reducing radiation exposures to as low as practicable is a principle that was first introduced in 1949. However, the recent controversy over the low-level effects of radiation has led the Department of Energy (DOE) to review its programs. One such review was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to survey the implementation of the ALAP principle in the DOE laboratories. This report contains the results of that survey, performed in 18 major DOE installations. The DOE contractors were asked questions concerning the following eight major areas: management, operational health physics, design, dosimetry, instrumentation, training, risk/cost-benefit, and impact of the ALAP philosophy. The survey revealed several potential areas of concern, which are described in this report. These areas will be addressed in the forthcoming manual, A Guide to Reducing Radiation Exposures As Low As Practicable
Correction to: Kürti, László. “Review Article: Documenting Immigrants, Boarding Houses and Ethnographers. Burdosház Amerikából – Balogh Balázs néprajzkutató nyomában ('A Boarding House from America - in the Footsteps of Ethnographer Balázs Balogh'. Directed by Dezső Zsigmond, produced by Dunatáj Alapítvány, Camera: Arthur Bálint, 2015, 50:39 minutes.” Hungarian Cultural Studies. e-Journal of the American Hungarian Educators Association, Volume 9 (2016 DOI: 10.5195/ahea.2016.237
Full Text Available Changing the incorrect word “script” to “scrip”. The word “scrip” refers to the method of payment used in companies instead of legal tender. The original article can be found via the DOI: http://doc.doi.org/10.5195/ahea.2016.237
Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)
The societal acceptance of various risks is analyzed and rules of risk acceptance as a function of different parameters (e. g., expected benefit, intensity of effect) are spelled out. The monetary value of a human life is estimated, based on investments in safety of different human activities. The acceptable risks and safety investments in different human activities are then compared with risks and safety investments of the nuclear industry. Safety investments required to reduce radioactivity releases and risks from nuclear power stations to ALAP (as low as practiable) levels are taken as a study case. It is found that risks in the nuclear industry are several orders of magnitude lower and safety investments per human life saved are several orders of magnitude higher, as compared with risks and safety investments in other human activities
The pros and cons of the de minimis concept is discussed from a historical point of view. The purpose is first to indicate how long ago many common occupational hazards were recognized and second to conclude that there had to be exposure levels that were essentially trivial, i.e., de minimis. Some aspects of the history of radiation protection are presented. The topics of discussion include: empiricism; the tolerance dose; the maximum permissible exposure dose; as low as possible dose (ALAP) and as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA); and the challenge of the '80s. In the '80s with the strong movement to use risk as a basis for both radiation and chemical standards, the need for adding the concept of a trivial risk has taken hold. Some examples of possible de minimis levels, as well as some of the problems and current activities, are presented
Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Kiyose, Ryohei
A theoretical framework is given for assessing the social or environmental impacts of nuclear technology. A two-act problem concerning the incentive-penalty system is supposed to formulate the principle of ALAP. An observation plan to make decision on the problem is optimized with the Bayseian decision theory. The optimized solution resting on the amount of incentive or penalty is compared with an actual or practical plan. Then, by finding the indifference between the two plans, an impact is assessed in monetary terms. As regards the third step, the model does not provide the details since it is beyond the scope of the description. If there exists an actual plan, it can be easily compared with the results from this theory. If there does not or in the process of making it, its feasibility must be studied by another model or by different approaches. (J.P.N.)
The recent progress in the multiprocessor/multicore systems has important implications for real-time system design and operation. From vehicle navigation to space applications as well as industrial control systems, the trend is to deploy multiple processors in real-time systems: systems with 4 -- 8 processors are common, and it is expected that many-core systems with dozens of processing cores will be available in near future. For such systems, in addition to general temporal requirement common for all real-time systems, two additional operational objectives are seen as critical: energy efficiency and fault tolerance. An intriguing dimension of the problem is that energy efficiency and fault tolerance are typically conflicting objectives, due to the fact that tolerating faults (e.g., permanent/transient) often requires extra resources with high energy consumption potential. In this dissertation, various techniques for energy-efficient fault tolerance in multiprocessor real-time systems have been investigated. First, the Reliability-Aware Power Management (RAPM) framework, which can preserve the system reliability with respect to transient faults when Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) is applied for energy savings, is extended to support parallel real-time applications with precedence constraints. Next, the traditional Standby-Sparing (SS) technique for dual processor systems, which takes both transient and permanent faults into consideration while saving energy, is generalized to support multiprocessor systems with arbitrary number of identical processors. Observing the inefficient usage of slack time in the SS technique, a Preference-Oriented Scheduling Framework is designed to address the problem where tasks are given preferences for being executed as soon as possible (ASAP) or as late as possible (ALAP). A preference-oriented earliest deadline (POED) scheduler is proposed and its application in multiprocessor systems for energy-efficient fault tolerance is
Kánnai, Zoltán; Pintér, Miklós; Tasnádi, Attila
A gazdálkodási és közgazdasági alap- és mesterszakok tanterveiben számos matematikai tárgy szerepel. A kétciklusú bolognai képzésre történő áttérés Európa-szerte igényelte a matematikaoktatás szerkezetének, mennyiségének és mélységének újragondolását a gazdálkodási és közgazdasági képzési területeken. Mivel az átállás országonként és intézményenként párhuzamosan és jelentős mértékben egymástól függetlenül ment végbe, egyetemenként számos eltérő megoldással találkozhatunk. Az egyetemek operatí...
Matsui, Yusuke; Shiratori, Takaaki; Aizawa, Kiyoharu
We present DrawFromDrawings, an interactive drawing system that provides users with visual feedback for assistance in 2D drawing using a database of sketch images. Following the traditional imitation and emulation training from art education, DrawFromDrawings enables users to retrieve and refer to a sketch image stored in a database and provides them with various novel strokes as suggestive or deformation feedback. Given regions of interest (ROIs) in the user and reference sketches, DrawFromDrawings detects as-long-as-possible (ALAP) stroke segments and the correspondences between user and reference sketches that are the key to computing seamless interpolations. The stroke-level interpolations are parametrized with the user strokes, the reference strokes, and new strokes created by warping the reference strokes based on the user and reference ROI shapes, and the user study indicated that the interpolation could produce various reasonable strokes varying in shapes and complexity. DrawFromDrawings allows users to either replace their strokes with interpolated strokes (deformation feedback) or overlays interpolated strokes onto their strokes (suggestive feedback). The other user studies on the feedback modes indicated that the suggestive feedback enabled drawers to develop and render their ideas using their own stroke style, whereas the deformation feedback enabled them to finish the sketch composition quickly.
In the present study the societal acceptance of various risks is analyzed and rules of risk acceptance as a function of different parameters are spelled out. The monetary value of a human life is estimated, based on investments in safety of different human activities. The acceptable risks and safety investments in different human activities are then compared with risks and safety investments of the nuclear industry. Safety investments required to reduce the radioactivity releases and risks from nuclear power stations to ALAP levels are taken as a study case. It is found that risks in the nuclear industry are several orders of magnitude lower and safety investments per human life saved are several orders of magnitude higher, as compared with risks and safety investments in other human activities. It is also shown that the incremental safety investments needed to further reduce the radiation doses in the environment during normal and continuous operation of nuclear plants are extravagantly high as compared to safety investments in other human activities and in other facets of human life. Considering that there is a limit to the economic means available, societal expenditures for reducing risks should by spread, as much as possible, over all human activities to get the maximum return from investments. (B.G.)
Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.
Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution
Iijima, Toshinori; Shiraishi, Tadao
For environmental doses from routine releases of LWRs effluents to meet the Criterion 'As Low As is Practicable (ALAP)', Japan Atomic Energy Commission (JAEC) established a series of guides, the first for 'Dose Objectives' (May 1975), the second for models and parameters for calculating the environmental doses to compare with the 'Dose Objectives' (September 1976), and the third providing onsite meteorological programs, statistics of the data obtained and atmospheric dispersion models (June 1977). JAERI has developed a computer code, designated as ANDOSE, for calculating annual releases of radioactive gaseous and liquid effluents and, then, total body doses and thyroid doses to individuals around sites on the basis of these guides. The total body doses are from radioactive noble gases as well as from radioactive materials taken with marine food. For the calculation of thyroid doses are taken into account exposure pathways via inhalation and ingestion of leafy vegetables, cow's milk and marine food. The age-specific thyroid doses are evaluated. The doses are summed up when multisource or multisite conditions need to be evaluated (Nuclear Safety Bureau's requirement). In the present report, are described source-term models, environmental transport models and dose models used in the code, of which most are provided in the guides but some are complemented by the authors, the functions of ANDOSE and the manual for users of the code. The program lists and the latter two guides mentioned above are included in the appendices. (author)
Many years of radiation exposure experience in all phases of nuclear energy applications were surveyed to evaluate the impact of reducing the present DOE limit of 5 rem/yr. Conclusions drawn are: (1) Reduction of the occupational exposure limit would result in significant increase in total accumulated exposure to the current radiation worker population and could require an increase in the work force with attending personnel and administrative problems. (2) Important programs/facilities would have to be abandoned. (3) Some engineering technology is not sufficiently developed to design or operate at the 0.5 rem/yr limit. (4) Exposure reduction to 2.5 rem/yr would significantly increase costs and would result in a small increase in total exposure to the work force. (5) Significant initial capital cost plus increased annual costs would result. (6) The major emphasis in controlling occupational exposure should be on continued work toward further reduction of total man-rem. This should involve continued development of ALAP programs along with improvements in dose measurement and recording methods, more sophisticated exposure records, and containment, handling and remote maintenance techniques. (7) Radiation protection practices at DOE facilities have maintained exposures of the bulk of the nuclear work force substantially below current limits for many years. (8) The current standards of 5 rem/yr is used only as a limit. For example, 97% of the employees receive less than 0.5 rem/yr
Full Text Available Dynamic development of scheduling systems allows significantly improving currently realized tasks. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM is one of the methods of project management basing on network planning. In this method is utilized the concept of a critical chain derived from the Theory of Constraints. This method allows avoiding losses considered project time and resources. It results in quicker project implementation (20-30%, and in reducing the risk level considered with tasks realization. The projects are cheaper, and the risk of cost overruns is significantly reduced. Factors that distinguish CCPM method from traditional network planning methods are: the balance of resources and the introduction of buffers. Moreover in the CCPM method key elements are: times of tasks that are reduced from traditional estimates to realistic ones. Activities associated with the task start as late as possible in accordance with the ALAP principle (As Late As Possible. This work presents the process of managing the assembly of a shearer machine taking into account the process of safety buffers utilization and the whole project optimization. It is presented the estimation of buffers capacity to obtain the improvement of project realization task.
Yamada, Tasaburo; Mishima, Yoshitsugu; Ando, Yoshio; Miyazono, Shohachiro; Takashima, Yoichi.
The Japan Atomic Energy Commission has exerted efforts on the research of the safety of nuclear plants in Japan, and ''Nuclear plant safety research committees'' was established in August 1974, which is composed of the government and the people. The philosophy of safety research, research and development plan, the forwarding procedure of the plan, international cooperation, for example LOFT program, and the effective feed back of the experimental results concerning nuclear safety are reviewed in this paper at first. As for the safety of nuclear reactors the basic philosophy that radio active fission products are contained in fuel or reactors with multiple barriers, (defence in depth) and almost no fission product is released outside reactor plants even at the time of hypothetical accident, is kept, and the research and development history and the future plan are described in this paper with the related technical problems. The structural safety is also explained, for example, on the philosophy ''leak before break'', pipe rupture, pipe restraint and stress analysis. The release of radioactive gas and liquid is decreased as the philosophy ''ALAP''. And probability safety evaluation method, LOCA, reactivity, accident and aseismatic design in nuclear plants in Japan are described. (Nakai, Y.)
Yoshida, Y.; Itakura, T.; Kanai, T.
Japan Atomic Energy Commission established the dose objectives to the population around the light-water-reactors in May, 1975, based on the ''ALAP'' concept. These values are respectively, 5 mrems per year for total body and 15 mrems per year for thyroid of an individual in the critical group in the environs, due to both gaseous and liquid effluents from LWRs in one site. The present paper describes the implications of the dose objective values, control measures which have been adopted to reduce releases of radioactive materials and related technical developments in Japan. The main control measures for reduction of radioactive gaseous effluents are an installation of a charcoal gas holdup system for decay of noble gases and a supply of clean steam for the gland seal of a turbine in BWR, and a storage tank system allowing decay of noble gases in PWR. For liquid effluents are taken measures to re-use them as the primary coolant. Consequently, the amounts of radioactivity released to the environment from any LWR during normal operation have been maintained under the level to meet the above dose objective values. For research reactors, reduction of release of effluents has also been carried out in a similar way to LWRs. In order to establish the techniques applicable for further reduction, studies are being made on the control measures to reduce leakage of radioiodine, an apparatus for removal of krypton, the treatment of laundry waste and measures to remove the crud in the primary coolant. Presentation is also made on the energy-integrated gas monitor for gaseous effluent and systems of measuring γ dose from radioactive cloud descriminating from natural background, which have been developed for effective monitoring thus reduced environmental dose
The radioactive nuclides which are released from the reprocessing plants of nuclear fuel are 137 Cs, 106 Ru, 95 Zr and 3 H in waste water and 85 Kr in the atmosphere. This release affects the environment for example, the reprocessing plant of the Nuclear Fuel Service Co in the USA releases about 2 x 10 5 Ci/y of 85 Kr, which is evaluated as about 0.025 mr/y as external exposure dose. The radioactivity in milk around this plant was measured as less than 10 pCi/lit of 129sup(I. The radioactive concentration in the sea, especially in fish and shellfish, was measured near the reprocessing plant of Windscale in UK. The radioactive release rate from this plants more than 10)5sup( Ci/y as the total amount of )137sup(Cs, )3sup(H, )106sup(Ru, )95sup(Zr, )95sup(Nb, )90sup(Sr, )144sup(Ce, etc., and the radioactivity in seaweeds near Windscale is about 400 pCi/g as the maximum value, and the mayonnaise which was made of this seaweeds contained about 1 pCi/g of )106sup(Ru, which is estimated as about 7 mr/y for the digestive organ if 100 g is eaten every day. On the other hand, the experimental result is presented for the reprocessing plant of La Hague in France, in which the radioactive release rate from this plant is about 10)4sup( Ci/y, and the radioactivity in sea water and shellfish is about 4 pCi/l of )106sup(Ru and about 400 pCi/kg of )137 Cs, respectively, near this plant. The philosophy of ALAP (as low as practicable) is also applied to reprocessing plants. (Nakai, Y.)