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Sample records for al si ca

  1. Comparative study of anisotropic superconductivity in CaAlSi and CaGaSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamegai, T.; Uozato, K.; Kasahara, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Tokunaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In order to get some insight into the origin of the anomalous angular dependence of H c2 in a layered intermetallic compound CaAlSi, electronic, superconducting, and structural properties are compared between CaAlSi and CaGaSi. The angular dependence of H c2 in CaGaSi is well described by the anisotropic GL model. Parallel to this finding, the pronounced lattice modulation accompanying the superstructure along the c-axis in CaAlSi is absent in CaGaSi. A relatively large specific heat jump at the superconducting transition in CaAlSi compared with CaGaSi indicates the presence of strong electron-phonon coupling in CaAlSi, which may cause the superstructure and the anomalous angular dependence of H c2

  2. THE THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MELTS OF DOUBLE SYSTEM MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2, Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 – CaF2, SiO2 – CaF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Судавцова

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Methodology of prognostication of thermodynamics properties of melts is presented from the coordinatesof liquidus of diagram of the state in area of equilibria a hard component is solution, on which energies ofmixing of Gibbs are expected in the double border systems of MgO – Al2O3, MgO – SiO2, MgO – CaF2,Al2O3 – SiO2, Al2O3 - CaF2, SiO2 - CaF2. For the areas of equilibrium there is quasibinary connection(MgAl2O4, Mg2SiO4, Al6Si2O13 – a grout at calculations was used equalization of Hauffe-Wagner. Theobtained data comport with literary

  3. Phase Diagram of Al-Ca-Mg-Si System and Its Application for the Design of Aluminum Alloys with High Magnesium Content

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    Nikolay A. Belov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The phase transformations in the Al-Ca-Mg-Si system have been studied using thermodynamic calculations and experimental methods. We show that at 10% Magnesium (Mg, depending on the concentrations of calcium (Ca and silicon (Si, the following phases crystallize first (apart from the aluminum (Al solid solution: Al4Ca, Mg2Si, and Al2CaSi2. We have found that the major part of the calculated concentration range is covered by the region of the primary crystallization of the Al2CaSi2 phase. Regardless of the Ca and Si content, the solidification of the aluminum-magnesium alloys ends with the following nonvariant eutectic reaction: L → (Al + Al4Ca + Mg2Si + Al3Mg2. With respect to the temperature and composition of the liquid phase, this reaction is close to the eutectic reaction in the Al-Mg binary system. The addition of Ca and Si to the Al-10% Mg base alloy increases its hardness, reduces its density, and has no negative influence on its corrosion resistance. We have also established that the near-eutectic alloy containing about 3% Ca and 1% Si has the optimum structure.

  4. Discovery of dmisteinbergite (hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8) in the Allende meteorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Chi; Krot, Alexander N.; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Dmisteinbergite, CaAlSiO with P63/mcm structure, was identified in a rounded coarse-grained igneous Type B2 Ca-,Al-rich inclusion (CAI) STP-1 from the Allende CV3 carbonaceous chondrite. STP-1 belongs to a very rare type of refractory inclusions, Fractionation and Unknown Nuclear effects (FUN) CA...

  5. Ca2 Al2 SiO7 :Ce3+ phosphors for mechanoluminescence dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Geetanjali; Brahme, Nameeta; Sharma, Ravi; Bisen, D P; Sao, Sanjay Kumar; Sahu, Ishwar Prasad

    2016-12-01

    A series of Ce 3+ ion single-doped Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 phosphors was synthesized by a combustion-assisted method at an initiating temperature of 600 °C. The samples were annealed at 1100 °C for 3 h and their X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed a tetragonal structure. The phase structure, particle size, surface morphology and elemental analysis were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy techniques. Thermoluminescence (TL) intensity increased with increase in ultraviolet (UV) light exposure time up to 15 min. With further increase in the UV irradiation time the TL intensity decreases. The increase in TL intensity indicates that trap concentration increased with UV exposure time. A broad peak at 121 °C suggested the existence of a trapping level. The peak of mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity versus time curve increased linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. Mechanoluminescence intensity increased with increase in UV irradiation time up to 15 min. Under UV-irradiation excitation, the TL and ML emission spectra of Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Ce 3+ phosphor showed the characteristic emission of Ce 3+ peaking at 400 nm (UV-violet) and originating from the Ce 3+ transitions of 5d-4f ( 2 F 5/2 and 2 F 7/2 ). The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra for Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Ce 3+ were similar to the ML/TL emission spectra. The mechanism of ML excitation and the suitability of the Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Ce 3+ phosphor for radiation dosimetry are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Fracto- mechanoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of orange-red emitting Eu3+ doped Ca2Al2SiO7 phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Geetanjali; Brahme, Nameeta; Sharma, Ravi; Bisen, D.P.; Sao, Sanjay K.; Khare, Ayush

    2017-01-01

    The suitability of nano-structured Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Eu 3+ phosphors for thermoluminescence and mechanoluminescence dosimeter were investigated. Europium doped di-calcium di-aluminum silicate phosphor was synthesised by the combustion assisted method and annealed at 1100 °C for 4 h in reducing and oxidizing environments. The prepared Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Eu 3+ phosphor was characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and decay characteristics. The phase structure of sintered phosphor has akermanite type which belongs to the tetragonal crystallography; this structure is a member of the melilite group and forms a layered compound. The chemical composition of the sintered Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Eu 3+ phosphor was confirmed by EDX spectra. Mechanoluminescence (ML) and thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed that the ML and TL intensity increases with activator concentration. Optimum ML was observed for the sample having 2 mol% of Eu ions. The TL intensity of Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Eu 3+ was recorded for different exposure times of γ -irradiation and it was observed that TL intensity is maximum for γ dose of 1770 Gy. The PL spectra indicated that Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Eu 3+ could be excited effectively by near ultraviolet (NUV) light and exhibited bright orange-red emission with excellent colour stability. CIE colour coordinates of the prepared Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 :Eu 3+ phosphor was found suitable as orange-red light emitting phosphor with a CIE value of (x=0.6142, y=0.3849) and correlated colour temperature (CCT) is 1250 K. Therefore, it is considered to be a new promising orange-red emitting phosphor for white light emitting diode (LED) application.

  7. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR investigations on Si-substituted hydrogarnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas Mercury, J.M.; Pena, P.; Aza, A.H. de; Turrillas, X.; Sobrados, I.; Sanz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Partially deuterated Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3-x (OH) 4x hydrates prepared by a reaction in the presence of D 2 O of synthetic tricalcium aluminate with different amounts of amorphous silica were characterized by 29 Si and 27 Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The 29 Si NMR spectroscopy was used for quantifying the non-reacted silica and the resulting hydrated products. The incorporation of Si into Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3-x (OH) 4x was followed by 27 Al NMR spectroscopy: Si:OH ratios were determined quantitatively from octahedral Al signals ascribed to Al(OH) 6 and Al(OSi)(OH) 5 environments. The NMR data obtained were consistent with the concentrations of the Al and Si species deduced from transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectrometry and Rietveld analysis of both X-ray and neutron diffraction data

  8. Solid-state {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR investigations on Si-substituted hydrogarnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas Mercury, J.M. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid (Spain); Pena, P. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: ppena@icv.csic.es; Aza, A.H. de [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid (Spain); Turrillas, X. [Instituto de Ciencias de la Construccion Eduardo Torroja, CSIC, Serrano Galvache, 4, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Sobrados, I. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Cantoblanco-Madrid (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    Partially deuterated Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3-x}(OH){sub 4x} hydrates prepared by a reaction in the presence of D{sub 2}O of synthetic tricalcium aluminate with different amounts of amorphous silica were characterized by {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The {sup 29}Si NMR spectroscopy was used for quantifying the non-reacted silica and the resulting hydrated products. The incorporation of Si into Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}(SiO{sub 4}){sub 3-x}(OH){sub 4x} was followed by {sup 27}Al NMR spectroscopy: Si:OH ratios were determined quantitatively from octahedral Al signals ascribed to Al(OH){sub 6} and Al(OSi)(OH){sub 5} environments. The NMR data obtained were consistent with the concentrations of the Al and Si species deduced from transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectrometry and Rietveld analysis of both X-ray and neutron diffraction data.

  9. Kinetics of dissolution of sapphire in melts in the CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Cliff S. J.; Klausen, Kim B.; Mao, Huahai

    2018-05-01

    The dissolution rate of sapphire in melts in the CAS system of varying silica activity, viscosity and degree of alumina saturation has been determined at 1600 °C and 1.5 GPa. After an initiation period of up to 1800 s, dissolution is controlled by diffusion of cations through the boundary layer adjacent to the dissolving sapphire. The dissolution rate decreases with increasing silica activity, viscosity and molar Al2O3/CaO. The calculated diffusion matrix for each solvent melt shows that CAS 1 and 9 which have molar Al2O3/CaO of 0.33 and 0.6 and dissolution rate constants of 0.65 × 10-6 and 0.59 × 10-6 m/s0.5 have similar directions and magnitudes of diffusive coupling: DCaO-Al2O3 and DAl2O3-CaO are both negative are approximately equal. The solvent with the fastest dissolution rate: CAS 4, which has a rate constant of 1.5 × 10-6 m/s0.5 and Al2O3/CaO of 0.31 has positive DCaO-Al2O3 and negative DAl2O3-CaO and the absolute values vary by a factor of 4. Although many studies show that aluminium is added to the melts via the reaction: Si4+ =Al3+ + 0.5Ca2+ the compositional profiles show that this reaction is not the only one involved in accommodating the aluminium added during sapphire dissolution. Rather, aluminium is incorporated as both tetrahedrally coordinated Al charge balanced by Ca and as aluminium not charge balanced by Ca (termed Alxs). This reaction: AlIV -Ca =Alxs +CaNBO where CaNBO is a non-bridging oxygen associated with calcium, may involve the formation of aluminium triclusters. The shape of the compositional profiles and oxide-oxide composition paths is controlled by the aluminium addition reaction. When Alxs exceeds 2%, CaO diffusion becomes increasingly anomalous and since the bond strength of Alxs correlates with CaO/CaO + Al2O3, the presence of more than 2% Alxs leads to significantly slower dissolution than when Alxs is absent or at low concentration. Thus, dissolution is controlled by diffusion of cations through the boundary layer, but this

  10. Comparative Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Air-Plasma-Sprayed Ca2SiO4 and Al2O3 Coatings in Salt Water

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    Yuan Xiao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ca2SiO4 coating was sprayed on stainless steel substrate and the corrosion resistance of the as-sprayed coating was studied in salt water. At the same time, Al2O3 coatings were produced by air-plasma-sprayed technology as comparison. Immersion test was carried out to evaluate the protection performance of coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS plots were also analyzed. The results indicated that Ca2SiO4 coatings showed a better protection performance than Al2O3 coatings. During the immersion, various calcium carbonate crystals appeared on the surface of Ca2SiO4 coatings. Ca(OH2 was released from Ca2SiO4 coatings into NaCl aqueous solution, increasing the alkalinity, which is in favor of the formation of passivation film, and thus improves the corrosion resistance. Ca2SiO4 coatings became denser after immersion due to the fact that the pores and micro cracks were filled with hydration products i.e., hydrated calcium silicate (C–S–H gel. On the contrary, the microstructure of Al2O3 coatings became loose and obvious rusty spots were observed on the surface after the immersion test.

  11. High-pressure phase relations and thermodynamic properties of CaAl 4Si 2O 11 CAS phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaogi, M.; Haraguchi, M.; Yaguchi, M.; Kojitani, H.

    2009-03-01

    Phase relations in CaAl4Si2O11 were examined at 12-23 GPa and 1000-1800 °C by multianvil experiments. A three-phase mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum is stable below about 13 GPa at 1000-1800 °C. At higher pressure and at temperature below about 1200 °C, a mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum is stable, indicating the decomposition of kyanite. Above about 1200 °C, CaAl4Si2O11 CAS phase is stable at pressure higher than about 13 GPa. The triple point is placed at 14.7 GPa and 1280 °C. The equilibrium boundary of formation of CAS phase from the mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum has a small negative slope, and that from the mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum has a strongly negative slope, while the decomposition boundary of kyanite has a small positive slope. Enthalpies of the transitions were measured by high-temperature drop-solution calorimetry. The enthalpy of formation of CaAl4Si2O11 CAS phase from the mixture of grossular, kyanite and corundum was 139.5 ± 15.6 kJ/mol, and that from the mixture of grossular, stishovite and corundum was 94.2 ± 15.4 kJ/mol. The transition boundaries calculated using the measured enthalpy data were consistent with those determined by the high-pressure experiments. The boundaries in this study are placed about 3 GPa higher in pressure and about 200 °C lower in temperature than those by Zhai and Ito [Zhai, S., Ito, E., 2008. Phase relations of CaAl4Si2O11 at high-pressure and high-temperature with implications for subducted continental crust into the deep mantle. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 167, 161-167]. Combining the thermodynamic data measured in this study with those in the literature, dissociation boundary of CAS phase into a mixture of Ca-perovskite, corundum and stishovite and that of grossular into Ca-perovskite plus corundum were calculated to further constrain the stability field of CAS phase. The result suggests that the stability of CAS phase would be limited at the bottom of

  12. Fracto- mechanoluminescence and thermoluminescence properties of orange-red emitting Eu{sup 3+} doped Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Geetanjali, E-mail: geetanjali.tiwari10@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, C.G., 492010 (India); Brahme, Nameeta, E-mail: namitabrahme@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, C.G., 492010 (India); Sharma, Ravi [Department of Physics, Govt. Arts and Commerce Girls College, Devendra Nagar, Raipur, C.G. (India); Bisen, D.P.; Sao, Sanjay K. [School of Studies in Physics and Astrophysics, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, C.G., 492010 (India); Khare, Ayush [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Raipur - 492 010 (India)

    2017-03-15

    The suitability of nano-structured Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphors for thermoluminescence and mechanoluminescence dosimeter were investigated. Europium doped di-calcium di-aluminum silicate phosphor was synthesised by the combustion assisted method and annealed at 1100 °C for 4 h in reducing and oxidizing environments. The prepared Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor was characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), photoluminescence (PL) and decay characteristics. The phase structure of sintered phosphor has akermanite type which belongs to the tetragonal crystallography; this structure is a member of the melilite group and forms a layered compound. The chemical composition of the sintered Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor was confirmed by EDX spectra. Mechanoluminescence (ML) and thermoluminescence (TL) studies revealed that the ML and TL intensity increases with activator concentration. Optimum ML was observed for the sample having 2 mol% of Eu ions. The TL intensity of Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} was recorded for different exposure times of γ -irradiation and it was observed that TL intensity is maximum for γ dose of 1770 Gy. The PL spectra indicated that Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} could be excited effectively by near ultraviolet (NUV) light and exhibited bright orange-red emission with excellent colour stability. CIE colour coordinates of the prepared Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Eu{sup 3+} phosphor was found suitable as orange-red light emitting phosphor with a CIE value of (x=0.6142, y=0.3849) and correlated colour temperature (CCT) is 1250 K. Therefore, it is considered to be a new promising orange-red emitting phosphor for white light emitting diode (LED) application.

  13. Electronic properties of new superconductors based on Ca(Al sub x Si sub 1 sub - sub x) sub 2 and Sr(Ga sub x Si sub 1 sub - sub x) sub 2 in crystal and nanotubular states

    CERN Document Server

    Shein, I R; Medvedeva, N I; Ivanovskij, A L

    2002-01-01

    The zone structures of the new Ca(Al sub x Si sub 1 sub - sub x) sub 2 and Sr(Ga sub x Si sub 1 sub - sub x) sub 2 layered superconductors (AlB sub 2 -type) are studied through the LMTO first-principle full-potential method. It is shown that the superconducting properties of the ternary silicides is conditioned by high density of the (Ca, Sr)d-states near the Fermi level, whereas the T sub C growth by the Sr(Ga sub x Si sub 1 sub - sub x) sub 2 -> Ca(Al sub x Si sub 1 sub - sub x) sub 2 transition is related to the increase in the photon frequencies due to the atoms mass decrease. Modeling the electron properties of the hypothetical (11, 11) and (20, 0) CaAlSi and SrGaSi nanotubes is accomplished. The silicide systems by transition from the crystalline to nanotubular state retain the metal-like properties. The template and film convolution methods may become the methods for obtaining the silicide nanotubes

  14. The effect of CaO/SiO2 molar ratio of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses on their structure and reactivity in alkali activated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Sylwia; Sitarz, Maciej; Zajac, Maciej; Deja, Jan

    2018-04-05

    The influence of CaO/SiO 2 molar ratio of calcium aluminosilicate glasses on resulting structure and reactivity was investigated. Chemical compositions of glasses were chosen to mimic the composition of the fly ash and slag amorphous phase. Understanding the reactivity of these materials is of high importance allowing further development of the composite cements to limit the environmental footprint of cement industry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to examine the structure of glasses. Reactivity of the glasses was analyzed on paste samples after 1, 2, 7, 28 and 90days of curing by means of thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. Spectroscopic results emphasize dependence of the structure on the chemical composition of the glasses. The higher CaO/SiO 2 the more depolymerized the glass network is, though there is no direct correlation with the reactivity. Significant differences in reactivity is observed primarily between the glasses of peraluminous (CaO/Al 2 O 3 1). Amongst the pastes made of glasses of percalcic region a higher degree of reaction at later ages is observed for the paste containing glass of lower CaO/SiO 2 molar ratio. This is due to both degree of depolimerization and the nature of these glasses (pozzolanic and hydraulic materials). No difference of degree of reaction has been observed within the glasses of CaO/SiO 2 lower than 1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of CaO/SiO2 molar ratio of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses on their structure and reactivity in alkali activated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Sylwia; Sitarz, Maciej; Zajac, Maciej; Deja, Jan

    2018-04-01

    The influence of CaO/SiO2 molar ratio of calcium aluminosilicate glasses on resulting structure and reactivity was investigated. Chemical compositions of glasses were chosen to mimic the composition of the fly ash and slag amorphous phase. Understanding the reactivity of these materials is of high importance allowing further development of the composite cements to limit the environmental footprint of cement industry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy were employed to examine the structure of glasses. Reactivity of the glasses was analyzed on paste samples after 1, 2, 7, 28 and 90 days of curing by means of thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR. Spectroscopic results emphasize dependence of the structure on the chemical composition of the glasses. The higher CaO/SiO2 the more depolymerized the glass network is, though there is no direct correlation with the reactivity. Significant differences in reactivity is observed primarily between the glasses of peraluminous (CaO/Al2O3 1). Amongst the pastes made of glasses of percalcic region a higher degree of reaction at later ages is observed for the paste containing glass of lower CaO/SiO2 molar ratio. This is due to both degree of depolimerization and the nature of these glasses (pozzolanic and hydraulic materials). No difference of degree of reaction has been observed within the glasses of CaO/SiO2 lower than 1.

  16. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si NMR characterization of hydrates formed in calcium aluminate-silica fume mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, P.; Rivas Mercury, J.M.; Aza, A.H. de; Turrillas, X.; Sobrados, I.; Sanz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Partially deuterated Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) y (OH) 12-4y -Al(OH) 3 mixtures, prepared by hydration of Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 (C 3 A), Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 (C 12 A 7 ) and CaAl 2 O 4 (CA) phases in the presence of silica fume, have been characterized by 29 Si and 27 Al magic-angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies. NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize anhydrous and fully hydrated samples. In hydrated compounds, Ca 3 Al 2 (OH) 12 and Al(OH) 3 phases were detected. From the quantitative analysis of 27 Al NMR signals, the Al(OH) 3 /Ca 3 Al 2 (OH) 12 ratio was deduced. The incorporation of Si into the katoite structure, Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3-x (OH) 4x , was followed by 27 Al and 29 Si NMR spectroscopies. Si/OH ratios were determined from the quantitative analysis of 27 Al MAS-NMR components associated with Al(OH) 6 and Al(OSi)(OH) 5 environments. The 29 Si NMR spectroscopy was also used to quantify the unreacted silica and amorphous calcium aluminosilicate hydrates formed, C-S-H and C-A-S-H for short. From 29 Si NMR spectra, the amount of Si incorporated into different phases was estimated. Si and Al concentrations, deduced by NMR, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry, and Rietveld analysis of both X-ray and neutron data, indicate that only a part of available Si is incorporated in katoite structures. - Graphical abstract: Transmission electron micrograph of CaAl 2 O 4 -microsilica mixture hydrated at 90 deg. C for 31 days showing a cubic Ca 3 Al 2.0±0.2 (SiO 4 ) 0.9±0.2 (OH) 1.8 crystal surrounded by unreacted amorphous silica spheres

  17. Experimental and thermodynamic assessments of substitutions in the AlFeSi, FeMnSi, FeSiZr and AlCaFeSi systems (65 wt % Si) - solidification simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueneau, C.; Ansara, I.

    1994-01-01

    The substitutions of Al Si, Fe Mn and Fe Zr in some intermetallic compounds of the Al-Fe-Si, Fe-Mn-Si and Fe-Si-Zr systems are modelled in the Si-rich corner using a two sublattice model. The solidification paths of the studied alloys are determined at equilibrium. The ascalculated phase volume fractions of the alloys are compared to the experimental ones. Finally, a solidification simulation using the Gulliver-Scheil's model is performed in order to explain the formation of some precipitates experimentally observed. (authors). 14 figs., 19 refs

  18. A Structural Study on the Foaming Behavior of CaO-SiO2-MO (MO = MgO, FeO, or Al2O3) Ternary Slag System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngjoo; Min, Dong Joon

    2017-12-01

    The foaming index of the CaO-SiO2-MO (MO = MgO, FeO, or Al2O3) ternary slag system with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio is measured to understand the effect of the ionic structure. At 1773 K (1500 °C), the foaming index of the slag increases with Al2O3 addition and decreases with MgO or FeO addition at a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio. It is verified that the previous correlation between the foaming index and the physical properties could also be valid for the CaO-SiO2-(MgO or Al2O3) system. Raman spectroscopy for the CaO/SiO2 = 1.0 slag is applied to explain the foaming behavior from an ionic structural perspective. From the ionic structural viewpoint, the fractional change in each silicate anion unit is identified by de-convoluted Raman spectra. The Raman spectra indicate that the silicate network structure is polymerized with Al2O3 as an aluminosilicate structure; in contrast, de-polymerization occurs by MgO or FeO addition. Furthermore, the relationship between the silicate structure and the thermodynamic stability function is discussed. Since the ionic structure of the molten slag affects various physical/thermodynamic properties, the foaming behavior could be successfully interpreted from the ionic structural viewpoint.

  19. Thermal conductivity of M-Si-N (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) compounds with varying M/Si ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintzen, H.T.J.M.; Bruls, R.J.; Delsing, A.C.A.; Itatani, K.; Tanaka, S.; With, de G.; Metselaar, R.

    2002-01-01

    The thermal cond. of M-Si-N (M = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) compds. was examd. The emphasis is on MgSiN2 (a material which can be derived from AlN by replacing systematically 2Al3+ by Mg2+/Si4+), and Si3N4 (the well known b-modification as well as the recently discovered cubic modification with the spinel

  20. Structural, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of CaSi, Ca2Si, and CaSi2 phases from first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X. D.; Li, K.; Wei, C. H.; Han, W. D.; Zhou, N. G.

    2018-06-01

    The structural, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of CaSi, Ca2Si, and CaSi2 are systematically investigated by using first-principles calculations method based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculated formation enthalpies and cohesive energies show that CaSi2 possesses the greatest structural stability and CaSi has the strongest alloying ability. The structural stability of the three phases is compared according to electronic structures. Further analysis on electronic structures indicates that the bonding of these phases exhibits the combinations of metallic, covalent, and ionic bonds. The elastic constants are calculated, and the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and anisotropy factor of polycrystalline materials are deduced. Additionally, the thermodynamic properties were theoretically predicted and discussed.

  1. Effect of CuO addition on the sintering temperature and microwave dielectric properties of CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denghao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available CuO-doped CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics were synthesized via a traditional solid-state reaction method, and their sintering behavior, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties were investigated. The results showed that appropriate CuO addition could accelerate the sintering process and assist the densification of CaSiO3–1 wt% Al2O3 ceramics, which could effectively lower the densification temperature from 1250 °C to 1050 °C. However, the addition of CuO undermined the microwave dielectric properties. The optimal amount of CuO addition was found to be 0.8 wt%, and the derived CaSiO3–Al2O3 ceramic sintered at 1100 °C presented good microwave dielectric properties of εr=7.27, Q×f=16,850 GHz and τf=−39.53 ppm/°C, which is much better than those of pure CaSiO3 ceramic sintered at 1340 oC (Q×f=13,109 GHz. The chemical compatibility of the above ceramic with 30 Pd/70 Ag during the cofiring process has also been investigated, and the result showed that there was no chemical reaction between palladium–silver alloys and ceramics.

  2. Vibrational spectroscopic study of poldervaartite CaCa[SiO3(OH)(OH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the mineral poldervaartite CaCa[SiO3(OH)(OH)] which forms a series with its manganese analogue olmiite CaMn[SiO3(OH)](OH) using a range of techniques including scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Chemical analysis shows the mineral is reasonably pure and contains only calcium and manganese with low amounts of Al and F. Thermogravimetric analysis proves the mineral decomposes at 485 °C with a mass loss of 7.6% compared with the theoretical mass loss of 7.7%. A strong Raman band at 852 cm-1 is assigned to the SiO stretching vibration of the SiO3(OH) units. Two Raman bands at 914 and 953 cm-1 are attributed to the antisymmetric vibrations. Intense prominent peaks observed at 3487, 3502, 3509, 3521 and 3547 cm-1 are assigned to the OH stretching vibration of the SiO3(OH) units. The observation of multiple OH bands supports the concept of the non-equivalence of the OH units. Vibrational spectroscopy enables a detailed assessment of the molecular structure of poldervaartite.

  3. White LED based on CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor and CdS/ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changyu; Zhong, Chuan; Hou, Qianglong; Li, Ke

    2011-02-01

    Core/shell CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with the emission wavelength of 610nm, was synthesized by thermal deposition using cadmium oxide and selenium as precursors in a hot lauric acid and hexadecylamine trioctylphosphine oxide hybrid. CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor was synthesized by high-temperature solid state reaction at 1290 °C for 2 hours under the H2 reducing atmosphere, and X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of it. It has two emission bands peaking at 420 nm and 580nm originated from the transition 5d to 4f of Eu2+ and 4T1-6A1 of Mn2+, respectively. Blends of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphor and CdS/ZnS QDs exhibited the prominent spectral evolution with an increasing content of QDs. A hybrid white LED, which combines a blue LED with the blend of CaAl2Si2O8:Eu2+ Mn2+ phosphor and QDs with a weight ratio of 2:1, with the CIE coordinate of (0.3183, 0.3036) and CRI of 85 was obtained.

  4. Radiative muon capture on Al, Si, Ca, Mo, Sn, and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.S.; Serna-Angel, A.; Ahamad, S.

    1992-08-01

    The branching ratio for radiative muon capture relative to the non-radiative process, is sensitive to g p , the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant of the weak hadronic current. The photon energy spectra from RMC on 27 Al, 28 Si, 40 Ca, nat Mo, nat Sn, and nat Pb have been measured using a high-acceptance pair spectrometer. The measured partial branching ratios, R γ , for photons of E γ > 57 MeV are 1.43 ± 0.13, 1.93 ± 0.18, 2.09 ± 0.19, 1.11 ± 0.11, 0.98 ± 0.09 and 0.60 ± 0.07 respectively, in units of 10 -5 . The results confirm the previously observed suppression of R γ with increasing Z for Z > 20. For 40 Ca the present result is in good agreement with previous measurements. For the heavier nuclei, the results are compared with two recent calculations performed in the Fermi-gas model. In one case the data indicate a complete quenching of g p , but the more recent calculation does not reproduce the data for any value of g p . 50 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Radiative muon capture on Al, Si, Ca, Mo, Sn, and Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.S.; Serna-Angel, A.; Ahmad, S.; Azuelos, G.; Bertl, W.; Blecher, M.; Chen, C.Q.; Depommier, P.; von Egidy, T.; Gorringe, T.P.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Henderson, R.S.; Larabee, A.J.; Macdonald, J.A.; McDonald, S.C.; Poutissou, J.; Poutissou, R.; Robertson, B.C.; Sample, D.G.; Taylor, G.N.; Wright, D.H.; Zhang, N.S.

    1992-01-01

    The branching ratio for radiative muon capture (RMC), relative to the nonradiative process, is sensitive to g p , the induced pseudoscalar coupling constant of the weak hadronic current. The photon energy spectra from RMC on 27 Al, 28 Si, 40 Ca, nat Mo, nat Sn, and nat Pb have been measured using a high-acceptance pair spectrometer. The measured partial branching ratios, R γ , for photons of E γ >57 MeV are 1.43±0.13, 1.93±0.18, 2.09±0.19, 1.11±0.11, 0.98±0.09, and 0.60±0.07 respectively, in units of 10 -5 . The results confirm the previously observed suppression of R γ with increasing Z for Z>20. For 40 Ca the present result is in good agreement with previous measurements. For the heavier nuclei, the results are compared with two recent calculations performed in the Fermi-gas model. In one case the data indicate a complete quenching of g p , but the more recent calculation does not reproduce the data for any value of g p

  6. The Partial Molar Volume and Compressibility of the FeO Component in Model Basalts (Mixed CaAl2Si2O8-CaMgSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6 Liquids) at 0 GPa: evidence of Fe2+ in 6-fold coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Lange, R. A.; Ai, Y.

    2010-12-01

    FeO is an important component in magmatic liquids and yet its partial molar volume at one bar is not as well known as that for Fe2O3 because of the difficulty of performing double-bob density measurements under reducing conditions. Moreover, there is growing evidence from spectroscopic studies that Fe2+ occurs in 4, 5, and 6-fold coordination in silicate melts, and it is expected that the partial molar volume and compressibility of the FeO component will vary accordingly. We have conducted both density and relaxed sound speed measurements on four liquids in the An-Di-Hd (CaAl2Si2O8-CaMgSi2O6-CaFeSi2O6) system: (1) Di-Hd (50:50), (2) An-Hd (50:50), (3) An-Di-Hd (33:33:33) and (4) Hd (100). Densities were measured between 1573 and 1838 K at one bar with the double-bob Archimedean method using molybdenum bobs and crucibles in a reducing gas (1%CO-99%Ar) environment. The sound speeds were measured under similar conditions with a frequency-sweep acoustic interferometer, and used to calculate isothermal compressibility. All the density data for the three multi-component (model basalt) liquids were combined with density data on SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO-K2O-Na2O liquids (Lange, 1997) in a fit to a linear volume equation; the results lead to a partial molar volume (±1σ) for FeO =11.7 ± 0.3(±1σ) cm3/mol at 1723 K. This value is similar to that for crystalline FeO at 298 K (halite structure; 12.06 cm3/mol), which suggests an average Fe2+ coordination of ~6 in these model basalt compositions. In contrast, the fitted partial molar volume of FeO in pure hedenbergite liquid is 14.6 ± 0.3 at 1723 K, which is consistent with an average Fe2+ coordination of 4.3 derived from EXAFS spectroscopy (Rossano, 2000). Similarly, all the compressibility data for the three multi-component liquids were combined with compressibility data on SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-MgO liquids (Ai and Lange, 2008) in a fit to an ideal mixing model for melt compressibility; the results lead to a partial molar

  7. Electrosynthesis of Ti5Si3, Ti5Si3/TiC, and Ti5Si3/Ti3SiC2 from Ti-Bearing Blast Furnace Slag in Molten CaCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangshu; Zou, Xingli; Zheng, Kai; Lu, Xionggang; Chen, Chaoyi; Li, Xin; Xu, Qian; Zhou, Zhongfu

    2018-04-01

    Ti5Si3, Ti5Si3/TiC, and Ti5Si3/Ti3SiC2 have been electrochemically synthesized from the Ti-bearing blast furnace slag/TiO2 and/or C mixture precursors at a cell voltage of 3.8 V and 1223 K to 1273 K (950 °C to 1000 °C) in molten CaCl2. The pressed porous mixture pellets were used as the cathode, and a solid oxide oxygen-ion-conducting membrane (SOM)-based anode was used as the anode. The phase composition and morphologies of the cathodic products were systematically characterized. The final products possess a porous nodular microstructure due to the interconnection of particles. The variations of impurity elements, i.e., Ca, Mg, and Al, have been analyzed, and the result shows that Ca and Mg can be almost completely removed; however, Al cannot be easily removed from the pellet due to the formation of Ti-Al alloys during the electroreduction process. The electroreduction process has also been investigated by the layer-depended phase composition analysis of the dipped/partially reduced pellets to understand the detailed reaction process. The results indicate that the electroreduction process of the Ti-bearing blast furnace slag/TiO2 and/or C mixture precursors can be typically divided into four periods, i.e., (i) the decomposition of initial Ca(Mg,Al)(Si,Al)2O6, (ii) the reduction of Ti/Si-containing intermediate phases, (iii) the removal of impurity elements, and (iv) the formation of Ti5Si3, TiC, and Ti3SiC2. It is suggested that the SOM-based anode process has great potential to be used for the direct and facile preparation of Ti alloys and composites from cheap Ti-containing ores.

  8. Synthesis of Nanoscale CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O Using the Hydrothermal Method and Their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available C-A-S-H (CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O and N-A-S-H (Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O have a wide range of chemical compositions and structures and are difficult to separate from alkali-activated materials. Therefore, it is difficult to analyze their microscopic properties directly. This paper reports research on the synthesis of C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H particles with an average particle size smaller than 300 nm by applying the hydrothermal method. The composition and microstructure of the products with different CaO(Na2O/SiO2 ratios and curing conditions were characterized using XRD, the RIR method, FTIR, SEM, TEM, and laser particle size analysis. The results showed that the C-A-S-H system products with a low CaO/SiO2 ratio were mainly amorphous C-A-S-H gels. With an increase in the CaO/SiO2 ratio, an excess of Ca(OH2 was observed at room temperature, while in a high-temperature reaction system, katoite, C4AcH11, and other crystallized products were observed. The katoite content was related to the curing temperature and the content of Ca(OH2 and it tended to form at a high-temperature and high-calcium environment, and an increase in the temperature renders the C-A-S-H gels more compact. The main products of the N-A-S-H system at room temperature were amorphous N-A-S-H gels and a small amount of sodalite. An increase in the curing temperature promoted the formation of the crystalline products faujasite and zeolite-P. The crystallization products consisted of only zeolite-P in the high-temperature N-A-S-H system and its content were stable above 70%. An increase in the Na2O/SiO2 ratio resulted in more non-bridging oxygen and the TO4 was more isolated in the N-A-S-H structure. The composition and microstructure of the C-A-S-H and N-A-S-H system products synthesized by the hydrothermal method were closely related to the ratio of the raw materials and the curing conditions. The results of this study increase our understanding of the hydration products of alkali

  9. Enhancing Sm{sup 3+} red emission via energy transfer from Bi{sup 3+}→Sm{sup 3+} based on terbium bridge mechanism in Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7} phosphors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Minhong; Wang, LiLi; Ran, Weiguang; Ren, Chunyan; Song, Zeling; Shi, Jinsheng, E-mail: jsshiqn@aliyun.com

    2017-04-15

    Currently, the key change for white-LED is to improve the luminescence efficiency of red phosphor. Sm{sup 3+} activated phosphor was considered due to suitable emission position of red light. However, the luminescence intensity in the red region is weak. For enhancing red-emitting of Sm{sup 3+}, Bi{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions were introduced into Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors based on the concept of energy transfer. For Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Bi{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} samples, it can be observed that the energy transfer process was blocked. Hence, Tb{sup 3+} was introduced into Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Bi{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} samples to increase Sm{sup 3+} luminescence intensity based on Bi{sup 3+}→Tb{sup 3+}→Sm{sup 3+} energy transfer process. Compared with Sm{sup 3+} single-doped Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7} phosphor, the luminescence intensity of Sm{sup 3+} was enhanced by 2.6 times. It can be found that Tb{sup 3+} ions play a role of storing the energy or transfer bridge from Bi{sup 3+}→ Sm{sup 3+} by investigating the Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Bi{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7}:Tb{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+} energy transfer mechanism. All these results suggest that terbium branch mechanism plays an important role on enhancing activators luminescence intensity.

  10. Single-phased CaAl2Si2O8:Tm3+, Dy3+ white-light phosphors under ultraviolet excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Penghui; Yu, Xue; Xu, Xuhui; Jiang, Tingming; Yu, Hongling; Zhou, Dacheng; Yang, Zhengwen; Song, Zhiguo; Qiu, Jianbei

    2013-01-01

    A novel white-light-emitting phosphor CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 :Tm, Dy was synthesized in ambient atmosphere by solid-state reaction. The energy transfer from Tm 3+ to Dy 3+ ions via a dipole–quadrupole reaction was observed and investigated. Upon UV excitation, white light emission was achieved by integrating a blue emission band located at 455 nm and an orange one located at 574 nm attributed to Tm 3+ and Dy 3+ ions, respectively. In addition, the energy-transfer efficiency and critical distance were calculated. Results suggested that the phosphor might be promising as a single-phased white-light-emitting phosphor for UV white-light LED. - Graphical abstract: The results indicate the existence of energy transfer from Tm 3+ to Dy 3+ . By tuning the concentration of Dy 3+ , single-phased white light can be realized. - Highlights: ► Energy transfer from Tm 3+ to Dy 3+ was investigated. ► Color tunable from blue to white can be achieved. ► White light can be realized in CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 :Tm 3+ , Dy 3+ phosphor

  11. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of zinc-modified ca-si-based ceramic coating for bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiangming; Li, Kai; Zheng, Xuebin; He, Dannong; Ye, Xiaojian; Wang, Meiyan

    2013-01-01

    The host response to calcium silicate ceramic coatings is not always favorable because of their high dissolution rates, leading to high pH within the surrounding physiological environment. Recently, a zinc-incorporated calcium silicate-based ceramic Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, developed on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using plasma-spray technology, was found to exhibit improved chemical stability and biocompatibility. This study aimed to investigate and compare the in vitro response of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, CaSiO3 coating, and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V titanium control at cellular and molecular level. Our results showed Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation compared to CaSiO3 coating and control. In addition, Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating increased mRNA levels of osteoblast-related genes (alkaline phosphatase, procollagen α1(I), osteocalcin), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). The in vivo osteoconductive properties of Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, compared to CaSiO3 coating and control, was investigated using a rabbit femur defect model. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis demonstrated new bone formation in direct contact with the Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating surface in absence of fibrous tissue and higher bone-implant contact rate (BIC) in the Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating group, indicating better biocompatibility and faster osseointegration than CaSiO3 coated and control implants. These results indicate Ca2ZnSi2O7 coated implants have applications in bone tissue regeneration, since they are biocompatible and able to osseointegrate with host bone.

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of zinc-modified ca-si-based ceramic coating for bone implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangming Yu

    Full Text Available The host response to calcium silicate ceramic coatings is not always favorable because of their high dissolution rates, leading to high pH within the surrounding physiological environment. Recently, a zinc-incorporated calcium silicate-based ceramic Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, developed on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using plasma-spray technology, was found to exhibit improved chemical stability and biocompatibility. This study aimed to investigate and compare the in vitro response of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, CaSiO3 coating, and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V titanium control at cellular and molecular level. Our results showed Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation compared to CaSiO3 coating and control. In addition, Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating increased mRNA levels of osteoblast-related genes (alkaline phosphatase, procollagen α1(I, osteocalcin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1. The in vivo osteoconductive properties of Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, compared to CaSiO3 coating and control, was investigated using a rabbit femur defect model. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis demonstrated new bone formation in direct contact with the Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating surface in absence of fibrous tissue and higher bone-implant contact rate (BIC in the Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating group, indicating better biocompatibility and faster osseointegration than CaSiO3 coated and control implants. These results indicate Ca2ZnSi2O7 coated implants have applications in bone tissue regeneration, since they are biocompatible and able to osseointegrate with host bone.

  13. Effect of Sulfur on Liquidus Temperatures in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2-S System in Equilibrium with Metallic Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baojun; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni

    2011-10-01

    The phase equilibria in the ZnO-"FeO"-Al2O3-CaO-SiO2-S system have been determined experimentally in equilibrium with metallic iron. A pseudoternary section of the form ZnO-"FeO"-(Al2O3+CaO+SiO2) for CaO/SiO2 = 0.71 (weight), (CaO+SiO2)/Al2O3 = 5.0 (weight), and fixed 2.0 wt pct S concentration has been constructed. It was found that the addition of 2.0 wt pct S to the liquid extends the spinel primary phase field significantly and decreases the size of the wustite primary phase field. The liquidus temperature in the wustite primary phase field is decreased by approximately 80 K and the liquidus temperature in the spinel primary phase field is decreased by approximately 10 K with addition of 2.0 wt pct S in the composition range investigated. It was also found that iron-zinc sulfides are present in some samples in the spinel primary phase field, which are matte appearing at low zinc concentrations and sphalerite (Zn,Fe)S at higher zinc concentrations. The presence of sulfur in the slag has a minor effect on the partitioning of ZnO between the wustite and liquid phases but no effect on the partitioning of ZnO between the spinel and liquid phases.

  14. Spheroidization of primary Mg{sub 2}Si in Al-20Mg{sub 2}Si-4.5Cu alloy modified with Ca and Sb during T6 heat treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong-Chen; Wang, Hui-Yuan, E-mail: wanghuiyuan@jlu.edu.cn; Chen, Lei; Zha, Min, E-mail: minzha@jlu.edu.cn; Wang, Cheng; Li, Chao; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2017-02-08

    The morphology evolution of primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles in a Al-20Mg{sub 2}Si-4.5Cu alloy both unmodified and modified with 0.5 wt% Ca-Sb prepared by hot-extrusion followed by T6 heat treatment was investigated in the present study. Interestingly, we found that the combination of hot-extrusion and T6 heat treatment was efficient in transforming truncated octahedral primary Mg{sub 2}Si into sphere in the modified alloy. In contrast, the primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles still kept dentritic in the unmodified alloy. It suggested that the formation of truncated octahedral primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles in as-cast state, the fragmentation of particles by hot-extrusion and the enhanced solid-state diffusion of Si and/or Mg atoms during heat treatment were responsible for the spheroidization of primary Mg{sub 2}Si. Moreover, the existence of fine (~10–20 µm) spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si played an important role in strengthening the alloy, i.e., the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) increased from ~227 MPa in the unmodified alloy to ~303 MPa in the modified one. It is because the fine spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si particles can provide a higher fracture stress and strength of the matrix/particle interface. Our study offered a simple methodology to prepare spherical primary Mg{sub 2}Si in an Al-high Mg{sub 2}Si alloy, which is beneficial to design novel light-weight Al-Mg-Si alloys with improved mechanical properties.

  15. Facile synthesis of Ca{sub 0.68}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 3}(ON){sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} microbelts mat with the enhanced fluorescence and mechanical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hailei; Cui, Bo [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Wang, Hongzhi, E-mail: wanghz@dhu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhang, Qinghong [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li, Yaogang, E-mail: yaogang_li@dhu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Advanced Glasses Manufacturing Technology, MOE, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Yellow-emitting phosphor mat consisting of Ca{sub 0.68}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 3}(ON){sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} microbelts was prepared by electrospinning and subsequent nitridation. The as-prepared fiber precursor is smooth and uniform with diameter of 800 to 900 nm. After removing organic templates and nitridation, the morphology of the fiber is well retained and thus a smooth microbelts phosphor mat was obtained. X-ray diffraction and the photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveals that a relatively pure Ca{sub 0.68}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 3}(ON){sub 16} phase and the highest spectral intensity could be obtained at a relatively low temperature of 1500 °C and Eu{sup 2+} doping molar concentration of 0.1. The excitation spectra exhibits a broad band, ranging from 300 to 550 nm, which could be excited by blue LED chip at room temperature. The emission spectra of all exhibits a single broad band in the 400 to 700 nm region, with the maximum intensity always being at 580 nm. The Ca{sub 0.68}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 3}(ON){sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} microbelts phosphor mat has the bending strength about 4.5 MPa with a photoluminescence quantum yield as high as 65%. By employing it as yellow phosphor, a high-performance warm white LED could be fabricated with low correlated color temperature (2985 K), high-color-rendering index (Ra=86) and luminous efficacy of 129.5 lm W{sup −1}. Different color temperatures also could be tuned by employing microbelts phosphor mats with different thicknesses. - Graphical abstract: Yellow-emitting phosphor mat consisting of Ca{sub 0.68}Si{sub 9}Al{sub 3}(ON){sub 16}:Eu{sup 2+} microbelts fibers were prepared by electrospinning the fiber precursor and subsequent nitridation. Because the good mechanical strength it could be utilized to realize LEDs remote packaging. By employing it as yellow phosphor, a high-performance warm white LED could be fabricated. Different color temperatures also could be tuned by employing microbelts phosphor mats with different thicknesses

  16. The effect of H2O gas on volatilities of planet-forming major elements. I - Experimental determination of thermodynamic properties of Ca-, Al-, and Si-hydroxide gas molecules and its application to the solar nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akihiko

    1992-01-01

    The vapor pressures of Ca(OH)2(g), Al(OH)3(g), and Si(OH)4(g) molecules in equilibrium with solid calcium-, aluminum, and silicon-oxides, respectively, were determined, and were used to derive the heats of formation and entropies of these species, which are expected to be abundant under the currently postulated physical conditions in the primordial solar nebula. These data, in conjunction with thermodynamic data from literature, were used to calculate the relative abundances of M, MO(x), and M(OH)n gas species and relative volatilities of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Al for ranges of temperature, total pressure, and H/O abundance ratio corresponding to the plausible ranges of physical conditions in the solar nebula. The results are used to explain how Ca and Al could have evaporated from Ca,Al-rich inclusions in carbonaceous chondrites, while Si, Mg, and Fe condensed onto them during the preaccretion alteration of CAIs.

  17. Liquidus Temperature of SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 Glass-Forming Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Brett M.; Morgan, James M.; Mauro, John C.

    2013-01-01

    . In the composition range of interest for industrial glasses, Tliq tends to decrease with increasing strontium-to-alumina ratio. We find that cristobalite, mullite, and slawsonite are the dominant devitrification phases for the compositions with high SiO2, SiO2+Al2O3, and SrO contents, respectively. By comparison...... with the phase diagrams for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 and MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 systems, we have found that for the highest [RO]/[Al2O3] ratios, Tliq exhibits a minimum value for R = Ca. Based on the phase diagram established here, the composition of glass materials, for example, for liquid crystal display substrates, belonging...... to the SrO-Al2O3-SiO2 family may be designed with a more exact control of the glass-forming ability by avoiding the regions of high liquidus temperature....

  18. CaO-Al2O3 glass-ceramic as a joining material for SiC based components: A microstructural study of the effect of Si-ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Valentina; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Salvo, Milena; Czyrska-Filemonowicz, Aleksandra; Moskalewicz, Tomasz; Katoh, Yutai; Ferraris, Monica

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate and discuss the microstructure and interface reaction of a calcia-alumina based glass-ceramic (CA) with SiC. CA has been used for several years as a glass-ceramic for pressure-less joining of SiC based components. In the present work, the crystalline phases in the CA glass-ceramic and at the CA/SiC interface were investigated and the absence of any detectable amorphous phase was assessed. In order to provide a better understanding of the effect of irradiation on the joining material and on the joints, Si ion irradiation was performed both on bulk CA and CA joined SiC. CA glass-ceramic and CA joined SiC were both irradiated with 5.1 MeV Si2+ ions to 3.3 × 1020 ions/m2 at temperatures of 400 and 800 °C at DuET facility, Kyoto University. This corresponds to a damage level of 5 dpa for SiC averaged over the damage range. This paper presents the results of a microstructural analysis of the irradiated samples as well as an evaluation of the dimensional stability of the CA glass-ceramic and its irradiation temperature and/or damage dependence.

  19. Uptake properties of Ni2+ by nCaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 (n=1-4) prepared from solid-state reaction of kaolinite and calcite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Vinay Kumar; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Nakajima, Akira; Okada, Kiyoshi; MacKenzie, Kenneth J D

    2005-08-31

    A series of nCaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 samples (n=1-4) were prepared by solid-state reaction of mechanochemically treated mixtures of kaolinite and calcite fired at 600-1000 degrees C for 24 h. All the samples were X-ray amorphous after firing at 600-800 degrees C but had crystallized by 900 degrees C. The main crystalline phases were anorthite (n=1), gehlenite (n=2 and 3) and larnite (n=4). The uptake of Ni2+ by nCaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 samples fired at 800 and 900 degrees C was investigated at room temperature using solutions with initial Ni2+ concentrations of 0.1-50 mmol/l. Amorphous samples (fired at 800 degrees C) showed a higher Ni2+ uptake capacity than crystalline samples (fired at 900 degrees C). Ni2+ uptake was found to increase with increasing of CaO content. Amorphous 4CaO.Al2O3.2SiO2 showed the highest Ni2+ uptake capacity (about 9 mmol/g). The Ni2+ uptake abilities of the present samples are higher than those of other materials reported in the literature. Since the sorbed Ni2+/released Ca2+ ratios of these samples are close to unity, ion replacement of Ni2+ for Ca2+ is thought to be the principal mechanism of Ni2+ uptake by the present samples.

  20. U-Mo/Al-Si interaction: Influence of Si concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenou, J.; Palancher, H.; Iltis, X.; Cornen, M.; Tougait, O.; Tucoulou, R.; Welcomme, E.; Martin, Ph.; Valot, C.; Charollais, F.; Anselmet, M.C.; Lemoine, P.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the development of low enriched nuclear fuels for research reactors, U-Mo/Al is the most promising option that has however to be optimised. Indeed at the U-Mo/Al interfaces between U-Mo particles and the Al matrix, an interaction layer grows under irradiation inducing an unacceptable fuel swelling. Adding silicon in limited content into the Al matrix has clearly improved the in-pile fuel behaviour. This breakthrough is attributed to an U-Mo/Al-Si protective layer around U-Mo particles appeared during fuel manufacturing. In this work, the evolution of the microstructure and composition of this protective layer with increasing Si concentrations in the Al matrix has been investigated. Conclusions are based on the characterization at the micrometer scale (X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy) of U-Mo7/Al-Si diffusion couples obtained by thermal annealing at 450 deg. C. Two types of interaction layers have been evidenced depending on the Si content in the Al-Si alloy: the threshold value is found at about 5 wt.% but obviously evolves with temperature. It has been shown that for Si concentrations ranging from 2 to 10 wt.%, the U-Mo7/Al-Si interaction is bi-layered and the Si-rich part is located close to the Al-Si for low Si concentrations (below 5 wt.%) and close to the U-Mo for higher Si concentrations. For Si weight fraction in the Al alloy lower than 5 wt.%, the Si-rich sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2 Al 20 , when the other sub-layer (close to U-Mo) is silicon free and made of UAl 3 and U 6 Mo 4 Al 43 . For Si weight concentrations above 5 wt.%, the Si-rich part becomes U 3 (Si, Al) 5 + U(Al, Si) 3 (close to U-Mo) and the other sub-layer (close to Al-Si) consists of U(Al, Si) 3 + UMo 2 Al 20 . On the basis of these results and of a literature survey, a scheme is proposed to explain the formation of different types of ILs between U-Mo and Al-Si alloys (i.e. different protective layers).

  1. Hydriding and dehydriding properties of CaSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Ohba, Nobuko; Noritake, Tatsuo; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    The hydriding and dehydriding properties of CaSi were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. First-principles calculations suggested that CaSiH n is thermodynamically stable. Experimentally, the p -c isotherms clearly demonstrated plateau pressures in a temperature range of 473-573 K and the maximum hydrogen content was 1.9 weight % (wt.%) under a hydrogen pressure of 9 MPa at 473 K. The structure of CaSiH n is different from those of ZrNi hydrides, although CaSi has the CrB-type structure as well as ZrNi

  2. Vitreous Anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8) at High Pressure: A First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D. B.; Karki, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the high abundance of silicates and aluminosilicates inside the earth, their corresponding melts are likely to be one of the key transport agents in the chemical and thermal evolution of our planet and therefore, have long been the subject of investigations. Experimentally, in-situ melt properties of these materials, particularly at high pressure-temperature conditions are extremely difficult to constrain and the corresponding glass phases are considered as analogs. This, however, prohibits one-to-one comparison between the properties of silicate melt and its corresponding glass. With the aim to enable such comparison, we investigate the equation of state and structural properties of CaAl2Si2O8 glass at 300 K as a function of pressure up to 160 GPa from first principles molecular dynamics simulation results. Our results show that at ambient pressure: (i) Si's remain mostly (> 95%) under tetrahedral oxygen surroundings, (ii) unlike anorthite crystal, presence of high coordination (> 4) Al's with 30% abundance, (iii) and significant presence of both non bridging (8%) and triply (17%) coordinated oxygen. In the 0-10 GPa interval, mainly topological changes occur in the Si-O (also Al-O to some extent) surroundings in the cold compressed case in comparison to smooth increase in the average bond distance and coordination in the hot compressed case. Further compression results in gradual increases in: mean coordination, proportion of O-triclusters and increasing appearance of tetrahedral oxgyens, with Si-O (Al-O) reaching 6 (6.5) and O-T > 3 (T=Si and Al) at the highest compression. Due to the absence of kinetic barrier, the hot compressed glasses consistently produce greater densities and higher coordination numbers than the cold compression cases. Decompressed glasses show irreversible compaction along with retention of high coordination species when decompressed from > 10 GPa and degree of irreversibility depends on the peak pressure of decompression. These

  3. Formation of AlFeSi phase in AlSi12 alloy with Ce addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kores

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cerium addition on the solidification sequence and microstructure constituents of the Al-Si alloys with 12,6 mass % Si was examined. The solidification was analyzed by a simple thermal analysis. The microstructures were examined with conventional light and scanning electron microscopy. Ternary AlSiCe phase was formed in the Al-Si alloys with added cerium during the solidification process. AlSiCe and β-AlFeSi phases solidified together in the region that solidified the last. Cerium addition influenced on the morphology of the α-AlFeSi phase solidification.

  4. Plasma-sprayed CaTiSiO5 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V with excellent bonding strength, stability and cellular bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Guocheng; Zreiqat, Hala

    2008-01-01

    Novel Ca-Si-Ti-based sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study was to prepare sphene coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for orthopaedic applications using the plasma spray method. The phase composition, surface and interface microstructure, coating thickness, surface roughness and bonding strength of the plasma-sprayed sphene coating were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the standard mechanical testing of the American Society for Testing and Materials, respectively. The results indicated that sphene coating was obtained with a uniform and dense microstructure at the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V surface and the thickness and surface roughness of the coating were approximately 150 and 10 μm, respectively. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed a significantly improved bonding strength and chemical stability compared with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating supported human osteoblast-like cell (HOB) attachment and significantly enhanced HOB proliferation and differentiation compared with plasma-sprayed HAp coating and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Taken together, plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed excellent bonding strength, chemical stability and cellular bioactivity, indicating its potential application for orthopaedic implants. PMID:18664431

  5. CVD of SiC and AlN using cyclic organometallic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interrante, L. V.; Larkin, D. J.; Amato, C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of cyclic organometallic molecules as single-source MOCVD precursors is illustrated by means of examples taken from our recent work on AlN and SiC deposition, with particular focus on SiC. Molecules containing (AlN)3 and (SiC)2 rings as the 'core structure' were employed as the source materials for these studies. The organoaluminum amide, (Me2AlNH2)3, was used as the AlN source and has been studied in a molecular beam sampling apparatus in order to determine the gas phase species present in a hot-wall CVD reactor environment. In the case of SiC CVD, a series of disilacyclobutanes (Si(XX')CH2)2 (with X and X' = H, CH3, and CH2SiH2CH3), were examined in a cold-wall, hot-stage CVD reactor in order to compare their relative reactivities and prospective utility as single-source CVD precursors. The parent compound, disilacyclobutane, (SiH2CH2)2, was found to exhibit the lowest deposition temperature (ca. 670 C) and to yield the highest purity SiC films. This precursor gave a highly textured, polycrystalline film on the Si(100) substrates.

  6. Melts in the Deep Earth: Calculating the Densities of CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Guo, X.; Agee, C. B.; Asimow, P. D.; Lange, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    We present new equation of state (EOS) measurements for hedenbergite (Hd, CaFeSi2O6) and forsterite (Fo, Mg2SiO4) liquids. These liquid EOS add to the basis set in the CaO-FeO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 (CMASF) oxide space at elevated temperatures and pressures; other liquids include: enstatite (En, MgSiO3), anorthite (An, CaAl2Si2O8), diopside (Di, CaMgSi2O6), and fayalite (Fa, Fe2SiO4). The Hd EOS measurement was a multi-technique collaboration using 1-atm double-bob Archimedean, ultrasonic, sink/float, and shock wave techniques. Un-weighted linear fitting of the shock data in shock velocity (US)-particle velocity (up) space defines a pre-heated (1400 °C) Hugoniot US = 2.628(0.024) + 1.54(0.01)up km/s. The slope corresponds to a K' of 5.16(0.04), consistent with piston-cylinder and multi-anvil sink/float experiments. The intercept is fixed at the ultrasonic sound speed (Co) since the unconstrained intercept is within the stated error. This behavior demonstrates consistency across methods and that the liquid is relaxed during shock compression. Shock compression of pre-heated (2000°C) single crystal Fo gives an un-weighted linear Hugoniot of US = 2.674(0.188) + 1.64(0.06)up km/s. The unconstrained Co falls below estimates based on extrapolation in both temperature and composition from two published partial molar sound speed models, 3.195m/s [1] and 3.126 m/s [2]. The shock-derived Co indicates that dC/dT is negative for Fo liquid, contrary to the positive [1] and zero [2] temperature dependences derived over relatively narrow temperature intervals. CMASF liquid isentropes were calculated using five end-members (En, Fo, Fa, An, Di). For modeling crystallization of a fictive magma ocean, we examined two liquids: peridotite [3] (P=.33En+.56Fo+.07Fa+.03An+.007Di) and simplified chondrite [4] (Ch=.62En+.24Fo+.08Fa+.04An+.02Di). Each end-member is defined by a 3rd or 4th order Birch-Murnaghan isentrope, Mie-Grüneisen thermal pressure and a constant heat capacity. The volumes are

  7. Hot Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guangyan; Wu, Yongzhao; Liu, Qun; Li, Rongguang; Su, Yong

    2017-03-01

    The 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with Al-Si/Al-Si-Cr coatings is prepared by slurry process and vacuum diffusion, and the hot corrosion behavior of the stainless steel with/without the coatings is studied under the condition of Na2SO4 film at 950 °C in air. Results show that the corrosion kinetics of stainless steel, the stainless steel with Al-Si coating and the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating follow parabolic laws in several segments. After 24 h corrosion, the sequence of the mass gain for the three alloys is the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating coating coating. The corrosion products of the three alloys are layered. Thereinto, the corrosion products of stainless steel without coating are divided into two layers, where the outside layer contains a composite of Fe2O3 and FeO, and the inner layer is Cr2O3. The corrosion products of the stainless steel with Al-Si coating are also divided into two layers, of which the outside layer mainly consists of Cr2O3, and the inner layer is mainly SiO2. The corrosion film of the stainless steel with Al-Si-Cr coating is thin and dense, which combines well with substrate. Thereinto, the outside layer is mainly Cr2O3, and the inside layer is Al2O3. In the matrix of all of the three alloys, there exist small amount of sulfides. Continuous and protective films of Cr2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3 form on the surface of the stainless steel with Al-Si and Al-Si-Cr coatings, which prevent further oxidation or sulfide corrosion of matrix metals, and this is the main reason for the much smaller mass gain of the two alloys than that of the stainless steel without any coatings in the 24 h hot corrosion process.

  8. Microstructure, Thermal, Mechanical, and Dielectric Properties of BaO-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Bian, Haibo; Fang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    BaO-CaO-Al2O3-B2O3-SiO2 (BCABS) glass-ceramics were prepared via the method of controlled crystallization. The effect of CaO modification on the microstructure, phase evolution, as well as thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties was investigated. XRD identified that quartz is the major crystal phase; cristobalite and bazirite are the minor crystal phases. Moreover, the increase of CaO could inhibit the phase transformation from quartz to cristobalite, but excessive CaO would increase the porosity of the ceramics. Additionally, with increasing the amount of CaO, the thermal expansion curve tends to be linear, and subsequently the CTE value decreases gradually, which is attributed to the decrease of cristobalite with high CTE and the formation of CaSiO3 with low CTE. The results indicated that a moderate amount of CaO helps attaining excellent mechanical, thermal, and dielectric properties, that is, the specimen with 9 wt% CaO sintered at 950 °C has a high CTE value (11.5 × 10-6/°C), a high flexural strength (165.7 MPa), and good dielectric properties (ɛr = 6.2, tanδ = 1.8 × 10-4, ρ = 4.6 × 1011 Ω•cm).

  9. Compatibility of hydrogarnet, Ca3Al2(SiO4)x(OH)4(3−x), with sulfate and carbonate-bearing cement phases: 5–85 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoronkwo, Monday Uchenna; Glasser, Fredrik Paul

    2016-01-01

    The stable existence of hydrogarnet in Portland cement compositions cured at temperatures below 55 °C has long been predicted from application of equilibrium thermodynamics. However hydrogarnet is not often reported in hydrated commercial Portland cements. The substitutions (SO 4 –CO 3 –OH) in AFm have previously been shown to stabilise AFm to higher temperatures and raise the temperature at which AFm converts to Si-free hydrogarnet, C 3 AH 6 . But unanswered question remains about the compatibility of AFm and AFm solid solutions with Si-substituted hydrogarnet, Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) x (OH) 4(3 − x) . Phase relations of C 3 AH 6 and Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) x (OH) 4(3 − x) at sulfate and carbonate activities conditioned respectively by (gypsum and SO 4 -AFt) and (calcite and CO 3 -AFt) have been determined experimentally in the range 5–85 °C. The results confirm the instability of Si-free hydrogarnet with carbonate and sulfate-bearing cement phases, but do indicate that a range of silica-substituted hydrogarnet solid solutions are stable under conditions likely to be encountered in blended cement systems.

  10. Blue emission in photoluminescence spectra of the red phosphor CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ at low Eu2+ concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yoriko; Kamigaki, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2018-04-01

    In red phosphor CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, unintentional blue emission occurs with increasing intensity at low Eu2+ concentrations and also at low measurement temperatures. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were used to confirm the decrease in red emission and increase in blue emission with the decreasing Eu2+ concentration. The peak timing of blue emission occurred faster than that of red emission, and long lasting luminescence of red emission was observed as well as that of blue emission. The Eu2+ concentration dependences of the red and blue emissions were similar to those of the g values 4.75 (Eu2+) and 2.0025 (nitrogen vacancies), respectively, which were observed from electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The origin of the blue emission is proposed to be nitrogen vacancy defects, which had about the same ESR signal intensity as that of Eu2+ ions in CaAlSiN3:Eu2+ containing 0.01 at. % Eu2+. The possibility of red emission also arising from excited electron tunneling or thermal pathways via nitrogen vacancies is discussed. Long lasting red emission was observed, which is proposed to involve trapped electrons remaining at nitrogen vacancies, yielding blue emission and inducing red emission from Eu2+ ions.

  11. Forging of cast Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al-0.4Si magnesium alloy using processing map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K. P.; Suresh, K.; Prasad, Y. V. R. K.; Hort, N.; Kainer, K. U.

    2016-01-01

    Mg-3Sn-2Ca (TX32) alloy has good creep resistance but limited workability. Minor amounts of Al and Si have been added to TX32 for improving its hot workability. The processing map for the TX32-0.4Al-0.4Si alloy exhibited two workability domains in the temperature and strain rate ranges: (1) 310-415.deg.C/0.0003-0.003 s-1 and (2) 430-500.deg.C/0.003-3 s-1. The alloy exhibited flow instability at temperatures < 350.deg.C at strain rates > 0.01 s-1. The alloy has been forged to produce a cup shape component to validate these findings of processing map. Finite-element (FE) simulation has been performed for obtaining the local variations of strain and strain rate within the forging. The microstructures of the forged components under the optimal domain conditions revealed dynamically recrystallized grains, and those forged in the flow instability regime have fractured and exhibited flow localization bands and cracks. The experimental load stroke curves correlated well with those obtained by FE simulation.

  12. Forging of cast Mg-3Sn-2Ca-0.4Al-0.4Si magnesium alloy using processing map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K. P.; Suresh, K.; Prasad, Y. V. R. K. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Hort, N.; Kainer, K. U. [Magnesium Innovation Centre, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Mg-3Sn-2Ca (TX32) alloy has good creep resistance but limited workability. Minor amounts of Al and Si have been added to TX32 for improving its hot workability. The processing map for the TX32-0.4Al-0.4Si alloy exhibited two workability domains in the temperature and strain rate ranges: (1) 310-415.deg.C/0.0003-0.003 s-1 and (2) 430-500.deg.C/0.003-3 s-1. The alloy exhibited flow instability at temperatures < 350.deg.C at strain rates > 0.01 s-1. The alloy has been forged to produce a cup shape component to validate these findings of processing map. Finite-element (FE) simulation has been performed for obtaining the local variations of strain and strain rate within the forging. The microstructures of the forged components under the optimal domain conditions revealed dynamically recrystallized grains, and those forged in the flow instability regime have fractured and exhibited flow localization bands and cracks. The experimental load stroke curves correlated well with those obtained by FE simulation.

  13. Effect of Gd–Ca combined additions on the microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Wuxiao; Zhang, Sha; Zhang, Dongjie; Zhang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of compound addition of Ca and Gd on the microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys was investigated. • After adding 1 wt.% of (Ca + Gd), the creep strain and steady-state creep rate were reduced by about 80% and 84%, respectively. • After adding 1 wt.% of (Ca + Gd), the creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys were superior to that containing single Gd additive. • The improvement of creep properties after compound addition of Gd and Ca is a result of multiple factors. - Abstract: The microstructure and creep properties of Mg–7Al–1Si alloys with combined additions of alkaline earth element Ca and rare earth element (RE) Gd were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and compressive creep tests. It was found that the combined additions of Ca and Gd contributed to grain refinement, modification of the morphology of coarse Chinese script Mg 2 Si phase, and reduction of β-Mg 17 Al 12 content. Mg–7Al–1Si alloys containing 1 wt.% compound modifier (0.5 wt.% Gd + 0.5 wt.% Ca) exhibited the minimal steady-state creep rate, and were even superior to Mg–7Al–1Si alloys containing single Gd addition. The great improvement of creep properties is mainly attributed to the reduction in the amount and continuity of eutectic β-Mg 17 Al 12 phase, morphology modification of Mg 2 Si phase, solution strengthening of Gd, as well as the formation of thermally stable intermetallic Al 2 Gd, which acted as an effective barrier against grain boundary sliding and dislocation movement

  14. Using compound SiO{sub 2}(62-68)-MgO+CaO(29-39) in the protections of ceramics of steel company to replace the CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} compound; Utilizacao do composto SiO{sub 2}(62-68)-MgO+CaO(29-39) nas protecoes ceramicas de empresa siderurgica em substituicao ao composto CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Anderson Carvalho; Silva, Paula Cipriano da; Vernilli Junior, Fernando; Santos, Claudinei dos; Magnago, Roberto de Oliveira [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Leonardo Moreira de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    This article describes the use of protective ceramic composed of SiO{sub 2}(62-68)-MgO + CaO(29-39) in the frontal region of the machines that inject mass refractory to stop racing pig iron and slag liquid in blast furnaces. The new protection model (prototype) showed a annual saving of approximately R$ 32,000.00 compared to the compound previously used CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}. Also had a lower toxicity, as it has in its morphology least amount of fiber. These fibers when inhaled cause damage to internal tissues of the lungs is harmful to health. There maintenance rates of production, since in all samples tested the new ceramic protection, the front part was preserved allowing the refractory mass injection quantity and pressure required for reconstitution of the length of the bore which removes iron and slag inside the high oven, allowing for a larger internal volume to produce more. The protection models were produced by Morganite-Brazil. The morphology and crystallographic characterization were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. (author)

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of Eu dopant atoms in Ca-α-SiAlON via through-focus HAADF-STEM imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Genki, E-mail: genki@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Yamaki, Fuuta; Kunisada, Yuji; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Akiyama, Tomohiro

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Through-focus HAADF-STEM imaging was studied. • Spatial distribution of Eu atoms in Ca-α-SiAlON was analyzed. • A large convergence semi-angle increased the depth resolution. • The radial distribution function of Eu dopants was analyzed. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) distributional analysis of individual dopant atoms in materials is important to development of optical, electronic, and magnetic materials. In this study, we adopted through-focus high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) imaging for 3D distributional analysis of Eu dopant atoms in Ca-α-SiAlON phosphors. In this context, the effects of convergence semi-angle and Eu z-position on the HAADF image contrast were investigated. Multi-slice image simulation revealed that the contrast of the dopant site was sensitive to change of the defocus level. When the defocus level matched the depth position of a Eu atom, the contrast intensity was significantly increased. The large convergence semi-angle greatly increased the depth resolution because the electron beam tends spread instead of channeling along the atomic columns. Through-focus HAADF-STEM imaging was used to analyze the Eu atom distribution surrounding 10 nm cubes with defocus steps of 0.68 nm each. The contrast depth profile recorded with a narrow step width clearly analyzed the possible depth positions of Eu atoms. The radial distribution function obtained for the Eu dopants was analyzed using an atomic distribution model that was based on the assumption of random distribution. The result suggested that the Ca concentration did not affect the Eu distribution. The decreased fraction of neighboring Eu atoms along z-direction might be caused by the enhanced short-range Coulomb-like repulsive forces along the z-direction.

  16. Natural CaO-TiO2-SiO2 based ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Pantić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lešnica river deposits consist of a large number of minerals of different grain sizes including sphene. Since it is very difficult to obtain pure monophase titanite by different synthetic routes (sol-gel, coprecipitation, combustion, spray pyrolysis and hydrothermal method, the aim of this work was to study the structure of the sphene from the Lešnica river deposits and possibility of using it as a natural precursor for CaO-TiO2-SiO2 based ceramics. The sphene from Lešnica was analyzed by different methods: tristimulus colorimetry, infrared spectroscopy, electron microprobe and X-ray single crystal diffraction. It was confirmed that Al, Fe, Mn and P are present in the sphene structure and proposed that corresponding structural formula could be: (Ca2+1.008 Mn2+0.0021.010(Ti4+0.901 Fe3+0.033 Al3+0.060 P5+0.0010.995 Si4+1.024 O2-5.

  17. Precipitation and strengthening phenomena in Al-Si-Ge and Al-Cu-Si-Ge alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitlin, D.; Morris, J.W.; Dahmen, U.; Radmilovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine whether Al rich Al-Si-Ge and 2000 type Al-Cu-Si-Ge alloys have sufficient hardness to be useful for structural applications. It is shown that in Al-Si-Ge it is not possible to achieve satisfactory hardness through a conventional heat treatment. This result is explained in terms of sluggish precipitation of the diamond-cubic Si-Ge phase coupled with particle coarsening. However, Al-Cu-Si-Ge displayed a uniquely fast aging response, a high peak hardness and a good stability during prolonged aging. The high hardness of the Cu containing alloy is due to the dense and uniform distribution of fine θ' precipitates (metastable Al 2 Cu) which are heterogeneously nucleated on the Si-Ge particles. High resolution TEM demonstrated that in both alloys all the Si-Ge precipitates start out, and remain multiply twinned throughout the aging treatment. Since the twinned section of the precipitate does not maintain a low index interface with the matrix, the Si-Ge precipitates are equiaxed in morphology. Copyright (2000) AD-TECH - International Foundation for the Advancement of Technology Ltd

  18. Synthesis and optical properties of SiO2–Al2O3–MgO–K2CO3–CaO ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis and optical properties of SiO 2 –Al 2 O 3 –MgO–K 2 CO 3 –CaO–MgF 2 –La 2 O 3 glasses. C R GAUTA. Volume 39 Issue 3 June 2016 pp 677-682 ... Author Affiliations. C R GAUTA1. Advanced Glass and Glass Ceramic Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007, India ...

  19. Validated thermodynamic prediction of AlP and eutectic (Si) solidification sequence in Al-Si cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, S M; Schmid-Fetzer, R

    2016-01-01

    The eutectic microstructure in hypoeutectic Al-Si cast alloys is strongly influenced by AlP particles which are potent nuclei for the eutectic (Si) phase. The solidification sequence of AlP and (Si) phases is, thus, crucial for the nucleation of eutectic silicon with marked impact on its morphology. This study presents this interdependence between Si- and P-compositions, relevant for Al-Si cast alloys, on the solidification sequence of AlP and (Si). These data are predicted from a series of thermodynamic calculations. The predictions are based on a self-consistent thermodynamic description of the Al-Si-P ternary alloy system developed recently. They are validated by independent experimental studies on microstructure and undercooling in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys. A constrained Scheil solidification simulation technique is applied to predict the undercooling under clean heterogeneous nucleation conditions, validated by dedicated experimental observations on entrained droplets. These specific undercooling values may be very large and their quantitative dependence on Si and P content of the Al alloy is presented. (paper)

  20. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-12-12

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  1. Observation of microstructure of hydrated Ca3SiO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhiro; Sato, Takashi; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Oishi, Koji; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Iwase, Kenji; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Itoh, Keiji; Shikanai, Fumihito; Wuernisha, Tuerxun; Yonemura, Masao; Sulistyanintyas, Dyah; Tsukushi, Itaru; Takata, Shinich; Otomo, Toshiya; Kamiyma, Takashi; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments were carried out to evaluate the hydration rate of tricalcium silicate (Ca 3 SiO 5 ). Furthermore, in the early hydration period, a variation in surface roughness of Ca 3 SiO 5 was observed in nano-scale by the small-angle neutron scattering. From these results, it was found that the hydration rate of Ca 3 SiO 5 is suppressed when the surface of Ca 3 SiO 5 becomes rough through the creation of hydration products C-S-H gel and Ca(OH) 2 , and this roughness is associated with changes in the Ca 3 SiO 5 hydration rate

  2. Interface reactions in the Al-Si-SiC and Mg-Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.K. [Commission of the European Communities, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Advanced Materials; Fazal-Ur-Rehman [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Fox, S. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Flower, H.M. [Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; West, D.R.F.

    1995-12-31

    Structural and compositional observations are reported on the influence of the interfaces on the mechanisms and kinetics of liquid metal-ceramic reactions in Al-SiC, Al-Si-SiC, Mg-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mg-Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites. The aluminium based materials contained up to 20 vol% SiC in particulate form, and were produced by a spray casting process; subsequently the interface reactions were studied in samples heated to temperatures up to 1100 C. The reaction product was Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} in both Al-SiC and Al-Si-SiC composites. The influence of the crystallography and topology of the SiC particle surfaces on the nucleation of the Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} has been demonstrated; surface asperities play an important role. Growth of nuclei proceeds to form continuous reaction product layers which control the subsequent kinetics. The magnesium based composites contained 5 vol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibres (3 {mu}m in diameter), and were produced by a liquid infiltration process. SD Safimax fibres with relatively low and high porosity, and also RF Saffil fibres, with a silica binder, were investigated. Fibre porosity plays a major role in accelerating the penetration of Mg into the fibres with reaction to form MgO. Silica binder on the fibre surface transforms to MgO. The reaction rate was reduced by the presence of aluminium in the matrix. The factors controlling the reactions in the aluminium and magnesium based composites are compared. (orig.)

  3. Synthesis and photoluminescence of Ca-(Sn,Ti)-Si-O compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shunsuke; Yamane, Hisanori; Yoshida, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    The phase relation of the compounds prepared in the CaO-SnO 2 -SiO 2 system at 1673 K and in the CaO-TiO 2 -SiO 2 system at 1573 K was investigated in order to explore new Ti 4+ -activated stannate phosphors. Solid solutions of Ca(Sn 1-x Ti x )SiO 5 and Ca 3 (Sn 1-y Ti y )Si 2 O 9 were synthesized at x = 0-1.0 and y = 0-0.10, respectively, and their crystal structures were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction. Photoluminescence of these solid solutions was observed in a broad range of a visible light wavelength region under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation. The peaks of the emission band of Ca(Sn 0.97 Ti 0.03 )SiO 5 and Ca 3 (Sn 0.925 Ti 0.075 )Si 2 O 9 were at 510 nm under excitation of 252 nm and at 534 nm under excitation of 258 nm, respectively. The absorption edges estimated by the diffuse reflectance spectra were at 300 nm (4.1 eV) for CaSnSiO 5 and at 270 nm (4.6 eV) for Ca 3 SnSi 2 O 9 , suggesting that the excitation levels in Ca(Sn 1-x Ti x )SiO 5 were above the band gap of the host, although the levels in Ca 3 (Sn 1-y Ti y )Si 2 O 9 were within the band gap and near the conduction band edge.

  4. Al-Si/B{sub 4}C composite coatings on Al-Si substrate by plasma spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, Ozkan [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Anik, Selahaddin [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Aslanlar, Salim [Sakarya University, Faculty of Technical Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Cem Okumus, S. [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Celik, Erdal [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Buca, Izmir 35160 (Turkey)]. E-mail: erdal.celik@deu.edu.tr

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-sprayed coatings of Al-Si/B{sub 4}C have been prepared on Al-Si piston alloys for diesel engine motors. The Al-Si/B{sub 4}C composite powders including 5-25 wt% B{sub 4}C were prepared by mixing and ball-milling processes. These powders were deposited on Al-Si substrate using an atmospheric plasma spray technique. The coatings have been characterised with respect to phase composition, microstructure, microhardness, bond strength and thermal expansion. It was found that Al, Si, B{sub 4}C and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases were determined in the coatings with approximately 600 {mu}m thick by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscope observation revealed that boron carbide particles were uniformly distributed in composite coatings and B{sub 4}C particles were fully wetted by Al-Si alloy. Also, no reaction products were observed in Al-Si/B{sub 4}C composite coatings. It was found that surface roughness, porosity, bond strength and thermal expansion coefficient of composite coatings decreased with increasing fraction of the boron carbide particle. It was demonstrated that the higher the B{sub 4}C content, the higher the hardness of coatings because the hardness of B{sub 4}C is higher than that of Al-Si.

  5. Effects of Al/P composition ratio on the crystallization of MgO-CaO-Al203-SiO2-P2O5 bioglass-ceramic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Shihching; Hon, Minhsiung [National Cheng-Kung Univ., Taiwan (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1993-06-01

    Effects of Al/P composition ratio on the crystallization of apatite and anorthite were investigated by differential thermal analysis ( DTA ) using series of glasses with the nominal composition of 3.0wt% MgO, 35.0wt% CaO, 41.4wt% SiO2 and 20.6wt%(Al2O3+P205). With the decrease of Al/P ratio, the activation energy for apatite crystallization is decreased and the apatite exotherm is shifted to the lower temperature. On the other hand, anorthite crystallized from the specimen surface, the activation energy for anorthite is increased with the decrease of Al/P ratio, however the exotherm is not shifted significantly. Roughly estimated values of Avrami parameters, n, which is related to the directionality of crystal growth, for apatite and anorthite have been 2 and 1 respectively. This had shown that apatite implies bulk crystallization and anorthite signifies surface crystallization. Also the SEM observations of the crystals revealed that there was one dimensional crystal growth for anorthite and spherulitic growth for apatite. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Investigation into the use of CaZrO3 as a facecoat material in the investment casting of TiAl alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, C.; Cheng, X.; Withey, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Research was carried out to determine the interactions between the filler and stucco materials in CaZrO 3 based facecoats during shell firing as well as between the facecoat and a TiAl alloy during the casting process. A ‘flash re-melting’ technique, which gives a similar heating profile to the actual investment casting process, was used to study the phase transformations in the shell moulds. The chemical inertness of the facecoat was then investigated using a sessile drop test using a Ti–45Al–2Nb–2Mn–0.2TiB alloy. In this study, the facecoat compositions and the interaction products between metal and shells were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A severe interaction was found between CaZrO 3 filler and Al 2 O 3 stucco, which rapidly damaged the shell surface. As well as oxygen, zirconium and silicon ions from the shell moulds were also observed to penetrate into the TiAl metal to form (Ti, Zr) 5 (Al, Si) 3 phases in the metal/shell interfacial areas. - Highlights: • To determine the interactions between CaZrO 3 filler and stucco materials during shell firing. • To study the reaction between the CaZrO 3 facecoat and TiAl alloy during casting. • The Al 2 O 3 stucco can react with CaZrO 3 filler to form (Zr, Ca)O 2 and CaAl x O y at 1650 °C. • O, Zr and Si ions from the ceramic moulds were observed to penetrate into the TiAl metal. • The reaction products include (Ti, Zr) 5 (Al, Si) 3 and ZrAl 2 phase with high Ti ions solid solution

  7. Electroluminescence of erbium in Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, I.O.; Kuznetsov, A.N.; Pak, P.E.; Terukov, E.I.; Granitsyna, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    It is informed for the first time on the observation of the erbium intensive electroluminescence from the amorphous hydrated silicon layer by application of the Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure in the direct shift mode. The above structure is the n-p-heterostructure with the barrier values of 0.3-0.4 eV for the electrons and 0.9-1.1 eV for the holes. The electroluminescence efficiency is evaluated at the level ∼ 2 x 10 -5 . The electroluminescence effect in the Al/α-Si:H(Er)/p-c-Si/Al structure is connected with the hole tunneling from the crystal silicon by the amorphous silicon localized states with the subsequent release into the valent zone [ru

  8. Evolution of a novel Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P alloy in Al-Si melt and its influence on microstructure and properties of high-Si Al-Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lu Zhou

    Full Text Available A novel Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P master alloy has been developed to refine primary Si to 14.7 ± 1.3 μm, distributed uniformly in Al-27Si alloy. Comparing with traditional Cu-14P and Al-3P, Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P provided a much better refining effect, with in-situ highly active AlP. The refined Al-27Si alloy exhibited a CTE of 16.25 × 10−6/K which is slightly higher than that of Sip/Al composites fabricated by spray deposition. The UTS and elongation of refined Al-27Si alloy were increased by 106% and 235% comparing with those of unrefined alloy. It indicates that the novel Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P alloy is more suitable for high-Si Al-Si alloys and may be a candidate for refining hypereutectic Al-Si alloy for electronic packaging applications. Moreover, studies showed that TiP is the only P-containing phase in Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P master alloy. A core-shell reaction model was established to reveal mechanism of the transformation of TiP to AlP in Al-Si melts. The transformation is a liquid-solid diffusion reaction driven by chemical potential difference and the reaction rate is controlled by diffusion. It means sufficient holding time is necessary for Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P master alloy to achieve better refining effect. Keywords: Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy, Primary Si, Refinement, AlP, Thermal expansion behavior, Si-18Mn-16Ti-11P master alloy

  9. Thermodinamically stable phases in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-CaSO4-H2O closed system at 25 ºC. Application to cementitious systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Varela, M. T.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the chief causes of cement and concrete deterioration is the loss of durability prompted by sulphate attack. The existing standards call for long test periods (2- 12 months. Thermodynamic modelling is a particularly appropriate technique for studying systems that only reach equilibrium in the long term. Used in the present study to establish the fields of thermodynamic stability for the phases in the CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-CaSO4-H2O system at 25 ºC. According to the model, gypsum is stable at sulphate ion concentrations of 1.23e-2 mol/kg and over, while ettringite exhibits stability at concentrations ranging from 7.64e-6 to 1.54e-2 mol/kg. Ettringite is compatible with all system phases except SH and gypsum only with ettringite, the C-S-H gels, AH3 and SH. None of the calcium aluminates or silicoaluminates in the system is compatible with gypsum: in its presence, they all decompose to cement deteriorating ettringite. Finally, the model revealed that the maximum sulphate concentration at which C-S-H gel is stable is slightly higher in systems with than without Al2O3.Uno de los principales problemas asociados al deterioro de cementos y hormigones es la pérdida de durabilidad por ataque de sulfatos. La normativa existente requiere largos tiempos de ensayo (2-12 meses. La modelización termodinámica es una técnica particularmente adecuada para el estudio de sistemas que alcanzan el equilibrio en tiempos largos. Aplicando esta metodología se han establecido los campos de estabilidad termodinámica de las fases del sistema CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-CaSO4-H2O a 25 ºC. El yeso es estable a partir de la [SO42-] = 1,23e-2 mol/kg, y la ettringita es estable en un rango de [SO42-] = 7,64e-6 -1,54e-2 mol/kg. La ettringita es compatible con todas las fases del sistema excepto con SH y el yeso sólo con la ettringita, los geles C-S-H, el AH3 y el SH. Ninguno de los aluminatos o silicoaluminatos cálcicos son compatibles con el yeso, en su presencia se descomponen

  10. Improving the characteristics of foundry alloys AlSiCuMg during manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoso, Bruno Filipe Marques

    As piroxenas sao um vasto grupo de silicatos minerais encontrados em muitas rochas igneas e metamorficas. Na sua forma mais simples, estes silicatos sao constituidas por cadeias de SiO3 ligando grupos tetrahedricos de SiO4. A formula quimica geral das piroxenas e M2M1T2O6, onde M2 se refere a catioes geralmente em uma coordenacao octaedrica distorcida (Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+, Li+, Ca2+, Na+), M1 refere-se a catioes numa coordenacao octaedrica regular (Al3+, Fe3+, Ti4+, Cr3+, V3+, Ti3+, Zr4+, Sc3+, Zn2+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn2+), e T a catioes em coordenacao tetrahedrica (Si4+, Al3+, Fe3+). As piroxenas com estrutura monoclinica sao designadas de clinopiroxenes. A estabilidade das clinopyroxenes num espectro de composicoes quimicas amplo, em conjugacao com a possibilidade de ajustar as suas propriedades fisicas e quimicas e a durabilidade quimica, tem gerado um interesse mundial devido a suas aplicacoes em ciencia e tecnologia de materiais. Este trabalho trata do desenvolvimento de vidros e de vitro-cerâmicos baseadas de clinopiroxenas para aplicacoes funcionais. O estudo teve objectivos cientificos e tecnologicos; nomeadamente, adquirir conhecimentos fundamentais sobre a formacao de fases cristalinas e solucoes solidas em determinados sistemas vitro-cerâmicos, e avaliar a viabilidade de aplicacao dos novos materiais em diferentes areas tecnologicas, com especial enfase sobre a selagem em celulas de combustivel de oxido solido (SOFC). Com este intuito, prepararam-se varios vidros e materiais vitro-cerâmicos ao longo das juntas Enstatite (MgSiO3) - diopsidio (CaMgSi2O6) e diopsidio (CaMgSi2O6) - Ca - Tschermak (CaAlSi2O6), os quais foram caracterizados atraves de um vasto leque de tecnicas. Todos os vidros foram preparados por fusao-arrefecimento enquanto os vitro-cerâmicos foram obtidos quer por sinterizacao e cristalizacao de fritas, quer por nucleacao e cristalizacao de vidros monoliticos. Estudaram-se ainda os efeitos de varias substituicoes ionicas em composicoes de

  11. Biomorphous SiSiC/Al-Si ceramic composites manufactured by squeeze casting: microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zollfrank, C.; Travitzky, N.; Sieber, H.; Greil, P. [Department of Materials Science, Glass and Ceramics, University of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Selchert, T. [Advanced Ceramics Group, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2005-08-01

    SiSiC/Al-Si composites were fabricated by pressure-assisted infiltration of an Al-Si alloy into porous biocarbon preforms derived from the rattan palm. Al-Si alloy was found in the pore channels of the biomorphous SiSiC preform, whereas SiC and carbon were present in the struts. The formation of a detrimental Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}-phase was not observed in the composites. A bending strength of 200 MPa was measured. The fractured surfaces showed pull-out of the Al-alloy. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik H.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Hammer, Øyvind

    2017-12-01

    Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. "Breccia coating" magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.

  13. Computer aided cooling curve analysis for Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of grain refiner, modifier, and combination of grain refiner cum modifier was studied on Al-5Si and Al-11Si alloys using computer aided cooling curve analysis. For combined grain refinement and modification effect, Al-Ti-B-Sr single master alloy was developed that acted as both grain refiner and modifier.

  14. Investigation into the use of CaZrO{sub 3} as a facecoat material in the investment casting of TiAl alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, C., E-mail: c.yuan@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, B152TT (United Kingdom); Cheng, X. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, B152TT (United Kingdom); School of Material Science and Engineering, Beihang University, No, 37 Xueyuan Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Withey, P.A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, B152TT (United Kingdom); Rolls-Royce plc. (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Research was carried out to determine the interactions between the filler and stucco materials in CaZrO{sub 3} based facecoats during shell firing as well as between the facecoat and a TiAl alloy during the casting process. A ‘flash re-melting’ technique, which gives a similar heating profile to the actual investment casting process, was used to study the phase transformations in the shell moulds. The chemical inertness of the facecoat was then investigated using a sessile drop test using a Ti–45Al–2Nb–2Mn–0.2TiB alloy. In this study, the facecoat compositions and the interaction products between metal and shells were characterized using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A severe interaction was found between CaZrO{sub 3} filler and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stucco, which rapidly damaged the shell surface. As well as oxygen, zirconium and silicon ions from the shell moulds were also observed to penetrate into the TiAl metal to form (Ti, Zr){sub 5}(Al, Si){sub 3} phases in the metal/shell interfacial areas. - Highlights: • To determine the interactions between CaZrO{sub 3} filler and stucco materials during shell firing. • To study the reaction between the CaZrO{sub 3} facecoat and TiAl alloy during casting. • The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stucco can react with CaZrO{sub 3} filler to form (Zr, Ca)O{sub 2} and CaAl{sub x}O{sub y} at 1650 °C. • O, Zr and Si ions from the ceramic moulds were observed to penetrate into the TiAl metal. • The reaction products include (Ti, Zr){sub 5}(Al, Si){sub 3} and ZrAl{sub 2} phase with high Ti ions solid solution.

  15. Addition of iron for the removal of the {beta}-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of {alpha}-AlFeSi phase in an Al-7.5Si-3.6Cu alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmares-Perales, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Zaldivar-Cadena, A.A., E-mail: azaldiva70@hotmail.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Departamento de Ecomateriales y Energia, Instituto de Ingenieria Civil, Av. Fidel Velasquez and Av. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. 66450 (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    Addition of iron into the molten metal for the removal of the {beta}-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of {alpha}-AlFeSi phase has been studied. Solidification conditions and composition determine the final microstructure and mechanical properties of a casting piece. It is known that increasing the iron content will produce an increasing of the {alpha}-AlFeSi and {beta}-AlFeSi phases. This phenomenon was confirmed with calculations made by Thermo-Calc{sup TM} software and validated with experimental results, however, the technique of iron addition in this study plays an important role on the solidification kinetics of these iron phases because the refining of {alpha}-AlFeSi and removal of {beta}-AlFeSi phases can be improved. Final results showed an improvement in mechanical properties by removal and refining of {beta}-AlFeSi and {alpha}-AlFeSi phases, respectively. This study shows a new method of removal of {beta}-AlFeSi that could be adopted in the aluminum smelting industry in aluminum alloys with a low cooling rate with a secondary dendritic spacing of about 37 {mu}m.

  16. Addition of iron for the removal of the β-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of α-AlFeSi phase in an Al-7.5Si-3.6Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmares-Perales, S.; Zaldivar-Cadena, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Addition of iron into the molten metal for the removal of the β-AlFeSi intermetallic by refining of α-AlFeSi phase has been studied. Solidification conditions and composition determine the final microstructure and mechanical properties of a casting piece. It is known that increasing the iron content will produce an increasing of the α-AlFeSi and β-AlFeSi phases. This phenomenon was confirmed with calculations made by Thermo-Calc TM software and validated with experimental results, however, the technique of iron addition in this study plays an important role on the solidification kinetics of these iron phases because the refining of α-AlFeSi and removal of β-AlFeSi phases can be improved. Final results showed an improvement in mechanical properties by removal and refining of β-AlFeSi and α-AlFeSi phases, respectively. This study shows a new method of removal of β-AlFeSi that could be adopted in the aluminum smelting industry in aluminum alloys with a low cooling rate with a secondary dendritic spacing of about 37 μm.

  17. Sr-Al-Si co-segregated regions in eutectic Si phase of Sr-modified Al-10Si alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpel, M; Wanderka, N; Schlesiger, R; Yamamoto, T; Isheim, D; Schmitz, G; Matsumura, S; Banhart, J

    2013-09-01

    The addition of 200 ppm strontium to an Al-10 wt% Si casting alloy changes the morphology of the eutectic silicon phase from coarse plate-like to fine fibrous networks. In order to clarify this modification mechanism the location of Sr within the eutectic Si phase has been investigated by a combination of high-resolution methods. Whereas three-dimensional atom probe tomography allows us to visualise the distribution of Sr on the atomic scale and to analyse its local enrichment, transmission electron microscopy yields information about the crystallographic nature of segregated regions. Segregations with two kinds of morphologies were found at the intersections of Si twin lamellae: Sr-Al-Si co-segregations of rod-like morphology and Al-rich regions of spherical morphology. Both are responsible for the formation of a high density of multiple twins and promote the anisotropic growth of the eutectic Si phase in specific crystallographic directions during solidification. The experimental findings are related to the previously postulated mechanism of "impurity induced twinning". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Crystallization and sintering characteristics of CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses in the presence of TiO2, CaF2 and ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banijamali, S.; Eftekhari Yekta, B.; Rezaie, H.R.; Marghussian, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of different amounts of TiO 2 , ZrO 2 and CaF 2 nucleating agents on sinterability, crystallization, mechanical properties and chemical resistance of glass-ceramics belonging to the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system were investigated, using differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical and chemical resistance measurements. It was found that in CaF 2 containing samples, the sinterability, crystallization and mechanical properties were improved by increasing of CaF 2 amount. However, addition of ZrO 2 and TiO 2 increases the firing temperature required for complete densification of specimens. Our experiments showed that fluctuations of chemical composition of the residual glass phases during sintering were responsible for these dissimilar trends and greatly influenced mechanical and chemical properties. According to the obtained results, appropriate sinterability, acceptable mechanical and chemical properties, as well as desirable whiteness of the most promising specimens make them suitable choices for floor tile applications. The main crystallization phases in all fully sintered glass-ceramics were wollastonite, anorthite and calcium aluminum silicate.

  19. Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuying; Liu Xiangfa; Jiang Binggang; Huang Chuanzhen

    2009-01-01

    Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on the Al-12 wt.%Si alloy has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter, torsional oscillation viscometer and liquid X-ray diffraction experiments. It is found that there is a modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, i.e. primary Si can precipitate in the microstructure of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy when Ni and Si added in the form of Ni-38 wt.%Si, but not separately. Ni-38 wt.%Si alloy brings 'genetic materials' into the Al-Si melt, which makes the melt to form more ordering structure, promotes the primary Si precipitated. Moreover, the addition of Ni-38 wt.%Si, which decreases the solidification supercooling degree of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, is identical to the effect of heterogeneous nuclei.

  20. Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuying [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China)], E-mail: wyy532001@163.com; Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong Binzhou Bohai Piston Co., Ltd., Binzhou 256602, Shandong (China); Jiang Binggang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Huang Chuanzhen [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2009-05-27

    Modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on the Al-12 wt.%Si alloy has been studied by differential scanning calorimeter, torsional oscillation viscometer and liquid X-ray diffraction experiments. It is found that there is a modification effect of Ni-38 wt.%Si on Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, i.e. primary Si can precipitate in the microstructure of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy when Ni and Si added in the form of Ni-38 wt.%Si, but not separately. Ni-38 wt.%Si alloy brings 'genetic materials' into the Al-Si melt, which makes the melt to form more ordering structure, promotes the primary Si precipitated. Moreover, the addition of Ni-38 wt.%Si, which decreases the solidification supercooling degree of Al-12 wt.%Si alloy, is identical to the effect of heterogeneous nuclei.

  1. Study of a Mixed Alkaline–Earth Effect on Some Properties of Glasses of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle-Fuentes, J. F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we studied a “Mixed Alkaline–Earth Effect”, i.e. the non-linear behaviour showed by the glass transition temperature as well as by the compressive strength of glasses of the CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system, when a part of the CaO contained in them was substituted by a BaO/SrO mixture, in variable molar proportions. An important factor for the occurrence of this phenomenon was the difference in atomic weight, ionic radii and field strength of the Ba2+ and Sr2+ ions in comparison with those corresponding to the Ca2+ ion. Another factor considered was the likely occurrence of a microphase separation caused by the addition of BaO and/or SrO, together with the presence of F- and Mg2+ in the glasses. Other glass properties studied as a function of the CaO substitution level were density, glass molar volume, oxygen molar volume, packing fraction, and chemical resistance in neutral, basic and acidic aqueous media. In general, the structural reinforcement of the glass network caused by the partial substitution of CaO by a BaO/SrO mixture was accompanied by an improvement in the alkaline resistance of the materials, which were found to be suitable for applications in corrosive environments, especially in basic media. Keywords: Mixed alkaline–earth effect; CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system; glass properties.En el presente trabajo, se estudia el comportamiento no lineal mostrado por la temperatura de transición vítrea y por la resistencia a la compresión de vidrios del sistema CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, cuando una parte del CaO contenido en los mismos es sustituido por una mezcla de BaO/SrO, en relación molar variable. Factores importantes para que se de este comportamiento son la diferencia entre pesos atómicos, radios iónicos e intensidad de campo de los iones Ba2+ y Sr2+ y los del propio ión Ca2+. Otro factor considerado ha sido la probable existencia de una separación de microfases originada por la adición de BaO y/o SrO, junto con la

  2. In vivo behaviors of Ca(OH){sub 2} activated nano SiO{sub 2} (n{sub Ca}/n{sub Si} = 3) cement in rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Qing, E-mail: lnqing@yahoo.com [School of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211169 (China); Zhang, Xiaojuan [School of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211169 (China); Lu, Chunhua; Lan, Xianghui [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China); Hou, Guihua [Key Laboratory for Advanced Technology in Environmental Protection of Jiangsu Province, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Xu, Zhongzi [State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-01-01

    In vivo behaviors of Ca(OH){sub 2} activated nano SiO{sub 2} (n{sub Ca}/n{sub Si} = 3, TCS) cement were investigated in the rabbit femoral defects using the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as control. The deposited apatite and CaCO{sub 3} layers round TCS paste surfaces were completely used to construct the new bone tissue. TCS paste could stimulate the formation of new bone tissue in marrow tissue. The osteostimulation was mainly attributed to the proliferation and differentiation effects of Ca and Si ions released from TCS paste on the osteoprogenitor cells. However, Calcium–Silicate–Hydrate (C–S–H) gel in TCS paste was harder to degradate than Ca(OH){sub 2}. TCS paste kept the original shape during implantation, and could not provide the pores or spaces for further formation of bone tissue. Osteolytic defects induced by wear particles from TCS paste surface could not be completely avoided, because of the interfacial strain and the extensive micromotion between TCS paste surface and new bone tissue. Overall, our results indicated that Ca(OH){sub 2} activated nano SiO{sub 2} cement was bioactivity and osteostimulation. The further improvements of Ca(OH){sub 2} activated nano SiO{sub 2} cement should be done by achieving a balance between biological properties and mechanical performances. - Highlights: • Ca(OH){sub 2} activated nano SiO{sub 2} (n{sub Ca}/n{sub Si} = 3, TCS) cement was in vivo bioactivity. • Deposited apatite and CaCO{sub 3} particles round TCS paste were utilized to restructure new bone tissue. • TCS paste was able to induce osteogenesis in marrow tissue. • Wear particle could induced osteolytic defect between TCS paste and bone tissue.

  3. The Effect of Si Morphology on Machinability of Al-Si Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Uludağ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the cast parts require some sort of machining like milling, drilling to be used as a finished product. In order to improve the wear properties of Al alloys, Si is added. The solubility of Si in Al is quite low and it has a crystallite type structure. It behaves as particulate metal matrix composite which makes it an attractive element. Thus, the wear and machinability properties of these type of alloys depend on the morphology of Si in the matrix. In this work, Sr was added to alter the morphology of Si in Al-7Si and Al-12Si. Cylindrical shaped samples were cast and machinability characteristics of Sr addition was studied. The relationship between microstructure and machinability was evaluated.

  4. Synthesis and thermal stability of the sodalite Na6Zn2[Al6Si6O24](SO4)2 and its reaction with hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiden, Frank; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Ca2[Al6Si6O24](SO4)2. Na6Zn2[Al6Si6O24](SO4)2 was shown to be largely immiscible with nosean, Na8[Al6Si6O24]SO4 in the solid-state. Na6Zn2[Al6Si6O24](SO4)2 decomposes above 700 °C, yielding nosean, Na8[Al6Si6O24]SO4; willemite, Zn2SiO4; gahnite, ZnAl2O4; and presumably a glass phase, 2Na2O•9SiO2...

  5. Crystal Growth of Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx3Si2O14 Piezoelectric Single Crystals with Various Al Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuui Yokota

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ca3Nb(Ga1−xAlx3Si2O14 (CNGAS single crystals with various Al concentrations were grown by a micro-pulling-down (µ-PD method and their crystal structures, chemical compositions, crystallinities were investigated. CNGAS crystals with x = 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 indicated a single phase of langasite-type structure without any secondary phases. In contrast, the crystals with x = 0.8 and 1 included some secondary phases in addition to the langasite-type phase. Lattice parameters, a- and c-axes lengths, of the langasite-type phase systematically decreased with an increase of Al concentration. The results of chemical composition analysis revealed that the actual Al concentrations in as-grown crystals were almost consistent with the nominal compositions. In addition, there was no large segregation of each cation along the growth direction.

  6. Defining and comparing vibration attributes of AlSi10 foam and CFRP coated AlSi10 foam materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çolak, O.; Yünlü, L.

    2017-06-01

    Now, Aluminum materials have begun being manufactured as porous structures and being used with additive composite materials through emerging manufacturing technologies. These materials those porous structures have also begun being used in many areas such as automotive and aerospace due to light-weighted structures. In addition to examining mechanical behavior of porous metallic structures, examining vibration behavior is important for defining characteristic specifications. In this study, vibration attributes belong to %80 porous AlSi10 foam and CFRP coated %80 porous AlSi10 foam are determined with modal analysis. Modal parameters such as natural frequencies and damping coefficient from frequency response functions at the end of hammer impact tests. It is found that natural frequency of CFRP coated AlSi10 foam’s is 1,14 times bigger than AlSi10 foam and damping coefficient of CFRP coated AlSi10 foam is 5 times bigger than AlSi10 foam’s with tests. Dynamic response of materials in various conditions is simulated by evaluating modal parameters with FEM. According to results of the study, CFRP coating on AlSi10 foam effect vibration damping and resonance avoidance ability positively.

  7. Influence of Lanthanum on Solidification, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties of Eutectic Al-Si Piston Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R.; Asmael, M. B. A.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of Lanthanum (La) concentration on the solidification parameters of the α-Al, Al-Si, and Al-Cu phases and on the microstructure, tensile, and hardness properties of eutectic Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy were systematically investigated. The solidification parameters were examined using computer-aided cooling curve thermal analysis (CA-CCTA). The cooling curve and microstructure analysis showed that La altered the Si structure. The nucleation and growth temperatures of eutectic Si decreased when 0.3 wt.% La was added, and a high depression temperature was obtained with 1.0 wt.% La. High amounts of La considerably modified the Si structure and decreased the area and aspect ratio by 69.9 and 51%, respectively. The thermal analysis result recorded a faster freezing time with the La addition and a 36% alteration in the secondary dendrite arm spacing. Two secondary or ternary La-rich intermetallic phases were formed with needle- and plate-like structures. Furthermore, the mechanical properties were investigated by hardness and tensile tests with different La concentrations. The addition of small amounts of La (0.1 wt.%) significantly improved the ultimate tensile strength and quality index of the Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. In addition, the hardness value of Al-11Si-Cu increased by 7-8% with the increasing amount of La added.

  8. Electron radiation damages to dicalcium (Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and tricalcium (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) orthosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noirfontaine, Marie-Noëlle de; Dunstetter, Frédéric [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, UMR CNRS 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Courtial, Mireille [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, UMR CNRS 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Université d’Artois, 1230 Rue de l’Université, CS 20819, F-62408 Béthune (France); Signes-Frehel, Marcel [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, UMR CNRS 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Wang, Guillaume [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, UMR CNRS 7162, Université Paris Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Gorse - Pomonti, Dominique [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, UMR CNRS 7642, Ecole Polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2016-05-01

    Electron radiation damages to dicalcium silicate (Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and tricalcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}) are reported for the first time in this paper. With increasing flux, between 2.7 × 10{sup 17} and 2.2 × 10{sup 22} e{sup −} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, decomposition into nanodomains of crystalline CaO plus an amorphous silica rich phase is first observed for both silicates, then amorphization at higher flux always for both silicates, and finally hole drilling but only for Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}. These structural modifications are accompanied by a net reduction of Ca content under the electron beam depending on the silicate species. These radiation effects occur for values of flux and dose larger than in previously studied orthosilicates (like olivines), and much larger than in all tectosilicates.

  9. EIS, Mott Schottky and EFM analysis of the electrochemical stability and dielectric properties of Ca-P-Ag and Ca-P-Si-Ag coatings obtained by plasma electrolytic oxidation in Ti6Al4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara María Leal-Marin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El Ti6Al4V ELI (ASTM F136 es una de las aleaciones más empleadas en dispositivos de osteosíntesis y reemplazo articular. Sin embargo, las propiedades de esta aleación pueden ser mejoradas respecto a su biocompatibilidad y osteointegración con el tejido óseo a través de recubrimientos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el comportamiento electroquímico de un recubrimiento obtenido por oxidación por plasma electrolítico sobre Ti6Al4V ELI empleando soluciones electrolíticas enriquecidas con iones de PO4 2-, Ca+2, Si+4 y varias concentraciones de Ag+1. Los recubrimientos se caracterizaron mediante espectroscopia de impedancia electroquímica (EIS y Mott-Schottky (M-S en una celda de tres electrodos con una solución fisiológica simulada. El comportamiento electroquímico se contrastó con microscopía de fuerza electrostática (EFM, donde se analizó el potencial eléctrico del recubrimiento. Los resultados de EIS mostraron mejores propiedades de estabilidad frente a la corrosión en los sustratos recubiertos con Ca- P-Ag, comparados con los recubiertos con Ca-P-Si-Ag. Los espectros de Nyquist y Bode mostraron relajaciones relacionadas con la transferencia de carga hacia la doble capa electroquímica como reflejo de los cambios microestructurales y de conductividad de los recubrimientos, dada por la presencia particular en cada caso, de los elementos contenidos en estos. De acuerdo con los resultados de M-S, todas las muestras ensayadas presentaron un comportamiento con dopado tipo n, cuya conductividad incrementó con la inclusión de plata. Mediante EFM se observaron mayores contrastes en el potencial, fase y la amplitud de los recubrimientos con mayor cantidad de plata respecto al Ti6Al4V sin recubrir.

  10. Marbled texture of sputtered Al/Si alloy thin film on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentile, M.G. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Center, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vishay Intertechnology, Diodes Division, Via Liguria 49, 10071 Borgaro Torinese, Turin (Italy); Muñoz-Tabares, J.A.; Chiodoni, A. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Space Human Robotics, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Sgorlon, C. [Vishay Intertechnology, Diodes Division, Via Liguria 49, 10071 Borgaro Torinese, Turin (Italy); Para, I. [Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Carta, R.; Richieri, G. [Vishay Intertechnology, Diodes Division, Via Liguria 49, 10071 Borgaro Torinese, Turin (Italy); Bejtka, K. [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Center for Space Human Robotics, Corso Trento 21, 10129 Torino (Italy); Merlin, L. [Vishay Intertechnology, Diodes Division, Via Liguria 49, 10071 Borgaro Torinese, Turin (Italy); Vittone, E. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Center, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2016-08-01

    DC magnetron sputtering is a commonly used technique for the fabrication of silicon based electronic devices, since it provides high deposition rates and uniform large area metallization. However, in addition to the thickness uniformity, coating optical uniformity is a crucial need for semiconductor industrial processes, due to the wide use of optical recognition tools. In the silicon-based technology, aluminum is one of the most used materials for the metal contact. Both the pre-deposition substrate cleaning and the sputtering conditions determine the quality and the crystalline properties of the final Al deposited film. In this paper is shown that not all the mentioned conditions lead to good quality and uniform Al films. In particular, it is shown that under certain standard process conditions, Al/Si alloy (1% Si) metallization on a [100] Si presents a non-uniform reflectivity, with a marbled texture caused by flakes with milky appearance. This optical inhomogeneity is found to be caused by the coexistence of randomly orient Al/Si crystal, with heteroepitaxial Al/Si crystals, both grown on Si substrate. Based on the microstructural analysis, some strategies to mitigate or suppress this marbled texture of the Al thin film are proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • Sputtered Al/Si layers deposited on Si present evident optical non-uniformity • It could be an issue for optical recognition tools used in semiconductor industries • Optical non-uniformity is due to randomly oriented growth of Al grains. • Substrate misorientation and process temperature can mitigate the problem.

  11. Structure and optical properties of aSiAl and aSiAlHx magnetron sputtered thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Thøgersen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of homogeneous mixture of amorphous silicon and aluminum were produced with magnetron sputtering using 2-phase Al–Si targets. The films exhibited variable compositions, with and without the presence of hydrogen, aSi1−xAlx and aSi1−xAlxHy. The structure and optical properties of the films were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV-VisNIR spectrometry, ellipsometry, and atomistic modeling. We studied the effect of alloying aSi with Al (within the range 0–25 at. % on the optical band gap, refractive index, transmission, and absorption. Alloying aSi with Al resulted in a non-transparent film with a low band gap (1 eV. Variations of the Al and hydrogen content allowed for tuning of the optoelectronic properties. The films are stable up to a temperature of 300 °C. At this temperature, we observed Al induced crystallization of the amorphous silicon and the presence of large Al particles in a crystalline Si matrix.

  12. Effects of Y2O3 on crystallization kinetics of SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-CaF2 oxy-fluoride glass-ceramic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleymani Zarabad

    Full Text Available Differential thermal analysis (DTA patterns of SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-CaF2 oxy-fluoride glass system with adding different amounts of Y2O3 from 0.5 (wt% to 1.5 (wt% have been studied under isochronal circumstances. It is concluded that, the crystallization of the glasses is a process controlled by Avrami nucleation, three dimensional diffusion controlled growth and anisotropic growth impingement mode. Afterwards, the effective activation energy Qp, growth exponent, nucleation activation energy QN, and growth activation energy QG, have been determined and were in the range of 283–321 kJ mol−1, 2.05–2.25, 190–249 kJ mol−1 and 325–349 kJ mol−1, respectively. Qp, QN, QG and np are increased with increase of Y2O3 amount, which is related to the network forming role of Y2O3 in these systems. Keywords: Oxy-fluoride glass-ceramics, Activation energy, Crystallization mechanism, Growth exponent

  13. Crystallization behavior of Li2O-SiO2, Na2O-SiO2 and Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glasses; Li2O-SiO2, Na2O-SiO2, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 kei glass no kessho sekishutsu kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, K.; Otake, J.; Nagasaka, T.; Hino, M. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    It has been known that crystallization of mold powder is effective on the disturbance of heat transfer between mold and solidified shell in production of middle carbon steel slabs in continuous casting process. But it has not yet been made clear which composition of mold powder is the most suitable for crystallization. The crystallization behavior of Li2O-SiO2, Na2O-SiO2 and Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glasses was observed by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and hot-thermocouple methods with DTA in the present work. As a result, addition of alkaline metal and alkaline earth metal oxides to SiO2 increased the critical cooling rate for glass formation in binary system of Li2O-SiO2 and Na2O-SiO2 and Li2O-SiO2 system crystallized easier than Na2O-SiO2 system. In ternary system of Na2O-CaO-SiO2, addition of Na2O hurried the critical cooling rate at CaO/SiO2=0.93 mass ratio, but the rate was almost constant in the composition range of more than 15 mass% Na2O. The slag of CaO/SiO2=0.93 made the rate faster than the slag of CaO/SiO2=0.47 at constant content of 10mass% Na2O. 17 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Synthesis of Vertically-Aligned Carbon Nanotubes from Langmuir-Blodgett Films Deposited Fe Nanoparticles on Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si Substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagiwa, Shota; Kanasugi, Osamu; Nakamura, Kentaro; Kushida, Masahito

    2016-04-01

    In order to apply vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) to a new Pt supporting material of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), number density and outer diameter of CNTs must be controlled independently. So, we employed Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for depositing CNT growth catalysts. A Fe nanoparticle (NP) was used as a CNT growth catalyst. In this study, we tried to thicken VA-CNT carpet height and inhibit thermal aggregation of Fe NPs by using Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si substrate. Fe NP LB films were deposited on three typed of substrates, SiO2/Si, as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si and annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si at 923 K in Ar atmosphere of 16 Pa. It is known that Al2O3/Al catalyzes hydrocarbon reforming, inhibits thermal aggregation of CNT growth catalysts and reduces CNT growth catalysts. It was found that annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si exerted three effects more strongly than as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si. VA-CNTs were synthesized from Fe NPs-C16 LB films by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. As a result, at the distance between two nearest CNTs 28 nm or less, VA-CNT carpet height on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was about twice and ten times thicker than that on SiO2/Si and that on as-deposited Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si, respectively. Moreover, distribution of CNT outer diameter on annealed Al2O3/Al/SiO2/Si was inhibited compared to that on SiO2/Si. These results suggest that since thermal aggregation of Fe NPs is inhibited, catalyst activity increases and distribution of Fe NP size is inhibited.

  15. Core–shell structured FeSiAl/SiO{sub 2} particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} soft magnetic composite cores with tunable insulating layer thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xi’an, E-mail: groupfxa@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: snove418562@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Wu, Zhaoyang, E-mail: wustwuzhaoyang@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Li, Guangqiang, E-mail: ligq-wust@mail.wust.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • FeSiAl/SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores were prepared. • SiO{sub 2} surrounding FeSiAl were replaced by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} during sintering process. • Fe{sub 3}Si particles were separated by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with tunable thickness in composite cores. • Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} had lower core loss and better frequency stability than FeSiAl core. • The insulating layer between ferromagnetic particles can reduce core loss. - Abstract: FeSiAl/SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores with tunable insulating layer thicknesses have been synthesized via a modified Stöber method combined with following high temperature sintering process. Most of the conductive FeSiAl particles could be coated by insulating SiO{sub 2} using the modified Stöber method. During the sintering process, the reaction 4Al + 3SiO{sub 2} ≣ 2α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + 3Si took place and the new Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was formed. The Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores displayed more excellent soft magnetic properties, better frequency stability at high frequencies, much higher resistivity and lower core loss than the raw FeSiAl core. Based on this, several types of FeSiAl/SiO{sub 2} particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores with tunable insulating layer thicknesses were selectively prepared by simply varying TEOS contents. The thickness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} insulating layer and resistivity of Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite cores increased with increasing the TEOS contents, while the permeability and core loss changed in the opposite direction.

  16. Density functional study of CaN monolayer on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saati asr, Maryam; Zahedifar, Maedeh; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the first-principles computations are performed to study the structural and magnetic properties of CaN/Si(001) interface. Bulk CaN in the zinc-blende (ZB) structure is argued to be an ionic magnetic compound with a total spin moment of 1 μ{sub B} per formula unit, originated from the p electrons of N ions. Various interface configurations of a ZB CaN monolayer on Si (001) surface are investigated and the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are extracted. Then the minimum energy path between the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are calculated by using the nudged elastic band method and it is argued that both these systems are unstable toward a nonmagnetic interface with a rock–salt arrangement of Ca and N atoms. - Highlights: • Ab-initio studies are done on various structures of CaN monolayer on Si (001). • The lowest energy system was found to be the N-top configuration interface, while the highest spin polarization was observed in the Ca-hollow termination. • Both Ca-hollow and N-top are unstable toward a nonmagnetic rock–salt CaN monolayer on silicon surface. • Realization of a magnetic CaN/Si (001) interface likely requires some buffer layer on silicon surface, prior to the thin film deposition.

  17. Density functional study of CaN monolayer on Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saati asr, Maryam; Zahedifar, Maedeh; Hashemifar, S. Javad; Akbarzadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the first-principles computations are performed to study the structural and magnetic properties of CaN/Si(001) interface. Bulk CaN in the zinc-blende (ZB) structure is argued to be an ionic magnetic compound with a total spin moment of 1 μ_B per formula unit, originated from the p electrons of N ions. Various interface configurations of a ZB CaN monolayer on Si (001) surface are investigated and the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are extracted. Then the minimum energy path between the lowest energy and the highest spin polarized interfaces are calculated by using the nudged elastic band method and it is argued that both these systems are unstable toward a nonmagnetic interface with a rock–salt arrangement of Ca and N atoms. - Highlights: • Ab-initio studies are done on various structures of CaN monolayer on Si (001). • The lowest energy system was found to be the N-top configuration interface, while the highest spin polarization was observed in the Ca-hollow termination. • Both Ca-hollow and N-top are unstable toward a nonmagnetic rock–salt CaN monolayer on silicon surface. • Realization of a magnetic CaN/Si (001) interface likely requires some buffer layer on silicon surface, prior to the thin film deposition.

  18. Photoluminescence of Er-doped Si-SiO2 and Al-Si-SiO2 sputtered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozo, C.; Fonseca, L.F.; Jaque, D.; Sole, J.Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Er-doped Si-SiO 2 and Al-Si-SiO 2 films have been deposited by rf-sputtering being annealed afterwards. Annealing behavior of the Er 3+ : 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 emission of Er-doped Si-SiO 2 yields a maximum intensity for annealing at 700-800 deg. C. 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 peak emission for Er-doped Al-Si-SiO 2 at 1525 nm is shifted from that for Er-doped Si-SiO 2 at 1530 nm and the bandwidth increases from 29 to 42 nm. 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 emission decays present a fast decaying component related to Er ions coupled to Si nanoparticles, defects, or other ions, and a slow decaying component related to isolated Er ions. Excitation wavelength dependence and excitation power dependence for the 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 emission correspond with energy transfer from Si nanoparticles. Populating of the 4 I 11/2 level in Er-doped Si-SiO 2 involves branching and energy transfer upconversion involving two or more Er ions. Addition of Al reduces the populating of this level to an energy transfer upconversion involving two ions

  19. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S.; Zupanic, F.

    2001-01-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (α Al , β Si , Al 3 Sm, Al 2 Si 2 Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → α Al + β Si + Al 2 Si 2 Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al 3 Sm → α Al + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → α Al + Al 2 Si 2 Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  20. Karakterisasi Paduan AlMgSi Untuk Kelongsong Bahan Bakar U3Si2/Al Dengan Densitas Uranium 5,2 gU/cm3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslina Br. Ginting

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Meningkatnya densitas uranium dari 2,96 gU/cm3 menjadi 5,2 gU/cm3 bahan bakar U3Si2/Al harus diikuti dengan penggunaan kelongsong yang kompatibel. Bahan bakar berdensitas tinggi mempunyai kekerasan yang tinggi, sehingga bila menggunakan paduan AlMg2 sebagai kelongsong dapat menyebabkan terjadi dogbone pada saat perolan. Selain fenomena dogbone, pada saat bahan bakar tersebut digunakan di reaktor dapat terjadi swelling karena meningkatnya hasil fisi maupun burn up. Oleh karena itu, perlu dicari pengganti bahan kelongsong untuk bahan bakar U3Si2/Al densitas tinggi. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan karakterisasi paduan AlMgSi sebagai kandidat pengganti kelongsong AlMg2. Karakterisasi yang dilakukan meliputi analisis termal, kekerasan, mikrostruktur dan laju korosi. Analisis termal dilakukan menggunakan DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis dan DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Analisis kekerasan menggunakan alat uji kekerasan mikro, mikrostruktur menggunakan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope dan analisis laju korosi dilakukan dengan pemanasan pada temperatur 150 oC selama 77 jam di dalam autoclave. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kelongsong AlMgSi maupun AlMg2 mempunyai kompatibilitas panas dengan bahan bakar U3Si2/Al cukup stabil hingga temperatur 650 oC. Kelongsong AlMgSi mempunyai kekerasan sebesar 115 HVN dan kelongsong AlMg2 sebesar 70,1 HVN. Sementara itu, analisis mikrostruktur menunjukkan bahwa morfologi ikatan antarmuka (interface bonding kelongsong AlMgSi lebih baik dari kelongsong AlMg2, demikian halnya dengan laju korosi bahwa kelongsong AlMgSi mempunyai laju korosi lebih kecil dibanding kelongsong AlMg2. Hasil karakterisasi termal, kekerasan, mikrostruktur dan laju korosi menunjukkan bahwa PEB U3Si2/Al densitas 5,2 gU/cm3 menggunakan kelongsong AlMgSi lebih baik dibanding PEB U3Si2/Al  densitas 5,2 gU/cm3  menggunakan kelongsong AlMg2. Kata kunci: U3Si2/Al, densitas 5,2 gU/cm3, kelongsong AlMgSi dan AlMg2.

  1. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markoli, B.; Spaic, S. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Natural Science and Engineering; Zupanic, F. [Maribor Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-09-01

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation ({alpha}{sub Al}, {beta}{sub Si}, Al{sub 3}Sm, Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + {beta}{sub Si} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al{sub 3}Sm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm {yields} {alpha}{sub Al} + Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  2. Cristalización de Cordierita en vidrios derivados del sistema cuaternario CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Influencia de la composición del vidrio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón, J.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been studied the calcium effect on the crystallization of cordierite for obtaining a glassceramic material into the CaOáMgOáAl2O3áSiO2 quaternary system. With this propose it has been selected six compositions into de cordierite primary field of crystallization and obtained the original glasses. The obtained samples have been analysed after a thermal treatment in three steps (glass transformation, nucleation and growth by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The composition of phases in microstructures have been analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The microstructures have been related with the crystalline phases by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX. The amount of CaO in glasses is directly related with the anorthite crystallization, suggesting that the great amount of crystallized anorthite in relation with the low amount of CaO in the original glasses is due to the formation of one anorthite-diopside solid solution, what was tested by EDX. At growth temperature almost every samples partly crystallized, as primary or secondary cordierite phase. The anorthite microstructure was very particulated in spherulites forms of radius near to 250 nm, while the cordierite phase showed different morphologies, from almost-spherulitic crystallization nucleus ("rosettes" of μ-cordierite for direct crystallization from glass, to dense dendrites coming from μ transformation. Finally it can be found homogeneous blocks of α-cordierite with dimension of 10 x 10 μm2.Se ha estudiado el efecto del calcio en la cristalización de cordierita para la obtención de un material vitrocerámico dentro del sistema cuaternario CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2. Con este objetivo se han seleccionado seis composiciones dentro del campo primario de cristalización de la cordierita y se han obtenido por fusión sus correspondientes vidrios. Se han analizado las muestras obtenidas tras un tratamiento térmico en tres etapas (transformación vítrea, nucleación y crecimiento

  3. Gas diffusion ultrabarriers on polymer substrates using Al2O3 atomic layer deposition and SiN plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcia, P. F.; McLean, R. S.; Groner, M. D.; Dameron, A. A.; George, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Thin films grown by Al 2 O 3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) and SiN plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have been tested as gas diffusion barriers either individually or as bilayers on polymer substrates. Single films of Al 2 O 3 ALD with thicknesses of ≥10 nm had a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of ≤5x10 -5 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% relative humidity (RH), as measured by the Ca test. This WVTR value was limited by H 2 O permeability through the epoxy seal, as determined by the Ca test for the glass lid control. In comparison, SiN PECVD films with a thickness of 100 nm had a WVTR of ∼7x10 -3 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% RH. Significant improvements resulted when the SiN PECVD film was coated with an Al 2 O 3 ALD film. An Al 2 O 3 ALD film with a thickness of only 5 nm on a SiN PECVD film with a thickness of 100 nm reduced the WVTR from ∼7x10 -3 to ≤5x10 -5 g/m 2 day at 38 deg. C/85% RH. The reduction in the permeability for Al 2 O 3 ALD on the SiN PECVD films was attributed to either Al 2 O 3 ALD sealing defects in the SiN PECVD film or improved nucleation of Al 2 O 3 ALD on SiN.

  4. Effect of Al and AlP on the microstructure of Mn-30 wt.%Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yuying [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jing Shi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jing Shi Road 73, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2008-04-15

    Effect of Al and AlP particles on the microstructure of near eutectic Mn-Si alloy (Mn-30 wt.%Si) was studied by Electron Probe Micro-analyzer (EPMA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Crystal lattice correspondence analyses show that both Al and AlP have good lattice matching coherence relationships with MnSi phase, and the addition of Al and AlP particles results in an abnormal eutectic structure, i.e. the eutectic constitution MnSi and Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} precipitate separately: MnSi precipitates firstly, and then the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} phase.

  5. Surface acoustic wave devices on AlN/3C–SiC/Si multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Riekkinen, Tommi; Senesky, Debbie G; Pisano, Albert P; Chen, Yung-Yu; Felmetsger, Valery V

    2013-01-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagation characteristics in a multilayer structure including a piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) thin film and an epitaxial cubic silicon carbide (3C–SiC) layer on a silicon (Si) substrate are investigated by theoretical calculation in this work. Alternating current (ac) reactive magnetron sputtering was used to deposit highly c-axis-oriented AlN thin films, showing the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve of 1.36° on epitaxial 3C–SiC layers on Si substrates. In addition, conventional two-port SAW devices were fabricated on the AlN/3C–SiC/Si multilayer structure and SAW propagation properties in the multilayer structure were experimentally investigated. The surface wave in the AlN/3C–SiC/Si multilayer structure exhibits a phase velocity of 5528 m s −1 and an electromechanical coupling coefficient of 0.42%. The results demonstrate the potential of AlN thin films grown on epitaxial 3C–SiC layers to create layered SAW devices with higher phase velocities and larger electromechanical coupling coefficients than SAW devices on an AlN/Si multilayer structure. Moreover, the FWHM values of rocking curves of the AlN thin film and 3C–SiC layer remained constant after annealing for 500 h at 540 °C in air atmosphere. Accordingly, the layered SAW devices based on AlN thin films and 3C–SiC layers are applicable to timing and sensing applications in harsh environments. (paper)

  6. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4: Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashdeh, Ali; Frankcombe, Terry J

    2008-06-21

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski's direct method. The dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2) is exothermic, indicating a metastable hydride. Calculations for CaAlH(5) including ZPE effects indicate that it is not stable enough for a hydrogen storage system operating near ambient conditions. The destabilized combination of LiBH(4) with CaH(2) is a promising system after ZPE-corrected enthalpy calculations. The calculations confirm that including ZPE effects in the harmonic approximation for the dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) has a significant effect on the calculated reaction enthalpy. The contribution of ZPE to the dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2) and CaAlH(5) calculated by the direct method phonon analysis was compared to that calculated by the frozen-phonon method. The crystal structure of CaAlH(5) is presented in the more useful standard setting of P2(1)c symmetry and the phonon density of states of CaAlH(5), significantly different to other common complex metal hydrides, is rationalized.

  7. Low Z elements (Mg, Al, and Si) K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in minerals and disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ildefonse, P.; Calas, G.; Flank, A.M.; Lagarde, P.

    1995-01-01

    Soft X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy have been performed at the Mg-, Al- and Si-K edges in order to establish the ability of this spectroscopy to derive structural information in disordered solids such as glasses and gels. Mg- and Al-K XANES are good structural probes to determine the coordination state of these elements in important minerals, glasses and gels. In a CaO-MgO-2SiO 2 glass Mg XANES spectra differ from that found in the crystalline equivalent, with a significant shift of the edge maxima to lower energy, consistent with a CN lower than 6. Mg-EXAFS on the same sample are in agreement and indicate the presence of 5-coordinated Mg with Mg-O distances of 2.01 A. In aluminosilicate gels, Al-K XANES has been used to investigate the [4]Al/Al total ratios. These ratios increase as the Al/Si ratios decrease. Aluminosilicate and ferric-silicate gels were studied by using Si-K edge XANES. XANES spectra differ significantly among the samples studied. Aluminosilicate gels with Al/Si=1 present a different Al and Si local environment from that known in clay minerals with the same Al/Si ratio. The gel-to-mineral transformation thus implies a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism. On the contrary, ferric-silicate gel presents a Si local environment close to that found in nontronite which may be formed by a long range ordering of the initial gels. (orig.)

  8. Laser cladding of Al-Si/SiC composite coatings : Microstructure and abrasive wear behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anandkumar, R.; Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J.Th.M.

    2007-01-01

    Surface coatings of an Al-Si-SiC composite were produced on UNS A03560 cast Al-alloy substrates by laser cladding using a mixture of powders of Al-12 wt.% Si alloy and SiC. The microstructure of the coatings depends considerably on the processing parameters. For a specific energy of 26 MJ/m2 the

  9. State diagram of U-Al-Si as a basis for analysis of the processes in nuclear fuel compositions based on U(Al, Si)3 and U3Si compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotarev, N.T.; Konovalov, L.N.; Zhmak, V.A.; Chebotarev, Ya.N.

    1996-01-01

    Results of studies into the Al-UAl 3 -USi 3 -Si of the U-Al-Si ternary system are presented. It is established that phase equilibrium between the intermetallic compound U(Al, Si) 3 and the aluminium-silicon alloys may be presented in form of conodes on the isothermal cross-section of the state diagram. It is shown that the U(Al, Si) 3 intermetallic compound, containing up to 6.5 at.% silicon, interacts both with liquid and solid aluminium with the U(Al, Si) 4 phase formation [ru

  10. Design and manufacture of X-ray analyser of CaO, Fe2O3, SiO2 and Al2O3, investment opportunity of Vietnam cement factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Tuy; Luong Duc Long

    2008-01-01

    Cement is produced by heating naturally occurring raw materials containing the required oxides in kiln, which results in a product called clinker. To obtain the finished cement, the clinker is then ground together with gypsum, which controls setting properties, to a fine powder. Portland cement is a mixture of compounds formed from the oxides of Ca(CaO), Si(SiO 2 ), Al(Al 2 O 3 ), and Fe(Fe 2 O 3 ). In addition to these four main constituents it also contains smaller amounts of MgO, K 2 O, SO 3 , etc. Effective process control of cement is important to ensure high quality of the product. Traditionally wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers are used for cement quality control at the modern cement factories. The XRF-NCS02 is a compact energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analyzer. These spectrometers also are used for cement quality control at the small size cement plant. Product description: The XRF-NCS02 , table-top cement analyzer is a computer-based EDXRF spectrometer. The high efficiency and high resolution Si PIN detector is coupled to a 4096 channel MCA for data collection. The special low-power x-ray tube of the system requires no cooling and obligates the need for radioisotopes, as commonly found on such instruments. Computer: Compatible notebook or desktop PC, Pentium processor with CD-ROM. Software: XRF - NCS02 software for quantitative analysis; Interactive, operation under Windows XP. Installation: dimensions 500x380x300 mm (W x D x H); weight: 10 kg. (author)

  11. Fabrication and Analysis of the Wear Properties of Hot-Pressed Al-Si/SiCp + Al-Si-Cu-Mg Metal Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongil; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Park, Yong Ho

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize microstructures and mechanical properties of aluminum metal matrix composites (MMC's) prepared by powder metallurgy method. Consolidation of mixed powder with gas atomized Al-Si/SiCp powder and Al-14Si-2.5Cu-0.5Mg powder by hot pressing was classified according to sintering temperature and sintering time. Sintering condition was optimized using tensile properties of sintered specimens. Ultimate tensile strength of the optimized sintered specimen was 228 MPa with an elongation of 5.3% in longitudinal direction. In addition, wear properties and behaviors of the sintered aluminum-based MMC's were analyzed in accordance with vertical load and linear speed. As the linear speed and vertical load of the wear increased, change of the wear behavior occurred in order of oxidation of Al-Si matrix, formation of C-rich layer, Fe-alloying to matrix, and melting of the specimen

  12. Calcite Phase Conversion Prediction Model for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 Slag: An Aqueous Carbonation Process at Ambient Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huining; Dong, Jianhong; Li, Hui; Xiong, Huihui; Xu, Anjun

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the mineralogical phase on carbonation efficiency for CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 slag, a calcite phase conversion prediction model is proposed. This model combines carbon dioxide solubility with carbonation reaction kinetic analysis to improve the prediction capability. The effect of temperature and carbonation time on the carbonation degree is studied in detail. Results show that the reaction rate constant ranges from 0.0135 h-1 to 0.0458 h-1 and that the mineralogical phase contribution sequence for the carbonation degree is C2S, CaO, C3A and CS. The model accurately predicts the effect of temperature and carbonation time on the simulated calcite conversion, and the results agree with the experimental data. The optimal carbonation temperature and reaction time are 333 K and 90 min, respectively. The maximum carbonation efficiency is about 184.3 g/kg slag, and the simulation result of the calcite phase content in carbonated slag is about 20%.

  13. Research of the lime rich portions of the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study has been carried out to explain the influence of Pp^ in silicate phases and in industrial raw meals upon their mineralogical compositions. Some compositions in the lime rich portion of the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system are studied using laboratory reactants. The results showed that the compositions lying in the range of CaO = 69,5-70,1; P2O5= 16,2-19,5; SiO2 = 11,1-13,6 (wt% give, at 1000 °C, the mineralogical composition (HAp, β-C2S, C5PS which can develop a high strength in chemically bonded ceramics. At high temperature (1400 ºC these compositions give a large amount of silicocarnotite (C5PS and 2C2.C3P phase. A selected composition of the industrial raw meal with added phosphate: CaO = 62,66; SiO2 -= 17,33; Al2O3 = 4,88; Fe2O3 = 4,29; P2O5 = 8,73; MgO = 2,09 (wt% forms at 1350 ºC a clinker containing high amount of α-C2S to replace C3S. Such a clinker may have good applications in the synthesis of active belite cement.Se estudia con detalle la influencia del P2O5 sobre las composiciones mineralógicas en fases silicato y en un crudo industrial. Asimismo se estudian algunas composiciones de la zona rica en cal del sistema CaO-SiO2-P2O5 utilizando reactivos químicos. Los resultados demuestran que, a presión atmosférica y recinto abierto, las composiciones dentro de los límites CaO = 69,5-70,1; P2O5= 16,2-19,5; SiO2 = 11,1-13,6 (% en peso dan a 1000ºC la composición mineralógica siguiente: HAp, β-C2S, C5PS; pueden desarrollar una alta resistencia química en "chemically bonded ceramics". A altas temperaturas (1400°C producen una elevada proporción de silicocarnotita (C5PS S y la fase 2C2.C3P. Con la adición de fosfato a una determinada dosificación de crudo industrial (CaO = 62,66; SiO2 = 17,33; Al2O3 = 4,88; Fe2O3 = 4,29; P2O5 = 8,73; MgO = 2,09 -% en peso- se forma, a 1350°C, un clinker que contiene una alta proporción de α-C2S que reemplaza al C3S. Este clinker puede tener buenas aplicaciones en la obtención de

  14. Phase formation in Mg-Sn-Si and Mg-Sn-Si-Ca alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.; Groebner, J. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, R., E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2011-02-17

    Research highlights: > The solidification paths of ternary and quaternary alloys are analyzed in detail, using the tool of thermodynamic calculations. > The precipitation sequence of phases and their amounts compare well with the microstructure of alloys. > The most efficient comparison to the experimental thermal analysis data is done by calculation of the enthalpy variation with temperature. > The viability of a procedure for the selection of multicomponent key samples is demonstrated for the development of the Mg-Ca-Si-Sn phase diagram. - Abstract: Experimental work is done and combined with the Calphad method to generate a consistent thermodynamic description of the Mg-Ca-Si-Sn quaternary system, validated for Mg-rich alloys. The viability of a procedure for the selection of multicomponent key samples is demonstrated for this multicomponent system. Dedicated thermal analysis with DTA/DSC on sealed samples is performed and the microstructure of slowly solidified alloys is analyzed using SEM/EDX. The thermodynamic description and phase diagram of the ternary Mg-Si-Sn system, developed in detail also in this work, deviates significantly from a previous literature proposal. The phase formation in ternary and quaternary alloys is analyzed using the tool of thermodynamic equilibrium and Scheil calculations for the solidification paths and compared with present experimental data. The significant ternary/quaternary solid solubilities of pertinent intermetallic phases are quantitatively introduced in the quaternary Mg-Ca-Si-Sn phase diagram and validated by experimental data.

  15. Effect of Heat Treatment on Commercial AlSi12Cu1(Fe) and AlSi12(b) Aluminum Alloy Die Castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, E.; Bonollo, F.; Ferro, P.; Fabrizi, A.

    2018-03-01

    High-pressure die castings (HPDCs) cannot normally be heat-treated at a high temperature because of the presence of inner air/gas- or shrinkage-porosity that may lead to the formation of undesired surface blisters. In this paper, an unconventional heat treatment is proposed. Two secondary Al-Si alloys, AlSi12(b) and AlSi12Cu1(Fe), were stabilization heat-treated at 624 K (350 °C) with soaking times ranging from 1 to 8 hours. Enhancement of both static and dynamic mechanical properties was found to be related to the fragmentation of interconnected eutectic Si particles and the smoothing of coarser crystals. Increased ductility after heat treatment was correlated with a decrease in hardness and Si particle roundness. The formation of Si precipitates within the α-Al matrix was also observed.

  16. Electrical Conductivity of Cancrinite-Type Na8 - 2 x Ca x [Al6Si6O24][CO3] · 2H2O ( x ≤ 0.03) Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    The electrical conductivity of crystals of artificial cancrinite Na8 - 2 x Ca x [Al6Si6O24][CO3] · 2H2O ( x ≤ 0.03) has been studied in the temperature range of 498-604 K. These crystals were grown by hydrothermal synthesis on a seed in the Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O system ( t = 380-420°C, P = 3 × 107-9 × 107 Pa). The ionic conductivity of a single-crystal sample (sp. gr. P63), measured along the crystallographic axis c, is low: σ = 8 × 10-7 S/cm at 300°C. The electric transport activation energy is E a = 0.81 ± 0.05 eV. The relationship between the ionic conductivity and specific features of the atomic structure of cancrinites is discussed.

  17. The Co-60 gamma-ray irradiation effects on the Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, R.; Kaya, S.; Karacali, H.; Yilmaz, E.

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the initial interface trap density (Nit) to examine device compability for microelectronics and then the Co-60 gamma irradiation responses of Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al (MOS) capacitors were investigated in various dose ranges up to 70 Gy. Pre-irradiation response of the devices was evaluated from high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) capacitance method and the Nit was calculated as 9.91 × 1011 cm-2 which shows that the HfSiO4/p-Si interface quality is convenient for microelectronics applications. The irradiation responses of the devices were carried out from flat-band and mid-gap voltage shifts obtained from stretch of capacitance characteristics prior to and after irradiation. The results show that the flat band voltages very slightly shifted to positive voltage values demonstrating the enhancement of negative charge trapping in device structure. The sensitivity of the Al/HfSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors was found to be 4.41 mV/Gy for 300 nm-thick HfSiO4 gate dielectrics. This value approximately 6.5 times smaller compared to the same thickness conventional SiO2 based MOS devices. Therefore, HfSiO4 exhibits crucial irradiation tolerance in gamma irradiation environment. Consequently, HfSiO4 dielectrics may have significant usage for microelectronic technology as a radiation hard material where radiation field exists such as in space applications.

  18. Growth of CNTs on Fe-Si catalyst prepared on Si and Al coated Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, F-Y; Ting, J-M; Sharma, Sahendra P; Liao, Kun-Hou

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report the effect of Al interlayers on the growth characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using as-deposited and plasma etched Fe-Si catalyst films as the catalysts. Al interlayers having various thicknesses ranging from 2 to 42 nm were deposited on Si substrates prior to the deposition of Fe-Si catalysts. It was found that the Al interlayer diffuses into the Fe-Si catalyst during the plasma etching prior to the CNT growth, leading to the swelling and amorphization of the catalyst. This allows enhanced carbon diffusion in the catalyst and therefore a faster growth rate of the resulting CNTs. It was also found that use of an Al interlayer having a thickness of ∼3 ± 1 nm is most effective. Due to the effectiveness of this, the normally required catalyst etching is no longer needed for the growth of CNTs

  19. Growth of CNTs on Fe-Si catalyst prepared on Si and Al coated Si substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, F-Y; Ting, Jyh-Ming; Sharma, Sahendra P; Liao, Kun-Hou

    2008-03-05

    In this paper we report the effect of Al interlayers on the growth characteristics of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using as-deposited and plasma etched Fe-Si catalyst films as the catalysts. Al interlayers having various thicknesses ranging from 2 to 42 nm were deposited on Si substrates prior to the deposition of Fe-Si catalysts. It was found that the Al interlayer diffuses into the Fe-Si catalyst during the plasma etching prior to the CNT growth, leading to the swelling and amorphization of the catalyst. This allows enhanced carbon diffusion in the catalyst and therefore a faster growth rate of the resulting CNTs. It was also found that use of an Al interlayer having a thickness of ∼3 ± 1 nm is most effective. Due to the effectiveness of this, the normally required catalyst etching is no longer needed for the growth of CNTs.

  20. The high-pressure structural configurations of Ca0.2Sr0.8Al2Si 2O8 feldspar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benna, Piera; Nestola, Fabrizio; Boffa Ballaran, Tiziana

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystal in situ high-P X-ray diffraction was performed at P = 0.0001, 3.2, 4.4, 6.2, and 7.4 GPa on synthetic Ca0.2Sr0.8Al2Si2O8 feldspar (An20SrF80). Data collections conÞ rmed the displacive Þ rst-order triclinic I1-monoclinic I2/c phase transition at P ~4.3 GPa found in a previous high-...

  1. Effect of Si on DC arc plasma generation from Al-Cr and Al-Cr-Si cathodes used in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirkov, I.; Landälv, L.; Göthelid, E.; Ahlgren, M.; Eklund, P.; Rosen, J.

    2017-02-01

    Al2O3 alloyed with Cr is an important material for the tooling industry. It can be synthesized from an arc discharge using Al-Cr cathodes in an oxygen atmosphere. Due to formation of Al-rich oxide islands on the cathode surface, the arc process stability is highly sensitive to oxygen pressure. For improved stability, the use of Al0.70Cr0.25Si0.05 cathodes has previously been suggested, where Si may reduce island formation. Here, we have investigated the effect of Si by comparing plasma generation and thin film deposition from Al0.7Cr0.3 and Al0.7Cr0.25Si0.05 cathodes. Plasma ion composition, ion energies, ion charge states, neutral species, droplet formation, and film composition have been characterized at different O2 flow rates for arc currents of 60 and 90 A. Si and related compounds are detected in plasma ions and in plasma neutrals. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show that the cathode composition and the film composition are the same, with Si present in droplets as well. The effect of Si on the process stability, ion energies, and ion charge states is found to be negligible compared to that of the arc current. The latter is identified as the most relevant parameter for tuning the properties of the reactive discharge. The present work increases the fundamental understanding of plasma generation in a reactive atmosphere, and provides input for the choice of cathode composition and process parameters in reactive DC arc synthesis.

  2. Thermodynamics of Boron Removal from Silicon Using CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Lars Klemet; Tangstad, Merete

    2018-04-01

    Slag refining is one of few metallurgical methods for removal of boron from silicon. It is important to know the thermodynamic properties of boron in slags to understand the refining process. The relation of the distribution coefficient of boron to the activity of silica, partial pressure of oxygen, and capacity of slags for boron oxide was investigated. The link between these parameters explains why the distribution coefficient of boron does not change much with changing slag composition. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of dilute boron oxide in CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 slags was determined. The ratio of the activity coefficient of boron oxide and silica was found to be the most important parameter for understanding changes in the distribution coefficient of boron for different slags. Finally, the relation between the activity coefficient of boron oxide and slag structure was investigated. It was found that the structure can explain how the distribution coefficient of boron changes depending on slag composition.

  3. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masrom, A.K.; Foo, L.C.; Ismail, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  4. Metaheuristics-Assisted Combinatorial Screening of Eu2+-Doped Ca-Sr-Ba-Li-Mg-Al-Si-Ge-N Compositional Space in Search of a Narrow-Band Green Emitting Phosphor and Density Functional Theory Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Woong; Singh, Satendra Pal; Kim, Minseuk; Hong, Sung Un; Park, Woon Bae; Sohn, Kee-Sun

    2017-08-21

    A metaheuristics-based design would be of great help in relieving the enormous experimental burdens faced during the combinatorial screening of a huge, multidimensional search space, while providing the same effect as total enumeration. In order to tackle the high-throughput powder processing complications and to secure practical phosphors, metaheuristics, an elitism-reinforced nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II), was employed in this study. The NSGA-II iteration targeted two objective functions. The first was to search for a higher emission efficacy. The second was to search for narrow-band green color emissions. The NSGA-II iteration finally converged on BaLi 2 Al 2 Si 2 N 6 :Eu 2+ phosphors in the Eu 2+ -doped Ca-Sr-Ba-Li-Mg-Al-Si-Ge-N compositional search space. The BaLi 2 Al 2 Si 2 N 6 :Eu 2+ phosphor, which was synthesized with no human intervention via the assistance of NSGA-II, was a clear single phase and gave an acceptable luminescence. The BaLi 2 Al 2 Si 2 N 6 :Eu 2+ phosphor as well as all other phosphors that appeared during the NSGA-II iterations were examined in detail by employing powder X-ray diffraction-based Rietveld refinement, X-ray absorption near edge structure, density functional theory calculation, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The thermodynamic stability and the band structure plausibility were confirmed, and more importantly a novel approach to the energy transfer analysis was also introduced for BaLi 2 Al 2 Si 2 N 6 :Eu 2+ phosphors.

  5. Homogeneity of peraluminous SiO2-B2O3-Al2O3-Na2O-CaO-Nd2O3 glasses: Effect of neodymium content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasnier, E.; Bardez-Giboire, I.; Massoni, N.; Montouillout, V.; Pellerin, N.; Allix, M.; Ory, S.; Cabie, M.; Poissonnet, S.; Massiot, D.

    2014-01-01

    Considering the interest of developing new glass matrices able to immobilize higher concentration of high level nuclear wastes than currently used nuclear borosilicate compositions, glasses containing high rare earth contents are of particular interest. This study focuses on a peraluminous alumino borosilicate system SiO 2 -B 2 O 3 -Al 2 O 3 -Na 2 O-CaO-Nd 2 O 3 defined by a per-alkaline/peraluminous ratio RP = ([Na 2 O] + [CaO])/ ([Na 2 O] + [CaO] + [Al 2 O 3 ]) ≤ 0.5. Samples with various contents of Nd 2 O 3 from 0 to 10 mol% were studied using DSC, XRD, SEM, TEM, STEM and EMPA methods. The glasses present a high thermal stability even after a slow cooling treatment from the melt. Only a slight mullite crystallization is detected for low Nd 2 O 3 content (≤2.3 mol%) and crystallization of a neodymium borosilicate crystalline phase combined to a phase separation occurred at high Nd 2 O 3 content (≥8 mol%). The solubility of neodymium in the presence of aluminum is demonstrated, with higher neodymium incorporation amounts than in per-alkaline glasses. (authors)

  6. The electrochemical properties of melt-spun Al-Si-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Linping; Wang Fei; Liang Pu; Song Xianlei; Hu Qing; Sun Zhanbo; Song Xiaoping; Yang Sen; Wang Liqun

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Non-equilibrium Al 75-X Si 25 Cu X alloys exhibit high lithiation storages. → The lithiation mechanism is different from melt-spun Al-Si-Mn system. → The structural evolution is mitigated in the non-equilibrium alloys. → Volume variation is alleviated due to the co-existence of Al 2 Cu, α-Si and α-Al. - Abstract: Melt spinning was used to prepare Al 75-X Si 25 Cu X (X = 1, 4, 7, 10 mol%) alloy anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A metastable supersaturated solid solution of Si and Cu in fcc-Al, α-Si and Al 2 Cu co-existed in the alloys. Nano-scaled α-Al grains, as the matrix, formed in the as-quenched ribbons. The Al 74 Si 25 Cu 1 and Al 71 Si 25 Cu 4 anodes exhibited initial discharge specific capacities of 1539 mAh g -1 , 1324 mAh g -1 and reversible capacities above 472 mAh g -1 , 508 mAh g -1 at the 20th cycle, respectively. The specific capacities reduced as the increase of the Cu content. AlLi intermetallic compound was detected in the lithiated alloys. It is concluded that the lithiation mechanism of the Al-Si-based alloys can be affected by the third component. The structural evolution and volume variation can be mitigated due to the formation of non-equilibrium state and the co-existence of nano-scaled α-Al, α-Si, and Al 2 Cu for the present alloys.

  7. Physical mineralogy of (Ca,Al)-rich silicate phases of the Earth's mantle. Geodynamic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautron, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Mineral physics could provide answers to many questions we asked about mineral phases present in the Earth's mantle, their characteristics, their crystal structure, their phase transitions. In the second part of the twentieth century, high pressure and high temperature experiments could give essential data about materials from the deep Earth: these data could then be combined to those obtained by seismology measurements, geochemistry analyses, experimental and theoretical geodynamics, for a better understanding of the deep parts of our planet. Many former studies revealed that silicate phases bearing calcium and/or aluminium could display very interesting characteristics and properties, with important geodynamics implications. The combination of calcium and aluminium is know to be very useful for mineral phases: indeed, calcium is able to be substituted by atoms which display large cations, while aluminium when replacing silicon atoms could allow the eventual charge compensation required by the substitution of calcium. Moreover, there is an increasing amount of data which reveal the existence of many new (Ca,Al)-rich silicate phases at (P,T) conditions of the Earth's mantle: these phase are found to display very original structure and properties. In this thesis manuscript, we report the main results obtained about the aluminous calcium perovskite, Al-CaSiO 3 , which is one of the three main mineral phases present in the lower mantle. We show that this phase is able to incorporate huge amount of natural actinides uranium and thorium which provide the main part of the heat produced in our planet, by radioactive decay. Then the Al-rich Ca-perovskite bearing U and Th could be the thermal engine of the Earth's lower mantle. These results obtained by mineral physics experiments and methodology are presented with the objective to better constrain the recent geodynamics models. Here, we propose that the (U,Th)-Al-CaSiO 3 perovskite alone is able to provide the entire

  8. High-temperature crystal chemistry of layered calcium borosilicates: CaBSiO4(OH) (datolite), Ca4B5Si3O15(OH)5 (`bakerite') and Ca2B2SiO7 (synthetic analogue of okayamalite)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzhizhanovskaya, Maria G.; Gorelova, L. A.; Bubnova, R. S.; Pekov, I. V.; Krivovichev, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    The high-temperature behaviour of three Ca borosilicates has been studied by in situ powder high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD), differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry in the temperature range 30-900 °C for natural samples of datolite, CaBSiO4(OH), and `bakerite', Ca4B5Si3O15(OH)5, and a synthetic analogue of okayamalite, Ca2B2SiO7. The latter was obtained by heating datolite at 800 °C for 5 h. Datolite and bakerite start to dehydroxylate above 700 and 500 °C, respectively, and decompose fully to form a high-temperature modification of okayamalite, HT-Ca2B2SiO7, and wollastonite, CaSiO3 at about 730 °C. Above 900 °C, HT-okayamalite decomposes with the formation of wollastonite, CaSiO3, and metaborate CaB2O4. The latter melts at about 990 °C. Above 1000 °C, only the existence of wollastonite, CaSiO3 and cristobalite, SiO2 was observed. According to the HTXRD data, in the temperature range 30-500 °C, datolite and `bakerite' demonstrate very similar and relatively low volumetric thermal expansion: α v = 29 and 27 × 10-6 °C-1, respectively. A high thermal expansion anisotropy ( α max/ α min 3) is caused by both the layered character of the crystal structures and the shear deformations of their monoclinic unit cells. The direction of maximum expansion is intermediate between the normal direction to the layers and the ( a + c) vector. A possible transformation mechanism from the datolite to the okayamalite structure topology is proposed from geometrical considerations. The synthetic analogue of okayamalite, Ca2B2SiO7, undergoes a reversible polymorphic transition at about 550 °C with a decrease in symmetry from tetragonal to orthorhombic. The crystal structure of the high-temperature (HT) modification of okayamalite was solved from the powder-diffraction data [900 °C: P21212, a = 7.3361(4), b = 7.1987(4), c = 4.8619(4) Å, V = 256.76(3) Å3, R wp = 6.61, R Bragg = 2.68%].

  9. On compensation in Si-doped AlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua S.; Baker, Jonathon N.; Gaddy, Benjamin E.; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Mirrielees, Kelsey J.; Reddy, Pramod; Collazo, Ramón; Sitar, Zlatko; Irving, Douglas L.

    2018-04-01

    Controllable n-type doping over wide ranges of carrier concentrations in AlN, or Al-rich AlGaN, is critical to realizing next-generation applications in high-power electronics and deep UV light sources. Silicon is not a hydrogenic donor in AlN as it is in GaN; despite this, the carrier concentration should be controllable, albeit less efficiently, by increasing the donor concentration during growth. At low doping levels, an increase in the Si content leads to a commensurate increase in free electrons. Problematically, this trend does not persist to higher doping levels. In fact, a further increase in the Si concentration leads to a decrease in free electron concentration; this is commonly referred to as the compensation knee. While the nature of this decrease has been attributed to a variety of compensating defects, the mechanism and identity of the predominant defects associated with the knee have not been conclusively determined. Density functional theory calculations using hybrid exchange-correlation functionals have identified VAl+n SiAl complexes as central to mechanistically understanding compensation in the high Si limit in AlN, while secondary impurities and vacancies tend to dominate compensation in the low Si limit. The formation energies and optical signatures of these defects in AlN are calculated and utilized in a grand canonical charge balance solver to identify carrier concentrations as a function of Si content. The results were found to qualitatively reproduce the experimentally observed compensation knee. Furthermore, these calculations predict a shift in the optical emissions present in the high and low doping limits, which is confirmed with detailed photoluminescence measurements.

  10. Influence of secondary ageing temperature on hardening and residual elastic stresses in AlMgSi and AlMgSiCu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosavlevich, A.Ya.; Shiyachki-Zheravchich; Rogulin, M.Ya.; Milenkovich, V.M.; Prokich-Tsvetkovich, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The investigations were conducted on samples of AlMgSi and AlMgSiCu alloys quenched, aged and cold worked with 20, 40, 60 and 85 % reduction in area. Secondary ageing was carried out at 200 and 250 deg C. Residual stresses wee determined by X-ray diffraction method. It was shown that cold deformation effect on hardness and residual stresses is dependent on alloy composition. The hardening due to secondary ageing is more pronounced for AlMgSi alloy at 200 deg C and for AlMgSiCu alloy at 250 deg C. Positive residual stresses increase with secondary ageing temperature

  11. The electrochemical properties of melt-spun Al-Si-Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Linping; Wang Fei; Liang Pu; Song Xianlei; Hu Qing [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Sun Zhanbo, E-mail: szb@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Song Xiaoping; Yang Sen; Wang Liqun [MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2011-10-03

    Highlights: {yields} Non-equilibrium Al{sub 75-X}Si{sub 25}Cu{sub X} alloys exhibit high lithiation storages. {yields} The lithiation mechanism is different from melt-spun Al-Si-Mn system. {yields} The structural evolution is mitigated in the non-equilibrium alloys. {yields} Volume variation is alleviated due to the co-existence of Al{sub 2}Cu, {alpha}-Si and {alpha}-Al. - Abstract: Melt spinning was used to prepare Al{sub 75-X}Si{sub 25}Cu{sub X} (X = 1, 4, 7, 10 mol%) alloy anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. A metastable supersaturated solid solution of Si and Cu in fcc-Al, {alpha}-Si and Al{sub 2}Cu co-existed in the alloys. Nano-scaled {alpha}-Al grains, as the matrix, formed in the as-quenched ribbons. The Al{sub 74}Si{sub 25}Cu{sub 1} and Al{sub 71}Si{sub 25}Cu{sub 4} anodes exhibited initial discharge specific capacities of 1539 mAh g{sup -1}, 1324 mAh g{sup -1} and reversible capacities above 472 mAh g{sup -1}, 508 mAh g{sup -1} at the 20th cycle, respectively. The specific capacities reduced as the increase of the Cu content. AlLi intermetallic compound was detected in the lithiated alloys. It is concluded that the lithiation mechanism of the Al-Si-based alloys can be affected by the third component. The structural evolution and volume variation can be mitigated due to the formation of non-equilibrium state and the co-existence of nano-scaled {alpha}-Al, {alpha}-Si, and Al{sub 2}Cu for the present alloys.

  12. Construction and evaluation of multi-component Zn-Al based bearing alloys (Zn-Al-Si, Zn-Al-Cu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahmiri, M.; Shahin, K.

    2001-01-01

    Zn-Al based alloys, with excellent mechanical properties, are finding increasing applications in various industries, especially bearing and bushing fields. Observed dimensional instabilities, in their multicomponent systems, (e. g. Zn-Al-Si and, Zn-Al Si-Cu), is believed to be as the result of some kinds of phase transformation, due to the temperature variations, while in service. Profound understanding of the phase transformations due to the temperature variation, requires detailed evaluations of the isothermal sections of the multi-components phase diagrams of Zn-Al-Si and, Zn-Al-Si-Cu alloy systems. In the present article, the isothermal sections of the aforementioned ternary and quaternary systems in the solid state regions have been investigated and observed phase transitions have been critically evaluated

  13. Low silicon U(Al,Si)3 stabilization by Zr addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizarro, L.M.; Alonso, P.R.; Rubiolo, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    Previous knowledge states that (U,Zr)Al 3 and U(Al,Si) 3 phases with Zr and Si content higher than 6 at.% (7.7 wt%) and 4 at.% (1.4 wt%), respectively, does not partially transform to UAl 4 at 600 o C. In this work, four alloys within the quaternary system U-Al-Si-Zr were made with a fixed nominal 0.18 at.% (0.1 wt%) Si content in order to assess the synergetic effect of both Zr and Si alloying elements to the thermodynamic stability of the (U,Zr)(Al,Si) 3 phase. Heat treatments at 600 deg. C were undertaken and samples were analyzed by means of XRD, EPMA and EDS techniques. A remarkable conclusion is that addition of 0.3 at.% Si in the (U,Zr)(Al,Si) 3 phase reduces in 2.7 at.% the necessary Zr content to inhibit its transformation to U(Al,Si) 4 .

  14. Structure and wear behavior of AlCrSiN-based coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yun [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Chengdu Tool Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610500 (China); Du, Hao [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen, Ming, E-mail: mchen@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Jun [Chengdu Tool Research Institute Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610500 (China); Xiong, Ji [School of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhao, Haibo [The Analysis and Testing Centre, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • AlCrSiN based coating showed amorphous structure. • AlCrSiN/Me{sub x}N coatings obtained better wear resistance. • Molybdenum and niobium increased the coating hardness and wear resistance. - Abstract: AlCrN, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings have been deposited on high-polished WC–Co cemented carbide substrate and tools by mid-frequency magnetron sputtering in Ar/N{sub 2} mixtures. Al{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.4}, Al{sub 0.6}Cr{sub 0.3}Si{sub 0.1}, and C/Mo/Nb targets were used during the deposition. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-deposited coatings were investigated. Investigations of the wear behaviors of coated tools were also performed. The results showed that cubic structure was formed in the coatings. Broader CrAlN (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) peaks without SiN{sub x} peak were formed in the AlCrSiN/Me{sub x}N coatings, which showed a nanocomposited structure. Meanwhile, according to SEM micrographs, AlCrN exhibited a columnar structure, while, AlCrSiCN, AlCrSiN/MoN, and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed nanocrystalline morphology. The nano-multilayered coatings performed higher hardness, H/E, and H{sup 3}/E{sup 2} ratios compared with AlCrN coating. Through the Rockwell adhesion test, all the coatings exhibited adhesion strength quality HF1. After turning Inconel 718 under dry condition, the nano-multilyered coatings showed better wear resistance than AlCrN coating. Due to the molybdenum and niobium in the coating, AlCrSiN/MoN and AlCrSiN/NbN coatings showed the best wear resistance.

  15. Low Z elements (Mg, Al, and Si) K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy in minerals and disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildefonse, Ph.; Calas, G.; Flank, A. M.; Lagarde, P.

    1995-05-01

    Soft X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy have been performed at the Mg-, Al- and Si-K edges in order to establish the ability of this spectroscopy to derive structural information in disordered solids such as glasses and gels. Mg- and Al-K XANES are good structural probes to determine the coordination state of these elements in important minerals, glasses and gels. In a CaOsbnd MgOsbnd 2SiO2 glass Mg XANES spectra differ from that found in the crystalline equivalent, with a significant shift of the edge maxima to lower energy, consistent with a CN lower than 6. Mg-EXAFS on the same sample are in agreement and indicate the presence of 5-coordinated Mg with Mgsbnd O distances of 2.01Å. In aluminosilicate gels, Alsbnd K XANES has been used to investigate the [4]Al/Altotal ratios. These ratios increase as the Al/Si ratios decrease. Aluminosilicate and ferric-silicate gels were studied by using Sisbnd K edge XANES. XANES spectra differ significantly among the samples studied. Aluminosilicate gels with Al/Si= 1 present a different Al and Si local environment from that known in clay minerals with the same Al/Si ratio. The gel-to-mineral transformation thus implies a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism. On the contrary, ferric-silicate gel presents a Si local environment close to that found in nontronite which may be formed by a long range ordering of the initial gels.

  16. Microstructure and properties of an Al-Ti-Cu-Si brazing alloy for SiC-metal joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chun-duo; Ma, Rui-na; Wang, Wei; Cao, Xiao-ming; Yu, Yan

    2017-05-01

    An Al-Ti-Cu-Si solid-liquid dual-phase alloy that exhibits good wettability and appropriate interfacial reaction with SiC at 500-600°C was designed for SiC-metal joining. The microstructure, phases, differential thermal curves, and high-temperature wetting behavior of the alloy were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and the sessile drop method. The experimental results show that the 76.5Al-8.5Ti-5Cu-10Si alloy is mainly composed of Al-Al2Cu and Al-Si hypoeutectic low-melting-point microstructures (493-586°C) and the high-melting-point intermetallic compound AlTiSi (840°C). The contact angle, determined by high-temperature wetting experiments, is approximately 54°. Furthermore, the wetting interface is smooth and contains no obvious defects. Metallurgical bonding at the interface is attributable to the reaction between Al and Si in the alloy and ceramic, respectively. The formation of the brittle Al4C3 phase at the interface is suppressed by the addition of 10wt% Si to the alloy.

  17. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  18. Gerichtete Erstarrung von Al-Si und Al-Si-Mn Legierungen unter dem Einfluss von magnetischen Wechselfeldern

    OpenAIRE

    Orth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In this work, samples of two alloys, Al-Si7 and Al-Si7-Mn1, are directionally solidified and their structure microscopically analysed. Thereby, the combined influence of induced current flow and intermetallic precipitates is of particular interest. A newly modified "Artemis" setup at the institute of material physics at the DLR in Cologne allows controlled solidification velocities of 30 to 240 micron/s under a constant temperature gradient of 3 K/mm. In using silica aerogels as part of the c...

  19. Precipitation kinetics of Al-1.12 Mg{sub 2}Si-0.35 Si and Al-1.07 Mg{sub 2}Si-0.33 Cu alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaber, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Gaffar, M.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)]. E-mail: mgaafar@aucegypt.edu; Mostafa, M.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Zeid, E.F. Abo [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt)

    2007-02-21

    The kinetics of hardening precipitates of Al-1.12 wt.% Mg{sub 2}Si-0.35 wt.% Si (excess Si) and Al-1.07 wt.% Mg{sub 2}Si-0.33 wt.% Cu (balanced + Cu) alloys have been investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry and hardness measurements. The excess Si enhances the precipitation kinetics and improves the strength of the material. On the other hand, however addition of Cu assist formation of the Q' phase which positively changed the alloy strength. The high binding energy between vacancies and solute atoms (Si and Mg) enhances the combination of Si, Mg and vacancies to form Si-Mg-vacancy clusters. These clusters act as nucleation sites for GP-zones. The coexistence of the {beta}'- and Q'-precipitates in the balanced + Cu alloy results in a higher peak age hardening compared to the alloy with Si in excess.

  20. Chemical leaching of rapidly solidified Al-Si binary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, I.; Takahara, K.; Tanaka, T.; Matsubara, K.

    2005-01-01

    Various particulate precursors of Al 100-x Si x (x = 5-12) alloys were prepared by a rapid solidification process. The rapidly solidified structures of the precursors were examined by XRD, DSC and SEM. Most of Si atoms were dissolved into the α-Al(fcc) phase by rapid solidification though the solubility of Si in the α-Al phase is negligibly small in conventional solidification. In the case of 5 at.% Si alloy, a single α-Al phase was only formed. The amount of the primary Si phase increased with increase of Si content for the alloys beyond 8 at.% Si. Rapid solidification was effective to form super-saturated α-Al precursors. These precursors were chemically leached by using a basic solution (NaOH) or a hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. All Al atoms were removed by a HCl solution as well as a NaOH solution. Granules of the Si phase were newly formed during leaching. The specific surface area was about 50-70 m 2 /g independent of Si content. The leaching behavior in both solutions was slightly different. In the case of a NaOH solution, the shape of the precursor often degenerated after leaching. On the other hand, it was retained after leaching by a HCl solution. Fine Si particles precipitated in the α-Al phase by annealing of as-rapidly solidified precursors at 773 K for 7.2 x 10 3 s. In this case, it was difficult to obtain any products by NaOH leaching, but a few of Si particles were obtained by HCl leaching. Precipitated Si particles were dissolved by the NaOH solution. The X-ray diffraction patterns of leached specimens showed broad lines of the Si phase and its lattice constant was slightly larger than that of the pure Si phase. The microstructures of the leached specimens were examined by transmission electron microscopy. It showed that the leached specimens had a skeletal structure composed of slightly elongated particles of the Si phase and quite fine pores. The particle size was about 30-50 nm. It was of comparable order with that evaluated by Scherer

  1. Synthesis of Al₂Ca Dispersoids by Powder Metallurgy Using a Mg-Al Alloy and CaO Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Junji; Umeda, Junko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2017-06-28

    The elemental mixture of Mg-6 wt %Al-1 wt %Zn-0.3 wt %Mn (AZ61B) alloy powder and CaO particles was consolidated by an equal-channel angular bulk mechanical alloying (ECABMA) process to form a composite precursor. Subsequently, the precursor was subjected to a heat treatment to synthesize fine Al₂Ca particles via a solid-state reaction between the Mg-Al matrix and CaO additives. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and electron probe micro-analysis on the precursor indicated that 4.7-at % Al atoms formed a supersaturated solid solution in the α-Mg matrix. Transmission electron microscopy-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses on the AZ61B composite precursor with 10-vol % CaO particles obtained by heat treatment confirmed that CaO additives were thermally decomposed in the Mg-Al alloy, and the solid-soluted Ca atoms diffused along the α-Mg grain boundaries. Al atoms also diffused to the grain boundaries because of attraction to the Ca atoms resulting from a strong reactivity between Al and Ca. As a result, needle-like (Mg,Al)₂Ca intermetallics were formed as intermediate precipitates in the initial reaction stage during the heat treatment. Finally, the precipitates were transformed into spherical Al₂Ca particles by the substitution of Al atoms for Mg atoms in (Mg,Al)₂Ca after a long heat treatment.

  2. Crystallization in Y-Si-Al-O-N glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng-Ward, G; Lewis, M H

    1985-05-01

    The development of crystallization in oxynitride glasses has been characterized using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray (energy-dispersive) microanalysis, and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. A series of glasses was prepared while maintaining the ratio of yttrium-to-silicon-to-aluminium, but replacing oxygen with nitrogen up to the nitrogen solubility limit. On annealing at 1250 C, the oxide glass fully crystallized into yttrium disilicate (Y2Si2O7). Al2O3 and mullite (Al6Si2O13) while, with increasing nitrogen content, the disilicate phase was progressively replaced by yttrium aluminium garnet (Y3Al5O12) and nitrogen was mainly incorporated into Si2N2O. Annealing of the nitrogen glasses at 1100 C produced partial crystallization involving an intermediate phase related to nitrogen-wollastonite. Phase separation in an as-quenched SiO2-rich Y-Si-Al-O composition glass is illustrated. 9 references.

  3. Microstructural and thermal study of Al-Si-Mg/melon shell ash particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdulwahab

    Full Text Available The microstructural study via scanning electron microscope (SEM and thermal study via differential scanning calorimetric (DSC study of Al-7%Si-0.3Mg/melon shell ash particulate composite has been carried out. The melon shell ash was used in the production of MMC ranging from 5% to 20% at interval of 5% addition using stir casting method. The melon shell ash was characterized using X-ray fluorescent (XRF that reveal the presence of CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, and TiO2 as major compounds. The composite was machined and subjected to heat treatment. Microstructural analyses of the composite produced were done using scanning electron microscope (SEM. The microstructure obtained reveals a dark ceramic (reinforcer and white metallic phase. Equally, the 5 wt% DSC result gives better thermal conductivity than other proportions (10 wt%, 15 wt%, and 20 wt%. These results showed that an improved property of Al-Si-Mg alloy was achieved using melon shell ash particles as reinforcement up to a maximum of 20 wt% for microstructural and 5% wt DSC respectively. Keywords: Microstructural analysis, Melon shell ash, Stir casting, X-ray fluorescent, Reinforcement, Composite

  4. First-principle study of the AlP/Si interfacial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Hongshang [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Du Jing [School of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250101 (China); Wang Li; Peng Chuanxiao [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Shandong Binzhou Bohai Piston Co. Ltd., Binzhou 256602, Shandong (China)

    2010-01-15

    AlP is heterogeneous nucleation substrate of primary Si in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, while studies on the nucleation mechanism at atomic level are absent. The pseudopotential-based DFT calculations have been carried out to investigate the atomic and electronic structure, bonding and adhesion of the AlP/Si interface. In total, eight geometries have been investigated, in which the interfacial stacking sequence is different. The favorable interfaces can be deduced for the reason that adhesive interface energies (W{sub ad}) are different, which cannot be obtained from the traditional mismatch theory. The interfacial density of states and Mulliken population are also investigated. It is found that the main bond between AlP and Si is covalent Al-Si or P-Si bond, accompanying some ionic characteristic.

  5. Study on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hypereutectic Al-18Si Alloy Modified with Al-3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chunjie; Tu, Hao; Wu, Changjun; Wang, Jianhua; Su, Xuping

    2018-03-20

    An hypereutectic Al-18Si alloy was modified via an Al-3B master alloy. The effect of the added Al-3B and the modification temperature on the microstructure, tensile fracture morphologies, and mechanical properties of the alloy were investigated using an optical microscope, Image-Pro Plus 6.0, a scanning electron microscope, and a universal testing machine. The results show that the size of the primary Si and its fraction decreased at first, and then increased as an additional amount of Al-3B was added. When the added Al-3B reached 0.2 wt %, the fraction of the primary Si in the Al-18Si alloy decreased with an increase in temperature. Compared with the unmodified Al-18Si alloy, the tensile strength and elongation of the alloy modified at 850 °C with 0.2 wt % Al-3B increased by 25% and 81%, respectively. The tensile fracture of the modified Al-18Si alloy exhibited partial ductile fracture characteristics, but there were more areas with ductile characteristics compared with that of the unmodified Al-18Si alloy.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured CaSiO3 biomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadale, Pramod N.; Kulal, Shivaji R.; Joshi, Meghanath G.; Jagtap, Pramod P.; Khetre, Sanjay M.; Bamane, Sambhaji R.

    2013-04-01

    Here we report a successful preparation of nanostructured calcium silicate by wet chemical approach. The synthesized sample was characterized by various physico-chemical methods. Thermal stability was investigated using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). Structural characterization of the sample was carried out by the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD) which confirmed its single phase hexagonal structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the nanostructure of the ceramics while homogeneous grain distribution was revealed by scanning electron microscopy studies (SEM). The elemental analysis data obtained from energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) were in close agreement with the starting composition used for the synthesis. Superhydrophilic nature of CaSiO3 was investigated at room temperature by sessile drop technique. Effect of porous nanosized CaSiO3 on early adhesion and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and cord blood mesenchymal stem (CBMSCs) cells was measured in vitro. MTT cytotoxicity test and cell adhesion test showed that the material had good biocompatibility and promoted cell viability and cell proliferation. It has been stated that the cell viability and proliferation are significantly affected by time and concentration of CaSiO3. These findings indicate that the CaSiO3 ceramics has good biocompatibility and that it is promising as a biomaterial.

  7. Synthesis, structure and chemical bonding of CaFe2−xRhxSi2 (x=0, 1.32, and 2) and SrCo2Si2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlukhyy, Viktor; Hoffmann, Andrea V.; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The finding of superconductivity in Ba 0.6 K 0.4 Fe 2 As 2 put the attention on the investigation of compounds that crystallize with ThCr 2 Si 2 structure type such as AT 2 X 2 (A=alkali/alkaline earth/rare earth element; T=transition metal and X=element of the 13–15th group). In this context the silicides CaFe 2 Si 2 , CaFe 0.68(6) Rh 1.32(6) Si 2 , CaRh 2 Si 2 and SrCo 2 Si 2 have been synthesized by reaction of the elements under an argon atmosphere. Single crystals were obtained by special heat treatment in welded niobium/tantalum ampoules. The compounds were investigated by means of powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All compounds crystallize in the ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure with space group I4/mmm (No. 139): a=3.939(1) Å, c=10.185(1) Å, R 1 =0.045, 85 F 2 values, 8 variable parameters for CaFe 2 Si 2 ; a=4.0590(2) Å, c=9.9390(8) Å, R 1 =0.030, 90 F 2 values, 10 variable parameters for CaFe 0.68(6) Rh 1.32(6) Si 2 ; a=4.0695(1) Å, c=9.9841(3) Å, R 1 =0.031, 114 F 2 values, 9 variable parameters for CaRh 2 Si 2 ; and a=3.974(1) Å, c=10.395(1) Å, R 1 =0.036, 95 F 2 values, 8 variable parameters for SrCo 2 Si 2 . The structure of SrCo 2 Si 2 contains isolated [Co 2 Si 2 ] 2− 2D-layers in the ab-plane whereas in CaFe 2−x Rh x Si 2 the [T 2 Si 2 ] layers (T=Fe and Rh) are interconnected along the c-axis via Si3Si bonds resulting in a three-dimentional (3D) [T 2 Si 2 ] 2− polyanions and therefore belong to the so-called collapsed form of the ThCr 2 Si 2 -type structure. The SrCo 2 Si 2 and CaRh 2 Si 2 are isoelectronic to the parent 122 iron–pnictide superconductors AeFe 2 As 2 (Ae=alkaline earth elements), whereas CaFe 2 Si 2 is a full substituted variant (As/Si) of CaFe 2 As 2 . The crystal chemistry and chemical bonding in the title compounds are discussed in terms of LMTO band structure calculations and a topological analysis using the Electron Localization Function (ELF). - Graphical abstract: The SrCo 2 Si 2 and CaFe 2−x Rh x Si

  8. First-principle investigations of the magnetic properties and possible martensitic transformation in Ni2MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Gao, She-Sheng; Meng, Yang

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic and electronic properties of Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn) Heusler alloys have been studied by using the first-principle projector augmented wave potential within the generalized gradient approximation. The possible non-modulated martensitic transformation in these six alloys has been investigated. Both austenitic and martensitic Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn) Heusler alloys are found to be ferromagnets. In martensitic phase, the energies minimum occurs at c/a=0.99 for Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, In, Ge and Sn), and the energy minimum occurs at c/a=1.02 for Ni 2 MnSi. But there is a negligible energy difference ΔE (<6 meV/cell) between the austenitic and martensitic phases for each alloy. Meanwhile, around c/a=1, an anomaly is observed in the E-c/a curve, which is related to a very slightly tetragonal distortion trend in Ni 2 MnX (X=Al, In, Si, Ge and Sn). The energy difference ΔE between the austenitic and martensitic phases for Ni 2 MnGa is as large as 99 meV/cell, so it is more likely to realize martensitic transformation in it. - Highlights: • Both austenitic and martensitic Ni 2 MnX alloys are found to be ferromagnets. • The energy difference between the martensitic and austenitic phases is negligible. • The total moment in martensitic phase is close to corresponding to austenitic phase

  9. Centrifugally cast Zn-27Al-xMg-ySi alloys and their in situ (Mg2Si + Si)/ZA27 composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qudong; Chen Yongjun; Chen Wenzhou; Wei Yinhong; Zhai Chunquan; Ding Wenjiang

    2005-01-01

    Effects of composition, mold temperature, rotating rate and modification on microstructure of centrifugally cast Zn-27Al-xMg-ySi alloys have been investigated. In situ composites of Zn-27Al-6.3Mg-3.7Si and Zn-27Al-9.8Mg-5.2Si alloys were fabricated by centrifugal casting using heated permanent mold. These composites consist of three layers: inner layer segregates lots of blocky primary Mg 2 Si and a litter blocky primary Si, middle layer contains without primary Mg 2 Si and primary Si, outer layer contains primary Mg 2 Si and primary Si. The position, quantity and distribution of primary Mg 2 Si and primary Si in the composites are determined jointly by alloy composition, solidification velocity under the effect of centrifugal force and their floating velocity inward. Na salt modifier can refine grain and primary Mg 2 Si and make primary Mg 2 Si distribute more evenly and make primary Si nodular. For centrifugally cast Zn-27Al-3.2Mg-1.8Si alloy, the microstructures of inner layer, middle layer and outer layer are almost similar, single layer materials without primary Mg 2 Si and primary Si are obtained, and their grain sizes increased with the mold temperature increasing

  10. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Mg-Al alloys with thermal spray Al/SiCp composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, A.; Feliu Jr, S.; Merino, M. C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P.; Arrabal, R.

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion protection of Mg-Al alloys by flame thermal spraying of Al/SiCp composite coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The volume fraction of SiC particles (SiCp) varied between 5 and 30%. The as-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coatings revealed a high number of micro-channels, largely in the vicinity of the SiC particles, that facilitated the penetration of the electrolyte and the subsequent galvanic corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment reduced the degree of porosity of the coatings and improved the bonding at the coating/substrate and Al/SiC interfaces. This resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the coated specimens. The effectiveness of the coatings slightly decreased with the addition of 5-30 vol.% SiCp compared with the un reinforced thermal spray aluminium coatings. (Author) 31 refs.

  11. Production of 26Al by spallation of Fe, Si, Al nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, P.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for 7 Be, 10 Be and 26 Al formation in Al, Si and Fe targets bombarded with 0.6 and 24GeV protons have been measured by using highly selective chemical separation and low level background counters. Results for 26 Al at 0.6GeV are in mb: 17.9 + or - 2.7 in Al, 12.5 + or - 2.5 in Si and 0.45 + or - 0.14 in Fe; at 24GeV 2.6 + or - 0.5mb in Fe. Results for 10 Be are not valid on account of experimental difficulties. It is deduced from these values of aluminium in cosmic ray propagation that 26 Al is not yet cosmic ray chronometer [fr

  12. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of Ni-containing hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Hossain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical corrosion characteristics of the thermally treated 2 wt % Ni-containing Al-6Si-0.5Mg alloy were studied in NaCl solutions. The corrosion behavior of thermally treated (T6 Al-6Si-0.5Mg (-2Ni alloys in 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated by electrochemical potentiodynamic polarization technique consisting of linear polarization method using the fit of Tafel plot and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS techniques. Generally, linear polarization experiments revealed a decrease of the corrosion rate at thermal treated Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy. The EIS test results showed that there is no significant change in charge transfer resistance (Rct after addition of Ni to Al-6Si-0.5Mg alloy. The magnitude of the positive shift in the open circuit potential (OCP, corrosion potential (Ecorr and pitting corrosion potential (Epit increased with the addition of Ni to Al-6Si-0.5Mg alloy. The forms of corrosion in the studied Al-6Si-0.5Mg alloy (except Al-6Si-0.5Mg-2Ni alloy are pitting corrosion as obtained from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM study.

  13. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of Mg-Al alloys with thermal spray Al/SiCp composite coatings; Comportamiento a la corrosion electroquimica de aleaciones MgAl con recubrimientos de materiales compuestos Al/SiCp mediante proyeccion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, A.; Feliu Jr, S.; Merino, M. C.; Mohedano, M.; Casajus, P.; Arrabal, R.

    2010-07-01

    The corrosion protection of Mg-Al alloys by flame thermal spraying of Al/SiCp composite coatings was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The volume fraction of SiC particles (SiCp) varied between 5 and 30%. The as-sprayed Al/SiCp composite coatings revealed a high number of micro-channels, largely in the vicinity of the SiC particles, that facilitated the penetration of the electrolyte and the subsequent galvanic corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment reduced the degree of porosity of the coatings and improved the bonding at the coating/substrate and Al/SiC interfaces. This resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the coated specimens. The effectiveness of the coatings slightly decreased with the addition of 5-30 vol.% SiCp compared with the un reinforced thermal spray aluminium coatings. (Author) 31 refs.

  14. Effect of Si and Zr on the Microstructure and Properties of Al-Fe-Si-Zr Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Morozova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Si and Zr on the microstructure, microhardness and electrical conductivity of Al-Fe-Si-Zr alloys were studied. An increase in the Zr content over 0.3 wt. % leads to the formation of primary Al3Zr inclusions and also decreases mechanical properties. Therefore, the Zr content should not be more than 0.3 wt. %, although the smaller content is insufficient for the strengthening by the secondary Al3Zr precipitates. The present results indicate that high content of Si significantly affects the hardness and electrical conductivity of the investigated alloys. However, the absence of Si led to the formation of harmful needle-shaped Al3Fe particles in the microstructure of the investigated alloys after annealing. Therefore, the optimum amount of Si was 0.25–0.50 wt. % due to the formation of the Al8Fe2Si phase with the preferable platelet morphology. The maximum microhardness and strengthening effects in Al-1% Fe-0.25% Si-0.3% Zr were observed after annealing at 400–450 °C due to the formation of nanosized coherent Al3Zr (L12 dispersoids. The effect of the increasing of the electrical conductivity can be explained by the decomposition of the solid solution. Thus, Al-1% Fe-0.25% Si-0.3% Zr alloy annealed at 450 °C has been studied in detail as the most attractive with respect to the special focus on transmission line applications.

  15. Cu-segregation at the Q'/α-Al interface in Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Kenji; Teguri, Daisuke; Uetani, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tatsuo; Ikeno, Susumu

    2002-01-01

    Cu segregation was detected at the Q ' /α-Al interface in an Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy. By contrast, in a Cu-free Al-Mg-Si alloy no segregation was observed at the interface between the matrix and Type-C precipitate

  16. Energetic prediction on the stability of A2Mg12Si7, A2Mg4Si3, and AMgSi in the A2Si–Mg2Si system (A = Ca, Sr and Ba) and their calculated electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yoji; Mori, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Shigeyuki; Takarabe, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Formation energies of A 2 Mg 4 Si 3 , A 2 Mg 12 Si 7 , and AMgSi (A = Ca,Sr,Ba) were calculated. • All AMgSi are quite stable compared to mixture of A 2 Si and Mg 2 Si. • Ba 2 Mg 4 Si 3 and Sr 2 Mg 4 Si 3 are predicted to be stable, but Ca 2 Mg 4 Si 3 is not. • Ca 2 Mg 12 Si 7 and Sr 2 Mg 12 Si 7 are energetically unstable. • Stability of Ba 2 Mg 12 Si 7 is a tender subject. -- Abstract: In order to evaluate the relative stability of A 2 Mg 4 Si 3 , A 2 Mg 12 Si 7 , and AMgSi (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba) in the A 2 Si–Mg 2 Si system, electronic energy changes in the formation of these compounds were calculated using a density-functional theory with the Perdew–Wang generalized gradient approximations. It was found that (1) AMgSi’s are quite stable compared to equi-molar mixture of A 2 Si and Mg 2 Si, (2) Ba 2 Mg 4 Si 3 and Sr 2 Mg 4 Si 3 are also stable, (3) Ca 2 Mg 4 Si 3 and Ca 2 Mg 12 Si 7 are less stable than the mixture of CaMgSi and Mg 2 Si, and (4) Stability of Ba 2 Mg 12 Si 7 is a tender subject and Sr 2 Mg 12 Si 7 is energetically unstable compared to the mixture of Sr 2 Mg 4 Si 3 (or, SrMgSi) and Mg 2 Si. The presence of Sr 2 Mg 12 Si 7 may be due to the vibrational and/or configurational entropy, which are not treated in the present study. From the calculated electronic densities of state, complex compounds of SrMgSi and Mg 2 Si have both p-type and n-type character, depending on the ratio of SrMgSi and Mg 2 Si in that compound

  17. Study of polarization curves from AlSi12, AlSi5Mg and AlMg5 alloys due to corrosion problems in telecomunication equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.R.A. da

    1984-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of three aluminium based alloys (AlSi 12, AlMg5 and AlSi 5Mg) when exposed to aqueous media containing chloride is investigated; these alloys are used in the manufacturing of telecomunication equipment. Accelerated corrosion testing and salt spray tests were carried out. The results include polarization curves obtained with three kinds of aqueous solutions (the first containing only 3% NaCl and the others, 3% NaCl and small amounts of Fe 3+ and Cu 2+ ions). (C.L.B.) [pt

  18. Separation of stress-free AlN/SiC thin films from Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redkov, A V; Osipov, A V; Mukhin, I S; Kukushkin, S A

    2016-01-01

    We separated AlN/SiC film from Si substrate by chemical etching of the AlN/SiC/Si heterostructure. The film fully repeats the size and geometry of the original sample and separated without destroying. It is demonstrated that a buffer layer of silicon carbide grown by a method of substitution of atoms may have an extensive hollow subsurface structure, which makes it easier to overcome the differences in the coefficients of thermal expansion during the growth of thin films. It is shown that after the separation of the film from the silicon substrate, mechanical stresses therein are almost absent. (paper)

  19. A new technique to modify hypereutectic Al-24%Si alloys by a Si-P master alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yaping; Wang Shujun; Li Hui [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu Xiangfa [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, 73 Jingshi Road, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2009-05-27

    The modification effect of a Si-P master alloy on Al-24%Si alloy was investigated by using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and optical microscopy (OM). The dissolution problem of the Si-P master alloys was solved by changing the sequence of addition. When the Si-P master alloy was added into Al melt before the addition of silicon, the best modification effect could be achieved. The modification parameters of the master alloy on Al-24%Si alloy were optimized through designing and analyzing the orthogonal experiment, and their influences on the modification effect were discussed. The results show that the influence of temperature on the modification effect is the greatest, followed by the addition level, and the holding time is the least. The optimized modification parameters are the modification temperature of 810 deg. C, the addition level of 0.35 wt.%, the holding time of 30 min + 50 min whose meaning is that the Si-P master alloy is added firstly to the molten Al, and silicon is added 30 min later, then holding another 50 min. In addition, the modification mechanism of the Si-P master alloy on Al-24%Si alloy was also discussed.

  20. Phase diagram study for the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO_2 -“Fe_2O_3 ” system in air with CaO/SiO_2 in 1.1 and PbO/(CaO+SiO_2) in 2.4 weight ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Josue; Romero-Serrano, Antonio; Hernandez-Ramirez, Aurelio; Cruz-Ramirez, Alejandro; Almaguer-Guzman, Isaias; Benavides-Perez, Ricardo; Flores-Favela, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study on the phase equilibrium and the liquidus isotherms for the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO_2 -“Fe_2O_3 ” system with CaO/SiO_2 in 1.1 and PbO/(CaO+SiO_2) in 2.4 weight ratios, respectively, was carried out in the temperature range 1100-1300 deg C (1373-1573 K). High temperature phases were determined by the equilibrium-quenching method. Results are presented in the form of pseudo-ternary sections “Fe_2O_3 ”-ZnO-(PbO+CaO+SiO_2). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM-EDS results showed that the phase equilibria in this system are dominated by the high melting temperature spinel and zincite phases. It was observed that if the system is at a temperature below 1300 deg C and the total (Fe_2O_3 + ZnO) is greater than 20 wt%, spinel and/or zincite will be present in the slag system. As an application of the phase diagram, the liquid phase compositions below the liquidus surface were estimated, then their viscosities were calculated using FACTSage software. (author)

  1. Effect of Si addition to Al-8Mg alloy on the microstructure and thermo-physical properties of SiCp/Al composites prepared by pressureless infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shubin; He Xinbo; Qu Xuanhui; Humail, Islam S.; Li Yan

    2007-01-01

    Fifty-five volume percentage of SiCp/Al composites were prepared by pressureless infiltration to investigate the effect of Si addition to Al-8Mg alloy from 0 wt% to 18 wt% on the interfacial reaction between Al and SiC and the thermo-physical properties of the prepared composites. TEM and X-ray analysis showed that the degree of interfacial reaction decreased as the Si content increased, and that it ceased at 1273 K when the Si addition to the aluminum was greater than 12 wt%. The Si addition to Al-8Mg alloy reduced the CTE of the composites and increased their thermal conductivity (TC), but Si beyond 12 wt% led to the reduction of TC, though the CTE was lower. This is attributable to the combined action of the Si on the wettability, interfacial reaction and the TC and CTE of the matrix itself

  2. The application of DTA and TG methods to investigate the non-crystalline hydration products of CaAl2O4 and Ca7ZrAl6O18 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, Jacek; Madej, Dominika; Śnieżek, Edyta; Prorok, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrates, i.e. CAH 10 , C 2 AH 8 , C 3 AH 6 and C 4 AH 19 are formed during hydration of CaAl 2 O 4 and Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 . ► Hydrated CaAl 2 O 4 and Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 compounds were investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDS and thermal analysis. ► The hydration reaction proceeds as consumes the unreacted core of the CaAl 2 O 4 and Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 grain. - Abstract: The hydration products and thermal decomposition mechanism of hydrated CaAl 2 O 4 and Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 compounds were investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM/EDS and thermal analysis. The processes of crystal hydrate nucleation and precipitation were preceded by the evolution of the X-ray amorphous phase during the first 24 h of hydration. DTA–TGA–EGA techniques allowed the study of the detailed decomposition and identification of intermediate and stable to be performed. The differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves of hydrated CaAl 2 O 4 and Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 compounds show five similar endothermic peaks due to crystal water desorption. According to the quantitative TGA–EGA analyses performed on hydrated CaAl 2 O 4 and Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 compounds, it was found that C 2 AH 8 , C 3 AH 6 and Al(OH) 3 phases are the main hydration products of CaAl 2 O 4 . Under the same laboratory conditions, the hydration of Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 proceeds with the formation of mainly CAH 10 and AH 3 -gel phases. We provide the original illustrations of the hydrate crystals formation via amorphous phases

  3. Bioactivity of gel-glass powders in the CaO-SiO2 system: a comparison with ternary (CaO-P2O5-SiO2) and quaternary glasses (SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanapavan, Priya; Jones, Julian R; Pryce, Russell S; Hench, Larry L

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive glasses react chemically with body fluids in a manner that is compatible with the repair processes of the tissues. This results in the formation of an interfacial bond between the glasses and living tissue. Bioactive glasses also stimulate bone-cell proliferation. This behavior is dependent on the chemical composition as well as the surface texture of the glasses. It has been recently reported that gel-derived monolith specimens in the binary SiO2 - CaO are bioactive over a similar molar range of SiO2 content as the previously studied ternary CaO-P2O5-SiO2 system. In this report, the preparation and bioactivity of the binary gel-glass powder with 70 mol % SiO2 is discussed and its bioactivity is compared with the melt-derived 45S5 (quaternary) Bioglass and sol-gel-derived 58S (ternary) bioactive gel-glass compositions. Dissolution kinetic parameters K(1) and K(2) were also computed based on the silicon release for all glass powders. It was shown that the simple two-component SiO2-CaO gel-glass powder is bioactive with comparable dissolution rates as the clinically used melt-derived 45S5 Bioglass powder and extensively studied sol-gel-derived 58S gel-glass powder. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Assessment of circumferential cracks in hypereutectic Al-Si clutch housings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Haghshenas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available As in situ natural composites with silicon phase acting as the reinforcing phase, Al-Si alloys are among most commonly used aluminum alloys in automotive applications (i.e. engine component. Silicon contributes to the strength of Al-Si alloys through load transfer from the Al matrix to the hard (rigid Si phase in the microstructure (load-carrying capacity. Casting parameters (i.e. solidification rate, elemental segregation, secondary dendrite spacing… as well as the size and distribution of the microstructural constituents in Al-Si alloys (i.e. morphology of Si particles, intermetallic compounds, secondary dendrite spacing contribute directly to the mechanical response and failure (or fracture behavior of the alloy within the service. In hyper-eutectic Al-Si alloys (i.e. B390.0, distribution of coarse pre-eutectic Si particle mainly contribute to stress concentration, crack initiation and propagation during the actual service condition. In the present paper, the parameters contribution to the formation of the circumferential cracks in clutch housings made of die cast hyper-eutectics B390.0 Al-Si alloys are assessed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Casting variable, cooling rate, their effect on the cracks as well some of the possible causes are also discussed in detail.

  5. Synthesis, microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} soft magnetic composite core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian, E-mail: snove418562@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Fan, Xi’an, E-mail: groupfxa@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Wu, Zhaoyang, E-mail: wustwuzhaoyang@163.com [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Li, Guangqiang [The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China); Key Laboratory for Ferrous Metallurgy and Resources Utilization of Ministry of Education, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430081 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} soft magnetic composite core have been synthesized via a modified stöber method combined with following high temperature sintering process. Most of conductive Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3} particles could be uniformly coated by insulating SiO{sub 2} using the modified stöber method. The Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles exhibited good soft magnetic properties with low coercivity and high saturation magnetization. The reaction 4Al+3SiO{sub 2}=2α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}+3Si took place during the sintering process. As a result the new Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite was formed. The Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite core displayed more excellent soft magnetic properties, better frequency stability at high frequencies, much higher electrical resistivity and lower core loss than the pure Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3} core. The method of introducing insulating layers surrounding magnetic particles provides a promising route to develop new and high compact soft magnetic materials with good magnetic and electric properties. - Graphical abstract: In Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite, Fe{sub 3}Si phases are separated by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers and the eddy currents are confined in Fe{sub 3}Si phases, thus increasing resistivity and reducing core loss. - Highlights: • Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} core–shell particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cores were prepared. • Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3} particles could be uniformly coated by nano-sized SiO{sub 2} clusters. • Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}@SiO{sub 2} particles and Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} cores showed good soft magnetic properties. • Fe{sub 3}Si/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} had lower core loss and better frequency stability than Fe{sub 3}Si{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3} cores.

  6. Fabrication of Al-20 wt%Si powder using scrap Si by ultra high-energy milling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won-Kyung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Fikret [Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Campus, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Kim, Hyo-Seob; Koo, Jar-Myung [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, 275, Budae-dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High energy ball milling process has been successfully employed to produce Al-20Si alloy using scrap Si powders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fully finer and homogenous structure could be achieved after 60 min of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hardness of as-milled Al-20Si powder increased steadily with the increase of milling time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain size and dispersion strengthening are two mechanisms being responsible for hardness increment. - Abstract: In this study, microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of Al-20 wt%Si and pure Al powders fabricated by ultra high-energy ball milling technique were investigated as a function of milling time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-milled powders were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Vickers hardness tester. SEM observation showed that the particle size increased at an early stage of milling, and then decreased drastically with further milling. XRD and cross-sectional EDS-mapping analyses revealed that Si particles were not dissolved but uniformly dispersed in the Al matrix in a milled state. Vickers hardness of both pure Al and Al-Si powder increases with milling time, which attributes to the grain size strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  7. Effect of Slag Composition on the Crystallization Kinetics of Synthetic CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO Slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Shaghayegh; Barati, Mansoor

    2018-04-01

    The crystallization kinetics of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO (CSAM) slags was studied with the aid of single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT). Kinetic parameters such as the Avrami exponent ( n), rate coefficient ( K), and effective activation energy of crystallization ( E A ) were obtained by kinetic analysis of data obtained from in situ observation of glassy to crystalline transformation and image analysis. Also, the dependence of nucleation and growth rates of crystalline phases were quantified as a function of time, temperature, and slag basicity. Together with the observations of crystallization front, they facilitated establishing the dominant mechanisms of crystallization. In an attempt to predict crystallization rate under non-isothermal conditions, a mathematical model was developed that employs the rate data of isothermal transformation. The model was validated by reproducing an experimental continuous cooling transformation diagram purely from isothermal data.

  8. Estudio por difracción de rayos X de la hidratación de mezclas de CaAl2O4 - Humo de silice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the amorphous silica on the mechanism of hydration of the calcium monoaluminate (CaAl2O4 has been studied at ambient temperature with a water/solids ratio of 0.5. The evolution of the hydrated phases, formed in the first instants of the reaction, has been studied by laboratory X ray diffraction with a time resolution of 36 min. The integration of selected diffraction peaks of the phases: Ca2Al2O5•8H2O (Ca2Al2(OH10•3H2O, CaAl2O4 and Ca4Al2(OH12(CO3•5H2O, has allowed to establish the kinetics of the reaction. This way, it has been shown that the amorphous silica causes a drastic decrease in the period of induction of the hydration and accelerates the formation of the metastable crystalline hydrates Ca2Al2(OH10•3H2O and Ca4Al2(OH12(CO3•5H2O. These results have been confirmed by Thermogravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis and Scanning Electric Microscopy. The hydration mechanism proposed confirms previous data of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Solids (RMN of 29Si of the authors of this paper.Se ha estudiado la influencia del humo de sílice sobre el mecanismo de hidratación del monoaluminato de calcio (CaAl2O4 a temperatura ambiente y con una relación agua/sólidos de 0,5. La evolución de las fases hidratadas, que se forman en los primeros instantes de la reacción, se ha estudiado por difracción de rayos X de laboratorio con una resolución temporal de 36 min. La integración de picos de difracción seleccionados de las fases: Ca2Al2O5•8H2O (Ca2Al2(OH10•3H2O, CaAl2O4 y Ca4Al2(OH12(CO3•5H2O, ha permitido establecer la cinética de la reacción. Así, se ha puesto de manifiesto que el humo de sílice provoca una drástica disminución en el periodo de inducción de la hidratación y acelera la formación de los hidratos cristalinos metaestables Ca2Al2(OH10•3H2O y Ca4Al2(OH12(CO3•5H2O. Estos resultados se han confirmado por Termogravimetría, Análisis Térmico Diferencial y Microscopía Electrónica de

  9. Glass-ceramic nuclear waste forms obtained by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th): Study of the crystallization from the surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, P.; Caurant, D.

    2010-07-01

    Glass-ceramic materials containing zirconolite (nominally CaZrTi 2O 7) crystals in their bulk can be envisaged as potential waste forms for minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) and Pu immobilization. In this study such matrices are synthesized by crystallization of SiO 2-Al 2O 3-CaO-ZrO 2-TiO 2 glasses containing lanthanides (Ce, Nd, Eu, Gd, Yb) and actinides (Th) as surrogates. A thin partially crystallized layer containing titanite and anorthite (nominally CaTiSiO 5 and CaAl 2Si 2O 8, respectively) growing from glass surface is also observed. The effect of the nature and concentration of surrogates on the structure, the microstructure and the composition of the crystals formed in the surface layer is presented in this paper. Titanite is the only crystalline phase able to significantly incorporate trivalent lanthanides whereas ThO 2 precipitates in the layer. The crystal growth thermal treatment duration (2-300 h) at high temperature (1050-1200 °C) is shown to strongly affect glass-ceramics microstructure. For the system studied in this paper, it appears that zirconolite is not thermodynamically stable in comparison with titanite growing form glass surface. Nevertheless, for kinetic reasons, such transformation (i.e. zirconolite disappearance to the benefit of titanite) is not expected to occur during interim storage and disposal of the glass-ceramic waste forms because their temperature will never exceed a few hundred degrees.

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Multiphase Strengthened Al/Si/Al_2O_3/SiO_2/MWCNTs Nano composites Sintered by In Situ Vacuum Hot Pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Jiang, X.; Zhu, D.; Zhu, M.; Shao, Z.; Johnson, S.; Luo, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Eutectic Al/Si binary alloy is technically one of the most important Al casting alloys due to its high corrosion resistance, evident shrinkage reduction, low thermal expansion coefficient, high fluidity, and good weldability. In this work, multi phased Al/Si matrix nano composites reinforced with Al_2O_3 and multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) have been sintered by an in situ vacuum hot-pressing method. The alumina Al_2O_3 nanoparticles were introduced by an in situ reaction of Al with SiO_2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the sintered Al/Si/Al_2O_3/SiO_2/MWCNTs nano composites with different alumina contents were investigated. The mechanical properties were determined by micro-Vickers hardness and compressive and shear strength tests. The results demonstrated that in situ alumina and MWCNTs had impacts on microstructure and mechanical properties of the nano composites. Based on the mechanical properties and microstructure of the nano composites, strengthening and fracture mechanisms by multiple reinforcements were analyzed

  11. Obtenção de substratos cerâmicos no sistema Si-Al-O-N-C empregando polissiloxanos e carga de Si e Al2O3 Ceramic tapes of Si-Al-O-N-C compounds using mixtures of polyssiloxane and Si-Al2O3 fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rocha

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de processamento de colagem por fita (tape casting tem sido amplamente utilizada na obtenção de cerâmicas para diferentes aplicações: substratos cerâmicos e estruturas planares em multicamadas para circuitos integrados e capacitores; eletrólitos sólidos para células a combustível e sensores; cerâmicas piezoelétricas para atuadores e transdutores; membranas de separação para micro-filtragem; compósitos estruturais e trocadores de calor. Neste trabalho, a técnica convencional de colagem por fita foi adaptada com a utilização do processo de pirólise controlada de misturas de polímeros e carga, empregando-se polissiloxanos e cargas de silício e alumina nas suspensões. Foram preparadas suspensões com 60% vol. de fase polimérica (polissiloxanos e metil-trietoxi-silano e 40% vol. de carga (Si e Al2O3, com diferentes concentrações dos polímeros e das cargas. As amostras na forma de substratos foram pirolisadas em atmosfera de nitrogênio a 1400 °C/2 h e 1500 °C/2 h, sendo convertidas em materiais cerâmicos no sistema Si-Al-O-N-C. O processo de pirólise foi caracterizado até a temperatura de 1000 ºC por análise termogravimétrica. As cerâmicas foram caracterizadas quanto às fases formadas, microestrutura, massa específica aparente e condutividade térmica. Os substratos cerâmicos apresentaram porosidade relativamente alta (entre 12 e 22% e baixa condutividade térmica (entre 3 e 8 W/m.K, sendo constituídos por fases cristalinas de beta-SiC, Si2ON2, O'-SiAlON, Al2O3, mulita e fase amorfa de SiOC; o Si foi observado nas amostras pirolisadas a 1400 ºC.The tape casting technique has been widely used to prepare ceramic tapes for different applications: ceramic substrates and multilayer planar structures for integrated circuits and capacitors, solid electrolytes for fuel cells and sensors, piezoelectric ceramics for actuators and transducers, membrane systems for micro-filtration, structural composites and

  12. Oxidation behavior of arc evaporated Al-Cr-Si-N thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritremmel, Christian; Daniel, Rostislav; Mitterer, Christian; Mayrhofer, Paul H.; Lechthaler, Markus; Polcik, Peter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Advanced Hard Coatings, Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory for Application Oriented Coating Development, Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); OC Oerlikon Balzers AG, Iramali 18, LI-9496 Balzers (Liechtenstein); PLANSEE Composite Materials GmbH, Siebenbuergerstrasse 23, D-86983 Lechbruck am See (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    The impact of Al and Si on the oxidation behavior of Al-Cr-(Si)-N thin films synthesized by arc evaporation of powder metallurgically prepared Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x} targets with x = Al/(Al + Cr) of 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 and (Al{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}){sub 1-z}Si{sub z} targets with Si contents of z = 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 in N{sub 2} atmosphere was studied in detail by means of differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), x-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Dynamical measurements in synthetic air (up to 1440 Degree-Sign C) revealed the highest onset temperature of pronounced oxidation for nitride coatings prepared from the Al{sub 0.4}Cr{sub 0.4}Si{sub 0.2} target. Isothermal TGA at 1100, 1200, 1250, and 1300 Degree-Sign C highlight the pronounced improvement of the oxidation resistance of Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1-x}N coatings by the addition of Si. The results show that Si promotes the formation of a dense coating morphology as well as a dense oxide scale when exposed to air.

  13. Structural, bonding, anisotropic mechanical and thermal properties of Al4SiC4 and Al4Si2C5 by first-principles investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Sun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The structural, bonding, electronic, mechanical and thermal properties of ternary aluminum silicon carbides Al4SiC4 and Al4Si2C5 are investigated by first-principles calculations combined with the Debye quasi-harmonic approximation. All the calculated mechanical constants like bulk, shear and Young's modulus are in good agreement with experimental values. Both compounds show distinct anisotropic elastic properties along different crystalline directions, and the intrinsic brittleness of both compounds is also confirmed. The elastic anisotropy of both aluminum silicon carbides originates from their bonding structures. The calculated band gap is obtained as 1.12 and 1.04 eV for Al4SiC4 and Al4Si2C5 respectively. From the total electron density distribution map, the obvious covalent bonds exist between Al and C atoms. A distinct electron density deficiency sits between AlC bond along c axis among Al4SiC4, which leads to its limited tensile strength. Meanwhile, the anisotropy of acoustic velocities for both compounds is also calculated and discussed.

  14. Methods of improving mechanical and biomedical properties of Ca-Si-based ceramics and scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengtie

    2009-05-01

    CaSiO3 ceramics and porous scaffolds are regarded as potential materials for bone tissue regeneration owing to their excellent bioactivity. However, their low mechanical strength and high dissolution limit their further biomedical application. In this report, we introduce three methods to improve the mechanical and biomedical properties of CaSiO3 ceramics and scaffolds. Positive ions and polymer modification are two promising ways to improve the mechanical and biomedical properties of CaSiO3 ceramics and scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration.

  15. Microstructure and Physical-Mechanical Properties of (TiAlSiY)N Nanostructured Coatings Under Different Energy Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyrnova, K. V.; Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Beresnev, V. M.; Litovchenko, S. V.; Borba-Pogrebnjak, S. O.; Manokhin, A. S.; Klimenko, S. A.; Zhollybekov, B.; Kupchishin, A. I.; Kravchenko, Ya. O.; Bondar, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    Nanostructured multicomponent (TiAlSiY)N coatings were fabricated by the cathodic-arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD). In this study, a bias potential applied to the substrate was - 200 and - 500 V, and changes in structure and properties of coatings were investigated. Samples had a single-phase state with a face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice. Small crystallites of about 7.5 nm and texture with [110] axis were observed at - 500 V. However, lower bias potential resulted in the formation of crystallites of about 41.6 nm with [111] preferred orientation. Moreover, coatings were characterized by superhard state and demonstrated low wear, high abrasion and crack resistance. The testing of the polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting inserts covered with (TiAlSiY)N revealed an increase in the tool life coefficient during cutting by 1.66 times in comparison with the base tool material. Therefore, (TiAlSiY)N coating is a perspective material for application as a protective layer in cutting tools.

  16. Resistance Switching Memory Characteristics of Si/CaF2/CdF2 Quantum-Well Structures Grown on Metal (CoSi2) Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denda, Junya; Uryu, Kazuya; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    A novel scheme of resistance switching random access memory (ReRAM) devices fabricated using Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si quantum-well structures grown on metal CoSi2 layer formed on a Si substrate has been proposed, and embryonic write/erase memory operation has been demonstrated at room temperature. It has been found that the oxide-mediated epitaxy (OME) technique for forming the CoSi2 layer on Si dramatically improves the stability and reproducibility of the current-voltage (I-V) curve. This technology involves 10-nm-thick Co layer deposition on a protective oxide prepared by boiling in a peroxide-based solution followed by annealing at 550 °C for 30 min for silicidation in ultrahigh vacuum. A switching voltage of lower than 1 V, a peak current density of 32 kA/cm2, and an ON/OFF ratio of 10 have been observed for the sample with the thickness sequence of 0.9/0.9/2.5/0.9/5.0 nm for the respective layers in the Si/CaF2/CdF2/CaF2/Si structure. Results of surface morphology analysis suggest that the grain size of crystal islands with flat surfaces strongly affects the quality of device characteristics.

  17. Growth and Device Performance of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure with AlSiC Precoverage on Silicon Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A crack-free AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was grown on 4-inch Si (111 substrate with initial dot-like AlSiC precoverage layer. It is believed that introducing the AlSiC layer between AlN wetting layer and Si substrate is more effective in obtaining a compressively stressed film growth than conventional Al precoverage on Si surface. The metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET, fabricated on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure grown with the AlSiC layer, exhibited normally on characteristics, such as threshold voltage of −2.3 V, maximum drain current of 370 mA/mm, and transconductance of 124 mS/mm.

  18. In vitro bioactivity, tribological property, and antibacterial ability of Ca-Si-based coatings doped with cu particles in-situ fabricated by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baoping; Yang, Zhao; Yang, Yuling; Zhang, Erlin; Qin, Gaowu

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to in-situ fabricate Ca-Si-based coatings doped with copper particles (Cu-CS coatings) to enhance in vitro bioactivity, tribological property, and antibacterial ability of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The effects of copper addition on the multiple properties were evaluated. Our results showed that Ca2SiO4, CaTiO3, and Cu2O were in-situ fabricated after laser processing. The Cu-CS coatings exhibited an excellent wear resistance and enhanced wettability. Regarding the in vitro bioactivity, after soaking in simulated body fluid, Cu-CS coatings developed an apatite surface layer that was reduced in the coatings with higher weight percent Cu addition. The Cu-CS coatings enhanced the inhibitory action against E. coli strains, especially for the coating with a higher concentration of Cu in it. Hence, the synthesized Cu-CS coatings present excellent tribological properties, enhanced bioactivity, and antibacterial property, and, therefore, would be used to modify the surface properties of Ti-6Al-4V implants for bone tissue engineering applications.

  19. Structure of Na2O·MO·SiO2·CaF2 (M=Mg, Ca) oxyfluoride glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jinshu; Deng Wei; Wang Mitang

    2012-01-01

    (9-x)CaO·xMgO·15Na 2 O·60SiO 2 ·16CaF 2 (x=0, 2, 4, 6, and 9) oxyfluoride glasses were prepared. Utilizing the Raman scattering technique together with 29 Si and 19 F MAS NMR, the effect of alkaline metal oxides on the Q species of glass was characterized. Raman results show that as magnesia is added at the expense of calcium oxide, the disproportional reaction Q 3 →Q 4 +Q 2 (Q n is a SiO 4 tetrahedron with n bridging oxygens) prompted due to the high ionic field strength of magnesia, magnesium oxide entered into the silicate network as tetrahedral MgO 4 , and removed other modifying ions for charge compensation. This reaction was confirmed by 29 Si MAS NMR. 19 F MAS NMR results show that fluorine exists in the form of mixed calcium sodium fluoride species in all glasses and no Si-F bonds were formed. As CaO is gradually replaced by MgO (x=6, 9), a proportion of the magnesium ions combines with fluorine to form the MgF + species. Meanwhile, some part of Na + ions complex F - in the form of F-Na(6).

  20. Investigation of the Electrical Characteristics of Al/p-Si/Al Schottky Diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şenarslan, Elvan; Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, p-type Si semiconductor wafer with (100) orientation, 400 μm thickness and 1-10 Ω cm resistivity was used. The Si wafer before making contacts were chemically cleaned with the Si cleaning procedure which for remove organic contaminations were ultrasonically cleaned at acetone and methanol for 10 min respectively and then rinsed in deionized water of 18 MΩ and dried with high purity N 2 . Then respectively RCA1(i.e., boiling in NH 3 +H 2 O 2 +6H 2 O for 10 min at 60°C ), RCA2 (i.e., boiling in HCl+H 2 O 2 +6H 2 O for 10 min at 60°C ) cleaning procedures were applied and rinsed in deionized water followed by drying with a stream of N 2 . After the cleaning process, the wafer is immediately inserted in to the coating unit. Ohmic contact was made by evaporating of Al on the non-polished side of the p-Si wafer pieces under ∼ 4,2 10 -6 Torr pressure. After process evaporation, p-Si with omic contac thermally annealed 580°C for 3 min in a quartz tube furnace in N 2 . Then, the rectifier contact is made by evaporation Al metal diameter of about 1.0 mm on the polished surface of p-Si in turbo molecular pump at about ∼ 1 10 -6 Torr. Consequently, Al/p-Si/Al Schottky diode was obtained. The I–V measurements of this diode performed by the use of a KEITLEY 487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source and the C–V measurements were performed with HP 4192A (50–13 MHz) LF Impedance Analyzer at room temperature and in dark. (paper)

  1. Investigation of the Electrical Characteristics of Al/p-Si/Al Schottky Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenarslan, Elvan; Güzeldir, Betül; Sağlam, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    In this study, p-type Si semiconductor wafer with (100) orientation, 400 μm thickness and 1-10 Ω cm resistivity was used. The Si wafer before making contacts were chemically cleaned with the Si cleaning procedure which for remove organic contaminations were ultrasonically cleaned at acetone and methanol for 10 min respectively and then rinsed in deionized water of 18 MΩ and dried with high purity N2. Then respectively RCA1(i.e., boiling in NH3+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ), RCA2 (i.e., boiling in HCl+H2O2+6H2O for 10 min at 60°C ) cleaning procedures were applied and rinsed in deionized water followed by drying with a stream of N2. After the cleaning process, the wafer is immediately inserted in to the coating unit. Ohmic contact was made by evaporating of Al on the non-polished side of the p-Si wafer pieces under ~ 4,2 10-6 Torr pressure. After process evaporation, p-Si with omic contac thermally annealed 580°C for 3 min in a quartz tube furnace in N2. Then, the rectifier contact is made by evaporation Al metal diameter of about 1.0 mm on the polished surface of p-Si in turbo molecular pump at about ~ 1 10-6 Torr. Consequently, Al/p-Si/Al Schottky diode was obtained. The I-V measurements of this diode performed by the use of a KEITLEY 487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source and the C-V measurements were performed with HP 4192A (50-13 MHz) LF Impedance Analyzer at room temperature and in dark.

  2. Calcium aluminates hydration in presence of amorphous SiO2 at temperatures below 90 deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas Mercury, J.M.; Turrillas, X.; Aza, A.H. de; Pena, P.

    2006-01-01

    The hydration behaviour of Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 , Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 and CaAl 2 O 4 with added amorphous silica at 40, 65 and 90 deg. C has been studied for periods ranging from 1 to 31 days. In hydrated samples crystalline phases like katoite (Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3- x (OH) 4 x ) and gibbsite, Al(OH) 3 , were identified, likewise amorphous phases like Al(OH) x , calcium silicate hydrates, C-S-H, and calcium aluminosilicate hydrates, C-S-A-H, were identified. The stoichiometry of Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3- x (OH) 4 x (0≤3-x≤0.334), which was the main crystalline product, was established by Rietveld refinement of X-ray and neutron diffraction data and by transmission electron microscopy. - Graphical abstract: Katoite, Ca 3 Al 2 (SiO 4 ) 3- x (OH) 4 x (0≤3-x≤0.334), was identified besides gibbsite, Al(OH) 3 , as a crystalline stable hydration products in Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 , Ca 12 Al 14 O 33 and CaAl 2 O 4 hydrated with added amorphous silica between 40 and 90 deg. C

  3. Irradiation mixing of Al into U3Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birtcher, R.C.; Ding, F.R.; Kestel, B.J.; Baldo, P.M.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1995-11-01

    Thermal and irradiation induced intermixing of uranium silicide reactor fuels with the aluminum cladding is an important consideration in understanding their fission gas and fuel swelling behavior. The authors have used Rutherford backscattering to follow the behavior of an Al thin film on U 3 Si and U 3 Si 2 during 1.5 MeV Kr ion irradiation at temperatures of 30 and 350 C. After an initial dose during which no intermixing occurs, the Al mixes quickly into U 3 Si. The threshold dose is believed to be associated with an oxide layer between the Al and the uranium silicide. At 300 C and doses greater than threshold, rates of mixing and aluminide phase growth are extracted

  4. Weld microstructure in cast AlSi9/SiC(p metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wysocki

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Welded joint in cast AlSi9/SiC/20(p metal matrix composite by manual TIG arc welding using AlMg5 filler metal has been described inhis paper. Cooling curves have been stated, and the influence in distribution of reinforced particles on crystallization and weldmicrostructure. Welded joint mechanical properties have been determined: hardness and tensile.

  5. Anisotropic Responses of Mechanical and Thermal Processed Cast Al-Si-Mg-Cu Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeosun, S. O.; Akpan, E. I.; Balogun, S. A.; Onoyemi, O. K.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of ambient directional rolling and heat treatments on ultimate tensile strength (UTS), hardness (HD), percent elongation (PE), and impact energy (IE) on Al-Si-Mg-Cu alloy casting with reference to inclination to rolling direction are discussed in this article. The results show that rolled and quenched (CQ) sample possess superior UTS and HD to as-cast and those of rolled and aged samples (CA). Improved IE resistance with ductility is shown by both CQ and CA samples. However, these mechanical properties are enhanced as changes in the test sample direction moved away from rolling direction for all heat-treated samples. The CQ samples displayed highest tensile strength (108 MPa) and PE (19.8%) in the 90° direction.

  6. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 : Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marashdeh, A.; Frankcombe, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski’s direct method. The

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of spray deposited hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrarini, C.F.; Bolfarini, C.; Kiminami, C.S.; Botta F, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure and the tensile properties of an Al-8.9 wt.% Si-3.2 wt.% Cu-0.9 wt.% Fe-0.8% Zn alloy processed by spray forming was investigated. The alloy was gas atomized with argon and deposited onto a copper substrate. The microstructure was evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Small faceted dispersoids observed surrounding equiaxial α-Al matrix were identified by SEM-EDS as silicon particles. Sand cast samples with the same composition showed a columnar dendritic α-Al matrix, Al-Si eutectic, polyhedric α-AlFeSi and needle-like β-AlFeSi intermetallics. In the spray formed material the formation of the Al-Si eutetic was suppressed, and the formation of the α-AlFeSi and β-AlFeSi intermetallics was strongly reduced. The fine and homogeneous microstructure showed an aluminium matrix with grain size ranging from 30 to 40 μm, and particle size of the silicon dispersoids having a mean size of 12 μm. Room temperature tensile tests of the spray formed alloy showed relative increasing of strength and elongation when compared with the values observed for the conventionally cast counterparts. These results can be ascribed to the refined microstructure and the scarce presence of intermetallics of the spray formed material

  8. Microstructure, mechanical properties and bio-corrosion properties of Mg-Si(-Ca, Zn) alloy for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Yang, Lei; Xu, Jianwei; Chen, Haiyan

    2010-05-01

    Mg-Si alloy was investigated for biomedical application due to the biological function of Si in the human body. However, Mg-Si alloy showed a low ductility due to the presence of coarse Mg(2)Si. Ca and Zn elements were used to refine and modify the morphology of Mg(2)Si in order to improve the corrosion resistance and the mechanical properties. The cell toxicity of Mg, Zn and Ca metals was assessed by an MTT test. The test results indicated that increasing the concentrations of Mg, Zn and Ca ions did not cause cell toxicity, which showed that the release of these three elements would not lead to cell toxicity. Then, microstructure, mechanical properties and bio-corrosion properties of as-cast Mg-Si(-Ca, Zn) alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, mechanical properties testing and electrochemical measurement. Ca element can slightly refine the grain size and the morphology Mg(2)Si phase in Mg-Si alloy. The bio-corrosion resistance of Mg-Si alloys was improved by the addition of Ca due to the reduction and refinement of Mg(2)Si phase; however, no improvement was observed in the strength and elongation. The addition of 1.6% Zn to Mg-0.6Si can modify obviously the morphology of Mg(2)Si phase from course eutectic structure to a small dot or short bar shape. As a result, tensile strength, elongation and bio-corrosion resistance were all improved significantly; especially, the elongation improved by 115.7%. It was concluded that Zn element was one of the best alloying elements of Mg-Si alloy for biomedical application. Copyright (c) 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Drainage effect in eutectic Al-Si foam using similar alporas process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filho, M.O.; Junior, A.C.S; Ferrandini, P.L.; Nakazato, A.Z.; Assis, W.L.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular materials have particular properties. This properties are very interesting in various type of industries, as construction, automobile and shipbuilding. Two reasons why metal foams are apply in more companies are difficult process control and high production costs. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the drainage effect in four samples produced with alloy Al-Si eutectic using CaCO 3 as foaming agent, since this is low cost than TiH 2 used normally in Alporas process and this foam have well pores uniform. For these samples has been used 700°C during all process, mixing time was 180 seconds, holding time was 150 seconds and 3,5 w.t% CaCO3. Therefore, these samples were cut transversally and analyzed what were the drainage effect on the apparent density, relative density and porosity. The free zone bubbles were noticed in all the samples. (author)

  10. Development and cytotoxicity evaluation of SiAlONs ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, C.; Ribeiro, S.; Daguano, J.K.M.F.; Rogero, S.O.; Strecker, K.; Silva, C.R.M.

    2007-01-01

    SiAlONs are ceramics with high potential as biomaterials due to their chemical stability, associated with suitable mechanical properties, such as high fracture toughness and fracture resistance. The objective of this work was to investigate the mechanical properties and the cytotoxicity of these ceramic materials. Three different compositions were prepared, using silicon nitride, aluminum nitride and a rare earth oxide mixture as starting powders, yielding Si 3 N 4 -SiAlON composites or pure SiAlON ceramics, after hot-pressing at 1750 deg. C, for 30 min. The sintered samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, hardness and fracture toughness were determined using the Vicker's indentation method. The biological compatibility was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Ceramic with elevated hardness, ranging between 17 and 21 GPa, and high fracture toughness of 5 to 6 MPa m 1/2 were obtained. Since a nontoxic behavior was observed in the cytotoxicity tests, it may be assumed that SiAlON-based ceramics are viable materials for clinical applications

  11. Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Ahmadi, Mehran

    Silicon is an essential component of many aluminum alloys, as it imparts a range of desirable characteristics. However, there are considerable practical difficulties in dissolving solid Si in molten Al, because the dissolution process is slow, resulting in material and energy losses. It is thus essential to examine Si dissolution in molten Al, to identify means of accelerating the process. This thesis presents an experimental study of the effect of Si purity, bath temperature, fluid flow conditions, and gas stirring on the dissolution of Si in molten Al, plus the results of physical and numerical modeling of the flow to corroborate the experimental results. The dissolution experiments were conducted in a revolving liquid metal tank to generate a bulk velocity, and gas was introduced into the melt using top lance injection. Cylindrical Si specimens were immersed into molten Al for fixed durations, and upon removal the dissolved Si was measured. The shape and trajectory of injected bubbles were examined by means of auxiliary water experiments and video recordings of the molten Al free surface. The gas-agitated liquid was simulated using the commercial software FLOW-3D. The simulation results provide insights into bubble dynamics and offer estimates of the fluctuating velocities within the Al bath. The experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate of Si increases in tandem with the melt temperature and bulk velocity. A higher bath temperature increases the solubility of Si at the solid/liquid interface, resulting in a greater driving force for mass transfer, and a higher liquid velocity decreases the resistance to mass transfer via a thinner mass boundary layer. Impurities (with lower diffusion coefficients) in the form of inclusions obstruct the dissolution of the Si main matrix. Finally, dissolution rate enhancement was observed by gas agitation. It is postulated that the bubble-induced fluctuating velocities disturb the mass boundary layer, which

  12. Response of Si- and Al-doped graphenes toward HCN: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastegar, Somayeh F.; Peyghan, Ali Ahmadi; Hadipour, Nasser L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sensitivity of Si- and Al-doped graphene (SiG and AlG) toward HCN is investigated. ► The electronic properties of AlG are significantly changed in the presence of HCN. ► It is established that AlG can be a good sensor for HCN molecule. - Abstract: Sensitivity of Si- and Al-doped graphenes (SiG and AlG) toward toxic HCN has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in terms of energetic, geometric and electronic properties. Optimized configurations corresponding to physisorption and, subsequently, chemisorption of HCN on each surface have been identified. It is found that HCN molecule can be adsorbed on impurity atoms with adsorption energies about −27.20 and −38.75 kcal/mol on the SiG and the AlG, respectively. By comparing to HCN adsorption on SiG, it can be inferred that molecular HCN adsorbed on AlG can induce significant change in AlG conductivity. On the basis of calculated changes in the HOMO/LUMO energy gap it is found that electronic properties of AlG are sensitive toward adsorption of HCN and the reverse is correct for SiG, suggesting that the AlG may be a promising sensor for HCN.

  13. The Effectiveness of Al-Si Coatings for Preventing Interfacial Reaction in Al-Mg Dissimilar Metal Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Al-Zubaidy, Basem; Prangnell, Philip B.

    2018-01-01

    The dissimilar welding of aluminum to magnesium is challenging because of the rapid formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the weld interface. An Al-Si coating interlayer was selected to address this problem, based on thermodynamic calculations which predicted that silicon would change the reaction path to avoid formation of the normally observed binary Al-Mg IMC phases ( β-Al3Mg2 and γ-Al12Mg17). Long-term static heat treatments confirmed that a Si-rich coating will preferentially produce the Mg2Si phase in competition with the less stable, β-Al3Mg2 and γ-Al12Mg17 binary IMC phases, and this reduced the overall reaction layer thickness. However, when an Al-Si clad sheet was tested in a real welding scenario, using the Refill™ friction stir spot welding (FSSW) technique, Mg2Si was only produced in very small amounts owing to the much shorter reaction time. Surprisingly, the coating still led to a significant reduction in the IMC reaction layer thickness and the welds exhibited enhanced mechanical performance, with improved strength and fracture energy. This beneficial behavior has been attributed to the softer coating material both reducing the welding temperature and giving rise to the incorporation of Si particles into the reaction layer, which toughened the brittle interfacial IMC phases during crack propagation.

  14. A Novel MgO-CaO-SiO2 System for Fabricating Bone Scaffolds with Improved Overall Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although forsterite (Mg2SiO4 possesses good biocompatibility and suitable mechanical properties, the insufficient bioactivity and degradability hinders its further application. In this study, a novel MgO-CaO-SiO2 system was developed by adding wollastonite (CaSiO3 into Mg2SiO4 to fabricate bone scaffolds via selective laser sintering (SLS. The apatite-forming ability and degradability of the scaffolds were enhanced because the degradation of CaSiO3 could form silanol groups, which could offer nucleation sites for apatite. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the scaffolds grew with increasing CaSiO3 to 20 wt %. It was explained that the liquid phase of CaSiO3 promoted the densification during sintering due to its low melting point. With the further increase in CaSiO3, the mechanical properties decreased due to the formation of the continuous filling phase. Furthermore, the scaffolds possessed a well-interconnected porous structure and exhibited an ability to support cell adhesion and proliferation.

  15. Separation of primary solid phases from Al-Si alloy melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Young Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The iron-rich solids formed during solidification of Al-Si alloys which are known to be detrimental to the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the alloys should be removed. On the other hand, Al-Si hypereutectic alloys are used to extract the pure primary silicon which is suitable for photovoltaic cells in the solvent refining process. One of the important issues in iron removal and in solvent refining is the effective separation of the crystallized solids from the Al-Si alloy melts. This paper describes the separation methods of the primary solids from Al-Si alloy melts such as sedimentation, draining, filtration, electromagnetic separation and centrifugal separation, focused on the iron removal and on the separation of silicon in the solvent refining process.

  16. Corrosion analysis of AlMg2 and AlMgSi using electrochemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dian A; Maman Kartaman; Rosika K; Yanlinastuti

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion test of cladding materials and structures of research reactor fuel, AlMgSi and AlMg2 have been performed in demineralized water of pH 2 and 6.7 using an electrochemical method. Corrosion phenomenon is affected by several factor such as composition and condition of solution. The purpose of this activity is to investigate the corrosion phenomena through the determination of the parameters of corrosion and polarization curve. The materials used are AlMg2 and AlMgSi alloy in circular dish shape with an area of 1 Cm"2. Preparation of the test sample is performed through several stages polishing, cleaning and drying procedures followed ASTM G3. The electrochemical method is done by measuring the open circuit potential (OCP), polarization resistance and potentiodynamic in demineralized water of pH 2 and pH 6.7 at temperature of 25°C. The results of the OCP is the corrosion potential (Ecorr) of AlMg2 and AlMgSi each of -906.1 mV and -619.8 mV at pH 2 and -868.6 and -756.7 mV at pH 6.7 mV. The results of measurements by polarization resistance technique showed that the corrosion rate of AlMg2 and AlMgSi in safe category (<2 mpy) at pH 6.7 and at pH 2 corrosion rate increased significantly, but still in the lightweight category (<20 mpy). Potentiodynamic curves showed that the passivation at pH 6.7 is very low while the passivation at pH 2 occurs within a relatively short range potential and followed events corroded. (author)

  17. Effects of Al-Mn-Ti-P-Cu master alloy on microstructure and properties of Al-25Si alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chunxiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a higher microstructural refining efficiency, and improve the properties and processing ability of hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy, a new environmentally friendly Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu (by wt.% master alloy was fabricated; and its modification and strengthening mechanisms on the Al-25Si alloy were studied. The mechanical properties of the unmodified, modified and heat treated alloys were investigated. Results show that the optimal addition amount of the Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu master alloy is 4wt.%. In this case, primary Si and eutectic Si as well as メ-Al phase were clearly refined, and this refining effect shows an excellent long residual action as it can be heat-retained for at least 5 h. After being T6 heat treated, the morphology of primary and eutectic Si in the Al-25Si alloys with the addition of 4wt.% Al-20.6Mn-12Ti-0.9P-6.1Cu alloy changes into particles and short rods. The average grain size of the primary and eutectic Si decreases from 250 レm (unmodified to 13.83 レm and 35 レm (unmodified to 7 レm; the メ-Al becomes obviously finer and the distribution of Si phases tends to be uniform and dispersed. Meanwhile, the tensile properties are improved obviously; the tensile strengths at room temperature and 300 ìC reach 241 MPa and 127 MPa, increased by 153.7% and 67.1%, respectively. In addition, the tensile fracture mechanism changes from brittle fracture for the alloy without modification to ductile fracture after modification. Modifying the morphology of Si phase and strengthening the matrix can effectively block the initiation and propagation of cracks, thus improving the strength of the hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy.

  18. Study on the preparation of the SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu functionally graded material using spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, B.; Yan, H.G.; Chen, G.; Shi, J.L.; Chen, J.H.; Zeng, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu functionally gradient material (FGM) was successfully prepared via the spray deposition technique. → The SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu functionally gradient material (FGM) was successfully prepared via the spray deposition technique. → In the experimental setup, the novel devices play an important role in adjusting the output of SiCp to prepare the FGM. → The experiment results reveal that the SiCp weight fraction of the as-deposited preform from the top to the bottom ranges almost continuously from 0% to 30%. → The fraction of SiC particles has no obvious influence on the phase constitutions of the SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu FGM. - Abstract: The SiCp/Al-20Si-3Cu functionally gradient material (FGMs) was successfully prepared via the spray deposition technique accompanied with an automatic control system. The results reveal that the SiCp weight fraction of the as-deposited preform from the top to the bottom ranges almost continuously from 0% to 30%. The part with the higher SiCp weight fraction exhibits a relatively smaller density than that with the lower SiCp weight fraction. However, the microhardness and the porosity increase with the increasing SiCp weight fraction in the as-deposited preform. The X-ray diffraction results exhibit that the secondary phases in the regions with the different amount of SiC particles are the same such as Al 2 Cu and AlCuMg. The spray deposition technology is promising to produce a wide range of other FGMs.

  19. Study of Ni/Si(1 0 0) solid-state reaction with Al addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yifei; Jiang Yulong; Ru Guoping; Li Bingzong

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of Ni/Si(1 0 0) solid-state reaction with Al addition (Ni/Al/Si(1 0 0), Ni/Al/Ni/Si(1 0 0) and Al/Ni/Si(1 0 0)) is studied. Ni and Al films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrate by ion beam sputtering. The solid-state reaction between metal films and Si was performed by rapid thermal annealing. The sheet resistance of the formed silicide film was measured by four-point probe method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to detect the phases in the silicide film. The Auger electron spectroscopy was applied to reveal the element profiles in depth. The influence of Al addition on the Schottky barrier heights of the formed silicide/Si diodes was investigated by current-voltage measurements. The experimental results show that NiSi forms even with the addition of Al, although the formation temperature correspondingly changes. It is revealed that Ni silicidation is accompanied with Al diffusion in Ni film toward the film top surface and Al is the dominant diffusion species in Ni/Al system. However, no Ni x Al y phase is detected in the films and no significant Schottky barrier height modulation by the addition of Al is observed

  20. Phase relations in the SiC-Al2O3-Pr2O3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wu, L.; Jiang, Y.; Huang, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Phase relations in the Si-Al-Pr-O-C system, including the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 , the Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 and the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 subsystems, were determined by means of XRD phase analysis of solid-state-reacted samples fabricated by using SiC, Al 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 powders as the starting materials. Subsolidus phase diagrams of the systems were presented. Two Pr-aluminates, namely PrAlO 3 (PrAP) and PrAl 11 O 18 (β(Pr) β-Al 2 O 3 type) were formed in the SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 system. SiC was compatible with both of them. Pr-silicates of Pr 2 SiO 5 , Pr 2 Si 2 O 7 and Pr 9.33 Si 6 O 26 (H(Pr) apatite type) were formed owing to presence of SiO 2 impurity in the SiC powder. The presence of the SiO 2 extended the ternary system of SiC-Al 2 O 3 -Pr 2 O 3 into a quaternary system of SiC-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -Pr 2 O 3 (Si-Al-Pr-O-C). SiC was compatible with Al 2 O 3 , Pr 2 O 3 and the Pr-silicates. The effect of SiO 2 on the phase relations and liquid phase sintering of SiC ceramics was discussed.

  1. Tensión superficial, viscosidad y densidad de algunas escorias CaO-Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, F. A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical concepts with regard to the structures and properties of calcium aluminate melts have been based upon analogies within ternary CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 systems. In this work the results of surface tension, density and viscosity of some calcium aluminate slags, in the temperature range of 1500 to 1600°C are presented and the results are discussed based upon recent structural characterisation results of crystalline aluminates. The compositional range investigated was from 45 to 53 weight-% alumina. The results indicate a reduction in density as the molar ratio CaO-Al2O3 decreases. Surface tension falls on increasing either the molar ratio CaO-Al2O3 or temperature. Conversely, viscosity increases with increasing molar ratio CaO-Al2O3 and decreasing temperature. The compositional dependence of both surface tension and viscosity data may be associated with the presence of some aluminium ions in octahedral co-ordination, and a concept of surface behaviour is proposed which involves surface activity of aluminate anions containing aluminium ions in a reduced valence state, such as Al2+.

    Los conceptos metalúrgicos con respecto a la estructura y propiedades de los aluminatos de calcio, están predominantemente basados en analogías con el sistema ternario CaO-Al2O3-SiO2. En este trabajo se presentan y discuten los resultados de medidas de tensión superficial, densidad y viscosidad de algunas escorias de aluminato de calcio, en la franja de temperatura entre 1.500 y 1.650°C, a la luz de investigaciones recientes sobre caracterización de la estructura vítrea de aluminatos y alumino- silicatos. La faja de composición investigada fue de 45 a 52% en peso de alúmina. Los resultados indican una reducción en la densidad con la disminución de la razón molar CaO: Al2O3. La

  2. Preparation and study of nanostructured TiAlSiN thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakab-Farkas L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available TiAlSiN thin film coatings were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering of TiAlSi target with 40 at.% Ti, 40 at.% Al and 20 at.% Si, performed in N2-Ar gas mixture. The sputtering power used in these experiments was controlled for 400 W. The bias voltage of the substrates was kept at -20 V DC and the temperature at 500 0C. All the samples were prepared with a constant flow rate of Ar and different nitrogen flow rates, which were selected from 1.25 sccm to 4.0 sccm. Nanostructured TiAlSiN coatings were developed on Si(100 and HSS substrates. Microstructure investigation of the coatings was performed by transmission electron microscopy investigation, structure investigation was performed by XRD analysis, and the mechanical properties of the coatings have been tested by ball-on-disk tribological investigation and micro-Vickers hardness measurements. In this paper will be shown that for optimized nitrogen concentration the microstructure of TiAlSiN coating evolve from a competitive columnar growth to a dendritic growth one with very fine nano-lamellae like morphology. The developed nanostructured TiAlSiN coatingshave hardness HV exceeding 40 GPa and show an increased abrasive wear resistance

  3. Study of Bending Fatigue Properties of Al-Si Cast Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tillová E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue properties of casting Al-alloys are very sensitive to the microstructural features of the alloy (e.g. size and morphology of the eutectic Si, secondary dendrite arm spacing - SDAS, intermetallics, grain size and casting defects (porosity and oxides. Experimental study of bending fatigue properties of secondary cast alloys have shown that: fatigue tests up to 106-107cycles show mean fatigue limits of approx. 30-49 MPa (AlSi9Cu3 alloy - as cast state, approx. 65-76 MPa (AlSi9Cu3 alloy after solution treatment and 60-70 MPa (self-hardened AlZn10Si8Mg alloy in the tested casting condition; whenever large pore is present at or near the specimen’s surface, it will be the dominant cause of fatigue crack initiation; in the absence of large casting defects, the influence of microstructural features (Si morphology; Fe-rich phases on the fatigue performance becomes more pronounced.

  4. Rare earth concentration in the primary Si crystal in rare earth added Al-21 wt. % Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.Y.; Kim, G.H. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, I.G.; Choi, C.S. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1998-07-03

    Al-Si alloys containing more than about 12 wt. % Si exhibit a hypereutectic microstructure, normally consisting of a primary silicon phase in an eutectic matrix. The primary silicon in normal hypereutectic alloys is usually very coarse and thus leads to poor properties to these alloys. Therefore, alloys with a predominantly coarse primary silicon crystal must be modified to ensure adequate mechanical strength and ductility. Further improvement of mechanical properties of these alloys can be achieved by the modification of eutectic microstructure. Therefore, development of a modifier or refiner that can produce both fine primary and eutectic Si is a major factor which can lead to significant enhancement of mechanical properties in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Refinement of primary silicon is usually achieved by the addition of phosphor to the melt. On the other hand, it is reported that the rare earth (RE) elements are capable of modifying the eutectic structure of cast Al-Si alloys. According to the literature, Phosphor acts as a heterogeneous nucleation site of Si crystal by forming AlP intermetallic particles at high temperature, i.e., above liquidus temperature of Al-Si alloy. Unlike phosphor, RE was not known to form a stable compound with Al that can act as a nucleation site at high temperature. Therefore, the role of RE as a refiner should be considered by examining the behavior of RE as a solute in the melt. The distribution of RE within the primary Si and in the matrix of the alloy will provide a clue to the role of RE on the modification of primary Si during solidification.

  5. Rapid solidification growth mode transitions in Al-Si alloys by dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehling, John D.; Coughlin, Daniel R.; Gibbs, John W.; Baldwin, J. Kevin; Mertens, James C.E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Clarke, Amy J.; McKeown, Joseph T.

    2017-01-01

    In situ dynamic transmission electron microscope (DTEM) imaging of Al-Si thin-film alloys was performed to investigate rapid solidification behavior. Solidification of alloys with compositions from 1 to 15 atomic percent Si was imaged during pulsed laser melting and subsequent solidification. Solely α-Al solidification was observed in Al-1Si and Al-3Si alloys, and solely kinetically modified eutectic growth was observed in Al-6Si and Al-9Si alloys. A transition in the solidification mode in eutectic and hypereutectic alloys (Al-12Si and Al-15Si) from nucleated α-Al dendrites at lower solidification velocities to planar eutectic growth at higher solidification velocities was observed, departing from trends previously seen in laser-track melting experiments. Comparisons of the growth modes and corresponding velocities are compared with previous solidification models, and implications regarding the models are discussed.

  6. Annealing Behavior of Al-Implantation-Induced Disorder in 4H-SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.; Jiang, Weilin; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Janson, Martin; Hallen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Single crystal 4H-SiC films were implanted at 150 K with 1.1 MeV Al 2 2+ and subsequently annealed at elevated temperatures. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) results indicate that the relative Si disorder at the damage peak recovers significantly as the annealing temperature increases. However, the residual Si disorder is more resistant to high-temperature annealing in the region of the implanted Al. The maximum concentration of Al profile measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) is a factor of 1000 lower than the level of the residual Si disorder at the same region. Analysis of these results indicates that the excess residual Si disorder around the implanted Al projected range cannot be accounted for by just the Al interstitials; instead, it appears that each implanted Al stabilizes or inhibits recovery for an equivalent of a few hundred Si interstitials under the current experimental conditions

  7. Quality analysis of the Al-Si-Cu alloy castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The developed design methodologies both the material and technological ones will make it possible to improve shortly the quality of materials from the light alloys in the technological process, and the automatic process flow correction will make the production cost reduction possible, and - first of all - to reduce the amount of the waste products. Method was developed for analysis of the casting defects images obtained with the X-ray detector analysis of the elements made from the Al-Si-Cu alloys of the AC-AlSi7Cu3Mg type as well as the method for classification of casting defects using the artificial intelligence tools, including the neural networks; the developed method was implemented as software programs for quality control. Castings were analysed in the paper of car engine blocks and heads from the Al-Si-Cu alloys of the AC-AlSi7Cu3Mg type fabricated with the “Cosworth” technological process. The computer system, in which the artificial neural networks as well as the automatic image analysis methods were used makes automatic classification possible of defects occurring in castings from the Al-Si-Cu alloys, assisting and automating in this way the decisions about rejection of castings which do not meet the defined quality requirements, and therefore ensuring simultaneously the repeatability and objectivity of assessment of the metallurgical quality of these alloys.

  8. Influence of silicon concentration on linear contraction process of Al-Si binary alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mutwil

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of shrinkage phenomena during solidification and cooling of aluminium and aluminium-silicon alloys (AlSi5, AlSi7, AlSi9, AlSi11, AlSi12.5, AlSi18, AlSi21 have been conducted. A vertical shrinkage rod casting with circular cross-section (constant or fixed: tapered has been used as a test sample. By constant cross-section a test channel mould was parted and allowed a constrained contraction to examine. No parted test channel mould was tapered and allowed an unconstrained contraction to investigate. In the experiments the dimensions changes of solidifying test bar and the test mould have been registered, what has allowed to explain a mechanism of pre-shrinkage extension of solidifying metals and alloys. Registered time dependence of the test bar and the test mould dimension changes have shown, that so-called pre-shrinkage extension has been by mould thermal extension caused. The investigation results have also shown that time- and temperature dependences of shrinkage of Al-Si alloys have been on silicon concentration depended.

  9. Resistivity studies on the layered semi-metallic CaAl2Si2: evaluating its temperature-, field- and pressure-dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElMassalami, M; Soares de Oliveira Paixao, L; Chaves, F A B

    2011-01-01

    We studied the layered, hexagonal, semi-metal CaAl 2 Si 2 by magnetization, specific heat and resistivity measurements over a wide range of temperature, pressure and magnetic field. Both the Sommerfeld coefficient (γ = 1 mJ mol -1 K -2 ) and the Debye temperature (θ D = 288 K) are in agreement with the values obtained from the band structure calculation. The resistivity shows a metallic character up to 200 K, followed by saturation and, afterwards, a weak decrease up to 840 K, at which it sharply rises reaching a local maximum at 847 ± 5 K. While the low-temperature thermal evolution was accounted for in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic effects, the additional high-temperature scattering was attributed, based on differential thermal analysis, to a first-order thermal event. No appreciable magnetoresistivity was observed at liquid helium temperatures even for fields up to 90 kOe, indicating an absence of coupling between the electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom. Finally, an externally applied pressure was found to induce a strong reduction in the resistivity following a second-order polynomial: this effect will be discussed in terms of the influence of pressure on the effective mobility and concentration of charge carriers.

  10. Structural transformation in mechanosynthesized bcc Fe-Al-Si(Ge) solid solutions during heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubalova, L.M.; Sviridov, I.A.; Vasilyeva, O.Ya.; Fadeeva, V.I.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray diffractometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy study of Fe 50 Al 25 Si 25 and Fe 50 Al 25 Ge 25 alloys obtained by mechanical alloying (MA) of elementary powders was carried out. Phase transformation during heating of synthesized products was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). After 2.5 h of MA monophase alloys containing bcc Fe(Al, Ge) solid solutions Fe(Al, Si) are formed. Fe(Al, Si) is partially ordered B2 type and Fe(Al, Ge) is completely disordered. DSC curves of synthesized alloys displayed the presence of exothermal peaks caused by phase transformation. The metastable Fe(Al, Si) solid solution transformed into FeAl 1-x Si x (B2) and FeSi 1-x Al x (B20) equilibrium phases. The Fe(Al, Ge) solid solution transformed into equilibrium phases through intermediate stage of Fe 6 Ge 3 Al 2 metastable phase formation. The Fe 6 Ge 3 Al 2 phase dissociated into three equilibrium phases: FeAl 1-x Ge x (B2), χ-Fe 6 Ge 5 and η-Fe 13 (Ge, Al) 8 (B8 2 ). The structure of Fe 6 Ge 3 Al 2 was calculated by Rietveld method, the distribution of Al and Ge in the elementary cell and its parameters were calculated. Moessbauer study showed that Fe(Al, Si) and Fe(Al, Ge) solid solutions are paramagnetic. In the equilibrium state the alloy containing Si is also paramagnetic while the alloy with Ge showed ferromagnetic properties

  11. Study of Physical Properties of SiCw/Al Composites During Unloaded Thermal Cycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin-ming; TIAN zhi-gang; CHENG hua; ZHU Xiao-gang; CHEN Wen-li

    2004-01-01

    The thermal expansion coefficient of SiCw/Al composites squeeze cast during unloaded thermal cycling was determined and analyzed. The study had shown that the thermal expansion coefficient of SiCw/Al composites reduced greatly with temperature raising. The thermal expansion coefficient of artificial ageing treatment SiCw/Al composites during unloaded thermal cycling reduced gradually, while the thermal expansion coefficient of squeezing SiCw/Al composites increased gradually. In addition, the thermal expansion coefficient of SiCw/Al composites reduced drastically with fiber fraction increasing.

  12. Fabrication and structure of bulk nanocrystalline Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuch, Jerzy; Cieslak, Grzegorz; Kulik, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Al-based alloys of structure consisting of nanosized Al crystals, embedded in an amorphous matrix, are interesting for their excellent mechanical properties, exceeding those of the commercial crystalline Al-based alloys. Recently discovered nanocrystalline Al alloys containing silicon (Si), rare earth metal (RE) and late transition metal (Ni), combine high tensile strength and good wear resistance. The aim of this work was to manufacture bulk nanocrystalline alloys from Al-Si-Ni-mishmetal (Mm) system. Bulk nanostructured Al 91-x Si x Ni 7 Mm 2 (x = 10, 11.6, 13 at.%) alloys were produced by ball milling of nanocrystalline ribbons followed by high pressure hot isostating compaction

  13. Modeling the Onset of Phase Separation in CaO-SiO2-CaCl2 Chlorine-Containing Silicate Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swansbury, Laura A; Mountjoy, Gavin; Chen, Xiaojing; Karpukhina, Natalia; Hill, Robert

    2017-06-08

    The addition of chlorine into a bioactive glass composition is expected to reduce its abrasiveness and increase its bioactivity, which is important for dental applications such as toothpastes. There is a lack of information and understanding regarding the structural role of chlorine in chlorine-containing bioactive silicate glasses. This has prompted classical core-shell model molecular dynamics simulations of (50 - x/2)CaO-(50 - x/2)SiO 2 -xCaCl 2 glasses to be performed, where x ranges from x = 0.0 to 43.1 mol % CaCl 2 . These ternary glasses are advantageous for a fundamental study because they do not have additional network formers (e.g., phosphorus pentoxide) or modifiers (e.g., sodium) typically found in bioactive glass compositions. The (50 - x/2)CaO-(50 - x/2)SiO 2 -xCaCl 2 glasses were seen to become phase-separated around the x = 16.1 mol % CaCl 2 composition, and chlorine predominantly coordinated with calcium. These findings provide a solid foundation for further computational modeling work on more complex chlorine-containing bioactive glass compositions.

  14. Luminescence properties of Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :RE phosphors for UV white-light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Mengmeng; Lv, Wenzhen; Lü, Wei; Zhao, Qi; Shao, Baiqi; You, Hongpeng

    2015-03-16

    A series of Eu(2+) -, Ce(3+) -, and Tb(3+) -doped Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 phosphors is synthesized by using a high-temperature solid-state reaction. The powder X-ray diffraction and structure refinement data indicate that our prepared phosphors are single phased and the phosphor crystalizes in a tetrahedral system with the ${P\\bar 42m}$ (113) space group. The Eu(2+) - and Ce(3+) -doped phosphors both have broad excitation bands, which match well with the UV light-emitting diodes chips. Under irradiation of λ=350 nm, Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Eu(2+) and Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Ce(3+) , Li(+) have green and blue emissions, respectively. Luminescence of Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Tb(3+) , Li(+) phosphor varies with the different Tb(3+) contents. The thermal stability and energy-migration mechanism of Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Eu(2+) are also studied. The investigation results indicate that the prepared Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Eu(2+) and Ca2 Ga2 SiO7 :Ce(3+) , Li(+) samples show potential as green and blue phosphors, respectively, for UV-excited white-light-emitting diodes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Effect of alumina on grain refinement of Al-Si hypereutectic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, J.; Sahoo, S. K.; Patnaik, S. C.; Sarangi, B.; Sachan, N. K.

    2018-03-01

    The size, volume fraction and distribution of primary as well as eutectic silicon affect the mechanical properties of the Al-Si hypereutectic alloys. It is very difficult for the simultaneous refinement and modification of primary and secondary Si particles in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys through traditional processes. This paper explores the role of γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles on Si particles in the course of solidification in hypereutectic Al-Si alloys at particular pouring temperature. The present study involves incorporation of varying contents dispersed γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles into a molten base metal during stir casting and followed by solidification. It has been reported that the synthesized composites having good interfacial bonding (wetting) between the dispersed phase and the liquid matrix was achieved in order to provide improved mechanical properties of the composite. The cast product of hypereutectic Al-16Si alloy with the reinforcement of nanoparticles, illustrated a significant improvement in both wear behaviour and hardness. The dry sliding wear test has been performed on a group of specimens with varying parameters (different loads and sliding velocities) in a pin on disc wear testing machine. Moreover, the wear rate and specific wear rate also affected in different load and different sliding velocities. However in XRD analysis of the samples, the enhancement of wear resistance as well as hardness was due to the formation of brittle phases like SiO2, Al2O3 and Al-rich intermetallic compounds. The hardness value of the materials increases nearly 6% in addition to increase in the density of only 0.8%. As per literature, the large plate eutectic Si particles were modified in to the fine core particles and it acquires enough potential for various applications.

  16. Neural network potential for Al-Mg-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryo; Giofré, Daniele; Junge, Till; Ceriotti, Michele; Curtin, William A.

    2017-10-01

    The 6000 series Al alloys, which include a few percent of Mg and Si, are important in automotive and aviation industries because of their low weight, as compared to steels, and the fact their strength can be greatly improved through engineered precipitation. To enable atomistic-level simulations of both the processing and performance of this important alloy system, a neural network (NN) potential for the ternary Al-Mg-Si has been created. Training of the NN uses an extensive database of properties computed using first-principles density functional theory, including complex precipitate phases in this alloy. The NN potential accurately reproduces most of the pure Al properties relevant to the mechanical behavior as well as heat of solution, solute-solute, and solute-vacancy interaction energies, and formation energies of small solute clusters and precipitates that are required for modeling the early stage of precipitation and mechanical strengthening. This success not only enables future detailed studies of Al-Mg-Si but also highlights the ability of NN methods to generate useful potentials in complex alloy systems.

  17. Monolithic integration of AlGaInP laser diodes on SiGe/Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, O.; Boeckl, J. J.; Lee, M. L.; Pitera, A. J.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Ringel, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    Room temperature operation of visible AlGaInP laser diodes epitaxially integrated on Si was demonstrated. Compressively strained laser heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on low dislocation density SiGe/Si substrates, where the threading dislocation density of the top relaxed Ge layers was measured in the range of 2x10 6 cm -2 . A threshold current density of J th ∼1.65 kA/cm 2 for the as-cleaved, gain-guided AlGaInP laser grown on SiGe/Si was obtained at the peak emission wavelength of 680 nm under pulsed mode current injection. These results show that not only can high quality AlGaInP materials grown by MBE be achieved on Si via relaxed SiGe interlayers, but the prototype demonstration of laser diode operation on Si illustrates that very defect sensitive optoelectronics in the III-P system can indeed be integrated with Si substrates by heteroepitaxial methods

  18. Preparation and Anodizing of SiCp/Al Composites with Relatively High Fraction of SiCp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2018-01-01

    By properly proportioned SiC particles with different sizes and using squeeze infiltration process, SiCp/Al composites with high volume fraction of SiC content (Vp = 60.0%, 61.2%, 63.5%, 67.4%, and 68.0%) were achieved for optical application. The flexural strength of the prepared SiC p /Al composites was higher than 483 MPa and the elastic modulus was increased from 174.2 to 206.2 GPa. With an increase in SiC volume fraction, the flexural strength and Poisson's ratio decreased with the increase in elastic modulus. After the anodic oxidation treatment, an oxidation film with porous structure was prepared on the surface of the composite and the oxidation film was uniformly distributed. The anodic oxide growth rate of composite decreased with SiC content increased and linearly increased with anodizing time.

  19. Preparation and Anodizing of SiCp/Al Composites with Relatively High Fraction of SiCp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By properly proportioned SiC particles with different sizes and using squeeze infiltration process, SiCp/Al composites with high volume fraction of SiC content (Vp = 60.0%, 61.2%, 63.5%, 67.4%, and 68.0% were achieved for optical application. The flexural strength of the prepared SiCp/Al composites was higher than 483 MPa and the elastic modulus was increased from 174.2 to 206.2 GPa. With an increase in SiC volume fraction, the flexural strength and Poisson’s ratio decreased with the increase in elastic modulus. After the anodic oxidation treatment, an oxidation film with porous structure was prepared on the surface of the composite and the oxidation film was uniformly distributed. The anodic oxide growth rate of composite decreased with SiC content increased and linearly increased with anodizing time.

  20. Preparation and Anodizing of SiCp/Al Composites with Relatively High Fraction of SiCp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    By properly proportioned SiC particles with different sizes and using squeeze infiltration process, SiCp/Al composites with high volume fraction of SiC content (Vp = 60.0%, 61.2%, 63.5%, 67.4%, and 68.0%) were achieved for optical application. The flexural strength of the prepared SiCp/Al composites was higher than 483 MPa and the elastic modulus was increased from 174.2 to 206.2 GPa. With an increase in SiC volume fraction, the flexural strength and Poisson's ratio decreased with the increase in elastic modulus. After the anodic oxidation treatment, an oxidation film with porous structure was prepared on the surface of the composite and the oxidation film was uniformly distributed. The anodic oxide growth rate of composite decreased with SiC content increased and linearly increased with anodizing time. PMID:29682145

  1. Application of Al-2La-1B Grain Refiner to Al-10Si-0.3Mg Casting Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lijun; Pan, Ye; Lu, Tao; Li, Chenlin; Pi, Jinhong; Sheng, Ningyue

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports the application and microstructure refining effect of an Al-2La-1B grain refiner in Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy. Compared with the traditional Al-5Ti-1B refiner, Al-2La-1B refiner shows better performances on the grain refinement of Al-10Si-0.3Mg alloy. Transmission electron microscopy analysis suggests that the crystallite structure features of LaB6 are beneficial to the heterogeneous nucleation of α-Al grains. Regarding the mechanical performances, tensile properties of Al-10Si-0.3Mg casting alloy are prominently improved, due to the refined microstructures.

  2. Positron annihilation studies of the AlOx/SiO2/Si interface in solar cell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwardson, C. J.; Coleman, P. G.; Li, T.-T. A.; Cuevas, A.; Ruffell, S.

    2012-01-01

    Film and film/substrate interface characteristics of 30 and 60 nm-thick AlO x films grown on Si substrates by thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD), and 30 nm-thick AlO x films by sputtering, have been probed using variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy (VEPAS) and Doppler-broadened spectra ratio curves. All samples were found to have an interface which traps positrons, with annealing increasing this trapping response, regardless of growth method. Thermal ALD creates an AlO x /SiO x /Si interface with positron trapping and annihilation occurring in the Si side of the SiO x /Si boundary. An induced positive charge in the Si next to the interface reduces diffusion into the oxides and increases annihilation in the Si. In this region there is a divacancy-type response (20 ± 2%) before annealing which is increased to 47 ± 2% after annealing. Sputtering seems to not produce samples with this same electrostatic shielding; instead, positron trapping occurs directly in the SiO x interface in the as-deposited sample, and the positron response to it increases after annealing as an SiO 2 layer is formed. Annealing the film has the effect of lowering the film oxygen response in all film types. Compared to other structural characterization techniques, VEPAS shows larger sensitivity to differences in film preparation method and between as-deposited and annealed samples.

  3. Effects of the Cr2O3 Content on the Viscosity of CaO-SiO2-10 Pct Al2O3-Cr2O3 Quaternary Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tuo; Zhang, Yanling; Yuan, Fang; An, Zhuoqing

    2018-04-01

    The present study experimentally investigates the effect of Cr2O3 on the viscosity of molten slags. The viscosities of CaO-SiO2-10 pct Al2O3-Cr2O3 quaternary slags with two different binary basicities (R, basic slag with R = 1.2 and acidic slag with R = 0.8) were measured by the rotating cylindrical method from 1813 K to 1953 K (1540 °C to 1680 °C). The results showed that the viscosity of both types of slag decreased as the Cr2O3 content increased, but the viscosity of acidic slags exhibited a greater decrease. The slags showed good Newtonian behavior at such high temperatures. Cr2O3 could act as a network modifier to simplify the Si-O-Si tetrahedral structure, as verified by the Raman spectral analysis, which was consistent with the decreasing trend of viscosity. The activation energy of viscous flow decreased slightly with increasing Cr2O3, but increasing the basicity seemed to be more effective in decreasing the viscosity than adding Cr2O3.

  4. Thermodynamic aspects of grain refinement of Al-Si alloys using Ti and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, Joachim [Technical University of Clausthal, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Mirkovic, Djordje [Technical University of Clausthal, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer [Technical University of Clausthal, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)]. E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de

    2005-03-25

    A thermodynamic assessment of ternary Al-Si-Ti phases was performed. Published datasets for the other subsystems were checked and adapted. Based on that, a consistent thermodynamic description of quaternary Al-Si-Ti-B alloys was generated. This was applied in a calculation of Al-Si-Ti-B phase diagram sections for practically relevant temperatures and compositions of Al-Si alloys from Al-rich to typical Al-Si foundry alloys. These stable and metastable phase diagrams could be correlated to many detailed aspects of possible reactions observed or suggested in experimental studies of grain refining. Understanding the mechanisms of grain refining of Al wrought alloys and Al-Si foundry alloys using titanium and boron requires a fundamental knowledge of both thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of this complex process. This work focuses exclusively on the thermodynamic aspects and the phase diagrams, which were not available for the quaternary alloys and partly incomplete and inconsistent for the ternary subsystems.

  5. Revising the Subsystem Nurse’s A-Phase-Silicocarnotite within the System Ca3(PO42–Ca2SiO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ros-Tárraga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The subsystem Nurse’s A-phase-silicocarnotite within the system Ca3(PO42–Ca2SiO4 was conducted as a preliminary step toward obtaining new biomaterials with controlled microstructures. Phase composition of the resulting ceramics was studied by X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with attached wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the sub-system presents an invariant eutectoid point at 1366 ± 4 °C with a composition of 59.5 wt % Ca3(PO42 and 40.5 wt % Ca2SiO4, and typical eutectoid microstructure of lamellae morphology. These results are in disagreement with the previous reported data, which locate the invariant eutectoid point at 1250 ± 20 °C with a composition of 55 wt % Ca3(PO42 and 45 wt % Ca2SiO4. In addition, cell attachment testing showed that the new eutectoid material supported the mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and spreading, and the cells established close contact with the ceramic after 28 days of culture. These findings indicate that the new ceramic material with eutectoid microstructure of lamellae morphology possesses good bioactivity and biocompatibility and might be a promising bone implant material.

  6. Effects of Eutectic Si and Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing on the Mechanical Properties of Al-Si-Cu Cast Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Kim, Yumi; Kim, Youngman; Hong, Sungkil; Choi, Seweon; Kim, Youngchan; Kang, Changseok

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at investigating the effects of eutectic Si and Secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) on mechanical properties of Al-Si-Cu alloy. Heat treatment and controlling of solidification rate affect to microstructure of Al-Si-Cu alloy. Al-Si-Cu alloy was dissolved in an electric furnace. The alloy cast in STD61 mold which had been pre-heated to 95 ℃ and 200 ℃. Eutectic Si and SDAS were finer as cooling rate increased. Image analysis technique has been utilized to examine the microstructure. Microstructure observation results showed that T6 heat treatment has a strong influence eutectic Si particle morphology. The mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, yield strength, elongation, were improved by ASTM E8 standard. Tensile properties of the Al-Si-Cu alloys prepared by different cooling rates were the same as each other by T6 heat treatment.

  7. Structural and magnetic study of mechanically deformed Fe rich FeAlSi ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarra, E.; Apiñaniz, E.; Plazaola, F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. ► Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. ► Disordering induces a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms in Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x and Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x . ► Addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe. ► Si inhibits the para-ferro transition found in Fe 60 Al 40 alloy with disordering. - Abstract: In this work we study systematically the influence of different Al/Si ratios on the magnetic and structural properties of mechanically disordered powder Fe 75 Al 25−x Si x , Fe 70 Al 30−x Si x and Fe 60 Al 40−x Si x alloys by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. In order to obtain different stages of disorder the alloys were deformed by different methods: crushing induction melted alloys and ball milling annealed (ordered) alloys using different number of balls and speed. X-ray and Mössbauer data show that mechanical deformation induces the disordered A2 structure in these alloys. The results indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe–Al alloys makes the disordering more difficult. In addition, X-ray diffraction patterns show that the normalized lattice parameter variation of the disordered alloys of each composition decreases monotonically with Si content, indicating clearly that Si addition opposes the large volume increase found in FeAl alloys with deformation. The study of the hyperfine fields indicates that there is a redistribution of non-ferrous atoms around Fe atoms with the disordering; indeed, there is an inversion of the behavior of the hyperfine field of the Fe atoms. On the other hand, the magnetic measurements indicate that addition of Si to binary Fe 75 Al 25 and Fe 70 Al 30 alloys opposes the magnetic behavior induced by Al in the magnetism of Fe.

  8. Novel biocompatible magnesium alloys design with nutrient alloying elements Si, Ca and Sr: Structure and properties characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weidan; Han, Junjie [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yang, Xuan; Li, Mei [Department of Orthopedics, Guangdong Key Lab of Orthopaedic Technology and Implant Materials, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, 111 Liuhua Road, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Wan, Peng, E-mail: pwan@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Tan, Lili [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Zhang, Yu [Department of Orthopedics, Guangdong Key Lab of Orthopaedic Technology and Implant Materials, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, 111 Liuhua Road, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Yang, Ke, E-mail: kyang@imr.ac.cn [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A non-toxic Mg-based alloy system with nutrient elements Si, Sr, Ca is proposed. • Properties improved due to morphology of coarse Mg{sub 2}Si change into small polygon. • Fewer, finer and homogenized Mg{sub 2}Si particles are obtained after anneal-treated. • Cytocompatibility results indicate a potential application in orthopedic. - Abstract: Magnesium has been widely studied as a biodegradable material, where its mechanical property and biocompatibility make it preferred candidate for orthopedic implant. Proper alloying can further improve the properties of Mg. First and foremost, to guarantee the biosafety for biomedical application, the alloying element should be toxic free. To address this point, nutrient elements including Si, Sr and Ca were selected due to their biological functions in human body, especially in bone regeneration and repair. In this study, 0.5–1.0 wt% Sr and Ca were used to refine and modify the morphology of coarse Mg{sub 2}Si in Mg-1.38wt% Si to obtain an uniform microstructure. Microstructure, mechanical and degradation properties of as-cast and homogenizing-annealed quaternary Mg-1.38Si-xSr-yCa (x, y = 0.5–1 wt%) alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and electrochemical measurement. Addition of Sr and Ca element cause a morphological change in Mg{sub 2}Si particles from coarse Chinese script shape to small polygonal type. The presences of intermetallic phases, such as Mg{sub 2}Si, CaMgSi and Mg{sub 17}Sr{sub 2}, were confirmed in quaternary alloys, of which content was applied to interpret the results for the quaternary system. Compared with the as-cast state, fewer, finer and homogenized microstructure were observed after an anneal heat treatment under 500 °C. The mechanical properties were improved with increase of Ca and Sr additions, which was related to the evolution of the microstructure and second phases, however, also causing an

  9. Detection of 26Al and 41Ca by accelerator spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiou, F.; Raisbeck, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The 26 Al (half-life, 730,000 years) and 41 Ca (100,000 years) isotopes were detected by the technique of accelerator spectoarometry, using the ALICE facility (linear accelerator plus cyclotron) at Orsay. The procedure for eliminating the interfering. 26 Mg and 41 K isobars involves accelerating the 26 Al and 41 Ca to sufficiently high energies such that a significant fraction of them can be completely stripped of electrons and then passing. them through a magnetic analyzer. Work is in progress to develope this procedure for the detection of natural cosmogenic 26 Al and 41 Ca. (author)

  10. Mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy-SiC composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggara, B. S.; Handoko, E.; Soegijono, B.

    2014-09-01

    The synthesis of aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-Cu, from mixture 96.2 % Al and 3.8 % Cu has been prepared by melting process at a temperature of 1200°C. The adding 12.5 wt% up to 20 wt% of SiC on Al-Cu alloys samples has been investigated. The structure analyses were examined by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the morphology of Al-Cu alloys has been seen as structure in micrometer range. The hardness was measured by hardness Vickers method. According to the results, it can be assumed that the 15 wt% of SiC content is prefer content to get better quality of back to back hardness Vickers of Al-Cu alloys.

  11. Mechanical properties of Al-Cu alloy-SiC composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anggara, B. S., E-mail: anggorobs1960@yahoo.com [Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia 13220 and PPS Ilmu Material, Department Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia (Indonesia); Handoko, E. [Jurusan Fisika, FMIPA Universitas Negeri Jakarta, 13220 (Indonesia); Soegijono, B. [PPS Ilmu Material, Department Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    The synthesis of aluminum (Al) alloys, Al-Cu, from mixture 96.2 % Al and 3.8 % Cu has been prepared by melting process at a temperature of 1200°C. The adding 12.5 wt% up to 20 wt% of SiC on Al-Cu alloys samples has been investigated. The structure analyses were examined by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Moreover, the morphology of Al-Cu alloys has been seen as structure in micrometer range. The hardness was measured by hardness Vickers method. According to the results, it can be assumed that the 15 wt% of SiC content is prefer content to get better quality of back to back hardness Vickers of Al-Cu alloys.

  12. A novel core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO_2 for benzophenone selective hydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Xue; Feng, Wenhui; Chu, Xiaoning; Chu, Hailong; Niu, Libo; Bai, Guoyi

    2017-01-01

    A novel core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO_2 was first prepared by a modified Stöber method in this paper. It has a core–shell structure with Ni (about 8 nm in diameter) and Ca as the cores and mesoporous silica as the outer shell, as proven by the transmission electron microscopy. This nanocomposite exhibited good catalytic performance in the selective hydrogenation of benzophenone, with 96.1% conversion and 94.9% selectivity for benzhydrol under relatively mild reaction conditions. It was demonstrated that addition of small amounts of alkaline Ca can not only markedly improve the dispersion of the active species but also tune the acid–base property of this nanocomposite, resulting in the efficient suppression of benzhydrol dehydration to achieve a high selectivity. Furthermore, the core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO_2 can be recycled four runs without appreciable loss of its initial activity, more stable than the traditional supported nanocatalyst Ni–Ca/mSiO_2. It was suggested that the outer mesoporous silica shell of Ni–Ca@mSiO_2 can prevent both the aggregation and the leaching of the active Ni species, accounting for its relatively good stability.

  13. Hardness and microstructural characteristics of rapidly solidified Al-8-16 wt.%Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzun, O.; Karaaslan, T.; Gogebakan, M.; Keskin, M.

    2004-01-01

    Al-Si alloys with nominal composition of Al-8 wt.%Si, Al-12 wt.%Si, and Al-16 wt.%Si were rapidly solidified by using melt-spinning technique to examine the influence of the cooling rate/conditions on microstructure and mechanical properties. The microstructures of the rapidly solidified ribbons and ingot samples were investigated by the optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The results showed that the structures of all melt-spun ribbons were completely composed of finely dispersed α-Al and eutectic Si phase, and primary silicon was not observed. The XRD analysis indicated that the solubility of Si in the α-Al matrix was greatly increased with rapid solidification. Additionally, mechanical properties of both conventionally cast (ingot) and melt-spun ribbons were examined by using Vickers indenter for one applied load (0.098 N). The hardness values of the melt-spun ribbons were about three times higher than those of ingot counterparts. The high hardness of the rapidly solidified state can be attributed to the supersaturated solid solutions. Besides, hardness values with different applied loads were measured for melt-spun ribbons. The results indicated that Vickers hardness values (H v ) of the ribbons depended on the applied load. Applying the concept of Hays-Kendall, the load independent hardness values were calculated as 694.0, 982.8 and 1186.8 MN/m 2 for Al-8 wt.%Si, Al-12 wt.%Si and Al-16 wt.%Si, respectively

  14. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like β/δ-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like α-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like β-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like δ-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from β-AlFeSi to α-AlFeSi and from δ-AlFeSi to β-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  15. The effect of Si content on the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si3N4 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Wheeler, J. M.; Davis, C. E.; Clegg, W. J.; Zeng, X. T.

    2016-01-01

    CrAlN/Si 3 N 4 nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si 3 N 4 coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries

  16. EFFECT OF SILICON CONTENT ON MACHINABILITY OF Al-Si ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Akyüz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of the change in the amount of Silicon (Si occuring in Al-Si alloys on mechanical and machinability properties of the alloy was investigated. The change in mechanical properties and microstructure, which depends on the increase in Si percentage, and the effects of this change on Flank Build-up (FBU, wear on the cutting edge, surface roughness, and machinability were also studied. Alloys in different ratios of Si (i.e. 2 to 12 wt %, were employed in the study. The specimens for tests were obtained by casting into metal moulds. The results obtained from experimental studies indicate improved mechanical properties and machinability, depending on the rise in Si percentage in Al-Si alloys. It is also observed that the increase in Si percentage enhanced surface quality.

  17. Interracial Structure and Formation Mechanism of Ultrasonic-assisted Brazed Joint of SiC Ceramics with Al-12Si Filler Metals in Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoguang Chen; Ruishan Xie; Zhiwei Lai; Lei Liu; Jiuchun Yan; Guisheng Zou

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted brazing of SiC ceramics was performed by filling with an Al--12Si alloy at a low temperature of 620 ℃ in air.The interfacial characteristics and formation mechanism were investigated.The joint shear strength reached 84-94 MPa using the ultrasonic time of 2-16 s.The fracture morphology showed that the fracture path initiated and propagated in the joint alloy.The thin film of amorphous SiO2 that formed on the SiC surface was non-uniformly decomposed and diffused into the liquid Al-12Si alloy under the cavitation erosion effect of ultrasound.Abnormal isolated blocks of Al2SiO5 compounds formed at the interface between Al--12Si and a thicker SiO2 layer formed during the thermal oxidation treatment of the SiC ceramic.The SiO2 layer on the SiC ceramic did not hinder or impair the wetting and bonding process,and a stronger bond could form between Al-12Si and SiO2 or SiC in ultrasonicassisted brazing.

  18. Net-shape forming and properties of high volume fraction SiCp/Al composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shubin; Qu Xuanhui; Guo Jia; He Xinbo; Qin Mingli; Shen Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    High performance SiCp/Al composites have been realized their net-shape forming by use of a novel process-ceramic injection molding (CIM) for the preparation of SiC preform and pressureless infiltration of aluminum alloys. The dimension precision of prepared SiCp/Al parts could reach about ±0.3%, and their properties could also better meet the requirement of electronic packaging on the materials. In this paper, the CIM process to fabricate SiC preform and the infiltration of SiC preform by Al alloys have been discussed in detail. Additionally, the properties of prepared SiCp/Al composites have also been given research and evaluation.

  19. Micro-nano filler metal foil on vacuum brazing of SiCp/Al composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Gao, Zeng; Niu, Jitai

    2016-06-01

    Using micro-nano (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)- xTi (wt%, x = 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0) foils as filler metal, the research obtained high-performance joints of aluminum matrix composites with high SiC particle content (60 vol%, SiCp/Al-MMCs). The effect of brazing process and Ti content on joint properties was investigated, respectively. The experimental results indicate that void free dense interface between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam with C-Al-Si-Ti product was readily obtained, and the joint shear strength enhanced with increasing brazing temperature from 560 to 580 °C or prolonging soaking time from 10 to 90 min. Sound joints with maximum shear strength of 112.5 MPa was achieved at 580 °C for soaking time of 90 min with (Al-5.25Si-26.7Cu)-2Ti filler, where Ti(AlSi)3 intermetallic is in situ strengthening phase dispersed in the joint and fracture occured in the filler metal layer. In this research, the beneficial effect of Ti addition into filler metal on improving wettability between SiC particle and metallic brazed seam was demonstrated, and capable welding parameters were broadened for SiCp/Al-MMCs with high SiC particle content.

  20. Preparation of CaO-SiO2-CuO bioactive glasses-embedded anodic alumina with improved biological activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Siyu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve bone cell cytocompatibility properties of porous anodic alumina (PAA and implement anti-bacterial properties, amorphous CaO-SiO2-CuO materials were loaded into PAA nano-pores (termed CaO-SiO2- CuO/PAA by a facile ultrasonic-assisted sol-dipping strategy. The surface features and chemistry of the obtained CaO-SiO2-CuO/PAA were investigated by a field emission scanning microscope (FESEM, an energy-dispersive Xray spectrometer (EDS and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The ability of the CaO-SiO2-CuO/PAA specimens to form apatite via a bio-mineralization processwas evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF in vitro. The surface microstructure and chemical properties after soaking in SBFwere characterized. The release of ions into the SBF was also measured. In addition, rat osteoblasts and two types of bacterial were cultured on the samples to determine their cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties. The results showed that the amorphous CaO-SiO2-CuO materials were successfully decorated into PAA nano-pores and at the same time maintained their nano-featured surfaces. The CaO-SiO2-CuO/PAA samples induced apatite-mineralization in SBF. Meanwhile, the CaO-SiO2-CuO/PAA samples demonstrated great potential for promoting the proliferation of osteoblasts and inhibiting Escherichia coli (E. coli as well as Staphylococcus. aureus (S. aureus growth. Specifically, there was an 86.5±4.1% reduction in E. coli, an 88.0 ± 2.2% reduction in S. aureus for the CaO-SiO2-CuO/PAA surfaces compared to PAA controls. The capability to promote osteoblast proliferation and better antibacterial activity of CaO-SiO2- CuO/PAA may be attributed to the fact that Cu ions can be slowly and constantly released from the samples. Importantly, this was achieved without the use of antibiotics or any pharmaceutical agent. Ultimately, these results suggest that the CaO-SiO2-CuO/PAA substrates possessed improved bone cell cytocompatibility and high

  1. Phase diagram study for the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO{sub 2} -“Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ” system in air with CaO/SiO{sub 2} in 1.1 and PbO/(CaO+SiO{sub 2}) in 2.4 weight ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, Josue; Romero-Serrano, Antonio; Hernandez-Ramirez, Aurelio; Cruz-Ramirez, Alejandro, E-mail: romeroipn@hotmail.com [Instituto Politecnico Nacional-ESIQIE, Zacatenco, Mexico City (Mexico); Almaguer-Guzman, Isaias; Benavides-Perez, Ricardo; Flores-Favela, Manuel [Servicios Administrativos Penoles S.A de C.V., Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2017-07-15

    An experimental study on the phase equilibrium and the liquidus isotherms for the PbO-ZnO-CaO-SiO{sub 2} -“Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ” system with CaO/SiO{sub 2} in 1.1 and PbO/(CaO+SiO{sub 2}) in 2.4 weight ratios, respectively, was carried out in the temperature range 1100-1300 deg C (1373-1573 K). High temperature phases were determined by the equilibrium-quenching method. Results are presented in the form of pseudo-ternary sections “Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} ”-ZnO-(PbO+CaO+SiO{sub 2}). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM-EDS results showed that the phase equilibria in this system are dominated by the high melting temperature spinel and zincite phases. It was observed that if the system is at a temperature below 1300 deg C and the total (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} + ZnO) is greater than 20 wt%, spinel and/or zincite will be present in the slag system. As an application of the phase diagram, the liquid phase compositions below the liquidus surface were estimated, then their viscosities were calculated using FACTSage software. (author)

  2. Luminescence excitation characteristics of Ca-, Na- and K-aluminosilicates (feldspars), in the stimulation range 20-500 eV: optical detection of XAS

    CERN Document Server

    Poolton, N R J; Quinn, F M; Pantos, E; Andersen, C E; Bøtter-Jensen, L; Johnsen, O; Murray, A S

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate that the visible/UV luminescence from common feldspar crystals (NaAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 , KAlSi sub 3 O sub 8 and CaAl sub 2 Si sub 2 O sub 8) can be used to detect detailed L-edge and associated near-edge absorption structure of the main constituent atoms (Ca, K, Na, Al, Si), when exciting in the energy range 20-500 eV. Comparisons of the spectral features are drawn with similar measurements made on the associated materials SiO sub 2 , Al sub 2 O sub 3 and CaCO sub 3. The potential for using optically detected x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a method for identifying the luminescent components of mixed mineral samples is considered.

  3. Residual Stress Measurement of SiC tile/Al7075 Hybrid Composites by Neutron Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Bok; Lee, Jun Ho; Hong, Soon Hyung; Ryu, Ho Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Bok; Lee, Sang Kwan [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Muslihd, M. Rifai [Center for Advanced Materials Science and Technology, Tangerang (India)

    2016-05-15

    In this research, SiC which has low density, high compressive strength, and high elastic modulus was used to fabricate the armor plate. In addition, Al which has low density and high toughness was used for a metal matrix of the composites. If two materials are combined, the composite can be effective materials for light weight armor applications. However, the existence of a large difference in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between SiC and Al matrix, SiC/Al composites can have residual stresses while cooled in the fabrication process. Previous research reported that residual stresses in the composites or microstructures have an effect on the fatigue life and their mechanical properties. Some researchers reported about the residual stresses in the SiCp/Al metal matrix composites by numerical simulation systems, X-ray diffraction, and destructive methods. In order to analyze the residual stress of SiC/Al composites, the neutron diffraction as the non-destructive method was performed in this research. The 50 vol.% SiC{sub p}/Al7075 composites and SiC tile inserted 50 vol.% SiC{sub p}/Al7075 hybrid composites were measured to analyze the residual stress of Al (111) and SiC (111). Both samples had the tensile residual stresses in the Al (111) and the compressive residual stresses in the SiC (111) due to the difference in CTE.

  4. The Effectiveness of Al-Si Coatings for Preventing Interfacial Reaction in Al - Mg Dissimilar Metal Welding

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yin; Al-Zubaidy, Basem; Prangnell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    The dissimilar welding of aluminum to magnesium is challenging because of the rapid formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the weld interface. An Al-Si coating interlayer was selected to address this problem, based on thermodynamic calculations that predicted silicon would change the reaction path to avoid formation of the normally observed binary Al-Mg IMC phases (-Al3Mg2 and -Al12Mg17). Long-term static heat treatments confirmed that a Si-rich coating will preferentially pr...

  5. Thermal shock behavior of nano-sized SiC particulate reinforced AlON composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, X.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Ru, H.Q., E-mail: ruhq@smm.neu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004 (China); Chen, D.L., E-mail: dchen@ryerson.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2K3 (Canada); Zhang, N.; Liang, B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials Manufacturing Technology of Liaoning Province, Shenyang University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110044 (China)

    2012-03-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of nano-SiC particles enhances residual strength and critical temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Young's modulus decreases with increasing quenching temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear relationship between residual strength and thermal shock times is obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rougher fracture surfaces in the SiC-AlON composites are observed. - Abstract: Aluminum oxynitride (AlON) has been considered as a potential ceramic material for high-performance structural and advanced refractory applications. Thermal shock resistance is a major concern and an important performance index of high-temperature ceramics. While silicon carbide (SiC) particles have been proven to improve mechanical properties of AlON ceramic, the high-temperature thermal shock behavior was unknown. The aim of this investigation was to identify the thermal shock resistance and underlying mechanisms of AlON ceramic and 8 wt% SiC-AlON composites over a temperature range between 175 Degree-Sign C and 275 Degree-Sign C. The residual strength and Young's modulus after thermal shock decreased with increasing quenching temperature and thermal shock times due to large temperature gradients and thermal stresses caused by abrupt water-quenching. A linear relationship between the residual strength and thermal shock times was observed in both pure AlON and SiC-AlON composites. The addition of nano-sized SiC particles increased both residual strength and critical temperature from 200 Degree-Sign C in the monolithic AlON to 225 Degree-Sign C in the SiC-AlON composites due to the toughening effect, the lower coefficient of thermal expansion and higher thermal conductivity of SiC. The enhancement of the thermal shock resistance in the SiC-AlON composites was directly related to the change of fracture mode from intergranular cracking along with cleavage-type fracture in the AlON to a rougher fracture surface with ridge

  6. Oxide meets silicide. Synthesis and single-crystal structure of Ca{sub 21}SrSi{sub 24}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckeweg, Olaf; DiSalvo, Francis J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2017-06-01

    A few black, rectangular thin plates of Ca{sub 21}SrSi{sub 24}O{sub 2} were obtained by serendipity in a solid-state reaction of calcium metal, strontium chloride and silicon powder at 1200 K for 2 days designed to produce 'Ca{sub 2}SrCl{sub 2}[Si{sub 3}]'. The title compound forms next to some CaSi and some remaining educts. Ca{sub 21}SrSi{sub 24}O{sub 2} crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/m (no. 12) with unit cell parameters of a=1895.2(2), b=450.63(5) and c=1397.33(18) pm and β=112.008(7) (Z=1). The title compound shows planar, eight-membered, kinked Si{sub 8} chains with Si-Si distances between 241.4 and 245.0 pm indicating bonding interactions and kinked 'rope ladders' connecting the chains with interatomic Si-Si distances in the range 268.1-274.7 pm. Embedded in between these silicon substructures are columns of oxygen centered, apex sharing [(Ca{sub 1-x} Sr{sub x}){sub 6/2}O] octahedra and calcium ions.

  7. A molecular dynamics study of the atomic structure of (CaO)x(SiO2)1-x glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Robert N; Mountjoy, Gavin

    2006-07-27

    The local atomic environment of Ca in (CaO)x(SiO2)1-x glasses is of interest because of the role of Ca in soda-lime glass, the application of calcium silicate glasses as biomaterials, and the previous experimental measurement of the Ca-Ca correlation in CaSiO(3) glass. Molecular dynamics has been used to obtain models of (CaO)x(SiO2)1-x glasses with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5, and with approximately 1000 atoms and size approximately 25 A. As expected, the models contain a tetrahedral silica network, the connectivity of which decreases as x increases. In the glass-forming region, i.e., x = 0.4 and 0.5, Ca has a mixture of 6- and 7-fold coordination. Bridging oxygen makes an important contribution to the coordination of Ca, with most bridging oxygens coordinated to 2 Si plus 1 Ca. The x = 0.5 model is in reasonable agreement with previous experimental studies, and does not substantiate the previous theory of cation ordering, which predicted Ca arranged in sheets. In the phase-separated region, i.e., x = 0.1 and 0.2, there is marked clustering of Ca.

  8. Formation Mechanism of CaS-Bearing Inclusions and the Rolling Deformation in Al-Killed, Low-Alloy Steel with Ca Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guang; Jiang, Zhouhua; Li, Yang

    2016-08-01

    The existing form of CaS inclusion in Ca-treated, Al-killed steel during secondary refining process was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and an energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results of 12 heats industrial tests showed that CaS has two kinds of precipitation forms. One form takes place by the direct reaction of Ca and S, and the other takes place by the reaction of CaO in calcium aluminates with dissolved Al and S in liquid steel. Thermodynamic research for different precipitation modes of CaS under different temperature was carried out. In particular, CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagrams and component activities of calcium aluminates were calculated by the thermodynamic software FactSage. By thermodynamic calculation, a precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion was established by fixing the sulfur content. The quantity of CaS, which was precipitated in a reaction between [Al], [S] and (CaO), can be calculated and predicted based on the precipitation-area diagram of oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion. Electron probe microanalysis and EDS were used for observing rolling deformation of different types of CaS-bearing inclusions during the rolling process. Low modification of calcium aluminates wrapped by CaS has different degrees of harm to steel in the rolling process. A thick CaS layer can prevent some fragile calcium aluminates from being crushed during the rolling process. Some oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion contains little CaS performed better deformation during the rolling process, but when CaS in oxide-sulfide duplex inclusion becomes more, it will cause the whole inclusion to lose plastic yielding ability. The plastic deformation region of CaS-bearing inclusion in a CaO-Al2O3-CaS isothermal section diagram is confirmed.

  9. Nanostructured silicate substituted calcium phosphate (NanoSiCaPs) nanoparticles — Efficient calcium phosphate based non-viral gene delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Roy, Abhijit; Hong, Daeho [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Kumta, Prashant N., E-mail: pkumta@pitt.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Center for Complex Engineered Multifunctional Materials, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); McGowan Institute of Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Nanostructured ceramic particles, particularly, nanoparticles of calcium phosphate (CaP) remain an attractive option among the various types of non-viral gene delivery vectors studied because of their safety, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of handling as well as their adsorptive capacity for DNA. We have accordingly developed an enhanced version of nanostructured calcium phosphates (NanoCaPs), by substituting known amounts of silicate for phosphate in the hydroxyapatite (HA) lattice (NanoSiCaPs). Results indicate that in addition to the excellent transfection levels exhibited by un-substituted NanoCaPs alone in vitro, an additional 20–50% increase in transfection is observed for NanoCaPs containing 8.3–50 mol% silicate aptly called NanoSiCaPs, owing to its rapid dissolution properties enabling nanoparticles escaping the lysosomal degradation. However, high silicate substitution (> 50 mol%) resulted in a drastic decline in transfection as the synthesized NanoCaPs deviated far from the characteristic hydroxyapatite phase formed as evidenced by the materials characterization results. - Highlights: • Successful demonstration of nanostructured NanoSiCaPs formation • Demonstration of superior transfection of NanoSiCaPs contrasted to NanoCaPs • Silicate substitution leads to smaller aggregates of nanoparticle complexes. • Enhanced dissolution of NanoSiCaPs demonstrated • Faster NanoSiCaPs dissolution leads to escape of pDNA from lysosomal degradation.

  10. Synthesis, structure and chemical bonding of CaFe{sub 2−x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} (x=0, 1.32, and 2) and SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlukhyy, Viktor, E-mail: viktor.hlukhyy@lrz.tu-muenchen.de; Hoffmann, Andrea V.; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2013-07-15

    The finding of superconductivity in Ba{sub 0.6}K{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} put the attention on the investigation of compounds that crystallize with ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type such as AT{sub 2}X{sub 2} (A=alkali/alkaline earth/rare earth element; T=transition metal and X=element of the 13–15th group). In this context the silicides CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, CaFe{sub 0.68(6)}Rh{sub 1.32(6)}Si{sub 2}, CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} have been synthesized by reaction of the elements under an argon atmosphere. Single crystals were obtained by special heat treatment in welded niobium/tantalum ampoules. The compounds were investigated by means of powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All compounds crystallize in the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure with space group I4/mmm (No. 139): a=3.939(1) Å, c=10.185(1) Å, R{sub 1}=0.045, 85 F{sup 2} values, 8 variable parameters for CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2}; a=4.0590(2) Å, c=9.9390(8) Å, R{sub 1}=0.030, 90 F{sup 2} values, 10 variable parameters for CaFe{sub 0.68(6)}Rh{sub 1.32(6)}Si{sub 2}; a=4.0695(1) Å, c=9.9841(3) Å, R{sub 1}=0.031, 114 F{sup 2} values, 9 variable parameters for CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}; and a=3.974(1) Å, c=10.395(1) Å, R{sub 1}=0.036, 95 F{sup 2} values, 8 variable parameters for SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}. The structure of SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} contains isolated [Co{sub 2}Si{sub 2}]{sup 2−} 2D-layers in the ab-plane whereas in CaFe{sub 2−x}Rh{sub x}Si{sub 2} the [T{sub 2}Si{sub 2}] layers (T=Fe and Rh) are interconnected along the c-axis via Si3Si bonds resulting in a three-dimentional (3D) [T{sub 2}Si{sub 2}]{sup 2−} polyanions and therefore belong to the so-called collapsed form of the ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2}-type structure. The SrCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and CaRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} are isoelectronic to the parent 122 iron–pnictide superconductors AeFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ae=alkaline earth elements), whereas CaFe{sub 2}Si{sub 2} is a full substituted variant (As/Si) of CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2

  11. A comparative wear study on Al-Li and Al-Li/SiC composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumus, S. Cem, E-mail: cokumus@sakarya.edu.tr; Karslioglu, Ramazan, E-mail: cokumus@sakarya.edu.tr; Akbulut, Hatem, E-mail: cokumus@sakarya.edu.tr [Sakarya University Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus, 54187, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2013-12-16

    Aluminum-lithium based unreinforced (Al-8090) alloy and Al-8090/SiCp/17 vol.% metal matrix composite produced by extrusion after spray co-deposition. A dry ball-on disk wear test was carried out for both alloy and composite. The tests were performed against an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball, 10 mm in diameter, at room temperature and in laboratory air conditions with a relative humidity of 40-60%. Sliding speed was chosen as 1.0 ms{sup −1} and normal loads of 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0 N were employed at a constant sliding distance of 1000 m. The wear damage on the specimens was evaluated via measurement of wear depth and diameter. Microstructural and wear characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that wear loss of the Al-8090/SiC composite was less than that of the Al-8090 matrix alloy. Plastic deformation observed on the wear surface of the composite and the matrix alloy, and the higher the applied load the greater the plastic deformation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations of wear tracks also reveal that delamination fracture was the dominant wear mechanism during the wear progression. Friction coefficient was maximum at the low applied load in the case of the Al-8090/SiC composite while a gradual increase was observed with applied load for the matrix alloy.

  12. Influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of Al-12Si/SiCp coatings produced by laser cladding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anandkumar, R.; Almeida, A.; Vilar, R.; Ocelik, V.; De Hosson, J. Th M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of powder particle injection velocity on the microstructure of coatings consisting of an Al-Si matrix reinforced with SiC particles prepared by laser cladding from mixtures of powders of Al-12 wt.% Si alloy and SiC was investigated both experimentally and by modeling. At low injection

  13. Photoluminescence properties of Eu2+-activated Ca2Y2Si2O9 phosphor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Delsing, A.C.A.; Notten, P.H.L.; Zhao, Jingtai; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Eu2+-activated Ca2Y2Si2O9 phosphors with different Eu2+ concentrations have been prepared by a solid-state reaction method at high temperature and their photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated. Photoluminescence results show that Eu2+-doped Ca2Y2Si2O9 can be efficiently excited by

  14. Corrosion behavior of die-cast Mg-4Al-2Sn-xCa alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Chul; Kim, Byeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Ro [Defence Agency for Technology and Quality, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dae Hyun; Park, Ik Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, the effect of Ca additions on microstructure and corrosion characteristics of high pressure die-cast Mg-4Al-2Sn alloy has been investigated. Mg-4Al-2Sn-xCa (x= 0, 0.3 and 0.7wt.%) alloy was prepared by using a high pressure die-casting method. Results indicated that the microstructure of Mg-4Al-2Sn alloy consisted of α-Mg, Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} and Mg{sub 2}Sn phase. With increase of Ca additions, CaMgSn phase was newly formed and grain size was sharply decreased. From the test results, the corrosion resistance of die-cast Mg-4Al-2Sn alloy was significantly improved by Ca addition. It is considered that stabilization of Mg(OH){sub 2} layer and refinements of microstructure with increase of Ca additions.

  15. Enhanced field emission from Si doped nanocrystalline AlN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thapa, R.; Saha, B.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2009-01-01

    Si doped and undoped nanocrystalline aluminum nitride thin films were deposited on various substrates by direct current sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of phase pure hexagonal aluminum nitride with a single peak corresponding to (1 0 0) reflection of AlN with lattice constants, a = 0.3114 nm and c = 0.4986 nm. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays confirmed the presence of Si in the doped AlN films. Atomic force microscopic studies showed that the average particle size of the film prepared at substrate temperature 200 deg. C was 9.5 nm, but when 5 at.% Si was incorporated the average particle size increased to ∼21 nm. Field emission study indicated that, with increasing Si doping concentration, the emission characteristics have been improved. The turn-on field (E to ) was 15.0 (±0.7) V/μm, 8.0 (±0.4) V/μm and 7.8 (±0.5) V/μm for undoped, 3 at.% and 5 at.% Si doped AlN films respectively and the maximum current density of 0.27 μA/cm 2 has been observed for 5 at.% Si doped nanocrystalline AlN film. It was also found that the dielectric properties were highly dependent on Si doping.

  16. Management of the pig iron Si and slag CaO/SiO2 technological indicators in order to produce pig iron with a titanium content below 0,02 %Ti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kolmasiak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article present the developed method for production of pig iron with a very low titanium content of Ti 2 basicity, to obtain pig iron with a [Ti] content below 0,02 %. Based on the data from the preliminary test, proper tests were carried out with a pig iron Si content in the range from 1,0 % to 1,6 % and a slag CaO/SiO2 basicity in the range from 0,96 to 1,10. Data obtained from those tests enabled a statistical model to be established in the form of regression planes of two independent variables, [Si] and (CaO/SiO2. The regression equation of the first degree, [Ti] = f[(Si, (CaO/SiO2], defined the plane that gave the process engineer the answer to the question of how to manage the [Si] and (CaO/SiO2 indicators so as to obtain pig iron with the desired [Ti] content below 0,02 %.

  17. First investigations on the quaternary system Na2O-K2O-CaO-SiO2: synthesis and crystal structure of the mixed alkali calcium silicate K1.08Na0.92Ca6Si4O15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Volker; Mayerl, Michael Jean-Philippe; Schmidmair, Daniela; Krüger, Hannes; Tribus, Martina

    2018-04-01

    In the course of an exploratory study on the quaternary system Na2O-K2O-CaO-SiO2 single crystals of the first anhydrous sodium potassium calcium silicate have been obtained from slow cooling of a melt in the range between 1250 and 1050 °C. Electron probe micro analysis suggested the following idealized molar ratios of the oxides for the novel compound: K2O:Na2O:CaO:SiO2 = 1:1:12:8 (or KNaCa6Si4O15). Single-crystal diffraction measurements on a crystal with chemical composition K1.08Na0.92Ca6Si4O15 resulted in the following basic crystallographic data: monoclinic symmetry, space group P 21/ c, a = 8.9618(9) Å, b = 7.3594(6) Å, c = 11.2453(11) Å, β= 107.54(1)°, V = 707.2(1) Å3, Z = 2. Structure solution was performed using direct methods. The final least-squares refinement converged at a residual of R(|F|) = 0.0346 for 1288 independent reflections and 125 parameters. From a structural point of view, K1.08Na0.92Ca6Si4O15 belongs to the group of mixed-anion silicates containing [Si2O7]- and [SiO4]-units in the ratio 1:2. The mono- and divalent cations occupy a total of four crystallographically independent positions located in voids between the tetrahedra. Three of these sites are exclusively occupied by calcium. The fourth site is occupied by 54(1)% K and 46%(1) Na, respectively. Alternatively, the structure can be described as a heteropolyhedral framework based on corner-sharing silicate tetrahedra and [CaO6]-octahedra. The network can build up from kröhnkite-like [Ca(SiO4)2O2]-chains running along [001]. A detailed comparison with other A2B6Si4O15-compounds including topological and group-theoretical aspects is presented.

  18. Effects of Mn addition on microstructure and hardness of Al-12.6Si alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prosanta; Patra, Surajit; Mondal, Manas Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this work, eutectic Al-12.6Si alloy with and without manganese (Mn) have been developed through gravity casting route. The effect of Mn concentration (0.0 wt.%, 1 wt%, 2 wt% and 3 wt%) on microstructural morphology and hardness property of the alloy has been investigated. The eutectic Al-12.6 Si alloy exhibits the presence of combine plate, needle and rod-like eutectic silicon phase with very sharp corners and coarser primary silicon particles within the α-Al phase. In addition of 1wt.% of Mn in the eutectic Al-12.6Si alloy, sharp corners of the primary Si and needle-like eutectic Si are became blunt and particles size is reduced. Further, increase in Mn concentration (2.0 wt.%) in the Al-12.6Si alloy, irregular plate shape Al6(Mn,Fe) intermetallics are formed inside the α-Al phase, but the primary and eutectic phase morphology is similar to the eutectic Al-12.6Si alloy. The volume fraction of Al6(Mn,Fe) increases and Al6(Mn,Fe) particles appear as like chain structure in the alloy with 3 wt.% Mn. An increase in Mn concentration in the Al-12.6Si alloys result in the increase in bulk hardness of the alloy as an effects of microstructure modification as well as the presence of harder Al6(Mn,Fe) phase in the developed alloy.

  19. Luminescent properties of Na2CaSiO4:Eu2+ and its potential application in white light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhijun; Li, Panlai; Li, Ting; Zhang, Xing; Li, Qingxuan; Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ phosphor can be effectively excited by an ultraviolet and near-ultraviolet light, and produce a bright blue emission centered at 436 nm. The CIE chromaticity coordinations (x, y) of Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ (NSCE)/Li 2 SrSiO 4 :Eu 2+ (LSSE) vary with the molar ratio of the two constituents. When NSCE/LSSE is 1:3, the CIE chromaticity coordination is (0.332, 0.346), which is close to that of the natural sunlight (0.33, 0.33). The results indicate that Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ may be a promising blue phosphor for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white light emitting diodes. Highlights: ► Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ shows the blue emission with a peak at 436 nm and broad excitation band in the UV/n-UV range. ► White light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor with the Li 2 SrSiO 4 :Eu 2+ yellow phosphor. ► Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ would be a promising blue phosphor candidate for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white LEDs. - Abstract: A novel blue phosphor Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ is synthesized by a high temperature solid-state reaction, and its luminescent properties are systematically studied. Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ can be effectively excited by the 354 nm radiation, and create blue emission (436 nm). The emission intensity of Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ is influenced by the Eu 2+ doping content, and the optimal doping content is 1.5%, and the concentration quenching mechanism of Eu 2+ in Na 2 CaSiO 4 can be attributed to the multipolar interaction. The white light with CIE coordinates (0.332, 0.346) is generated by mixing the blue phosphor Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ with the yellow phosphor Li 2 SrSiO 4 :Eu 2+ . The results indicate that Na 2 CaSiO 4 :Eu 2+ may be a potential blue emitting phosphor for UV chip-based multi-phosphor converted white light emitting diodes

  20. A molecular dynamics study of the atomic structure of (CaO)x(Al2O3)1-x glass with x = 0.625 close to the eutectic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B. W. M.; Mead, R. N.; Mountjoy, G.

    2006-05-01

    Aluminate glasses are difficult to prepare as they do not contain traditional network formers, but they are promising materials for optical applications. The atomic structure of calcium aluminate glasses has been studied using several experimental techniques. The current study uses molecular dynamics to obtain a model of a (CaO)0.625(Al2O3)0.375 glass close to the eutectic. The glass consists of a tetrahedral alumina network with average network polymerization \\langle Q^{n}\\rangle of n = 3.3. Ca acts as a network modifier with average coordination of 6.2. Ca is typically coordinated to three bridging oxygens (Ob) and three non-bridging oxygens (Onb), with Ca-Onb bonds noticeably shorter than the Ca-Ob bonds. A new method of analysing modifier cation coordination is presented, which specifically shows the distribution of Ca coordination NCaO in terms of combinations of NCaOb and NCaOnb. Ob is most often coordinated to two Al plus two Ca, and Onb is most often coordinated to one Al plus three Ca. The typical coordinations of Ca, Ob, and Onb all have a noticeable similarity to those for the 5CaO·3Al2O3 crystal. The Ca-Ca distribution shows a clear similarity to that for (CaO)0.5(SiO2)0.5 glass, and this is attributed to the equal atomic number densities of Ca in these glasses.

  1. Study on characteristics of U-Mo/Al-Si interaction layers of dispersion fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lijian; Yin Changgeng; Chen Jiangang; Sun Changlong; Liu Yunming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the characteristics of U-Mo/Al-Si interaction layers of dispersion fuel plates. The results show that the interaction layers (IL) are with irregular morphology and uneven thickness, and are mainly formed in the internal micro cracks of the dispersion fuel particles or at the interface between the particles and the substrates. The diffusion mechanism of U-Mo/Al-Si is the vacancy diffusion, Al and Si are migrating elements, and the diffusion reaction is that Al and Si diffuse to U-Mo alloy. Inside the interaction layers, the Al content keeps constant basically, but the Si content gradually increases with the substrate-fuel direction, and the maximum content of Si appears interaction layers near the U-Mo side. Adding about 5 wt% Si into Al matrix can restrain the diffusion reaction, and improve the performance of dispersion fuel plates finally. (authors)

  2. Synthesis and luminescent properties of CaCO3:Eu3+@SiO2 phosphors with core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Kang, Ming; Chen, Kexu; Mou, Yongren; Sun, Rong

    2018-03-01

    Integrating the processes of preparation of CaCO3:Eu3+ and its surface-coating, core-shell structured CaCO3:Eu3+@SiO2 phosphors with red emission were synthesized by the carbonation method and surface precipitation procedure using sodium silicate as silica source. The phase structure, thermal stability, morphology and luminescent property of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, thermal analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscope and photoluminescence spectra. The experimental results show that Eu3+ ions as the luminescence center are divided into two types: one is at the surface of the CaCO3 and the other inhabits the site of Ca2+. For CaCO3:Eu3+@SiO2 phosphors, the SiO2 layers are continuously coated on the surface of CaCO3:Eu3+ and show a typical core-shell structure. After coated with SiO2 layer, the luminous intensity and the compatibility with the rubber matrix increase greatly. Additionally, the luminous intensity increases with the increasing of Eu3+ ions concentration in CaCO3 core and concentration quenching occurs when Eu3+ ions concentration exceeds 7.0 mol%, while it is 5.0 mol% for CaCO3:Eu3+ phosphors. Therefore, preparation of CaCO3:Eu3+@SiO2 phosphors can not only simplify the experimental process through integrating the preparation of CaCO3:Eu3+ and SiO2 layer, but also effectively increase the luminous intensities of CaCO3:Eu3+ phosphors. The as-obtained phosphors may have potential applications in the fields of optical materials and functional polymer composite materials, such as plastics and rubbers.

  3. Fabrication of SiCp/Al Alloy Composites by In-situ Vacuum Hot Press Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, S. W.; Hong, S. K.; Kim, Y. M.; Kang, C. S. [Chonnam National University, Kwangju (Korea); Chang, S. Y. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    SiCp/pure Al and SiCp/2024Al MMCs were fabricated by in-situ VHP process designed specially just in this study which is composed of the vacuum hot press at range from R.T. to 500 deg.C and the continuous extrusion without canning process at 520 deg.C. It was investigated the effect of SiC particle size, volume fraction and extrusion ratio on the tensile properties and micro structure in all composites. In case of the 10:1 extrusion ratio, but SiCp/pure Al and SiCp/2024Al composites were shown a sound appearance and a good micro structure without crack of SiCp as well as uniform distribution of SiCp. However, in case of the 16:1 extrusion ratio, the number of cracked SiC particles more than increased in a higher volume fraction composite and 2024Al matrix composite compared with pure Al matrix one. The tensile strength of the composites reinforced smaller SiCp was higher than that of the bigger SiCp reinforced in same volume fraction and extrusion ratio. (author) 14 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Cathodic Potential Dependence of Electrochemical Reduction of SiO2 Granules in Molten CaCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Yasuda, Kouji; Nohira, Toshiyuki; Hagiwara, Rika; Homma, Takayuki

    2016-09-01

    As part of an ongoing fundamental study to develop a new process for producing solar-grade silicon, this paper examines the effects of cathodic potential on reduction kinetics, current efficiency, morphology, and purity of Si product during electrolysis of SiO2 granules in molten CaCl2 at 1123 K (850 °C). SiO2 granules were electrolyzed potentiostatically at different cathodic potentials (0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 V vs Ca2+/Ca). The reduction kinetics was evaluated based on the growth of the reduced Si layer and the current behavior during electrolysis. The results suggest that a more negative cathodic potential is favorable for faster reduction. Current efficiencies in 60 minutes are greater than 65 pct at all the potentials examined. Si wires with sub-micron diameters are formed, and their morphologies show little dependence on the cathodic potential. The impurities in the Si product can be controlled at low level. The rate-determining step for the electrochemical reduction of SiO2 granules in molten CaCl2 changes with time. At the initial stage of electrolysis, the electron transfer is the rate-determining step. At the later stage, the diffusion of O2- ions is the rate-determining step. The major cause of the decrease in reduction rate with increasing electrolysis time is the potential drop from the current collector to the reaction front due to the increased contact resistance among the reduced Si particles.

  5. High-Temperature Photovoltaic Effect in La.Ca.MnO/SiO/Si Heterojunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated a heterojunction of La0.4Ca0.6MnO3/SiO/n-Si and investigated its electronic transport and ultraviolet photovoltaic properties at higher temperature up to 673 K. The rectifying behaviors vanished with the energy-band structure evolvement from 300 to 673 K. Under irradiation of a 248 nm pulse laser, the peak values of open-circuit photovoltage and short-circuit photocurrent decreased drastically. This understanding of the temperature-related current-voltage behavior and ultraviolet photodetection of oxide heterostructures should open a route for devising future microelectronic devices working at high temperature. PACS: 73.40.Lq, 71.27.+ a, 73.50.Pz.

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of Al4SiC4-homeotypic aluminum silicon oxycarbide, [Al4.4Si0.6][O1.0C2.0]C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaga, Motoaki; Iwata, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Hiromi; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2010-01-01

    A new quaternary layered oxycarbide, [Al 4.39(5) Si 0.61(5) ] Σ5 [O 1.00(2) C 2.00(2) ] Σ3 C, has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The title compound was found to be hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc, Z=2, and unit-cell dimensions a=0.32783(1) nm, c=2.16674(7) nm and V=0.20167(1) nm 3 . The atom ratios Al:Si were determined by EDX, and the initial structural model was derived by the direct methods. The final structural model showed the positional disordering of one of the three types of Al/Si sites. The maximum-entropy methods-based pattern fitting (MPF) method was used to confirm the validity of the split-atom model, in which conventional structure bias caused by assuming intensity partitioning was minimized. The reliability indices calculated from the MPF were R wp =3.73% (S=1.20), R p =2.94%, R B =1.04% and R F =0.81%. The crystal was an inversion twin. Each twin-related individual was isostructural with Al 4 SiC 4 (space group P6 3 mc, Z=2). - Graphical abstract: A new oxycarbide discovered in the Al-Si-O-C system, Al 4 SiC 4 -homeotypic [Al 4.4 Si 0.6 ][O 1.0 C 2.0 ]C. The crystal is an inversion twin, and hence the structure is represented by a split-atom model. The three-dimensional electron density distributions are determined by the maximum-entropy methods-based pattern fitting, being consistent with the disordered structural model.

  7. Electroluminescence of doped and undoped AlN/SiC-heterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruesewitz, Christoph; Vetter, Ulrich; Hofsaess, Hans [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    AlN with its large and direct bandgap is a useful host for optoelectronic applications. Grown on 6H-SiC, a heterojunction is created, forming a diode. The light emitted by n-doped 6H-SiC via electroluminescence forms a broad band with a maximum at a wavelength of 475 nm. With the AlN layer on the surface, nitrogen atoms can diffuse into the 6H-SiC, creating new energy levels. Depending on the direction of the current and additional dopants in the AlN layer, the carrier concentration changes and new levels are available, resulting in different colours. It is shown that in this heterojunction blue, red and white colours are feasible.

  8. Silicon nitride and YMgSiAlON glass study by mechanical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doen, B.; Gadaud, P.

    1996-01-01

    Si 3 N 4 /TiN and YMgSiAlON/SiC composites have been studied by isothermal mechanical spectroscopy over a large frequency range. Internal friction curves obtained for the composite Si 3 N 4 -TiN(30% vol)-Al 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 (7.5% vol) exhibit a thermally activated pseudo peak superposed on a non purely exponential background. We can assume that this maximum is due to relaxations in the compressed intergranular glassy films. The apparent dynamical parameters deduced from its shift (11.2 eV and 3.10 -45 s) are unusual as observed in amorphous materials. YMgSiAlON glass has a composition very similar to the one of the intergranular phase of Si 3 N 4 /TiN composite. The damping curves obtained for YMgSiAlON/SiC composites above the glass transition temperature are pure exponential backgrounds. An original analysis of these curves allows to determine an activation energy of about 3.6 eV. This value is more realistic for an elementary diffusion mechanism in a glass near Tg. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Carbon in Fabrication Al-SiC Nanocomposites for Tribological Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Hekner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-based hybrid composites are a new class of advanced materials with the potential of satisfying the demands in engineering applications. This paper describes the effects of carbon addition on the formation and properties of AMC with SiC nanoparticles reinforcement. The composites were produced via mechanical alloying followed by hot pressing. Three forms of carbon, graphite (GR, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and, for the first time, glassy carbon (GC, were used for the hybrid composites manufacturing and compared with tribological properties of Al-SiC composite without carbon addition. GC and CNTs enhanced formation of Al-SiC composite particles and resulted in a homogeneous distribution of reinforcing particles. On the other hand, GR addition altered mechanochemical alloying and did not lead to a proper distribution of nanoparticulate SiC reinforcement. Hot pressing technique led to the reaction between Al and carbon as well as SiC particles and caused the formation of Al4C3 and γ-Al2O3. The subsistence of carbon particles in the composites altered the predominant wear mechanisms since the wear reduction and the stabilization of the friction coefficient were observed. GC with simultaneous γ-Al2O3 formation in the hybrid Al-SiC(n-C composites turned out to be the most effective additive in terms of their tribological behaviour.

  10. Stress Wave attenuation in SiC3D/Al Composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chunyuan; Wang Yangwei; Li Guoju; Zhang Xu; Gao Jubin

    2013-01-01

    SiC 3D /Al composite is a kind of special composite with interpenetrating network microstructure. The attenuation properties of stress wave propagation along the SiC 3D /Al composite are studied by a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system and FEM simulations, and the attenuation mechanism is discussed in this paper. Results show that the attenuation rate of the stress wave in the composite is up to 1.73MPa·mm −1 . The reduction of the amplitude of waves is caused by that plenty of interfaces between SiC and Al within the composite acting with stress waves. When the incident plane wave reaches the SiC 3D /Al interface, reflection wave and transmission wave propagates in different directions along the irregular interface between SiC phase and aluminium phase due to the impedance mismatch of them, which leads to the divergence of stress wave. At the same time, some stress micro-focuses occurs in the aluminium phase for the complex wave superimposition, and some plastic deformation may take place within such micro-regions, which results in the consumption of stress wave energy. In conclusion, the stress wave attenuation is derived from divergence and consumption of stress wave.

  11. Microstructure and bonding mechanism of Al/Ti bonded joint using Al-10Si-1Mg filler metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Woong H.; Bong, Ha H.; Hong, Soon H.

    2003-01-01

    The microstructures and liquid state diffusion bonding mechanism of cp-Ti to 1050 Al using an Al-10.0wt.%Si-1.0wt.%Mg filler metal with 100 μm in thickness have been investigated at 620 deg. C under 1x10 -4 Torr. The effects of bonding process parameters on microstructure of bonded joint have been analyzed by using an optical microscope, AES, scanning electron microscopy and EDS. The interfacial bond strength of Al/Ti bonded joints was measured by the single lap shear test. The results show that the bonding at the interface between Al and filler metal proceeds by wetting the Al with molten filler metal, and followed by removal of oxide layer on surface of Al. The interface between Al and filler metal moved during the isothermal solidification of filler metal by the diffusion of Si from filler metal into Al layer. The interface between Al and filler metal became curved in shape with increasing bonding time due to capillary force at grain boundaries. The bonding at the interface between Ti and filler metal proceeds by the formation of two different intermetallic compound layers, identified as Al 5 Si 12 Ti 7 and Al 12 Si 3 Ti 5 , followed by the growth of the intermetallic compound layers. The interfacial bond strength at Al/Ti joint increased with increasing bonding time up to 25 min at 620 deg. C. However, the interfacial bond strength of Al/Ti joint decreased after bonding time of 25 min at 620 deg. C due to formation of cavities in Al near Al/intermetallic interfaces

  12. Electronic Structure and Chemical Bond of Ti3SiC2 and Adding Al Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Xinmin; LU Ning; MEI Bingchu

    2006-01-01

    The relation among electronic structure, chemical bond and property of Ti3SiC2 and Al-doped was studied by density function and discrete variation (DFT-DVM) method. When Al element is added into Ti3SiC2, there is a less difference of ionic bond, which does not play a leading role to influent the properties. After adding Al, the covalent bond of Al and the near Ti becomes somewhat weaker, but the covalent bond of Al and the Si in the same layer is obviously stronger than that of Si and Si before adding. Therefore, in preparation of Ti3SiC2, adding a proper quantity of Al can promote the formation of Ti3SiC2. The density of state shows that there is a mixed conductor character in both of Ti3SiC2 and adding Al element. Ti3SiC2 is with more tendencies to form a semiconductor. The total density of state near Fermi lever after adding Al is larger than that before adding, so the electric conductivity may increase after adding Al.

  13. A novel core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO{sub 2} for benzophenone selective hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Xue; Feng, Wenhui; Chu, Xiaoning; Chu, Hailong; Niu, Libo; Bai, Guoyi, E-mail: baiguoyi@hotmail.com [Hebei University, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Hebei Province, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China)

    2017-02-15

    A novel core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO{sub 2} was first prepared by a modified Stöber method in this paper. It has a core–shell structure with Ni (about 8 nm in diameter) and Ca as the cores and mesoporous silica as the outer shell, as proven by the transmission electron microscopy. This nanocomposite exhibited good catalytic performance in the selective hydrogenation of benzophenone, with 96.1% conversion and 94.9% selectivity for benzhydrol under relatively mild reaction conditions. It was demonstrated that addition of small amounts of alkaline Ca can not only markedly improve the dispersion of the active species but also tune the acid–base property of this nanocomposite, resulting in the efficient suppression of benzhydrol dehydration to achieve a high selectivity. Furthermore, the core–shell nanocomposite Ni–Ca@mSiO{sub 2} can be recycled four runs without appreciable loss of its initial activity, more stable than the traditional supported nanocatalyst Ni–Ca/mSiO{sub 2}. It was suggested that the outer mesoporous silica shell of Ni–Ca@mSiO{sub 2} can prevent both the aggregation and the leaching of the active Ni species, accounting for its relatively good stability.

  14. Formation of Al15Mn3Si2 Phase During Solidification of a Novel Al-12%Si-4%Cu-1.2%Mn Heat-Resistant Alloy and Its Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Xiaojing; Liao, Hengcheng; Hu, Yiyun; Dixit, Uday S.; Petrov, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    The formation of Al15Mn3Si2 phase in Al-12Si-4Cu-1.2Mn (wt.%) alloy during solidification was investigated by adopting CALPHAD method and microstructural observation by optical microscopy, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS/SAD and XRD analysis; SEM fixed-point observation method was applied to evaluate its thermal stability. As-cast microstructural observation consistently demonstrates the solidification sequence of the studied alloy predicted by phase diagram calculation. Based on the phase diagram calculation, SEM-EDS, TEM-EDS/SAD and XRD analysis, as well as evidences on Al-Si-Mn-Fe compounds from the literature, the primary and eutectic Mn-rich phases with different morphologies in the studied alloy are identified to be Al15Mn3Si2 that has a body-centered cubic (BCC) structure with a lattice constant of a = 1.352 nm. SEM fixed-point observation and XRD analysis indicate that Al15Mn3Si2 phase has more excellent thermal stability at high temperature than that of CuAl2 phase and can serve as the major strengthening phase in heat-resistant aluminum alloy that has to face a high-temperature working environment. Results of tension test show that addition of Mn can improve the strength of Al-Si-Cu alloy, especially at elevated temperature.

  15. Fabrication of large-pore mesoporous Ca-Si-based bioceramics for bone regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng D

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Deliang Zeng,1,2 Xingdi Zhang,3 Xiao Wang,1,2 Lingyan Cao,1 Ao Zheng,1,2 Jiahui Du,1,2 Yongsheng Li,3 Qingfeng Huang,1 Xinquan Jiang1,2 1Department of Prosthodontics, School of Medicine, Ninth People’s Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Oral Bioengineering Laboratory, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, School of Medicine, Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 3Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Materials Chemistry, Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Our previous study revealed that mesoporous Ca-Si-based materials exhibited excellent osteoconduction because dissolved ions could form a layer of hydroxycarbonate apatite on the surface of the materials. However, the biological mechanisms underlying bone regeneration were largely unknown. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic ability of large-pore mesoporous Ca-Si-based bioceramics (LPMSCs by alkaline phosphatase assay, real-time PCR analysis, von Kossa, and alizarin red assay. Compared with large-pore mesoporous silica (LPMS, LPMSCs had a better effect on the osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp cells. LPMSC-2 and LPMSC-3 with higher calcium possessed better osteogenic abilities than LPMSC-1, which may be related to the calcium-sensing receptor pathway. Furthermore, the loading capacity for recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB was satisfactory in LPMSCs. In vivo, the areas of new bone formation in the calvarial defect repair were increased in the LPMSC-2 and LPMSC-3 groups compared with the LPMSC-1 and LPMS groups. We concluded that LPMSC-2 and LPMSC-3 possessed both excellent osteogenic abilities and satisfactory loading capacities, which may be

  16. Fabrication of Spherical AlSi10Mg Powders by Radio Frequency Plasma Spheroidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linzhi; Liu, Ying; Chang, Sen

    2016-05-01

    Spherical AlSi10Mg powders were prepared by radio frequency plasma spheroidization from commercial AlSi10Mg powders. The fabrication process parameters and powder characteristics were investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, laser particle size analyzer, powder rheometer, and UV/visible/infrared spectrophotometer were used for analyses and measurements of micrographs, phases, granulometric parameters, flowability, and laser absorption properties of the powders, respectively. The results show that the obtained spherical powders exhibit good sphericity, smooth surfaces, favorable dispersity, and excellent fluidity under appropriate feeding rate and flow rate of carrier gas. Further, acicular microstructures of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders are composed of α-Al, Si, and a small amount of Mg2Si phase. In addition, laser absorption values of the spherical AlSi10Mg powders increase obviously compared with raw material, and different spectra have obvious absorption peaks at a wavelength of about 826 nm.

  17. Influence wt.% of SiC and borax on the mechanical properties of AlSi-Mg-TiB-SiC composite by the method of semi solid stir casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhiftime, E. I.; Guterres, Natalino F. D. S.; Haryono, M. B.; Sulardjaka, Nugroho, Sri

    2017-04-01

    SiC particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) with solid semi stir casting method is becoming popular in recent application (automotive, aerospace). Stirring the semi solid condition is proven to enhance the bond between matrix and reinforcement. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the SiC wt.% and the addition of borax on mechanical properties of composite AlSi-Mg-TiB-SiC and AlSi-Mg-TiB-SiC/Borax. Specimens was tested focusing on the density, porosity, tensile test, impact test microstructure and SEM. AlSi is used as a matrix reinforced by SiC with percentage variations (10, 15, 20 wt.%). Giving wt.% Borax which is the ratio of 1: 4 between wt.% SiC. The addition of 1.5% of TiB gives grain refinement. The use of semi-solid stir casting method is able to increase the absorption of SiC particles into a matrix AlSi evenly. The improved composite presented here can be used as a guideline to make a new composite.

  18. Influence of PECVD deposited SiNx passivation layer thickness on In0.18Al0.82N/GaN/Si HEMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sarab Preet; Liu, Yi; Ngoo, Yi Jie; Kyaw, Lwin Min; Bera, Milan Kumar; Chor, Eng Fong; Dolmanan, S B; Tripathy, Sudhiranjan

    2015-01-01

    The influence of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon nitride (SiN x ) passivation film thickness on In 0.18 Al 0.82 N/GaN/Si heterostructures and HEMTs has been investigated. The formation of Si 3 N 4 was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements reveal that both the density and roughness of the SiN x film increase with increasing film thickness. With an increase in SiN x film thickness, a significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density, drain current, extrinsic transconductance and negative threshold voltage shift of the In 0.18 Al 0.82 /GaN/Si HEMTs are observed. An optimal thickness of SiN x is ∼100 nm and it yields a substantial increase in 2DEG density (∼30%) with a minimum sheet resistance for In 0.18 Al 0.82 N/GaN/Si heterostructures. Furthermore, we correlate the observed SiN x film thickness-dependent electrical characteristics of In 0.18 Al 0.82 /GaN/Si HEMTs with the density of the SiN x film. (paper)

  19. Atomic structure of CaF2/MnF2-Si(1 1 1) superlattices from X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, Simon G.; Nicklin, C.L.; Howes, P.B.; Norris, C.A.; Kyutt, R.N.; Sokolov, N.S.; Yakovlev, N.L.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray reflectivity and non-specular crystal truncation rod scans have been used to determine the three-dimensional atomic structure of the buried CaF 2 -Si(1 1 1) interface and ultrathin films of MnF 2 and CaF 2 within a superlattice. We show that ultrathin films of MnF 2 , below a critical thickness of approximately four monolayers, are crystalline, pseudomorphic, and adopt the fluorite structure of CaF 2 . High temperature deposition of the CaF 2 buffer layer produces a fully reacted, CaF 2 -Si(1 1 1) type-B interface. The mature, 'long' interface is shown to consist of a partially occupied layer of CaF bonded to the Si substrate, followed by a distorted CaF layer. Our atomistic, semi-kinematical scattering method extends the slab reflectivity method by providing in-plane structural information

  20. GaN nanorods and LED structures grown on patterned Si and AlN/Si substrates by selective area growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shunfeng; Fuendling, Soenke; Soekmen, Uensal; Neumann, Richard; Merzsch, Stephan; Peiner, Erwin; Wehmann, Hergo-Heinrich; Waag, Andreas [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, TU Braunschweig (Germany); Hinze, Peter; Weimann, Thomas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Jahn, Uwe; Trampert, Achim; Riechert, Henning [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    GaN nanorods (NRs) show promising applications in high-efficiency light emitting diodes, monolithic white light emission and optical interconnection due to their superior properties. In this work, we performed GaN nanostructures growth by pre-patterning the Si and AlN/Si substrates. The pattern was transferred to Si and AlN/Si substrates by photolithography and inductively-coupled plasma etching. GaN NRs were grown on these templates by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). GaN grown on Si pillar templates show a truncated pyramidal structure. Transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated clearly that the threading dislocations bend to the side facets of the GaN nanostructures and terminate. GaN growth can also be observed on the sidewalls and bottom surface between the Si pillars. A simple phenomenological model is proposed to explain the GaN nanostructure growth on Si pillar templates. Based on this model, we developed another growth method, by which we grow GaN rod structures on pre-patterned AlN/Si templates. By in-situ nitridation and decreasing of the V/III ratio, we found that GaN rods only grew on the patterned AlN/Si dots with an aspect ratio of about 1.5 - 2. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Effect of Ni on eutectic structural evolution in hypereutectic Al-Mg2Si cast alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chong; Wu Yaping; Li Hui; Wu Yuying; Liu Xiangfa

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → By the injection of rod-like NiAl 3 phase in Al-Mg 2 Si alloys, Al-Mg 2 Si binary eutectic structure gradually evolves into Al-Mg 2 Si-NiAl 3 ternary eutectic. → The ternary eutectic presents a unique double rod structure that rod-like NiAl 3 and Mg 2 Si uniformly distribute in Al matrix. → The mechanism of structural evolution was analyzed in terms of the detailed microstructural observations. → The high temperature (350 deg. C) tensile strength of the alloy increases by 23% due to the eutectic structural evolution. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the eutectic structural evolution of hypereutectic Al-20% Mg 2 Si with Ni addition under a gravity casting process. Three-dimensional morphologies of eutectic phases were observed in detail using field emission scanning electron microscopy, after Al matrix was removed by deep etching or extraction. The results show that Al-Mg 2 Si binary eutectic gradually evolves into Al-Mg 2 Si-NiAl 3 ternary eutectic with the increase of Ni content, and flake-like eutectic Mg 2 Si transforms into rods. The ternary eutectic presents a unique double rod structure that rod-like NiAl 3 and Mg 2 Si uniformly distribute in Al matrix. Further, the high temperature (350 deg. C) tensile strength of the alloy increases by 23% due to the eutectic structure evolution, and the mechanism of structural evolution was discussed and analyzed in terms of the detailed microstructural observations.

  2. Ion beam mixing to produce disordered AlSi superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Xiaoxing; Ran Qize; Liu Jiarui; Guan Weiyan

    1987-01-01

    Multilayered Al/Si films were bombarded with Ar ions at LHe temperature and superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c) was measured in situ. The highest Tsub(c) thus obtained was 7.53 K. The systematic studies on samples with different compositions suggest that ion induced disorder might be the main reason for Tsub(c) enhancement in these AlSi alloys. (author)

  3. Growth of GaN on SiC/Si substrates using AlN buffer layer by hot-mesh CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Yasui, Kanji; Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi; Endou, Tetsuro; Nakazawa, Hideki; Narita, Yuzuru; Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi

    2008-01-01

    GaN films were grown on SiC/Si (111) substrates by hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ammonia (NH 3 ) and trimetylgallium (TMG) under low V/III source gas ratio (NH 3 /TMG = 80). The SiC layer was grown by a carbonization process on the Si substrates using propane (C 3 H 8 ). The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH 3 and trimetylaluminum (TMA). GaN films were formed and grown by the reaction between NH x radicals, generated on a tungsten hot mesh, and the TMG molecules. The GaN films with the AlN buffer layer showed better crystallinity and stronger near-band-edge emission compared to those without the AlN layer

  4. Consideration of the band-gap tunability of BaSi2 by alloying with Ca or Sr based on the electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yoji; Watanabe, Akio

    2007-01-01

    The electronic structures and total energies of BaSi 2 -SrSi 2 and BaSi 2 -CaSi 2 systems have been calculated using the first-principle pseudopotential method to clarify the band gap tunability of BaSi 2 by alloying with Sr or Ca. From an energetic consideration of the compounds where all the Ba I sites or all the Ba II sites of the BaSi 2 lattice are preferentially replaced by Sr or Ca, it is expected that the Ba I site will be preferentially replaced by Sr rather than the Ba II sites. Compounds where all the Ba II sites are replaced by Sr or all the Ba II or all the Ba I sites are replaced by Ca are energetically unfavorable compared to the undissolved system of BaSi 2 and SrSi 2 or CaSi 2 . The effect of the addition of Sr or Ca into the BaSi 2 lattice on the gap value is different depending on the replaced sites of Ba. The replacement of Ba I site by Sr will broaden the band gap of BaSi 2 , which is consistent with the observed results

  5. Creep behaviour of a casting titanium carbide reinforced AlSi12CuNiMg piston alloy at elevated temperatures; Hochtemperaturkriechverhalten der schmelzmetallurgisch hergestellten dispersionsverstaerkten Kolbenlegierung AlSi12CuNiMg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, S.; Scholz, A. [Zentrum fuer Konstruktionswerkstoffe, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Tonn, B. [Institut fuer Metallurgie, TU Clausthal (Germany); Zak, H.

    2012-03-15

    This paper deals with the creep behaviour of the titanium carbide reinforced AlSi12CuNiMg piston alloy at 350 C and its comparison to the conventional AlSi12Cu4Ni2MgTiZr piston alloy. With only 0,02 vol-% TiC reinforcement the creep strength and creep rupture strength of the AlSi12CuNiMg piston alloy are significantly improved and reach the level of the expensive AlSi12Cu4Ni2MgTiZr alloy. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Adsorption properties of AlN on Si(111) surface: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yinmei; Zuo, Ran; Mao, Keke; Tang, Binlong; Zhang, Zhou; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Tingting

    2018-04-01

    In the process of preparing GaN on Si substrate by MOCVD, an AlN buffer layer is very important. In this study, we conducted density functional theory calculations on the adsorption of AlN molecule on Si(111)-(2 × 2) surface, with the AlN molecule located horizontally or vertically above Si(111) surface at different adsorption sites. The calculations revealed that the lowest adsorption energy was at the N-top-Al-bridge site in the horizontal configuration, with the narrowest band gap, indicating that it was the most preferential adsorption growth status of AlN. In the vertical configurations, N adatom was more reactive and convenient to form bonds with the topmost Si atoms than Al adatom. When the N-end of the AlN molecule was located downward, the hollow site was the preferred adsorption site; when the Al-end was located downward, the bridge site was the most energetically favorable. Moreover, we investigated some electronic properties such as partial density of states, electron density difference, Mulliken populations, etc., revealing the microscale mechanism for AlN adsorption on Si(111) surface and providing theoretical support for adjusting the processing parameters during AlN or GaN production.

  7. Al-Si-Re Alloys Cast by the Rapid Solidification Process / Stopy Al-Si-Re Odlewane Metodą Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymanek M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies described in this article was to present the effect of rare earth elements on aluminium alloys produced by an unconventional casting technique. The article gives characteristics of the thin strip of Al-Si-RE alloy produced by Rapid Solidification (RS. The effect of rare earth elements on structure refinement, i.e. on the size of near-eutectic crystallites in an aluminium-silicon alloy, was discussed. To determine the size of crystallites, the Scherrer X-ray diffraction method was used. The results presented capture relationships showing the effect of variable casting parameters and chemical composition on microstructure of the examined alloys. Rapid Solidification applied to Al-Si alloys with the addition of mischmetal (Ce, La, Ne, Pr refines their structure.

  8. Synthesis and photoluminescence properties of CaSiO3:Eu3+ spheres prepared by the reverse micelles soft template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liangzhun; Fang Min; Du Lifen; Zhang Zhaojie; Ren Liwen; Yu Xibin

    2008-01-01

    We report here the successful synthesis of CaSiO 3 :Eu 3+ spheres using the reverse micelles soft template. The influence of the calcination temperature on the shape, crystallization and photoluminescence properties of the prepared spheres was investigated by DTA-TG, XRD, IR, SEM and PL. The results showed that the temperature of crystallization (from amorphous phase to β-CaSiO 3 ) is 668 deg. C. The temperature of phase transition (from β-CaSiO 3 to α-CaSiO 3 ) is 790 deg. C. The average size of CaSiO 3 :Eu 3+ spheres calcined at 700 deg. C was about 350 nm. The radiation was dominated by the red emission peak at 613 nm and the highest emission intensity was observed when the spheres were calcined at 700 deg. C. When calcined at 800 deg. C, the spheres are almost cracked and melted down, due to the high temperature

  9. Properties of P/M forged Al-Si alloys made by premixed powders. 1. Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance; Kongoho ni yotte sakuseishita Al-Si kei shoketsu tanzo gokin no tokusei. 1. Taimamosei ni oyobosu shosho Si no bunsan jotai to ryukei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishijima, Z.; Ichikawa, J.; Sasaki, s.; Shikata, H. [Hitachi Powdered Metals Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-15

    Influences of dispersion and sizes of proeutectic Si on wear resistance of P/M Al-Si alloys using the prealloying method and premixing method have been investigated. As a result, discretely dispersed proeutectic Si showed excellent wear resistance in compassion with uniformly dispersed one. The cause is considered to be the unclosed Si soft phase which has been preferentially worn away, consequently acting on forming oil grooves and burying worn particles. Further more the existence of the optimum size of proeutectic Si on wear resistance was confirmed. In the case of finer particles, only Al-Si alloy (pin) was warned away substantially. On the other handgun the case of larger particles, both the Al-Si alloy (pin) and the mating malarial (steel disc) were excessively warned away. It is assumed therefore that the finer proeutectic Si particles are not effective as hard particles, on the contrary, larger proeutectic Si particles increase the abrasive wear against the mating material, and those buried into the mating material initiate wear of Al-Si alloy at the same time. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Reduced interaction layer growth of U-Mo dispersion in Al-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jung, Yang Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hofman, G.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Development of high U-density U-Mo fuel particle dispersion in Al is needed to convert high power research and test reactors from HEU to LEU. Interaction layer growth between U-Mo and Al poses a challenge to this goal. The KOMO-4 test was designed at KAERI and irradiated in the HANARO reactor to {approx}50% burnup of initial 19.75% U-235 enrichment at {approx}200 Degree-Sign C. The main objective of the test was to examine the effect of the Si content in the matrix up to 8 wt.%. U-Mo/Al-Si dispersion samples with a Si addition in the range 0-8 wt.% in the matrix were tested. A sample with pre-irradiation Si-containing interaction layers (ILs) was also tested. As the Si content in the matrix increases, the IL growth was progressively reduced. Contrary to the thermodynamics prediction and out-of-pile observations, however, Si accumulation in the ILs occurred near the IL-matrix interface with only a slight increase in concentration. The effect of the pre-formed ILs was insignificant in reducing IL growth.

  11. Ostwald ripening of faceted Si particles in an Al-Si-Cu melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahani, A. J.; Xiao, X.; Skinner, K.; Peters, M.; Voorhees, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of an Al-Si-Cu alloy during Ostwald ripening is imaged via synchrotron-based, four-dimensional (i.e., space and time resolved) X-ray tomography. Samples of composition Al-32 wt%Si-15 wt%Cu were annealed isothermally at 650 °C, in the two-phase solid-liquid regime, while tomographic projections were collected in situ over the course of five hours. Advances in experimental methods and computational approaches enable us to characterize the local interfacial curvatures and velocities during ripening. The sequence of three-dimensional reconstructions and interfacial shape distributions shows highly faceted Si particles in a copper-enriched liquid, that become increasingly isotropic or rounded over time. In addition, we find that the coarsening rate constant is approximately the same in the binary and ternary systems. By coupling these experimental measurements with CALPHAD modeling and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, we assess the influence of Cu on the coarsening process. Lastly, we find the unusual “pinning” of microstructure at the junction between rough and smooth interfaces and suggest a mechanism for this behavior.

  12. Osteoblast interaction with laser cladded HA and SiO2-HA coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuling; Serpersu, Kaan; He Wei; Paital, Sameer R.; Dahotre, Narendra B.

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium endosseous implants, the morphology and composition of the surfaces were modified. Polished Ti-6Al-4V substrates were coated by a laser cladding process with different precursors: 100 wt.% HA and 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA. X-ray diffraction of the laser processed samples showed the presence of CaTiO 3 , Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , and Ca 2 SiO 4 phases within the coatings. From in vitro studies, it was observed that compared to the unmodified substrate all laser cladded samples presented improved cellular interactions and bioactivity. The samples processed with 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA precursor showed a significantly higher HA precipitation after immersion in simulated body fluid than 100 wt.% HA precursor and titanium substrates. The in vitro biocompatibility of the laser cladded coatings and titanium substrate was investigated by culturing of mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell line and analyzing the cell viability, cell proliferation, and cell morphology. A significantly higher cell attachment and proliferation rate were observed for both laser cladded 100 wt.% HA and 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA samples. Compared to 100 wt.% HA sample, 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA samples presented a slightly improved cellular interaction due to the addition of SiO 2 . The staining of the actin filaments showed that the laser cladded samples induced a normal cytoskeleton and well-developed focal adhesion contacts. Scanning electron microscopic image of the cell cultured samples revealed better cell attachment and spreading for 25 wt.% SiO 2 -HA and 100 wt.% HA coatings than titanium substrate. These results suggest that the laser cladding process improves the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium. The observed biological improvements are mainly due to the coating induced changes in surface chemistry and surface morphology. Highlights: → Laser cladding of Ti alloys with bioceramics creates new phases. → Laser cladded samples with SiO 2 -doped

  13. Microstructure analysis of the automotive Al-Si-Cu castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Krupiński

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The developed design methodologies both the material and technological ones will make it possible to improve shortly the quality of materials from the light alloys in the technological process, and the automatic process flow correction will make the production cost reduction possible, and - first of all - to reduce the amount of the waste products. In the metal casting industry, an improvement of component quality depends mainly on better control over the production parameters.Castings were analysed in the paper of car engine blocks and heads from the Al-Si-Cu alloys of the AC-AlSi7Cu3Mg type fabricated with the “Cosworth” technological process. In this work the AC-AlSi7Cu3Mg alloy structure was investigated, of this alloy samples were cut of for structure analysis of the cylinder part as well of crankshaft of a fuel engine. The investigation shows a difference in the (phase structure morphology as a result of cast cooling rate.

  14. The role of Si as surfactant and donor in molecular-beam epitaxy of AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.; Morales, F.M.; Romanus, H.; Krischok, S.; Ecke, G.; Cimalla, V.; Himmerlich, M.; Stauden, T.; Cengher, D.; Ambacher, O.

    2005-01-01

    The growth of Si-doped AlN(0001) thin films on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrates by plasma-induced molecular-beam epitaxy is reported. We have found that Si positively affects the epitaxy being an effective surfactant for AlN growth with a remarkable impact on the crystal quality. It was proven that the characteristic surface reconstruction sequences frequently related to the Al adatoms are obviously Si induced on AlN(0001) surfaces. It was also observed that heavy doping conditions result in volume segregation of Si on the threading dislocation network and in the formation of an amorphous (AlO)(SiO)N cap layer caused by surface oxidation of the accumulated Al and segregated Si. The electron affinity was measured to be smaller than 0.5 eV on the clean AlN surface after removing of the cap layer using Ar + sputtering

  15. Quaternary equilibrium diagrams ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-(CaO, MgO, TiO{sub 2}). A powerful tool for the development of new materials by reaction sintering; Diagramas de equilibrio cuaternarios ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}- (CaO, MgO, TiO{sub 2}). Una poderosa herramienta para el desarrollo de nuevos materiales por sinterizacion reactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya, J. S.; Bartolome, J. F.; Pena, P.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we set out, discuss and evaluate the work on Mullite-zirconia composites obtained by reaction sintering led and inspired by Salvador de Aza on the basis of ZrO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-(CaO, MgO, TiO{sub 2}) multicomponent phase equilibrium diagrams. We analyze their impact on different areas of ceramic science and technology such as refractory grogs, aluminum industry, etc. The possible fields of future applications such as dental prosthesis replacing partially stabilized zirconia materials with rare earths are also reported. (Author) 42 refs.

  16. VUV spectroscopy of pure LiCaAlF6 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirm, M.; True, M.; Vielhauer, S.; Zimmerer, G.; Shiran, N.V.; Shpinkov, I.; Spassky, D.; Shimamura, K.; Ichinose, N.

    2005-01-01

    Reflection, excitation and luminescence spectra of as-grown and X-ray irradiated high-purity LiCaAlF 6 crystals were studied in the temperature range of 10-300 K using synchrotron radiation in VUV. The intrinsic luminescence of samples at 10 K consists of a non-elementary broad band with maximum at 4.4 eV under excitation at 11.45 eV. It is ascribed to the radiative decay of self-trapped excitons. The energy gap is estimated to be 12.65 eV in LiCaAlF 6 . Under interband excitation a red shift of luminescence was observed. The electron-hole recombination leads to the emission peaking at 3.7 eV. The excitation processes and origin of overlapping emissions of LiCaAlF 6 are discussed

  17. Reciprocating Wear Behaviour of 7075Al/SiC and 6061Al/Al2O3 Composites: A study of Effect of Reinforcement, Stroke and Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lakshmipathy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear behaviour comparison of Al/SiC and Al/Al2O3 composites prepared by stir casting technique is investigated to find out the effects of weight percentage of SiC/Al2O3, load and the number of strokes on a reciprocating wear testing machine. The MMC pins are prepared with different weight percentage of SiC and Al2O3 (10, 15 and 20 %. The tests are carried out with different load conditions (25, 50 and 75 N and different number of strokes (420,780 and 1605 strokes. Wear surfaces of tested samples are examined in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Hardness test and impact test are also carried out on the MMC samples. The experimental results shows that hardness of composites increases with increase in SiC and Al2O3 particle and the impact strength decreases with increase in SiC and Al2O3 content. The volume loss of MMC specimens are less than that of the matrix alloy. The temperature rise near the contact surface of the MMC specimens increases with increase in wt% of SiC and Al2O3, load and number of strokes. The coefficient of friction decreases with increase in the number of strokes. The WVAS (Wireless Vibration Acquisition System interfaced with MAT Lab software is used to record the amplitudes during the test.

  18. Effects of La and Ce Addition on the Modification of Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Elgallad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effects of the addition of rare earth metals (mainly lanthanum and cerium on the eutectic Si characteristics in Al-Si based alloys. Based on the solidification curves and microstructural examination of the corresponding alloys, it was found that addition of La or Ce increases the alloy melting temperature and the Al-Si eutectic temperature, with an Al-Si recalescence of 2-3°C, and the appearance of post-α-Al peaks attributed to precipitation of rare earth intermetallics. Addition of La or Ce to Al-(7–13% Si causes only partial modification of the eutectic Si particles. Lanthanum has a high affinity to react with Sr, which weakens the modification efficiency of the latter. Cerium, however, has a high affinity for Ti, forming a large amount of sludge. Due to the large difference in the length of the eutectic Si particles in the same sample, the normal use of standard deviation in this case is meaningless.

  19. Microstructure and properties of TiAlSiN coatings prepared by hybrid PVD technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Donghai; Wang Chengyong; Cheng Xiaoling; Zhang Fenglin

    2009-01-01

    TiAlSiN coatings with different Si content were prepared by hollow cathode discharge (HCD) and mid-frequency magnetron sputtering (MFMS) hybrid coating deposition technology. The chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical properties of these coatings were systematically investigated by means of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindentation measurement, scratch and high speed milling hardened steel tests. The coatings prepared by this method showed the structure of crystalline phase was corresponding to that of TiAlN, however, different preferred orientation with addition of Si. Proper content of Si into TiAlN led to increase of microhardness and adhesion. TiAlSiN coated end mill with Si content of 4.78 at.% had the least flank wear, which was improved about 20% milling distance than TiAlN coated end mill.

  20. Microstructure and properties of TiAlSiN coatings prepared by hybrid PVD technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Donghai [Faculty of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang Chengyong, E-mail: cywang@gdut.edu.c [Faculty of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Cheng Xiaoling; Zhang Fenglin [Faculty of Electromechanical Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2009-07-01

    TiAlSiN coatings with different Si content were prepared by hollow cathode discharge (HCD) and mid-frequency magnetron sputtering (MFMS) hybrid coating deposition technology. The chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical properties of these coatings were systematically investigated by means of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), nanoindentation measurement, scratch and high speed milling hardened steel tests. The coatings prepared by this method showed the structure of crystalline phase was corresponding to that of TiAlN, however, different preferred orientation with addition of Si. Proper content of Si into TiAlN led to increase of microhardness and adhesion. TiAlSiN coated end mill with Si content of 4.78 at.% had the least flank wear, which was improved about 20% milling distance than TiAlN coated end mill.

  1. Effect of the valence electron concentration on the bulk modulus and chemical bonding in Ta2AC and Zr2AC (A=Al, Si, and P)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Jochen M.; Music, Denis; Sun Zhimei

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the valence electron concentration, on the bulk modulus and the chemical bonding in Ta 2 AC and Zr 2 AC (A=Al, Si, and P) by means of ab initio calculations. Our equilibrium volume and the hexagonal ratio (c/a) agree well (within 2.7% and 1.2%, respectively) with previously published experimental data for Ta 2 AlC. The bulk moduli of both Ta 2 AC and Zr 2 AC increase as Al is substituted with Si and P by 13.1% and 20.1%, respectively. This can be understood since the substitution is associated with an increased valence electron concentration, resulting in band filling and an extensive increase in cohesion

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-X alloys fabricated by gas atomization and extrusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.H.; Hong, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop good wear resistant and high-strength alloys, Al 81 Si 19 alloy was reinforced with transition elements such as Ni and Ce. The solubility of Si in aluminum was amplified, with increasing the Ni and Ce content in the rapidly solidified powders. The extruded bars consist of homogeneously dispersed fine Si particles along with Al 3 Ni and Al 3 Ce compounds (30-120 nm) in aluminum matrix (grain size below 500 nm). The tensile strength at room temperature for Al 81 Si 19 , Al 78 Si 19 Ni 2 Ce 0.5 and Al 76 Si 19 Ni 4 Ce 1 bars extruded at 400 deg. C was estimated as 281, 521, and 668 MPa, respectively. In addition, the maximum tensile strength of 730 MPa was attained in Al 73 Si 19 Ni 7 Ce 1 bulk alloy. The uniform dispersion of precipitates (Si, Al 3 Ni and Al 3 Ce particles) from the supersaturated Al matrix of ternary and quaternary alloys after extrusion was effective for enhanced mechanical properties.

  3. Improved mechanical properties of near-eutectic Al-Si piston alloy through ultrasonic melt treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae-Gil; Lee, Sang-Hwa [Implementation Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung-Moo, E-mail: jmoolee@kims.re.kr [Implementation Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Hee [Implementation Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su-Hyeon [Metal Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Woon-Ha [Implementation Research Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-04

    The effects of ultrasonic melt treatment (UST) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-12.2Si-3.3Cu-2.4Ni-0.8Mg-0.1Fe (wt%) piston alloy were systematically investigated. Rigid colonies consisting of primary Si, eutectic Si, Mg{sub 2}Si and various aluminides (ε-Al{sub 3}Ni, δ-Al{sub 3}CuNi, π-Al{sub 8}FeMg{sub 3}Si{sub 6}, γ-Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 4}Ni, Q-Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 2}Mg{sub 8}Si{sub 6} and θ-Al{sub 2}Cu) were observed in the as-cast alloys. The sizes of the secondary phases, eutectic cell and grain were significantly decreased by UST because of the enhanced nucleation of each phase under ultrasonic irradiation. The yield strength, tensile strength and elongation at 25 °C were significantly improved by UST mainly because of the refinement of the microstructures. Both tensile strength and elongation at 350 °C were also improved by UST despite the unchanged yield strength.

  4. UV and IR laser induced ablation of Al2O3/SiN:H and a-Si:H/SiN:H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schutz-Kuchly T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental work on laser induced ablation of thin Al2O3(20 nm/SiN:H (70 nm and a-Si:H (20 nm/SiN:H (70 nm stacks acting, respectively, as p-type and n-type silicon surface passivation layers is reported. Results obtained using two different laser sources are compared. The stacks are efficiently removed using a femtosecond infra-red laser (1030 nm wavelength, 300 fs pulse duration but the underlying silicon surface is highly damaged in a ripple-like pattern. This collateral effect is almost completely avoided using a nanosecond ultra-violet laser (248 nm wavelength, 50 ns pulse duration, however a-Si:H flakes and Al2O3 lace remain after ablation process.

  5. Cellular Response to Doping of High Porosity Foamed Alumina with Ca, P, Mg, and Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Soh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foamed alumina was previously synthesised by direct foaming of sulphate salt blends varying ammonium mole fraction (AMF, foaming heating rate and sintering temperature. The optimal product was produced with 0.33AMF, foaming at 100 °C/h and sintering at 1600 °C. This product attained high porosity of 94.39%, large average pore size of 300 µm and the highest compressive strength of 384 kPa. To improve bioactivity, doping of porous alumina by soaking in dilute or saturated solutions of Ca, P, Mg, CaP or CaP + Mg was done. Saturated solutions of Ca, P, Mg, CaP and CaP + Mg were made with excess salt in distilled water and decanted. Dilute solutions were made by diluting the 100% solution to 10% concentration. Doping with Si was done using the sol gel method at 100% concentration only. Cell culture was carried out with MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Cellular response to the Si and P doped samples was positive with high cell populations and cell layer formation. The impact of doping with phosphate produced a result not previously reported. The cellular response showed that both Si and P doping improved the biocompatibility of the foamed alumina.

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Zinc-Modified Ca–Si-Based Ceramic Coating for Bone Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuebin; He, Dannong; Ye, Xiaojian; Wang, Meiyan

    2013-01-01

    The host response to calcium silicate ceramic coatings is not always favorable because of their high dissolution rates, leading to high pH within the surrounding physiological environment. Recently, a zinc-incorporated calcium silicate-based ceramic Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, developed on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using plasma-spray technology, was found to exhibit improved chemical stability and biocompatibility. This study aimed to investigate and compare the in vitro response of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, CaSiO3 coating, and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V titanium control at cellular and molecular level. Our results showed Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation compared to CaSiO3 coating and control. In addition, Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating increased mRNA levels of osteoblast-related genes (alkaline phosphatase, procollagen α1(I), osteocalcin), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). The in vivo osteoconductive properties of Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating, compared to CaSiO3 coating and control, was investigated using a rabbit femur defect model. Histological and histomorphometrical analysis demonstrated new bone formation in direct contact with the Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating surface in absence of fibrous tissue and higher bone-implant contact rate (BIC) in the Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating group, indicating better biocompatibility and faster osseointegration than CaSiO3 coated and control implants. These results indicate Ca2ZnSi2O7 coated implants have applications in bone tissue regeneration, since they are biocompatible and able to osseointegrate with host bone. PMID:23483914

  7. Growth of GaN on SiC/Si substrates using AlN buffer layer by hot-mesh CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)], E-mail: kazuyuki@stn.nagaokaut.ac.jp; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Yasui, Kanji [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan); Suemitsu, Maki; Ito, Takashi [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Endou, Tetsuro [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakazawa, Hideki [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki 036-8561 (Japan); Narita, Yuzuru [Center of Interdisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takata, Masasuke; Akahane, Tadashi [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    GaN films were grown on SiC/Si (111) substrates by hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and trimetylgallium (TMG) under low V/III source gas ratio (NH{sub 3}/TMG = 80). The SiC layer was grown by a carbonization process on the Si substrates using propane (C{sub 3}H{sub 8}). The AlN layer was deposited as a buffer layer using NH{sub 3} and trimetylaluminum (TMA). GaN films were formed and grown by the reaction between NH{sub x} radicals, generated on a tungsten hot mesh, and the TMG molecules. The GaN films with the AlN buffer layer showed better crystallinity and stronger near-band-edge emission compared to those without the AlN layer.

  8. Dietary effects of Ca-zeolite supplementation on some blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smyo

    to the Al, Si, Zn, Na or K concentrations of zeolite, because these minerals have been ... The SiO2, Al2O3, H2O related to loss on ignition, and CaO are the essential ...... The effect of interaction between narasin and nicarbazin with zeolite ... Protective role of zeolite on short- and long-term lead toxicity in the teleost fish.

  9. Irradiation-induced changes in the local environment of Si and Al in LnSiAlON glasses as probed by {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sangleboeuf, J.C. [Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, FRE 2717, LARMAUR, F-35042 Rennes (France); Dauce, R.; Le Floch, M.; Verdier, P. [Univ Rennes 1, Inst Chem, UMR 6512, CNRS, F-35042 Rennes (France); Dauce, R. [CE Cadarache, DEC/SESC, F-13018 St Paul Les Durance (France)

    2007-03-15

    Two compounds have been studied: an oxide glass from the Y-Si-Al-O system and an oxynitride glass from the Y-Si-Al-O-N system, both bombarded with Sn-ions (975 MeV, fluences ranging from 10{sup 12} to 2.7 * 10{sup 13} Sn/cm{sup 2}). The changes in the environment of the silicon and the aluminium were investigated using NMR spectroscopy. Irradiation by Sn ions leads to a loss of nitrogen in the silicon and probably the aluminium environments. Part of the aluminium changes from a network former coordination to a network modifier coordination while the oxide silicate network exhibits a higher cross-linking due to an increase of the population of bridging oxygen. Part of the aluminium in five-fold coordination is formed at the expense of aluminium in six-fold coordination in the case of the oxynitride glass and the changes in the silicon environment occur at lower fluences than for the oxide glass. (authors)

  10. Utilisation of mould temperature change in eliminating the Al5FeSi phases in secondary AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolibruchová D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the impact of the metal mould temperature change in eliminating the adverse effect of iron in the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy. The kind of phases based on iron to be formed in aluminium alloys is determined by the alloy chemical composition, the melt overheating temperature prior to casting, and the cooling rate during crystallisation. In the experiment, we used three various mould temperatures, and their impact on the possible change in the adverse Al5FeSi phase, excreted in a needle form to a more compact form of Chinese writing or skeleton units. The experimental part did not use melt overheat that would result in impairment of the melt, for example due to increased gassing of the melt, as well as in a greater load on the smelting unit, thus resulting in increased energy expenditure. We can conclude from the obtained results that the mould temperature change does not have an adequate effect in eliminating the adverse effect of iron in Al-Si-Mg alloys.

  11. Crystallization kinetics of bioactive glasses in the ZnO-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Gianluca; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Pedone, Alfonso; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Dappiaggi, Monica; Gualtieri, Alessandro; Menabue, Ledi

    2007-08-30

    The crystallization kinetics of Na(2)O.CaO.2SiO(2) (x = 0) and 0.68ZnO.Na(2)O.CaO.2SiO(2) (x = 0.68, where x is the ZnO stoichiometric coefficient in the glass formula) bioactive glasses have been studied using both nonisothermal and isothermal methods. The results obtained from isothermal XRPD analyses have showed that the first glass crystallizes into the isochemical Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6) phase, whereas the Na(2)ZnSiO(4) crystalline phase is obtained from the Zn-rich glass, in addition to Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6). The activation energy (Ea) for the crystallization of the Na(2)O.CaO.2SiO(2) glass is 193 +/- 10 and 203 +/- 5 kJ/mol from the isothermal in situ XRPD and nonisothermal DSC experiments, respectively. The Avrami exponent n determined from the isothermal method is 1 at low temperature (530 degrees C), and its value increases linearly with temperature increase up to 2 at 607 degrees C. For the crystallization of Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6) from the Zn-containing glass, higher values of both the crystallization temperature (667 and 661 degrees C) and Ea (223 +/- 10 and 211 +/- 5 kJ/mol) have been found from the isothermal and nonisothermal methods, respectively. The Na(2)ZnSiO(4) crystalline phase crystallizes at lower temperature with respect to Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6), and the Ea value is 266 +/- 20 and 245 +/- 15 kJ/mol from the isothermal and nonisothermal methods, respectively. The results of this work show that the addition of Zn favors the crystallization from the glass at lower temperature with respect to the Zn-free glass. In fact, it causes an increase of Ea for the Na diffusion process, determined using MD simulations, and consequently an overall increase of Ea for the crystallization process of Na(2)CaSi(2)O(6). Our results show good agreement between the Ea and n values obtained with the two different methods and confirm the reliability of the nonisothermal method applied to kinetic crystallization of glassy systems. This study allows the determination of the temperature

  12. Influence of CaCO3 and SiO2 additives on magnetic properties of M-type Sr ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Chien; Jiang, Ai-Hua; Hung, Yung-Hsiung; Liou, Ching-Hsuan; Wang, Yi-Chen; Lee, Chi-Ping; Hung, Tong-Yin; Shaw, Chun-Chung; Kuo, Ming-Feng; Cheng, Chun-Hu

    2018-04-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of CaCO3 and SiO2 additives on the magnetic and physical properties of M-type Sr ferrites by changing experimental parameters such as the additive composition and Ca/Si ratio. Specimens were prepared by conventional ceramic techniques. It was found that the magnetic properties (Br = 4.42 kG, iHc = 3.32 kOe and (BH)max = 4.863 MGOe) were considerably improved upon adding CaCO3 = 1.1% and SiO2 = 0.4 wt% together with Co3O4, and the mechanical properties thereof were acceptable for motor applications. It was revealed that CaCO3 and SiO2 additives led to an upswing in the magnetic properties via the enhancement of uniform grain growth, particle alignment, and the densification of Sr ferrite.

  13. The high temperature synthesis of CsAlSiO 4-ANA, a new polymorph in the system Cs 2OAl 2O 3SiO 2. I. The end member of ANA type of zeolite framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, R.; Dondur, V.; Petranovic, N.

    1991-12-01

    High temperature phase transformations of Cs + exchanged zeolites were investigated. Above 1000°C, CsX, CsY (FAU), and Cs, ZK-4 (LTA) frameworks recrystallized in a pollucite phase. A Cs + loaded mordenite recrystallized at 1300°C in the orthorhombic CsAlSi 5O 12 phase. A Cs + exchanged zeolite A at 960°C recrystallized in a mixture of two polymorphic CsAlSiO 4 phases having different (Al,Si)O 4 frameworks. The unstable orthorhombic CsAlSiO 4ABW phase has a topotactic transition at 1150°C into an ordered low CsAlSiO 4-ANA framework. Further calcination produces, at 1200°C, transformation of the low CsAlSiO 4-ANA phase to the more stable high CsAlSiO 4-ANA polymorph having cubic ( a 0 = 13.6595 (5) Å) symmetry and an ordered SiAl distribution. The crystal structure of high CsAlSiO 4ANA, a new polymorph in the system Cs 2OAl 2O 3SiO 2, was determined using X-ray Rietveld analyses and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy.

  14. Modeling of Eutectic Formation in Al-Si Alloy Using A Phase-Field Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We have utilized a phase-field model to investigate the evolution of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloy. The interfacial fluctuations are included into a phase-field model of two-phase solidification, as stochastic noise terms and their dominant role in eutectic silicon formation is discussed. We have observed that silicon spherical particles nucleate on the foundation of primary aluminum phase and their nucleation continues on concentric rings, through the Al matrix. The nucleation of silicon particles is attributed to the inclusion of fluctuations into the phase-field equations. The simulation results have shown needle-like, fish-bone like and flakes of silicon phase by adjusting the noise coefficients to larger values. Moreover, the role of primary Al phase on nucleation of silicon particles in Al-Si alloy is elaborated. We have found that the addition of fluctuations plays the role of modifiers in our simulations and is essential for phase-field modeling of eutectic growth in Al-Si system. The simulated finger-like Al phases and spherical Si particles are very similar to those of experimental eutectic growth in modified Al-Si alloy.

  15. Oxidation resistance of quintuple Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings and associated mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Guizhi; Ma Shengli; Xu Kewei; Ji, Vincent; Chu, Paul K. [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); ICMMO/LEMHE, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    The oxidation behavior of Ti-Al-Si-C-N hard coatings with different Al contents deposited on high-speed steel and Si substrates by hybrid arc-enhanced magnetron sputtering is investigated in the temperature range of 500 Degree-Sign C-1000 Degree-Sign C. The coating hardness is maintained at around 35 GPa, and the parabolic oxidation rate constant K{sub p} at 1000 Degree-Sign C decreases to 3.36 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} kg{sup 2} m{sup -4} s{sup -1} when the Al concentration is increased to 30 at. %, indicating that Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings with larger Al concentrations have better oxidation resistance. X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveal a protective surface layer consisting of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, and SiO{sub 2} that retards inward oxygen diffusion. A mechanism is proposed to elucidate the oxide formation. As a consequence of the good oxidation resistance, the Ti-Al-Si-C-N coatings have a large potential in high-speed dry cutting as well as other high temperature applications.

  16. Dosimeter properties of Ce and Eu doped LiCaAlF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Kenichi; Fukuda, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Optical, scintillation properties, optical stimulated luminescence, and thermally stimulated luminescence of Ce 1, 3, and 5% doped and Eu 1, 1.5, and 2% doped LiCaAlF 6 crystals fabricated by Tokuyama Corp. were investigated. In transmittance, absorption was proportional to dopant concentrations and typical optical quantum yield of Ce and Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 were 40 and 100%, respectively. Scintillation wavelength and decay time profiles were investigated under X-ray irradiation. Ce 3+ and Eu 2+ 5d-4f luminescence appeared around 300 nm and 370 nm with typical decay time of 40 ns and 1.5 μs, respectively. Optically stimulated luminescence of Ce-doped ones appeared under 405 nm stimulation with detectable intensity while those of Eu doped ones were quite weak. Thermally stimulated luminescence of Ce- and Eu-doped LiCaAlF 6 were enough strong and they exhibited good response function from 1 to 1000 mGy exposure. - Highlights: • Optical, scintillation, OSL, and TSL properties of Ce or Eu differently doped LiCaAlF6 were studied. • PL quantum yield of Ce and Eu doped LiCaAlF6 showed 40% and 100%, respectively. • OSL was observed in Ce-doped LiCaAlF6. • TSL was observed in both material systems and exhibited a good dose response from 1 to 1000 mGy

  17. Isothermal sections of Eu(Ca, Zr, Ba)-Mn-Al ternary phase diagrams at 770 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manyako, N.B.; Yanson, T.I.; Zarechnyuk, O.S.

    1988-01-01

    Isothermal cross sections of Eu(Ca, Sr, Ba)-Mn-Al state diagrams at 770 K are plotted by means of X-ray structural analysis. EuMn 2.3-3.6 Al 9.7-8.4 (ThMn 12 structure type) and Eu 2 Mn 5 Al 12 (eigenstructure type) two compound are found within Eu-Mn-Al system. Existance of CaMn 0.16- 0 .32 Al 1.84-1.68 compound (MgNi 2 structure type) is proved and CaMn 3.2-2.1 Al 8.8-9.9 compound (ThMn 12 type partially ordered structure) is found within Ca-Mn-Al system. Ternary compounds are not formed within Sr(Ba)-Mn-Al systems. Regions of stratification, occurring within Eu(Ca, Sr, Ba)-Mn systems, penetrate in ternary system

  18. Preparation of Al/Si functionally graded materials using ultrasonic separation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhongtao

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Functionally graded materials (FGM have been widely used in many industries such as aerospace, energy and electronics. In this experimental study of fabricating FGM, an approach was developed to prepare Al/Si FGM using power ultrasonic separation method. Material sample with continuously changing composition and performance/properties was successfully produced. Results showed that the microstructure of the FGM sample transited, from its top to bottom, from the hypereutectic structure with a large quantity of primary Si gradually to the eutectic, and fi nally to the hypoeutectic with numerous primary Al dendrites. The distribution of primary Si and microhardness of the FGM sample also presented graded characteristics, resulting that the wear resistance of the FGM sample decreased from top to bottom. Preliminary discussion was made on the mechanism of the formation of Al/Si FGM.

  19. Production of Al2O3–SiC nano-composites by spark plasma sintering; Producción de nano-composites – SiC–Al2O3 por spark plasma sinterizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour Razavi; Ali Reza Farajipour; Mohammad Zakeri; Mohammad Reza Rahimipour; Ali Reza Firouzbakht

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Al2O3–SiC composites were produced by SPS at temperatures of 1600°C for 10min under vacuum atmosphere. For preparing samples, Al2O3 with the second phase including of micro and nano-sized SiC powder were milled for 5h. The milled powders were sintered in a SPS machine. After sintering process, phase studies, densification and mechanical properties of Al2O3–SiC composites were examined. Results showed that the specimens containing micro-sized SiC have an important effect on bulk density, hardness and strength. The highest relative density, hardness and strength were 99.7%, 324.6 HV and 2329MPa, respectively, in Al2O3–20wt% SiCmicro composite. Due to short time sintering, the growth was limited and grains still remained in nano-meter scale. [Spanish] En este trabajo se muestran compuestos de Al2O3-SiC producidos por SPS, en vacío, a 1.600 °C durante 10 min. Para la preparación de muestras, se molieron polvos de Al2O3 durante 5 h con la segunda fase de micro-y-nano polvo de SiC. Posteriormente, estos polvos molidos se sinterizaron mediante SPS. Después del proceso de sinterización, se realizaron estudios de fase, densificación y propiedades mecánicas de los compuestos de Al2O3-SiC obtenidos. Los resultados mostraron que micro-SiC en las muestras tiene un efecto importante en su densidad aparente, dureza y resistencia. La mayor densidad relativa, dureza y resistencia fueron respectivamente del 99,7%, 324,6 HV y 2.329 MPa para Al2O3 con un 20% en peso micro-SiC. Debido al corto tiempo de sinterización, el crecimiento los granos fue limitado y se mantuvieron en escala nanométrica.

  20. Grain refinement of Ca addition in a twin-roll-cast Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Bin, E-mail: jiangbinrong@cqu.edu.cn [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Liu Wenjun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Qiu Dong; Zhang Mingxing [Division of Materials, School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Pan Fusheng [National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2012-04-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grain refinement of Ca addition in a twin-roll-cast Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of 0.08 wt% Ca into Mg melts can significantly reduce the grain size to 30 {mu}m from 100 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}Ca intermetallic particles have high potency to act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for {alpha}-Mg. - Abstract: Addition of 0.08 wt% Ca into AZ31 melts significantly reduces the average grain size of thin strips produced by twin-roll-cast to 30 {mu}m from 100 {mu}m. Like Zr, due to the high chemical activity, the Ca added into the melts reacts with Al and forms Al{sub 2}Ca intermetallic compound. X-ray diffraction result approves the existence of Al{sub 2}Ca in the thin strips, which formed in the melts. Crystallographic examination of relationship between Al{sub 2}Ca and Mg using the edge-to-edge matching model indicates that Al{sub 2}Ca particles are effective inoculants for heterogeneous nucleation of Mg. It is considered that Al{sub 2}Ca is a potential and effective grain refiner for Mg alloys and the grain refinement through addition of Ca in the AZ31 alloy is attributed to the inoculation effect of Al{sub 2}Ca particles formed in the melts.

  1. Sulfur passivation for the formation of Si-terminated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3/}SiGe(0 0 1) interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardashti, Kasra [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Hu, Kai-Ting [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Tang, Kechao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States); Park, Sangwook; Kim, Hyonwoong [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Madisetti, Shailesh [Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany—State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States); McIntyre, Paul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, CA (United States); Oktyabrsky, Serge [Department of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany—State University of New York, Albany, NY (United States); Siddiqui, Shariq; Sahu, Bhagawan [TD Research, GLOBALFOUNDRIES USA, Inc., Albany, NY (United States); Yoshida, Noami; Kachian, Jessica [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Kummel, Andrew, E-mail: akummel@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effect of wet sulfur passivation on the electrical properties of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe(0 0 1) interfaces has been determined. • EOT of 2.1 nm has been achieved for ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited directly on SiGe(0 0 1) surfaces. • Sulfur passivation has been found to passivate the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface with Si−O−Al bonds. • Sulfur passivation is found to significantly reduce the GeO{sub x} or Ge−O−Al content at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SiGe interface therefore improving the reliability. • Sulfur passivation extends the surface stability prior to oxide ALD to up to an hour with no dramatic change in D{sub it}, C{sub ox} or V{sub FB} of the resulting devices. - Abstract: Sulfur passivation is used to electrically and chemically passivate the silicon–germanium (SiGe) surfaces before and during the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The electrical properties of the interfaces were examined by variable frequency capacitance–voltage (C–V) spectroscopy. Interface compositions were determined by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AR-XPS). The sulfur adsorbs to a large fraction of surface sites on the SiGe(0 0 1) surface, protecting the surface from deleterious surface reactions during processing. Sulfur passivation (a) improved the air stability of the cleaned surfaces prior to ALD, (b) increased the stability of the surface during high-temperature deposition, and (c) increased the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD nucleation density on SiGe, thereby lowering the leakage current. S passivation suppressed formation of Ge−O bonds at the interface, leaving the majority of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–SiGe interface terminated with direct Si−O−Al bonding.

  2. The effect of Si content on the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Gordon Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Rd., Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wheeler, J. M. [Laboratory for Nanometallurgy, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 5, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Davis, C. E.; Clegg, W. J. [Gordon Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Rd., Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Zeng, X. T. [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore)

    2016-01-14

    CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} nanocomposite coatings with different Si contents were deposited to understand how Si influences the microstructure and mechanical behaviour of the coatings, in particular, the fracture toughness. The coating composition, chemical bonding, microstructure, and mechanical properties were studied by energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. Using a micro double cantilever beam sample, it was found that the fracture toughness of CrAlN/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coatings was higher than that of both the CrN and CrAlN coatings and increased with increasing Si content. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy suggested that this was caused by the suppression of cracking at columnar boundaries.

  3. Effects of Si content on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Changjie; Hu, Shuilian; Jiang, Yuanfei; Wu, Namei; Li, Mingsheng; Xin, Li; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui

    2014-11-01

    TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coatings of various Si content (0-5.09 at.%) were deposited on AISI-304 stainless steel by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique. The chemical composition, microstructure, mechanical and tribological properties of these coatings were systematically investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), nanoindentation tester, a home-made indentation system, a scratch tester and a wear tester. Results indicated that with increasing Si content in these coatings, a reduction of grain size and surface roughness, a transformation of the (1 1 1) preferred orientation was detected by XRD and FESEM. Furthermore the hardness of these coatings increase from 9.672 GPa to 18.628 GPa, and the elastic modulus reveal the rising trend that increase from 224.654 GPa to 251.933 GPa. However, the elastic modulus of TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content dropped rapidly and changed to about 180.775 GPa. The H3/E2 ratio is proportional to the film resistance to plastic deformation. The H3/E2 ratio of the TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content possess of the maximum of 0.11 GPa, and the indentation test indicate that few and fine cracks were observed from its indentation morphologies. The growth pattern of cracks is mainly bending growing. The present results show that the best toughness is obtained for TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu nanocomposite coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content. In addition, the TiAlN/Si3N4-Cu coating containing 3.39 at.% Si content also has good adhesion property and superior wear resistance, and the wear mechanism is mainly adhesion wear.

  4. Tribological Properties of AlSi11-SiCp Composite Castings Produced by Pressure Die Casting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konopka Z.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The measurement results concerning the abrasive wear of AlSi11-SiC particles composites are presented in paper. The method of preparing a composite slurry composed of AlSi11 alloy matrix and 10, 20% vol.% of SiC particles, as well as the method of its high-pressure die casting was described. Composite slurry was injected into metal mould of cold chamber pressure die cast machine and castings were produced at various values of the piston velocity in the second stage of injection, diverse intensification pressure values, and various injection gate width values. Very good uniform arrangement of SiC particles in volume composite matrix was observed and these results were publicated early in this journal. The kinetics of abrasive wear and correlation with SiC particles arrangement in composite matrix were presented. Better wear resistance of composite was observed in comparison with aluminium alloy. Very strong linear correlation between abrasive wear and particle arrangement was observed. The conclusion gives the analysis and the interpretation of the obtained results.

  5. Deformation processed Al/Ca nano-filamentary composite conductors for HVDC applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czahor, C. F.; Anderson, I. E.; Riedemann, T. M.; Russell, A. M.

    2017-07-01

    Efficient long-distance power transmission is necessary as the world continues to implement renewable energy sources, often sited in remote areas. Light, strong, high-conductivity materials are desirable for this application to reduce both construction and operational costs. In this study an Al/Ca (11.5% vol.) composite with nano-filamentary reinforcement was produced by powder metallurgy then extruded, swaged, and wire drawn to a maximum true strain of 12.7. The tensile strength increased exponentially as the filament size was reduced to the sub-micron level. In an effort to improve the conductor’s ability to operate at elevated temperatures, the deformation-processed wires were heat-treated at 260°C to transform the Ca-reinforcing filaments to Al2Ca. Such a transformation raised the tensile strength by as much as 28%, and caused little change in ductility, while the electrical conductivity was reduced by only 1% to 3%. Al/Al2Ca composites are compared to existing conductor materials to show how implementation could affect installation and performance.

  6. Optical properties of the Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Konstanty; Winkowski, Paweł; Jaglarz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of bilayer and trilayer Al2O3/SiO2 and Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2 antireflective coatings are presented in this paper. The oxide films were deposited on a heated quartz glass by e-gun evaporation in a vacuum of 5 × 10-3 [Pa] in the presence of oxygen. Depositions were performed at three different temperatures of the substrates: 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C. The coatings were deposited onto optical quartz glass (Corning HPFS). The thickness and deposition rate were controlled with Inficon XTC/2 thickness measuring system. Deposition rate was equal to 0.6 nm/s for Al2O3, 0.6 nm - 0.8 nm/s for HfO2 and 0.6 nm/s for SiO2. Simulations leading to optimization of the thin film thickness and the experimental results of optical measurements, which were carried out during and after the deposition process, have been presented. The optical thickness values, obtained from the measurements performed during the deposition process were as follows: 78 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/SiO2 and 78 nm/156 nm/78 nm for Al2O3/HfO2/SiO2. The results were then checked by ellipsometric technique. Reflectance of the films depended on the substrate temperature during the deposition process. Starting from 240 nm to the beginning of visible region, the average reflectance of the trilayer system was below 1 % and for the bilayer, minima of the reflectance were equal to 1.6 %, 1.15 % and 0.8 % for deposition temperatures of 100 °C, 200 °C and 300 °C, respectively.

  7. The Evaluation of the Corrosion Resistance of the Al-Si Alloys Antimony Alloyed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svobodova J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloys alloyed with the different amount of antimony. Specifically it goes about the alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 which is antimony alloyed in the concentrations 0; 0,001; 0,005; 0,01 a 0,05 wt. % of antimony. The introduction of the paper is dedicated to the theory of the aluminium alloys corrosion resistance, testing and evaluation of the corrosion resistance. The influence of the antimony to the Al-Si alloys properties is described further in the introduction. The experimental part describes the experimental samples which were prepared for the experiment and further they were exposed to the loading in the atmospheric conditions for a period of the 3 months. The experimental samples were evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. The results of the experiment were documented and the conclusions in terms of the antimony impact to the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy were concluded. There was compared the corrosion resistance of the Al-Si alloy antimony alloyed (with the different antimony content with the results of the Al-Si alloy without the alloying after the corrosion load in the atmospheric conditions in the experiment.

  8. Simulation of spheroidisation of elongated Si-particle in Al-Si alloys by the phase-field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, I.

    2008-01-01

    The application of the phase-field model for spheroidisation of undissolvable particles during high-temperature treatment of alloys is pointed out. Modelling of the spheroidisation of elongated Si-particles during annealing of Al-Si alloy is elaborated in this paper. The driving force for spheroidisation is the minimization of the total free-energy of the system or the minimization of the ratio between the interface areas and the particle volumes. The spheroidisation kinetics of elongated Si-particle for binary Al-Si system during homogenisation of aluminium alloys simulated by the phase-field model is demonstrated. The influences of the interface energy and the homogenisation temperature on the spheroidisation kinetics is presented. The lack of knowledge of the interface energy anisotropy between Si-particle and the aluminium phase is the only reason for using isotropic interface energy in simulations. The thermodynamic driving force for the phase transformation of the silicon into the aluminium phase is computed from the data obtained from the JMatPro software for aluminium alloys

  9. Analysis of reaction between c+a and -c+a dislocations in GaN layer grown on 4-inch Si(111) substrate with AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice by transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Yukari, E-mail: yukari@jfcc.or.jp [Japan Fine Ceramics Center, Atsuta, Nagoya, 456-8587 (Japan); Watanabe, Arata [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Miyoshi, Makoto; Egawa, Takashi [Research Center for Nano Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan); Innovation Center for Multi-Business of Nitride Semiconductors, Nagoya Institute of Technoloy, Nagoya, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    The behavior of dislocations in a GaN layer grown on a 4-inch Si(111) substrate with an AlGaN/AlN strained layer superlattice using horizontal metal-organic chemical vapor deposition was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Cross-sectional observation indicated that a drastic decrease in the dislocation density occurred in the GaN layer. The reaction of a dislocation (b=1/3[-211-3]) and anothor dislocation (b =1/3[-2113]) to form one dislocation (b =2/3[-2110]) in the GaN layer was clarified by plan-view observation using weak-beam dark-field and large-angle convergent-beam diffraction methods.

  10. Effect of Cold Forging on Microstructure and MechanicalProperties of Al/SiC Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanamantraygouda, M. B.; Shivakumar, B. P., Dr; Siddappa, P. N.; Sampathkumar, L.; Prashanth, L.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of cold forging on mechanical properties and microstructural study of Al MMCs, at different wt% of SiC and forging cycle. The Al-SiC composite material was fabricated by stir casting method at different weight percentage of SiC such as 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%. Further, the deformation characteristics during open-die forging of Al-SiC composite at cold conditions was investigated. Cast and forged composite material was subjected to hardness test, tensile test and impact test. The grain size, microstructure behaviour was investigated using optical microscope. The results show that hardness and strength of Al-SiC composite increases and ductility decreases as compared to Al alloy in both as-cast and forged conditions. Optical microscope images showed that the distribution of SiC in Al matrix was more homogeneous in a forged composite as compared to cast one and reduction of porosity was found. Further, it showed that due to forging cycle the grain size was reduced by 30% to 35% from initial size.

  11. Covalent bonds and their crucial effects on pseudogap formation in α-Al(Mn,Re)Si icosahedral quasicrystalline approximant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirihara, K.; Nagata, T.; Kimura, K.; Kato, K.; Takata, M.; Nishibori, E.; Sakata, M.

    2003-01-01

    X-ray charge densities of Al-based icosahedral quasicrystalline approximant crystals α-AlReSi, α-AlMnSi, and Al 12 Re were observed by a combination of the maximum entropy method with the Rietveld method. We successfully obtained the clear images of interatomic covalent bonds between Al and transition metals (Mn, Re) and those in the Al (or Si) icosahedron in Mackay icosahedral clusters of both α-AlReSi and α-AlMnSi approximant crystals. The bonding nature of the three kinds of glue atom sites connecting Mackay icosahedral clusters was also clarified. This covalent bonding nature should strongly relate with the enhancement of the electron density-of-states pseudogap near the Fermi level. In addition, the interatomic covalent bonds of α-AlReSi are stronger than those of α-AlMnSi. This fact leads to the low effective carrier density of α-AlReSi in comparison with that of α-AlMnSi. Unlike the covalent bonding nature of an icosahedron in α-AlReSi and α-AlMnSi crystals, the Al icosahedron with an Re center atom exhibits no Al-Al interatomic covalent bonds in the Al 12 Re crystal. The tendency for metallic-covalent bonding conversion in the Al icosahedron, which is related to the atom site occupancy of the icosahedral cluster center, is also strongly supported

  12. Blistering in ALD Al2O3 passivation layers as rear contacting for local Al BSF Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermang, B.; Goverde, J.C.; Uruena, A.; Lorenz, A.; Cornagliotti, E.; Rothschild, A.; John, J.; Poortmans, J.; Mertens, R.

    2012-01-01

    Random Al back surface field (BSF) p-type Si solar cells are presented, where a stack of Al2O3 and SiNx is used as rear surface passivation layer containing blisters. It is shown that no additional contact opening step is needed, since during co-firing local Al BSFs are induced at the location of

  13. Characterization of fuel miniplates fabricated with U(Mo) particles dispersed in Al-Si matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arico, S F; Mirandou, M I; Balart, S N; Fabro, J O

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 ECRI facility (Depto. ECRI, GCCN, CNEA) restarted the development for the fabrication of dispersion miniplates fuel elements in Al-Si matrix. This miniplates are fabricated with atomized U-7wt%Mo particles dispersed in a matrix formed by a mixture of pure Al and pure Si powders. The first results for an Al-4wt%Si matrix were presented at the AATN 2011 Annual Meeting. In this work, new results from the microstructural characterization of the meat in Al- 2wt%Si and pure Al miniplates are presented and compared with the previous ones. It is the intention to study the influence of the fabrication parameters as well as different Si concentration in the matrix, on the formation and characteristics of the interaction layer formed between the particles and the matrix at the end of the fabrication process. According to the results presented in this work an improvement can be observed on miniplates with Al-Si matrix respect to the one with pure Al. On the miniplates with Al- Si matrix, almost 100 % of the U(Mo) particles presented, at least in some fraction of its surface, an interaction layer composed by phases that contain Si. Moreover its morphological characteristics are independent of the crystallographic state of the U(Mo) particles. However, the oxide layer formed on the U(Mo) during the hot rolling acts as a barrier to the formation of the interaction layer. As a consequence, it is then mandatory to introduce some changes on the fabrication parameters to avoid, or at least minimize, this oxide layer (author)

  14. The application of cast SiC/Al to rotary engine components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, H. M.; Carluccio, J. R.; Norman, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    A silicon carbide reinforced aluminum (SiC/Al) material fabricated by Dural Aluminum Composites Corporation was tested for various components of rotary engines. Properties investigated included hardness, high temperature strength, wear resistance, fatigue resistance, thermal conductivity, and expansion. SiC/Al appears to be a viable candidate for cast rotors, and may be applicable to other components, primarily housings.

  15. Fusion evaporation residues and the distribution of reaction strength in 16O + 40Ca and 28Si + 28Si reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolata, J.J.; Hinnefeld, J.; Kovar, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    In measurements performed previously at ANL, studying the two entrance channels 16 O + 40 Ca and 28 Si + 28 Si which form the same compound nucleus 56 Ni, it was found that at higher bombarding energies (E/sub Lab/ > 5-7 MeV/nucleon) the distributions of reaction strength was dramatically different. Although the total reaction cross section behaviors for the two entrance channels are similar, the total evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for 28 Si + 28 Si decrease rapidly with increasing bombarding energies and up to the highest energy studied show no evidence for incomplete fusion processes. For 16 O + 40 Ca the ER cross section remains constant at approximately 1 barn with increasing bombarding energy and shows evidence of increasing contributions from incomplete fusion. To better understand this apparent dependence on the mass asymmetry in the entrance channel, coincidence measurements between evaporation residue-like products and heavy ions on the opposite side of the beam were performed for the two systems at E/sub Lab/ = 8 MeV/nucleon

  16. Interfacial reaction in SiC_f/Ti-6Al-4V composite by using transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Bin; Li, Maohua; Chen, Yanxia; Luo, Xian; Yang, Yanqing

    2015-01-01

    The interfacial reactions of continuous SiC fiber reinforced Ti-6Al-4V matrix composite (SiC_f/Ti-6Al-4V composite) and continuous SiC fiber coated by C reinforced Ti-6Al-4V matrix composite (SiC_f/C/Ti-6Al-4V composite) were investigated by using micro-beam electron diffraction (MBED) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The sequence of the interfacial reactions in the as-processed and exposed at 900°C for 50h SiC_f/Ti-6Al-4V composites can be described as SiC||TiC||Ti_5Si_3 + TiC||Ti-6Al-4V and SiC||TiC||Ti_5Si_3||TiC||Ti_5Si_3||TiC||Ti_5Si_3||Ti-6Al-4V, respectively. Additionally, both in as-processed and exposed composites, Ti_3SiC_2 and Ti_3Si are absent at the interfaces. For the SiC_f/C/Ti-6Al-4V composite exposed at 900 °C for 50 h, the sequence of the interfacial reaction can be described as SiC||C||TiC_F||TiC_C||Ti-6Al-4V before C coating is completely consumed by interfacial reaction. When interfacial reaction consumes C coating completely, the sequence of the interfacial reaction can be described as SiC||TiC||Ti_5Si_3||TiC||Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, in SiC_f/C/Ti-6Al-4V composite, C coating can absolutely prevent Si diffusion from SiC fiber to matrix. Basing on these results, the model of formation process of the interfacial reaction products in the composites was proposed. - Highlights: • We obtained the sequence of the interfacial reactions in the as-processed and exposed at 900 °C for 50 h SiC_f/Ti-6Al-4 V composites as well as in the SiC_f/C/Ti-6Al-4 V composite exposed at 900 °C for 50 h. • We verified that both in as-processed and exposed SiC_f/Ti-6Al-4 V composites, Ti_3SiC_2 and Ti_3Si are absent at the interfaces. • Carbon coating can absolutely prevent silicon diffusion from SiC fiber to matrix. • Basing on these results, the model of formation process of the interfacial reaction products in the composites was proposed.

  17. Formation of Si clusters in AlGaN: A study of local structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A.; Martinez-Criado, G.; Homs, A.; Hernandez-Fenollosa, M. A.; Vantelon, D.; Ambacher, O.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors report on the application of synchrotron radiation x-ray microprobe to the study of Si impurities in plasma-induced molecular beam epitaxy grown Al 0.32 Ga 0.68 N. Elemental maps obtained by μ-x-ray fluorescence spectrometry show inhomogeneous distributions of Si, Al, and Ga on the micron scale. X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectra taken at the Si and Al K edges provided information about their local chemical environment and revealed the change of the spectral features as depending on the position compared to the sample surface and on the concentration of Si

  18. The structure-property relationships of powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prichard, Paul D. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1998-02-23

    Iron-aluminum alloys have been extensively evaluated as semi-continuous product such as sheet and bar, but have not been evaluated by net shape P/M processing techniques such as metal injection molding. The alloy compositions of iron-aluminum alloys have been optimized for room temperature ductility, but have limited high temperature strength. Hot extruded powder alloys in the Fe-Al-Si system have developed impressive mechanical properties, but the effects of sintering on mechanical properties have not been explored. This investigation evaluated three powder processed Fe-Al-Si alloys: Fe-15Al, Fe-15Al-2.8Si, Fe-15Al-5Si (atomic %). The powder alloys were produced with a high pressure gas atomization (HPGA) process to obtain a high fraction of metal injection molding (MIM) quality powder (D84 < 32 μm). The powders were consolidated either by P/M hot extrusion or by vacuum sintering. The extruded materials were near full density with grain sizes ranging from 30 to 50 μm. The vacuum sintering conditions produced samples with density ranging from 87% to 99% of theoretical density, with an average grain size ranging from 26 μm to 104 μm. Mechanical property testing was conducted on both extruded and sintered material using a small punch test. Tensile tests were conducted on extruded bar for comparison with the punch test data. Punch tests were conducted from 25 to 550 C to determine the yield strength, and fracture energy for each alloy as a function of processing condition. The ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) was observed to increase with an increasing silicon content. The Fe-15Al-2.8Si alloy was selected for more extensive testing due to the combination of high temperature strength and low temperature toughness due to the two phase α + DO3 structure. This investigation provided a framework for understanding the effects of silicon in powder processing and mechanical property behavior of Fe-Al-Si alloys.

  19. Luminescent Afterglow Behavior in the M2Si5N8: Eu Family (M = Ca, Sr, Ba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Van den Eeckhout

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent luminescent materials are able to emit light for hours after being excited. The majority of persistent phosphors emit in the blue or green region of the visible spectrum. Orange- or red-emitting phosphors, strongly desired for emergency signage and medical imaging, are scarce. We prepared the nitrido-silicates Ca2Si5N8:Eu (orange, Sr2Si5N8:Eu (reddish, Ba2Si5N8:Eu (yellowish orange, and their rare-earth codoped variants (R = Nd, Dy, Sm, Tm through a solid state reaction, and investigated their luminescence and afterglow properties. In this paper, we describe how the persistent luminescence is affected by the type of codopant and the choice and ratio of the starting products. All the materials exhibit some form of persistent luminescence, but for Sr2Si5N8:Eu,R this is very weak. In Ba2Si5N8:Eu the afterglow remains visible for about 400 s, and Ca2Si5N8:Eu,Tm shows the brightest and longest afterglow, lasting about 2,500 s. For optimal persistent luminescence, the dopant and codopant should be added in their fluoride form, in concentrations below 1 mol%. A Ca3N2 deficiency of about 5% triples the afterglow intensity. Our results show that Ba2Si5N8:Eu(,R and Ca2Si5N8:Eu(,R are promising persistent phosphors for applications requiring orange or red light.

  20. A Study of Thin Film Resistors Prepared Using Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta High Entropy Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Cheng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta resistive thin films were prepared on glass and Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron cosputtering from targets of Ni0.35-Cr0.25-Si0.2-Al0.2 casting alloy and Ta metal. Electrical properties and microstructures of Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films under different sputtering powers and annealing temperatures were investigated. The phase evolution, microstructure, and composition of Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES. When the annealing temperature was set to 300°C, the Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films with an amorphous structure were observed. When the annealing temperature was at 500°C, the Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films crystallized into Al0.9Ni4.22, Cr2Ta, and Ta5Si3 phases. The Ni-Cr-Si-Al-Ta films deposited at 100 W and annealed at 300°C which exhibited the higher resistivity 2215 μΩ-cm with −10 ppm/°C of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR.

  1. New investigation of phase equilibria in the system Al-Cu-Si.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponweiser, Norbert; Richter, Klaus W

    2012-01-25

    The phase equilibria and invariant reactions in the system Al-Cu-Si were investigated by a combination of optical microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and electron probe micro analysis (EPMA). Isothermal phase equilibria were investigated within two isothermal sections. The isothermal section at 500 °C covers the whole ternary composition range and largely confirms the findings of previous phase diagram investigations. The isothermal section at 700 °C describes phase equilibria only in the complex Cu-rich part of the phase diagram. A new ternary compound τ was found in the region between (Al,Cu)-γ(1) and (Cu,Si)-γ and its solubility range was determined. The solubility of Al in κ-CuSi was found to be extremely high at 700 °C. In contrast, no ternary solubility in the β-phase of Cu-Al was found, although this phase is supposed to form a complete solid solution according to previous phase diagram assessments. Two isopleths, at 10 and 40 at.% Si, were investigated by means of DTA and a partial ternary reaction scheme (Scheil diagram) was constructed, based on the current work and the latest findings in the binary systems Al-Cu and Cu-Si. The current study shows that the high temperature equilibria in the Cu-rich corner are still poorly understood and additional studies in this area would be favorable.

  2. Osteoblast interaction with laser cladded HA and SiO{sub 2}-HA coatings on Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yuling [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Serpersu, Kaan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); He Wei, E-mail: whe5@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Paital, Sameer R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Dahotre, Narendra B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76207 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium endosseous implants, the morphology and composition of the surfaces were modified. Polished Ti-6Al-4V substrates were coated by a laser cladding process with different precursors: 100 wt.% HA and 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA. X-ray diffraction of the laser processed samples showed the presence of CaTiO{sub 3}, Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phases within the coatings. From in vitro studies, it was observed that compared to the unmodified substrate all laser cladded samples presented improved cellular interactions and bioactivity. The samples processed with 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA precursor showed a significantly higher HA precipitation after immersion in simulated body fluid than 100 wt.% HA precursor and titanium substrates. The in vitro biocompatibility of the laser cladded coatings and titanium substrate was investigated by culturing of mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell line and analyzing the cell viability, cell proliferation, and cell morphology. A significantly higher cell attachment and proliferation rate were observed for both laser cladded 100 wt.% HA and 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA samples. Compared to 100 wt.% HA sample, 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA samples presented a slightly improved cellular interaction due to the addition of SiO{sub 2}. The staining of the actin filaments showed that the laser cladded samples induced a normal cytoskeleton and well-developed focal adhesion contacts. Scanning electron microscopic image of the cell cultured samples revealed better cell attachment and spreading for 25 wt.% SiO{sub 2}-HA and 100 wt.% HA coatings than titanium substrate. These results suggest that the laser cladding process improves the bioactivity and biocompatibility of titanium. The observed biological improvements are mainly due to the coating induced changes in surface chemistry and surface morphology. Highlights: {yields} Laser cladding of Ti alloys with bioceramics creates new

  3. Evolution of Oxide Inclusions in Si-Mn Killed Steels During Hot-Rolling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen; Guo, Changbo; Zhang, Lifeng; Ling, Haitao; Li, Chao

    2017-10-01

    The evolution of oxide inclusions in Si-Mn killed steels refined by slags of different basicity during a four-pass industrial hot-rolling process was investigated using an automated microscopy system. High-basicity refining slag induced the formation of CaO- and Al2O3-containing inclusions, while refining slag with 0.8 basicity induced dominant inclusions of SiO2 and MnO-SiO2. CaO-SiO2-Al2O3 inclusions mainly formed endogenously during solidification and cooling of Ca-containing steels, where Ca originated from slag-steel reactions. However, the larger-sized higher-CaO inclusions originated from slag entrainment. Different inclusions presented different hot-rolling behaviors. The inclusion composition changed by deformation and new phase formation. The dominant oxide types were unchanged under refinement by low-basicity slag; however, they changed under refinement with high-basicity slag. The deformation index of inclusions decreased with increasing accumulated reduction (AR) of the steel. The difference in deformation index between different inclusion types was the largest in the first rolling stage and decreased in subsequent stages. SiO2-CaO and SiO2-MnO-CaO inclusions had larger deformation indices during hot rolling but smaller indices in the last two stages. High-basicity slag increased inclusion complexity; from the perspective of cold-drawing performance, low-basicity refining slag is better for the industrial production of tire-cord steels.

  4. Hydrometallurgical extraction of Al and Si from kaolinitic clays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana G. Pinna

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein is presented the results of a study on the hydrometallurgic extraction and recovery of aluminum and silicon by leaching of kaolinitic clays with HF. The studied extraction parameters were: temperature, reaction time, solid/liquid ratio, concentration, and precipitating agent mass. In the leaching process, mineral dissolutions near 100% were obtained when working at 348 K, solid/liquid ratio 2% w/v, HF 12% v/v, for 120 minutes. The HF leach liquor generated from the dissolution of kaolinitic clays contains H2SiF6and H3AlF6. Studies were conducted to recover the two valuable fluorides as K2SiF6and Na3AlF6by precipitation with alkaline salts from the leach liquor. Phases of precipitated fluorides were identified by XRD and surface morphology by SEM. The purity of the K2SiF6precipitate was 98.8%, whereas for Na3AlF6, it was 89.3%. Also, both synthesized solids are of high commercial value due to their industrial applications.

  5. Phase equilibrium in Al-Li-Ca(Sr, Ba) systems at 423 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganieva, N.I.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Ganiev, I.N.

    1999-01-01

    The isothermic cross section of the Al-Li-Ca(Sr, Ba) systems at 423 K is obtained. It is shown that the Al-Li-Sr ternary system as well as the Li-Sr binary system differ by nature of components in interaction from the Al-Li-Ca(Ba) systems. This is obvious by formation of the SrAl 2 Li 2 ternary intermetallide, which is not observed in the systems with participation of barium and calcium [ru

  6. Two directional microstructure and effects of nanoscale dispersed Si particles on microhardness and tensile properties of AlSi7Mg melt-spun alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xixi, E-mail: dongxx09@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Liangju [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mi, Guangbao [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Peijie [National Center of Novel Materials for International Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Both surface and cross-sectional microstructure of AlSi7Mg ribbon were characterized. • 13–50 nm and 50-hundreds of nm Si particles were dispersed both in α-Al and its boundary. • Tensile property of AlSi7Mg ribbon was studied with UTS 1.5 times higher than ingot. • Effects of nanoscale Si particles on hardness and tensile properties were provided. - Abstract: The two directional microstructure and multiple mechanical properties of the AlSi7Mg ribbon produced by melt-spun were investigated by optical microscopy (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), microhardness and tensile tests. Both the surface and cross-sectional microstructure of the melt-spun ribbon were characterized in detail to give a clear and integrated description of the microstructure. Two kinds of nanoscale Si particles were observed, i.e., small Si particles ranging from 13 to 50 nm and large Si particles ranging from 50 nm to several hundreds of nanometers with clear size boundary were dispersed both in the interior and boundary of fine α-Al. XRD results revealed supersaturated solution of Si in Al matrix to be 0.62 at.%. The ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness of the ribbon were 1.53, 1.75 and 1.56 times higher than that of the conventional cast ingot separately. The breaking elongation of the ribbon was 1.73% with intergranular fracture feature. The effects of nanoscale dispersed Si particles on the significant improvement of both hardness and tensile properties of the AlSi7Mg melt-spun ribbon were discussed in detail.

  7. Distribution of Al and in impurities along homogeneous Ge-Si crystals grown by the Czochralski method using Si feeding rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyazimova, V. K.; Alekperov, A. I.; Zakhrabekova, Z. M.; Azhdarov, G. Kh.

    2014-05-01

    A distribution of Al and In impurities in Ge1 - x Si x crystals (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3) grown by a modified Czochralski method (with continuous feeding of melt using a Si rod) have been studied experimentally and theoretically. Experimental Al and In concentrations along homogeneous crystals have been determined from Hall measurements. The problem of Al and In impurity distribution in homogeneous Ge-Si single crystals grown in the same way is solved within the Pfann approximation. A set of dependences of Al and In concentrations on the crystal length obtained within this approximation demonstrates a good correspondence between the experimental and theoretical data.

  8. FEM Analysis of Sezawa Mode SAW Sensor for VOC Based on CMOS Compatible AlN/SiO2/Si Multilayer Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Aslam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A Finite Element Method (FEM simulation study is conducted, aiming to scrutinize the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode in a multilayer AlN/SiO2/Si Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensor to low concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs, that is, trichloromethane, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene. A Complimentary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS compatible AlN/SiO2/Si based multilayer SAW resonator structure is taken into account for this purpose. In this study, first, the influence of AlN and SiO2 layers’ thicknesses over phase velocities and electromechanical coupling coefficients (k2 of two SAW modes (i.e., Rayleigh and Sezawa is analyzed and the optimal thicknesses of AlN and SiO2 layers are opted for best propagation characteristics. Next, the study is further extended to analyze the mass loading effect on resonance frequencies of SAW modes by coating a thin Polyisobutylene (PIB polymer film over the AlN surface. Finally, the sensitivity of the two SAW modes is examined for VOCs. This study concluded that the sensitivity of Sezawa wave mode for 1 ppm of selected volatile organic gases is twice that of the Rayleigh wave mode.

  9. Crack-resistant Al2O3-SiO2 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-07

    Obtaining "hard" and "crack-resistant" glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3-(100-x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3-SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3 • 40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses.

  10. Development of an efficient grain refiner for Al-7Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kori, S.A.; Murty, B.S.; Chakraborty, M. [Indian Inst. of Technol., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Metall. and Mater. Eng.

    2000-03-15

    The response of Al-7Si alloy towards grain refinement by Al-Ti-B master alloys (with different Ti-B ratios) at different addition levels has been studied in detail. The results indicate that high B-containing master alloys are powerful grain refiners when compared to conventional grain refiners like Al-5Ti-lB master alloys. In the present study, indigenously developed master alloys have been used for the grain refinement of alloys Al-7Si and LM-25. Significant improvements in mechanical properties have been obtained with a combination of grain refiner and Sr as modifier. (orig.)

  11. Review of Liquidus Surface and Phase Equilibria in the TiO2-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-CaO Slag System at PO2 Applicable in Fluxed Titaniferous Magnetite Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goso, Xolisa; Nell, Johannes; Petersen, Jochen

    The current liquidus surface and phase equilibria established in air for fluxed titaniferous magnetite (titanomagnetite) slags conforming to a composition of 37.19% TiO2, 19.69% SiO2, 13.12% Al2O3, and 30.00% of various ratios of CaO+MgO were reviewed at applicable PO2 using FactSage simulation and phase composition of a real plant titanomagnetite slag. The testwork included the incorporation into FactSage of a private MgTi2O5-Al2TiO5 pseudobrookite solution model. The results of the investigation showed that the liquidus surface and Ti3+/ Ti4+ mass fraction ratio increased with decreasing the PO2, At low PO2, perovskite crystallizes as a primary phase at high CaO content. The spinel solution, i.e. (Mg)(Al,Ti)O4, generally crystallizes as the primary phase at high MgO contents, though it is replaced by MgTi2O5-Al2TiO5 solution at PO2 of 10-10 atm to 10-15 atm. An intermediate equilibrium phase diagram established at PO2 of 10-16 atm is proposed. This phase diagram does not show the observed primary phase crystallization competition, however, the phase composition of a real titanomagnetite slag produced by Evraz Highveld Steel and Vanadium Corporation in South Africa does show primary phase crystallization competition between (Mg)(Al,Ti)2O4 and MgTi2O5-Al2TiO5. Smelting involving such slags is likely conducted around the transition PO2, i.e. PO2 of about 10-16 atm. Complex modelling with MgTi2O5, Al2TiO5 and Ti3O5 end members and experiments are underway to verify and update the intermediate phase diagram.

  12. Four-branched compounds coupled Si and iron-rich intermetallics in near eutectic Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa; Jiang, Binggang; Bian, Xiufang

    2007-01-01

    Many four-branched compounds coupled Si and iron-rich intermetallics were observed in near eutectic Al-Si alloy modified with Al-P master alloy. Such four-branched compounds have never been reported before, but in our case it seems to be commonly observed. In this work the growth characterization of the four-branched compounds are scrutinized with a JXA-8800 electron microprobe (EPMA). More deep study of the formation of four-branched compounds is performed by SEM and TEM analysis. The characterization of the four-branched compounds is that of a primary silicon in the center with four iron-rich intermetallics around. Experimental results also show that the precipitation of primary silicon is the key factor for the formation of four-branched compounds. And WHS-theory explains the growth mechanism of the four-branched compounds. In detail, subsequent twinning within the primary silicon provides four-fold coordination sites on the surface, and then the α-Al(Fe,Mn)-Si phase nucleates on the surface of the primary silicon

  13. Effect of CeO2 and Y2O3 on microstructure, bioactivity and degradability of laser cladding CaO-SiO2 coating on titanium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Chen, C Z; Weng, F

    2015-03-01

    To solve the lack of strength of bulk biomaterials for load-bearing applications and improve the bioactivity of titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), CaO-SiO2 coatings on titanium alloy were fabricated by laser cladding technique. The effect of CeO2 and Y2O3 on microstructure and properties of laser cladding coating was analyzed. The cross-section microstructure of ceramic layer from top to bottom gradually changes from cellular-dendrite structure to compact cellular crystal. The addition of CeO2 or Y2O3 refines the microstructure of the ceramic layer in the upper and middle regions. The refining effect on the grain is related to the kinds of additives and their content. The coating is mainly composed of CaTiO3, CaO, α-Ca2(SiO4), SiO2 and TiO2. Y2O3 inhibits the formation of CaO. After soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF), the calcium phosphate layer is formed on the coating surface, indicating the coating has bioactivity. After soaking in Tris-HCl solution, the samples doped with CeO2 or Y2O3 present a lower weight loss, indicating the addition of CeO2 or Y2O3 improves the degradability of laser cladding sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Iron in AlSi10MgMn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žihalová M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presence of iron in Al-Si cast alloys is common problem mainly in secondary (recycled aluminium alloys. Better understanding of iron influence in this kind of alloys can lead to reduction of final castings cost. Presented article deals with examination of detrimental iron effect in AlSi10MgMn cast alloy. Microstructural analysis and ultimate tensile strength testing were used to consider influence of iron to microstructure and mechanical properties of selected alloy.

  15. Influence of Preparation Conditions on Electrical Properties of the Al/Alq3/Si Diode Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina ČERNIUKĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic-inorganic diode structures, Al/Alq3/n-Si and Al/Alq3/p-Si based on thin films of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq3 have been investigated. The Alq3 films were evaporated in vacuum and spin coated onto patterned areas of crystalline n- and p-type Si substrates with chemically removed native SiO2 layer. Current-voltage characteristics of the diode structures demonstrated improved rectification property compared to similar Al/n-Si and Al/p-Si device structures. Increased barrier height values (0.90 eV ÷ 1.1 eV and 0.77 eV ÷ 0.91 eV for the Al/Alq3/n-Si and Al/Alq3/p-Si device structures, respectively certified presence of an interface dipole induced by the organic interlayer. Non-ideal behavior of forward current-voltage characteristics has been explained assuming non-uniformity of barrier height, presence of interface states, and influence of the organic film on diode series resistance and space charge limited current. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2733

  16. Investigating the effect of silicon surface chemical treatment on Al/Si contact properties in GaP/Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, D.; Gudovskikh, A.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out to reveal how chemical treatment of a silicon surface affects the properties of the Al/Si contact. It has been shown that for p-type monocrystalline silicon substrates with a resistivity of 10 ohm cm, it is possible to form an ohmic Al/Si contact by magnetron sputtering of an aluminum thin film and its further annealing at temperatures of 400 - 450 °C. In the range of annealing temperatures of 250 - 400 °C, the Si substrate treatment in the HF solution leads to a significant increase in currents on the current-voltage curves of the Al/Si contact, while in the range of 450 - 700 °C, the effect of chemical treatment of the silicon is not detected.

  17. Ab initio study of 3C-SiC/M (M = Ti or Al) nano-hetero interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shingo; Kohyama, Masanori

    2003-01-01

    Ab initio pseudopotential calculation of 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Al nano-hetero interfaces have been performed and interface atom species dependence (IASD) and interface orientation dependence (IOD) of nano-hetero interfaces between 3C-SiC ((1 1 1) or (0 0 1) orientation) and metal (Ti or Al) have been studied systematically. Stable atomic configurations of the 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Al interfaces are quite different from those of the 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Ti interfaces. Two terminated, Si-terminated (Si-TERM) and C-terminated (C-TERM), 3C-SiC(1 1 1)/Al interfaces have covalent bonding nature. In 3C-SiC/M (M = Ti or Al) nano-hetero interfaces, the C-terminated interface has relative strong, covalent and ionic C-Ti or C-Al bonds as TiC or SiC while the Si-terminated interface has various type of bonding nature, relative weak Si-Ti or Si-Al bonds from metallic character at the (0 0 1) interface to covalent character at the (1 1 1) interface. Adhesive energy (AE) shows strong IASD and IOD. The AE of the C-terminated interface is larger than that of the Si-terminated one. In the C-terminated interface, the AE of the (1 1 1) interface is smaller than that of the (0 0 1) one while in the Si-terminated interface there exists opposite interrelation. Schottky barrier height (SBH) also shows strong IASD and IOD. The SBH of the C-terminated interface is smaller than that of the Si-terminated one. The C-terminated SiC/Al interfaces have extremely small SBHs. In comparison with some experimental SBH, the present result is reliable as the difference of SBH between the two terminated interfaces and qualitative properties

  18. Reduction of CaO and MgO Slag Components by Al in Liquid Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Haoyuan; Zhang, Tongsheng; Fruehan, Richard J.; Webler, Bryan A.

    2018-05-01

    This study documents laboratory-scale observations of reactions between Fe-Al alloys (0.1 to 2 wt pct Al) with slags and refractories. Al in steels is known to reduce oxide components in slag and refractory. With continued development of Al-containing Advanced High-Strength Steel (AHSS) grade, the effects of higher Al must be examined because reduction of components such as CaO and MgO could lead to uncontrolled modification of non-metallic inclusions. This may lead to castability or in-service performance problems. In this work, Fe-Al alloys and CaO-MgO-Al2O3 slags were melted in an MgO crucible and samples were taken at various times up to 60 minutes. Inclusions from these samples were characterized using an automated scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive x-ray analysis (SEM/EDS). Initially Al2O3 inclusions were modified to MgAl2O4, then MgO, then MgO + CaO-Al2O3-MgO liquid inclusions. Modification of the inclusions was faster at higher Al levels. Very little Ca modification was observed except at 2 wt pct Al level. The thermodynamic feasibility of inclusion modification and some of the mass transfer considerations that may have led to the differences in the Mg and Ca modification behavior were discussed.

  19. Effect of Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce Master Alloy on the Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Commercial Pure Al and Hypoeutectic Al-8Si Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwu Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy was synthesized by a method of thermal explosion reaction in pure molten aluminum and used to modify commercial pure Al and hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy. The microstructure and tensile properties of commercial pure Al and hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy with different additions of Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy were investigated. The results show that the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce alloy was composed of α-Al, granular TiC, lump-like TiAl3 and block-like Ti2Al20Ce. Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 5 min can significantly refine macro grains of commercial pure Al into tiny equiaxed grains. The Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 30 min still has a good refinement effect. The tensile strength and elongation of commercial pure Al modified by the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (0.3 wt %, 5 min increased by roughly 19.26% and 61.83%, respectively. Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (1.5 wt %, 10 min can significantly refine both α-Al grains and eutectic Si of hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy. The dendritic α-Al grains were significantly refined to tiny equiaxed grains. The morphology of the eutectic Si crystals was significantly refined from coarse needle-shape or lath-shape to short rod-like or grain-like eutectic Si. The tensile strength and elongation of hypoeutectic Al-8Si alloy modified by the Al-5Ti-0.62C-0.2Ce master alloy (1.5 wt %, 10 min increased by roughly 20.53% and 50%, respectively. The change in mechanical properties corresponds to evolution of the microstructure.

  20. Alleviation of process-induced cracking of the antireflection TiN coating (ARC-TiN) in Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si films

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Y C; Yang, Y R; Hsieh, W Y; Hsieh, Y F

    1999-01-01

    The alleviation of cracking of the TiN-ARC layer on Al-Cu and Al-Cu-Si films after the development process has been achieved. For the TiN-ARC/Al-Cu system, the stress-induced defects decreased with increasing TiN-ARC layer thickness. In contrast, for the TiN-ARC/Al-Cu-Si system, Si nodules formed during cooling, thereby inducing poor coverage with high aspect-ratio holes. As a result, the photoresist developer penetrated through the films. Chemical vapor deposition of TiN-ARC or predeposition of a Ti Interposing layer was used to eliminate the formation of Si nodules.

  1. Electron density distribution and disordered crystal structure of 15R-SiAlON, SiAl4O2N4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, Hiroki; Hanai, Takaaki; Asaka, Toru; Kimoto, Koji; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of SiAl 4 O 2 N 4 was characterized by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction (CuKα 1 ). The title compound is trigonal with space group R3-bar m. The hexagonal unit-cell dimensions (Z=3) are a=0.301332(3) nm, c=4.18616(4) nm and V=0.3291825(5) nm 3 . The initial structural model was successfully derived by the charge-flipping method and further refined by the Rietveld method. The final structural model showed the positional disordering of one of the three (Si,Al) sites. The maximum-entropy method-based pattern fitting (MPF) method was used to confirm the validity of the split-atom model, in which conventional structure bias caused by assuming intensity partitioning was minimized. The reliability indices calculated from the MPF were R wp =5.05%, S (=R wp /R e )=1.21, R p =3.77%, R B =1.29% and R F =1.01%. The disordered crystal structure was successfully described by overlapping three types of domains with ordered atom arrangements. The distribution of atomic positions in one of the three types of domains can be achieved in the space group R3-bar m. The atom arrangements in the other two types of domains are noncentrosymmetrical with the space group R3m. These two structural configurations are related by the pseudo-symmetry inversion. -- Graphical abstract: A bird's eye view of electron densities up to 75.3% (0.133 nm −3 ) of the maximum on the plane parallel to (110) with the corresponding atomic arrangements of SiAl 4 O 2 N 4 . Highlights: • Crystal structure of SiAl 4 O 2 N 4 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • The maximum-entropy method-based pattern fitting method is used to confirm the validity of the model. • The disordered structure is described by overlapping three types of domains with ordered atom arrangements

  2. Development and application of graphite-SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5-methylene blue (GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite for electrochemical determination of dopamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Fátima Giarola

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an amperometric sensor based on graphite-SiO2/Al2O3/Nb2O5-methylene blue (GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite has been successfully prepared for dopamine (DA determination in real samples. The electrochemical behavior of DA at the GRP-SiAlNb-MB has been evaluated by employing cyclic voltammetry. The best ratio (m/m of GRP-SiAlNb-MB composite was found to be 1:0.54. Under optimized conditions (pH 7.5 in 0.15 mol L−1 phosphate buffer the amperometry method responds linearly to DA from 5.0 up to 500.0 μmol L−1 (r = 0.995 with limits of detection and quantification of 1.49 and 4.97 μmol L−1, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for DA determination in real samples of pharmaceutical formulations and can be used for routine quality control analysis of pharmaceutical formulations containing DA. The use of inorganic matrix SiAlNb was found to be very useful to adsorb MB in the composite material with further improvement of the anodic peak current of DA.

  3. Characterization and properties Ti-Al-Si-N nanocomposite coatings prepared by middle frequency magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C. W.; Zhang, J.; Xie, W.; Shao, L. X.; Guo, L. P.; Fu, D. J.

    2011-10-01

    TiN-containing amorphous Ti-Al-Si-N (nc-TiN/a-Si 3N 4 or a-AlN) nanocomposite coatings were deposited by using a modified closed field twin unbalanced magnetron sputtering system which is arc assisted and consists of two circles of targets, at a substrate temperature of 300 °C. XRD, XPS and High-resolution TEM experiments showed that the coatings contain TiN nanocrystals embedded in the amorphous Si 3N 4 or AlN matrix. The coatings exhibit good mechanical properties that are greatly influenced by the Si contents. The hardness of the Ti-Al-Si-N coatings deposited at Si targets currents of 5, 8, 10, and 12 A were 45, 47, 54 and 46 GPa, respectively. The high hardness of the deposited Ti-Al-Si-N coatings may be own to the plastic distortion and dislocation blocking by the nanocrystalline structure. On the other hand, the friction coefficient decreases monotonously with increasing Si contents. This result would be caused by tribo-chemical reactions, which often take place in many ceramics, e.g. Si 3N 4 reacts with H 2O to produce SiO 2 or Si(OH) 2 tribolay-layer.

  4. Determination of Al, Si and P in certified reference materials by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyori, Amanda; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: anoyori@gmail.com, E-mail: mitiko@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Neutron analysis activation is not commonly used for aluminum, phosphorus and silicon determination, due to the difficulty to obtain reliable results. In this study, Al was determined by measuring {sup 28}Al and the contribution of P and Si due to {sup 28}Al formed in {sup 31}P(n,α){sup 28}Al and {sup 28}Si(n,p){sup 28}Al reactions were corrected using correction factors determined experimentally. Phosphorus was determined by measuring {sup 32}P (pure beta emitter) formed in reaction {sup 31}P(n,γ){sup 32}P. Silicon was determined by epithermal neutron analysis activation (ENAA) and measuring {sup 29}Al radionuclide formed in {sup 29}Si(n,p){sup 29}Al reaction. Aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and synthetic standards of the elements were irradiated together, using the pneumatic transfer station of IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Results obtained for biological and geological CRMs showed good precision and accuracy with |Z-score| < 2 for Al, P and Si determinations. The detection limits for Al, P and Si determinations CRMs were also evaluated. Results obtained in this study demonstrated the viability of applying INAA procedures in the determination of Al, P and Si. (author)

  5. Determination of Al, Si and P in certified reference materials by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyori, Amanda; Saiki, Mitiko

    2017-01-01

    Neutron analysis activation is not commonly used for aluminum, phosphorus and silicon determination, due to the difficulty to obtain reliable results. In this study, Al was determined by measuring "2"8Al and the contribution of P and Si due to "2"8Al formed in "3"1P(n,α)"2"8Al and "2"8Si(n,p)"2"8Al reactions were corrected using correction factors determined experimentally. Phosphorus was determined by measuring "3"2P (pure beta emitter) formed in reaction "3"1P(n,γ)"3"2P. Silicon was determined by epithermal neutron analysis activation (ENAA) and measuring "2"9Al radionuclide formed in "2"9Si(n,p)"2"9Al reaction. Aliquots of certified reference materials (CRMs) and synthetic standards of the elements were irradiated together, using the pneumatic transfer station of IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor. Results obtained for biological and geological CRMs showed good precision and accuracy with |Z-score| < 2 for Al, P and Si determinations. The detection limits for Al, P and Si determinations CRMs were also evaluated. Results obtained in this study demonstrated the viability of applying INAA procedures in the determination of Al, P and Si. (author)

  6. Fabrication of V-Cr-Ti-Y-Al-Si alloys by levitation melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuto, Toshinori; Satou, Manabu; Abe, Katsunori [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan); Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Shibayama, Tamaki [Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Tomiyama, Shigeki [Daido Bunseki Research Inc., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Sakata, Masafumi [Daido Steel Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan)

    2000-09-01

    Three allows of V-4Cr-4Ti type containing Si, Al and Y were fabricated by 2.5 kg scale levitation melting in this study. Workability and recrystallization behavior of the alloys were studied in order to establish the fabrication method of high-purity large ingot of V-Cr-Ti-Si-Al-Y type alloys, especially reducing interstitial impurity levels. Oxygen contents decreased with increasing yttrium contents and were kept below 180 mass ppm over wide region in the ingots. Nitrogen contents in the V-Cr-Ti-Y-Si-Al type alloys were only 100 mass ppm, which were as low as that in the starting materials. Only the V-4Cr-4Ti-0.1Y, Si, Al alloy could be cold-rolled at as-melted condition. Because large yttrium inclusions were observed in the alloys containing 0.5 mass%Y, it is necessary to optimize yttrium contents to avoid large inclusions and to obtain good workability. (author)

  7. Fabrication of V-Cr-Ti-Y-Al-Si alloys by levitation melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuto, Toshinori; Satou, Manabu; Abe, Katsunori; Nagasaka, Takuya; Muroga, Takeo; Shibayama, Tamaki; Tomiyama, Shigeki; Sakata, Masafumi

    2000-01-01

    Three allows of V-4Cr-4Ti type containing Si, Al and Y were fabricated by 2.5 kg scale levitation melting in this study. Workability and recrystallization behavior of the alloys were studied in order to establish the fabrication method of high-purity large ingot of V-Cr-Ti-Si-Al-Y type alloys, especially reducing interstitial impurity levels. Oxygen contents decreased with increasing yttrium contents and were kept below 180 mass ppm over wide region in the ingots. Nitrogen contents in the V-Cr-Ti-Y-Si-Al type alloys were only 100 mass ppm, which were as low as that in the starting materials. Only the V-4Cr-4Ti-0.1Y, Si, Al alloy could be cold-rolled at as-melted condition. Because large yttrium inclusions were observed in the alloys containing 0.5 mass%Y, it is necessary to optimize yttrium contents to avoid large inclusions and to obtain good workability. (author)

  8. Mechanisms of aluminium-induced crystallization and layer exchange upon low-temperature annealing of amorphous Si/polycrystalline Al bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Y; Wang, Z M; Jeurgens, L P H; Mittemeijer, E J

    2009-06-01

    Aluminium-induced crystallization (ALIC) of amorphous Si and subsequent layer exchange (ALILE) occur in amorphous-Si/polycrystalline-Al bilayers (a-Si/c-Al) upon annealing at temperatures as low as 165 degrees C and were studied by X-ray diffraction and Auger electron spectroscopic depth profiling. It follows that: (i) nucleation of Si crystallization is initiated at Al grain boundaries and not at the a-Si/c-Al interface; (ii) low-temperature annealing results in a large Si grain size in the continuous c-Si layer produced by ALILE. Thermodynamic model calculations show that: (i) Si can "wet" the Al grain boundaries due to the favourable a-Si/c-Al interface energy (as compared to the Al grain-boundary energy); (ii) the wetting-induced a-Si layer at the Al grain boundary can maintain its amorphous state only up to a critical thickness, beyond which nucleation of Si crystallization takes place; and (iii) a tiny driving force controls the kinetics of the layer exchange.

  9. The Prognosis of the Phase Equilibrium Diagram of the System Al-Cu-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Cziple

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a model for establishing the mathematical functions of the liquidus and solidus curves, from the binary diagrams Al-Si, Si-Cu, Cu-Al and their use in the prognosis of the phase equilibrium diagram from the ternary system Al-Cu-Si. We have studied the model of the non-ideal liquid solution of the regular type. The calculus and graphic plotting of the equations for the binary systems has been performed on the computer

  10. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Sm-containing Al-Mn-Si-Fe-Cu alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Yuyin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Optimizing alloy composition is an effective way to improve physical and chemical properties of automobile heat exchanger materials.A Sm-containing Al-Mn-Si-Fe-Cu alloy was investigated through transmission electron microscopy,scanning electron microscopy,and electrochemical measurement.Experimental results indicated that main phases distributed in the alloy wereα-Al(Mn,FeSi,Al2Sm and Al10Cu7Sm2.Alloying with Sm element could refine the precipitated α-Al(Mn,FeSi phase.Polarization testing results indicated that the corrosion surfacewas mainly composed of pitting pits and corrosion products.Sea water acetic acid test(SWAAT showed that corrosion loss increased first and then slowed downwith increase of the corrosion time.

  11. AlN metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors using Si-ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Hironori; Suihkonen, Sami; Lemettinen, Jori; Uedono, Akira; Zhang, Yuhao; Piedra, Daniel; Palacios, Tomás

    2018-04-01

    We report on the electrical characterization of Si-ion implanted AlN layers and the first demonstration of metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) with an ion-implanted AlN channel. The ion-implanted AlN layers with Si dose of 5 × 1014 cm-2 exhibit n-type characteristics after thermal annealing at 1230 °C. The ion-implanted AlN MESFETs provide good drain current saturation and stable pinch-off operation even at 250 °C. The off-state breakdown voltage is 2370 V for drain-to-gate spacing of 25 µm. These results show the great potential of AlN-channel transistors for high-temperature and high-power applications.

  12. Characterization of Si3N4-Al interface after corrosion tests Caracterização da interface Si3N4-Al após testes de corrosão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. dos Santos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nitride is a covalent ceramic material of high corrosion resistance and mechanical stability at elevated temperatures. Due to these properties, its use in metallurgical processes, such as the casting of alloys, is increasing. Therefore, the characterization of the interface between Si3N4 and the casted metal is of great importance to investigate possible interactions, which might deteriorate the ceramic mould or contaminate the metal. In this work, the use of Si3N4 as crucible material for Al-casting has been studied, by investigating the corrosion attack of liquid Al at a temperature of 1150 ºC during 30 days in air. The interface was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. It has been found that due to superficial oxidation two oxide layers form - SiO2 on Si3N4 and Al2O3 on Al - which effectively hinder further reactions under the conditions studied, confering high corrosion resistance to the Si3N4 crucible.Nitreto de silício (Si3N4 é um material cerâmico covalente de elevada resistência à corrosão e estabilidade mecânica em temperaturas elevadas. Devido a essas propriedades, sua utilização em processos metalúrgicos, tais como em fundição de ligas metálicas, é crescente. Desta forma, a caracterização da interface entre Si3N4 e metais fundidos é de grande interesse para investigar possíveis interações as quais poderão deteriorar o material cerâmico e/ou contaminar o metal. Nesse trabalho o uso de Si3N4 como material base de cadinhos para fundição de alumínio foi estudado, pela investigação do ataque corrosivo de Al líquido a 1150 ºC durante 30 dias, ao ar. A interface foi caracterizada por difração de raios X, microscopia eletrônica de varredura e espectroscopia de energia dispersiva. É encontrado que devido à oxidação superficial dois óxidos se formam - SiO2 no Si3N4 e Al2O3 no Al - os quais evitam possíveis reações sob as condi

  13. Synthesis, single crystal growth and thermodynamic properties of SrNdAlO4-CaNdAlO4 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselov, A.; Ryumin, M.; Pushkina, G.; Spiridonov, F.; Komissarova, L.; Zimina, G.; Pajaczkowska, A.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous solid solutions in the SrNdAlO 4 -CaNdAlO 4 system are formed. Powder samples of Sr x Ca 1-x NdAlO 4 (0.0≤x≤1.0) were obtained using the carbonate coprecipitation method while single crystals of Sr x Ca 1-x NdAlO 4 (x=0.0,0.162,0.392,0.687,1.0) were grown by the Czochralski method. Structural parameters and thermodynamic properties of the samples were studied by X-ray diffraction and heat flux Calvet calorimetry. Composition dependence of lattice constants was observed to follow Vegard's low. Heat of solution of the Sr x Ca 1-x NdAlO 4 samples in molten 2PbO.B 2 O 3 were measured, and enthalpies of formation and mixing were calculated. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Electrical transport characterization of Al and Sn doped Mg 2 Si thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2017-05-22

    Thin-film Mg2Si was deposited using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. Al and Sn were incorporated as n-type dopants using co-sputtering to tune the thin-film electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that the deposited films are polycrystalline Mg2Si. The Sn and Al doping concentrations were measured using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The charge carrier concentration and the charge carrier type of the Mg2Si films were measured using a Hall bar structure. Hall measurements show that as the doping concentration increases, the carrier concentration of the Al-doped films increases, whereas the carrier concentration of the Sn-doped films decreases. Combined with the resistivity measurements, the mobility of the Al-doped Mg2Si films is found to decrease with increasing doping concentration, whereas the mobility of the Sn-doped Mg2Si films is found to increase.

  15. Thermoelectric properties of Al doped Mg{sub 2}Si material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Kulwinder, E-mail: kulwindercmp@gmail.com; Kumar, Ranjan [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Rani, Anita [Department of Physics, Center of Advanced Study in Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160 014 (India); Guru Nanak College for Girls, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Punjab (India)

    2015-08-28

    In the present paper we have calculated thermoelectric properties of Al doped Mg{sub 2}Si material (Mg{sub 2−x}Al{sub x}Si, x=0.06) using Pseudo potential plane wave method based on DFT and Semi classical Boltzmann theory. The calculations showed n-type conduction, indicating that the electrical conduction are due to electron. The electrical conductivity increasing with increasing temperature and the negative value of Seebeck Coefficient also show that the conduction is due to electron. The thermal conductivity was increased slightly by Al doping with increasing temperature due to the much larger contribution of lattice thermal conductivity over electronic thermal conductivity.

  16. AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN multilayer coatings: Effects of structure and surface composition on tribological behavior under dry and lubricated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Cartasegna, Federico; Priarone, Paolo C.; Settineri, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The demand for high performance nanostructured coatings has been increasing. • AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN nanocomposite coatings were deposited by PVD technique. • Coatings were analyzed in terms of structure, hardness and adhesion. • Tribological properties under dry and lubricated conditions were studied. • The effects of surface and bulk properties on friction evolution were assessed. - Abstract: Nanocomposite coatings have been widely studied over the last years because of their high potential in several applications. The increased interest for these coatings prompted the authors to study the tribological properties of two nanocomposites under dry and lubricated conditions (applying typical MQL media), in order to assess the influence of the surface and bulk properties on friction evolution. To this purpose, multilayer and nanocomposite AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN coatings were deposited onto tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) samples. Uncoated WC-Co materials were used as reference. Coatings were analyzed in terms of hardness and adhesion. The structure of the samples was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the surface composition was studied by XPS analysis. Friction tests were carried out under both dry and lubricated conditions using an inox ball as counterpart. Both coatings showed high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate. As far as the friction properties are concerned, in dry conditions the surface properties affect the sliding contact at the early beginning, while bulk structure and tribolayer formation determine the main behavior. Only AlSiTiN coating shows a low and stable coefficient of friction (COF) under dry condition, while the use of MQL media results in a rapid stabilization of the COF for all the materials.

  17. XAFS Analysis of Local Structure around Ce in Ca3Sc2Si3O12:Ce Phosphor for White LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akai, Toshio; Shigeiwa, Motoyuki; Okamoto, Kaoru; Shimomura, Yasuo; Kijima, Naoto; Honma, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the local structure around Ce atom in Ca3Sc2Si3O12 host crystal, which has been developed as a new green phosphor for white light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the local structure and chemical environment of the dopant atom are very important to improve the performance of the phosphor, we have used XAFS to get chemical and structural information around the Ce dopant. The XANES spectrum of the Ce LIII-edge reveals that the Ce atom is trivalent in Ca3Sc2Si3O12. There are two kinds of possible Ce substitution sites, Ca site and Sc site, in garnet type Ca3Sc2Si3O12 crystal structure. The Ce atom is found to be at the Ca site in the host crystal by the comparison of the Fourier transform of Ce K-edge EXAFS spectrum with those of Ca and Sc K-edge EXAFS spectra. The theoretical analysis with FEFF also clarified the Ce substitution at the Ca site. Furthermore, the result of the analysis indicates the structural disorder around Ca and Si atoms at 3.75 A. It is possible that there are some defects around the Ca and Si atoms at 3.75 A to compensate the excess positive charge by introduced Ce3+ at the Ca2+ site

  18. Irradiation behaviour of U-Si-Al with peripheral voidage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehrenbach, P.J.; Feraday, M.A.; Cotnam, K.D.; Morel, P.A.

    1977-12-01

    Peripheral voidage in the form of longitudinal slots on the surface of the fuel is effective in accommodating the irradiation induced swelling of U-Si-Al rods clad in cold-worked Zr-2.5 wt% Nb. Diametral increases in elements operated at steady powers between 50 and 80 kW/m to a burnup of 240 MW.h/kg U were less than 1.25%. Similar to U 3 Si elements, lower sheath strength or higher temperatures resulted in greater diametral increases. An oxide or graphite interlayer between the fuel and sheath was shown to be effective in preventing the development of a fuel/sheath bond. The ability of U-Si-Al elements to successfully survive a power increase from 35 to 70 kW/m after appreciable burnup at the lower power has also been demonstrated. (author)

  19. Synthesis and hydration behavior of calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca7ZrAl6O18) cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun-Hee; Yoo, Jun-Sang; Kim, Bo-Hye; Choi, Sung-Woo; Hong, Seong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Calcium zirconium aluminate (Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 ) cements were prepared by solid state reaction and polymeric precursor methods, and their phase evolution, morphology, and hydration behavior were investigated. In polymeric precursor method, a nearly single phase Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 was obtained at relatively lower temperature (1200 °C) whereas in solid state reaction, a small amount of CaZrO 3 coexisted with Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 even at higher temperature (1400 °C). Unexpectedly, Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 synthesized by polymeric precursor process was the large-sized and rough-shaped powder. The planetary ball milling was employed to control the particle size and shape. The hydration behavior of Ca 7 ZrAl 6 O 18 was similar to that of Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 (C3A), but the hydration products were Ca 3 Al 2 O 6 ·6H 2 O (C3AH6) and several intermediate products. Thus, Zr (or ZrO 2 ) stabilized the intermediate hydration products of C3A

  20. Microstructural effects of phosphorus on pressure die cast Al-12Si components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suárez-Peña, B.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The refinement of cuboidal silicon in eutectic Al-Si alloys by phosphorus additions used to manufacture pressure die cast components was studied. The results show that the addition of phosphorus in the form of AlFeP mother alloy before process degassing, leads to the best refinement of the size of the Si-cuboids phase, among several phosphorus additions analysed in the present research.

    Se ha estudiado el afino del silicio cuboidal en aleaciones eutécticas Al-Si por acción del fósforo, en piezas obtenidas mediante la técnica de fundición a presión. Tras la adición de fósforo en pruebas industriales, en las que dicho elemento se incorpora al baño con diversas composiciones, los mejores resultados se obtienen con la adición de la aleación madre AlFeP, previa al desgasificado industrial.

  1. Estructura y textura de la fase Al3CaZn en una chapa laminada de la aleación superplástica Al-5 % Ca-5 % Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Pardo, M. T.

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the intermetallic phase Al3CaZn present in the superplastic sheet alloy Al-5 % Ca-5 % Zn has been determined by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD and electrón diffraction (TEM. Also, the texture of this phase has been studied by means of pole figures and the orientation distribution function (ODF. The Al-5 % Ca-5 % Zn alloy is formed by a fine grained aluminum matrix (d ≈ 2-3 μm and 20 % vol. of Al3CaZn in the form of round-shaped particles with 0.2-0.5 μm diameter. This alloy undergoes superplastic behavior in a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. It has been found in this work that the structure of the second phase is body-centered tetragonal, with lattice parameters a = b = 0.422 nm and c = 1.131 nm. The texture of the alloy is formed by the fiber <001>, i.e., the crystallites are oriented preferentially with the c-axis perpendicular to the rolling plane. The texture sharpens after severe annealings.

    En este trabajo se ha determinado la estructura de la fase Al3CaZn, presente en una chapa laminada de la aleación Al-5 % Ca-5 % Zn, mediante técnicas de difracción de rayos X (DRX y difracción de electrones (MET. Además, se ha estudiado su textura mediante figuras de polos y la función de distribución de orientaciones (FDO. La aleación Al-5 % Ca-5 % Zn objeto de este estudio consta de una matriz de aluminio de grano fino (d ≈ 2-3 μm y un 20 % vol. de la fase Al3CaZn. Esta segunda fase está presente en el material de partida en forma de partículas esferoidales de 0,2 - 0,5 μm de diámetro. La aleación presenta un comportamiento superplástico en un amplio intervalo tanto de velocidades de deformación como de temperaturas. Se ha encontrado que la fase Al3CaZn posee una estructura tetragonal centrada, con parámetros de red a = b= 0,422 nm y c = 1,131 nm. Presenta, además, una textura de fibra <001>, en la

  2. The annealing behavior of hydrogen implanted into Al-Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Masahiko; Yamaji, Norisuke; Imai, Makoto; Itoh, Akio; Imanishi, Nobutsugu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    We have studied effects of not only defects but also an added elements on trap-sites of hydrogen in metals. For the purpose, we observed depth profiles and thermal behaviors of hydrogen implanted into Al-1.5at.%Si alloy samples in an implantation-temperature range of liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) to 373K at different doses. The results were compared with those for pure aluminum samples. It was found that hydrogen is trapped as molecules in grain boundaries of Al/Si. (author)

  3. Friction stir welding of SiCp/2009Al composite plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Xiao, B.L.; Wang, Q.Z.; Ma, Z.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► SiCp/2009Al plates were successfully friction stir welded using an ultra-hard tool. ► Under T4 temper condition, the joint coefficient of tensile strength was 95.9%. ► Coarsen Al 2 Cu in the nugget zone dissolved and precipitated after T4. - Abstract: Six milimeter thick hot-rolled SiCp/2009Al composite plates were successfully joined by friction stir welding (FSW) using an ultra-hard material tool. After FSW, the distribution of the SiC particles in the nugget zone (NZ) was more homogeneous than that in the base material (BM). Scanning electron microscopic examinations (SEM) and X-ray analysis (XRD) indicated that part of the Al 2 Cu was dissolved into the aluminum matrix in the NZ due to intense plastic deformation and high temperature during FSW. The undissolved Al 2 Cu particles remained in the NZ and coarsened during the cooling process after FSW. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the as-welded joint is only 321 MPa and failed in the BM zone due to the low strength of the BM. After T4 heat treatment, the strength of the joint increased and became close to that of the BM with T4 temper, because most of the Al 2 Cu particles were dissolved into the matrix and re-precipitated homogeneously as the GP zones, which are the major strengthening precipitates for T4-tempered 2009Al alloy

  4. Observation of the new neutron-rich nuclei 29F, 35,36Mg, 38,39Al, 40,41Si, 43,44P, 45,46,47S, 46,47,48,49Cl and 49,50,51Ar by means of a 55 MeV/u 48Ca beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Anne, R.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.Eh.

    1988-01-01

    Using magnetic separation and identification through time of flight and ΔE,E measurements, the new neutron-rich nuclei, 29 F, 35,36 Mg, 38,39 Al, 40,41 Si, 43,44 P, 45,46,47 S, 46,47,48,49 Cl, 49,50,51 Ar have been observed from interactions of 48 Ca beam of 55 MeV/u with tantalum targets

  5. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of Al, Mg, Ca, Fe, S in solid phase of magnesite technology of combustion product desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vymola, R.; Hora, V.; Spitzer, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Solid phase samples of magnesite technology were moulded into pellets or melted into the shape of a glass disk. MgO, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 , S, Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 were determined in the samples by X-ray fluorescence analysis. Fluorescence intensities were measured with an SRS 200 sequential X-ray spectrometer and the measured data were evaluated using a linked-up PDP 11/04 computer. The reproducibility of MgO, CaO, Fe 2 O 3 and S determinations was very good; higher measurement accuracy was achieved for moulded samples. The specificity of determinations was checked by a comparative chemical analysis. (E.J.). 8 tabs., 5 refs

  6. Preparation of mullite whiskers reinforced SiC/Al2O3 composites by microwave sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mullite whiskers reinforced SiC/Al2O3 composites were prepared by microwave sintering in a microwave chamber with TE666 resonant mode. Original SiC particles were coated with SiO2 using sol-gel processing and mixed with Al2O3 particles. Mullite was formed in the reaction between SiO2 and Al2O3. The isostatically pressed cylindrical pellets were sintered from 1350 °C to 1600 °C for 30 min. Physical and chemical responses were investigated by detecting changes in reflected power during the microwave sintering process. XRD was carried out to characterize the samples and showed that mullite could be formed at 1200 °C. Bridging of mullite whiskers between Al2O3 and SiC particles was observed by SEM and is due to a so-called local hot spot effect, which was the unique feature for microwave sintering. The optimized microwave sintering temperature was 1500 °C corresponding to the maximum amount of mullite whiskers within SiC/Al2O3 composites. The high electro-magnetic field enhanced the decomposition of mullite at higher temperatures above 1550 °C. The mechanical properties of mullite whiskers reinforced SiC/Al2O3 composites are much better than the SiC/Al2O3 composites without mullite whiskers.

  7. Effect of high power ultrasound on mechanical properties of Al-Si alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, N.; Gupta, R.; Chaudhari, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    Effect of high power ultrasonic treatment on the solidification microstructures of Al-Si alloys containing varying content of solute Si (1, 2, 3 and 5 wt %) is investigated. Large variation in microstructures is seen and refinement of primary α-Al grains is observed. It is observed that increasing the weight percentage of solute along with ultrasonic treatment resulted in finer primary phase. By increasing the solute content from 1% to 5 wt.% in Al-Si alloys, hardness increased by about 38% without and 48% with ultrasonic treatment. Tensile strength of the alloys with ultrasonic treatment is higher as compared to those without ultrasonic treated.

  8. Al and Si Influences on Hydrogen Embrittlement of Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanguo Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A first-principle method based on the density functional theory was applied to investigate the Al and Si influences on the hydrogen embrittlement of carbide-free bainitic steel. The hydrogen preference site, binding energy, diffusion behaviour, and electronic structure were calculated. The results showed that hydrogen preferred to be at the tetrahedral site. The binding energy of the cell with Si was the highest and it was decreased to be the worst by adding hydrogen. The diffusion barrier of hydrogen in the cell containing Al was the highest, so it was difficult for hydrogen to diffuse. Thus, hydrogen embrittlement can be reduced by Al rather than Si.

  9. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yiqin; Li, Heqin; Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Bai, Peiwen

    2016-01-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB. - Highlights: • The same thick Al, SiC and SiC/Al films are deposited on NdFeB by magnetron sputtering. • 510 nm SiC/Al bilayer films can improve the corrosion resistance of the NdFeB evidently. • Al buffer layer improves effectively the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. • SiC/Al bilayer films do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  10. Corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC/Al bilayer thin films by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yiqin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Li, Heqin, E-mail: lhqjs@hfut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zuo, Min; Tao, Lei; Wang, Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Zhang, Jing; Tang, Qiong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); School of Electronic Science and Applied Physics, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China); Bai, Peiwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009 (China)

    2016-07-01

    The poor corrosion resistance of sintered NdFeB imposes a great challenge in industrial applications. In this work, the SiC/Al bilayer thin films with the thickness of 510 nm were deposited on sintered NdFeB by magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion resistance. A 100 nm Al buffer film was used to reduce the internal stress between SiC and NdFeB and improve the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. The morphologies and structures of SiC/Al bilayer thin films and SiC monolayer film were investigated with FESEM, AFM and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion behaviors of sintered NdFeB coated with SiC monolayer film and SiC/Al bilayer thin films were analyzed by polarization curves. The magnetic properties were measured with an ultra-high coercivity permanent magnet pulse tester. The results show that the surface of SiC/Al bilayer thin films is more compact and uniform than that of SiC monolayer film. The corrosion current densities of SiC/Al bilayer films coated on NdFeB in acid, alkali and salt solutions are much lower than that of SiC monolayer film. The SiC/Al bilayer thin films have little influence to the magnetic properties of NdFeB. - Highlights: • The same thick Al, SiC and SiC/Al films are deposited on NdFeB by magnetron sputtering. • 510 nm SiC/Al bilayer films can improve the corrosion resistance of the NdFeB evidently. • Al buffer layer improves effectively the surface roughness of the SiC thin film. • SiC/Al bilayer films do not deteriorate the magnetic properties of NdFeB.

  11. Chinese Script vs Plate-Like Precipitation of Beta-Al9Fe2Si2 Phase in an Al-6.5Si-1Fe Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdian, Deni; Josse, Claudie; Nguyen, Patrick; Gey, Nathalie; Ratel-Ramond, Nicolas; de Parseval, Philippe; Thebault, Yannick; Malard, Benoit; Lacaze, Jacques; Salvo, Luc

    2015-07-01

    The microstructure of a high-purity Al-6.5Si-1Fe (wt pct) alloy after solidification at various cooling rates was investigated. In most of the cases, the monoclinic beta-Al9Fe2Si2 phase was observed as long and thin lamellae. However, at a very slow cooling rate, Fe-bearing precipitates with Chinese script morphology appeared together with lamellae. Further analysis showed all these Chinese script precipitates correspond also to the monoclinic beta phase. This finding stresses that differentiating second phases according to their shape may be misleading.

  12. Investigations on Mechanical Behaviour of Micro Graphite Particulates Reinforced Al-7Si Alloy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, N.; Mahendra, K. V.; Nagaral, Madeva

    2018-02-01

    Micro particulates reinforced metal matrix composites are finding wide range of applications in automotive and sports equipment manufacturing industries. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop Al-7Si-micro graphite particulates reinforced composites by using liquid melt method. 3 and 6 wt. % of micro graphite particulates were added to the Al-7Si base matrix. Microstructural characterization was done by using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscope. Mechanical behaviour of Al-7Si-3 and 6 wt. % composites were evaluated as per ASTM standards. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the uniform distribution of micro graphite particulates in the Al-7Si alloy matrix. EDS analysis confirmed the presence of B and C elements in graphite reinforced composites. Further, it was noted that ultimate tensile and yield strength of Al-7Si alloy increased with the addition of 3 and 6wt. % of graphite particulates. Hardness of graphite reinforced composites was lesser than the base matrix.

  13. Effects of combined additions of Sr and AlTiB grain refiners in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, L.; Dahle, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Strontium is the most widely used and a very effective element for modifying the morphology of eutectic silicon, while Ti and B are commonly present in the commercial grain refiners used for Al-Si alloys. Systematic studies on the effects of combined additions of Sr and different AlTiB grain refiners on the Al + Si eutectic and primary aluminium solidification have been performed. While slight coarsening of both eutectic Si and primary aluminium grains occurs during holding, no obvious interactions are observed between Sr and AlTiB grain refiners when the addition level of grain refiners is low. As a result, a well-modified and grain refined structure was obtained. However, strong negative interactions between Sr and Al1.5Ti1.5B were observed as the addition level of the grain refiner increases. It was found that these interactions have a much more profound impact on the eutectic solidification than the primary Al solidification. The melt treated with combined additions of Sr and Al1.5Ti1.5B still shows good grain refinement efficiency even after losing its modification completely. The mechanism responsible for such negative interactions is further discussed

  14. Effects of combined additions of Sr and AlTiB grain refiners in hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, L. [CSIRO Minerals, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia)]. E-mail: Liming.Lu@csiro.au; Dahle, A.K. [CRC for Cast Metals Manufacturing, Division of Materials, School of Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072 (Australia)

    2006-11-05

    Strontium is the most widely used and a very effective element for modifying the morphology of eutectic silicon, while Ti and B are commonly present in the commercial grain refiners used for Al-Si alloys. Systematic studies on the effects of combined additions of Sr and different AlTiB grain refiners on the Al + Si eutectic and primary aluminium solidification have been performed. While slight coarsening of both eutectic Si and primary aluminium grains occurs during holding, no obvious interactions are observed between Sr and AlTiB grain refiners when the addition level of grain refiners is low. As a result, a well-modified and grain refined structure was obtained. However, strong negative interactions between Sr and Al1.5Ti1.5B were observed as the addition level of the grain refiner increases. It was found that these interactions have a much more profound impact on the eutectic solidification than the primary Al solidification. The melt treated with combined additions of Sr and Al1.5Ti1.5B still shows good grain refinement efficiency even after losing its modification completely. The mechanism responsible for such negative interactions is further discussed.

  15. Stability of the Al/TiB2 interface and doping effects of Mg/Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Xu, Ben; Wu, Ping; Li, Qiulin

    2017-12-01

    The Al/TiB2 interface is of significant importance in controlling the mechanical properties of Al-B4C composites and tuning the heterogeneous nucleation of Al/Si alloys in industry. Its stability and bonding conditions are critical for both purposes. In this paper, the interfacial energies were investigated by first-principles calculations, and the results support the reported grain refinement mechanisms in Al/Si alloys. Moreover, to improve the mechanical properties of the interface, Mg and Si were doped at the interface, and our simulations show that the two interfaces will both weaken after doping Mg/Si, thus the formation of TiB2 is inhibited. As a result, the processability of the Al-B4C composites may be improved. Our results provide a theoretical basis and guidance for practical applications.

  16. Osteoblast Adhesion on Cathodic Arc Plasma Deposited Nano-Multilayered TiCrAlSiN Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyu [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Pham, Vuong Hung [Hanoi University of Science and Technology (HUST), Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2014-03-15

    Adhesion of osteoblast cells to TiCrAlSiN thin films was evaluated in vitro. Ti and TiCrAlSiN thin films were deposited on glass substrates by cathodic arc deposition. Surface roughness and chemistry of the TiCrAlSiN thin films was characterized by AFM and EPMA, respectively. Ti and TiCrAlSiN thin films and glass coverslips were cultured with human osteoblast cells (hFOB 1.19). The cell cytoskeleton was analyzed by observing the organization of actin stress fibers and microtubules. Cell proliferation was investigated by MTT assay and visualization. Focal contact adhesion was studied by observing the vinculin density. The results indicated that the TiCrAlSiN coating significantly influenced the actin cytoskeleton and microtubule organization. Human osteoblasts hFOB attached and proliferated better on TiCrAlSiN thin films with more focal contact adhesions than on Ti thin films or glass surfaces. These results suggest that TiCrAlSiN thin films can be an implantable material where the maximum cell adhesion is required.

  17. Pitting Corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti+4Al Intermetallic Compound at Various Chloride Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadang Priyotomo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with 4 at% Al consisting of two regions of a Ni3(Si,Ti single-phase of L12 structure and two phases of L12 and fcc Niss was investigated as function of chloride concentrations by using electrochemical method, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy in neutral sodium chloride solutions at 293 K.  In addition, the pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti and  type C276 alloy were also studied under the same experimental condition for comparison.  The pitting potential obtained for the Ni3(Si,Ti with 4 at%Al decreased with increasing chloride concentration.  The specific pitting potential and pitting potential of Ni3(Si,Ti with 4at%, Ni3(Si,Ti and C276 were the lowest, the moderate and the highest, respectively, which means that the pitting corrosion resistance of Ni3(Si,Ti was higher than Ni3(Si,Ti with 4at% Al, but lower than that of C276.  A critical chloride concentration of Ni3(Si,Ti with 4at% Al was found to be lower than that of Ni3(Si,Ti.  The Pitting corrosion of Ni3(Si,Ti with 4at% Al occurred in the two phase mixture (L12 + Niss.

  18. Microstructure of the irradiated U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J.; Keiser, D. D.; Miller, B. D.; Jue, J.-F.; Robinson, A. B.; Madden, J. W.; Medvedev, P. G.; Wachs, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    The silicide dispersion fuel of U 3Si 2/Al is recognized as the best performance fuel for many nuclear research and test reactors with up to 4.8 gU/cm 3 fuel loading. An irradiated U 3Si 2/Al dispersion fuel ( 235U ˜ 75%) from the high-flux side of a fuel plate (U0R040) from the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR)-8 test was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fuel was irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) for 105 days. The average irradiation temperature and fission density of the U 3Si 2 fuel particles for the TEM sample are estimated to be approximately 110 °C and 5.4 × 10 27 f/m 3. The characterization was performed using a 200-kV TEM. The U/Si ratio for the fuel particle and (Si + Al)/U for the fuel-matrix-interaction layer are approximately 1.1 and 4-10, respectively. The estimated average diameter, number density and volume fraction for small bubbles (<1 μm) in the fuel particle are ˜94 nm, 1.05 × 10 20 m -3 and ˜11%, respectively. The results and their implication on the performance of the U 3Si 2/Al silicide dispersion fuel are discussed.

  19. Heterogeneous nucleation of entrained eutectic Si in high purity melt spun Al-Si alloys investigated by entrained droplet technique and DSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J H; Schumacher, P; Albu, M; Hofer, F; Ludwig, T H; Arnberg, L

    2016-01-01

    Entrained droplet technique and DSC analyses were employed to investigate the influence of trace elements of Sr, Eu and P on the heterogeneous nucleation of entrained eutectic Si in high purity melt spun Al-5wt.% Si alloys. Sr and Eu addition was found to exert negative effects on the nucleation process, while an increased undercooling was observed. This can be attributed to the formation of phosphide compounds having a lower free energy and hence may preferentially form compared to AlP. Only a trace P addition was found to have a profound effect on the nucleation process. The nucleation kinetics is discussed on the basis of the classical nucleation theory and the free growth model, respectively. The estimated AlP patch size was found to be sufficient for the free growth of Si to occur within the droplets, which strongly indicates that the nucleation of Si on an AlP patch or AlP particle is a limiting step for free growth. The maximum nucleation site density within one droplet is directly related to the size distribution of AlP particles or AlP patches for Si nucleation, but is independent of the cooling rates. Although the nucleation conditions were optimized in entrained droplet experiments, the observed mechanisms are also valid at moderate cooling conditions, such as in shape casting. (paper)

  20. Influence of copper content on microstructure development of AlSi9Cu3 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodarac Zovko Z.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstructure development and possible interaction of present elements have been determined in charge material of EN AlSi9Cu3 quality. Literature review enables prediction of solidification sequence. Modelling of equilibrium phase diagram for examined chemical composition has been performed, which enables determination of equilibrium solidification sequence. Microstructural investigation indicated distribution and morphology of particular phase. Metallographic analysis tools enable exact determination of microstructural constituents: matrix αAl, eutectic αAl+βSi, iron base intermetallic phase - Al5FeSi, Alx(Fe,MnyCuuSiw and/or Alx(Fe,MnyMgzCuuSiw and copper base phases in ternary eutectic morphology Al-Al2Cu-Si and in complex intermetallic ramified morphology Alx(Fe,MnyMgzSiuCuw. Microstructure development examination reveals potential differences due to copper content which is prerequisite for high values of final mechanical, physical and technological properties of cast products.

  1. Wear Behavior of Cold Pressed and Sintered Al2O3/TiC/CaF2Al2O3/TiC Laminated Ceramic Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefeng YANG; Jian CHENG; Peilong SONG; Shouren WANG; Liying YANG; Yanjun WANG; Ken MAO

    2013-01-01

    A novel laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite was fabricated through cold pressing and sintering to achieve better anti-wear performance,such as low friction coefficient and low wear rate.Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 and Al2O3/TiC composites were alternatively built layer-by-layer to obtain a sandwich structure.Solid lubricant CaF2 was added evenly into the Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer to reduce the friction and wear.Al2O3/TiC ceramic was also cold pressed and sintered for comparison.Friction analysis of the two ceramics was then conducted via a wear-and-tear machine.Worn surface and surface compositions were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrum,respectively.Results showed that the laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite has lower friction coefficient and lower wear rate than those of Al2O3/TiC ceramic alone because of the addition of CaF2 into the laminated Al2O3/TiC/CaF2-Al2O3/TiC sandwich ceramic composite.Under the friction load,the tiny CaF2 particles were scraped from the Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer and spread on friction pairs before falling off into micropits.This process formed a smooth,self-lubricating film,which led to better anti-wear properties.Adhesive wear is the main wear mechanism of Al2O3/TiC/CaF2 layer and abrasive wear is the main wear mechanism of Al2O3/TiC layer.

  2. Microstructure of as-fabricated UMo/Al(Si) plates prepared with ground and atomized powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, R.; Palancher, H.; Bonnin, A.; Bertrand-Drira, C.; Borca, C.; Honkimäki, V.; Jarousse, C.; Stepnik, B.; Park, S.-H.; Iltis, X.; Schmahl, W. W.; Petry, W.

    2013-07-01

    UMo-Al based fuel plates prepared with ground U8wt%Mo, ground U8wt%MoX (X = 1 wt%Pt, 1 wt%Ti, 1.5 wt%Nb or 3 wt%Nb) and atomized U7wt%Mo have been examined. The first finding is that that during the fuel plate production the metastable γ-UMo phases partly decomposed into two different γ-UMo phases, U2Mo and α'-U in ground powder or α″-U in atomized powder. Alloying small amounts of a third element to the UMo had no measurable effect on the stability of the γ-UMo phase. Second, the addition of some Si inside the Al matrix and the presence of oxide layers in ground and atomized samples is studied. In the case with at least 2 wt%Si inside the matrix a Silicon rich layer (SiRL) forms at the interface between the UMo and the Al during the fuel plate production. The SiRL forms more easily when an Al-Si alloy matrix - which is characterized by Si precipitates with a diameter ⩽1 μm - is used than when an Al-Si mixed powder matrix - which is characterized by Si particles with some μm diameter - is used. The presence of an oxide layer on the surface of the UMo particles hinders the formation of the SiRL. Addition of some Si into the Al matrix [7-11]. Application of a protective barrier at the UMo/Al interface by oxidizing the UMo powder [7,12]. Increase of the Mo content or use of UMo alloys with ternary element addition X (e.g. X = Nb, Ti, Pt) to stabilize the γ-UMo with respect to α-U or to control the UMo-Al interaction layer kinetics [9,12-24]. Use of ground UMo powder instead of atomized UMo powder [10,25] The points 1-3 are to limit the formation of the undesired UMo/Al layer. Especially the addition of Si into the matrix has been suggested [3,7,8,10,11,26,27]. It has been often mentioned that Silicon is efficient in reducing the Uranium-Aluminum diffusion kinetics since Si shows a higher chemical affinity to U than Al to U. Si suppresses the formation of brittle UAl4 which causes a huge swelling during the irradiation. Furthermore it enhances the

  3. Cast AlSi9Cu4 alloy with hybride strenghtened by Fe{sub x}Al{sub y}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piatkowski, J [Department of Materials Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland); Formanek, B, E-mail: jaroslaw.piatkowski@polsl.pl, E-mail: boleslaw.formanek@polsl.pl [Department of Materials Science, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    The main objective of the study was to develop a technology of dispersion strenghtened hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy. The article presented the materials and technology conception for producing aluminium matrix composite AlSi9Cu4Fe alloy with hybride reinforcement of Al{sub x}Fe{sub y} intermetallic and aluminium oxide powders. Composite powder obtained in mechanical agllomerisation mixture of elemental powders. Changes in the structure were confirmed by TA and ATD thermal analyses plotting the solidification curves, which showed a decrease in temperature T{sub liq} compared to the unmodified alloy and an exothermic effect originating from the crystallisation of eutectics with alloying elements. The examinations carried out by SEM and BSE as well as the determination of local chemical composition by EDX technique have characterised the structure of the alloy as containing some binary Al-Si-Al-Cu and Al-Fe eutectics and multicomponent eutectics.

  4. Microstructure of AlSi17Cu5 alloy after overheating over liquidus temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Piątkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents microstructure tests of alloy AlSi17Cu5. In order to disintegrate the primary grain of silicon the so-called time-temperature transformation TTT was applied which was based on overheating the liquid alloy way over the temperature Tliq., soaking in it for 30 minutes and casting it to a casting mould. It was found that such process causes the achievement of fine-crystalline structure and primary silicon crystals take up the form of pentahedra or frustums of pyramids. With the use of X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction analysis the presence of intermetallic phases Al2Cu, Al4Cu9 which are the ingredients of eutectics α - AlCu - β and phase Al9Fe2Si which is a part of eutectic α - AlFeSi - β was confirmed.

  5. Structure and chemistry of the Si(111)/AlN interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, G.; Couillard, M.; Botton, G. A.; Zhu, D.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the atomic structure and the chemistry of the Si(111)/AlN interface for an AlN film grown at low-temperature (735 °C) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. A heterogeneous interface is formed from the alternation of crystallographically abrupt and partly amorphous regions. The polarity of the AlN film, along with the projected atomic structure of the crystalline interface, is retrieved using high-angle annular dark field imaging, and a model, based on these experimental observations, is proposed for the bonding at the interface. Electron energy-loss spectrum-imaging, however, also reveals a chemical intermixing, placing our growth conditions at the onset of SiNx interlayer formation.

  6. Kinetic studies of oxidation of MgAlON and a comparison of the oxidation behaviour of AlON, MgAlON, O'SiAlON-ZrO{sub 2}, and BN-ZCM ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xidong; Seetharaman, S. [Div. of Metallurgy, Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Li Wenchao [Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Univ. of Science and Technology Beijing (USTB), Beijing, BJ (China)

    2002-06-01

    The kinetics and morphology of the oxidation process of magnesium-aluminium oxynitride (MgAlON), aluminium oxynitride (AlON), O'SiAlON-ZrO{sub 2}, and BN-ZCM have been studied in the temperature range 1373-1773 K (ZCM=30 wt% ZrO{sub 2}, 52 wt% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 18 wt% 3 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2 SiO{sub 2}). Oxidation experiments with powder and plate samples of the above materials have been carried out in air. MgAlON shows the best resistance to oxidation at lower temperatures (< 1473 K), whereas at higher temperatures ({proportional_to} 773 K), AlON shows the best resistance. O'SiAlON-ZrO{sub 2} shows very good oxidation resistance up to 1673 K. But its oxidation rate increases strongly above 1673 K, presumably due to the formation of liquid phase. BN-ZCM has the poorest oxidation resistance due to the evaporation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The activation energies for the chemical oxidation reaction of AlON, MgAlON, and O'SiAlON-ZrO{sub 2} are 214, 330 and 260 kJ/mol, respectively. The overall diffusion activation energies for AlON, MgAlON, O'SiAlON-ZrO{sub 2} and BN-ZCM are 227, 573, 367 and 289 kJ/mol, respectively. (orig.)

  7. Semisolid casting with ultrasonically melt-treated billets of Al-7mass%Si alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Tsunekawa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The demand for high performance cast aluminum alloy components is often disturbed by increasing impurity elements, such as iron accumulated from recycled scraps. It is strongly required that coarse plate-like iron compound of モ-Al5FeSi turns into harmless form without the need for applying refining additives or expensive virgin ingots. The microstructural modification of Al-7mass%Si alloy billets with different iron contents was examined by applying ultrasonic vibration during the solidification. Ultrasonically melt-treated billets were thixocast right after induction heating up to the semisolid temperature of 583 ìC, the microstructure and tensile properties were evaluated in the thixocast components. Globular primary メ-Al is required to fill up a thin cavity in thixocasting, so that the microstructural modification by ultrasonic melt-treatment was firstly confirmed in the billets. With ultrasonic melt-treatment in the temperature range of 630 ìC to 605 ìC, the primary メ-Al transforms itself from dendrite into fine globular in morphology. The coarse plate-like モ-Al5FeSi compound becomes markedly finer compared with those in non-treated billets. Semisolid soaking up to 583 ìC, does not appreciably affect the size of モ-Al5FeSi compounds; however, it affects the solid primary メ-Al morphology to be more globular, which is convenient for thixocasting. After thixocasting with preheated billets, eutectic silicon plates are extremely refined due to the rapid solidification arising from low casting temperature. The tensile strength of thixocast samples with different iron contents does not change much even at 2mass% of iron, when thixocast with ultrasonically melt-treated billets. However, thixocast Al-7mass%Si-2mass%Fe alloy with non-treated billets exhibits an inferior strength of 80 MPa, compared with 180 MPa with ultrasonically melt-treated billets. The elongation is also improved by about a factor of two in thixocastings with

  8. Li4SrCa(SiO4)2:Ce3+, a highly efficient near-UV and blue emitting orthosilicate phosphor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jilin; Zhang, Weilu; Qiu, Zhongxian; Zhou, Wenli; Yu, Liping; Li, Zhiqiang; Lian, Shixun

    2015-01-01

    High quantum efficiency is a vital parameter of phosphors for practical application. An efficient near-UV and blue emitting phosphor Li 4 SrCa(SiO 4 ) 2 :Ce 3+ was synthesized by a traditional solid-state reaction, and luminescent properties were studied in detail. The Ce 3+ -activated phosphor can emit both a near-UV light centred at 345 nm and a blue light peaking at 420 nm when Ce 3+ occupies the Sr and Ca site, respectively. The internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of Li 4 SrCa(SiO 4 ) 2 :0.03Ce 3+ is as high as 97% under the excitation at 288 nm, while the external quantum efficiency (EQE) is 66%. The IQE and EQE values of Li 4 SrCa(SiO 4 ) 2 :0.03Ce 3+ under the excitation at 360 nm are 82% and 31%, respectively. - Highlights: • Phosphor Li 4 SrCa(SiO 4 ) 2 :Ce 3+ emits a near-UV (345 nm) and a blue light (420 nm). • Emission band at 345 nm originates from Ce 3+ on Sr site. • Emission band at 420 nm belongs to Ce 3+ on Ca site. • Internal quantum efficiency is 97% for Li 4 SrCa(SiO 4 ) 2 :0.03Ce 3+ excited at 288 nm

  9. Investigation of nanocrystalline Epi-Si/γ-Al2O3 heterostructure deposited on Si substrate by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatun, Mosammat Halima; Shahjahan, Mohammad; Ito, Ryoki; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    In this work, micro-structural and interfacial studies of the epi-Si/γ-Al 2 O 3 heterostructure were undertaken by spectroscopic ellipsometry, and compared with the results of atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental ellipsometric data were fitted with the theoretical calculations using effective medium approximation for each layer of the structure. It was observed that the epitaxial silicon layer consists of a fraction of amorphous Si and crystalline Si. The percentage of amorphous silicon increases with the decrease of deposition temperature and with the increase of the deposition rate. The γ-Al 2 O 3 layer produces a hydrostatic pressure on the Si substrate and the amount of hydrostatic pressure was measured to be 8 x 10 9 dyn/cm 2

  10. Tensile behaviour at room and high temperatures of novel metal matrix composites based on hyper eutectic Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valer, J.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Urcola, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This work shows the improvement obtained on tensile stress at room and high temperatures of hyper eutectic Al-Si alloys. These alloys are produced by a combination of spray-forming, extrusion and thixoforming process, in comparison with conventional casting alloys.Al-25% Si-5%Cu. Al-25%Si-5%Cu-2%Mg and Al-30%Si-5%Cu alloys have been studied relating their microstructural parameters with tensile stress obtained and comparing them with conventional Al-20%Si. Al-36%Si and Al-50%Si alloys. Al-25%Si-5%Cu alloy-was tested before and after semi-solid forming, in order to distinguish the different behaviour of this alloy due to the different microstructure. The properties obtained with these alloys were also related to Al-SiC composites formed by similar processes. (Author) 20 refs

  11. Thermal phase separation of ZrSiO4 thin films and frequency- dependent electrical characteristics of the Al/ZrSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, R.; Kaya, S.; Yilmaz, E.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the thermal phase separation and annealing optimization of ZrSiO4 thin films have been carried out. Following annealing optimization, the frequency-dependent electrical characteristics of the Al/ZrSiO4/p-Si/Al MOS capacitors were investigated in detail. The chemical evolution of the films under various annealing temperatures was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. The phase separation was determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The electrical parameters were determined via the capacitance–voltage (C–V), conductance–voltage (G/ω) and leakage-current–voltage (Ig–Vg ). The results demonstrate that zirconium silicate formations are present at 1000 °C annealing with the SiO2 interfacial layer. The film was in amorphous form after annealing at 250 °C. The tetragonal phases of ZrO2 were obtained after annealing at 500 °C. When the temperature approaches 750 °C, transitions from the tetragonal phase to the monoclinic phase were observed. The obtained XRD peaks after 1000 °C annealing matched the crystalline peaks of ZrSiO4. This means that the crystalline zirconium dioxide in the structure has been converted into a crystalline silicate phase. The interface states increased to 5.71 × 1010 and the number of border traps decreased to 7.18 × 1010 cm‑2 with the increasing temperature. These results indicate that an excellent ZrSiO4/Si interface has been fabricated. The order of the leakage current varied from 10‑9 Acm‑2 to 10‑6 Acm‑2. The MOS capacitor fabricated with the films annealed at 1000 °C shows better behavior in terms of its structural, chemical and electrical properties. Hence, detailed frequency-dependent electrical characteristics were performed for the ZrSiO4 thin film annealed at 1000 °C. Very slight capacitance variations were observed under the frequency variations. This shows that the density of frequency-dependent charges is very low at the ZrSiO4/Si interface. The

  12. Experiencias de calorimetría diferencial de barrido en aleaciones Al-Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina López-Eckerdt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La observación de agujas características de una transformación displaciva en aleaciones U-Al-Si en el entorno del compuesto U3Si5 evidencia la necesidad de analizar las distintas transformaciones que ocurren durante el enfriamiento utilizando una técnica dinámica de identificación de transformaciones (calorimetría diferencial de barrido. Para evaluar la versatilidad de esta técnica, se estudiaron aleaciones Al-Si con concentraciones de Si entre 0,6% y 7,1% en peso. Se determinaron las temperaturas liquidus y eutéctica de cada aleación y se estimó la entalpía de formación de los precipitados de Si y de la reacción eutéctica. Los resultados reproducen las temperaturas de ambas reacciones según el diagrama de equilibrio del sistema binario Al-Si. Para el cálculo de las entalpías de transformación resulta indispensable obtener el porcentaje de fase transformada por otras técnicas de caracterización una vez finalizado el ensayo.

  13. Coating of Si3N4 fine particles with AlN by fluidized bed-CVD; Ryudoso CVD ho ni yoru Si3N4 biryushi no AlN hifuku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, S.; Oyama, Y. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Institute, Sapporo (Japan); Harima, K.; Kondo, K.; Shinohara, K. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-03-10

    Agglomerates of 100-250 {mu}m consisting of Si3N4 primary particles of 0.76 {mu}m were made with a rotary vibrating sieve. Si3N4 fine particles were coated with AlN by gas phase reaction with AlCl3 and NH3 in some fluidized beds of the agglomerates. The cross sectional distribution of AlN in the agglomerate was measured by EPMA analysis. As a result, uniform deposition of AlN was obtained at a relatively low reaction temperature and low gas velocity. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  14. A study of Al/Si interface by photoemission, Auger electron yield and Auger electron spectroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, K.L.I.; Barth, J.; Gerken, F.; Kunz, C.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    1980-06-01

    Photoemission, Auger electron yield and Auger electron spectra were observed for Al/Si(111) interfaces with various Al coverage prepared by successive deposition using a molecular beam source. The Al 3p derived states are introduced at around the top of the valence band by the Al coverage of less than one monolayer. The Al surface layer behaves as a 'metal' and the Fermi level is stabilized in the Al 3p derived states at about 0.3 eV above the top of the valence band of Si. The Schottky barrier height in this stage is about 0.8 eV and further increase in Al coverage does not change the barrier height. A covalent bonding model of the Al/Si interface based on the experimental results is proposed. The present result favors the on-top geometry of Al atoms on Si(111) surface among the geometries used in the pseudopotential calculation by Zhang and Schlueter. (orig.)

  15. Y-Si-Al-O-N Glass Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The excellent mechanical properties and outstanding water corrosion resistance of Y -Si-Al-O- N glasses indicate that they are attractive candidate...materials for forming into high performance glass fibers. Fibers of glasses containing, respectively,3.2 and 6.6 wt% N were drawn freehand in air, and

  16. Electron excitations in BeAl2O4, Be2SiO4 and Be3Al2Si6O18 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.Yu.; Pustovarov, V.A.; Shlygin, E.S.; Korotaev, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Low-temperature (T = 7 K) time-resolved selectively photoexcited luminescence spectra (2-6 eV) and luminescence excitation spectra (8-35 eV) of wide-bandgap chrysoberyl BeAl 2 O 4 , phenacite Be 2 SiO 4 , and beryl Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 crystals have been studied using time-resolved VUV spectroscopy. Both the intrinsic luminescence of the crystals and the luminescence associated with structural defects were assigned. Energy transfer to impurity luminescence centers in alexandrite and emerald was investigated. Luminescence characteristics of stable crystal lattice defects were probed by 3.6-MeV accelerated helium ion beams [ru

  17. Thermal stability and chemical bonding states of AlOxNy/Si gate stacks revealed by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, G.; Toyoda, S.; Shimogaki, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2010-01-01

    Annealing-temperature dependence of the thermal stability and chemical bonding states of AlO x N y /SiO 2 /Si gate stacks grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using new chemistry was investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES). Results have confirmed the formation of the AlN and AlNO compounds in the as-deposited samples. Annealing the AlO x N y samples in N 2 ambient in 600-800 deg. C promotes the formation of SiO 2 component. Meanwhile, there is no formation of Al-O-Si and Al-Si binding states, suggesting no interdiffusion of Al with the Si substrate. A thermally induced reaction between Si and AlO x N y to form volatile SiO and Al 2 O is suggested to be responsible for the full disappearance of the Al component that accompanies annealing at annealing temperature of 1000 deg. C. The released N due to the breakage of the Al-N bonding will react with the SiO 2 interfacial layer and lead to the formation of the Si 3 -N-O/Si 2 -N-O components at the top of Si substrate. These results indicate high temperature processing induced evolution of the interfacial chemistry and application range of AlO x N y /Si gate stacks in future CMOS devices.

  18. Study of slag-refractory system in iron desulfurization process by isopleths from Ca O-Si O{sub 2}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} equilibrium diagram; Analise da interacao escoria de dessulfuracao de gusa - refratario do carro-torpedo a partir de projecao vertical no diagrama de equilibrio CaO-SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marco Antonio; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica

    1996-12-31

    The sulfur withdrawal from liquid iron to compatible levels in steels plant processes capability is an important task of high quality rolled products fabrication. Mixture of lime forms a family of desulfurization agent frequently used, mainly their lower cost if injected in iron to reach not so lower levels of desulfurization. The use of this desulfurization agents produces approximately 7.0 Kg/t of slag, that results between 10 to 30 Kg/t of total slag. This slag interacts with the refractory lining of torpedo car, normally high alumina. In the present case it was analyzed an interaction between a slag formed by the use of the agent plus a blast furnace slag with a high alumina tar bonded lining. Isopleths of Ca O-Si O{sub 2}-Al{sub 2} O{sub 3} equilibrium diagram were constructed to represent the slag-refractory interaction. The results show that the use of the agent formed by lime and aluminium by-product is more deleterious to studied lining, what confirm the observations carried out in industrial plant. (author) 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Multinuclear NMR of CaSiO(3) glass: simulation from first-principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Alfonso; Charpentier, Thibault; Menziani, Maria Cristina

    2010-06-21

    An integrated computational method which couples classical molecular dynamics simulations with density functional theory calculations is used to simulate the solid-state NMR spectra of amorphous CaSiO(3). Two CaSiO(3) glass models are obtained by shell-model molecular dynamics simulations, successively relaxed at the GGA-PBE level of theory. The calculation of the NMR parameters (chemical shielding and quadrupolar parameters), which are then used to simulate solid-state 1D and 2D-NMR spectra of silicon-29, oxygen-17 and calcium-43, is achieved by the gauge including projector augmented-wave (GIPAW) and the projector augmented-wave (PAW) methods. It is shown that the limitations due to the finite size of the MD models can be overcome using a Kernel Estimation Density (KDE) approach to simulate the spectra since it better accounts for the disorder effects on the NMR parameter distribution. KDE allows reconstructing a smoothed NMR parameter distribution from the MD/GIPAW data. Simulated NMR spectra calculated with the present approach are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data. This further validates the CaSiO(3) structural model obtained by MD simulations allowing the inference of relationships between structural data and NMR response. The methods used to simulate 1D and 2D-NMR spectra from MD GIPAW data have been integrated in a package (called fpNMR) freely available on request.

  20. Abrasive Wear of AlSi12-Al2O3 Composite Materials Manufactured by Pressure Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremzer M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate tribological properties of EN AC-AlSi12 alloy composite materials matrix manufactured by pressure infiltration of Al2O3 porous preforms. In the paper, a technique of manufacturing composite materials was described in detail as well as wear resistance made on pin on disc was tested. Metallographic observations of wear traces of tested materials using stereoscopic and confocal microscopy were made. Studies allow concluding that obtained composite materials have much better wear resistance than the matrix alloy AlSi12. It was further proved that the developed technology of their preparation consisting of pressure infiltration of porous ceramic preforms can find a practical application.

  1. Effect of AlN doping on the growth morphology of SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.B.; Jones, E.; Berghmans, A.; Wagner, B.P.; Jelen, E.; McLaughlin, S.; Knuteson, D.J.; Fitelson, M.; King, M.; Kahler, D. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, ES-ATL, Linthicum, MD (United States)

    2009-09-15

    AlN doped SiC films were deposited on on-axis Si-face 4H-SiC(0001) substrates by the physical vapor transport (PVT) method. Thick film in the range of 20 {mu}m range was grown and morphology was characterized. Films were grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) in a vertical geometry in the nitrogen atmosphere. We observed that nucleation occurred in the form of discs and growth occurred in hexagonal geometry. The X-ray studies showed (001)orientation and full width of half maxima (FWHM) was less than 0.1 indicating good crystallinity. We also observed that film deposited on the carbon crucible had long needles with anisotropic growth very similar to that of pure AlN. Some of the needles grew up to sizes of 200{mu}m in length and 40 to 50 {mu}m in width. It is clear that annealing of SiC-AlN powder or high temperature physical vapor deposition produces similar crystal structure for producing AlN-SiC solid solution. SEM studies indicated that facetted hexagons grew on the top of each other and coarsened and merged to form cm size grains on the substrate. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. On the stability of large-area Al-p-Si junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsyganov, Yu.S.

    2006-01-01

    Design of silicon radiation detector made of 12 kΩ · cm p-silicon with both amine- and amine-free hardeners epoxy resin junction edge passivation is presented. Before producing large-area detectors for measurements of efficiency of evaporation residues collection at the focal plane of the Dubna Gas-Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS), a set of small-area test detectors was produced. Stability of the Al-(p)Si junction has been studied for a long time. Estimate of a realistic lifetime for the mentioned type of Al-Si rectifying junction is done

  3. Characteristics of heterojunctions of amorphous LaAlO2.73 on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yanhong; Zhao Kun; Lu Huibin; Jin Kuijuan; He Meng; Chen Zhenghao; Zhou Yueliang; Yang Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    High-quality heterojunctions consisting of n-type amorphous LaAlO 3- δ and p-type Si without Si interfacial layer were prepared using a thin film deposition system normally used for laser-molecular beam epitaxy. Good I-V rectifying property, ferroelectricity of interface enhancement and fast photovoltaic effect have been observed in the LaAlO 3- δ /Si p-n heterojunctions. We expect that the multifunctional properties of rectification, ferroelectricity and photovoltaic effect should open up new possibilities in device development and other applications

  4. Thermal Conductivity and High-Frequency Dielectric Properties of Pressureless Sintered SiC-AlN Multiphase Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialin Gu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available SiC-AlN multiphase ceramics with 10 wt. %Y2O3-BaO-SiO2 additives were fabricated by pressureless sintering in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effects of SiC contents and sintering temperatures on the sinterability, microstructure, thermal conductivity and high-frequency dielectric properties were characterized. In addition to 6H-SiC and AlN, the samples also contained Y3Al5O12 and Y4Al2O9. SiC-AlN ceramics sintered with 50 wt. % SiC at 2173 K exhibited the best thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity (26.21 mm2·s−1 and 61.02 W·m−1·K−1, respectively. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the sample sintered with 50 wt. % SiC and 2123 K were 33–37 and 0.4–0.5 at 12.4–18 GHz. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the samples decreased as the frequency of electromagnetic waves increased from 12.4–18 GHz. The dielectric thermal conductivity properties of the SiC-AlN samples are discussed.

  5. Cell adhesion to cathodic arc plasma deposited CrAlSiN thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyu, E-mail: skim@ulsan.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ulsan, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Pham, Vuong-Hung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong-Hyun [Department of Food Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Osteoblast cell response (cell adhesion, actin cytoskeleton and focal contact adhesion as well as cell proliferation) to CrN, CrAlSiN and Ti thin films was evaluated in vitro. Cell adhesion and actin stress fibers organization depended on the film composition significantly. Immunofluorescent staining of vinculin in osteoblast cells showed good focal contact adhesion on the CrAlSiN and Ti thin films but not on the CrN thin films. Cell proliferation was significantly greater on the CrAlSiN thin films as well as on Ti thin films than on the CrN thin films.

  6. In Situ Synthesis of Al-Si-Cu Alloy During Brazing Process and Mechanical Property of Brazing Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LONG Wei-min

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Si-Cu alloy system is considered to be a promising choice of filler metal for aluminium alloys brazing due to its high strength and low melting point. The greatest obstacle is its lack of plastic forming ability and being difficult to be processed by conventional methods. This disadvantage is ascribed to the considerable amount of brittle CuAl2 intermetallic compound which forms when alloy composition is around the ternary eutectic point. In order to overcome this deficiency, authors of this article proposed to synthesize Al-Si-Cu filler metal by using in situ synthesis method, and the structure and properties of brazing joints were studied. The results show that AlSi alloy is used as the wrap layer, and CuAl alloy is used as the powder core in the composite brazing wire, the two alloys have similar melting points. The machinability of the composite brazing wire is much superior to the traditional Al-Si-Cu filler metal. During the induction brazing of 3A21 alloy, when using AlSi-CuAl composite filler wire, AlSi and CuAl alloys melt almost simultaneously, then after short time holding, Al-Si-Cu braze filler is obtained, the brazing seam has uniform composition and good bonding interface, also, the shearing strength of the brazing joints is higher than the joint brazed by conventional Al-Si-Cu filler metal.

  7. The [sup 26]Al(p,[gamma])[sup 27]Si reaction at low stellar temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, A E [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab.; Brown, B A [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab.; Sherr, R [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1993-05-03

    Shell-model calculations have been used to predict the locations of states in [sup 27]Si which are analogous to well-studied states in [sup 27]Al. From this, we have determined the resonance properties of the known states in [sup 27]Si near the [sup 26]Al+p threshold. The resulting thermonuclear reaction rate is uncertain by about a factor of ten at low temperatures, but it appears that the [sup 26]Al(p, [gamma])[sup 27]Si reaction is too slow to destroy a significant amount of [sup 26]Al at these temperatures. (orig.)

  8. Novel composites of β-SiAlON and radome manufacturing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-08

    Jul 8, 2017 ... radome applications, (ii) designing of an AlN-free precursor mixture for consolidating ... radomes with very high-production yields and (vi) development of an ... (about 4 mm thick) of β-SiAlON prototype radome manufactured at.

  9. Elastic scattering of 28Si + 40Ca system at Elab = 225 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Kumar; Srivastava, Amita; Kumar, Sarita; Seth, Madhup; Srivastava, B.B.; Mishra, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    The real part of nucleus-nucleus interaction for 28 Si + 40 Ca system was microscopically calculated in terms of antisymmetrised shell model wave functions using equivalence relation between RGM and GCM

  10. The chemical phenol extraction of intermetallic particles from casting AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrówka-Nowotnik, G; Sieniawski, J; Nowotnik, A

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a chemical extraction technique for determination of intermetallic phases formed in the casting AlSi5Cu1Mg aluminium alloy. Commercial aluminium alloys contain a wide range of intermetallic particles that are formed during casting, homogenization and thermomechanical processing. During solidification, particles of intermetallics are dispersed in interdendritic spaces as fine primary phases. Coarse intermetallic compounds that are formed in this aluminium alloy are characterized by unique atomic arrangement (crystallographic structure), morphology, stability, physical and mechanical properties. The volume fraction, chemistry and morphology of the intermetallics significantly affect properties and material behaviour during thermomechanical processing. Therefore, accurate determination of intermetallics is essential to understand and control microstructural evolution in Al alloys. Thus, in this paper it is shown that chemical phenol extraction method can be applied for precise qualitative evaluation. The results of optical light microscopy LOM, scanning electron microscopy SEM and X-ray diffraction XRD analysis reveal that as-cast AlSi5Cu1Mg alloy contains a wide range of intermetallic phases such as Al(4)Fe, gamma- Al(3)FeSi, alpha-Al(8)Fe(2)Si, beta-Al(5)FeSi, Al(12)FeMnSi.

  11. Properties and Crystallization Phenomena in Li2Si2O5–Ca5(PO4)3F and Li2Si2O5–Sr5(PO4)3F Glass–Ceramics Via Twofold Internal Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampf, Markus; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian; Schweiger, Marcel; Höland, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    The combination of specific mechanical, esthetic, and chemical properties is decisive for the application of materials in prosthodontics. Controlled twofold crystallization provides a powerful tool to produce special property combinations for glass–ceramic materials. The present study outlines the potential of precipitating Ca5(PO4)3F as well as Sr5(PO4)3F as minor crystal phases in Li2Si2O5 glass–ceramics. Base glasses with different contents of CaO/SrO, P2O5, and F− were prepared within the glasses of the SiO2–Li2O–K2O–CaO/SrO–Al2O3–P2O5–F system. Preliminary studies of nucleation by means of XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the nucleated base glasses revealed X-ray amorphous phase separation phenomena. Qualitative and quantitative crystal phase analyses after crystallization were conducted using XRD in combination with Rietveld refinement. As a main result, a direct proportional relationship between the content of apatite-forming components in the base glasses and the content of apatite in the glass–ceramics was established. The microstructures of the glass–ceramics were investigated using SEM. Microstructural and mechanical properties were found to be dominated by Li2Si2O5 crystals and quite independent of the content of the apatite present in the glass–ceramics. Biaxial strengths of up to 540 MPa were detected. Ca5(PO4)3F and Sr5(PO4)3F influence the translucency of the glass–ceramics and, hence, help to precisely tailor the properties of Li2Si2O5 glass–ceramics. The authors conclude that the twofold crystallization of Li2Si2O5–Ca5(PO4)3F or Li2Si2O5–Sr5(PO4)3F glass–ceramics involves independent solid-state reactions, which can be controlled via the chemical composition of the base glasses. The influence of the minor apatite phase on the optical properties helps to achieve new combinations of features of the glass–ceramics and, hence, displays new potential for dental applications. PMID:26389112

  12. Crack-resistant Al2O3–SiO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Sosa, Gustavo A.; Masuno, Atsunobu; Higo, Yuji; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining “hard” and “crack-resistant” glasses have always been of great important in glass science and glass technology. However, in most commercial glasses both properties are not compatible. In this work, colorless and transparent xAl2O3–(100–x)SiO2 glasses (30 ≤ x ≤ 60) were fabricated by the aerodynamic levitation technique. The elastic moduli and Vickers hardness monotonically increased with an increase in the atomic packing density as the Al2O3 content increased. Although a higher atomic packing density generally enhances crack formation in conventional oxide glasses, the indentation cracking resistance increased by approximately seven times with an increase in atomic packing density in binary Al2O3–SiO2 glasses. In particular, the composition of 60Al2O3•40SiO2 glass, which is identical to that of mullite, has extraordinary high cracking resistance with high elastic moduli and Vickers hardness. The results indicate that there exist aluminosilicate compositions that can produce hard and damage-tolerant glasses. PMID:27053006

  13. Electron density distribution and disordered crystal structure of 8H-SiAlON, Si3−xAl1+xOxN5−x (x∼2.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, Hiroki; Asaka, Toru; Fukuda, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    The 8H-SiAlON crystal with general formula Si 3−x Al 1+x O x N 5−x was characterized using laboratory X-ray powder diffraction (CuKα 1 ), transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The [Si: Al] molar ratios were determined to be [0.21(1): 0.79(1)], corresponding to x=2.2(1). The Si 0.8(1) Al 3.2(1) O 2.2(1) N 2.8(1) compound is hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc (Z=2). The unit-cell dimensions are a=0.298877(8) nm, c=2.30872(5) nm and V=0.178602(8) nm 3 . The initial structural model was successfully derived by the charge-flipping method and further refined by the Rietveld method. The final structural model showed the positional disordering of two of the three (Si,Al) sites. The maximum-entropy method-based pattern fitting (MPF) method was used to confirm the validity of the split-atom model, in which conventional structure bias caused by assuming intensity partitioning was minimized. The reliability indices calculated from the MPF were R wp =4.74%, S (=R wp /R e )=1.30, R p =3.40%, R B =1.04% and R F =0.74%. The disordered crystal structure was successfully described by overlapping four types of domains with ordered atom arrangements. The distribution of atomic positions in each of the domains can be achieved in the space group P6 3 mc. Two of the four types of domains are related by a pseudo-symmetry inversion, and the two remaining domains also have each other the inversion pseudo-symmetry. - Graphical abstract: Bird's eye view of electron densities up to 49.3% (0.071 nm −3 ) of the maximum on the plane parallel to (110) with the corresponding atomic arrangements of Si 0.8 Al 3.2 O 2.2 N 2.8 . - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Si 0.8 Al 3.2 O 2.2 N 2.8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • The maximum-entropy method-based pattern fitting method is used to confirm the validity of the model. • The disordered structure is described

  14. Natural gels: crystal-chemistry of short range ordered components in Al, Fe, and Si systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ildefonse, Ph.; Calas, G.

    1997-01-01

    In this review, the most important inorganic natural gels are presented: opal, aluminosilicate (allophanes) and hydrous iron oxides and silicates. It is demonstrated that natural gels are ordered at the atomic scale. In allophanes, Al is distributed between octahedral and tetrahedral sites. The amount of Al increases as Al/Si ratio decreases. Si-rich allophane have a local structure around Al and Si very different of that is known in kaolinite or halloysite. Transformation of Si-rich allophanes to crystallized minerals implies dissolution-recrystallization processes. On the contrary, in iron silicate with Fe/Si = 0.72, Si and Fe environments are close to those found in nontronite. The gel transformation to Fe-smectite may occur by long range ordering during ageing. In ferric silicate gels, the similarity of local structure around Fe in poorly ordered precursors and what is known in crystallized minerals suggests a solid transformation during ageing. This difference between iron and aluminium is mainly due to the ability of Al to enter both tetrahedral and octahedral sites, while the affinity of iron for octahedral sites is higher at low temperature

  15. Properties of U3Si2-Al dispersion fuel element and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Changgeng

    2001-01-01

    The properties of U 3 Si 2 fuel and U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel element are introduced, which include U-loading; the banding quality, U-homogeneity and 'dog-bone' phenomenon, the minimum thickness of cladding and the corrosion performances. The fabrication technique of fuel elements, NDT for fuel plates, assemble technique of fuel elements and the application of U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel elements in the world are introduced

  16. Formation of coarse Al13Fe4 particles and their effects in an RS/PM Al-Fe-V-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sunghak; Lee, D.Y.; Ahn, Sangho.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper analyzed the fracture behavior of an RS/PM Al-Fe-V-Si alloy after high temperature exposure, in particular the effects of coarse Al13Fe4 particles formed during the exposure at 480 C. In situ SEM observations of crack opening processes found that brittle cleavage fracture occurred at these coarse Al13Fe4 particles, leading to the reduction in strength, fracture toughness, and ductility of the Al-Fe-V-Si alloy exposed to high temperatures. The results of fracture toughness were also interpreted using a simplified ductile fracture initiation model based on a basic assumption that crack extension starts to occur at a certain critical strain over a microstructurally significant critical distance. This model correlates microstructure to fracture toughness, confirming that the presence of coarse Al13Fe4 particles is the main metallurgical factor for the embrittlement phenomenon in the Al-Fe-V-Si alloy after high temperature exposure. 12 refs

  17. Room temperature mechanosynthesis and microstructure characterization of nanocrystalline Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, S. [Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan, 713104, West Bengal (India); Dutta, H. [Department of Physics, Vivekananda College, Burdwan, 713103, West Bengal (India); Kar, T. [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata, 700032, West Bengal (India); Pradhan, S.K., E-mail: skp_bu@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, The University of Burdwan, Golapbag, Burdwan, 713104, West Bengal (India)

    2016-02-01

    This article reports the synthesis and microstructure characterization of nanocrystalline Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C powder obtained by mechanical milling the mixture of Si, Al and graphite powders at room temperature under inert atmosphere. XRD patterns of ball-milled powders clearly reveal the nucleation of Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C phase after 5 h of milling and the stoichiometric cubic Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C is formed after 10 h of milling with crystallite size of ∼3 nm. Microstructure of ball-milled powders in terms of different lattice imperfections is characterized by employing both Rietveld's method of structure refinement using XRD data and high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). HRTEM micrographs of 10 h milled powder substantiate the formation of nanocrystalline Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C compound without any contamination and confirm the findings of Rietveld analysis using XRD data. - Highlights: • Cubic Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C is formed after 5 h of milling of Si, Al and graphite powders. • Nanocrystalline Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C with particle size ∼3 nm is obtained after 10 h milling. • Average particle size of Si{sub 0.9}Al{sub 0.1}C from XRD analysis and HRTEM is very close.

  18. Carbon monoxide sensing properties of B-, Al- and Ga-doped Si nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santiago, F.; Trejo, A.; Miranda, A.; Salazar, F.; Carvajal, E.; Pérez, L. A.; Cruz-Irisson, M.

    2018-05-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are considered as potential chemical sensors due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and their possible integration into arrays for nanotechnological applications. Detection of harmful gases like CO has been experimentally demonstrated, however, the influence of doping on the sensing capacity of SiNWs has not yet been reported. For this work, we theoretically studied the surface adsorption of a CO molecule on hydrogen-passivated SiNWs grown along the [111] crystallographic direction and compared it with the adsorption of other molecules such as NO, and O2. Three nanowire diameters and three dopant elements (B, Al and Ga) were considered, and calculations were done within the density functional theory framework. The results indicate that CO molecules are more strongly adsorbed on the doped SiNW than on the pristine SiNW. The following trend was observed for the CO adsorption energies: E A[B-doped] > E A[Al-doped] > E A[Ga-doped] > E A[undoped], for all diameters. The electronic charge transfers between the SiNWs and the adsorbed CO were estimated by using a Voronoi population analysis. The CO adsorbed onto the undoped SiNWs has an electron-acceptor character, while the CO adsorbed onto the B-, Al-, and Ga-doped SiNWs exhibits an electron-donor character. Comparing these results with the ones obtained for the NO and O2 adsorption, the larger CO adsorption energy on B-doped SiNWs indicates their good selectivity towards CO. These results suggest that SiNW-based sensors of toxic gases could represent a clear and advantageous application of nanotechnology in the improvement of human quality of life.

  19. The impact of major alloying elements and refiner on the SDAS of Al-Si-Cu alloy; Der Einfluss von Hauptlegierungselementen und Kornfeinern auf den sekundaeren Dendritenarmabstand der Al-Si-Cu-Legierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djurdjevic, Mile; Byczynski, Glenn [Nemak Europe GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Frankfurt Airport Center 1; Pavlovic, Jelena [Magdeburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Fertigungstechnik und Qualitaetssicherung

    2009-02-15

    This paper investigates the effect of some major alloying elements (silicon and copper) and the effect of grain refiner (titanium boride) on the size of the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) in series of Al-Si-Cu alloys. It has been shown that both silicon and copper have significant influence on this solidification parameter. The addition of grain refining master alloys to aluminium alloys is common practice in many commercial foundries aiming to reduce the grain size of Al-Si alloys. However, it was shown in the present paper that master alloy based on TiB had an unexpected impact on the SDAS, decreasing the size of SDAS. In addition, there is a minimum of SDAS corresponding to the presence of 0.12 wt% of titanium in Al-Si alloy. Such findings could have important implications for Al-Si alloys in particular, due to their wide spread applications in the automotive industry. (orig.)

  20. Selective laser melting of carbon/AlSi10Mg composites: Microstructure, mechanical and electronical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiao; Song, Bo, E-mail: bosong@hust.edu.cn; Fan, Wenrui; Zhang, Yuanjie; Shi, Yusheng

    2016-04-25

    Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg composites has drawn lots of attention in structural engineering and functional device applications due to its extraordinary high elastic modulus and mechanical strength as well as excellent electrical and thermal conductivities. In this study, the CNTs/AlSi10Mg composites was firstly prepared and then processed by selective laser melting. The powder preparation, SLM process, and microstructure evolution, properties were clarified. The results showed that CNTs were decomposed due to the direct interaction with the laser beam. The SLMed composites displayed a similar microstructure to that of SLMed AlSi10Mg. The common brittleness phase Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} didn't form, and the carbon dispersion strengthening was observed. The electrical resistivity of the composites was reduced significantly and the hardness was improved. - Highlights: • Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg powder were prepared by slurry ball milling process. • Carbon nanotubes/AlSi10Mg composites were firstly prepared by SLM. • The electrical resistivity of the composites was significantly reduced and hardness was improved.

  1. Effects of AlN on the densification and mechanical properties of pressureless-sintered SiC ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qisong Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, SiC ceramics was fabricated with AlN using B4C and C as sintering aids by a solid-state pressureless-sintered method. The effects of AlN contents on the densification, mechanical properties, phase compositions, and microstructure evolutions of as-obtained SiC ceramics were thoroughly investigated. AlN was found to promote further densification of the SiC ceramics due to its evaporation over 1800 °C, transportation, and solidification in the pores resulted from SiC grain coarsening. The highest relative density of 99.65% was achieved for SiC sample with 15.0 wt% AlN by the pressureless-sintered method at 2130 °C for 1 h in Ar atmosphere. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism for SiC ceramics containing AlN tended to transfer from single transgranular fracture mode to both transgranular fracture and intergranular fracture modes when the sample with 30.0 wt% AlN sintered at 1900 °C for 1 h in Ar. Also, SiC ceramics with 30.0 wt% AlN exhibited the highest fracture toughness of 5.23 MPa m1/2 when sintered at 1900 °C.

  2. Quasi-2D silicon structures based on ultrathin Me2Si (Me = Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, D. B.; Bogorodz, V. O.; Filonov, A. B.; Borisenko, V. E.; Skorodumova, N. V.

    2018-04-01

    By means of ab initio calculations with hybrid functionals we show a possibility for quasi-2D silicon structures originated from semiconducting Mg2Si, Ca2Si, Sr2Si and Ba2Si silicides to exist. Such a 2D structure is similar to the one of transition metal chalcogenides where silicon atoms form a layer in between of metal atoms aligned in surface layers. These metal surface atoms act as pseudo passivation species stabilizing crystal structure and providing semiconducting properties. Considered 2D Mg2Si, Ca2Si, Sr2Si and Ba2Si have band gaps of 1.14 eV, 0.69 eV, 0.33 eV and 0.19 eV, respectively, while the former one is also characterized by a direct transition with appreciable oscillator strength. Electronic states of the surface atoms are found to suppress an influence of the quantum confinement on the band gaps. Additionally, we report Sr2Si bulk in the cubic structure to have a direct band gap of 0.85 eV as well as sizable oscillator strength of the first direct transition.

  3. Effect of surface passivation by SiN/SiO2 of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrate by deep level transient spectroscopy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassoumi, Malek; Mosbahi, Hana; Zaidi, Mohamed Ali; Gaquiere, Christophe; Maaref, Hassen

    2013-01-01

    Device performance and defects in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors have been correlated. The effect of SiN/SiO 2 passivation of the surface of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrates is reported on DC characteristics. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on the device after the passivation by a (50/100 nm) SiN/SiO 2 film. The DLTS spectra from these measurements showed the existence of the same electron trap on the surface of the device

  4. Corrosion performance of SiCsubp/6061 Al metal matrix composites in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohmad Soib bin Selamat

    1995-01-01

    The corrosion performance of silicon carbide particle/aluminium metal matrix composites (SiCsubp/Al) were studied in sodium chloride solution by means of electrochemical, microscopic, gravimetric and analytical techniques. The materials under investigation were compocasting processed 6061 Al reinforced with increasing amounts of SiC particles. Potentiostatic polarization tests were done in 0.1M NaCl solutions that were aerated or deaerated to observe overall corrosion behaviour. It was seen that the corrosion potentials did not vary greatly in relation to the amounts of SiCsubp reinforcement. Corrosion tests showed that the degree of corrosion increased with increasing SiCsubp content. SEM analysis technique was used to study the corroded samples and the pitting morphology. By TEM, no intermetallic layer was found at SiC/Al interface. A model for pitting process was proposed

  5. Refraction of polarized neutrons on the boundary in thick magnetic film FeAlSi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksenov, V L; Kozhevnikov, S V; Nikitenko, Yu V [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Frank Lab. of Neutron Physics

    1999-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Refraction of polarized neutrons in multilayer structure FeAlSi(20 mkm)/Cr(0.05 mkm)/CaTiO{sub 3}(1000 mkm) has been investigated. An external magnetic field was applied under an angle to the sample surface. Refraction on themagnetic boundaries of two types has been investigated. First type is the boundary vacuum-magnetic film. Second type is magnetic film - non-magnetic substrate CaTiO{sub 3} (thin non-magnetic Cr layer doesn't refract the beam). On the boundary there are spin-flip and beam-splitting. Four spatial splitted beams were observed for different spin transitions on each type of the boundary: '+-', '++', '-+' and '--'. From the experimental values of the glancing angles of refracted beam the following parameters has been derives: the nuclear potentials of the magnetic film and the non-magnetic substrate, the magnitude and the direction of a magnetic induction in the magnetic film. It has been shown that the method of refractometry of polarized neutrons can be used for investigation of thick (about mkm) magnetic films. (author)

  6. Effect of Si and Co on the crystallization of Al-Ni-RE amorphous alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.H. [Key Lab of Liquid structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, South Campus of Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Bian, X.F. [Key Lab of Liquid structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, South Campus of Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)], E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn

    2008-04-03

    Crystallization of Al{sub 83}Ni{sub 10}Si{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 7}Nd{sub 6} and Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Nd{sub 6} amorphous alloys has been studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The multiple transition metal (TM) (containing metalloid element) have significant effect on the crystallization behavior. A small addition of Si transforms a eutectic crystallization (Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}Ce{sub 5}) to a primary crystallization (Al{sub 83}Ni{sub 10}Si{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}); while a small addition of Co transforms a primary crystallization (Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 7}Nd{sub 6}) to a eutectic crystallization (Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Nd{sub 6}). In addition, the activation energies for crystallization (E{sub a}) are obtained to be 191, 290, 221 and 166 kJ/mol for the Al{sub 83}Ni{sub 10}Si{sub 2}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 10}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2}Nd{sub 6} and Al{sub 87}Ni{sub 7}Nd{sub 6} amorphous alloys based on the Kissinger method, respectively. It is found that the primary crystallization of fcc-Al is characteristic of a lower E{sub a}, as compared with eutectic crystallization.

  7. Epitaxial growth and properties of AlGaN-based UV-LEDs on Si(111) substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saengkaew, Phannee

    2010-07-08

    An increasing demand for bright and efficient ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UVLEDs) is generated by numerous applications such as biochemical sensors, purification and sterilization, and solid-state white lighting. Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N is a promising material to develop UVLEDs due to the direct wide-bandgap material for emission wavelengths in the UV range and the capability of n- and p-type doping. To develop UV-LEDs on Si substrates is very interesting for low-cost UV-light sources since the Si substrate is available at low cost, in large-diameter size enabling the integration with well-known Si electronics. This work presents the first crack-free AlGaN-based UV-LEDs on Si(111) substrates by MOVPE growth. This AlGaN-based UV-LED on Si(111) substrate consists of Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N:Si layers on LT-AlN/HT-AlN SL buffer layers and an active layer of GaN/Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N MQWs followed by Mg-doped (GaN/Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N) superlattices and GaN:Mg cap layers. It yields a {proportional_to}350 nm UV electroluminescence at room temperature and a turn-on voltage in a range of 2.6-3.1 V by current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The novel LT-AlN/HT-AlN superlattice buffer layers efficiently improve the crystalline quality of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers and compensate a thermal tensile strain in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers after cooling as observed by in-situ curvature measurements. The dislocation density could be reduced from 8.4 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} in the AlN-based SLs to 1.8 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -2} in the Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N layers as determined by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements. Crack-free Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N layers grown on these LT-AlN/HT-AlN superlattices with 0.05{<=}x{<=} 0.65 are achieved on Si substrates with good crystalline, optical, and electrical properties. The best crystalline quality of Al{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}N is obtained with {omega}-FWHMs of the (0002) and (10-10) reflections of

  8. LiCa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}N{sub 5} - A Lithium nitridosilicate with a [Si{sub 2}N{sub 5}]{sup 7-} double-chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupart, Saskia; Schnick, Wolfgang [Department Chemie, Lehrstuhl fuer Anorganische Festkoerperchemie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The lithium nitridosilicate LiCa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}N{sub 5} was synthesized by the reaction of calcium with Si(NH){sub 2} and Li{sub 3}N in weld shut tantalum ampoules at 900 C. The structure of LiCa{sub 3}Si{sub 2}N{sub 5} [space group C2/c, no. 15, a = 5.1454(10), b = 20.380(4), c = 10.357(2) Aa, β = 91.24(3) , wR{sub 2} = 0.1084, 863 data, 102 parameters] consists of [Si{sub 2}N{sub 5}]{sup 7-} double-chains including edge-sharing tetrahedra. The lithium atoms in the crystal structure are situated in strands along the crystallographic b axis. Lattice energy calculations (MAPLE) and EDX measurements confirmed the electrostatic bonding interactions and the chemical composition. The {sup 29}Si and {sup 7}Li solid-state MAS NMR spectroscopic investigations are reported. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Influence of Al addition on phase transformation and thermal stability of nickel silicides on Si(0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shih-Hsien; Twan, Sheng-Chen; Cheng, Shao-Liang; Lee, Tu; Hu, Jung-Chih; Chen, Lien-Tai; Lee, Sheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: ► The presence of Al slows down the Ni 2 Si–NiSi phase transformation but significantly promotes the NiSi 2−x Al x formation. ► The behavior of phase transformation strongly depends on the Al concentration of the initial Ni 1−x Al x alloys. ► The Ni 0.91 Al 0.09 /Si system exhibits remarkably improved thermal stability, even after high temperature annealing for 1000 s. ► The relationship between microstructures, electrical property, and thermal stability of Ni(Al) silicides is discussed. -- Abstract: The influence of Al addition on the phase transformation and thermal stability of Ni silicides on (0 0 1)Si has been systematically investigated. The presence of Al atoms is found to slow down the Ni 2 Si–NiSi phase transformation but significantly promote the NiSi 2−x Al x formation during annealing. The behavior of phase transformation strongly depends on the Al concentration of the initial Ni 1−x Al x alloys. Compared to the Ni 0.95 Pt 0.05 /Si and Ni 0.95 Al 0.05 /Si system, the Ni 0.91 Al 0.09 /Si sample exhibits remarkably enhanced thermal stability, even after high temperature annealing for 1000 s. The relationship between microstructures, electrical property, and thermal stability of Ni silicides is discussed to elucidate the role of Al during the Ni 1−x Al x alloy silicidation. This work demonstrated that thermally stable Ni 1−x Al x alloy silicides would be a promising candidate as source/drain (S/D) contacts in advanced complementary metal–oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices

  10. Atomic structures of a monolayer of AlAs, GaAs, and InAs on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geunjung; Yoon, Younggui

    2010-01-01

    We study atomic structures of a monolayer of AlAs, GaAs, and InAs on a Si(111) substrate from first-principles. The surface with the stacking sequence of ...SiSiMAsSiAs is energetically more stable than the surface with the stacking sequence of ...SiSiSiAsMAs, where M is Al, Ga, or In. The atomic structure of the three top layers of the low-energy surfaces are quite robust, irrespective of M, and the atomic structure of the AlAsSiAs terminated surface and that of the GaAsSiAs terminated surface are very similar. For the high-energy AsMAs terminated surfaces, the broken local tetrahedral symmetry plays an important role in the atomic structures. The calculated atomic structures of InAs on the Si(111) substrate depart most from the structure of crystalline Si.

  11. Experience melting through the Earth's lower mantle via LH-DAC experiments on MgO-SiO2 and CaO-MgO-SiO2 systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Marzena A.; Lord, Oliver T.; Walter, Michael J.; Trønnes, Reidar G.

    2015-04-01

    system CaO-MgO-SiO2 (CMS). The eutectic melting temperatures (Te) were determined by multi-chamber DAC-experiments on near-eutectic compositions [3,9]. Ultra-fine W-powder mixed into the samples absorbed the laser energy. The samples were heated at a rate of 500-1500 K/min by increasing the laser power. More than 75-90% eutectic melt is produced at the the solidus, resulting in rapid aggregation of the W-powder and inefficient laser energy absorption. The resulting plateau in the temperature versus power curve is interpreted as Te. Our preliminary results show an expected positive p-Te correlation, with lower Te for the CMS-system. The dTe/dp slope for the bm-silica eutectic is lower than for the bm-pc eutectic in the MS-system. The experimental results agree with the DFT-studies and thermodynamic models. We have also developed a novel technique for micro-fabrication of metal-encapsulated samples (Re, W, Mo), to investigate more precisely the melting phase relations in the lower mantle pressure range. The metal-covered, 20 μm thick sample disc, placed between thermal insulation layers in the DAC, will be laser-heated at the two flat surfaces, providing low thermal gradients and preventing reaction between the sample and the pressure medium. [1] Lay and Garnero (2007, AGU Monograph); [2] Labrosse et al (2007, Nature); [3] Liebske and Frost (2012, EPSL); [4] Elkins-Tanton (2012, Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci); [5] Hirose et al (1999, Nature); [6] Fiquet et al (2010, Science); [7] Andrault et al (2011, EPSL); [8] Andrault et al (2014, Science); [9] de Koker et al (2013, EPSL); [10] de Koker and Strixrude (2009, Geophys J Int).

  12. Surface reactivity and hydroxyapatite formation on Ca5MgSi3O12 ceramics in simulated body fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Wang, Yaorong; Huang, Yanlin; Cheng, Han; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2017-11-01

    In this work, the new calcium-magnesium-silicate Ca5MgSi3O12 ceramic was made via traditional solid-state reaction. The bioactivities were investigated by immerging the as-made ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different time at body temperature (37 °C). Then the samples were taken to measure X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectra (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) measurements. The bone-like hydroxyapatite nanoparticles formation was observed on the ceramic surfaces after the immersion in SBF solutions. Ca5MgSi3O12 ceramics possess the Young's modulus and the bending strength and of 96.3 ± 1.2 GPa and 98.7 ± 2.3 MPa, respectively. The data suggest that Ca5MgSi3O12 ceramics can quickly induce HA new layers after soaking in SBF. Ca5MgSi3O12 ceramics are potential to be used as biomaterials for bone-tissue repair. The cell adherence and proliferation experiments are conducted confirming the reliability of the ceramics as a potential candidate.

  13. Evaluación de si aplicado al suelo en el crecimiento, absorción y severidad de enfermedades en vivero de palma aceitera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Garbanzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes fuentes de Si en la severidad de enfermedades foliares (CNF en plantas de vivero de palma aceitera (Elaeis guinensis en el Pacífico Sur de Costa Rica. Las fuentes de silicio consistieron en la aplicación de 30 g de SiO2 por bolsa de 20,4 L de 2 fuentes de serpentinas (Simag y SMg, una fuente de diatomitas (SiF, una fuente soluble (SKH y 177 g por bolsa de SiO2 de un feldespato (Llane mezclado en un Inceptisol éutrico. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completos al azar con 6 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. Se evaluó a los 85, 127, 176, 219, 261, y 304 dds el crecimiento de las plantas y % de severidad de CNF. Además, se realizaron análisis químicos de suelos y foliares en el tiempo, se evaluó el peso seco de plantas y se calculó la absorción de nutrimentos. Se encontró que el tratamiento SiF mostró mayor tolerancia a CNF significativamente (a:0,05 en comparación al testigo, mientras que la fuente Simag mostró un mayor crecimiento. El Si presentó mayor absorción en Simag, test, SMg, SiF y fueron significativas diferentes con respecto al SKH y Llane. El SKH en suelo fue el único tratamiento que aumentó los niveles de Si por arriba de los 200 mg.l-1. A los 300 dds, el análisis de componentes principales correlacionó la severidad con las concentraciones de Ca en el suelo y mostró un comportamiento inverso a los contenidos de Zn, K, P, Mn y en el tiempo. Se concluye que el Si en este suelo no presentó un efecto directo sobre el control de CNF, pero la fuente de diatomitas (SiF mostró mayor tolerancia, debido a que la enmienda facilita la absorción de micronutrimentos (Zn al mejorar la nutrición de la planta. Asimismo, se encontró que la fuente SKH logró aumentar las concentraciones de Si en el suelo.

  14. Enhanced apatite-forming ability and antibacterial activity of porous anodic alumina embedded with CaO-SiO2-Ag2O bioactive materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Siyu; Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Pengan; Ni, Shirong; Hong, Feng; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    In this study, to provide porous anodic alumina (PAA) with bioactivity and anti-bacterial properties, sol-gel derived bioactive CaO-SiO2-Ag2O materials were loaded onto and into PAA nano-pores (termed CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA) by a sol-dipping method and subsequent calcination of the gel-glasses. The in vitro apatite-forming ability of the CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA specimens was evaluated by soaking them in simulated body fluid (SBF). The surface microstructure and chemical property before and after soaking in SBF were characterized. Release of ions into the SBF was also measured. In addition, the antibacterial properties of the samples were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The results showed that CaO-SiO2-Ag2O bioactive materials were successfully decorated onto and into PAA nano-pores. In vitro SBF experiments revealed that the CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA specimens dramatically enhanced the apatite-forming ability of PAA in SBF and Ca, Si and Ag ions were released from the samples in a sustained and slow manner. Importantly, E. coli and S. aureus were both killed on the CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA (by 100%) samples compared to PAA controls after 3 days of culture. In summary, this study demonstrated that the CaO-SiO2-Ag2O/PAA samples possess good apatite-forming ability and high antibacterial activity causing it to be a promising bioactive coating candidate for implant materials for orthopedic applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Si/Al2 Ratio on 2-butanol Dehydration over HY Zeolite Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euna; Choi, Hyeonhee; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of butenes through dehydration of 2-butanol was investigated over HY zeolite catalysts. 2-Butanol dehydration reaction was carried out in a fixed bed catalytic reactor. 2-Butanol conversion was increased with increase of Si/Al 2 ratio of HY zeolite catalysts, which can be ascribed to increase of acid strength with increase of Si/Al 2 ratio. Selectivities to 1-butene, trans-2-butene, and cis-2-butene were not greatly influenced by the change of the Si/Al 2 ratio of HY zeolite. As a result, it was advantageous to use a HY zeolite catalyst with 60 Si/Al 2 ratio for maximizing the yield of 1-butene in the dehydration of 2-butanol. The optimal reaction temperature for maximizing the yield of 1-butene was 250 .deg. C over HY (60) catalyst

  16. Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide: A favorable metal-free catalyst for the N2O reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esrafili, Mehdi D.; Sharifi, Fahimeh; Nematollahi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The reduction of N 2 O by CO molecule is investigated over Al- and Si-decorated graphene oxides (Al-/Si-GO). • The N 2 O decomposition process can take place with a negligible activation energy over both surfaces. • Al-GO and Si-GO can be used as an efficient metal-free catalyst for the reduction of N 2 O molecule at ambient conditions. - Abstract: The structural and catalytic properties of Al- or Si-decorated graphene oxide (Al-/Si-GO) are studied by means of density functional theory calculations. The relatively large adsorption energy together with the small Al−O or Si−O binding distances indicate that the epoxy groups over the GO surface can strongly stabilize the single Al or Si atom. Hence, Al-GO and Si-GO are stable enough to be utilized in catalytic reduction of N 2 O by CO molecule. It is found that the adsorption and decomposition of N 2 O molecule over Si-GO is more favorable than over Al-GO, due to its larger adsorption energy (E ads ) and charge transfer (q CT ) values. On the other hand, the CO molecule is physically adsorbed over both surfaces, with relatively small E ads and q CT values. Therefore, at the presence of N 2 O and CO molecules as the reaction gas, the Al or Si atom of the surface should be dominantly covered by N 2 O molecule. Our results indicate that the N 2 O decomposition process can take place with a negligible activation energy over Al-/Si-GO surface, where the N 2 molecule can be easily released from the surface. Then, the activated oxygen atom (O ads ) which remains over the surface reacts with the CO molecule to form the CO 2 molecule via the reaction O ads + CO → CO 2 . Based on the calculated activation energies, it is suggested that both