Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on solar PV [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar zon PV.
Full Text Available Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods and they have been implicated in several animal and human diseases. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures (190°C reduce fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of temperature (200 and 220 °C and time (15 and 20 min on the detoxification of corn flour deliberately contaminated with DON and ZON. After processing at 200°C for 15 min, an average of 12% and after 20 min an average of 15% of DON was lost. At 200°C ZON content was reduced by 22% (after 15 min and by 27% (after 20 min. Higher temperature (220°C did not significantly affect further reduction of DON or ZON content. The process was only partially effective in both cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053
... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Carbiz, Inc., InZon Corporation, IQ Micro, Inc., Irwin Financial Corporation, and Princeton Media Group, Inc.; Order of Suspension... information concerning the securities of IQ Micro, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since...
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Nitrate is one of drinking water pollutant which is introduced to water body from municipal wastewater. Information on nitrate concentration and its distribution in water resource is necessary in safe drinking water supply. For that reason, the present work was done for investigation of nitrate in Karaj water supply resource and its zonning with Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Materials and Methods: In this work, the nitrate concentration in 200 wells of Karaj water supply system was determined with DR5000 spectrophotometet. After that, the measured nitrate concentration was modeled by Geographic Information Systems. Results: The results show in many area of Karaj, nitrate concentration was below the available standard (45 mg/L. Modeling of nitrate concentration shows the nitrate concentration was lower in North and West North west parts of Karaj City and higher concentration was observed in Sothern eastern. However, in that area, nitrate concentration was also below available standard. Conclusion: The overall results from present work well demonstrate that drinking water source of Karaj was safe based on nitrate concentration and no health risk threat consumer health body.
Pistone, Mattia; Müntener, Othmar; Ziberna, Luca; Hetényi, György; Zanetti, Alberto
The Ivrea-Verbano Zone is the most complete, time-integrated crust-upper mantle archive in the world. It is a unique target for assembling data on the deep crust and the Moho transition zone and testing several hypotheses of formation, evolution, and modification of the continental crust through space and time across the Earth. The ICDP workshop Drilling the Ivrea-Verbano zonE (DIVE), held in Baveno, Italy, from 1 to 5 May 2017, focused on the scientific objectives and the technical aspects of drilling and sampling in the Ivrea-Verbano Zone at depth. A total of 47 participants from 9 countries with a wide variety of scientific and/or drilling expertise attended the meeting. Discussion on the proposed targets sharpened the main research lines and led to working groups and the necessary technical details to compile the full drilling proposal. The participants of the workshop concluded that four drilling operations in the Val Sesia and Val d'Ossola crustal sections represent the scientifically most promising solution to achieve the major goals within DIVE to unravel the physico-chemical properties and architecture of the lower continental crust towards the crust-mantle (Moho) transition zone.
Kikuchi, Hirohito; Suzuki, Hideaki; Sugita, Yutaka; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Komatsu, Mitsuru; Nishigaki, Makoto
In geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), unsaturated zone will be developed around the disposal tunnel due to the construction of the tunnel. The development of the unsaturated zone would lead to the intrusion of the air into the surrounding rock and then oxygen would dissolve into ground water. Dissolved air affects the redox potential of the ground water and also oxidizes minerals existed in surrounding rock and changes their sorption capacity. These influences would change the geochemical conditions of the repository and affect the corrosion behavior of the overpack. Therefore, Characterizing Laboratory test on Unsaturated zonE (CLUE) was designed and assembled to understand the development process of the unsaturated zone. The CLUE is designed from the viewpoint of the hydraulic characteristics. CLUE has two test tanks. The test tank A uses glass beads to simulate rock mass, the test tank B uses rock block sample. Fundamental hydraulic data of the glass beads on saturation/unsaturation conditions for numerical analysis was obtained. Tests using the test tank A used the piezometer and frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) to measure the unsaturation behavior. From the results of the test tank A, the unsaturated zone was developed around the tunnel. The piezometer and FDR measured the distribution and the time history of the unsaturated zone well. In stable condition, measurement data was in good agreement with the analytical results. (author)
Tiemann, U; Brüssow, K-P; Dannenberger, D; Jonas, L; Pöhland, R; Jäger, K; Dänicke, S; Hagemann, E
Pregnant sows were fed a control diet (CON, 0.15 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.0035 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg diet) or diet containing 15% of Fusarium toxin contaminated triticale (MYCO, 4.42 mg DON and 0.048 mg ZON per kg diet) during days 35-70 of gestation. All sows were fed in a restricted feeding regimen with the same amount of feed (2000 g/d) over the whole study. At the end of the experiment, fetuses were delivered by Caesarian section and samples of spleen and liver of euthanized sows and fetuses were analyzed. At terminal necropsy, no macroscopic lesion was observed in any organ of either sows or fetuses. The histopathological data indicated significant alteration only in elevated iron staining in the red pulp of spleens in sows of MYCO group after 35 days of feeding. The presence of hemosiderin particles in the spleen sections was confirmed by transmission electron microscopical investigation and by an enhanced Fe2+ concentration in spleen. A glycogen increase (p<0.05) was found in liver cells of fetuses in the experimental group. Together, the results provide evidence of spleen dysfunction (hemosiderosis) in sows fed a Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat, however, with absence of clinical signs. Enhanced glycogen and an impairment of mitochondria in liver of fetuses was present when their mothers consumed the MYCO diet.
AgroSun. Outline of the prospect of solar PV as a structural chance for the agricultural sector [in the Netherlands]. Phase 1. Inventory, cost effectiveness and benchmark; AgroSun. Verkenning van de kansrijkheid van zon PV als structurele kans voor de agrarische sector. Fase 1. Inventarisatie, rentabiliteit en benchmark
Lemmens, P. [Arvalis Projecten, Roermond (Netherlands); Buiter, W. [ZLTO Advies, Den Bosch (Netherlands); Veefkind, W. [Projecten LTO Noord, Zwolle (Netherlands)
An overview is given of the opportunities of solar PV for the agricultural sector. Attention is paid to the technology, the market, technical indicators, economic aspects of solar panels, policy frameworks and subsidies, practical applications, future prospects, and alternative financing. Also conclusions and recommendations are given for the follow-up phase [Dutch] Dit rapport inventariseert de kansen die zon-pv biedt aan de agrarische sector. Achtereenvolgens: de technologie, de markt, technische kengetallen, economische aspecten van zonnepanelen, beleidsmatige kaders en subsidieregelingen, praktijktoepassingen, het toekomstperspectief en alternatieve financiering. Met conclusies en aanbevelingen voor een vervolgfase.
Voor het leven op aarde speelt het aardmagnetisch veld een cruciale rol om ons tegen deze stroom geladen deeltjes te beschermen. In extreme situaties merken we de effecten van ruimteweer zelfs op aarde. Inzicht in het ruimteweer is daarom belangrijk om tijdig te kunnen beoordelen of zonneactiviteit
van Amsterdam JGC; Pennings EJM; Brunt TM; van den Brink W; GBO; vgc
Overmatig gebruik van alcohol, tabak en drugs veroorzaakt op termijn lichamelijke gezondheidsschade. Roken verhoogt het risico op longkanker en overmatig alcoholgebruik is geassocieerd met levercirrose en tumoren in de mondholte, slokdarm en de lever. De medische behandeling daarvan brengt kosten
Peters, S.; Wetzels, R.A.E.
'Strategie is niets meer of minder dan achteraf het genie erin naaien.' Het vernuft van de strategie zit in het 'toeval', een spontaan antwoord op een domme vraag van een slimme klant en krijgt achteraf de juiste betekenis door herkadering van de feiten. Strategiesessies zijn vaak niet meer dan
Full Text Available The conditions for the formation of anomalous surveying errors in the geoactive zones of the earth have been studied. The article shows that as a result of the impact of an artificial geoactive zone as a model of a geoactive zone (natural, natural, space can deform (exhibit nonlinearity, which can lead to significant anomalous errors in mine surveying and geodetic work. A series of experiments has been set up and carried out with a device that allows creating artificial geoactive zones as natural models. During the experiments it was shown that the instrumental and instrumental way in the field at all stages of operation of the mining enterprise may identify and take into account the error in the result of the impact of geo-active zones during surveying and geodetic works. The article shows that it is possible to take into account the anomalous properties of geoactive zones of the earth during surveying and geodetic work at all stages of the mining enterprise, increasing the safety of organization and conducting mining operations. The article concludes that when further studying the effect of the geoactive zone, it is possible to develop a scientifically grounded methodology for identifying and numerically taking errors as a result of the non-electromagnetic nature of radiation, and also that knowledge of the non-electromagnetic nature of radiation is extremely important for organizing and performing surveyor and geodetic works
Haglund Holst, Maximilian; Jorikson, Ludvig
Uppsatsen kommer att behandla den relativt nya marknadsföringsmetoden influencer marketing. Influencer marketing innebär att en person å en näringsidkares vägnar marknadsför en viss produkt på sina sociala medier, till exempel en blogg. Denna metod har på senare tid vuxit och blivit ett framgångsrecept för många näringsidkare då de, med hjälp av influencern, kan nå ut direkt till en önskad målgrupp. I och med att Influencer marketing är en ny marknadsföringsmetod, innebär det att stor oklarhe...
Kurstjens, M.J.H. [W/E Adviseurs, Utrecht (Netherlands)
A study has been carried out to determine the failure and success factors with regard to the use of solar panels in the housing sector. Lessons learned from this evaluation form the basis for targeted communication and development of a guide for corporations. In the spring of 2013, stakeholders in eight representative initiatives in the Netherlands were interviewed. The failure and success factors are translated into recommendations to further develop tools for corporations [Dutch] Er is gezocht naar de faal- en succesfactoren rondom de toepassing van zonnepanelen in de woningbouwsector. Leerpunten uit deze evaluatie vormen de basis voor gerichte communicatie en ontwikkeling van (een) handreiking(en) voor corporaties. In het voorjaar van 2013 zijn betrokkenen bij acht representatieve initiatieven in Nederland geinterviewd. De faal- en succesfactoren zijn omgezet in aanbevelingen voor nader uit te werken hulpmiddelen voor corporaties.
Stam, T.; Diependaal, F.; Van ' t Hull, C.
In the Solar Vision it is explained how the Amsterdam municipality plans to enable its citizens and businesses to realize their own solar energy project. The Solar Vision is prepared based on input from residents, businesses and institutions [Dutch] In de zonvisie staat hoe de gemeente Amsterdam haar burgers en bedrijven in staat wil stellen om hun eigen zonne-energieproject te realiseren. De zonvisie is mede opgesteld op basis van input van bewoners, bedrijven en instellingen.
Tollivabatsooni mõistest ja ülesannetest vastavalt Euroopa Liidu tollikoodeksile. Eestis tegutsevate vabatsoonide (Muuga, Sillamäe, Valga) vastavusse viimisest EL-i vabakaubanduspiirkondade tüüpidega
Rolim, Glauco de Souza [UNESP; Camargo, Marcelo Bento Paes de [UNESP; Lania, Daniel Grosseli; Moraes, Jener Fernando Leite de
O clima pode ser entendido como as condições atmosféricas médias em uma certa região. Ele influencia diretamente a maioria das atividades humanas, em especial a agricultura na qual define o nível de produtividade agrícola, condicionado principalmente pela disponibilidade hídrica regional. Entretanto, os sistemas de classificações climáticas (SCC) são pouco utilizados no âmbito de estudos agrícolas pois, normalmente, considera-se sua escala de atuação muito abrangente. Dessa forma, valores méd...
Scheepers, M.J.J.; De Raad, A. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)
The results of a study on the financing and cost effectiveness of the use of heat pumps and solar boilers in low-energy dwellings are presented. The investigation was carried out under the condition that costs for the occupants are not higher than the cost for the use of a gas-fired condensing boiler.
Lejček, Pavel; Kopeček, Jaromír
Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), s. 116-119 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : crystal growth * floating zone technique * optical heating * iron base alloys Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
Tomak, Yilmaz; Karaismailoglu, T.N.; Dabak, Nevzat; Tilki, Koksal; Tepe, Selcuk
Adhesions which develop following Zone II flexor tendon repair is a problem still awaiting solution. In this experimental study PTFE SM (Polytetrafluoroethylene Surgical Membrane) use for the primary tendon repair and sheath reconstruction is macroscopically, histopathologically and functionally evaluated in rabbit animal models. FDP tendons of the 3rd and 4th fingers of the both forefoot of 30 New Zealand albino rabbits were bisected at Zone II and repaired. With 8 fingers in either group, o...
Václavík, Jan; Lédl, Vít
Roč. 56, č. 9 (2011), s. 237-241 ISSN 0447-6441 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Zonal polishing * polishing instruments * asferic surfaces Subject RIV: JP - Industrial Processing
Mizutani, Kohei; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Mochizuki, Naoki
Zearalenone (ZON) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), and β-zearalanol (β-ZAL)). A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to β-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process. PMID:22069701
Theeboom, T.; Beersma, B.; van Vianen, A.
Coaching is in de afgelopen twee decennia explosief gegroeid als vakgebied. De International Coach Federation schat dat er jaarlijks zo'n twee miljard dollar omgaat in de wereldwijde coachingsindustrie (International Coach Federation, 2012). In Nederland zijn er zo'n 40.000 coaches werkzaam (Schats,
Energetic Bottomup in the Low Countries. Energy transition from the bottom-up. On Happy energetic civilians, Solar and wind cooperatives, New utility companies; Energieke BottomUp in Lage Landen. De Energietransitie van Onderaf. Over Vrolijke energieke burgers, Zon- en windcooperaties, Nieuwe nuts
This essay is an outline of the 'energy transition from the bottom-up'. Leading questions are: (1) what are the actual initiatives; (2) who is involved; (3) how does one work (organization, business models); (4) why are people active in this field; (5) what good is it; (6) what is the aim? The essay is based on public information sources (websites, blogs, publications) and interviews with people involved [Dutch] Dit essay is een verkenning van de 'energietransitie van onderaf'. Leidende vragen zijn: (1) om wat voor initiatieven gaat het nu eigenlijk?; (2) wie zijn daarbij betrokken?; (3) hoe gaat men te werk (organisatie, business modellen)?; (4) waarom is men er op die manier mee bezig?; (5) Zet het zoden aan de dijk?; (6) Waar beweegt het naar toe? Het essay baseert zich op openbare bronnen (websites, blogs, publicaties) en gesprekken met mensen uit het veld.
Adel Ghanem, Ph D
The objective of Phase 1 of this STTR project is to demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (PoC) of the Geo-Rad system that integrates a location-aware SmartTag (made by ZonTrak) and a radiation detector (developed by LLNL). It also includes the ability to transmit the collected radiation data and location information to the ZonTrak server (ZonService). The collected data is further transmitted to a central server at LLNL (the Fusion Server) to be processed in conjunction with overhead imagery to generate location estimates of nuclear proliferation and radiation sources.
The use of wide medians and clear zones that do not require median and roadside barriers is the current design practice for new and : reconstructed rural highway facilities. Constructing or reconstructing roads with fullwidth medians and clear zon...
The use of wide medians and clear zones that do not require median and roadside barriers is the current design practice for new and : reconstructed rural highway facilities. Constructing or reconstructing roads with fullwidth medians and clear zon...
Mortensen, G.K.; Strobel, B.W.; Hansen, H.C.B.
Degradation of two mycotoxins: zearalenone (ZON) produced by species of Fusarium and ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by species of Penicillium were followed in pot experiments using agricultural topsoils from Danish experimental farms: a sandy soil, a sandy clay soil and a gyttja soil with a high...... content of silt. Experiments with unplanted soil and pots planted with barley were included. Soil samples were withdrawn during a period of 225 days and analysed for the content of OTA and ZON. The degradation of both toxins consisted of an initial fast degradation followed by a slower transformation step......, whereas the half-lives for OTA were about 0.2-1 day. The slowest degradation was measured in soil rich in clay. After 225 days, neither OTA nor ZON was detected in any of the soil types. Generally, the degradation of ZON and OTA was faster in planted soil than in unplanted soil, probably due to higher...
Kong, Wei-Jun; Shen, Hong-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Li; Qiu, Feng; Ou-yang, Zhen; Yang, Mei-Hua
Mycotoxins, which may contaminate many foods and medicinal plants, are poisonous to humans. A high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was successfully developed for analysing the contamination levels of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) in 100 widely consumed foods and medicinal plants in China. Samples were extracted with methanol-water (80:20, v/v), and cleaned up by using an immunoaffinity column. The limits of detection of this developed method for ZON and α-ZOL were 4 µg kg(-1) and 2.5 µg kg(-1) , respectively. Recoveries for the samples spiked with three levels (30, 60 and 300 µg kg(-1) for ZON and α-ZOL) ranged from 85.8% to 96.1% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.6-7.1% for ZON, and from 89.9% to 98.7% with RSD of 1.9-9.2% for α-ZOL. Twelve (12%) of these tested samples were contaminated with ZON at levels ranging from 5.3 to 295.8 µg kg(-1). The most contaminated samples were Semen coicis, four of them in a concentration level exceeding 60 µg kg(-1) 'maximum level' (range 68.9-119.6 µg kg(-1)). Positive samples were further confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The results suggest that it is necessary to control ZON contamination in medicinal plants, especially Semen coicis. This is a successful study on the analysis of ZON and α-ZOL in medicinal plants in China by HPLC-FLD. Immunoaffinity clean-up and HPLC-FLD proved to have broad applicability in the field of simultaneously detecting ZON and α-ZOL in foods and medicinal plants and other complicated matrices. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Krenn, P; Berthiller, F; Schweiger, W; Hametner, C; Ludwig, R; Adam, G; Krska, R; Schuhmacher, R
The work at hand describes the production of the zearalenone (ZON) metabolites zearalenone-4-glucoside (ZON-4G), a-zearalenol-4-glucoside (oc-ZOL-4G) and ß-zearalenol-4-glucoside (ß-ZOL-4G). In a first step a genetically modified yeast strain, expressing theArabidopsis thaliana UDP-glu-cosyltransferase UGT73C6, was treated with ZON to produce ZON-4G. The substance was purified by solid phase extraction and subsequent reversed phase preparative HPLC prior to the reduction with sodium borohydride to yield 0C-ZOL-4G and ß-ZOL-4G. The identity and purity of the substances were confirmed by(13)C-and(1)H-NMR as well as by HPLC-UV. In total, 50 mg of ZON were used to produce 5 mg of a-ZOL-4G with a purity of 98%, 6 mg of ß-ZOL-4G with a purity of 99% and 5 mg of ZON-4G with a purity of 99%.
Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZON is a mycotoxin with estrogenic activity, produced by members of Fusarium species, and is found worldwide in a number of cereal crops. It is known to have four active metabolites (a-zearalenol (a-ZOL, b-zearalenol (b-ZOL, a-zearalanol (a-ZAL, and b-zearalanol (b-ZAL. A highly sensitive analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization (LC-ESI-MS/MS has been established and validated in order to analyze ZON and its metabolites in beer and malt samples. The metabolism of ZON in the course of beer fermentation was further characterized using the artificially contaminated wort by this established method. In the fermented sample, 85.9% of ZON was converted to b-ZOL, which has lower estrogenic activity than that of ZON. These findings indicate that the health risk to humans due to ZON in beer is reduced during the fermentation process.
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
The internet has also given birth to the online retail model – an online marketplace like Ama- zon.com, eBay.com etc. ... (value added networks) was the pioneering efforts in the 1980's (Kalakota & Whinston 1997;. Kalakota & Marcia 1999), at ..... stack much like the ISO OSI network stack (figure A2). Each layer forms a piece ...
De aan de SWOV gestelde vraag luidt: welke snelheidslimiet is voor de twee locaties van DSM in Geleen optimaal? De praktijk leert dat het uitsluitend instellen van een snelheidslimiet er niet toe leidt dat weggebruikers zich aan zo'n limiet zullen houden. Daarom dient te worden toegevoegd de vraag
Fischer, R. X.; Baur, W. H.
This document is part of Subvolume F 'Zeolite-Type Crystal Structures and their Chemistry. Framework Type Codes STO to ZON' of Volume 14 'Microporous and other Framework Materials with Zeolite-Type Structures' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'.
Noort, Martijn van
Veel fysische, chemische, biologische en economische fenomenen kunnen gemodelleerd worden door niet-lineaire dynamische systemen die van parameters afhangen. Via zo'n model kun je proberen het kwalitatieve en, indien mogelijk, ook het kwantitative gedrag van dergelijke systemen te begrijpen. Het is
NSK/2) and one pit on the site that did not (NS/NSK) and described then before collecting soil samples from the genetic hori- zons of each pit for analysis of soil properties. Soil organic carbon (OC), microbial respiration, electri- cal conductivity ...
Tiemersma, Enno Willem
De Griekse Alexanderroman, het onderwerp van dit onderzoek is een merkwaardig boek. Er is behalve de bijbel waarschijnlijk geen boek in zoveel talen vertaald en over zo'n groot gebied verspreid als de Alexanderroman. Zowel op de oosterse als de westerse volkeren hebben het leven en de daden van
Boo, de M.; Lenzholzer, S.
Pleinen en straten worden geteisterd door gure windvlagen of je smelt juist weg als de zon flink schijnt. In haar proefschrift legt Sanda Lenzholzer uit dat ontwerpers meer rekening moeten houden met het microklimaat in de stad. Dat houdt ook de aso’s op afstand.
NSK/2) and one pit on the site that did not (NS/NSK) and described then before collecting soil samples from the genetic hori- zons of each pit for analysis of soil properties. Soil organic carbon (OC), microbial respiration, electri- cal conductivity ...
Woerden, Hugo van
Doel van dit onderzoek was, gedetailleerde gegevens te verkrijgen over de structuur en beweging van wolken van waterstofgas in de ruimte tussen de sterren, in een gebied dat - beschouwd in verhouding tot de grootte van het Melkwegstelsel - in de nabijheid van de zon ligt....... Zie: Samenvatting
Voerman, Gerrit; Boersma, J. W.; Huussen, A. H.; van den Broek, J.F.J.; van Keulen, J.
Zo'n tien jaar na de totstandkoming van de Fryske Nasjonale Party (FNP) in Friesland kreeg Groningen ook een politiek-regionale groepering. In 1974 werd de Gronneger Bond (GB) opgericht, die zich zou beijveren voor een federale staatsstructuur en voor meer ruimte voor de Groninger cultuur. Voor deze
Beek, P. van; Beek, C. van
Nederland kent zo'n 4500 bedrijven die op grote schaal met gevaarlijke stoffen werken, de majeure-risicobedrijven. Een van de risicofactoren bij deze bedrijven is explosiegevaar. Het veiligheidsbeleid is in de eerste plaats gericht op bescherming van de eigen werknemers en apparatuur, op de
Timmer, R.D.; Visser, de C.L.M.
In Europa wordt voor non-GMO soja een premie betaald van zo'n 150 euro per ton. Dit geldt voor soja voor de humane voeding zoals sojadrinks en vleesvervangers. Het volume van deze markt is beperkt, maar in Hamburg staat een fabriek die graag Nederlandse soja koopt terwijl inmiddels ook een
inverted through SIS for comparison. We noticed that the new function and SIS compliment each other and ... The process of inverting the MT data sets, usually of inadequate quality and quantity, is beset by the endemic ..... ter α controls the depth to which a conductive hori- zon can be detected as demonstrated for the Cull.
Mierlo, van B.C.
In deze Syscope-special staat 'leren' centraal als een essentieel ingrediënt van een op innovatie gerichte stimulerende omgeving. In het openingsartikel wordt ingegaan op de noodzakelijke randvoorwaarden voor zo'n omgeving en de consequenties die dat heeft voor de wijze waarop stakeholders en
- zons. Thus the evolution of radiation quanta with E ∼ kT is modified by order unity at the horizon, and we resolve the information paradox. Keywords. String theory; black holes. PACS No. 98.62.Js. 1. Introduction. The quantum theory of black ...
drs. Wil Michels; Yara Michels
Eigenlijk is het heel eenvoudig. De meeste mensen maken graag iets bijzonders mee. Ze zijn nieuwsgierig, willen alles weten en weinig missen. En delen dat weer graag met anderen. Gemiddeld heeft iedereen zo'n 150 online en offline contacten aan wie ze een bijzonder verhaal kunnen doorgeven. En
extinct megafauna . The earliest dates for this hori- zon fall between 10,000 to 9,000 B.C. and demonstrate, beyond a doubt, man’s presence in the...and manganese which are left as residues when the solution surfaces and evaporates, megafauna - animals, living or fossil, which are large
Technologische innovatie bepaald het tempo van de verduurzaming van de samenleving. De opgave is om de ontwikkeling van duurzame innovatieve technologie te versnellen en niet-duurzame innovaties op dood spoor te zetten. De kans is namelijk groot dat door maatschappelijke weerstand zo'n investering
Denkend aan het opraken van de fossiele brandstoffen, wordt de noodzaak om naar hernieuwbare alternatieven te kijken alleen maar groter. Zon, wind, water en biomassa zijn al hernieuwbare bronnen die actueel gebruikt worden. Maar voor zonne-, wind- en waterenergie beperkt die discontinue aanwezigheid
Cheng-Ping Wang; Yin-Hsun. Chang
The purpose of this study was to explore how place attachment influences recreation conflict and coping behaviors based on the Transactional Stress/Coping Model. The interference between bikers and walkers in Bali Zon-An Park in Taipei County, Taiwan was investigated in May and June of 2007. A total of 384 valid questionnaires were collected.
Limburg, J.J.H.; Keunen, J.E.E.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.
Aim: To estimate the number of elderly people with visual impairment in The Netherlands, now and in the future. Possibilities for intervention are discussed. Methods and materials: Estimates are based on a recent report on behalf of Foundation InZicht, ZonMw, in which prevalence data from
Tramper, J.; Yang Zhu, Yang
Is moderne biotechnologie zo'n doos van Pandora, zoals de antibiotechnologie bewegingen doen geloven? Dit is de centrale vraag in het boek. Moderne biotechnologie maakt gebruik van de recombinant-DNA technologie om micro-organismen, planten en dieren genetisch te modificeren en zo meer geschikt te
Google vindt in een oogwenk de meest relevante web-bladzijden over een bepaald onderwerp. Omdat het web uit zo'n tien miljard bladzijden bestaat is dit een enorm indrukwekkende prestatie: het lijkt eenvoudiger om een naald in een hooiberg te vinden. De kracht van Google schuilt in de mathematische
Staalduinen, van J.; Maas, van der A.A.
Biopark Terneuzen is een ambitieus plan voor integrale gebiedsontwikkeling, waarin industrie en glastuinbouw centraal staan. De industrie voorziet 160 ha kassen van restwarmte en CO2 wat de milieubelasting vermindert. Het draagvlak voor de plannen is groot en zo'n twintig telers hebben concrete
Jonkman, E.J.; Eijkman, M.A.J.
Professoren waren vroeger - en zijn dat wellicht nog - dol op rijtjes, bijvoorbeeld van symptomen en therapieën, die dan op een tentamen gevraagd konden worden. Dat is niets nieuws onder de zon. Ook de middeleeuwse chirurgen structureerden meestal hun betoog om een rij van oorzaken en een rij van
van der Linden, M.M.; van der Velden, S.
Karl Marx werd 190 jaar geleden geboren en is 125 jaar dood. Zo'n man uit de voorvorige eeuw heeft die ons eigenlijk nog wel iets te zeggen? Zijn zijn denkbeelden niet totaal verouderd? Ik denk persoonlijk dat het antwoord krachtig NEE moet luiden. Marx is niet verouderd, integendeel.
drs. Frans van den Reep
1e alinea column: Heb je ook die ervaring dat je vaak pas achteraf snapt wat je van iemand of van een gebeurtenis geleerd hebt. Zo'n ervaren met 'ongezocht leren' had ik ook met de pianist Wibi Soerjadi halverwege de jaren '90. Hij was toen 'hot', met zijn Bösi en zijn solo-recital in Carnegie Hall.
Full Text Available The total number of potentially toxigenic molds (fungi, total aflatoxins, zearalenone (ZON, and deoxynivalenol (DON, as well as the joint appearance of ZON and DON have been investigated in 67 samples of cattle feed (concentrate (n=21, silage of whole maize plant (n=18, beet pulp (n=4, brewer's malt (n=2, alfalfa and grass (n=1, alfalfa hay (n=12, meadow hay (n=7, pea and oat hay (n=1, and red clover hay (n=1 originating from private farms from 10 districts of the Republic of Serbia. The total number of fungi per 1 g feed ranged from 0 (silage of brewer’s malt to 12 x 104 (concentrate. Eight fungi genus species have been identified: Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillum, Rhizopus and Trichoderma. The presence of ZON (100% was established in all the examined cattle feed samples, while 98.5% samples were contaminated with total aflatoxins and 92.5% samples were DON positive. The joint appearance of ZON and DON was established in 92.5% samples. ZON was present in the highest average concentration in the sample of alfalfa and grass silage (2477.5 μg kg-1 and in the lowest in beet pulp silage samples (64.9 μg kg-1. Total aflatoxins were established in the highest average concentration in the pea and oat hay silage sample (7.9 μg kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in beet pulp silage samples (1.6 μg kg-1. DON was detected in the highest average concentration in concentrate samples (694.2 μg kg-1 and in the lowest average concentration in the red clover hay sample (11.0 μg kg-1, while DON was not detected in brewer's malt silage samples (0.0 μg kg-1. In all the examined cattle feed samples, between moisture content (up to 20% and the concentration of examined mycotoxins, a negative correlation was established (r=-0.26 with total aflatoxins and a positive correlation with ZON (r=0,36 and DON (r=0,60. Furthermore, a positive correlation (r=0.22 was established between ZON and DON concentrations. [Projekat
Urraca, Javier L; Marazuela, María Dolores; Moreno-Bondi, María C
A molecularly imprinted polymer prepared using 1-allylpiperazine (1-ALPP) as the functional monomer, trimethyltrimethacrylate (TRIM) as the crosslinker and the zearalenone (ZON)-mimicking template cyclododecanyl-2,4-dihydroxybenzoate (CDHB) has been applied to the clean-up and preconcentration of this mycotoxin (zearalenone) and a related metabolite, alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL), from cereal and swine feed sample extracts. The extraction of ZON and alpha-ZOL from the food samples was accomplished using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with MeOH/ACN (50:50, v/v) as the extraction solvent, at 50 degrees C and 1500 psi. The extracted samples were cleaned up and preconcentrated through the MIP cartridge and analyzed using HPLC with fluorescence detection (lambda (exc)=271/ lambda (em)=452 nm). The stationary phase was a polar endcapped C18 column, and ACN/MeOH/water 10/55/35 (v/v/v, 15 mM ammonium acetate) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) was used as the mobile phase. The method was applied to the analysis of ZON and alpha-ZOL in wheat, corn, barley, rye, rice and swine feed samples fortified with 50, 100 and 400 ng g(-1) of both mycotoxins, and it gave recoveries of between 85 and 97% (RSD 2.1-6.7%, n=3) and 87-97% (RSD 2.3-5.6%, n=3) for alpha-ZOL and ZON, respectively. The method was validated using a corn reference material for ZON.
Maragou, Niki C; Rosenberg, Erwin; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Koupparis, Michael A
A novel LC-ESI-MS method for the simultaneous determination of four of the most significant estrogenic compounds naturally occurring in beer, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), zearalenone (ZON), alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL) which requires minimal sample preparation was developed using a chemometric approach. Experimental design was applied to assess the effects of the LC-ESI-MS parameters (mobile phase flow rate, drying gas flow, nebuliser pressure and capillary potential) on the obtained signal and to optimize the values in order to provide maximum sensitivity and detectability. The proposed method is simple, consisting only of degassing the beer and diluting with water (1:1, v/v) before injection. Comparison between the two internal standards used, zearalanone (ZAN) and 4,2'-dihydroxychalcone (4,2'-DHC), showed that ZAN performs better as internal standard not only for the mycotoxins but for 8-PN as well, giving lower % RSDs. Under inter-day conditions mean recoveries were 107% for ZON, 87.8% for alpha-ZOL, 72.8% for beta-ZOL, and 77.5% for 8-PN. The corresponding % RSDs ranged between 5.0 and 8.0. The method limits of detection were 1.3, 1.4, 1.0 and 0.8 ng mL(-1) for ZON, alpha-ZOL, beta-ZOL and 8-PN, respectively. The method was applied to 15 beer samples obtained from local supermarkets and the concentration of the phytoestrogen 8-PN in beer ranged between <0.8 and 38.6 ng mL(-1), while neither ZON nor its metabolites, alpha-ZOL and beta-ZOL, were detected.
Client perspective assessment of women?s satisfaction towards labour and delivery care service in public health facilities at Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zone, south Ethiopia
Dewana, Zeritu; Fikadu, Teshale; G/ Mariam, Abebe; Abdulahi, Misra
Background A woman?s satisfaction with labour and delivery care service has a good effect on her health and subsequent utilization of the services. Thus knowledge about women?s satisfaction on labour and delivery care used to enhances the services utilization. The objective of this study was to assess the satisfaction of women?s towards labour and delivery care service and identify factors associated it at public health facilities in Arba Minch town and the surrounding district, Gamo Gofa zon...
KTF MFF UK
with hole's rotation axis. The cases with (a) a = 0.998M and (b) a = M are shown. where. A = Ц2 2ЕЦ + 2 Σ = Ц2 + 2 cos2 ;. (5). Ц are Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. The field lines constructed numerically are shown in figure 2. The figures clearly illustrate how the magnetic field is expelled from the hori- zon when the angular ...
Jonkman, E J; Eijkman, M A J
Professoren waren vroeger – en zijn dat wellicht nog – dol op rijtjes, bijvoorbeeld van symptomen en therapieën, die dan op een tentamen gevraagd konden worden. Dat is niets nieuws onder de zon. Ook de middeleeuwse chirurgen structureerden meestal hun betoog om een rij van oorzaken en een rij van therapeutische mogelijkheden. Zo ook bij de ontbonden, dat wil zeggen de loszittende, tand. In moderne termen lijkt hier de parodontologie aan de orde te komen.
Erbs, Marianne; Hartmann, Niccolo; Bucheli, Thomas D
Immunoaffinity extraction has become increasingly important as a sample preparation and cleanup method in mycotoxin analysis. In this study, the antibody specificities of 3 commercial immunoaffinity columns (IACs) targeting zearalenone (ZON) were compared for alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol, zearalanone, alpha-zearalanol, and beta-zearalanol. The recoveries of ZON and its 5 analogs were determined in triplicate when extracted from 10 mL circumneutral river water samples spiked with 20 ng analyte individually or in a mixture. The analytes were analyzed by means of electrospray ionization liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using deuterated internal standards for quantitation. Recoveries ranged from 69 to 115% for all analytes with relative standard deviations of 1-39%. Cross-reactivities for the analogs were > 80% when applied both individually and in a mixture. No significant competition effects were observed when the compounds were applied as a multianalyte mixture well below the stated IAC capacities. The results obtained here demonstrate that all IACs tested are highly cross-reactive towards the 5 ZON derivatives and may be applied for their simultaneous extraction or cleanup.
Risa, Anita; Krifaton, Csilla; Kukolya, József; Kriszt, Balázs; Cserháti, Mátyás; Táncsics, András
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZON) are dangerous mycotoxins due to their carcinogenicity or oestrogenicity. To alleviate negative effects on humans and animals, successful detoxification tools are needed. The application of microorganisms to biodegrade mycotoxins can be an effective way in food and feed industry enhancing food safety. Several Rhodococcus strains are effective in the degradation of aromatic mycotoxins and their application in mycotoxin biodetoxification processes is a promising field of biotechnology. In this study, we investigated the AFB1 and ZON detoxification ability of 42 type strains of Rhodococcus species. Samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with fluorescence detector for mycotoxin concentration and SOS-chromotest was used for monitoring remaining genotoxicity. Out of the 42 Rhodococcus strains, 18 could eliminate more than 90% of the applied AFB1 and the genotoxicity was ceased by 15 strains in 72 h (R. imtechensis JCM 13270 T , R. erythropolis JCM 3201 T , R. tukisamuensis JCM 11308 T , R. rhodnii JCM 3203 T , R. aerolatus JCM 19485 T , R. enclensis DSM 45688 T , R. lactis DSM 45625 T , R. trifolii DSM 45580 T , R. qingshengii DSM 45222 T , R. artemisiae DSM 45380 T , R. baikonurensis DSM 44587 T , R. globerulus JCM 7472 T , R. kroppenstedtii JCM 13011 T , R. pyridinivorans JCM 10940 T , R. corynebacterioides JCM 3376 T ). In case of ZON, only R. percolatus JCM 10087 T was able to degrade more than 90% of the compound and to reduce the oestrogenicity with 70%.
Bronsema, B. [Afdeling Architectural Engineering en Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)
The Earth, Wind and Fire concept transforms a building into a 'climate machine' which is powered by the natural forces and energy of the sun, wind, the mass of the earth and gravity. This concept consists of a Climate Cascade, a solar chimney and a Ventec roof, which have been tested in physical mock-ups. Simulation models have been validated on the basis of real measurements. This work has resulted in the creation of reliable tools for design practice [Dutch] Het Earth, Wind en Fire-concept voor natuurlijke airconditioning biedt meer zekerheid voor het realiseren van energieneutrale kantoorgebouwen dan mogelijk zou zijn door verbetering van bestaande technieken. Het concept maakt gebruik van de omgevingsenergie van aardmassa, wind en zon. Enerzijds wordt deze energie passief gebruikt voor het realiseren van een natuurlijke airconditioning, waarbij de gewenste luchtstromingen tot stand komen onder invloed van thermisch gedreven drukverschillen. Anderzijds worden zon en wind benut voor actieve energieopwekking, waardoor een gebouw in principe energieneutraal kan worden. Een dergelijk gebouw kan worden beschouwd als 'klimaatmachine', geactiveerd door zwaartekracht, wind en zon.
Zhou, Xiahui; Chen, Xiaocheng; Wu, Xin; Cao, Gang; Zhang, Junjie
In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with amaZon SL high-performance ion trap mass spectrometry was used to analyze the target components in white chrysanthemum flowers of Hangzhou. Twenty-one components were detected and identified in both white chrysanthemum flowers of Hangzhou samples by using target compound analysis. Furthermore, seven new compounds in white chrysanthemum flowers of Hangzhou were found and identified by analyzing the fragment ion behavior in the mass spectra. The established method can be expedient for the global quality investigation of complex components in herbal medicines and food. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Najafi, Farhood
Highlights: ► Amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) was synthesized. ► Isotherm and kinetics data followed Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model, respectively. ► Q 0 of ZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 20, 12 and 15 mg/g, respectively. ► Q 0 of AFZON for AB25, DR23 and DR31 was 1250, 1000 and 1429 mg/g, respectively. ► AFZON was regenerated at pH 12. -- Abstract: In this paper, the surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) by amine functionalization was studied to prepare high capacity adsorbent. Dye removal ability of amine-functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticle (AFZON) and zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZON) was also investigated. The physical characteristics of AFZON were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Acid Blue 25 (AB25), Direct Red 23 (DR23) and Direct Red 31 (DR31) were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters such as dye concentration, adsorbent dosage, pH and salt on dye removal was evaluated. The isotherm and kinetic of dye adsorption were studied. The maximum dye adsorption capacity (Q 0 ) was 20 mg/g AB25, 12 mg/g DR23 and 15 mg/g DR31 for ZON and 1250 mg/g AB25, 1000 mg/g DR23 and 1429 mg/g DR31 for AFZON. It was found that dye adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm. Adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. Dye desorption tests (adsorbent regeneration) showed that the maximum dye release of 90% AB25, 86% for DR23 and 90% for DR31 were achieved in aqueous solution at pH 12. Based on the data of the present investigation, it can be concluded that the AFZON being an adsorbent with high dye adsorption capacity might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.
and a subjacent B horizon. The argillic horizon grades into a siltier unit by 4.0m. In the deepest hole of 5.8m, sand ani granules were observed but...particularly since no presettlement surface hori- zon was recognized. There was no evidence of a p)rosettlmont subsurface argillic horizon at the...appeared to be charcoal was recovered at 20cm. Beneath 24cm and extending to 35cm an argillic horizon is found with clay skins seen along ped faces and down
Naqvi, S.W.A; Narvekar, P.V.; Desa, E.
, and close to Sow- tra Island-both PP (c1 g C m2 dl) and chl n (<0.6 mg m 3, were below expecta- tions due to a combination of factors such as the short residence time of upwelled water over the shelf, deep mixed layers caused by wind-induced turbulence...) in the northeastern Bay of Bcngal (Wyrtki, 1971). S. WAJ~H A. NAQVI, PRADIP V. NAHVEKAR AND EE~RLICH DESA 725 ZON 15N Figure 19.1 Major features of surface circulation in the North Indian Ocean (after Schott and McCreary, 2001) during (a) Northeast Monsoon...
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Farid Wajdi Ibrahim
Full Text Available Abstract: The interpretation of ushuluddin is how the human relationship with God and man to man to avoidinequality, the human beings should be able to put himself as aservant of God ('abd are always subjecting themselve stoper form the ritualworship. However, as a zon human politicon the human being should also capable in understanding social phenomena that occurinthe community, andprovide the solutions to the problems that occurin the community in the real life, as well ashow to create the social conditions to be prosperous society that is blessed by the Almighty.
Yamauti, Micheli Satomi [UNESP
The alterations due presence of sugarcane straw on soil can affect the specific weed composition. The straw can, besides other consequences, promote allelopathic effects on crops and weeds. The aim of this research was to study the straw effect on weed community and test the hydroxamic acids present on sugarcane leaves on weed germination and growth. First essay it were carried out assesments from weed community to obtain specific cover, with 241 data from sugar mil at Ribeirão Preto city zon...
Abstract Thirty commercially available yeast cell wall products and two reference bentonites were tested for their ability to bind aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZON) in buffer solutions at pH 3 and pH 6.5 as well as in real gastric juice. For most products, the binding efficacy of AFB1 correlated with the ash content which was between 2.6 and 89% and constituted the inorganic non-volatile components, like mineral clays, of the samples. Samples with smectite as main ash compo...
Belhassen, H; Jiménez-Díaz, I; Ghali, R; Ghorbel, H; Molina-Molina, J M; Olea, N; Hedili, A
Humans can be exposed to mycotoxins through the diet. Evaluation of exposure levels to mycotoxins can be performed by direct determination in urine. The present work proposes a sensitive ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of zearalenone (ZON) and its five metabolites (α-zearalenol [α-ZOL], β-zearalenol [β-ZOL], α-zearalanol [zeranol, α-ZAL], β-zearalanol [teranol, β-ZAL] and zearalanone [ZAN]) in human urine samples. The method involves the enzymatic hydrolysis of the samples, extraction of the analytes using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with ethyl acetate/formic acid (99:1 v/v) and a cleanup step using hexane, prior to their quantification by UHPLC-MS/MS, using an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in the negative mode. Zearalenone-d6 (ZON-d6) was used as surrogate. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.03 to 0.3ngmL(-1) and from 0.1 to 1.0ngmL(-1), respectively. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and a spike recovery assay. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 96% to 104%, with relative standard deviations lower than 8.5%. This method was satisfactorily applied to 42 urine samples from Tunisian women for the determination of zearalenone and its five metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zöllner, P; Berner, D; Jodlbauer, J; Lindner, W
A fast, robust and sensitive LC-MS-MS method for the determination of zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolites alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL) in beer samples is described. Sample preparation was performed by direct RP-18 solid-phase extraction of undiluted beer samples followed by selective determination of analytes by LC-MS-MS applying an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface. Using the negative ion mode limits of determination of 0.03-0.06 microg l(-1) beer and limits of quantification of 0.07-0.15 microg l(-1) beer were achieved, which was distinctly more sensitive than in the positive ion mode. Twenty-three beer samples from different countries, produced from different grains and under different brewing conditions, were investigated by this method, but only in one sample could beta-ZOL and ZON be detected. Independently of the type of beer, relative standard deviations between 2.1% and 3.3%, a linear working range of 0.15 microg l(-1) to 500 microg l(-1) beer and recovery rates around 100% could be achieved when zearalanone (ZAN) was used as internal standard.
Jettanajit, Adisorn; Nhujak, Thumnoon
QuEChERS sample preparation was optimized and validated using solvent extraction with 10% (v/v) acetic acid-containing acetonitrile in the presence of four salts (anh. MgSO4, NaCl, sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate and sodium citrate dibasic sesquihydrate) and dispersive solid-phase extraction with mixed sorbents (octadecylsilane, primary and secondary amine and silica sorbents) for an ultra high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric determination of nine mycotoxins in brown rice: aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A and zearalenone (ZON). Our developed method allows for the determination of trace levels of mycotoxins with method detection limits in the range of 1.4–25 µg/kg, below the maximum limits of EU regulations, and with an acceptable accuracy and precision, and recoveries in the range of 81–101% with relative standard deviations of 5–19% over a mycotoxin concentration range of 5.0–1,000 µg/kg. Six out of fourteen real samples of brown rice were found to be contaminated with at least one of these mycotoxins, ranging from 2.49–5.41 µg/kg of FB1, 4.33 ± 0.04 µg/kg of FB2 and 6.10–14.88 µg/kg of ZON. PMID:26796964
Czembor, Elżbieta; Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka
Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950–2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures. PMID:26225823
Rasmussen, Peter Have; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani; Berg, T.
wheat, durum wheat and rye. The samples were collected from 1998 to 2001 from both mills and the retail market in Denmark. A total of 190. our samples were analysed for DON and NIV and about 60 samples for HT-2, T-2 toxin and ZON. DON was most frequently detected with an incidence rate of 78% over all......, and DON was found in all samples, with mean concentrations in wheat and rye. our of 191 mug kg(-1) (n = 14) and 99 mug kg(-1) (n = 16), respectively. Comparison of data from each harvest year showed higher contents of DON in samples of wheat (range 20-527 mug kg(-1)) than in rye (20-257 mug kg(-1......)). Contents of NIV, HT-2 toxin and ZON in samples of wheat and rye were generally low, and even in positive samples the contents were close to the detection limit of the methods. The T-2 toxin was detected in only a few of the wheat samples and in low amounts. However, the toxin was found in about 50...
Kumarasinghe, Gayathri; Gao, Ling; Hicks, Mark; Villanueva, Jeanette; Doyle, Aoife; Rao, Padmashree; Ru Qiu, Min; Jabbour, Andrew; Iyer, Arjun; Chew, Hong Chee; Hayward, Christopher S; Macdonald, Peter
Hearts from older donors are increasingly being referred for transplantation. However, these hearts are more susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), reflected in higher rates of primary graft dysfunction. We assessed a strategy of pharmacologic conditioning, supplementing Celsior (Genzyme, Naarden, The Netherlands) preservation solution with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; Hospira Australia Pty, Ltd, Mulgrave, VIC, Australia), erythropoietin (EPO; Eprex; Janssen-Cilag, North Ryde, NSW, Australia), and zoniporide (ZON; Pfizer, Inc., Groton, CT), to protect older hearts against IRI and improve graft function. Wistar rats, aged 3, 12, and 18 months old, were used to represent adolescent, 30-year-old, and 45-year-old human donors, respectively. Animals were subjected to brain death (BD) and hearts stored for 6 hours at 2° to 3°C in Celsior or Celsior supplemented with GTN+EPO+ZON. Cardiac function and lactate dehydrogenase before and after storage were assessed during ex vivo perfusion. Western blots and histopathology were also analyzed. After BD, 18-month hearts demonstrated impaired aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output compared with 3-month hearts (p < 0.001 to p < 0.0001). After storage in Celsior, the recovery of aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output in 18-month BD hearts was further impaired (p < 0.01 vs 3-month hearts). Percentage functional recovery of 18-month BD hearts stored in Celsior supplemented with GTN+EPO+ZON was equivalent to that of 3-month hearts and significantly improved compared with 18-month hearts stored in Celsior alone (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001), with reduced lactate dehydrogenase release (p < 0.01) and myocardial edema (p < 0.05) and elevated phosphorylated extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (p < 0.05) and phosphorylated Akt (p < 0.01). Older hearts are more susceptible to IRI induced by BD and prolonged hypothermic storage. Supplemented Celsior activates cell survival signaling in older hearts, reduces IRI, and
Les profils de variation chimique obtenus par traversée à la microsonde électronique sur des sections de grenat zonées laissent apparaître une superposition d'une zonation chimique Fe3+/Al et/ou Fe2++Ti4+/Al à une zonation optique de biréfringence en lamelles. La substitution du Fe3+ par Al et/ou du Al par le couple (Fe2++Ti4+ dans le site octaédrique du grenat en fin de processus métasomatique, semble être à l'origine d'un désordre dans la structure cristalline du grenat qui se traduit par une anomalie optique.
Kuzey Anadolu Fay Zonu (KAFZ) yerkabuğunun en önemli aktif faylanma bölgelerinden olup tarihsel ve aletsel dönemde büyük depremler üretmiş doğrultu atımlı fay zonudur. Anadolu levhasının oluşumunu ve levhanın B-GB’ya hareketini sağlayan kabuksal ölçekteki bu zon çok sayıda segmentlerden oluşur. 1944 ve 1943 deprem segmentleri KAFZ içerisinde yüzlerce km yanal uzanımlı ve çok sayıda faylardan oluşur. Deprem segmentlerini oluşturan faylar saç örgüsü geometrisinde olup bir kısm...
Zondag, H.A.; Van Helden, W.G.J.; Bakker, M. [ECN Energie Gebouwde Omgeving en Netten, Petten (Netherlands)
In PVT technology, heat is extracted from PV cells. In this way, a device is made that produces both electricity and heat. In the EU funded coordination action PV-Catapult, workshops on PVT were organised at the PVSEC 2004 Conference in Paris and the Eurosun 2004 conference in Freiburg, to obtain active participation of the PV and solar thermal communities. Currently, the results of the workshops are used in the drafting of a roadmap for the large scale introduction of PVT technology on the market. First results will be presented here. [Dutch] Zonnepanelen (oftewel pv-panelen) produceren elektriciteit uit zonlicht. In de volle zon kan de temperatuur van zonnepanelen flink oplopen. Gewone zonnepanelen maken van deze warmte geen gebruik, maar in PVT-modules (pv-thermische modules) wordt deze warmte benut voor de productie van warm water of warme lucht. Het resultaat is een apparaat dat zowel warmte als stroom produceert uit zonlicht.
Bronsema, B. [Afdeling Architectural Engineering en Technology, Faculteit Bouwkunde, Technische Universiteit Delft TUD, Delft (Netherlands)
The Earth, Wind and Fire concept transforms a building into a 'climate machine' which is powered by the natural forces and energy of the sun, wind, the mass of the earth and gravity. This second part provides a brief overview of the research. The full results are included in the thesis of the author [Dutch] Het Earth, Wind en Fire-concept voor natuurlijke airconditioning biedt meer zekerheid voor het realiseren van energieneutrale kantoorgebouwen dan mogelijk zou zijn door verbetering van bestaande technieken. Het concept maakt gebruik van de omgevingsenergie van aardmassa, wind en zon. In deel 1 worden de onderzoeksdoelen en -methoden van dit concept besproken. Dit deel 2 geeft een kort overzicht van de onderzoeksresultaten. De volledige resultaten van de basale en gedetailleerde modellen, de simulaties, de metingen in de fysieke modellen en het validatieproces zijn opgenomen in het proefschrift van de auteur.
Shilon, I.; Langeslag, S.A.E.; Martins, L.P.; ten Kate, H.H.J.
The stability of high-current superconductors is challenging in the design of superconducting magnets. When the stability requirements are fulfilled, the protection against a quench must still be considered. A main factor in the design of quench protection systems is the resistance growth rate in the magnet following a quench. The usual method for determining the resistance growth in impregnated coils is to calculate the longitudinal velocity with which the normal zone propagates in the conductor along the coil windings. Here, we present a 2D numerical model for predicting the normal zone propagation velocity in Al stabilized Rutherford NbTi cables with large cross section. By solving two coupled differential equations under adiabatic conditions, the model takes into account the thermal diffusion and the current redistribution process following a quench. Both the temperature and magnetic field dependencies of the superconductor and the metal cladding materials properties are included. Unlike common normal zon...
Kuhnem, Paulo R; Del Ponte, Emerson M; Dong, Yanhong; Bergstrom, Gary C
This study aimed to assess whether pathogenic Fusarium graminearum isolates from wheat and maize were more aggressive on their host of origin and whether aggressiveness was influenced further by B-trichothecene chemotype. Fifteen isolates were selected from a contemporary collection of isolates surveyed in New York in 2011 to 2012 to represent diversity of host of origin and chemotype. Three pathogenicity assays were used to evaluate and compare these isolates. Fusarium head blight (FHB) severity and trichothecene production in wheat, and maize seedling blight were evaluated in greenhouse inoculation experiments, and Gibberella ear rot (GER) severity and trichothecene production were evaluated in maize ears inoculated in the field. Our results showed among F. graminearum isolates a wide variation in aggressiveness and mycotoxin production toward wheat and maize and these isolates could not be structured by their host of origin or by chemotype. Moreover, aggressiveness rank order changed according to the host/organ evaluated. This indicates that relative susceptibility at the seedling stage may not predict susceptibility of ears. Significant correlations were observed of total trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol [DON] and its acetylated derivatives) produced with FHB and GER severity on wheat and maize, respectively. One isolate did not produce DON or ADON in wheat or maize kernels, yet was aggressive on both hosts. Nine of the fifteen isolates produced small amounts of zearalenone (ZON) in maize kernels, but not in wheat kernels, and ZON level was not correlated with GER severity. F. graminearum isolates from New York showed wide variation in aggressiveness and mycotoxin production toward susceptible wheat and maize. Neither host of origin nor trichothecene chemotype appeared to structure the populations we sampled.
Frin, Anne-Claire; Filippi, Jérôme; Boschetti, Gilles; Flourie, Bernard; Drai, Jocelyne; Ferrari, Patricia; Hebuterne, Xavier; Nancey, Stéphane
Fecal markers might predict the response to anti-TNFα in ulcerative colitis (UC). To compare the performance of fecal calprotectin (fCal), lactoferrin (fLact), M2-PK (fM2-PK), neopterin (fNeo), and zonulin (fZon) to predict the response to therapy in active UC patients. Disease activity from 31 consecutive patients with an active UC, treated with infliximab (IFX) was assessed by the Mayo score at baseline and at week 14 and by the partial Mayo score at W52 and stool samples collected for fecal marker measurements at W0, W2, and W14. At W14, 19 patients (61%) were responders to IFX induction. The median levels of fCal, fLact and fM2-PK drop dramatically from baseline to W14 in clinical responders. At W2, fM2-PK, fLact and fCal levels predicted accurately the response to IFX induction. At W14, fLact, fCal, and fM2-PK were individually reliable markers to predict sustained response at W52. The performances of fNeo and fZon were weaker in this setting. The performance of fM2-PK at W2 to predict response to induction therapy with IFX was superior to that of fLact and fCal, whereas monitoring fLact was the best tool to predict adequately the course of the disease at one year under maintenance IFX in UC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Goyarts, Tanja; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Valenta, Hana; Tiemann, Ute; Jäger, Kathrin; Dänicke, Sven
Six pregnant sows of 180.6 ± 5.6 kg were fed either a Fusarium-contaminated (4.42 mg DON and 48.3 µg ZON per kg, DON per os, n = 3) or a control diet (0.15 mg DON and 5 µg ZON/kg) in the period of days 63 and 70 of gestation. On day 63 of gestation, sows fed the control diet were implanted with an intraperitoneal osmotic minipump (delivery rate of 10 µL/h, for 7 days) containing 50 mg pure (98%) DON in 2 ml 50% DMSO (DON ip, n = 3). Frequent plasma samples were taken to estimate the kinetics after oral and ip DON exposure. The intended continuous delivery of DON by the intraperitoneal minipump could not be shown, as there was a plasma peak (Cmax) of 4.2-6.4 ng DON/mL either immediately (sow IP-2+3) or 2.5 h (sow IP-1) after implantation of the pump followed by a one-exponential decline with a mean half-time (t1/2) of 1.75-4.0 h and only negligible DON plasma concentrations after 12 h. Therefore, the DON ip exposure has to be regarded as one single dose 1 week before termination of experiment. The DON per os sows showed a mean basis level (after achieving a steady state) of DON plasma concentration of about 6-8 ng/mL, as also indicated by the plasma DON concentration at the termination of the experiment. On day 70, caesarean section was carried out, the fetuses were killed immediately after birth, and samples of plasma, urine, and bile were taken to analyze the concentration of DON and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON. At necropsy there were no macroscopic lesions observed in any organ of either sows or piglets. Histopathological evaluation of sows liver and spleen revealed no alterations. The proliferation rate of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with or without stimulation was not affected by the kind of DON treatment. The exposure of pregnant sows at mid-gestation (days 63-70, period of organogenesis) to a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (4.42 mg DON and 0.048 mg ZON per kg) or pure DON via intraperitoneal osmotic minipump
C. M. BLÁZQUEZ
Full Text Available Los cántabros y los astures fueron los últimos pueblos hispanos sometidos por Roma. La guerra de conquista terminó en el año 19. a.C. y fue llevada con gran ferocidad por ambas partes. Concretamente los territorios que se incorporaron al Imperio Romano fueron los de los cántabros y de los astures, algo más extensos que las actuales provincias de Astuturias y Santander. El ángulo NO., Galicia, había sido ya conquistado por la acción de César en el 61. a.C. (Dio Cass. 37, 52-53. Plut. Caes. 12, Zon. 10, 6. Gran parte del territorio vascón lo había sido ya antes durante la guerra sertoriana y de él hizo Pompeyo la base de sus operaciones (Plut. Sert. 21, fundando la ciudad de Pamplona, a la que el general romano dio su nombre.
Р. А. Уразалієв
Full Text Available As a result of the lead long-term selection works wint involving a World' s collection and intertype and intertype hybridization with purposeful selection on economic-biological attributes highly productive • grades of a winter wheat, with stability to various kinds of illnesses and high technological qualities of grain have been allocated. The adapted grades of a winter wheat for a various environment of various zones of the countries of the Central Asia that allows to realize potential opportunities of grades in different environments of cultivation and by that to prevent losses of a crop from biotic and abiotic stresses that allows to stabilize productivity and adaptability of culture in a zon winter husbandry are created. The long-term field experiences lead by us and laboratory analyses on a level of productivity, qualities of grain and stability to stresses allows to conclude, that alongside with a genotype, stabilityenvironmental conditions render strong and significant influence on all complex of selection attributes.
Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on Smart Grids [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar Smart Grids.
Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on offshore wind energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar wind op zee.
Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on energy conservation in the industry [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar energiebesparing in de industrie.
Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on gas [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar gas.
Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on energy conservation in the built environment [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving.
Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.
Van Wijk, A.J.M.
According to the author, there is no energy crisis; nor is there an energy shortage. Three observations illustrate this proposition: (1) We are wasting about 98% of our energy; (2) In one hour, the earth receives more energy from the sun than we consume worldwide in one year; and (3) sustainable energy is all around us. Next, the observations are elaborated and a plan is launched to set up a Green Campus: a living lab, an inspiring place where businesses and university can meet and a place where everyone can get an impression of the energy systems of the future. This way the author is hoping to take a next, important step in the realization of his dream, which is a sustainable energy system for all [Dutch] De auteur stelt dat er geen energiecrisis, geen energietekort is. Drie observaties illustreren deze stelling: (1) We verspillen ruwweg 98% van onze energie; (2) In een uur ontvangt de aarde meer energie van de zon, dan we wereldwijd in een jaar verbruiken; en (3) Duurzame energie is overal rond om ons heen. Vervolgens worden de observaties toegelicht en een plan gelanceerd om een Green Campus op te zetten: een living lab, een inspirerende plek waar bedrijven en universiteit elkaar ontmoeten en een plek waar een ieder een beeld kan krijgen op de energiesystemen van de toekomst. Daarmee hoopt de auteur een volgende en belangrijke stap te zetten in de realisatie van zijn droom, een duurzame energievoorziening voor iedereen.
van Asselt, Thea; Ramaekers, Bram; Corro Ramos, Isaac; Joore, Manuela; Al, Maiwenn; Lesman-Leegte, Ivonne; Postma, Maarten; Vemer, Pepijn; Feenstra, Talitha
The costs of performing research are an important input in value of information (VOI) analyses but are difficult to assess. The aim of this study was to investigate the costs of research, serving two purposes: (1) estimating research costs for use in VOI analyses; and (2) developing a costing tool to support reviewers of grant proposals in assessing whether the proposed budget is realistic. For granted study proposals from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw), type of study, potential cost drivers, proposed budget, and general characteristics were extracted. Regression analysis was conducted in an attempt to generate a 'predicted budget' for certain combinations of cost drivers, for implementation in the costing tool. Of 133 drug-related research grant proposals, 74 were included for complete data extraction. Because an association between cost drivers and budgets was not confirmed, we could not generate a predicted budget based on regression analysis, but only historic reference budgets given certain study characteristics. The costing tool was designed accordingly, i.e. with given selection criteria the tool returns the range of budgets in comparable studies. This range can be used in VOI analysis to estimate whether the expected net benefit of sampling will be positive to decide upon the net value of future research. The absence of association between study characteristics and budgets may indicate inconsistencies in the budgeting or granting process. Nonetheless, the tool generates useful information on historical budgets, and the option to formally relate VOI to budgets. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt at creating such a tool, which can be complemented with new studies being granted, enlarging the underlying database and keeping estimates up to date.
Asscher, Jessica J; Dijkstra, Sharon; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Deković, Maja; Creemers, Hanneke E
The model of Family group-conferencing (FG-c) for decision making in child welfare has rapidly spread over the world during the past decades. Its popularity is likely to be caused by its philosophy, emphasizing participation and autonomy of families, rather than based on positive research outcomes. Conclusive evidence regarding the (cost) effectiveness of FG-c is not yet available. The aim of this protocol is to describe the design of a study to evaluate the (cost) effectiveness of FG-c as compared to Treatment as Usual. The effectiveness of FG-c will be examined by means of a Randomized Controlled Trial. A multi-informant approach will be used to assess child safety as the primary outcome, and commitment of the social network, perceived control/ empowerment; family functioning and use of professional care as secondary outcomes. Implementation of FG-c, characteristics of family manager and family will be examined as moderators of effectiveness. Studying the effectiveness of Fg-c is crucial now the method is being implemented all over the world as a decision making model in child and youth care. Policy makers should be informed whether the ideals of participation in society and the right for self-determination indeed result in more effective care plans, and the money spent on FG-c is warranted. Dutch Trial Register number NTR4320. The design of this study is approved by the independent Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences of The University of Amsterdam (approval number: 2013-POWL-3308). This study is financially supported by a grant from ZonMw, The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, grant number: 70-72900-98-13158.
Ali Bakhsh Kasaeian
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this paper, the effects of adding nanoparticles (including Ag to a fluid media for improving free convection heat transfer were analysed. The free convective heat transfer was assumed to be in laminar flow regime, and the corresponding calculations and solutions were all done by the integral method. Water, as a Newtonian fluid, was considered as the base and all relevant thermo physical properties of the nanofluids were considered to be unvarying. The calculations performed and the graphs generated showed that, in general, the addition of nanoparticles to the fluid media resulted in an increment or improvement of its heat transfer coefficient. With increase in the concentration of the nanoparticles, the heat transfer rate of the fluid also increased. The increment in heat transfer is also dependent on the nanoparticles’ thermal conductivity and the viscosity theory which was utilized in the calculations. In this study, four different theories were used to calculate the viscosities of the nanofluids. The effects of viscosity on the nanofluids’ thermal conductivity were apparent from the calculations which were performed for nanoparticle concentrations of 4% or less. ABSTRAK: Kajian ini menganalisis kesan penambahan nanopartikel Ag ke dalam media bendalir bagi tujuan pembaikkan pemindahan haba perolakan bebas. Perolakan bebas diandaikan berada di zon aliran laminar, di mana penyelesaian dan pengiraan telah dilakukan mengunakan kaedah kamilan. Air yang merupakan cecair Newtonian, dianggap sebagai asas dan sifat terma fizikal nanocecair dianggapkan tidak berubah. Mengikut pengiraan yang dilakukan dan graf yang diplotkan, umumnya penambahan nanopartikel kepada media bendalir menyebabkan peningkatan dan pengembangan pekali pemindahan haba. Kadar pemindahan haba meningkat dengan nanopartikel. Peningkatan pemindahan haba juga bergantung kepada pengalir haba nanopartikel dan teori kelikatan yang digunakan. Di dalam kajian ini, empat
Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; Lar, D N; Steyerberg, E W; Broekmans, F J; Hompes, P; Mol, B W J; Steures, P; Bossuyt, P M M; van der Veen, F; van der Steeg, J W; Eijkemans, M J C
Are there differences between clinics in the chances of natural conception of couples? We found significant differences between clinics in the couples' natural conception chances, which could not be explained by differences in characteristics of the patients or the clinics. In pooled data from multiple centers the synthesis prediction model for natural conception was found to be valid, yet the outcome of interest (i.e. natural conception) might differ between centers. Possible differences between clinics in natural conception rates, as well as the validity of the prediction model in each individual clinic are addressed in this paper. A secondary data-analysis of a prospective cohort study among 3020 subfertile couples recruited in 38 clinics in the Netherlands between January 2002 and December 2004. Clinics with less than 20 couples were excluded from the analyses, resulting in 21 clinics with 2916 couples. Inclusion of 2916 subfertile couples who underwent a basic fertility work-up. Couples were excluded who had a fertility disorder (one or two-sided tubal pathology, ovulation disorder, total motile sperm count conception unit (ACU), non-university hospitals with an ACU and non-university hospitals without an ACU). Hazard ratios were also ascertained with empirical Bayes (EB) estimates. Validation of the prediction model per clinic was performed through calibration. We found significant differences between clinics in the chance of ongoing pregnancy (P conception is useful overall in clinical practice but in a minority of clinics the model is not well calibrated. Updating the synthesis model to include a center-specific baseline chance might improve the synthesis model for certain clinics. The study (on which this secondary data-analysis was based) was supported by grant 945/12/002 from ZonMW, the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, The Hague, the Netherlands.
Full Text Available Marek Bužga,1 Petra Maresova,2 Adela Seidlerová,1 Pavel Zonča,1 Pavol Holéczy,1 Kamil Kuča2,3 1Research Obesity Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ostrava, Ostrava, Czech Republic; 2Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic; 3Biomedical Research Center, University Hospital Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Abstract: The constantly growing incidence of obesity represents a risk of health complications for individuals, and is a growing economic burden for health care systems and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of bariatric surgery, specifically laparoscopic greater curve plication, laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of bariatric surgery on the changes in blood pressure before, and 12 months after, surgery and in pharmacotherapy in the 12 months after surgery was analyzed. For achieving this purpose, 74 patients from the Obesity and Surgery Department of Vitkovice Hospital in Ostrava in the Czech Republic, were monitored. They were operated in 2011 and 2012. The Bonferroni method was used to test hypotheses about the impact of surgery on blood pressure and pharmacotherapy. One year after the surgery, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values decreased, both with no statistically significant difference between surgery types. Improvement was observed in 68% of cases, with 25% of patients discontinuing pharmacotherapy entirely. Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, bariatric surgery, blood pressure, pharmacotherapy
Full Text Available Objective: Despite numerous advances in our understanding of the anatomy, Biomechanics, nutrition and Healing, the result Following Fiewor Tendon repair Shiow relatively high rate of failure the purpost of this study was to compare the result of 50 digits treated by either ‘‘Early active mobilization’’ or ‘‘controlled passive mobilization’’ re gimen in Ivan hand rehabilitation center. Materials & Mathods: Pationt being matched for gende, age, injuries hand, technique of srgery (all with eqitenon first, four strand in two groups. They were assessed 8 week postoperatibg in respect of total active motion, flexion gap and extension lags. Outcome were defined using ‘‘Strickland’’ and ‘’ Buck – Gramko’’ criteria. Results: The result were 80% excellent and good, 20% fair and no poor in early active motion group and in second group 40% excellent and good, 44% fair and 16% poor due to Strickland criteria. In buck-grancko criteria 52% extension and good, 32% fair and 16% were poor. Mean of total active motion was significantly greater in early active motion group (in E.A.M.150/2, in passive group: 116/41. Conclusion: Actively mobilized tendon underwent intrinsic healing without large gap formation. Active motion generated bith tension and motion and offer several advantage over passive motion: improved tendon nutrition, less adhission, higher rate of healing, increased ultimate rang of motion. So early active motion is the best protocle for treating tendons in zons 2 our result is comparable with theory.
Vervoort, A J M W; Van der Voet, L F; Witmer, M; Thurkow, A L; Radder, C M; van Kesteren, P J M; Quartero, H W P; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Bongers, M Y; Geomini, P M A J; de Vleeschouwer, L H M; van Hooff, M H A; van Vliet, H A A M; Veersema, S; Renes, W B; van Meurs, H S; Bosmans, J; Oude Rengerink, K; Brölmann, H A M; Mol, B W J; Huirne, J A F
A caesarean section (CS) can cause a defect or disruption of the myometrium at the site of the uterine scar, called a niche. In recent years, an association between a niche and postmenstrual spotting after a CS has been demonstrated. Hysteroscopic resection of these niches is thought to reduce spotting and menstrual pain. However, there are no randomised trials assessing the effectiveness of a hysteroscopic niche resection. We planned a multicentre randomised trial comparing hysteroscopic niche resection to no intervention. We study women with postmenstrual spotting after a CS and a niche with a residual myometrium of at least 3 mm during sonohysterography. After informed consent is obtained, eligible women will be randomly allocated to hysteroscopic resection of the niche or expectant management for 6 months. The primary outcome is the number of days with postmenstrual spotting during one menstrual cycle 6 months after randomisation. Secondary outcomes are menstrual characteristics, menstruation related pain and experienced discomfort due to spotting or menstrual pain, quality of life, patient satisfaction, sexual function, urological symptoms, medical consultations, medication use, complications, lost productivity and medical costs. Measurements will be performed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after randomisation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed from a societal perspective at 6 months after randomisation. This trial will provide insight in the (cost)effectiveness of hysteroscopic resection of a niche versus expectant management in women who have postmenstrual spotting and a niche with sufficient residual myometrium to perform a hysteroscopic niche resection. Dutch Trial Register NTR3269 . Registered 1 February 2012. ZonMw Grant number 80-82305-97-12030.
Euverink, G.J.; Van Gemert, W.J.T.; Groeneveld, M.J.W.; Stokman, F.N.; Visser, C.
The authors suggest to give the Dutch province Groningen a pioneering role in the energy transition, in which aboveground biogas production must be stimulated, and thus natural gas reserves can be left untouched. For that, the produced gas must be transferred to 'green' gas to be able to mix it into the natural gas distribution system. The applied techniques which the authors propose are based on power-to-gas, for which a surplus of sustainably produced energy (e.g. solar and wind energy) is used to generate hydrogen from the electrolysis of water. From hydrogen and CO2 'green' gas can be produced. In addition, the authors suggest to improve green gas installations which produce gas from sewage sludge and organic waste. This can be done using biological enzymes [Dutch] De auteurs stellen voor om de provincie Groningen een voortrekkersrol te geven in de energietransitie, waarbij bovengrondse biogasproductie gestimuleerd moet worden, zodat het huidige aardgas gewoon in de bodem kan blijven zitten. Daarbij moet het gas wel worden opgewerkt tot groen gas, zodat het rechtstreeks aan het aardgasnet geleverd kan worden. De technieken die de wetenschappers daarbij voorstellen is de gebruikmaking van Power-to-gas, waarbij overtollig duurzaam geproduceerde energie, uit bijvoorbeeld zon en wind, wordt gebruikt om uit water waterstof te maken. Door die waterstof vervolgens met CO2 te verbinden, kan er er groen gas van worden gemaakt. Daarnaast stelt de denktank verbeterde groengasinstallaties voor die gas halen uit rioolslib en biologisch afval. Dit kan met behulp van biologische enzymen die zelf hoge druk opbouwen.
Kavousi, Maryam; Elias-Smale, Suzette; Rutten, Joost H W; Leening, Maarten J G; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Verwoert, Germaine C; Krestin, Gabriel P; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Lindemans, Jan; Hofman, Albert; Steyerberg, Ewout W; van der Lugt, Aad; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Witteman, Jacqueline C M
clinical costs of performing versus not performing the test for both persons and health systems. Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw).
Benito, B.; Camacho, E. I.; Rojas, W.; Climent, A.; Alvarado-Induni, G.; Marroquin, G.; Molina, E.; Talavera, E.; Belizaire, D.; Pierristal, G.; Torres, Y.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; García, R.; Zevallos, F.
The results from seismic hazard studies carried out in two seismic scenarios, Central America Region (CA) and La Hispaniola Island, are presented here. Both cases follow the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology and they are developed in terms of PGA, and SA (T), for T of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 and 2s. In both anaysis, hybrid zonation models are considered, integrated by seismogenic zones and faults where data of slip rate and recurrence time are available. First, we present a new evaluation of seismic hazard in CA, starting with the results of a previous study by Benito et al (2011). Some improvements are now included, such as: updated catalogue till 2011, corrections in the zonning model in particular for subduction regime taken into account the variation of the dip in Costa Rica and Panama, and modelization of some faults as independent units for the hazard estimation. The results allow us to carry out a sensitivity analysis comparing the ones obtained with and without faults. In a second part we present the results of the PSHA in La Hispaniola, carried out as part of the cooperative project SISMO-HAITI supported by UPM and developed in cooperation with ONEV. It started a few months after the 2010 event, as an answer to a required help from the Haitian government to UPM. The study was aimed at obtaining results suitable for seismic design purposes and started with the elaboration of a seismic catalogue for the Hispaniola, requiring an exhaustive revision of data reported by around 30 seismic agencies, apart from these from Puerto Rico and Dominican Republic Seismic Networks. Seismotectonic models for the region were reviewed and a new regional zonation was proposed, taking into account different geophysical data. Attenuation models for subduction and crustal zones were also reviewed and the more suitable were calibrated with data recorded inside the Caribbean plate. As a result of the PSHA, different maps were generated for the quoted parameters
Full Text Available The wind field effect on the phase veloc i ties of 3- to 10-me ter Farley-Buneman two-stream waves in the equato rial E region ion o sphere at al titudes in the range of 95 - 110 km is stud ied by nu mer i cal simu la tion. The behav ior of this two-stream wave in the uni form wind field Un in a plane per pen dic u lar to the Earth’s mag netic field is simu lated with a two-di men sional two-fluid code in which elec tron in er tia is ne glected while ion in er tia is re tained. It is con firmed that, the thresh old con di tion for the ap pear ance of two-stream waves is VD C U th » + s + n (1 / cos Y0 q ; and the phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave at the thresh old con di tion is Vp » Cs + Un cos q, where q is the ele va tion an gle of the wave prop a ga tion in a limited range and Y0 = ninnen / WiWe. The first formula in di cates that the wind field paral lel (anti-par al lel to the elec tron drift ve loc ity will raise (lower the thresh old drift ve loc ity by the amount of the wind speed. This means that par al lel wind is a sta ble fac tor, while anti-paral lel wind is an un sta ble fac tor of two-stream waves. This may ex plain why high speed (larger than acous tic speed two-stream waves were rarely ob served, since larger thresh old drift veloc ity de mands larger po larization elec tric field. The result of the simu la tions at the sat u ra tion stage show that when VD was only slightly larger than VD th , the hor i zon tal phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave would grad u ally down-shift to the thresh old phase ve loc ity Cs + Un. The physical implications of which are discussed
Application of liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry for the evaluation of global nucleic acids: methylation in garden cress under exposure to CuO nanoparticles.
Alcazar Magana, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Wrobel, Katarzyna
A full understanding of the biological impact of nanomaterials demands analytical procedures suitable for the detection/quantification of epigenetic changes that occur in the exposed organisms. Here, the effect of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) on global methylation of nucleic acids in Lepidium sativum was evaluated by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Enhanced selectivity toward cytosine-containing nucleosides was achieved by using their proton-bound dimers formed in positive electrospray ionization (ESI(+)) as precursor ions for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) quantification based on one or two ion transitions. Plants were exposed to CuO NPs (0-1000 mg L(-1)); nucleic acid extracts were washed with bathocuproine disulfate; nucleosides were separated on a Luna C18 column coupled via ESI(+) to an AmaZon SL mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics). Cytidine, 2´-deoxycytidine, 5-methylcytidine, 5-methyl-2´-deoxycytidine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2´-deoxycytidine were quantified by MRM based on MS(3) ([2M+H](+)/[M+H](+)/[M+H-132](+) or [M+H-116](+)) and MS(2) ([2M+H](+)/[M+H](+) ). Bathocuproine disulfate, added as Cu(I) complexing agent, allowed for elimination of [2M+Cu](+) adducts from the mass spectra. Poorer instrumental detection limits were obtained for MS(3) (20-120 fmol) as compared to MS(2) (9.0-41 fmol); however, two ion transitions helped to eliminate matrix effects in plant extracts. The procedure was tested by analyzing salmon sperm DNA (Sigma) and applied for the evaluation of DNA and RNA methylation in plants; in the absence of NPs, 13.03% and 0.92% methylated cytosines were found in DNA and RNA, respectively; for NPs concentration >50 mg L(-1), DNA hypomethylation was observed with respect to unexposed plants. RNA methylation did not present significant changes upon plant exposure; 5-hydroxymethyl-2´-deoxycytidine was not detected in any sample. The MRM quantification proposed here of cytosine-containing nucleosides using their proton-bound homo
van der Aa, Hilde P A; van Rens, Ger H M B; Comijs, Hannie C; Margrain, Tom H; Gallindo-Garre, Francisca; Twisk, Jos W R; van Nispen, Ruth M A
depression and anxiety in visually impaired older adults. This approach could lead to standardised strategies for the screening, monitoring, treatment, and referral of visually impaired older adults with depression and anxiety. Funded by ZonMw InZicht, the Dutch Organisation for Health Research and Development-InSight Society. There are no competing interests. Full dataset and statistical code are available from the corresponding author.Study registration www.trialregister.nl NTR3296. © van der Aa et al 2015.
Brand, J S; Onland-Moret, N C; Eijkemans, M J C; Tjønneland, A; Roswall, N; Overvad, K; Fagherazzi, G; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Dossus, L; Lukanova, A; Grote, V; Bergmann, M M; Boeing, H; Trichopoulou, A; Tzivoglou, M; Trichopoulos, D; Grioni, S; Mattiello, A; Masala, G; Tumino, R; Vineis, P; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Weiderpass, E; Redondo, M L; Sánchez, M J; Castaño, J M Huerta; Arriola, L; Ardanaz, E; Duell, E J; Rolandsson, O; Franks, P W; Butt, S; Nilsson, P; Khaw, K T; Wareham, N; Travis, R; Romieu, I; Gunter, M J; Riboli, E; van der Schouw, Y T
Do women who have diabetes before menopause have their menopause at an earlier age compared with women without diabetes? Although there was no overall association between diabetes and age at menopause, our study suggests that early-onset diabetes may accelerate menopause. Today, more women of childbearing age are being diagnosed with diabetes, but little is known about the impact of diabetes on reproductive health. We investigated the impact of diabetes on age at natural menopause (ANM) in 258 898 women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), enrolled between 1992 and 2000. Determinant and outcome information was obtained through questionnaires. Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of diabetes and age at diabetes diagnosis with ANM, stratified by center and adjusted for age, smoking, reproductive and diabetes risk factors and with age from birth to menopause or censoring as the underlying time scale. Overall, no association between diabetes and ANM was found (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.01). However, women with diabetes before the age of 20 years had an earlier menopause (10-20 years: HR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.02-2.01, France); German Cancer Aid, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMMF) (Germany); Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity, Stavros Niarchos Foundation and Hellenic Health Foundation (Greece); Italian Association for Research on Cancer (AIRC) and National Research Council (Italy); Dutch Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (VWS), Netherlands Cancer Registry (NKR), LK Research Funds, Dutch Prevention Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), Statistics Netherlands (The Netherlands); ERC-2009-AdG 232997 and Nordforsk, Nordic Centre of Excellence programme on Food, Nutrition and Health (Norway); Health Research Fund (FIS), Regional Governments of Andaluc
Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise Hm; Deković, Maja; van Baar, Anneloes L
NTR2676. The study was financially supported by a grant from ZonMw, the Netherlands organization for health research and development, grant number 157004005.
Overdevest, Gijsbert M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C
In patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation, it is generally recommended to reserve surgical treatment for those who suffer from intolerable pain or those who demonstrate persistent symptoms after conservative management. Controversy exists about the necessity of early surgical intervention for those patients that have an additional motor deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the recovery of motor deficit among patients receiving early surgery to those receiving prolonged conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This subgroup analysis focuses on 150 (53%) of 283 patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms at baseline (before randomization) were accompanied by a motor deficit. Motor deficit was assessed through manual muscle testing and graded according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. In total, 150 patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms were accompanied by a moderate (MRC Grade 4) or severe (MRC Grade 3) motor deficit were randomly allocated to early surgery or prolonged conservative treatment. Repeated standardized neurologic examinations were performed at baseline and at 8, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. This study was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the Hoelen Foundation The Hague. Sciatica recovered among seven (10%) of the 70 patients assigned to early surgery before surgery could be performed, and of the 80 patients assigned to conservative treatment, 32 patients (40%) were treated surgically because of intolerable pain. Baseline severity of motor deficit was graded moderate in 84% of patients and severe in 16% of patients. Motor deficit recovered significantly faster among patients allocated to early surgery (p=.01), but the difference was no longer significant at 26 (p=.21) or 52 weeks (p=.92). At 1 year, complete recovery of motor
Ghalamghash, J.; Vosoughi Abedini, M.; Bellon, H.; Emami, M.H.; Pourmafi, M.; Rashid, H.
Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex, the western member of Urumiyeh-Golpayehgan intrusive plutons is located in northern part of Sanandaj-Sirjan zon. Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex, exposing in an area of about 700 km 2 , comprises 10 plutons that can be divided into three suites, i.e.,diorite,granite,and alkali syenite-alkali granite. Dioritic bodies are the oldest intrusive rocks of the region, which on the basis of the field study, their relative age of emplacement is estimated to be post-Jurassic and pre-miocene. However, with respect to the age of other similar intrusive bodies in Naghadeh area, they are most likely of post early cretaceous-pre miocene age. Hybrid intrusive rocks, occurring at the contact of dioritic and granitic rocks may suggest a simultaneous emplacement of both magmas. Syntetic pluton from alkali syenite-alkali granite has intruded dioritic and granitic rocks, in contrast, flourine bearing alkali granite pluton from this suite shows no contact with other igneous rocks in the area. K-Ar age determinations obtained on amphibole specimens from diorite suite are 91.9±2.3, 94.1±2.3 and 100±2.4 Ma, and on biotite specimens from granite suite are 100±1.5 to 98.9±1.5 Ma. Chronology study using same method on arfvedsonite specimens from syenite pluton shows 78.9±3.1, 79.6±1.9 and 81.7±2.0 Ma and on K-fled par samples of flourine bearing alkali granite pluton from the alkali syenite-alkali granite suite presents 76±3.4 and 77.1±1.8. Therefore, based on field evidence and K/Ar age dating, Oshnaviyeh plutonic complex presumably formed during two episodes: granite and diorite suites formed simultaneously at about 100 Ma, then plutons of alkali syenite-alkali granite suite emplaced at about 80 Ma
examine whether the loss of pluripotency is accompanied by a loss of oscillation. Implications of the hypothesis Recovery of pluripotency from determined cells is a long-standing aspiration, from both scientific and clinical perspectives. Our hypothesis suggests a feasible route to recover the potential to differentiate, i.e., by increasing the variety of expressed genes to restore chaotic expression dynamics, as is consistent with the recent generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. Reviewers This article was reviewed by David Krakauer, Jeroen van Zon (nominated by Rob de Boer, and Williams S. Hlavacek.
van Mello, N M; Mol, F; Verhoeve, H R; van Wely, M; Adriaanse, A H; Boss, E A; Dijkman, A B; Bayram, N; Emanuel, M H; Friederich, J; van der Leeuw-Harmsen, L; Lips, J P; Van Kessel, M A; Ankum, W M; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W; Hajenius, P J
management group. No serious adverse events were reported. Single-dose systemic MTX does not have a larger treatment effect compared with expectant management in women with an ectopic pregnancy or a PUL and low and plateauing serum hCG concentrations. Sixty percent of women after expectant management had an uneventful clinical course with steadily declining serum hCG levels without any intervention, which means that MTX, a potentially harmful drug, can be withheld in these women. BIAS, LIMITATION AND GENERALISABILITY: A limitation of this RCT is that it was an open (not placebo controlled) trial. Nevertheless, introduction of bias was probably limited by the strict criteria to be fulfilled for treatment with MTX. This trial is supported by a grant of the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw Clinical fellow grant 90700154). ISRCTN 48210491.
Isabela Monalisa SAMSON
Full Text Available „Este o axiomă faptul că activitatea criminală din domeniul afacerilor economico-financiare nu se desfăşoară şi nici nu se finalizează la vedere. Peste tot în lume se produce o sumă impresionantă de acte ilegale, de combinaţii infracţionale în zona subterană a societăţii, zonă în care serviciile de informaţii şi autorităţile de aplicare a legii pătrund cu mare difi-cultate pentru a sesiza şi a cerceta cu adevărat ce se întâmplă” [5, p.7]. Articolul 126 din Constituţie, caracterizând economia Republicii Moldova ca o economie de piaţă, are în vedere economia naţională. În acelaşi context reglementar este statuat că statul trebuie să asigure, printre altele: libertatea co-merţului şi activităţii de întreprinzător; protecţia concurenţei loiale; crearea unui cadru favorabil valorificării tuturor factorilor de producţie; protejarea intereselor naţionale în activitatea economică, financiară şi valutară etc.. Aşadar, conceptul de economie naţională a Republicii Moldova este o categorie economică fundamentală, care desemnează ansamblul de resurse naturale şi umane, de activităţi productive, de schimb şi servicii, constituite ca ramuri sau domenii de activitate economică pe teritoriul Republicii Moldova, ca rezultat al dezvoltării forţelor de producţie şi al diviziunii sociale a muncii, în cadrul frontierelor ţării.SYSTEM ECONOMIC CRIMES IN MOLDOVA General terms of economic crime"It is an axiom that work Criminal economic and financial affairs not take place nor ends in view. Across the world produces an impressive amount of illegal acts, the combinations criminal underground in the company area the intelligence and enforcement authorities Law penetrate with great difficulty to apprehend and investigate really what is happening" [5, p.7]. Article 126 of the Constitution, characterizing the Moldovan economy as a market economy, the national economy envisages the same
Hentzen, Judith E K R; Verschoor, Marianne A; Lemmers, Marike; Ankum, Willem M; Mol, Ben Willem J; van Wely, Madelon
); (iv) risk of reduced fertility and (v) risk of complications requiring more time or readmission to hospital. Fourteen scenarios using these attributes were selected in the DCE. Each of these scenarios presented two treatment options, while treatment characteristics varied between the 14 scenarios. For each scenario, respondents were asked to choose the preferred treatment option. The importance of each attribute was analysed, and preference heterogeneity was investigated through latent-class analysis. One hundred and eighty-six women were included of whom 128 completed the DCE (69% response rate). The two attributes with the greatest effect on their preference were, probability of success and risk of reduced fertility. The latent-class analysis revealed two subgroups of patients with different preference patterns. Forty per cent of women were more influenced by treatment success and 59% were more influenced by risk. Most women were highly educated and were of Dutch origin, which limits the generalizability of our findings. Women with lower education levels, other cultural backgrounds and/or different previous experiences may differ from our findings. Patients preferences should be addressed when counselling patients with an incomplete miscarriage after misoprostol treatment. This study was embedded in the MisoREST trial, and funded by ZonMw, a Dutch organization for Health Research and Development, project number 80-82310-97-12066. There were no conflicts of interests. Dutch Trial Register NTR3310, http://www.trialregister.nl. 27 February 2012. 12 June 2012. © Crown copyright 2017.
van Eekelen, R; Scholten, I; Tjon-Kon-Fat, R I; van der Steeg, J W; Steures, P; Hompes, P; van Wely, M; van der Veen, F; Mol, B W; Eijkemans, M J; Te Velde, E R; van Geloven, N
20, 15 and 13%, respectively. The model performed fair in an internal validation. The prediction ranges were sufficiently broad to aid in counselling couples for at least two years after their fertility workup. The dynamic prediction model needs to be validated in an external population. This dynamic prediction model allows reassessment of natural conception chances after various periods of unsuccessful expectant management. This gives valuable information to counsel couples with unexplained subfertility that are seen for a fertility workup. This study was facilitated by grant 945/12/002 from ZonMW, The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development, The Hague, The Netherlands. No competing interests. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Korevaar, Tim I M; Muetzel, Ryan; Medici, Marco; Chaker, Layal; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Steegers, Eric A P; Visser, Theo J; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning; Peeters, Robin P
not associated with child IQ or brain morphology. All associations remained similar after the exclusion of women with overt hypothyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism, and after adjustment for concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, child thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine or thyroid peroxidase antibodies (continuous or positivity). Both low and high maternal free thyroxine concentrations during pregnancy were associated with lower child IQ and lower grey matter and cortex volume. The association between high maternal free thyroxine and low child IQ suggests that levothyroxine therapy during pregnancy, which is often initiated in women with subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy, might carry the potential risk of adverse child neurodevelopment outcomes when the aim of treatment is to achieve high-normal thyroid function test results. The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) and the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oudshoorn, Simone C; van Tilborg, Theodora C; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Oosterhuis, G Jur E; Friederich, Jaap; van Hooff, Marcel H A; van Santbrink, Evert J P; Brinkhuis, Egbert A; Smeenk, Jesper M J; Kwee, Janet; de Koning, Corry H; Groen, Henk; Lambalk, Cornelis B; Mol, Ben Willem J; Broekmans, Frank J M; Torrance, Helen L
cumulative live birth rate was 66.3% (169/255) in the reduced versus 69.5% (185/266) in the standard group (relative risk (RR) 0.95 [95%CI, 0.85-1.07], P = 0.423). The occurrence of any grade of OHSS was lower after a lower FSH dose (5.2% versus 11.8%, RR 0.44 [95%CI, 0.28-0.71], P = 0.001), but the occurrence of severe OHSS did not differ (1.3% versus 1.1%, RR 1.25 [95%CI, 0.38-4.07], P = 0.728). As dose reduction was not less expensive (€4.622 versus €4.714, delta costs/woman €92 [95%CI, -479-325]), there was no dominant strategy in the economic analysis. Despite our training programme, the AFC might have suffered from inter-observer variation. Although strict cancellation criteria were provided, selective cancelling in the reduced dose group (for poor response in particular) cannot be excluded as observers were not blinded for the FSH dose and small dose adjustments were allowed in subsequent cycles. However, as first cycle live birth rates did not differ from the cumulative results, the open design probably did not mask a potential benefit for the reduced dosing group. As this RCT was embedded in a larger cohort study, the power in this study was unavoidably lower than it should be. Participants had a relatively low BMI from an international perspective, which may limit generalization of the findings. In women with a predicted hyper response scheduled for IVF/ICSI, a reduced FSH dose does not affect live birth rates. A lower FSH dose did reduce the incidence of mild and moderate OHSS, but had no impact on severe OHSS. Future research into ORT-based dosing in women with a predicted hyper response should compare various safety management strategies and should be powered on a clinically relevant safety outcome while assessing non-inferiority towards live birth rates. This trial was funded by The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW, Project Number 171102020). SCO, TCvT and HLT received an unrestricted research grant from Merck Serono
Full Text Available Rakstā apskatīti nacionālā pētījumu projekta rezultāti, kuru mērķis - izstrādāt Latvijas LT(SER (Ilgtermiņa socioekoloģisko pētījumu platformas - Engures ekoreģiona integrēto konceptuālo modeli. Engures ekoreģionu veido piekrastes ezera sateces baseins (644 km2 ar Rīgas līča krasta un jūras piekrastes zonu. Ekoreģiona centrālo daļu veido Engures ezera dabas parks (EEDP - Ramsāres vieta. Konceptuālā modeļa pamatā ir DPSIR (virzošie spēki-slodzes-stāvokļi-ietekmes-rīcības koncepcija. Socioekoloģiskā sistēma tika telpiski strukturēta un virzošie spēki iedalīti divās grupās - ārējos un lokālos. Engures ekoreģions sadalīts septiņās zonās vai apakšreģionos ar izteiktām ģeoloģiskām un ģeogrāfiskām robežām. Katrai zonai raksturīgi specifiski virzošie spēki un slodzes kā arī specifiska ekosistēmu struktūra un biodaudzveidības elementi. Analizēti katra apakšreģiona galvenie virzošie spēki un slodzes trijos laika periodos: 19. gs. - 20 gs. sākums, padomju okupācijas periods (1940.-1991. g., periods pēc Latvijas neatkarības atgūšanas. Sniegti ekosistēmu stāvokļa un biodaudzveidības raksturojumi. Socioekonomiskās sistēmas aktīvā komponenta - cilvēka rīcības veido galvenokārt ekoreģionam ārējie faktori, tai skaitā vides likumdošana un finansu plūsmas zinātniskajiem pētījumiem un ekosistēmu apsaimniekošanai. Apskatīti divi alternatīvi Engures ekoreģiona attīstības scenāriji: 1 iedzīvotāju skaita samazināšanās un lauksaimniecības zemju aizaugšana; 2 lauksaimniecības, vietējās ražošanas uzņēmumu un būvniecības intensifikācija. Abos gadījumos ekosistēmu pašreizējais stāvoklis un sugu daudzveidības struktūra tiktu būtiski izmainīti. Reģiona ilgtspējīgu attīstību, saglabājot cilvēkam vēlamo ekosistēmu struktūru, iespējams nodrošināt, vienīgi ieviešot ekosistēmu apsaimniekošanas pasākumus, kas bāzēti uz
room Substrate (SMC are yearly produced at La Rioja. These SMC have been accumulated at opencast dumping sites, which are a serious contamination source. Nowadays, in the agriculture, different SMC are widely used to replace the soil organic matter losses, to enhance the exchangeable phosphorus and potassium, and to improve the soil porosity and its water retention. In this work, the annual application of SMC is evaluated as fertilizer and as organic amendment for vineyard soil. A experimental assay is performed with three blocks and five treatments on a Typic Haploxerepts. Two SMC: Recomposted SMC, and “Fresh” SMC (No recomposted SMC were evaluated for three SMC total amounts: 0, 8.000 and 25.000 kg·ha-1 (d.m.. The Organic matter, N (N-org+N-NH4+, pH, electrical conductivity, extractable P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, SO4(2-, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, and B, among other elements, were evaluated in the soil profile. Nutrient content was not increased after two annual SMC applications on the soil for the most of nutrients. Only the higher amounts of SMC increased the available K+ and extractable sulphate in the upper horizon (0-30 cm. CE was also increased, although its values don’t represent a risk for the crop. However, considering the SMC amounts applied, it is neccessary the monitoring of the CE and nutrient content in the soil to evaluate the SMC potential as a fertilizer; velocity of the nutrient liberation; and the possible loss of nutrients. The SMC behaviour could be simmilar to the behaviour of a low-liberation fertilizer. Therefore, continuous applications could produce an excessive amount of nitrogen and other nutrients in the soil, which will affect the crop yield and must quality. In addition, an excessive liberation could agravate the nutrient lixiviation in vulnerable areas.
Tuccari, G.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Nechaeva, M.
, tādējādi realizējot vienas antenas vai interferometrisku signāla detektēšanu. DBBC sistēma ar radara VLBI programmatūruspēj realizēt augstas izšķirtspējas spektra analīzi, saglabājot atbalss signālu arsagaidāmo frekvenci centrālajā zonā un ieskaitot nepieciešamās Doplera frekvencesnobīdes korekcijas. Tālāk, izmantojot dažādus ievadparametrus, iespējamspielietot ļoti ilgu integrācijas laiku ārkārtīgi vāju signālu detektēšanai. Izmantojotreālā laika informāciju, turpmāk ir iespējams viegli analizēt nepieciešamo apgabaluun detektēt nezināmus objektus vai objektus ar neprecīzi zināmiem orbītu parametriem.Rakstā izklāstītas paredzamās minētās programmatūras funkcijas un tāsizmantošanas plāni pirmajos novērojumos.
Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.
Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) ; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits . Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°С and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits ; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons . Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15
Petrographical and Geochemical Study of a Kimmeridgian Organic Sequence (Yorkshire Area, Uk Étude pétrographique et géochimique d'une séquence organique du Kimmeridgien (région du Yorkshire, Angleterre
interactions eau/minéraux. On observe partout des corrosions de quartz (pl. 2A et D. Les silicifications se présentent sous deux formes : quartz et calcédonite. La cristallisation de la calcédonite, beaucoup plus rapide que celle du quartz, indique une concentration de silice dans le milieu plus importante que celle nécessaire à la formation du quartz ainsi qu'un environnement non sulfaté (Arbey, 1980. L'existence d'un tel milieu résulte de l'utilisation de la totalité des sulfates par les bactéries sulfato-réductrices. La matière organique sous forme de petits grains constitue parfois des nuclei autour desquels la calcédonite croît de manière zonée. Il est important de souligner combien, dans le détail, la diagenèse minérale peut prendre un caractère local, à l'échelle du micron, et spécifique, sans doute sous le double effet de la grande diversité initiale des constituants et de la mauvaise qualité des circulations intersticielles. Ceci est illustré, outre les exemples de la pyrite et de la glauconite, par la transformation des algues carbonatées (pl. 2F. La diagenèse influence de manière notable la teneur en carbone organique, puisque la matière organique est détruite par les bactéries sulfato-réductrices. Deux hypothèses peuvent être envisagées, selon que le taux de sédimentation est constant ou non. Si le taux de sédimentation est constant, la diminution de carbone organique observée dans la deuxième partie du cycle est d'origine et reflète alors une diminution de la productivité. La capacité de la matière organique à être métabolisée par les bactéries sulfato-réductrices est corrélée positivement au taux de sédimentation (Berner, 1980 ; si le taux de sédimentation est constant, la quantité initiale de matière organique a diminué dans les mêmes proportions tout au long du cycle. Si le taux de sédimentation diminue dans la deuxième moitié du cycle, la sulfato-réduction renforce la baisse de la teneur en carbone