WorldWideScience

Sample records for akr mice deutsches

  1. Effect of allogenic thymic cells on radioleukaemogenesis in AKR-T1ALD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When AKR mice are irradiated with a sub-lethal dose (4 times 175 R), thymic lymphosarcomas (L.S.) occur earlier than in controls. This accelerated leukaemogenesis is not inhibited by syngenic restoration with bone marrows cells (BM). Using the AKR/T1ALD substrain which bears 38 chromosomes with 1 metacentric markers, it has been shown that AKR radio-chimaeras restored by T1ALD BM developed two kinds of L.S.: early (radiation-induced) L.S. originating mainly from host cells surviving irradiation and late L.S. from donor cells. The experiments were to investigate the potential influence of normal allogenic thymic cells, with or without syngenic B.M., on the incidence, latency and origin of LS appearing in irradiated AKR recipients. Adding C3H allogenic thymic cells to syngenic B.M. increases the percentage of early L.S. whose latencies are unchanged. Besides, when C3H thymic cells are injected to irradiated controls without syngenic B.M. cells, L.S. are seen to occur significantly earlier than in just the irradiated animals alone. In radio-chimaeras restored by allogenic thymic cells and syngenic B.M., except in one case, all the L.S. were seen to originate from B.M. cells. The interpretation of these results depends on the possible role of allogenic thymic cells on host cells surviving the irradiation, or the exogeneous B.M. In the first case, allogenic thymocytes could induce a graft versus host reaction increasing the post-irradiation depletion of lymphoid system and hastening thymic endoregeneration which is supposed to be the first step towards leukaemogenesis. The second hypothesis, which seems the most likely, would be that C1H thymic cells could selectively act on host cells surviving irradiation and enhance the differenciation of haemopoietic precursors at the expense of the lymphoid cells

  2. Spontaneous and Stimulated Leukaemogenesis in Mice of the AKR Strain with 38 or 40 Chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time the precise role of chromosome anomalies in the development of cancers is still the subject of controversy in many respects. Some authorities regard chromosome anomalies as the result of the occurrence of tumours, while those subscribing to the theory of somatic mutations regard them as being the first stage thereof. An increased incidence of leukaemias has in fact been observed in people with various chromosome anomalies, such as trisomy 21. The part played by these chromosome anomalies has been studied in the development of spontaneous leukaemias or leukaemias stimulated by exposure to ionizing radiations, as observed in mice of the AKR strain. Mice of this strain normally have 40 chromosomes. The authors were able, some time ago, to isolate a substrain which only has 38 chromosomes (AKR/Tl Ald) due to centromeric fusion of two acrocentric chromosomes. The possible effect of this chromosome change has been studied by comparing, in the two cases, the incidence of lymphoid leukaemias and their period of latency in irradiated and non-irradiated individuals. To stimulate leukaemogenesis the authors adopted the technique of Professor Duplan in which a whole-body dose of 175 R was administered to 30-day-old mice four times at seven-day intervals. The leukaemia diagnosis was established by dissection carried out immediately after death, and in doubtful cases by a histological study. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the theories on the role of chromosome anomalies in carcinogenesis. (author)

  3. Identification of the common radiation-sensitive and glucose metabolism-related expressed genes in the thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our goal was to identify the common radiation-sensitive expressed genes in the thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice on 100 days after irradiation. Thus, we performed microarray analysis for thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice, respectively. We categorized differential expressed genes by the analysis of DAVID Bioinformatics Resources v 6.7 and GeneSpring GX 11.5.1 and validated gene expression patterns by QPCR analysis. Our result demonstrated that radiation-sensitive expressed genes and signaling pathways in the thymus of irradiated ICR and AKR/J mice.

  4. Development of donor-derived thymic lymphomas after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in AKR/J mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of bone marrow cells from BALB/c (but not C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN) mice was observed to lead to the development of thymic lymphomas (leukemias) in AKR/J mice. Two leukemic cell lines, CAK1.3 and CAK4.4, were established from the primary culture of two thymic lymphoma, and surface phenotypes of these cell lines found to be H-2d and Thy-1.2+, indicating that these lymphoma cells are derived from BALB/c donor bone marrow cells. Further analyses of surface markers revealed that CAK1.3 is L3T4+ Lyt2+ IL2R-, whereas CAK4.4 is L3T4- Lyt2- IL2R+. Both CAK1.3 and CAK4.4 were transplantable into BALB/c but not AKR/J mice, further indicating that these cells are of BALB/c bone marrow donor origin. The cells were found to produce XC+-ecotropic viruses, but xenotropic and mink cell focus-forming viruses were undetectable. Inasmuch as thymic lymphomas are derived from bone marrow cells of leukemia-resistant BALB/c strain of mice under the allogeneic environment of leukemia-prone AKR/J mice, this animal model may serve as a useful tool not only for the analysis of leukemic relapse after bone marrow transplantation but also for elucidation of the mechanism of leukemogenesis

  5. Leukemia prevention and long-term survival of AKR mice transplanted with MHC-matched or MHC-mismatched bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current studies were designed to evaluate the effectiveness of marrow transplantation within and outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the long-term survival and occurrence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. AKR mice, which were lethally irradiated and received MHC-matched marrow from CBA/J mice (CBA----AKR), never developed leukemia and were alive and remained healthy for up to 280 days post-transplant. These long-term surviving chimeras possessed substantial immune vigor when both cell-mediated and humoral responses were tested. Lethally irradiated AKR mice, which had received MHC-mismatched marrow (anti-Thy-1.2 treated or nontreated) from C57BL/6J mice (B6----AKR), never developed leukemia and survived up to 170 days post-transplant. However, both groups of these chimeras began dying 180 to 270 days post-transplant due to a disease process which could not be readily identified. Histological analysis of B6----AKR chimeras revealed severe lymphoid cell depletion in thymus and spleen; however, none of these chimeras exhibited classical features of acute graft versus host disease. Concanavalin A mitogenesis, primary antibody responses to sheep red blood cells and the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) were suppressed in B6----AKR chimeras. IL-2 treatment of B6----AKR chimeras was shown to partially correct these deficiencies without stimulating mixed lymphocyte responsiveness to donor or host lymphocytes. These studies indicate that the use of MHC-mismatched marrow for the prevention of spontaneous AKR leukemia may rely on augmentative IL-2 therapy for complete immune reconstitution of leukemia-free chimeras

  6. Differential expression patterns of Nqo1, AKR1B8 and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice treated with sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Chen, Yeru; Wu, Deqi; Shou, Jiafeng; Wang, Shengcun; Ye, Jie; Tang, Xiuwen; Jun Wang, Xiu

    2015-12-01

    This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article entitled "butylated hydroxyanisole induces distinct expression patterns of Nrf2 and detoxification enzymes in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice" (Luo et al., 2015 [1]), which defined the basal and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)-induced expression patterns of Phase II enzymes Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase II cytoprotective enzymes. This dataset reports the histological changes of Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 (-/-) mice induced by SFN. The mice were given a 25 mg/kg single oral dose of SFN for 24 h and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, in the liver from WT mice, SFN increased Nqo1 staining in hepatocytes with slight higher staining in the pericentral region. The induction of AKR1B8 appeared mostly in hepatocytes in the periportal region. The basal and inducible Ho-1 was located predominately in Kupffer cells. In the small intestine from WT mice, the inducible expression of Nqo1 and AKR1B8 appeared more obvious in the villus than that in the crypt. PMID:26958603

  7. Differential expression patterns of Nqo1, AKR1B8 and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice treated with sulforaphane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Luo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article entitled “butylated hydroxyanisole induces distinct expression patterns of Nrf2 and detoxification enzymes in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice” (Luo et al., 2015 [1], which defined the basal and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA-induced expression patterns of Phase II enzymes Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinylbutane] (SFN, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, is a highly potent inducer of phase II cytoprotective enzymes. This dataset reports the histological changes of Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in wild-type (WT and Nrf2-/- mice induced by SFN. The mice were given a 25 mg/kg single oral dose of SFN for 24 h and 48 h. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, in the liver from WT mice, SFN increased Nqo1 staining in hepatocytes with slight higher staining in the pericentral region. The induction of AKR1B8 appeared mostly in hepatocytes in the periportal region. The basal and inducible Ho-1 was located predominately in Kupffer cells. In the small intestine from WT mice, the inducible expression of Nqo1 and AKR1B8 appeared more obvious in the villus than that in the crypt.

  8. Differential expression patterns of Nqo1, AKR1B8 and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice treated with sulforaphane

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Luo; Yeru Chen; Deqi Wu; Jiafeng Shou; Shengcun Wang; Jie Ye; Xiuwen Tang; Xiu Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article entitled “butylated hydroxyanisole induces distinct expression patterns of Nrf2 and detoxification enzymes in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice” (Luo et al., 2015 [1]), which defined the basal and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)-induced expression patterns of Phase II enzymes Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice. Sulforaphane [1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsul...

  9. Effect of low-intensity low-dose rate irradiation on the incidence and the development of spontaneous leukosis in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of spontaneous leukosis in AKR mice is accelerated by irradiation with low doses of 1.2-2.4 cGy and low dose rate 0.06 cGy/day. The leukoses incidence rate increases. Deaths of the animals from leukosis occurs earlier, shortening the average and maximum life-spans of the animals. The dynamics of changes in the mass of organs of the immune systems (thymus and spleen) shows extrema. The moment of reaching the extremum correlates with the maximum rate of animals' deaths

  10. Beneficial metabolic effects of CB1R anti-sense oligonucleotide treatment in diet-induced obese AKR/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Tang

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence supports pleiotropic metabolic roles of the cannibinoid-1 receptor (CB1R in peripheral tissues such as adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas. To further understand the metabolic consequences of specific blockade of CB1R function in peripheral tissues, we performed a 10-week-study with an anti-sense oligonucleotide directed against the CB1R in diet-induced obese (DIO AKR/J mice. DIO AKR/J mice were treated with CB1R ASO Isis-414930 (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg/week or control ASO Isis-141923 (25 mg/kg/week via intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, CB1R mRNA from the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group in the epididymal fat and kidney was decreased by 81% and 63%, respectively. Body weight gain was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly different in the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group (46.1±1.0 g vs veh, 51.2±0.9 g, p<0.05. Body fat mass was reduced in parallel with attenuated body weight gain. CB1R ASO treatment led to decreased fed glucose level (at week 8, 25 mg/kg/week group, 145±4 mg/dL vs veh, 195±10 mg/dL, p<0.05. Moreover, CB1R ASO treatment dose-dependently improved glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, whereas control ASO exerted no effect. Liver steatosis was also decreased upon CB1R ASO treatment. At the end of the study, plasma insulin and leptin levels were significantly reduced by 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO treatment. SREBP1 mRNA expression was decreased in both epididymal fat and liver. G6PC and fatty acid translocase/CD36 mRNA levels were also reduced in the liver. In summary, CB1R ASO treatment in DIO AKR/J mice led to improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. The beneficial effects of CB1R ASO treatment strongly support the notion that selective inhibition of the peripheral CB1R, without blockade of central CB1R, may serve as an effective approach for treating type II diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  11. Imbalance in the enzymatic system of production and consumption of active oxygen species in liver of AKR mice with spontaneous leucosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartanyan, L S; Gurevich, S M; Kozachenko, A I; Nagler, L G; Burlakova, E B

    2001-07-01

    Activities of protective antioxidant enzymes, the rate of superoxide formation (v) in microsomal membranes and submitochondrial particles (SMP), and the concentrations of reduced and oxidized glutathione in cytosol were studied in the liver of AKR mice during the development of spontaneous leucosis. It was found that in the latent period of leucosis (mice of 3-6 months of age) the glutathione reductase (GR) activity in cytosol and mitochondria decreased and v in SMP increased. The increase in v in SMP did not result in the induction of Mn-SOD. In this stage of leucosis, the activities of Cu,Zn-SOD, GSH-Px, and G-6-PDH in cytosol were unchanged; at the same time, the GR activity and the concentration of reduced glutathione smoothly decreased. In the stage of developed leucosis (mice of 7-9 months of age), non-synchronous changes in the antioxidant system resulting in the shift of metabolism towards the prooxidant state were found. Comparison of our findings and the literature data demonstrates that the observed decrease in the SOD/GSH-Px ratio, the decrease in GR activity, and the increase in the v/Mn-SOD activity ratio are typical for pre-neoplastic changes in cell metabolism. PMID:11563951

  12. Activation of pregnane X receptor by pregnenolone 16 α-carbonitrile prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in AKR/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Ma

    Full Text Available Pregnane X receptor (PXR is known to function as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism through selective transcription of genes responsible for maintaining physiological homeostasis. Here we report that the activation of PXR by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN in AKR/J mice can prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of PCN treatment are seen with reduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lack of hepatic accumulation of lipid and lipid storage in the adipose tissues. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal that PCN treatment on high-fat diet-fed mice reduces expression in the liver of G6Pase, Pepck, Cyp7a1, Cd36, L-Fabp, Srebp, and Fas genes and slightly enhances expression of Cyp27a1 and Abca1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue show that PCN treatment reduces expression of Pparγ2, Acc1, Cd36, but increases expression of Cpt1b and Pparα genes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Similarly, PCN treatment of animals on high-fat diet increases expression in brown adipose tissue of Pparα, Hsl, Cpt1b, and Cd36 genes, but reduces expression of Acc1 and Scd-1 genes. PXR activation by PCN in high-fat diet fed mice also increases expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue including Dio2, Pgc-1α, Pgc-1β, Cidea, and Ucp-3. These results verify the important function of PXR in lipid and energy metabolism and suggest that PXR represents a novel therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  13. Depressed Levels of Prostaglandin F2α in Mice Lacking Akr1b7 Increase Basal Adiposity and Predispose to Diet-Induced Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Volat, Fanny E.; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Pastel, Emilie; Morio, Béatrice; Sion, Benoit; Hamard, Ghislaine; Guichardant, Michel; Colas, Romain; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Martinez, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Negative regulators of white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion are poorly documented in vivo. Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is a potent antiadipogenic factor in cultured preadipocytes, but evidence for its involvement in physiological context is lacking. We previously reported that Akr1b7, an aldo-keto reductase enriched in adipose stromal vascular fraction but absent from mature adipocytes, has antiadipogenic properties possibly supported by PGF2α synthase activity. To test whether lack of Akr1b7 c...

  14. High-resolution structure of AKR1a4 in the apo form and its interaction with ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite its high affinity for NADPH, AKR1a4 crystallized in the apo form, which is very rare for aldo-keto reductase enzymes. Aldo-keto reductase 1a4 (AKR1a4; EC 1.1.1.2) is the mouse orthologue of human aldehyde reductase (AKR1a1), the founding member of the AKR family. As an NADPH-dependent enzyme, AKR1a4 catalyses the conversion of d-glucuronate to l-gulonate. AKR1a4 is involved in ascorbate biosynthesis in mice, but has also recently been found to interact with SMAR1, providing a novel mechanism of ROS regulation by ATM. Here, the crystal structure of AKR1a4 in its apo form at 1.64 Å resolution as well as the characterization of the binding of AKR1a4 to NADPH and P44, a peptide derived from SMAR1, is presented

  15. German private mobile telecommunication research program. Effects of a) low-frequency magnetic fields, b) GSM mobile telecommunication signals, c) UMTS signals on the spontaneous leukemia rate of AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the introduction of private mobile telecommunication about 10 years ago, there is a worldwide discussion about the possible adverse health effects of such highfrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF). Main concerns are regarding the possible cancerogenic or promoting effect of mobile phones and base stations. The insecurity of the public is increased by the continuous development of new techniques and introduction of new systems (e.g. wireless LAN, UMTS), for which insufficient data are available about their possible health hazards. This project's aim was therefore to investigate if chronic exposure to EMF of the UMTS-standard will influence leukaemia or the development of solid tumors in an animal model. The experiment was performed with AKR mice, which is an accepted animal model for leukaemia. With high probability, these mice develop the disease within their lifespan, so that the time course of the onset of leukaemia, bodyweight, blood picture, time of survival, and pathological examinations were the endpoints of the investigation. 160 female AKR/J mice were exposed or sham-exposed for 24 hours per day to EMF of the UMTS-standard (0.4 W/kg SAR). Additionally, 33 animals were kept as cagecontrols. For this experiment special radial waveguides were constructed and built which have a low SAR variability. All experiments were performed in a blinded fashion. The only significant difference between exposed and sham-exposed mice was a higher survival rate of exposed animals. However, the number of ill animals, the mean survival time and the severity code of the disease did not differ between the experimental groups. Animals of the cage-control group had a significant lower growth rate compared to animals kept in the radial waveguides, likely the cause of differences in the method of food supply. The results of this study don't show any negative effects of the exposure. The results do not show any negative effects of exposure for months to EMF at levels 5-fold the

  16. Enzymes of the AKR1B and AKR1C subfamilies and uterine diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea eLanisnik Rizner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial and cervical cancers, uterine myoma, and endometriosis are very common uterine diseases. Worldwide, more than 800,000 women are affected annually by gynecological cancers, as a result of which, more than 360,000 die. During their reproductive age, about 70% of women develop uterine myomas, 10% to 15% suffer from endometriosis, and 35% to 50% from infertility associated with endometriosis. Uterine diseases are associated with aberrant inflammatory responses and concomitant increased production of prostaglandins (PG. They are also related to decreased differentiation, due to low levels of protective progesterone and retinoic acid, and to enhanced proliferation, due to high local concentrations of estrogens. The pathogenesis of these diseases can thus be attributed to disturbed PG, estrogen and retinoid metabolism and actions. Five human members of the aldo-keto reductase 1B (AKR1B and 1C (AKR1C superfamilies, i.e., AKR1B1, AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3, have roles in these processes and can thus be implicated in uterine diseases. AKR1B1 and AKR1C3 catalyze the formation of PGF2alpha which stimulates cell proliferation. AKR1C3 converts PGD2 to 9alpha,11beta-PGF2, and thus counteracts the formation of 15deoxy-PGJ2, which can activate pro-apoptotic peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor beta. AKR1B10 catalyzes the reduction of retinal to retinol, and in thus lessens the formation of retinoic acid, with potential pro-differentiating actions. The AKR1C1-AKR1C3 enzymes also act as 17-keto- and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, and are implicated in increased estradiol and decreased progesterone levels. This review comprises a short introduction to uterine diseases, followed by an overview of the current literature on the AKR1B and AKR1C expression in the uterus and in uterine diseases. The potential implications of the AKR1B and AKR1C enzymes and their pathophysiologies are then discussed, followed by conclusions and

  17. Changes in the content of protein p53, L-chains, of immunoglobulins, and Iron complexes in Mice of the leukosis line AKR irradiated at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the content of protein p53 (regulator of the cell cycle) L-chains of immunoglobulins, and iron complexes (Fe2+) during the development of spontaneous leukosis in mice and upon irradiation of animals at the dose of 1.2 cGy were studied by ESR spectroscopy, electrophoresis and immunoblotting. It was found that irradiation leads to an increase in the incidence of leukoses in males by 7% and a decrease in life span of females. A decrease in the content of protein p53 and L-chains in immunoglobulins in males and females was observed; however, in females, the decreases was less pronounced because the content of these proteins in females is naturally decreased. In mice irradiated at low doses at the age of three - to months, a decrease in the amount of iron complexes at a later age (seven - to eight months) was registered. These data suggest that there is a relationship between the induction of protein p53 and the content of immunoglobulin L-chains in the blood serum of animals

  18. Expression of the Aldo-Keto Reductases AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in Human Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BrianLaffin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be more than 1.5 million new cases of cancer in 2011, underscoring the need for identification of new therapeutic targets and development of novel cancer therapies. Previous studies have implicated the human aldo-keto reductases AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in cancer, and therefore we examined AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 expression across all major human cancer types using the Oncomine cancer gene expression database (Compendia Biosciences, www.oncomine.com. Using this database, we found that expression of of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 varies greatly by cancer type and tissue of origin, including agreement with previous reports that AKR1B10 is significantly over-expressed in cancers of the lungs and liver. AKR1B1 is more broadly over-expressed in human cancers than AKR1B10, albeit at a generally lower magnitude. AKR1B1 over-expression was found to be associated with shortened patient survival in acute myelogenous leukemias and multiple myelomas. High AKR1B10 expression tends to predict less aggressive clinical course generally, notably within lung cancers, where it tends to be highly over-expressed compared to normal tissue. These findings suggest that AKR1B1 inhibitors in particular hold great potential as novel cancer therapeutics.

  19. Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily: genomics and annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindnich, Rebekka D; Penning, Trevor M

    2009-07-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are phase I metabolising enzymes that catalyse the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H)-dependent reduction of carbonyl groups to yield primary and secondary alcohols on a wide range of substrates, including aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones, ketoprostaglandins, ketosteroids and xenobiotics. In so doing they functionalise the carbonyl group for conjugation (phase II enzyme reactions). Although functionally diverse, AKRs form a protein superfamily based on their high sequence identity and common protein fold, the (alpha/beta) 8 -barrel structure. Well over 150 AKR enzymes, from diverse organisms, have been annotated so far and given systematic names according to a nomenclature that is based on multiple protein sequence alignment and degree of identity. Annotation of non-vertebrate AKRs at the National Center for Biotechnology Information or Vertebrate Genome Annotation (vega) database does not often include the systematic nomenclature name, so the most comprehensive overview of all annotated AKRs is found on the AKR website (http://www.med.upenn.edu/akr/). This site also hosts links to more detailed and specialised information (eg on crystal structures, gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). The protein-based AKR nomenclature allows unambiguous identification of a given enzyme but does not reflect the wealth of genomic and transcriptomic variation that exists in the various databases. In this context, identification of putative new AKRs and their distinction from pseudogenes are challenging. This review provides a short summary of the characteristic features of AKR biochemistry and structure that have been reviewed in great detail elsewhere, and focuses mainly on nomenclature and database entries of human AKRs that so far have not been subject to systematic annotation. Recent developments in the annotation of SNP and transcript variance in AKRs are also summarised. PMID:19706366

  20. Aldo-keto reductase (AKR superfamily: Genomics and annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindnich Rebekka D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs are phase I metabolising enzymes that catalyse the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate (NAD(PH-dependent reduction of carbonyl groups to yield primary and secondary alcohols on a wide range of substrates, including aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones, ketoprostaglan-dins, ketosteroids and xenobiotics. In so doing they functionalise the carbonyl group for conjugation (phase II enzyme reactions. Although functionally diverse, AKRs form a protein superfamily based on their high sequence identity and common protein fold, the (α/(β8-barrel structure. Well over 150 AKR enzymes, from diverse organisms, have been annotated so far and given systematic names according to a nomenclature that is based on multiple protein sequence alignment and degree of identity. Annotation of non-vertebrate AKRs at the National Center for Biotechnology Information or Vertebrate Genome Annotation (vega database does not often include the systematic nomenclature name, so the most comprehensive overview of all annotated AKRs is found on the AKR website (http://www.med.upenn.edu/akr/. This site also hosts links to more detailed and specialised information (eg on crystal structures, gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]. The protein-based AKR nomenclature allows unambiguous identification of a given enzyme but does not reflect the wealth of genomic and transcriptomic variation that exists in the various databases. In this context, identification of putative new AKRs and their distinction from pseudogenes are challenging. This review provides a short summary of the characteristic features of AKR biochemistry and structure that have been reviewed in great detail elsewhere, and focuses mainly on nomenclature and database entries of human AKRs that so far have not been subject to systematic annotation. Recent developments in the annotation of SNP and transcript variance in AKRs are also summarised.

  1. Interaction of whole-body hyperthermia and irradiation in the treatment of AKR mouse leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) to 41-420C combined with fractionated total-body irradiation (TBI) was studied in mice with transplanted AKR leukemia. Mice treated with both TBI and WBH survived longer than mice treated with either modality alone. From other groups of similarly treated mice the spleens were removed, weighed, and assayed for their content of leukemic colony-forming units (CFU) by injecting single-cell suspensions into normal syngeneic recipients. Using this methodology it was determined that the thermal enhancement ratio for WBH combined with TBI was 1.6, and that enhanced killing of leukemia cells occurred irrespective of the sequence of WBH and TBI. Data are presented which relate variables, such as duration of WBH or heating time to target temperature, to the response of neoplastic disease. The implications of these preclinical findings to clinical trials are discussed. (author)

  2. A Cavity QED Implementation of Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, E. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm is a generalization of the Deutsch algorithm which was the first algorithm written. We present schemes to implement the Deutsch algorithm and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm via cavity QED.

  3. Differences in saccharin preference and genetic alterations of the Tas1r3 gene among senescence-accelerated mouse strains and their parental AKR/J strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2014-05-10

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is used as an animal model of senescence acceleration and age-associated disorders. SAM is derived from unexpected crosses between the AKR/J and unknown mouse strains. There are nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and three senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Although SAMP strains exhibit strain-specific and age-related pathological changes, the genes responsible for the pathologic changes in SAMP strains have not been comprehensively identified. In the present study, we evaluated sweet taste perception using the two-bottle test. We compared genotypes of the taste related gene, Tas1r3, using SAM strains and the parental AKR/J strain. The two-bottle test revealed that SAMR1 (R1), SAMP6 (P6), SAMP8 (P8), and SAMP10 (P10) mice were saccharin-preferring strains, whereas AKR/J did not prefer saccharin. All genotypes of the R1, P6, P8, and P10 strains at the polymorphic sites in Tas1r3, which is known to influence saccharin preference, were identical to those of C57BL6/J, a well-known saccharin-preferring strain, and were completely different from those of the parental AKR/J strain. These genetic alterations in SAM strains appear to arise from an unknown strain that is thought to have been crossed with AKR/J initially. PMID:24726396

  4. [Bernt Ahrenholz : Verweise mit Demonstrativa im Gesprochenen Deutsch...] / Klaus Geyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Geyer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Ahrenholz, Bernt. Verweise mit Demonstrativa im gesprochenen Deutsch : Grammatik, Zweitspracherwerb und Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Berlin ; New York : de Gruyter, 2007. (Linguistik - Impulse & Tendenzen ; 17)

  5. Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily: Genomics and annotation

    OpenAIRE

    Mindnich Rebekka D; Penning Trevor M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are phase I metabolising enzymes that catalyse the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) (NAD(P)H)-dependent reduction of carbonyl groups to yield primary and secondary alcohols on a wide range of substrates, including aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and ketones, ketoprostaglan-dins, ketosteroids and xenobiotics. In so doing they functionalise the carbonyl group for conjugation (phase II enzyme reactions). Although functionally diverse, AK...

  6. AKR-like emissions observed at low altitude by the DEMETER satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Parrot, Michel; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    International audience This paper reports observations of Auroral Kilometric Radiation (AKR) by the low altitude satellite DEMETER (700 km) during the super magnetic storm of November 2004. AKR is generated along auroral field lines at altitudes above ~ 3000 km and escapes from the Earth so that most observations have been made close to the source regions or at large distances from the Earth. However, EM waves with AKR-like frequency spectra detected by the low altitude EXOS-C satellite we...

  7. [Variation im heutigen Deutsch...] / Laura Tidrike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tidrike, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Variation im heutigen Deutsch : Perspektiven für den Sprachunterricht / hrsg. v. Eva Neuland. Frankfurt am Main : Lang, 2006. (Sprache - Kommunikation - Kultur. Soziolinguistische Beiträge ; Vol. 4)

  8. Optimization at Deutsche Bahn: Aspects and Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Schuelldorf, Hanno

    2009-01-01

    For large transportation companies like Deutsche Bahn, process optimization has always been an important task to reduce production costs and obtain a better position in competition. Applying methods of mathematical optimization in practice often is rather difficult though, which may lead to some unique constraints that could make the optimization process rather hard. This contribution shall discuss some practical issues for mathematical optimization at Deutsche Bahn and will give some examples.

  9. Anti-bacterial immunity to Listeria monocytogenes in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) were studied in allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow chimeras. Lethally irradiated AKR (H-2k) mice were successfully reconstituted with marrow cells from C57BL/10 (B10) (H-2b), B10 H-2-recombinant strains or syngeneic mice. Irradiated AKR mice reconstituted with marrow cells from H-2-compatible B10.BR mice, [BR----AKR], as well as syngeneic marrow cells, [AKR----AKR], showed a normal level of responsiveness to the challenge stimulation with the listeria antigens when DTH was evaluated by footpad reactions. These mice also showed vigorous activities in acquired resistance to the L.m. By contrast, chimeric mice that had total or partial histoincompatibility at the H-2 determinants between donor and recipient, [B10----AKR], [B10.AQR----AKR], [B10.A(4R)----AKR], or [B10.A(5R)----AKR], were almost completely unresponsive in DTH and antibacterial immunity. However, when [B10----AKR] H-2-incompatible chimeras had been immunized with killed L.m. before challenge with live L.m., these mice manifested considerable DTH and resistance to L.m. These observations suggest that compatibility at the entire MHC between donor and recipient is required for bone marrow chimeras to be able to manifest DTH and protection against L.m. after a short-term immunization schedule. However, this requirement is overcome by a preceding or more prolonged period of immunization with L.m. antigens. These antigens, together with marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, can then stimulate and expand cell populations that are restricted to the MHC (H-2) products of the donor type

  10. Deutsch-dänische Kulturbrille

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Katarina Le; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla

    bereits mit Kommunikation arbeiten. Eine kürzere Version in Form einer Checkliste mit dem Titel Kommunikation mit Dänemark – Wie mache ich es richtig? finden Sie auf der Projekthomepage. Als Grundlage für die Ausarbeitung des Leitfadens dienten wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse aus den Untersuchungen des...... Projekts Nationale Stereotype und Marketingstrategien in der deutsch-dänischen interkulturellen Kommunikation (SMiK). Mit dem Leitfaden stellen wir das im SMiK-Projekt erarbeitete und wissenschaftlich gesicherte Wissen um deutsch-dänische stereotype Handlungsmuster für die kleinen und mittelständischen...

  11. Long-term In Vitro Treatment of Human Glioblastoma Cells with Temozolomide Increases Resistance In Vivo through Up-regulation of GLUT Transporter and Aldo-Keto Reductase Enzyme AKR1C Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Le Calvé

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most frequent malignant glioma. Treatment of GBM patients is multimodal with maximum surgical resection, followed by concurrent radiation and chemotherapy with the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ. The present study aims to identify genes implicated in the acquired resistance of two human GBM cells of astrocytic origin, T98G and U373, to TMZ. Resistance to TMZ was induced by culturing these cells in vitro for months with incremental TMZ concentrations up to 1 mM. Only partial resistance to TMZ has been achieved and was demonstrated in vivo in immunocompromised mice bearing orthotopic U373 and T98G xenografts. Our data show that long-term treatment of human astroglioma cells with TMZ induces increased expression of facilitative glucose transporter/solute carrier GLUT/SLC2A family members, mainly GLUT-3, and of the AKR1C family of proteins. The latter proteins are phase 1 drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the maintenance of steroid homeostasis, prostaglandin metabolism, and metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. GLUT-3 has been previously suggested to exert roles in GBM neovascularization processes, and TMZ was found to exert antiangiogenic effects in experimental gliomas. AKR1C1 was previously shown to be associated with oncogenic potential, with proproliferative effects similar to AKR1C3 in the latter case. Both AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 proteins are involved in cancer pro-proliferative cell chemoresistance. Selective targeting of GLUT-3 in GBM and/or AKR1C proteins (by means of jasmonates, for example could thus delay the acquisition of resistance to TMZ of astroglioma cells in the context of prolonged treatment with this drug.

  12. 20 years of Deutsche Kernreaktor-Versicherungsgemeinschaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Survey of the coming into being and the present state of the 'pool', a risk joint company, organized on a national level, of all insurance enterprises offering financial security on a proportional basis (DKVG = Deutsche Kernreaktor-Versicherungsgemeinschaft (German nuclear reactor cooperative insurance company)), and of cooperation with insurance pools of other western countries. (HP)

  13. Deutsche Shell AG. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of Deutsche Shell AG reflects its activities in the sector natural gas, mineral oil, chemicals and renewable energies. Environmental protection, safety at work, and the position of the group in society are further subjects. Financial data of 1997 are presented (balance sheet, profit-and-loss account,etc.). (orig./RHM)

  14. Observational study of generation conditions of substorm-associated low-frequency AKR emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available It has lately been shown that low-frequency bursts of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR are nearly exclusively associated with substorm expansion phases. Here we study low-frequency AKR using Polar PWI and Interball POLRAD instruments to constrain its possible generation mechanisms. We find that there are more low-frequency AKR emission events during wintertime and equinoxes than during summertime. The dot-AKR emission radial distance range coincides well with the region where the deepest density cavities are seen statistically during Kp>2. We suggest that the dot-AKR emissions originate in the deepest density cavities during substorm onsets. The mechanism for generating dot-AKR is possibly strong Alfvén waves entering the cavity from the magnetosphere and changing their character to more inertial, which causes the Alfvén wave associated parallel electric field to increase. This field may locally accelerate electrons inside the cavity enough to produce low-frequency AKR emission. We use Interball IESP low-frequency wave data to verify that in about half of the cases the dot-AKR is accompanied by low-frequency wave activity containing a magnetic component, i.e. probably inertial Alfvén waves. Because of the observational geometry, this result is consistent with the idea that inertial Alfvén waves might always be present in the source region when dot-AKR is generated. The paper illustrates once more the importance of radio emissions as a powerful remote diagnostic tool of auroral processes, which is not only relevant for the Earth's magnetosphere but may be relevant in the future in studying extrasolar planets.

  15. Electrostatic shock properties inferred from AKR fine structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pottelette

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The auroral kilometric radiation (AKR consists of a large number of fast drifting elementary radiation events that have been interpreted as travelling electron holes resulting from the nonlinear evolution of electron-acoustic waves. The elementary radiation structures sometimes become reflected or trapped in slowly drifting larger structures where the parallel electric fields are located. These latter features have spectral frequency drifts which can be interpreted in terms of the propagation of shock-like disturbances along the auroral field line at velocities near the ion-acoustic speed. The amplitude, speed, and shock width of such localized ion-acoustic shocks are determined here in the fluid approximation from the Sagdeev potential, assuming realistic plasma parameters. It is emphasized that the electrostatic potentials of such nonlinear structures contribute to auroral acceleration.

  16. Deutsche Unternehmen forschen weniger im Ausland

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Belitz

    2010-01-01

    Deutschland hat von der Internationalisierung der Forschung und Entwicklung (FuE) in multinationalen Unternehmen profitiert. Nachdem die internationale FuE-Bilanz bis 2001 ausgeglichen war, investieren ausländische Unternehmen inzwischen in Deutschland mehr in FuE als deutsche Unternehmen im Ausland. Der Anteil der FuE-Aufwendungen deutscher Unternehmen im Ausland ist bei weiterhin steigenden globalen Aufwendungen rückläufig. Damit hat sich die Internationalisierung von FuE-Aktivitäten in Deu...

  17. Jihadismus und Internet: eine deutsche Perspektive

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Deutsche Internetaktivisten sind seit 2005 ein integraler Teil der internationalen jihadistischen Szene geworden, die sich seitdem in einem Prozess stetigen Wandels befindet. Noch nie war es so einfach wie heute, über das Netz und netzbasierte neue soziale Medien auf alle Arten jihadistischer Propaganda zuzugreifen. Gleichzeitig hat das neu produzierte Material nicht mehr die Qualität früherer Zeiten. Immer öfter melden sich die Sympathisanten und Unterstützer zu Wort, immer seltener die Terr...

  18. Transcript level of AKR1C3 is down-regulated in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frycz, Bartosz Adam; Murawa, Dawid; Borejsza-Wysocki, Maciej; Wichtowski, Mateusz; Spychała, Arkadiusz; Marciniak, Ryszard; Murawa, Paweł; Drews, Michał; Jagodziński, Paweł Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Steroid hormones have been shown to play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. Large amounts of steroid hormones are locally produced in the peripheral tissues of both genders. Type 5 of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, encoded by the AKR1C3 gene, plays a pivotal role in both androgen and estrogen metabolism, and its expression was found to be deregulated in different cancers. In this study we measured AKR1C3 transcript and protein levels in nontumoral and primary tumoral gastric tissues, and evaluated their association with some clinicopathological features of gastric cancer (GC). We found decreased levels of AKR1C3 transcript (p T3, T4, and G3 grades. We also determined the effect of the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) on AKR1C3 expression in EPG 85-257 and HGC-27 GC cell lines. We found that NaBu elevates the levels of both AKR1C3 transcript and protein in the cell lines we investigated. Together, our results suggest that decreased expression of AKR1C3 may be involved in development of GC and can be restored by NaBu. PMID:27019068

  19. Paper de les Aldo-Ceto reductases en el metabolisme de retinoides: estudi funcional i estructural de l'AKR1B10

    OpenAIRE

    Gallego Moli, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Per primer cop, el nostre grup va identificar un enzim de la superfamilia de les aldo-ceto reductases (AKR) actiu amb retinoides. Atès que l'AKR1B12 presenta una identitat seqüencial pròxima al 70% amb l'AKR1B1 i l'AKR1B10 humanes, es va decidir ampliar l'estudi de l'activitat retinoide oxidoreductasa entre les AKR. En la present Tesi Doctoral, hem aprofundit en l'estudi de l'activitat retinal reductasa de membres de la superfamilia de les aldo-ceto reductases (AKR). El treball es va iniciar ...

  20. Mechanism of progestin resistance in endometrial precancer/cancer through Nrf2-AKR1C1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiying; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenbo; Park, Ji-Young; Guo, Donghui; Liao, Hong; Yi, Xiaofang; Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Donna; Chambers, Setsuko K; Zheng, Wenxin

    2016-03-01

    Progestin resistance is a main obstacle for endometrial precancer/cancer conservative therapy. Therefore, biomarkers to predict progestin resistance and studies to gain a more detailed understanding of the mechanism are needed. The antioxidant Nrf2-AKR1C1 signal pathway exerts chemopreventive activity. However whether it plays a role in progestin resistance has not been explored. In this study, elevated levels of AKR1C1 and Nrf2 were found in progestin-resistant endometrial epithelia, but not in responsive endometrial glands. Exogenous overexpression of Nrf2/AKR1C1 resulted in progestin resistance. Inversely, silencing of Nrf2 or AKR1C1 rendered endometrial cancer cells more susceptible to progestin treatment. Moreover, medroxyprogesterone acetate withdrawal resulted in suppression of Nrf2/AKR1C1 expression accompanied by a reduction of cellular proliferative activity. In addition, brusatol and metformin overcame progestin resistance by down-regulating Nrf2/AKR1C1 expression. Our findings suggest that overexpression of Nrf2 and AKR1C1 in endometrial precancer/cancer may be part of the molecular mechanisms underlying progestin resistance. If validated in a larger cohort, overexpression of Nrf2 and AKR1C1 may prove to be useful biomarkers to predict progestin resistance. Targeting the Nrf2/AKR1C1 pathway may represent a new therapeutic strategy for treatment of endometrial hyperplasia/cancer. PMID:26824415

  1. Deutsche Fremdwortlexikografie zwischen 1800 und 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heier, Anke

    The thesis considers the German lexicography of foreign words from a general evolutionary and selected works based perspective. Using an analytical approach focusing on lexicographic and extended with cultural-semiotic aspects, it is examined if and to what extent a lexicographic and programmatic...... diversity has developed and how it is manifested against the socio- and lingual-historical background of the period between 1800 and 2007. In this context, it is conspicuous how differently the “foreign word” is discussed during the time. Die Arbeit betrachtet die deutsche Fremdwortlexikografie aus...

  2. Deutsch-chinesische Wirtschaftsbeziehungen: Chancen und Risiken

    OpenAIRE

    Georg Erber

    2011-01-01

    Die deutsch-chinesischen Wirtschaftsbeziehungen haben sich in den zurückliegenden Jahrzehnten außerordentlich positiv entwickelt. China ist zu einem der wichtigsten Handelspartner Deutschlands aufgestiegen und könnte im kommenden Jahr bereits nach Frankreich an die zweite Stelle rücken. Jedoch wandelt sich China zunehmend zu einem Investitionsgüterproduzenten und wird so immer stärker mit deutschen Unternehmen auf den Weltmärkten konkurrieren. Anzeichen mehren sich, dass China durch die massi...

  3. On an Argument of David Deutsch

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, R D

    2003-01-01

    We analyse an argument of Deutsch (1999), which purports to show that the deterministic part of classical quantum theory together with deterministic axioms of classical decision theory, together imply that a rational decision maker behaves as if the probabilistic part of quantum theory (Born's law) is true. We uncover two missing assumptions in the argument, and show that the argument also works for an instrumentalist who is prepared to accept that the outcome of a quantum measurement is random in the frequentist sense: Born's law is a consequence of functional and unitary invariance principles belonging to the deterministic part of quantum mechanics. Unfortunately, it turns out that after the necessary corrections we have done no more than give an easier proof of Gleason's (1957) theorem under stronger assumptions. However, for some special cases the proof method gives positive results while using different assumptions to Gleason. This leads to the conjecture that the proof could be improved to give the same...

  4. Potential repository domain for A-KRS at KURT facility site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential repository domains for A-KRS (Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System for High Level Wastes) in geological characteristics of KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) facility site were proposed to develop a repository system design and to perform the safety assessment. The host rock of KURT facility site is one of major Mesozoic plutonic rocks in Korean peninsula, two-mica granite, which was influenced by hydrothermal alteration. The topographical features control the flow lines of surface and groundwater toward south-easterly and all waters discharge to Geum River. Fracture zones distributed in study site are classified into order 2 magnitude and their dominant orientations are N-S and E-W strike. From the geological features and fracture zones, the potential repository domains for A-KRS were determined spatially based on the following conditions: (1) fracture zone must not cross the repository; and (2) the repository must stay away from the fracture zones greater than 50 m. The western region of the fracture zones in the N-S direction with a depth below 200 m from the surface was sufficient for A-KRS repository. Because most of the fracture zones in N-S direction were inclined toward the east, we expected to find a homogeneous rock mass in the western region rather than in the eastern region. The lower left domain of potential domains has more suitable geological and hydrogeological conditions for A-KRS repository.

  5. Genetic mapping of the ecotropic virus-inducing locus Akv-2 of the AKR mouse

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    A combination of somatic cell hybridization and standard mendelian breeding techniques was used to map the AKR ecotropic virus inducibility locus Akv-2 to the centromeric end of chromosome 16. This assignment of Akv-2 further emphasizes the endogenous ecotropic retroviruses are inserted at multiple sites in mouse chromosomes.

  6. Study of AKR hollow pattern characteristics at sub-auroral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Schwingenschuh, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is expected to exhibit a hollow pattern similar to that reported for the comparable emissions from Jupiter (e.g. Jovian decametric emissions - DAM). The hollow pattern is a hollow cone beam with apex at the point of AKR emission, axis tangent to the magnetic field direction, and an opening angle of the order of 80°. The properties of the hollow cone can be derived from the so-called dynamic spectrum which displays the radiation versus the observation time and the frequency. We analyze the auroral kilometric radiation recorded by the electric field experiment (ICE) onboard DEMETER micro-satellite. The dynamic spectra lead us to study the occurrence of the AKR recorded in the sub-auroral regions when the micro-satellite was at altitudes of about 700 km. We address in this contribution issues concerning the characteristics (occurrence, latitude and longitude) of the AKR hollow beam and their relations to the seasonal and solar activity variations.

  7. Potential repository domain for A-KRS at KURT facility site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Park, Kyung Woo; Kim, Geon Young; Choi, Heul Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The potential repository domains for A-KRS (Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System for High Level Wastes) in geological characteristics of KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) facility site were proposed to develop a repository system design and to perform the safety assessment. The host rock of KURT facility site is one of major Mesozoic plutonic rocks in Korean peninsula, two-mica granite, which was influenced by hydrothermal alteration. The topographical features control the flow lines of surface and groundwater toward south-easterly and all waters discharge to Geum River. Fracture zones distributed in study site are classified into order 2 magnitude and their dominant orientations are N-S and E-W strike. From the geological features and fracture zones, the potential repository domains for A-KRS were determined spatially based on the following conditions: (1) fracture zone must not cross the repository; and (2) the repository must stay away from the fracture zones greater than 50 m. The western region of the fracture zones in the N-S direction with a depth below 200 m from the surface was sufficient for A-KRS repository. Because most of the fracture zones in N-S direction were inclined toward the east, we expected to find a homogeneous rock mass in the western region rather than in the eastern region. The lower left domain of potential domains has more suitable geological and hydrogeological conditions for A-KRS repository.

  8. Expression of progesterone metabolizing enzyme genes (AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, SRD5A1, SRD5A2) is altered in human breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent evidence suggests that progesterone metabolites play important roles in regulating breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that tumorous tissues have higher 5α-reductase (5αR) and lower 3α-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (3α-HSO) and 20α-HSO activities. The resulting higher levels of 5α-reduced progesterone metabolites such as 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5αP) in tumorous tissue promote cell proliferation and detachment, whereas the 4-pregnene metabolites, 4-pregnen-3α-ol-20-one (3αHP) and 4-pregnen-20α-ol-3-one (20αDHP), more prominent in normal tissue, have the opposite (anti-cancer-like) effects. The aim of this study was to determine if the differences in enzyme activities between tumorous and nontumorous breast tissues are associated with differences in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to compare relative expression (as a ratio of 18S rRNA) of 5αR type 1 (SRD5A1), 5αR type 2 (SRD5A2), 3α-HSO type 2 (AKR1C3), 3α-HSO type 3 (AKR1C2) and 20α-HSO (AKR1C1) mRNAs in paired (tumorous and nontumorous) breast tissues from 11 patients, and unpaired tumor tissues from 17 patients and normal tissues from 10 reduction mammoplasty samples. Expression of 5αR1 and 5αR2 in 11/11 patients was higher (mean of 4.9- and 3.5-fold, respectively; p < 0.001) in the tumor as compared to the paired normal tissues. Conversely, expression of 3α-HSO2, 3α-HSO3 and 20α-HSO was higher (2.8-, 3.9- and 4.4-fold, respectively; p < 0.001) in normal than in tumor sample. The mean tumor:normal expression ratios for 5αR1 and 5αR2 were about 35–85-fold higher than the tumor:normal expression ratios for the HSOs. Similarly, in the unmatched samples, the tumor:normal ratios for 5αR were significantly higher than the ratios for the HSOs. The study shows changes in progesterone metabolizing enzyme gene expression in human breast carcinoma. Expression of SRD5A1 (5αR1) and SRD5A2 (5αR2) is elevated, and expression of AKR1C1

  9. Role of DNA Methylation on the Expression of the Anthracycline Metabolizing Enzyme AKR7A2 in Human Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Carrie C; Quiñones-Lombraña, Adolfo; Blair, Rachael Hageman; Blanco, Javier G

    2016-04-01

    The intracardiac synthesis of anthracycline alcohol metabolites by aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) contributes to the pathogenesis of anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity. AKR7A2 is the most abundant anthracycline reductase in hearts from donors with and without Down syndrome (DS), and its expression varies between individuals (≈tenfold). We investigated whether DNA methylation impacts AKR7A2 expression in hearts from donors with (n = 11) and without DS (n = 30). Linear models were used to test for associations between methylation status and cardiac AKR7A2 expression. In hearts from donors without DS, DNA methylation status at CpG site -865 correlated with AKR7A2 mRNA (Pearson's regression coefficient, r = -0.4051, P = 0.0264) and AKR7A2 protein expression (r = -0.5818, P = 0.0071). In heart tissue from donors with DS, DNA methylation status at CpG site -232 correlated with AKR7A2 protein expression (r = 0.8659, P = 0.0025). Multiple linear regression modeling revealed that methylation at several CpG sites is associated with the synthesis of cardiotoxic daunorubicinol. AKR7A2 methylation status in lymphoblastoid cell lines from donors with and without DS was examined to explore potential parallelisms between cardiac tissue and lymphoid cells. These results suggest that DNA methylation impacts AKR7A2 expression and the synthesis of cardiotoxic daunorubicinol. PMID:25962911

  10. 25 years of Deutsche Kernreaktor-Versicherungsgemeinschaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May 1982, the Deutsche Kernreaktor-Versicherungsgemeinschaft (German Nuclear Reactor Insurance Pool, DKVG), a pool of 111 insurance companies authorized to do business in the Federal Republic of Germany, had been engaged in the nuclear insurance business successfully for twenty-five years. DKVG is mainly engaged in the re-insurance against damage arising from nuclear power and fires, including the costs of decontamination and cleaning of plants used to split nuclear fuels and facilities and inventories, including the source materials and fuels of such facilities, and against legal third party liability arising from the operation of nuclear facilities, including the storage and disposal of waste and plant components turned radioactive. DKVG can reinsure abroad the risks it covers and, in turn, offer re-insurance of risks insured by foreign nuclear insurance pools. The largest damage to be covered also by DKVG to this day has been the property damage arising from the March 28, 1979 accident at the TMI-2 nuclear power station in the United States. The main problem faced by the nuclear plant insurance business in the Federal Republic of Germany, as in some other countries, is an increase in coverage capacity over a medium term. (orig.)

  11. The AKR gene family and modifying sex ratios in palms through abiotic stress responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Poopear, Supannee; Jomchai, Nukoon; Uthaipaisanwong, Pichahpuk; Ruang-Areerate, Panthita; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Sonthirod, Chutima; Ukoskit, Kittipat; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke

    2015-05-01

    Sex ratio (SR), the ratio of female inflorescences to total inflorescences, is one of the main yield components of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq). The SR quantitative trait locus (QTL) was recently identified on linkage (LG) 8 with a phenotype variance explained (PVE) of 11.3 %. The use of both genetic and physical mapping is one strategy for uncovering the genetic basis of the traits. Here, we report the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) and fosmid libraries, and their use for physical mapping in oil palm. Combined, the libraries consist of more than 200,000 clones, representing 6.35 genome equivalents. Physical mapping at the SR locus was implemented by incorporating the published oil palm genome sequence and positive BAC/fosmid clones as identified by colony PCR screening. Based on the previously published sequences, the interval (about 184 kb) was comprised of 19 contigs of the known sequences (~117 kb, 64 %). After, combining the 454 pyrosequences of 15 positive clones and the previously published sequences, the known sequences were revealed to cover about 82 % of the interval (~150 kb), and were used for identifying the new markers by designing 35 gene-based and 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR)-amplified primers. As a result, a putative aldo-keto reductase gene (named EgAKR1) was revealed to be a promising candidate for sex ratio determination, via controlling female inflorescence number (11 % of PVE). This was predicted from the two newly identified polymorphic marker loci (mEgSSRsr8-21LB and mEgAKR1-9) designing from EgAKR1. The functions of AKR gene families in other plant species and our promoter analysis suggested that EgAKR1 may contribute to the sex ratio through abiotic stress responsiveness. PMID:25504196

  12. Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3), one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in tumor angiogenesis and its potential role in promoting PCa progression. To recapitulate elevated AKR1C3 expression in cancerous prostate, the human PCa PC-3 cell line was stably transfected with an AKR1C3 expression construct to establish PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis were performed to identify AKR1C3-mediated pathways of activation and their potential biological consequences in PC-3 cells. Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and an in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assays were applied to validate the pro-angiogenic activity of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants identified by bioinformatics analysis. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis suggested that overexpression of AKR1C3 in PC-3 cells modulates estrogen and androgen metabolism, activates insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and Akt signaling pathways, as well as promotes tumor angiogenesis and aggressiveness. Levels of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and Akt activation as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and secretion were significantly elevated in PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants in comparison to PC3-mock transfectants. PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants also promoted endothelial cell (EC) tube formation on Matrigel as compared to the AKR1C3-negative parental PC-3 cells and PC3-mock transfectants. Pre-treatment of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants with a selective IGF-1R kinase inhibitor (AG1024) or a non-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) abolished ability of the cells to promote EC tube formation. Bioinformatics

  13. cDNA cloning, expression and activity of a second human aflatoxin B1-metabolizing member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, AKR7A3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, L P; Primiano, T; Groopman, J D; Kensler, T W; Sutter, T R

    1999-07-01

    The aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) aldehyde metabolite of AFB1 may contribute to the cytotoxicity of this hepatocarcinogen via protein adduction. Aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductases, specifically the NADPH-dependent aldo-keto reductases of rat (AKR7A1) and human (AKR7A2), are known to metabolize the AFB1 dihydrodiol by forming AFB1 dialcohol. Using a rat AKR7A1 cDNA, we isolated and characterized a distinct aldo-keto reductase (AKR7A3) from an adult human liver cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of AKR7A3 shares 80 and 88% identity with rat AKR7A1 and human AKR7A2, respectively. Recombinant rat AKR7A1 and human AKR7A3 were expressed and purified from Escherichia coli as hexa-histidine tagged fusion proteins. These proteins catalyzed the reduction of several model carbonyl-containing substrates. The NADPH-dependent formation of AFB1 dialcohol by recombinant human AKR7A3 was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies produced using recombinant rat AKR7A1 protein were shown to detect nanogram amounts of rat and human AKR7A protein. The amount of AKR7A-related protein in hepatic cytosols of 1, 2-dithiole-3-thione-treated rats was 18-fold greater than in cytosols from untreated animals. These antibodies detected AKR7A-related protein in normal human liver samples ranging from 0.3 to 0.8 microg/mg cytosolic protein. Northern blot analysis showed varying levels of expression of AKR7A RNA in human liver and in several extrahepatic tissues, with relatively high levels in the stomach, pancreas, kidney and liver. Based on the kinetic parameters determined using recombinant human AKR7A3 and AFB1 dihydrodiol at pH 7.4, the catalytic efficiency of this reaction (k2/K, per M/s) equals or exceeds those reported for other enzymes, for example cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases, known to metabolize AFB1 in vivo. These findings indicate that, depending on the extent of AFB1 dihydrodiol formation, AKR

  14. Determination of AKR-2 leakage beam and verification at iron and water arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper computational procedures and the experimental determination of the AKR-2 (Technical University Dresden) beam parameters are described. The calculations were performed using the MCNPX code () and the nuclear data libraries ENDF/B VI.2., ENDF/B VII.0., JEFF 3.1., JENDL 3.3 and BROND 3. The nuclear data were processed using the NJOY code (). The measurements were performed with a two-parameter stilbene spectrometer (). The measured leakage neutron spectrum was used as the input spectrum for the resulting neutron transport calculations. Because of the poor energy resolution of the experimental spectra the calculated photon leakage spectrum was used as the resulting input spectrum for the photon transport calculations. As the geometrically simple models acceptable for validation, transport through a 25 cm thick iron target and a 20 cm thick water target were used. Both targets were placed at the horizontal channel of the reactor AKR-2.

  15. Detection of calmodulin binding protein at 170 KDA in BALB, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmodulin (CAM) has been shown to bind to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (170 kDa) and is phosphorylated in a EGF dependent manner in the A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells. In the present study, they report 125I-CAM binding to a 170 kDa protein detected in cell membrane vesicles of Balb/3T3, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells. Purified plasma membranes from these cells were resolved via electrophoresis (without heat denaturation) and electroblotted onto nictrocellulose paper. Upon hybridizing against 125I-CAM, a distinct autoradiographic band occurred at 170 kDa for all the cells lines under study. The binding of CAM is specific and can be displaced with the addition of excess unlabeled CAM. The result suggest that 125I-CAM may bind to the 170 kDa EGF receptor in BALB, AKR, DON and chicken granulosa cells

  16. Deutsch als "leicht zu erlernende Fremdsprache"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz, Gunde

    2005-01-01

    die Nutzung leichter Stellen im Mittelpunkt (3. Dabei werden einige Kandidaten benannt, die sowohl aus vorliegenden Forschungsergebnissen als auch aus Beobachtungen in Alltag und Fremdsprachenunterricht (FSU gewonnen wurden. Die so gewonnenen Einsichten sind als Arbeitshypothesen und somit als im Wandel begriffen zu verstehen.Ich möchte mit diesem Beitrag einladen zu einer neuen Perspektive auf das Deutsche als Fremdsprache, und zwar mit der Absicht etwas zu verändern:"Applied linguistics is not simply a matter of matching up findings about language with pre-existing problems but of using findings to explore how the perception of problems might be changed. It may be that when problems are reformulated from a different point of view they become more amenable to solution. This changed perception may then, in turn, have implications for linguistics." (Cook : 2003: 10Mein Ziel ist erreicht, wenn sich vorliegende Fragestellung als Schlüssel zu verbesserter DaF-Unterrichtspraxis ("problems [...] become more amenable to solution" erweist. Falls sie sogar "implications for linguistics" zeitigt, umso besser.

  17. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Up-Regulates AKR1C1 Expression Through Nuclear Factor-Y in Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kai LI; Ding, Shijia; Chen, Ke; Qin, Dongdong; Qu, Jialin; Wang, Sen; Sheng, Yanrui; Zou, Chengcheng; Chen, Limin; Tang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein has long been recognized as an important transcriptional transactivator of several genes. Human aldo-keto reductase family 1, member C1 (AKR1C1), a member of the family of AKR1CS, is significantly increased in HBx-expressed cells. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanism of HBx in regulating AKR1C1 expression in HepG2.2.15 cells and the role of AKR1C1 for HBV-induced HCC. Materials and Methods RT-PCR was performed to de...

  18. The Aldo-Keto Reductase Akr1b7 Gene Is a Common Transcriptional Target of Xenobiotic Receptors Pregnane X Receptor and Constitutive Androstane Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ming-Jie; Takahashi, Yuki; Wada, Taira; He, Jinhan; Gao, Jie; Tian, Yanan; Li, Song; Xie, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase (AKR) family 1, member 7 (AKR1B7), a member of the AKR superfamily, has been suggested to play an important role in the detoxification of lipid peroxidation by-products. The nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are xenosensors postulated to alleviate xeno- and endobiotic chemical insults. In this study, we show that the mouse Akr1b7 is a shared transcriptional target of PXR and CAR in the liver and i...

  19. A novel aldo-keto reductase from Jatropha curcas L. (JcAKR) plays a crucial role in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a potent electrophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalkar, Shalini; Sreeharsha, Rachapudi Venkata; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2016-05-20

    Abiotic stress leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which further results in the production of reactive carbonyls (RCs) including methylglyoxal (MG). MG, an α, β-dicarbonyl aldehyde, is highly toxic to plants and the mechanism behind its detoxification is not well understood. Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) play a role in detoxification of reactive aldehydes and ketones. In the present study, we cloned and characterised a putative AKR from Jatropha curcas (JcAKR). Phylogenetically, it forms a small clade with AKRs of Glycine max and Rauwolfia serpentina. JcAKR was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3) cells and the identity of the purified protein was confirmed through MALDI-TOF analysis. The recombinant protein had high enzyme activity and catalytic efficiency in assays containing MG as the substrate. Protein modelling and docking studies revealed MG was efficiently bound to JcAKR. Under progressive drought and salinity stress, the enzyme and transcript levels of JcAKR were higher in leaves compared to roots. Further, the bacterial and yeast cells expressing JcAKR showed more tolerance towards PEG (5%), NaCl (200mM) and MG (5mM) treatments compared to controls. In conclusion, our results project JcAKR as a possible and potential target in crop improvement for abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:26995646

  20. Nuclear technology education at the new AKR-2 of the technical university Dresden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former research and training reactor AKR-1 was completely renewed, including the peripheral technical systems and the modernization of the reactor instrumentation with digital control technology. After licensing by the local authorities the technical University Dresden has Germany's latest training reactor. Basic experiments are performed for the following disciplines: nuclear energy technology, physics, teacher training, industrial engineering, nuclear medicine. Training courses cover nuclear medicine, nuclear physics, radiation protection and reactor physics. Further tasks include research program on neutron detectors, neutron physics, radiation spectroscopy, nuclear data bases.

  1. Comparative analysis of organizational behaviours in CFR and Deutsche Bahn

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Cătălina IOSIF; Simona VASILACHE

    2013-01-01

    The paper compares the organizational behaviour in CFR and Deutsche Bahn, from the point of view of employees, as well as managers, outlining possible similarities and best practices which can be, potentially, transferred. The main issues in focus regard what are the elements which contribute to the organizational behaviour of each company, a complex and controversial concept, and how national culture influences organizational culture, in an attempt to standardize what seems to be ineffable i...

  2. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg. Research report 1997/1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (DKFZ, German Cancer Research Center) publishes alternating every year the 'Research Report' and the 'Wissenschaftlicher Ergebnisbericht' (in German). Both volumes are reports on the present state of research activities of the DKFZ as a National Research Center to the funding federal and state authorities (Federal Republic of Germany, Land (state) Baden-Wuerttemberg). Furthermore they shall inform colleagues and the scientifically interested public. Both reports are structured according to the center's eight research programs. (orig.)

  3. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  4. Using the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm to partition arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovaca, Samir

    2010-03-01

    Using the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, we will develop a method for solving a class of problems in which we need to determine parts of an array and then apply a specified function to each independent part. Since present quantum computers are not robust enough for code writing and execution, we will build a model of a vector quantum computer that implements the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm from a machine language view using the APL2 programming language. The core of the method is an operator (DJBOX) which allows evaluation of an arbitrary function f by the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. Two key functions of the method are GET/PARTITION and CALC/WITH/PARTITIONS. The GET/PARTITION function determines parts of an array based on the function f. The CALC/WITH/PARTITIONS function determines parts of an array based on the function f and then applies another function to each independent part. We will imagine the method is implemented on the above vector quantum computer. We will show that the method can be successfully executed.

  5. Ascorbic acid prevents acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice by ameliorating glutathione recovery and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Lee, Jaeyong; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Homma, Takujiro; Kang, Eun Sil; Saito, Yuka; Yamada, Sohsuke; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2016-08-15

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) plays a role in the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA), and AKR1A-deficient mice produce about 10-15% of the AsA that is produced by wild-type mice. We found that acetaminophen (AAP) hepatotoxicity was aggravated in AKR1A-deficient mice. The pre-administration of AsA in the drinking water markedly ameliorated the AAP hepatotoxicity in the AKR1A-deficient mice. Treatment of the mice with AAP decreased both glutathione and AsA levels in the liver in the early phase after AAP administration, and an AsA deficiency delayed the recovery of the glutathione content in the healing phase. While in cysteine supply systems; a neutral amino acid transporter ASCT1, a cystine transporter xCT, enzymes for the transsulfuration pathway, and autophagy markers, were all elevated in the liver as the result of the AAP treatment, the AsA deficiency suppressed their induction. Thus, AsA appeared to exert a protective effect against AAP hepatotoxicity by ameliorating the supply of cysteine that is available for glutathione synthesis as a whole. Because some drugs produce reactive oxygen species, resulting in the consumption of glutathione during the metabolic process, the intake of sufficient amounts of AsA would be beneficial for protecting against the hepatic damage caused by such drugs. PMID:27288086

  6. State of roadway supports in the mines of RAG Deutsche Steinkohle; Stand des Streckenausbaus bei der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opolony, Klaus [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistikdienste

    2011-03-15

    The drivage of roadways in the mines of RAG Deutsche Steinkohle poses a new major economic challenge every year. In 2009 about 500 Mio. Euro were invested in the preparatory work for development and gate roads. The roadway supports in gate road drivages are described in the contribution. These roadways and their support concepts are the basic prerequisite to ensure efficient coal extraction. About 90% of the total roadway drivages are undertaken in the seam horizon as spine and gate roads. (orig.)

  7. Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1 gene in porcine ovary and uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Sue-Yun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1 belongs to a superfamily of NADPH-dependent reductases that convert a wide range of substrates, including carbohydrates, steroid hormones, and endogenous prostaglandins. The 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD is a member of AKR family. The aims of this study were to determine its expression in the ovary and uterus endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE experiments were performed to obtain the 5' and 3' ends of the porcine 20alpha-HSD cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, northern blot analysis, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine 20alpha-HSD. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine the localization in the ovary. Results The porcine 20alpha-HSD cDNA is 957 bp in length and encodes a protein of 319 amino acids. The cloned cDNA was virtually the same as the porcine AKR1C1 gene (337 amino acids reported recently, and only differed in the C-terminal region (the AKR1C1 gene has a longer C-terminal region than our sequence. The 20alpha-HSD gene (from now on referred to as AKR1C1 cloned in this paper encodes a deletion of 4 amino acids, compared with the C-terminal region of AKR1C1 genes from other animals. Porcine AKR1C1 mRNA was expressed on day 5, 10, 12, 15 of the cycle and 0-60 of pregnancy in the ovary. The mRNA was also specifically detected in the uterine endometrium on day 30 of pregnancy. Western blot analysis indicated that the pattern of AKR1C1 protein in the ovary during the estrous cycle and uterus during early pregnancy was similar to that of AKR1C1 mRNA expression. The recombinant protein produced in CHO cells was detected at approximately 37 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that pig AKR1C1 protein was localized in the large luteal cells in the early stages of the estrous cycle and before parturition

  8. Thermal Dimensioning of SiC Canister Applied A-KRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Inyoung; Choi, Heuijoo; Yoo, Malgobalgebitnala [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Reducing toxicity and volume of SNF and reusing valuable fissile materials, pyro-processing connected with SFR is under-developing. The A-KRS is composed of 1 cm thick copper cold-spray-coated cast iron canisters, buffer blocks, disposal holes and disposal tunnels, etc. To manufacture disposal canisters, massive un-reusable copper and iron resources are required. Recently, SiC which has high thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties is investigated as a substitute material of metal canister to save metal resources. In this study, thermal performance of SiC canister is investigated and thermal dimensioning of SiC canister applied A-KRS is conducted to estimate thermal applicability of SiC canister in repository. In this study, thermal applicability of SiC as a substitute material of copper and cast iron canister is assessed. Due to higher thermal conductivity of SiC, calculated maximum temperature of SiC applied system is lower than original metal canister applied system and estimated minimum disposal hole pitch of SiC canister system is narrower than metal canister system. But decrease of distance between disposal hole pitch by adopting SiC canister is negligible considering engineering and safety margin. As a result, it is confirmed that SiC could be used as a substitute materials of metal in respect of thermal aspect. To apply SiC canister in deep geological repository, however, thermal-mechanical assessment need to be conducted as future studies. Especially thermally induced stress and intactness of canister must be estimated because SiC is fragile material and its thermal conductivity is highly dependent on temperature.

  9. Thermal Dimensioning of SiC Canister Applied A-KRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reducing toxicity and volume of SNF and reusing valuable fissile materials, pyro-processing connected with SFR is under-developing. The A-KRS is composed of 1 cm thick copper cold-spray-coated cast iron canisters, buffer blocks, disposal holes and disposal tunnels, etc. To manufacture disposal canisters, massive un-reusable copper and iron resources are required. Recently, SiC which has high thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties is investigated as a substitute material of metal canister to save metal resources. In this study, thermal performance of SiC canister is investigated and thermal dimensioning of SiC canister applied A-KRS is conducted to estimate thermal applicability of SiC canister in repository. In this study, thermal applicability of SiC as a substitute material of copper and cast iron canister is assessed. Due to higher thermal conductivity of SiC, calculated maximum temperature of SiC applied system is lower than original metal canister applied system and estimated minimum disposal hole pitch of SiC canister system is narrower than metal canister system. But decrease of distance between disposal hole pitch by adopting SiC canister is negligible considering engineering and safety margin. As a result, it is confirmed that SiC could be used as a substitute materials of metal in respect of thermal aspect. To apply SiC canister in deep geological repository, however, thermal-mechanical assessment need to be conducted as future studies. Especially thermally induced stress and intactness of canister must be estimated because SiC is fragile material and its thermal conductivity is highly dependent on temperature

  10. Analysis of gene expression in pancreatic islets from diet-induced obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Imai, Yumi; Patel, Hiral R.; Nicolai M. Doliba; Matschinsky, Franz M.; Tobias, John W.; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2008-01-01

    In insulin-resistant status such as obesity, failure of pancreatic islets to increase insulin secretion leads to diabetes. We sought to screen for the islet genes that facilitate islet adaptation to obesity by comparing gene expression profiles between two strains of obesity-prone inbred mice with different propensities for hyperglycemia. C57BL/6J and AKR/J were fed regular rodent chow or high-fat diet, after which islet morphology, secretory function, and gene expression were assessed. AKR/J...

  11. Identifizierung und Analyse deutsch-türkischer Innovationsnetzwerke: Erste Ergebnisse des TGIN-Projektes

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Dominik; Pyka, Andreas; Aydin, Seda; Klauß, Lena; Stahl, Fabian; Santircioglu, Ali; Oberegelsbacher, Silvia; Rashidi, Sheida; Onan, Gaye; Erginkoç, Suna

    2012-01-01

    Dieses Paper fasst die ersten Ergebnisse des Forschungsprojektes ?Wissenstransfer in Deutsch-Türkischen Innovationsnetzwerke (TGIN) im Kontext der Europäischen Union? zusammen. TGIN eröffnet eine neue Perspektive auf die deutsch-türkische Beziehungen, indem es die ökonomischen Win-Win Situationen aufzeigt, welche durch Deutsch-Türkische Wissensmigration, transnationale Unternehmer und Innovationsnetzwerke entstehen. Im Zentrum der europäischen Wachstumsstrategie steht die Schaffung von Arbeit...

  12. Geologie und deutsche Ölpolitik, 1928 bis 1938

    OpenAIRE

    Kockel, Titus

    2003-01-01

    Für den Zeitraum des Achnacarry-Kartells - des ersten globalen Kartells der größten Ölkonzerne Esso, Shell, Anglo-Iranian und anderer - untersucht die Arbeit den Einfluß technologisch-wissenschaftlicher Neuerungen auf die deutsche Ölpolitik. Auf der Basis neuer Quellen vor allem des preußischen geologischen Dienstes und des Vierjahresplanbeauftragten für die Förderung der Erdölgewinnung, Alfred Bentz, untersucht sie vor allem die heimische Erdölexploration der preußischen Erdölkonzerne und de...

  13. Quantum computation with classical light: The Deutsch Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin [Photonics and Mathematical Optics Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849 (Mexico); University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Francis, Jason [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); McLaren, Melanie [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I. [Photonics and Mathematical Optics Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849 (Mexico); Forbes, Andrew [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas, E-mail: konradt@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); National Institute of Theoretical Physics, Durban Node, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2015-08-28

    We present an implementation of the Deutsch Algorithm using linear optical elements and laser light. We encoded two quantum bits in form of superpositions of electromagnetic fields in two degrees of freedom of the beam: its polarisation and orbital angular momentum. Our approach, based on a Sagnac interferometer, offers outstanding stability and demonstrates that optical quantum computation is possible using classical states of light. - Highlights: • We implement the Deutsh Algorithm using linear optical elements and classical light. • Our qubits are encoded in the polarisation and orbital angular momentum of the beam. • We show that it is possible to achieve quantum computation with two qubits in the classical domain of light.

  14. Quantum computation with classical light: The Deutsch Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an implementation of the Deutsch Algorithm using linear optical elements and laser light. We encoded two quantum bits in form of superpositions of electromagnetic fields in two degrees of freedom of the beam: its polarisation and orbital angular momentum. Our approach, based on a Sagnac interferometer, offers outstanding stability and demonstrates that optical quantum computation is possible using classical states of light. - Highlights: • We implement the Deutsh Algorithm using linear optical elements and classical light. • Our qubits are encoded in the polarisation and orbital angular momentum of the beam. • We show that it is possible to achieve quantum computation with two qubits in the classical domain of light

  15. Die postkoloniale deutsche Literatur in Namibia (1920 - 2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Die Entstehung außereuropäischer Literaturen, die sich europäischer Sprachen bedienen, begründet sich in der Etablierung europäischer Auswanderergruppen auf anderen Kontinenten, wobei diese Auswanderung meist in Zusammenhang mit der kolonialen Expansion der Europäer steht. Auch die deutsche Sprache hat die Grenzen Europas überschreiten können und sich auf anderen Kontinenten verbreitet – wenn auch in vergleichsweise bescheideneren Maßen als andere westeuropäische Sprachen. Allerdings muß in d...

  16. 2008 Winter meeting of the Deutsches Atomforum: opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has always been a tradition at the Winter Meeting of the Deutsches Atomforum to review the status of nuclear power in the world, in Europe and, of course, in Germany. On the global and European scenes, nuclear power is experiencing an upswing, while it continues to be blocked in Germany. Given the pressing issues of climate protection, continuity of energy supply, and the prices of energy resources, the future of nuclear power can well be seen in an optimistic light. The EU Commission recognizes the potential of nuclear power for a sustainable energy mix; the mood of the German public is shifting; and even media known for their critical attitude to nuclear power are now clamoring for an unbiased discussion of the issue. The ideological ban on thinking is waning. There will be a reassessment of nuclear power also in Germany because of the realities to be faced. If you really want to protect the climate, you cannot exclude the nuclear power option. After all, this is not a matter of confrontation designed to divide society; such times are past and gone for nuclear power. There is need for a factual dialog. We extend a sincere invitation to join in this dialog, and we want to contribute to it. After all, this is the true purpose of the Deutsches Atomforum, to which all of us feel committed. (orig.)

  17. Deutsche und slowenische sprachliche Beziehungen und interkulturelle Linguistik: Beispiel Internationalismen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uršula Krevs Birk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit den deutschen und slowenischen lexikalischen Internationalismen als einem relevanten Inhalt der interkulturellen Linguistik des Sprachenpaares Deutsch-Slowenisch. Im Gemeinsamen europäischen Referenzrahmen für Sprachen sind Internationalismen wichtige sprachliche Segmente einzelner Sprachen, auf die mehrsprachige Kommunikationspartner in einer interkulturellen Kommunikationssituation zurückgreifen können. Obwohl die meisten Internationalismen äquivalente Bedeutungen aufweisen, gibt es bei einzelnen deutsch-slowenischen Lexempaaren Unterschiede. Einzelne lexikalische Internationalismen können sich in ihrer Semantik völlig unterscheiden, oder sie können in bestimmten semantischen Komponenten ­gleich und in anderen unterschiedlich sein. Dies ist ein Reflex einer Jahrhunderte langen Koexistenz der deutschen und der slowenischen Sprache, denn dieser geographische und kulturhistorische Kontakt wie auch allgemeine Globalisierungstendenzen hinterließen Spuren, die auch bei lexikalischen Internationalismen und ihren Bedeutungsstrukturen zu beobachten sind. Anhand einiger ausgewählter deutscher und slowenischer Internationalismen wird gezeigt, dass Bedeutungsstrukturen trotz Ähnlichkeit der Formative differieren können, was auch zum Problem in der interkulturellen Kommunikation werden kann.

  18. Implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with macroscopic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenenko, Henry; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-05-01

    Quantum computing implementations under consideration today typically deal with systems with microscopic degrees of freedom such as photons, ions, cold atoms, and superconducting circuits. The quantum information is stored typically in low-dimensional Hilbert spaces such as qubits, as quantum effects are strongest in such systems. It has, however, been demonstrated that quantum effects can be observed in mesoscopic and macroscopic systems, such as nanomechanical systems and gas ensembles. While few-qubit quantum information demonstrations have been performed with such macroscopic systems, a quantum algorithm showing exponential speedup over classical algorithms is yet to be shown. Here, we show that the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm can be implemented with macroscopic ensembles. The encoding that we use avoids the detrimental effects of decoherence that normally plagues macroscopic implementations. We discuss two mapping procedures which can be chosen depending upon the constraints of the oracle and the experiment. Both methods have an exponential speedup over the classical case, and only require control of the ensembles at the level of the total spin of the ensembles. It is shown that both approaches reproduce the qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, and are robust under decoherence.

  19. Results of selected research projects of information and communication technology at RAG Deutsche Steinkohle; Ergebnisse ausgewaehlter Forschungsprojekte der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik bei der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostermann, Dirk [RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Herne (Germany); Zentralbereich IT-Strategie, RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany); Skirde, Juergen; Bramsiepe, Heribert [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). IT-Infrastruktur

    2009-10-01

    RAG Deutsche Steinkohle participated in two important research and development projects between 2006 and 2009. The important developments such as RFID, mobile WLAN camera and underground mobile radio are described in this contribution. (orig.)

  20. The TyrR transcription factor regulates the divergent akr-ipdC operons of Enterobacter cloacae UW5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Thomas J D; Patten, Cheryl L

    2015-01-01

    The TyrR transcription factor regulates genes involved in the uptake and biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in Enterobacteriaceae. Genes may be positively or negatively regulated depending on the presence or absence of each aromatic amino acid, all three of which function as cofactors for TyrR. In this report we detail the transcriptional control of two divergently transcribed genes, akr and ipdC, by TyrR, elucidated by promoter fusion expression assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to assess protein-DNA interactions. Expression of both genes was shown to be controlled by TyrR via interactions with two TyrR boxes located within the akr-ipdC intergenic region. Expression of ipdC required TyrR bound to the proximal strong box, and is strongly induced by phenylalanine, and to a lesser extent by tryptophan and tyrosine. Down-regulation of akr was reliant on interactions with the weak box, and may also require a second, as yet unidentified protein for further repression. Tyrosine enhanced repression of akr. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that TyrR interacts with both the strong and weak boxes, and that binding of the weak box in vitro requires an intact adjacent strong box. While the strong box shows a high degree of conservation with the TyrR binding site consensus sequence, the weak box has atypical spacing of the two half sites comprising the palindromic arms. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated sequence-specific interaction between TyrR and the weak box. This is the first report of TyrR-controlled expression of two divergent protein-coding genes, transcribed from independent promoters. Moreover, the identification of a predicted aldo-keto reductase as a member of the TyrR regulon further extends the function of the TyrR regulon. PMID:25811953

  1. MEF2 and NR2F2 cooperate to regulate Akr1c14 gene expression in mouse MA-10 Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di-Luoffo, M; Brousseau, C; Tremblay, J J

    2016-03-01

    Leydig cells are essential for male reproductive development and health throughout life. Production of androgens [testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT)] as well as intermediate steroids [progesterone, dihydroprogesterone (DHP)] is tightly regulated. In the mouse, the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme (3α-HSD, AKR1C14) catalyses the interconversion of DHP and DHT into less potent steroids. Despite its importance, nothing is currently known regarding the regulation of Akr1c14 expression in Leydig cells. Recently, the transcription factors MEF2 and NR2F2 were identified in the mouse testis including in Leydig cells where they were found to regulate expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis. Analyses of transcriptomic data from MEF2- or NR2F2-deficient MA-10 Leydig cells revealed a significant decrease in Akr1c14 mRNA levels. Using qPCR, we confirmed that Akr1c14 mRNA levels were decreased in MEF2- and in NR2F2-deficient conditions. Conversely, overexpression of MEF2A or/and NR2F2 in MA-10 Leydig cells led to an increase in endogenous Akr1c14 mRNA levels. Recruitment of MEF2 and NR2F2 to the Akr1c14 promoter was confirmed by ChIP while DNA precipitation assays revealed direct binding of MEF2 but not NR2F2 to this region. In functional promoter studies, NR2F2 was found to activate the Akr1c14 promoter while MEF2A on its own had no effect. Combination of both NR2F2 and MEF2A led to a cooperative activation of the Akr1c14 promoter and this required intact MEF2 and NR2F2 elements. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that MEF2 and NR2F2 are present in the same protein complex. In conclusion, our results identify a novel cooperation between MEF2 factors and NR2F2 in the expression of the Akr1c14 gene involved in the regulation of DHP/DHT levels. PMID:26748576

  2. The Aldo-Keto Reductase AKR1B10 Is Up-Regulated in Keloid Epidermis, Implicating Retinoic Acid Pathway Dysregulation in the Pathogenesis of Keloid Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, Natalie; Hodgkinson, Tom; Arscott, Guyan; Har-Shai, Yaron; Paus, Ralf; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-07-01

    Keloid disease is a recurrent fibroproliferative cutaneous tumor of unknown pathogenesis for which clinical management remains unsatisfactory. To obtain new insights into hitherto underappreciated aspects of keloid pathobiology, we took a laser capture microdissection-based, whole-genome microarray analysis approach to identify distinct keloid disease-associated gene expression patterns within defined keloid regions. Identification of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme AKR1B10 as highly up-regulated in keloid epidermis suggested that an imbalance of retinoic acid metabolism is likely associated with keloid disease. Here, we show that AKR1B10 transfection into normal human keratinocytes reproduced the abnormal retinoic acid pathway expression pattern we had identified in keloid epidermis. Cotransfection of AKR1B10 with a luciferase reporter plasmid showed reduced retinoic acid response element activity, supporting the hypothesis of retinoic acid synthesis deficiency in keloid epidermis. Paracrine signals released by AKR1B10-overexpressing keratinocytes into conditioned medium resulted in up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β1, transforming growth factor-β2, and collagens I and III in both keloid and normal skin fibroblasts, mimicking the typical profibrotic keloid profile. Our study results suggest that insufficient retinoic acid synthesis by keloid epidermal keratinocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of keloid disease. We refocus attention on the role of injured epithelium in keloid disease and identify AKR1B10 as a potential new target in future management of keloid disease. PMID:27025872

  3. The AKR training reactor of the University of Technology Dresden and its experimental programme for education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The training and research reactor AKR (from the German Ausbildungskernreaktor) of the University of Technology Dresden was put into operation in the late 1970s, i.e. at a time when experts in Western and Eastern European countries expected an extensive development of nuclear energy generation. In the eastern part of Germany, i.e. the former German Democratic Republic, a 70 MW(el) WWER nuclear power plant (NPP) was in operation at Rheinsberg since 1966. A further five NPPs of the Russian WWER type (440 MW(e)) were put into operation at Greifswald on the Baltic Sea coast between 1973 and 1989. Three more plants were under construction at that site. At the end of the 1980s, a new NPP was being planned at Stendal, a 1000 MW(e) WWER plant. For construction, licensing, operation and maintenance of these NPPs, a well educated and trained staff was required. Authorities and technical surveillance organizations should have qualified experts at their disposal, too. Consequently, in 1968 the University of Technology Dresden introduced appropriate courses for the education of nuclear engineers in order to contribute to fulfilling the demands of industry, science and administration. Students were taught in lectures, but theoretical knowledge had to be combined with practical experience based on an extensive programme of fundamental experiments in the fields of reactor physics, neutron physics, nuclear technology, radiation measurement techniques, radiation protection, radiation dosimetry and others. The full scale of this experimental programme can preferably be made available by small training reactors which can be operated with great diversity in terms of experimental intentions and without commercial restrictions

  4. The role of KURT and A-KRS in the development of generic safety cases in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the draft guidelines for a deep geological disposal system for high-level wastes in Korea, the total annual risk for the average person resulting from the radiation exposure should not exceed 1.0 x 10-6/yr and the expected radiation exposure to the average person for each scenario should not exceed 10 mSv/yr (NSSC, 2012). Regulatory compliance should be supported by multiple lines of reasoning such as probabilistic analysis of exposure dose and risk, uncertainty analysis, natural analogue, complementary safety indicators such as radionuclide concentration and release rates, secure of defence-in-depth. The integrated safety assessment should also be made and updated consistently based on up-to-date data and information for each stage of deep geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) such as basic studies, site characterisation, design, construction, operation, closure, environmental monitoring after closure and so on. These are the bases for the development of a safety case in Korea. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is now developing generic safety cases based on the Advanced Korean Reference Repository System (A-KRS) and the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT). The A-KRS is a geological disposal system for radioactive wastes from the pyro-processing of PWR spent nuclear fuels in Korea. KURT is a small-scale underground research laboratory constructed and operated to assess the feasibility, safety, appropriateness and stability of the disposal concept by making various in situ tests and experiments. In this paper, the concept and long-term safety assessment of the A-KRS design, the role of the KURT in the development of safety cases, and the development of complex scenarios to support the development of generic safety cases in Korea are described. (authors)

  5. [Ulrike Plath. Esten und Deutsche in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Plath, Ulrike. Esten und Deutsche in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands: Freundheitskonstruktionen, lebenswelten, Kolonialphantasien 1750-1810 (Veröffenlichungen des Nordost-Instituts, Bd. 11.)Harrasowitz. Wiesbaden 2011

  6. Neue Liste der Crocodile, Schildkröten und Eidechsen Deutsch Ost-Afrikas

    OpenAIRE

    Tornier, Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit enthält ein Verzeichniss jener Crocodil-Schildkröten- und Eidechsen-Arten, welche bis zur Gegenwart als Bewohner Deutsch-Ost-Afrikas erkannt worden sind. Unter ihnen wurden dabei diejenigen, welche erst nach dem Erscheinen meines Buches: "Die Kriechthiere Deutsch-Ost-Afrikas", Berlin 1897, daselbst entdeckt wurden, durch Bezeichnung mit einem Stern (*) besonders hervorgehoben. Ferner enthält die Liste auch die Fundorte aller Exemplare dieser Arten, die seit dem Erschein...

  7. Implementing the Deutsch's algorithm with spin-orbital angular momentum of photon without interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Pei; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Rui-Feng; Gao, Hong; Li, Hong-Rong; Li, Fu-Li

    2012-01-01

    Deutsch's algorithm is the simplest quantum algorithm which shows the acceleration of quantum computer. In this paper, we theoretically advance a scheme to implement quantum Deutsch's algorithm in spin-orbital angular momentum space. Our scheme exploits a newly developed optical device called "q-plate", which can couple and manipulate the spin-orbital angular momentum simultaneously. This experimental setup is of high stability and efficiency theoretically for there is no interferometer in it.

  8. Deutsche mittelalterliche Handschriften in Bibliotheken Böhmens und Mährens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petr, Stanislav; Bok, V.

    Stuttgart : Hirzel, 2011 - (Breith, A.; Glaßner, C.; Klein, K.; Schubert, M.; Wolf, J.), s. 195-214 ISBN 978-3-7776-2159-3. - (Zeitschrift für deutsches Altertum und deutsche Literatur. Beihefte. 15). [Kulturelles Handschriftenerbe Ostmitteleuropa. Praha (CZ), 03.03.2010-06.03.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80770509 Keywords : codicology * German manuscripts Subject RIV: AB - History

  9. Curriculare Perspektiven zur Deutsch als Fremdsprache (DaF)-Lehrerbildung im westafrikanischen Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Gueye, Ousmane

    2014-01-01

    Deutsch als Fremdsprache wird seit Jahrzehnten im Senegal angeboten, wobei das koloniale Bildungssystem dafür verantwortlich ist. Obwohl den senegalesischen Deutschlehrern eine gute Sprachkompetenz und eine solide Vorbereitung auf ihren Beruf zu attestieren sind, sind noch inhaltliche Defizite in deren Bildung festzustellen. Deswegen wird dafür plädiert, dass das DaF- Lehrerbildungsangebot im Senegal um Bereiche wie etwa deutsche Fachsprachen und prozessorientierte Schreibdidaktik erweitert w...

  10. Solution of the Deutsch-Josza Problem by NMR Ensemble Computing without Sensitivity Scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, F M

    2000-01-01

    Experimental NMR implementations of the Deutsch-Josza quantum algorithm based on pesudo-pure spin states exhibit an exponential sensitivity scaling with the number of qubits. By employing truly mixed spin states in spin Liouville space, where molecules with different nuclear spin configurations represent different input states, the Deutsch-Josza problem can be solved by single function evaluation without sensitivity loss concomitant with increase of the number of bits.

  11. Deutsch's CTC Model and its Implications for the Foundations of Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Lucas

    This dissertation is an exploration of several issues surrounding David Deutsch's CTC model first introduced in his 1991 paper "Quantum Mechanics Near Closed Timelike Lines". Deutsch developed his model to account for the effects of quantum theory, which had been left out of classical discussions of time travel paradoxes. Deutsch's formulation of his model in terms of quantum computational circuits lends itself to being adopted in the quantum information community. The dissertation argues that the adoption of the D-CTC model entails the existence of Nonlocal Signaling, which is in conflict with a fundamental principle of the quantum information approach. In order to motivate this argument, in Chapter 2 I introduce a distinction between Nonlocal Signaling, and Superluminal Information Transfer. In the latter case, a carrier of information physically traverses the space between the distant communicating parties faster than the speed of light. Exploiting quantum entanglement to signal, however, need not have this feature. I term this Nonlocal Signaling. Chapter 3 is where I present the argument that D-CTCs entail Nonlocal Signaling, and examine the controversy surrounding this and related results. I argue that the resistance to these kinds of predictions in the literature is motivated by a commitment to the principles of quantum information theory, which are inappropriately applied here. Chapters 4 and 5 examine details of Deutsch's model. Chapter 4 argues that it presupposes a significant metaphysical picture that, when explicitly stated, makes a much less comfortable fit between D-CTCs and quantum information theory. Chapter 5 argues that, because of Deutsch's commitment to this metaphysical picture, he is committed to the existence of physical situations that are in every way indistinguishable from the paradoxes he attempts to rule out by adopting the model in the first place. In Chapter 6, I make some observations about the relationship between the quantum

  12. [Impact of the antioxidant Phenozan and low dose radiation on the level of p53 and BCL-2 proteins of mice different lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil', E M; Albantova, A A; Burlakova, E B

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the antioxidant Phenozan and 1.2 cGy gamma-radiation on the level of apoptotic proteins was determined for normal mice of F1 (CBA x C57BL) and leucosis AKR mice that are more sensitive to the irradiation. The constitutional level of p53 proteins in serum leucosis AKR mice was higher, than those in F1 (CBA x C57BL) mice, possible from accumulation of mutant p53 protein and viral infection of AKR mice. It was determined that injection of Phenozan in 10(-14) mol/kg and in 10(-4) mol/kg led to rising a p53 protein and bcl-2 protein level in serum and spleen in these line of mice, and lowering the number of double-strand breaks DNA spleen shown earlier. Common action Phenozan and 1.2 cGy gamma-radiation led to higher rising of p53 protein level than Phenozan only in F1 (CBA x C57BL) mice, stimulate possibly different pathway of p53 regulation. We assume that Phenozan can activate the reparation processes but not the processes of apoptosis in the cell and has a radioprotective properties. PMID:20297682

  13. Conversion of Human Steroid 5[beta]-Reductase (AKR1D1) into 3[beta]-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Single Point Mutation E120H: Example of Perfect Enzyme Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Christianson, David W.; Penning, Trevor M. (UPENN)

    2012-10-10

    Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5{beta}-reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His120 (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5{beta}-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5{alpha}-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3{beta}-HSD as opposed to a 3{alpha}-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3{beta}-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone, and {Delta}{sup 4}-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the {Delta}{sup 4}-double bond and confers 3{beta}-HSD activity on the 5{beta}-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its {alpha}-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference.

  14. Graft-versus-leukemia, donor selection for adoptive immunotherapy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optimal donor for adoptive immunotherapy would exhibit great antitumor reactivity and no antihost reactivity. Immunocompetent cells from 11 strains of mice were tested in vivo for their reactivity against a long-passage AKR acute lymphoblastic leukemia and against immunosuppressed nonleukemic AKR mice. Donor mice were syngeneic, unprimed H-2 compatible, primed H-2 compatible, congenic, or H-2 incompatible with AKR. Bioassays were used to evaluate the relative graft-vs.-leukemia (GvL) reactivity and the relative graft-vs.-host (GvH) reactivity of transplanted bone marrow and lymph-node cells from the panel of donors. No significant GvL reactivity was found when cells from syngeneic, unprimed H-2 compatible, or congenic donors were tested. H-2 compatible donors that were immunized with γ-irradiated AKR leukemic spleen cells showed modest GvL reactivity, but associated with the immunization was a disproportionate increase in acute and delayed GvH mortality. Among the H-2 mismatched donors, mice of the SJL strain appeared to most closely approach the ideal because of least intense GvH reactivity and maximal GvL reactivity. As measured in these experiments there was no correlation between the severity of GvH disease and the efficacy of the GvL reaction; GvL reactivity in unprimed donors was always associated with H-2 incompatibility; disparity between donor and recipient at H-2 did not guarantee an effective GvL reaction; and the increase in GvL reactivity obtained by immunizing H-2 compatible donors was overshadowed by the increase in GvH disease

  15. Implementation of a three-qubit refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using SFG quantum logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a quantum logic circuit which can be used for the experimental demonstration of a three-qubit solid state quantum computer based on a recent proposal of optically driven quantum logic gates. In these gates, the entanglement of randomly placed electron spin qubits is manipulated by optical excitation of control electrons. The circuit we describe solves the Deutsch problem with an improved algorithm called the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We show that it is possible to select optical pulses that solve the Deutsch problem correctly, and do so without losing quantum information to the control electrons, even though the gate parameters vary substantially from one gate to another

  16. The Metaphysics of {D-CTCs}: On the Underlying Assumptions of {Deutsch}'s Quantum Solution to the Paradoxes of Time Travel

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse'', and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent ...

  17. Deutsche Weine und ihre Stellung in Norwegen : hat die "Renaissance des Rieslings" Norwegen erreicht?

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In dieser Masterarbeit wird die Geschichte des deutschen Weinanbaus erzählt und die Stellung deutscher Weine in Norwegen untersucht. In der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts setzten immer mehr deutsche Winzer auf Quantität statt auf Qualität, woraufhin der deutsche Weinanbau allmählich sein gutes Ansehen verlor. Zwar waren massenhaft produzierte preiswerte, süße Weine, besonders die „Liebfraumilch“, äußerst beliebte Exportwaren, jedoch drängten sie die Prädikatsweine fast vollständig in den...

  18. Postirradiation dynamics of T-lymphocyte precusors and regeneration of thymus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of CBA mice elicits a pronounced response of intrathymus and bone marrow precursors of T-lymphocytes (PTL) which is manifested by an increase in a relative content of PTL in the thymus and their transfer from bone marrow to thymus. The estimate of the regenerative potency of the thymus most adequately reflects the cellular events leading to regeneration thereof. The differences in the thymus regeneration dynamics between CBA and AKR mice are associated with different radiation response of the intrathymic SC-1-PTL in mice of these strains

  19. 'Vorwort' Themenheft Deutsche Sprache: 'Modifikation im Deutschen: Kontrastive Untersuchungen zur Nominalphrase'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunkel, Lutz; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Das vorliegende Themenheft der Zeitschrift Deutsche Sprache versammelt vier Beiträge zu einem zentralen Thema der deutschen Grammatik und Textlinguistik: der Form und Funktion von Attributionsstrukturen in der Nominalphrase. Gemeinsam ist allen Beiträgen der kontrastive und/oder funktional...

  20. Butylated hydroxyanisole induces distinct expression patterns of Nrf2 and detoxification enzymes in the liver and small intestine of C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lin; Chen, Yeru; Wu, Deqi; Shou, Jiafeng; Wang, Shengcun; Ye, Jie; Tang, Xiuwen; Wang, Xiu Jun

    2015-11-01

    Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) is widely used as an antioxidant and preservative in food, food packaging and medicines. Its chemopreventive properties are attributing to its ability to activate the transcription factor NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which directs central genetic programs of detoxification and protection against oxidative stress. This study was to investigate the histological changes of Nrf2 and its regulated phase II enzymes Nqo1, AKR1B8, and Ho-1 in wild-type (WT) and Nrf2(-/-) mice induced by BHA. The mice were given a 200mg/kg oral dose of BHA daily for three days. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, in the liver from WT mice, BHA increased Nqo1 staining in hepatocytes, predominately in the pericentral region. In contrast, the induction of AKR1B8 appeared mostly in hepatocytes in the periportal region. The basal and inducible Ho-1 was located almost exclusively in Kupffer cells. In the small intestine from WT mice, the inducible expression patterns of Nqo1 and AKR1B8 were nearly identical to that of Nrf2, with more intense staining in the villus than that the crypt. Conversely, Keap1 was more highly expressed in the crypt, where the proliferative cells reside. Our study demonstrates that BHA elicited differential expression patterns of phase II-detoxifying enzymes in the liver and small intestine from WT but not Nrf2(-/-) mice, demonstrating a cell type specific response to BHA in vivo. PMID:26291391

  1. Physiological response to long-term peripheral and central leptin infusion in lean and obese mice

    OpenAIRE

    Halaas, Jeffrey L.; Boozer, Carol; Blair-West, John; Fidahusein, Naseem; Denton, Derek A.; Friedman, Jeffrey M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent data have identified leptin as an afferent signal in a negative-feedback loop regulating the mass of the adipose tissue. High leptin levels are observed in obese humans and rodents, suggesting that, in some cases, obesity is the result of leptin insensitivity. This hypothesis was tested by comparing the response to peripherally and centrally administered leptin among lean and three obese strains of mice: diet-induced obese AKR/J, New Zealand Obese (NZO), and Ay. Subcutaneous leptin inf...

  2. Coherence as a resource in decision problems: The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm and a variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillery, Mark

    2016-01-01

    That superpositions of states can be useful for performing tasks in quantum systems has been known since the early days of quantum information, but only recently has a quantitative theory of quantum coherence been proposed. Here we apply that theory to an analysis of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, which depends on quantum coherence for its operation. The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm solves a decision problem, and we focus on a probabilistic version of that problem, comparing probability of being correct for both classical and quantum procedures. In addition, we study a related decision problem in which the quantum procedure has one-sided error while the classical procedure has two-sided error. The role of coherence on the quantum success probabilities in both of these problems is examined.

  3. Review: Larissa Förster, Postkoloniale Erinnerungslandschaften. Wie Deutsche und Herero in Namibia des Kriegs von 1904 gedenken (2010 Buchbesprechung: Larissa Förster, Postkoloniale Erinnerungslandschaften. Wie Deutsche und Herero in Namibia des Kriegs von 1904 gedenken (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Kößler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the Monograph: Larissa Förster (2010, Postkoloniale Erinnerungslandschaften. Wie Deutsche und Herero in Namibia des Kriegs von 1904 gedenken, Frankfurt am Main & New York: Campus, ISBN 978-3-593-39160-1, 391 pages. Besprechung der Monographie: Larissa Förster (2010, Postkoloniale Erinnerungslandschaften. Wie Deutsche und Herero in Namibia des Kriegs von 1904 gedenken, Frankfurt am Main & New York: Campus, ISBN 978-3-593-39160-1, 391 Seiten.

  4. NYSE Euronext – Deutsche Börse Merger: Let the dance go on!

    OpenAIRE

    Valiante, Diego

    2011-01-01

    In this new ECMI Policy Brief, Research Fellow Diego Valiante offers his insights into the motivations, potential synergies and implications of the proposed merger between NYSE Euronext and Deutsche Börse, which he sees as a continuation of the intricate series of dances begun two decades ago between various exchanges worldwide and which now escalates at global level in the non-equity business. The author finds that the liberalization process and regulatory changes brought about by the financ...

  5. Quantum computation with classical light: implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Goyal, Sandeep K; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Forbes, Andrew; Konrad, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We propose an optical implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm using classical light in a binary decision-tree scheme. Our approach uses a ring cavity and linear optical devices in order to efficiently quarry the oracle functional values. In addition, we take advantage of the intrinsic Fourier transforming properties of a lens to read out whether the function given by the oracle is balanced or constant.

  6. Deutsch aufgeben: literarische Übungen mit Flüchtlingen

    OpenAIRE

    Hanenberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Peter Hanenberg widmet seinen Beitrag “Deutsch aufgeben” zwei literarischen Texten, die mitten in der aktuellen Flüchtlingsdebatte erschienen sind. Jenny Erpenbeck und Shumona Sinha sind Zeugen dafür, dass die Flüchtlinge zumindest literarisch schon in Europa angekommen sind - und dass es gleichwohl einer enormen Anstrengung der Übersetzung bedarf, um diese Ankunft in lebbares Leben zu verwandeln.

  7. HISTORIA DE LAS ESTRATEGIAS PERIODISTICAS DEL PERIODICO VALDIVIA’S DEUTSCHE ZEITUNG, 1886-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Bernedo Pinto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the strategies applied by the editors of Valdivia’s Deutsche Zeitung, a German language newspaper in Valdivia (Chile, between 1886 and 1912. It seeks to explain the reasons behind the success or failure of these strategies and the social, political and economic elements involved. The author concludes that the closure of this paper was due to the inability to find a journalistics strategy in tune with the news interests of its readers

  8. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Dreu, de, C.K.W.; Tjosvold, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views. However, cooperative goals were not found to contribute to constructive controversy. Dutch who discussed their opposing views openly made progress on the task, worked efficiently, and strengthened their...

  9. Das deutsche wissenschaftliche Bibliothekswesen jenseits der Bibliothek 2.0 – Zukunft jetzt gestalten

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Tannhof

    2013-01-01

    Ausgehend von zwei unterschiedlichen Einschätzungen zur Bedeutung der Bibliothek 2.0 für das wissenschaftliche Bibliothekswesen, werden einzelne Aspekte dieses Ansatzes anhand von ausgewählten Beispielen (Auskunft, Informationskompetenz, Katalog, Kommunikation) kritisch diskutiert und ihre Bedeutung für die Entwicklung der deutschen Hochschulbibliotheken dargelegt. Darauf aufbauend erfolgt eine Zusammenstellung einiger wichtiger Herausforderungen vor denen deutsche Bibliotheken stehen und mög...

  10. Varietas delectat? : Gebrauchsnormen zur lexikalischen Variation - ein Vergleich Deutsch-Norwegisch

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird untersucht, inwiefern sich die Gebrauchsnormen zur lexikalischen Variation in Deutschland und Norwegen unterscheiden. Die Arbeit gliedert sich in zwei Teile: Im ersten Teil werden die theoretischen Hintergründe zum Thema Stil und zu lexikalischer Variation sowie die diesbezüglichen heutigen Tendenzen und Normen in den jeweiligen Sprachen erläuert; sie bilden die Grundlage des zweiten Teils der Arbeit, in dem deutsche und norwegische Zeitungsartikel in Bezug auf...

  11. Quantum computation with classical light: Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; McLaren, Melanie; Goyal, Sandeep K.; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Forbes, Andrew; Konrad, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We propose an optical implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm using classical light in a binary decision-tree scheme. Our approach uses a ring cavity and linear optical devices in order to efficiently query the oracle functional values. In addition, we take advantage of the intrinsic Fourier transforming properties of a lens to read out whether the function given by the oracle is balanced or constant.

  12. 50. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts; 50. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-09-15

    The volume on the 50th annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie includes the abstracts concerning the following issues: infectious central nervous system diseases, neurodegenerations, infarction, petrosal bone pathology, neurointerventions.

  13. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs,CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHongwei

    2004-01-01

    Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party.

  14. [Ulrike Plath. Esten und Deutsche in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands. Fremdheitskonstruktionen, Lebenswelten, Kolonialphantasien 1750-1850] / Lea Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Lea, 1962-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Plath, Ulrike. Esten und Deutsche in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands. Fremdheitskonstruktionen, Lebenswelten, Kolonialphantasien 1750-1850 (Veröffentlichungen des Nordost-Institut, 11). Harrasowitz. Wiesbaden 2011.

  15. [Sven Jüngerkes. Deutsche Besatzungsverwaltung in Lettland 1941-1945. Eine Kommunikations- und Kulturgeschichte nationalsozialistischer Organisationen] / Toomas Hiio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiio, Toomas, 1965-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Jüngerkes, Sven.Deutsche Besatzungsverwaltung in Lettland 1941-1945. Eine Kommunikations- und Kulturgeschichte nationalsozialistischer Organisationen (Historische Kulturwissenschaft, 15). (Konstanz: UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 2010)

  16. 49. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts; 49. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-10-15

    The conference proceedings of the 48. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie contain abstracts on the following issues: neuro-oncological imaging, multimodal imaging concepts, subcranial imaging, spinal codes, interventional neuroradiology.

  17. The Influence of Visual Ability on Learning and Memory Performance in 13 Strains of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard E.; Wong, Aimee A.

    2007-01-01

    We calculated visual ability in 13 strains of mice (129SI/Sv1mJ, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, CAST/EiJ, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, MOLF/EiJ, SJL/J, SM/J, and SPRET/EiJ) on visual detection, pattern discrimination, and visual acuity and tested these and other mice of the same strains in a behavioral test battery that evaluated visuo-spatial…

  18. Molecular and biological characterization of the endogenous ecotropic provirus of BALB/c mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, J M; Risser, R

    1985-01-01

    We have isolated two identical molecular clones of the single, endogenous ecotropic provirus of BALB/c mice. The BALB/c clones are approximately 1/10 as infectious as an exogenous proviral clone derived from AKR mice, p623. Transfection of mouse cells with each BALB/c proviral clone yielded XC-negative, N-tropic, ecotropic virus. Cotransfection of subgenomic fragments of p623 and the BALB/c provirus did not increase infectivity to the level observed for p623; however, a 292-base-pair fragment...

  19. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases (AKRs in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH-catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiZhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quiniones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  20. Deutsche Wortpaare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彧

    2007-01-01

    在德语学习过程中,我们经常会碰到一些固定词组,比如:mit Kindund Kegel,durch dick und dünn等等。这些词组在德语中叫做Wortpaar,意思是”对偶词组”。它们的特点是:1.形式固定。一般就是这几个词一起出现,不能用别的词来代替其中的词。2.语音和谐。大部分这类词组都押头韵(Stabreim)或押尾韵(Endreim),读来琅琅上口,方便记忆。3.表达的意思是融合性的。也就是说,它们所表达的意义不是单就这几个单词义所组合起来的,而是整体上表示一种新的意义。

  1. Využití internetu při práci s učebním souborem Team Deutsch

    OpenAIRE

    HEŘMANOVÁ, Milada

    2009-01-01

    This diploma work deals with the use of the Internet in German language teaching, especially while working with the text book Team Deutsch. The first part of the work summarises general aspects of using the Internet in the language teaching and describes the interactive German text book Deutsch mit Max. The practical part of the work concentrates on the connecting of the text book Team Deutsch with the Internet, brings a list of suitable links to the particular lessons, several worksheets for...

  2. Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, XXVII-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Israel has only one German department, in Jerusalem, German studies are flourishing in this country. Not only has the Israeli University system just been enhanced by a new center devoted to this field (in Beer Sheva, under Professor Frank Stern, the Institute of German  History of Tel Aviv University has confirmed its dynamism and capabilities for in-depth work with the publication of the new Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte. Complementing the broad range of works publish...

  3. Scheme for Implementing Refined Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm via Superconducing Qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a scheme of implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm based on superconducing charge qubits, which would be a key step to scale more complex quantum algorithms and very important for constructing a real quantum computer via superconducting charge qubits. The present scheme is simple but fairly efficient, and easily manipulated because arbitrary two-qubit can be selectively and effectively coupled by a common inductance. More manipulations can be carried out before decoherence sets in. The proposed scheme is in line with current technology

  4. IT Tools for Foresight: The Integrated Insight and Response System of Deutsche Telekom Innovation Laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbeck, René; Thom, Nico; Arnold, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present and discuss the IT tools that Deutsche Telekom Innovation Laboratories use to support their corporate foresight activities. These tools are integrated into an approach that encompasses the discovery of change, interpretation, and triggering managerial responses. The...... overall system consists of a tool for scanning for weak signals on change (PEACOQ Scouting Tool), a tool for collecting internal ideas (PEACOQ Gate 0.5), and a tool for triggering organizational responses (Foresight Landing page). Particularly the link to innovation management and R&D strategy is...

  5. Einfluss der europäischen Regionalpolitik auf die deutsche Regionalförderung

    OpenAIRE

    Schwengler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Im vorliegenden Papier wird der Einfluss der europäischen Regionalpolitik auf die deutsche Regionalförderung von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart untersucht. Dafür werden die Unterschiede und Gemeinsamkeiten in der Entwicklung der europäischen und nationalen Regionalförderung eingehend erläutert. Es wird gezeigt, dass im Zuge der Erweiterung der Europäischen Union und der gestiegenen regionalen Disparitäten zwischen den Ländern nicht nur die Regelungen und Vorgaben für die Abgrenzung europäisch...

  6. The German 3G Licence Auction: Did the Government's Stake in Deutsche Telekom Influence the Outcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Rander, Robin

    2004-01-01

    The spectrum for third generation (3G) mobile communications for the German market was alloted to operators by means of an auction. This resulted in a highly competitive outcome: six operators were given rights to provide 3G services. Government revenues from this auction were a staggering EUR 50.8 Bn. As the German government stands as majority shareholder in one of the strongest participants, Deutsche Telekom (DT), it was argued that DT had an incentive to push prices to higher levels than ...

  7. The Dynamics of Entanglement in the Adiabatic Search and Deutsch Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, K; Ahrensmeier, D; Carrington, M E; Fugleberg, T; Kobes, R; Kunstatter, G

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to study the effect of entanglement on the running time of a quantum computation. Adiabatic quantum computation is suited to this kind of study, since it allows us to explicitly calculate the time evolution of the entanglement throughout the calculation. On the other hand however, the adiabatic formalism makes it impossible to study the roles of entanglement and fidelity separately, which means that results have to be interpreted carefully. We study two algorithms: the search algorithm and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. We find some evidence that entanglement can be considered a resource in quantum computation.

  8. Implementation of n-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using resonant interaction in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong-Fu; Zhang Shou

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement the n-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm based on resonant interaction between the atoms and a single-mode cavity. In the scheme, the resonant transitions between two ground states and one excited state of an atom are changed alternately by adjusting the cavity frequency appropriately, and the operations required to complete the algorithm can be significantly simplified following the increment of the number of qubits. The implementation of the scheme in experiment would show the full power of quantum algorithm and would be significative and important for more complicated quantum algorithm in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  9. Molecular identification of Heterakis spumosa obtained from brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Japan and its infectivity in experimental mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šnábel, Viliam; Utsuki, Daisuke; Kato, Takehiro; Sunaga, Fujiko; Ooi, Hong-Kean; Gambetta, Barbara; Taira, Kensuke

    2014-09-01

    Heterakis spumosa is a nematode of invasive rodents, mainly affiliated with Rattus spp. of Asian origin. Despite the ecological importance and cosmopolitan distribution, little information is available on the genetic characteristics and infectivity to experimental animals of this roundworm. Heterakis isolates obtained from naturally infected brown rats caught in 2007 in the city of Sagamihara, east central Honshu, Japan, and maintained by laboratory passages were subjected to mitochondrial sequence analysis and experimental infection in mice. Sequencing of the cox1 gene revealed that nucleotides of H. spumosa and previously examined Heterakis isolonche isolates from gallinaceous birds in Japan differed by 11.2-12.2% that conforms to the range expected for interspecific differences. The two H. spumosa isolates differed by a single 138T/C non-synonymous substitution in the 393-bp mt sequence. In a dendrogram, the H. spumosa samples formed a subcluster with members of the nematode superfamily Heterakoidea, H. isolonche and Ascaridia galli. In an experimental infection study, ICR, AKR, B10.BR and C57BL/6 mice strains were inoculated with 200 H. spumosa eggs/head and necropsied at 14 and 90 days post-inoculation (DPI) when the number of worms was recorded. Eggs were initially detected in faeces from 32-35 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice and the highest mean number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 4,800 at 38 DPI, 2,200 at 58 DPI and 800 at 44 and 72 DPI in ICR, AKR and B10.BR mice, respectively. No eggs were observed in faeces of the C57BL/6 mouse strain during the experiment. A similar number of juvenile worms were isolated from all mouse strains at 14 DPI, whereas no adult worms were detected in C57BL/6 mice at 90 DPI. PMID:24997621

  10. 胆囊胆固醇结石易患鼠和免患鼠肝胆脂质代谢和分泌的差别%Differences between hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism and secretion in genetically gallstone-susceptible and gallstone-resistant mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国强; 赵力; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences between hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism and secretion of genetically gallstone-susceptible (C57L) and resistant (AKR) mice and the mechanism of cholesterol gallstone formation.Methods The inbred C57L and AKR mice were fed a lithogenic diet containing 15% fat, 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for four weeks. Hepatic cholesterol content and secretion rates of biliary lipids, as well as phenotypes of the liver and gallbladder were determined and examined before and after the feeding of the lithogenic diet. Results Both before and after ingestion of the lithogenic diet, hepatic secretion rates of all biliary lipids in C57L mice were markedly higher than that of AKR mice (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively), whereas hepatic cholesterol contents of C57L mice were significantly lower than that of AKR mice (P<0.05). Furthermore, after consumption of the lithogenic diet, the increase in hepatic secretion rate of biliary cholesterol in C57L mice was significantly higher than that in AKR mice (P<0.01). Cholesterol gallstones formed in C57L mice and fatty livers developed in AKR mice. Conclusions Biliary cholesterol hypersecretion is the key pathophysiological defect of gallstone formation, lith genes have effects on biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in C57L mice. Lithogenic bile is formed at the canalicular membrane and precedes the development of cholesterol gallstones. It is most likely that cholesterol and bile acid hyposecretion make the AKR strain susceptible to the development of fatty livers and resistant to gallstone formation.%目的研究胆囊胆固醇结石易患鼠(C57L)和免患鼠(AKR)肝胆脂质代谢和分泌的特征以及胆囊胆固醇结石形成的机制.方法用含15%脂肪、1.25%胆固醇和0.5%胆酸的结石餐饲喂C57L和AKR鼠四周,检测并比较两种鼠在结石餐干预前、后肝脏胆固醇含量、肝内胆汁中脂质的分泌率以及胆

  11. Von schnellen Teilchen und hellem Licht 50 Jahre Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Lohrmann, Erich

    2009-01-01

    Das 1959 in Hamburg als Zentrum für Elementarteilchenforschung gegründete "Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY" gelangte durch Pionierleistungen in der Entwicklung von Hochenergie-Beschleunigern und Speicherringen zu weltweiter Anerkennung. Seiner internationalen Nutzergemeinde sind eine Reihe wichtiger Entdeckungen über die Materiebausteine Quarks und Gluonen und die Kräfte, welche die Welt im Innersten zusammenhalten, zu verdanken. Zusätzlich wurde die Synchrotronstrahlung für breite Anwendungsgebiete erschlossen und ihre Nutzung systematisch ausgebaut mit Ergebnissen, die gleichrangig neben denen in der Teilchenforschung stehen. Dieses Buch behandelt die Entwicklung des Forschungszentrums von den Anfängen bis in das Jahr 2003, in dem mit dem Beschluss zum Bau des Europäischen Röntgenlasers in Hamburg eine Änderung der Schwerpunktsetzung in der Beschleunigerentwicklung erfolgte, die seitdem auf neuartige Photonenquellen gerichtet ist. Die wichtigsten nachfolgenden Ereignisse werden ebenfalls kurz...

  12. Cybernetics and Social Order. Models and Images of Society in Norbert Wiener and Karl Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carradore

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims at defining the relation between cybernetics and social theory from the perspective of society as order. After an historical framework of the cybernetic movement, a careful reading of the works of Norbert Wiener, in which he introduced the concept of feed-back and the idea of information society, has revealed a keen awareness about the social effects of technological innovation. Among the social scientists who had made use of cybernetic concepts, it has been considered the work of Karl Deutsch, which was one of the first completely cybernetic perspective for the study of political and social phenomena. The main conclusion is that cybernetics, as a meeting point between different disciplines, has produced an image of self-regulated society in line with the image of society as order.

  13. Single qudit realization of the Deutsch algorithm using superconducting many-level quantum circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiktenko, E. O.; Fedorov, A. K.; Strakhov, A. A.; Man'ko, V. I.

    2015-07-01

    Design of a large-scale quantum computer has paramount importance for science and technologies. We investigate a scheme for realization of quantum algorithms using noncomposite quantum systems, i.e., systems without subsystems. In this framework, n artificially allocated "subsystems" play a role of qubits in n-qubits quantum algorithms. With focus on two-qubit quantum algorithms, we demonstrate a realization of the universal set of gates using a d = 5 single qudit state. Manipulation with an ancillary level in the systems allows effective implementation of operators from U(4) group via operators from SU(5) group. Using a possible experimental realization of such systems through anharmonic superconducting many-level quantum circuits, we present a blueprint for a single qudit realization of the Deutsch algorithm, which generalizes previously studied realization based on the virtual spin representation (Kessel et al., 2002 [9]).

  14. From Globalization to Liquidation: The Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and the First World War in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Moazzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and its liquidation during the First World War to examine the challenges faced by German businesses during the war in China and China’s involvement in Allied economic warfare. This case suggests the detrimental effect that political crises and global shifts of power had on foreign businesses in modern China’s globalized treaty port economy. It also reveals China’s role in the global economic warfare of the Allies, showing that China first resisted Allied demands for a full liquidation of the German bank but eventually acquiesced to Allied pressure and handed control over the liquidation to the Allies. As a consequence, China ended up violating the very international law it had put so much value on when entering the war.

  15. China-Knigge für deutsche Geschäftsleute?: die Darstellung Chinas in interkultureller Ratgeberliteratur

    OpenAIRE

    Poerner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Anhand einer Analyse aktueller "China-Knigge" für deutsche Manager betrachtet Michael Poerner in seinem Beitrag das darin vermittelte Chinabild. Er geht dabei der Frage nach, ob es sich bei den Ratgebern tatsächlich um fachlich fundierte Darstellungen handelt oder ob sie sich vielmehr an den üblichen, im Laufe der Geschichte tradierten, undifferenzierten Wahrnehmungsmustern orientieren.

  16. [The effects of low doses of low-level gamma-radiation and phenozan injection on structural characteristics of mice spleen DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhizhina, G P; Zavarykina, T M; Mil', E M; Burlakova, E B

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that AKR mice with spontaneous leucosis are more sensitive to ionizing irradiation as compared to normal F1 (CBA x C57BL) mice. A study on changes of the structural characteristics of spleen DNA and level of protein p53 in the blood serum under the action of low-level gamma-irradiation in a dose of 1.2 cGy and injections of 10(-14) or 10(-4) mol/kg phenozan was performed. The changes in the structural characteristics of DNA (the adsorption on nitrocellulose filters and number of double-strand breaks) and p53 content were observed for each line of mice under gamma-irradiation and each phenozan concentration. Both factors showed long-time post-effects, and structural changes in AKR DNA were consistent with the life span of these mice. Phenozan in the above doses has abolished the induction of double-strand breaks in case of irradiation of F1 mice in a dose of 1.2 cGy and showed long-time post-irradiation effect. These facts suggest a radioprotection property of phenozan. PMID:17953428

  17. The nature of tolerance in adult recipient mice made tolerant of alloantigens with supralethal irradiation followed by syngeneic bone marrow cell transplantation plus injection of F1 spleen cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The length of time after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution when tolerance to alloantigens can be induced in adult mice during T cell differentiation from bone marrow cells was studied by exposing those T cells to (recipient x donor)F1 spleen cells. Supralethally irradiated C3H/He Slc(C3H; H-2k) mice were reconstituted with 1 x 10(7) syngeneic T cell-depleted bone marrow cells and then injected intravenously with 5 x 10(7) (C3H x C57BL/6[B6])F1 (B6C3F1; H-2bxk) or (C3H x AKR/J[AKR])F1 (AKC3F1; H-2kxk) spleen cells at various intervals. In the fully allogeneic combination of B6C3F1----C3H, EL-4 tumor originating from B6 was accepted, and survival of grafted B6 skin was significantly prolonged in the tolerant C3H mice treated with irradiation on day -1 followed by injection of syngeneic bone marrow cells on day 0 plus B6C3F1 spleen cells on days 0, 5, or 10, in a tolerogen-specific manner. In the multiminor histocompatibility antigen-disparate combination of AKC3F1----C3H, AKR skin grafts were permanently accepted in the tolerant C3H mice treated with AKC3F1 spleen cells on days 0, 5, 10, or 15. Immunological parameters, including cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and delayed foot-pad reaction (DFR), were almost completely suppressed in C3H mice made tolerant of B6 or AKR antigens. A chimeric assay using a direct immunofluorescence method revealed that the tolerant C3H mice given B6C3F1 spleen cells on day 0 were mixed-chimeric for at least 8 weeks after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution, but not definitely chimeric thereafter. The C3H mice given AKC3F1 spleen cells on day 0 were chimeric even 43 weeks after syngeneic bone marrow reconstitution, but the C3H mice given AKC3F1 spleen cells on day 15 showed temporal chimerism that disappeared within 43 weeks. The untolerant mice were never detectably chimeric

  18. BIBLIO-DATA, the national bibliographical data bank of the Deutsche Bibliothek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part A introduces the German national bibliographical data bank BIBLIO-DATA is based on the Information-Retrieval-System STAIRS from IBM which was improved by additional programs of ZMD. The primary emphases of this article is on the discussion of the BIBLIO-DATA concept according to which the data of 'Deutsche Bibliographie' are being prepared and stored suitable for information retrieval. BIBLIO-DATA is based on national bibliographical data, the characteristics, problems and deficiencies due to this fact are mentioned very detailed. Two additional comments show the various possibilities of research with BIBLIO-DATA by means of some examples in order to show that the research work is not only faster but also much more effective. Part B proves that BIBLIO-DATA cannot automate the analysis of contents or the allocation of subject heading. At the present state of operation BIBLIO-DATA has to support the conventional-intellectual work of subject cataloguing by retrospective research especially because of the considerably facilitated access to former indexing results. Part C describes the practical work with BIBLIO-DATA concerning bibliographical research and literature compilation and comes to the conclusion that effective bibliographical work is based on an appropriate combination of data-bank retrieval and conventional research work. (orig.)

  19. Simulation of ingot casting processes at Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L.; Ernst, C.; Klung, J.-S.

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the quality of tool steels it is necessary to analyse all stages of the production process. During the ingot- or continuous casting processes and the following solidification, material and geometry depending reactions cause defects such as macro segregations or porosities. In former times the trial and error approach, together with the experience and creativity of the steelworks engineers was used to improve the as-cast quality, with a high amount of test procedures and a high demand of research time and costs. Further development in software and algorithms has allowed modern simulation techniques to find their way into industrial steel production and casting-simulations are widely used to achieve an accurate prediction of the ingot quality. To improve the as-cast quality, several ingot casting processes of tool steels were studied at the R&D department of Deutsche Edelstahlwerke GmbH by using the numerical casting simulation software MAGMASOFT®. In this paper some results extracted from the simulation software are shown and compared to experimental investigations.

  20. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  1. Das deutsche wissenschaftliche Bibliothekswesen jenseits der Bibliothek 2.0 – Zukunft jetzt gestalten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Tannhof

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ausgehend von zwei unterschiedlichen Einschätzungen zur Bedeutung der Bibliothek 2.0 für das wissenschaftliche Bibliothekswesen, werden einzelne Aspekte dieses Ansatzes anhand von ausgewählten Beispielen (Auskunft, Informationskompetenz, Katalog, Kommunikation kritisch diskutiert und ihre Bedeutung für die Entwicklung der deutschen Hochschulbibliotheken dargelegt. Darauf aufbauend erfolgt eine Zusammenstellung einiger wichtiger Herausforderungen vor denen deutsche Bibliotheken stehen und möglichen Lösungsstrategien (Erwerbung, Katalog, Lernort, Informationskompetenz, Auskunft, Metadaten, Organisation, Personaleinsatz, Ausbildung für die bibliothekarische Arbeit.The starting point of this article are two different appraisals of the significance of the library 2.0-concept for academic librarianship. Specific aspects are critically discussed based on selected examples (such as reference, information literacy, catalogue, communication and their impact for the development of German university libraries is outlined. On this basis the most important challenges for German academic libraries and possible solutions will be identified (concerning acquisition, catalogue, learning commons, information literacy, reference, meta data, organisation, staff assignment and professional training.

  2. Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Fazhan; Rong, Xing; Xu, Nanyang; Wang, Ya; Wu, Jie; Chong, Bo; Peng, Xinhua; Kniepert, Juliane; Schoenfeld, Rolf-Simon; Harneit, Wolfgang; Feng, Mang; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy defect center (NV center) is a promising candidate for quantum information processing due to the possibility of coherent manipulation of individual spins in the absence of the cryogenic requirement. We report a room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by encoding both a qubit and an auxiliary state in the electron spin of a single NV center. By thus exploiting the specific S=1 character of the spin system, we demonstrate how even scarce quantum resou...

  3. Identifying the potential CO2-efficiency for the Deutsche Post DHL delivery fleet based on vehicle technology scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Propfe, Bernd; Schlaghecken, Georg; Jüchter, Achim; Schmid, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    In order to identify the CO2-reduction potential of the German delivery fleet of Deutsche Post DHL, this study analyzes 3 different fleet scenarios. Based on a newly developed driving cycle that matches the specific requirements of delivery trucks, fuel consumptions for 6 different types of powertrains have been simulated. Subsequently, 3 fleet scenarios up to 2020 have been calculated with VECTOR21. A comparison of potential CO2-reductions and corresponding costs for the entire delivery f...

  4. A scheme to implement the Deutsch-Josza algorithm on a superconducting charge-qubit quantum computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Wenyi; LONG Guilu

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the implementation of the Deutsch-Josza quantum algorithm in a superconducting charge-qubit quantum computer. Different from previous studies, we have used the inductance coupled system of You et al. The detailed pulse sequences have been designed for the four possible functions in a 2-qubit system. The result is generalized to an arbitrary n-qubit system. This scheme will be useful for practical implementation of the algorithm.

  5. Nominalgruppen in Patentschriften : Komposita und prädikative Nominalisierungen im deutsch-französischen Vergleich

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Achim

    1993-01-01

    Die Arbeit verbindet die beiden Forschungsgebiete Fachsprachenforschung und kontrastive Linguistik. Im Korpus werden deutsche und französische Nominalsyntagmen, insbesondere nominale Komposita und prädikative Nominalisierungen untersucht. Den größeren Zusammenhang zwischen den einzelnen Kapiteln stellen die beiden Begriffe "Prädikativität" und "Kondensation" her. Prädikative Strukturen haben die Funktion der Prädikation und sind Voraussetzung für den Ausdruck von Aussagen. In Kapitel 3 werden...

  6. Zwischen Markt und Moral - Wie wird die deutsche Land- und Ernährungswirtschaft in der Gesellschaft wahrgenommen?

    OpenAIRE

    Kayser, Maike; Bohm, Justus; SPILLER, Achim

    2011-01-01

    Die deutsche Land- und Ernährungswirtschaft ist zunehmend im Fokus der öffentlichen Diskussion. Dabei bewegt sie sich in einem Spannungsfeld von marktlichen Anforderungen und gesellschaftlichen Erwartungen. Um Rückschlüsse auf das generelle Meinungsklima zu gewinnen, wird in dieser Arbeit die Verbraucherwahrnehmung der deutschen Land- und Ernährungswirtschaft untersucht. Der Schwerpunkt der Untersuchung liegt auf der Frage, ob die Gesellschaft die moderne, auf Produktivität ausgerichtete Bran...

  7. Miriam Gebhardt, Rudolf Steiner. Ein moderner Prophet. München: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt 2011 (368 S.). [...] [Sammelrezension

    OpenAIRE

    Horn, Klaus-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Sammelrezension von: 1. Miriam Gebhardt, Rudolf Steiner. Ein moderner Prophet. München: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt 2011 (368 S.; ISBN 978-3-4210-4473-0). 2. Heiner Ullrich, Rudolf Steiner. Leben und Lehre. München: Beck 2011 (266 S.; ISBN 978-3-4066-1205-3). 3. Helmut Zander, Rudolf Steiner. Die Biografie. München: Piper 2011 (535 S.; ISBN 978-3-4920-5448-5)

  8. Brückenschlag zwischen Hirnforschung und Psychologie : exemplarisch verknüpft Gerald Kreft Geschichte der Neurowissenschaften mit deutsch-jüdischer Historiographie

    OpenAIRE

    Lilienthal, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Rezension zu: Gerald Kreft : Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte und Hirnforschung. Ludwig Edingers Neurologisches Institut in Frankfurt am Main, Mabuse-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 2005, ISBN 3-935964-72-2, 469 Seiten, 44 Euro.

  9. Pionierin der deutsch-jüdischen Geschichtsschreibung. Leben und Werk Selma Sterns A Pioneer of German-Jewish Historiography: The Life and Work of Selma Stern

    OpenAIRE

    Angelika Schaser

    2005-01-01

    Im Spannungsfeld von deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung sowie Wissenschafts- und Exilgeschichte untersucht Marina Sassenberg die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Selma Sterns Werk und Leben. Seit 1916 verstärkt mit den Auswirkungen von Antisemitismus und Antifeminismus konfrontiert, spiegelt sich in Sterns autobiographischen Schriften und in ihrem wissenschaftlichen Werk zur deutsch-jüdischen Geschichte zunächst ihre Suche als Frau und Intellektuelle nach einem Ort in ...

  10. Quantum computers and reality: Deutsch's anti-positivist campaign for explanations-in-general, apart from his Many Worlds Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Thomas W.

    2002-04-01

    David Deutsch (Oxford University) is known for ``Deutsch's algorithmm"---for going beyond the initial ideas about quantum computing (QC) of Benioff, Bennett and Feynman, to describe a quantum Turing machine, and sparking today's widespread experimental research to actually build one. Deutsch does not accept the standard Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) of quantum mechanics (QM); he supports the Many Worlds Interpretation (MWI) and credits it for his insights. In his book, The Fabric of Reality, and numerous articles and talks, he argues that the the adoption of the MWI is phnecessary for making the advances required for quantum computing. His argues that physicists must resolutely take a ``realistic" viewpoint to its logical conclusions, and, that the MWI is phthe realistic theory. In response to ubiquitous assertions by the majority of physicists that ``both systems give the same numbers," and ``all physics does (or can do) is to predict the outcome of experiments," he argues strenuously for the importance of explanations in quantum physics, and to scientific progress in general. Hence, I argue that there are two, reasonably separable, layers here: (i) opposition to positivist and instrumentalist arguments against the validity and/or value of phany explanation(s) phas such, and (ii) an argument about just what is the correct explanation: the MWI over the CI. While establishing the validity of (i) may possibly undermine CI's spirit, nevertheless (i) can be strongly validated independent from complicatons of an overlap with issues of the interpretation of QM. I develop some simple, historical contradictions regarding point (i), (without passing judgement on Deutsch's MWI or involving the CI). For example, the majority viewpoint identifies its seemingly ``non- philosophical" and non-``methaphysical" mindset as archtypically ``scientific", while seemingly quite unaware of the theoretical difficuties with positivist notions of truth, such as the fact that the foundations

  11. Zum Stand und zu den Perspektiven der allgemeinsprachlichen Lexikographie mit Deutsch und Slowenisch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Jesenšek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Zusammenfassung: Nach einer kurzen Übersicht über die allgemeinsprachlichen zwei-sprachigen Wörterbücher mit Deutsch und Slowenisch werden folgende Wörterbücher näher untersucht: Plet, DebN, DebS, PonsN und PonsS. Im ersten Teil der Wörterbuchanalyse werden der Benutzerbezug, die Wörterbuchbasis, die primär gebuchte Lexik sowie die Umtexte und eingela-gerten Binnentexte berücksichtigt. Nur in Plet ist der Benutzerbezug relativ deutlich erkennbar. Bei den anderen Wörterbüchern bleibt er weitgehend undeutlich. In den vier neueren Wörterbüchern weisen alle betrachteten Komponenten erhebliche Mängel auf: z.B. fehlende mediostrukturelle Vernetzung von Umtexten und Wörterverzeichnis, fehlende Datenakzessivität bei den eingelager-ten Binnentexten, ungeschickte Wahl der Wörterbuchbasis und unausgewogene Lemmaselektion. Im zweiten Teil der Wörterbuchanalyse werden anhand von Wörterbuchartikeln ausgewählte Aspekte des Wörterbuchgegenstands und der Wörterbuchform der genannten Wörterbücher untersucht; dabei werden die für das jeweilige Wörterbuch typischen Artikelmikrostrukturen dar-gestellt und Vorschläge gemacht, wie man die Artikelstrukturen verändern kann, damit die Ge-staltung benutzerfreundlicher wird, und zwar auch dann, wenn das Datenangebot reichhaltiger ist. Dadurch werden einige Perspektiven für die Verbesserung der lexikographischen Versorgung im Sprachenpaar Deutsch und Slowenisch erkennbar.

    Stichwörter: ANGABENADRESSIERUNG, BASALER WÖRTERBUCHARTIKEL, BENUT-ZERBEZUG, GLATTALPHABETISCHE HAUPTZUGRIFFSSTRUKTUR, HYBRIDE MIKROSTRUK-TUR, KURZARTIKEL, MIKROARCHITEKTUR, MONOALPHABETISCHE MAKROSTRUKTUR, REINE MIKROSTRUKTUR, UMTEXT, ZWEISPRACHIGE LEXIKOGRAPHIE

    Abstract: About the Position and Perspectives of General Lexicography with regard to German and Slovenian. A brief overview of general bilingual dictionaries with German and Slove-nian is followed by a closer investigation of the following

  12. Metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, in mouse liver by alcohol dehydrogenase Adh1 and aldehyde reductase AKR1A4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reductive metabolism of trans, trans-muconaldehyde, a cytotoxic metabolite of benzene, was studied in mouse liver. Using an HPLC-based stopped assay, the primary reduced metabolite was identified as 6-hydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadienal (OH/CHO) and the secondary metabolite as 1,6-dihydroxy-trans, trans-2,4-hexadiene (OH/OH). The main enzymes responsible for the highest levels of reductase activity towards trans, trans-muconaldehyde were purified from mouse liver soluble fraction first by Q-sepharose chromatography followed by either blue or red dye affinity chromatography. In mouse liver, trans, trans-muconaldehyde is predominantly reduced by an NADH-dependent enzyme, which was identified as alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh1). Kinetic constants obtained for trans, trans-muconaldehyde with the native Adh1 enzyme showed a V max of 2141 ± 500 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 11 ± 4 μM. This enzyme was inhibited by pyrazole with a K I of 3.1 ± 0.57 μM. Other fractions were found to contain muconaldehyde reductase activity independent of Adh1, and one enzyme was identified as the NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase AKR1A4. This showed a V max of 115 nmol/min/mg and a K m of 15 ± 2 μM and was not inhibited by pyrazole

  13. Study on proliferative responses to host Ia antigens in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice: sequential analysis of the reactivity and characterization of the cells involved in the responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation bone marrow chimeras were established by reconstitution of lethally irradiated AKR mice with C57BL/10 marrow cells to permit serial analysis of the developing reactivities of lymphocytes from such chimeras, [B10----AKR], against donor, host, or third party antigens. We found that substantial proliferative responses to Ia antigens of the recipient strain and also to third party antigens were generated by the thymocytes obtained from the irradiation chimeras at an early stage after bone marrow reconstitution. The majority of the responding thymocytes had surfaces lacking demonstrable peanut agglutinin receptors and were donor type Thy-1+, Ly-2-, and L3T4+ in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. In anti-host responses, however, Ly-2+ thymocytes seemed to be at least partially involved. This capacity of thymus cells to mount a response to antigens of the recipient strain declined shortly thereafter, whereas the capacity to mount MLR against third party antigens persisted. The spleen cells of [B10----AKR] chimeras at the same time developed a more durable capability to exhibit anti-host reactivities and a permanent capability of reacting to third party allo-antigens. The stimulator antigens were Ia molecules on the stimulator cells in both anti-recipient and anti-third party MLR. The responding splenocytes were of donor origin and most of them had Thy-1+, Ly-1+2-, and L3T4+ phenotype

  14. The influence of visual ability on learning and memory performance in 13 strains of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Richard E; Wong, Aimée A.

    2007-01-01

    We calculated visual ability in 13 strains of mice (129SI/Sv1mJ, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, CAST/EiJ, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, MOLF/EiJ, SJL/J, SM/J, and SPRET/EiJ) on visual detection, pattern discrimination, and visual acuity and tested these and other mice of the same strains in a behavioral test battery that evaluated visuo-spatial learning and memory, conditioned odor preference, and motor learning. Strain differences in visual acuity accounted for a significant proportion of the v...

  15. Influence of Trypanosoma cruzi strain on the pathogenesis of chronic myocardiopathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The murine model of chronic Chaga's myocardiopathy was developed in 201 inbred and outbred mice. The experimental groups consisted of 1st: 73 inbred AKR and A/J mice inoculated with one of the following. Trypanosoma cruzi strains: Peruvian (Type I, 12 SF (Type II or Colombian (Type III; 2nd: 128 outbred Swiss mice, chronically infected either with Type II or Type III strains isolated from human patients from different geographical areas. All T. cruzi strains were previoulsly characterized by their morphobiological behaviour in mice and by isoenzymatic patterns. For the 1st group the inoculum was 5 x 10**4 for the Peruvian strain and 1 x 10**5 for the 12 SF and Colombian strains. In the 2nd group-Swiss mice the inoculum size varied from 2 x 10**4 to 2 x 10**5. The inbred animals were killed at a 3 time-point scale (90, 180 and 240 days post-infection. The Swiss mice were killed from 180 to 660 days after infection. The evaluation of parasitemia and serology (xeodiagnosis and indirect immunofluorescent test was performed. The incidence of macroscopic alterations of the heart and cardiac index were evaluated. Histopathological lesions of the myocardium were graded. The influence of T. cruzi strain on the intensity of cardiac lesions was evaluated by the Chi-square test; the incidence of inflammatory lesions and its relationship to the parasite strain was evaluated by the Fisher test. The influence of the duration of infection was evaluated by using the Gamma Coefficient of Kruskal and Goodman and its measure of significance. Slight to severe microscopic alterations occurred in 85% of the chronically infected nice. There were a clear predominance on the incidence and intensity of inflammatory and fibrotic alterations for the mice infected with Type III strains. Statistical analysis has shown significant differences among the infected groups, in the inflammatory and fibrotic lesions. Macroscopic alterations (right cavities dilatation and apex

  16. Safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy - an IAEA perspective. Address. Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Auswaertige Politik, Bonn, 17 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Auswaertige Politik in Bonn on 17 April 1998. After a presentation of the Agency's role in the safe and peaceful use of nuclear energy, the conference gives an overview of the main issues facing nuclear energy in the following three major areas: the contribution of nuclear energy to economic and social development, nuclear safety, and verification. In the last part, the Director General makes some comments about the future

  17. Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Fazhan; Xu, Nanyang; Wang, Ya; Wu, Jie; Chong, Bo; Peng, Xinhua; Kniepert, Juliane; Schoenfeld, Rolf-Simon; Harneit, Wolfgang; Feng, Mang; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy defect center (NV center) is a promising candidate for quantum information processing due to the possibility of coherent manipulation of individual spins in the absence of the cryogenic requirement. We report a room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by encoding both a qubit and an auxiliary state in the electron spin of a single NV center. By thus exploiting the specific S=1 character of the spin system, we demonstrate how even scarce quantum resources can be used for test-bed experiments on the way towards a large-scale quantum computing architecture.

  18. Room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with a single electronic spin in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fazhan; Rong, Xing; Xu, Nanyang; Wang, Ya; Wu, Jie; Chong, Bo; Peng, Xinhua; Kniepert, Juliane; Schoenfeld, Rolf-Simon; Harneit, Wolfgang; Feng, Mang; Du, Jiangfeng

    2010-07-23

    The nitrogen-vacancy defect center (N-V center) is a promising candidate for quantum information processing due to the possibility of coherent manipulation of individual spins in the absence of the cryogenic requirement. We report a room-temperature implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by encoding both a qubit and an auxiliary state in the electron spin of a single N-V center. By thus exploiting the specific S=1 character of the spin system, we demonstrate how even scarce quantum resources can be used for test-bed experiments on the way towards a large-scale quantum computing architecture. PMID:20867828

  19. Deutsche Überprüfung, Validierung und Veränderungssensitivitätsprüfung des Hautfragebogens Skindex-29

    OpenAIRE

    Schroth, Michael Joachim

    2002-01-01

    Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war die Überprüfung, Validierung und Veränderungssensitivitätsprüfung der von Augustin et al. 1998 in das Deutsche übersetzten Version des Hautfragebogens Skindex -29. Die Untersuchung erstreckte sich über den Zeitraum Januar bis Juli 1999 und wurde in der TOMESA-Fachklinik in Bad Salzschlirf (Leiter: Prof. Dr. W. Küster) durchgeführt. Zielgruppe der Untersuchung waren Patienten mit der gesicherten Diagnose atopische Dermatitis oder Psoriasis. Die Pat...

  20. DEWEK 2000: 5. German wind energy conference. Proceedings; DEWEK 2000: 5. Deutsche Windenergiekonferenz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purroy, B. (comp.)

    2000-07-01

    world since the meeting is not only directed to scientists and engineers but will also be of interest for bankers, developers and users. Conference subjects will focus on the technical development of 2 MW plus wind turbines and the special problems -solved and unsolved - of wind energy utilisation in complex terrain and in the offshore area. (orig.) [German] Die Deutsche Windenergie-Konferenz wird vom DEWI zum fuenften Mal veranstaltet, eine Konferenz, die sich in den letzten Jahren als ''The Technical Conference'' etablierte. Der Tradition folgend ist die Konferenz trotz der Themenfuelle wieder auf zwei Tage beschraenkt, damit auch dem Vielbeschaeftigten die Moeglichkeit geboten wird, sich ueber die neuesten technischen und wissenschaftlichen Entwicklungen und Erfahrungen aus dem Bereich der Windenergie zu informieren. Die schnelle, weltweite Verbreitung der Windenergie, mit den daraus resultierenden neuen Herausforderungen fuer Technik und Betrieb, veranlasste uns, noch staerker als frueher darauf zu achten, die Verbindung zwischen Theorie und Anwendung bei der Auswahl der Themenschwerpunkte sicherzustellen. Mit 109 eingesandten Vortragsvorschlaegen, darunter 27 englischsprachigen aus 17 Laendern, erreichte die DEWEK 2000 bisher schon eine sehr gute Resonanz. Erstmals wird es bei der DEWEK eine Simultanuebersetzung Deutsch-Englisch geben, damit auch unseren auslaendischen Gaesten eine Teilnahme moeglich ist. Die ausserordentlich hohe Qualitaet der Vortragsvorschlaege machten es uns diesmal besonders schwer, die erforderliche Unterscheidung zwischen Vortrag und Poster zu treffen. In einem Umfang wie niemals zuvor werden in den Berichten ganz konkrete Themen aus der Anwendung der Windenergie behandelt, ein Spiegel der von Standort zu Standort sich aendernden Einsatzbedingungen einer sich weltweit rasant ausbreitenden neuen Energietechnologie. Wir glauben mit unserer Erfahrung die richtige Auswahl der Vortraege getroffen zu haben und hoffen Ihnen

  1. Using the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm to determine parts of an array and apply a specified function to each independent part

    OpenAIRE

    Lipovaca, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Using the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, we will develop a method for solving a class of problems in which we need to determine parts of an array and then apply a specified function to each independent part. Since present quantum computers are not robust enough for code writing and execution, we will build a model of a vector quantum computer that implements the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm from a machine language view using the APL2 programming language. The core of the method is an operator (DJBOX) wh...

  2. A propósito de los Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher y el porvenir del marxismo

    OpenAIRE

    Roggerone, Santiago M.

    2014-01-01

    La experiencia de los Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher constituye sin dudas un momento clave en la trayectoria del joven Marx, pero también en la génesis de aquello que, por razones que muchas veces van en contra de la voluntad del hombre que le dio su nombre, nos hemos empecinado en llamar marxismo. Fruto inmediato del reagrupamiento de una tendencia de la izquierda hegeliana que venía siendo hostigada por la censura prusiana y empujada al exilio, el único número doble de los Deutsch-Französi...

  3. Selective breeding of mice for different susceptibilities to high fat diet‐induced glucose intolerance: Development of two novel mouse lines, Selectively bred Diet‐induced Glucose intolerance‐Prone and ‐Resistant

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Mototsugu; Asai, Akira; Kawahara, Momoyo; Nakajima, Yasushi; Sato, Yuki; Tanimura, Kyoko; Okajima, Fumitaka; Takaya, Makiyo; Sudo, Mariko; Takemitsu, Shuji; Harada, Taro; Sugihara, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims/Introduction:  The development of type 2 diabetes is primarily due to lifestyle and environmental factors, as well as genetics, as shown by familial clustering. To establish mouse lines for evaluating heritable factors determining susceptibility to diet‐induced diabetes, we performed selective breeding for differences in high fat diet (HFD)‐induced glucose intolerance. Materials and Methods:  Selective breeding was performed using hybrid mice of C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ and AKR/N backg...

  4. Energy supply concepts in the 21st century - the role of nuclear power. 2002 winter meeting of 'Deutsches Atomforum'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2002 Winter Meeting organized by the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. was devoted to the topic of 'Energy Supply in the 21st Century - the Role of Nuclear Power'. Before a large audience of participants from Germany and abroad experts from science and research, industry and politics discussed a broad range of problems arising with respect to the future national, European, and global structure of energy supply. The new impulses nuclear power is receiving in the United States and in Finland were presented along with the contributions potentially coming from non-nuclear sources of energy, including the importance of renewable energies. The conclusion to be drawn from all contributions is the recognition that boundary conditions and constraints demand a balanced energy mix, which can be achieved only in a liberal environment free from any political or ideological discrimination. (orig.)

  5. Die Universität und das deutsch-tschechische Verhältnis in den 1930er und 1940er Jahren

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Míšková, Alena

    Potsdam : Deutsches Kulturforum östliches Europa, 2010 - (Mouralová, B.), s. 203-226 ISBN 978-3-936168-37-2. - (Potsdamer Bibliothek östliches Europa. Geschichte) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80770509 Keywords : German University, Prague * Charles University, Prague * World War II Subject RIV: AB - History

  6. Infrastructure measures by Deutsche Bahn in connection with the FIFA World Cup 2006 trademark; Infrastrukturmassnahmen der Deutschen Bahn im Rahmen der FIFA WM 2006 trademark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, E.; Otten, T. [DB Station und Service AG, Bahnhofsentwicklung Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Deutsche Bahn is a National Sponsor and Official Mobility and Logistics Provider for the FIFA World Cup 2006 trademark. To make it easier for fans to travel to the matches by rail, DB AG is completing numerous infrastructure projects in the run-up to the World Cup. (orig.)

  7. On the association between lipopolysaccharide induced catalepsy and serotonin metabolism in the brain of mice genetically different in the predisposition to catalepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenova, Ekaterina Yu; Kulikov, Alexander V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Bazovkina, Daria V; Fursenko, Daria V; Popova, Nina K

    2013-10-01

    The study of the interaction between nervous and immune systems in the mechanism of psychopathology is an important problem of neuroscience. Catalepsy (freezing reaction) is a passive defensive strategy in response to threatening stimuli. An exaggerated form of catalepsy is a syndrome of some grave mental disorders. Both the brain serotonin (5-HT) and immune systems were shown to be involved in the mechanism of catalepsy. Here we compared the effects of two doses (50 or 200 μg/kg, ip) of innate immune system activator, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on catalepsy, 5-HT and its main metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the hippocampus, striatum, and midbrain of mice of catalepsy-prone (CBA/Lac and AKR.CBA-D13Mit76) and catalepsy-resistant (AKR/J) strains. The expression of LPS-induced catalepsy as well as 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the midbrain and striatum were significantly higher in mice of the catalepsy-prone strains compared with animals of the catalepsy-resistant strains. These results indicated an involvement of the brain 5-HT system in the cataleptogenic effect of LPS and open up new vistas for understanding the nervous-immune mechanism of behavioral disorders. PMID:23994663

  8. Effect of different bedding materials on the reproductive performance of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Potgieter

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Vermiculite, pine shavings and unbleached eucalyptus pulp contact-bedding were compared using the number of litters and individuals born and weaned, mortality rates at different stages of the lactation period, and the weight increase of pups as evaluation indices for bedding quality. These bedding materials exerted different effects on the reproductive performance of the same mouse strain. The same is true for the effect of a specific bedding material on different mouse strains. These effects are most pronounced during the first 4 days of life. As a whole, the results demonstrated that eucalyptus pulp was the better bedding type, followed by pine shavings and vermiculite. The latter material had a detri-mental effect on the mating success of AKR mice.

  9. Die Haskala. Zum aktuellen Stand der Forschungen zur deutsch-jüdischen Aufklärung mit Schwerpunkt Historische Bildungsforschung seit dem Jahr 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Schotte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Die deutsch-jüdische Aufklärung (konkret: Berliner Haskala ist ein Untersuchungsgegenstand, der in verschiedenen Disziplinen – dabei auch der Pädagogik / Historischen Bildungsforschung – in den letzten Jahren und Jahrzehnten eine besondere Aufmerksamkeit erfahren hat. Deutschland zählt heute (wieder zu einem der führenden Forschungszentren deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte. Jedoch gilt es dabei auch betonen, dass die aktuelle deutsch-jüdische Geschichtsschreibung in den pädagogischen Lehrbüchern erst allmählich Eingang findet. Dabei sind es gerade diese Forschungen, die entscheidend zur ,disziplinären‘ Sensibilisierung zur Thematik beigetragen haben. Anliegen dieses Aufsatzes ist es, in Grundzügen den Forschungsstand zur Haskala mit Schwerpunkt auf der Historischen Bildungsforschung bzw. bildungsgeschichtlichen und -theoretischem Untersuchungsschwerpunkten der letzten 15 Jahre abzubilden. Der Fokus richtet sich hierbei auf Hauptthemen und Forschungskooperationen, aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse, Trends, Revisionen, methodische Zugänge und interdisziplinäre Einflüsse, Aufarbeitungs- und Repräsentationsformen, Desiderate und Ausblicke. Nach diesen Kriterien wurde die einschlägige Literatur (Überblickswerke, Monographien, Schriftenreihe, Aufsätze gesichtet und ausgewertet. Ebenso wurden Forschungseinrichtungen und aktuelle Forschungsprojekte auf ihre thematische Relevanz überprüft. Anhand der Auswertung, die keinen Anspruch auf inhaltliche und methodische Vollständigkeit erhebt, lässt sich festhalten, dass die diesbezüglichen Untersuchungen einen wesentlichen Beitrag hinsichtlich einer differenzierteren Perspektive zur deutsch-jüdischen Aufklärungskultur geleistet haben, die sich bis in die letzten Jahrzehnte hinein noch vor allem auf die Person und das Werk Moses Mendelssohn konzentriert hatte. Anhand der Rekonstruktionen und systematischen Analysen zur preußischen Bildungspolitik, zu deutsch-jüdischen Protagonisten der

  10. Analýza CSR aktivit společnosti T-Mobile Czech Republic, a.s. a jejich porovnání se strategií mateřské společnosti Deutsche Telekom

    OpenAIRE

    Ježková, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The thesis deals with compilation of CSR activities of T-Mobile Czech Republic, a.s., their inclusion in the CSR strategy of Deutsche Telekom AG and suggestion how to conform current activities to the CSR strategy of Deutsche Telekom AG. The first part of the thesis explains what CSR is, how can we identify responsible company and deals with the question of importance of CSR. In the second part there is an information about T-Mobile Czech Republic and Deutsche Telekom, list of CSR activities ...

  11. Das deutsche katholische Hochschulwesen in Böhmen: Die Theologische Fakultät der Prager Deutschen (Karl-Ferdinands-) Universität

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunštát, Miroslav

    Rev. Übers. Münster : Waxmann, 2014 - (Kaiserová, K.; Kunštát, M.), s. 275-306 ISBN 978-3-8309-3202-4. - (Schriftenreihe der Kommission für deutsche und osteuropäische Volkskunde in der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Volkskunde. 96) Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : history of theology Subject RIV: AB - History

  12. Compliance audit: Digital Analysis of personal data for Protecting and Detecting Fraud in Companies. Discourse about the so-called "data scandal" of Deutsche Bahn AG.

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Felicitas G.

    2009-01-01

    Within the framework of an effective and efficient compliance audit, the corporate governance is responsible for protection against fraud. Computer assisted analytic procedures, such as data screening, data mining and so on, have to meet the standards of data protection and workers co-determination. The paper considers the so-called "data scandal" of Deutsche Bahn AG in 2009 and its perception by the German public.

  13. German Neutron Scattering Conference : Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung 2012 ; September 24-26,2012, Gustav-Stresemann-Institut, Bonn, Germany ; Programme und Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    (Editor), Thomas Brückel

    2012-01-01

    The German Neutron Scattering Conference 2012 – Deutsche Neutronenstreutagung DN 2012 offers a forum for the presentation and critical discussion of recent results obtained with neutron scattering and complementary techniques. The meeting is organized on behalf of the German Committee for Research with Neutrons – Komitee Forschung mit Neutronen KFN – by the Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS of Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH. In between the large European and international n...

  14. Muusikamaailm : "Kevadpühitsus" sajandi teoseks. Nikolaus Harnoncourt"i juubel. Kent Nagano Deutsche Operisse. "Musica viva" Münchenis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Lääne-Euroopa populaarsete muusikaajakirjade "BBC Music Magazine" ja "Le Mond de la Musique" küsitluse põhjal osutus 20. saj. tähtsaimaks muusikateoseks I. Stravinski ballett "Kevadpühitsus". N. Harnoncourt tähistas 6. dets. 70. juubelit. Dirigendi tegevusest. K. Nagano kinnitati Berliini Deutsche Operi muusikadirektoriks aastast 2001. Dirigendi senisest tegevusest. Baieri Raadio korraldatava uue muusika sarja "Musica viva" kontsertidest

  15. Susan Arndt / Nadja Ofuatey-Alazard (Hrsg.): Wie Rassismus aus Wörtern spricht, (K)Erben des Kolonialismus im Wissensarchiv deutsche Sprache. Ein kritisches Nachschlagewerk. Münster: Unrast 2011 [Rezension

    OpenAIRE

    Messerschmidt, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Rezension von: Susan Arndt / Nadja Ofuatey-Alazard (Hrsg.): Wie Rassismus aus Wörtern spricht, (K)Erben des Kolonialismus im Wissensarchiv deutsche Sprache. Ein kritisches Nachschlagewerk, Münster: Unrast 2011 (780 S.; ISBN 978-3897715011)

  16. [Christian Westerhoff. Zwangsarbeit im Ersten Weltkrieg. Deutsche Arbeitskräftepolitik im besetzten Polen und Litauen 1914-1918, Tilman Plath.Zwischen Schonung und Menschenjagden. Die Arbeitseinsatzpolitik in den baltischen Generalbezirken des Reich

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiio, Toomas, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Westerhoff, Christian. Zwangsarbeit im Ersten Weltkrieg. Deutsche Arbeitskräftepolitik im besetzten Polen und Litauen 1914-1918 (Studien zur historischen Migrationsforschung, 25). Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh. Padeborn 2011

  17. Using the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm to determine parts of an array and apply a specified function to each independent part

    CERN Document Server

    Lipovaca, Samir

    2009-01-01

    Using the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm, we will develop a method for solving a class of problems in which we need to determine parts of an array and then apply a specified function to each independent part. Since present quantum computers are not robust enough for code writing and execution, we will build a model of a vector quantum computer that implements the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm from a machine language view using the APL2 programming language. The core of the method is an operator (DJBOX) which allows evaluation of an arbitrary function f by the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm. Two key functions of the method are GET_PARTITION and CALC_WITH_PARTITIONS. The GET_PARTITION function determines parts of an array based on the function f. The CALC_WITH_PARTITIONS function determines parts of an array based on the function f and then applies another function to each independent part. We will imagine the method is implemented on the above vector quantum computer. We will show that the method can be successfully executed.

  18. Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) with special references to neurodegeneration models, SAMP8 and SAMP10 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshio

    2009-04-01

    The SAM strains, a group of related inbred strains consisting of senescence-prone inbred strains (SAMP) and senescence-resistant inbred strains (SAMR), have been successfully developed by selective inbreeding of the AKR/J strain of mice donated by the Jackson laboratory in 1968. The characteristic feature of aging common to the SAMP and SAMR is accelerated senescence and normal aging, respectively. Furthermore, SAMP and SAMR strains of mice manifest various pathobiological phenotypes spontaneously. Among SAMP strains, SAMP8 and SAMP10 mice show age-related behavioral deterioration such as deficits in learning and memory, emotional disorders (reduced anxiety-like behavior and depressive behavior) and altered circadian rhythm associated with certain pathological, biochemical and pharmacological changes. Here, the previous and recent literature on SAM mice are reviewed with an emphasis on SAMP8 and SAMP10 mice. A spontaneous model like SAM with distinct advantages over the gene-modified model is hoped by investigators to be used more widely as a biogerontological resource to explore the etiopathogenesis of accelerated senescence and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19199030

  19. Substantial agreement of referee recommendations at a general medical journal--a peer review evaluation at Deutsches Arzteblatt International.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Baethge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peer review is the mainstay of editorial decision making for medical journals. There is a dearth of evaluations of journal peer review with regard to reliability and validity, particularly in the light of the wide variety of medical journals. Studies carried out so far indicate low agreement among reviewers. We present an analysis of the peer review process at a general medical journal, Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 554 reviewer recommendations on 206 manuscripts submitted between 7/2008 and 12/2009 were analyzed: 7% recommended acceptance, 74% revision and 19% rejection. Concerning acceptance (with or without revision versus rejection, there was a substantial agreement among reviewers (74.3% of pairs of recommendations that was not reflected by Fleiss' or Cohen's kappa (<0.2. The agreement rate amounted to 84% for acceptance, but was only 31% for rejection. An alternative kappa-statistic, however, Gwet's kappa (AC1, indicated substantial agreement (0.63. Concordance between reviewer recommendation and editorial decision was almost perfect when reviewer recommendations were unanimous. The correlation of reviewer recommendations and citations as counted by Web of Science was low (partial correlation adjusted for year of publication: -0.03, n.s.. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although our figures are similar to those reported in the literature our conclusion differs from the widely held view that reviewer agreement is low: Based on overall agreement we consider the concordance among reviewers sufficient for the purposes of editorial decision making. We believe that various measures, such as positive and negative agreement or alternative Kappa values are superior to the application of Cohen's or Fleiss' Kappa in the analysis of nominal or ordinal level data regarding reviewer agreement. Also, reviewer recommendations seem to be a poor proxy for citations because, for example, manuscripts will be

  20. Deutsche Literatur am Welfenhof

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Volker (Prof. Dr.)

    2012-01-01

    Wir können also die im Text des „Rolandsliedes“ genannten Namen auf historisch greifbare Personen beziehen: auf Heinrich, den mächtigsten Territorialfürsten der zweiten Hälfte des 12. Jahrhunderts, und auf einen seiner lateinisch gebildeten Hofbeamten, der dem Herzog in der Kanzlei, in der geistlichen und weltlichen Verwaltung diente. Daß ein Fürst volkssprachliche Literatur „in Auftrag gab“, ist zu keiner Zeit im deutschen Reich etwas Neues, noch keinesfalls weithin üblich – vorangegangen w...

  1. 10 Jahre deutsche Buyouts

    OpenAIRE

    Schalast, Christoph; Stralkowski, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    Private equity has seen an impressive activity surge in Germany over the last ten years. This working paper meets the increasing thirst for information on the German buyout market with an overview of its historic development, a quantitative analysis of its performance and a future outlook. While the authors' findings show an outperformance of buyout-financed businesses with regard to sales growth on CAGR basis, profitability growth and capex expansion, significant underperformance in terms of...

  2. Mehed ruumis / Rosalyn Deutsche

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Deutsche, Rosalyn

    2004-01-01

    1985. a. ilmunud T. J. Clarki raamatust "Modernse elu maalikunst: Pariis Manet' ja tema järgijate kunstis". 1989. a. ilmunud Edward W. Soja raamatust "Postmodernistlikud geograafiad" ja David Harvey raamatust "Postmodernne olukord". 1984. a. avaldatud Fredric Jamesoni artiklist "Postmodernism ehk hiliskapitalismi kultuuriline loogika". Bibliograafia lk. 81

  3. Pionierin der deutsch-jüdischen Geschichtsschreibung. Leben und Werk Selma Sterns A Pioneer of German-Jewish Historiography: The Life and Work of Selma Stern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Schaser

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Im Spannungsfeld von deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung sowie Wissenschafts- und Exilgeschichte untersucht Marina Sassenberg die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Selma Sterns Werk und Leben. Seit 1916 verstärkt mit den Auswirkungen von Antisemitismus und Antifeminismus konfrontiert, spiegelt sich in Sterns autobiographischen Schriften und in ihrem wissenschaftlichen Werk zur deutsch-jüdischen Geschichte zunächst ihre Suche als Frau und Intellektuelle nach einem Ort in der deutschen Gesellschaft und im Wissenschaftsbetrieb wider. Ihre Erfahrungen im Nationalsozialismus, in der Emigration in den USA und nach der Rückkehr nach Europa führten zunächst zu einer deutlichen Zäsur in ihrem Werk, bevor sie fünf Jahre nach Kriegsende zu einer Neukonzeption deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte überging, mit der sie an ihre alten Geschichtsentwürfe anknüpfen sollte.Within the tense areas of German-Jewish historiography, women and gender research, and scientific and exile history, Marina Sassenberg examines the interaction between Selma Stern’s work and life. Having been increasingly confronted with effects of anti-Semitism and antifeminism since 1916, Stern’s autobiographical writings and her scientific work on German-Jewish history initially reflect her search for a place in German society and in the scientific community as a woman and an intellectual. Her experiences in National Socialism, in immigration in the USA, and after her return to Europe led at first to a clear break in her work before, five years after the end of the war, she turned to a new conception of German-Jewish history which would tie into her previous historical ideas.

  4. The German market for lubricants and its independent producers - review and future perspectives; Der deutsche Schmierstoffmarkt und seine Unabhaengigen - Rueckblick und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, M. [Fuchs Petrolub AG Oel und Chemie, Mannheim (Germany)]|[Europaeische Union der Unabhaengigen Schmierstoffunternehmen (UEIL), Paris (France)

    1997-05-01

    The contribution summarizes an anniversary paper presented at the 50th Hohenheim Technical Conference of the Beratungsgesellschaft fuer Mineraloelanwendungstechnik. It contains data on mineral oil and lubricant consumption, motor oil consumption, lubricant processing plants etc. in Germany since 1951. Developments in motor oil quality and cooling lubricants are gone into as well. (RHM) [Deutsch] Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt einen Festvortrag anlaesslich der 50. Technischen Arbeitstagung Hohenheim der Beratungsgesellschaft fuer Mineraloelanwendungstechnik wieder. Dabei werden fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland seit 1951 Angaben ueber Mineraloel- und Schmieroelverbrauch, Motorenoelverbrauch, ueber Schmierstoffverarbeitungsanlagen etc. gemacht. Auch wird auf die Qualitaetsentwicklung der Motorenoele sowie der Kuehlschmierstoffe eingegangen. (RHM)

  5. Importance and use of an environment management system implementation and innovative optimization approach es using the example of the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental protection is an important business objective in RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK). The management of the company intends the company wide certification according DIN ISO 14001. The law concerning the hard coal financing includes a continuous and socially compatible staff reduction. The company is aimed to manage the hard coal phase-out process considering a sustainable handling of the long-term contamination including public acceptance. The optimization potential includes the implementation and continuation of an area-wide environment management system, the realization of the commissioning management and the environmental evaluation.

  6. LA MEMORIA DE LA SEGUNDA GUERRA MUNDIAL EN “DEUTSCHES REQUIEM” DE J.L. BORGES Y DOKTOR FAUSTUS DE THOMAS MANN.

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia, González de la Llana Fernández

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo analiza “Deutsches Requiem” de Borges y el Doktor Faustus de Thomas Mann, dos narraciones con protagonistas fáusticos, desde el punto de vista de su representación de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ambos autores han sido a menudo criticados: Borges, por la irrealidad de sus ficciones, y Mann, por no realizar en su Doktor Faustus un análisis de las causas económicas, sociales, etc. que llevaron al nazismo. Nuestra tesis es que no existe una falta de compromiso con l...

  7. Der „Dialog über die Vögel“ von G. LONGOLIUS (Köln 1544). Lateinischer Originaltext, deutsche Übersetzung, Kommentierung

    OpenAIRE

    Vedder, Fritz; Hoffmann, Hans-Jürgen; Peuster (†), Axel

    2016-01-01

    GISBERT LONGOLIUS (*1507 - †1543) lebte zeitweilig und verstarb in Köln, studierte an der Alten Universität Köln und war hier auch später (mit gerade 30 Jahren) Professor (s.u.). Sein in Latein verfasstes Werk „Dialogus de avibus …“ erschien 1544 ebenfalls in Köln, weshalb das Kölner Autorenteam aufmerksam wurde. Die nachfolgende erstmalige Übersetzung ins Deutsche basiert auf dem Band in der Privatbibliothek des Kölner Zoologen Prof. Dr. Dr. HANS ENGLÄNDER († 2011). Das Ori...

  8. Recipient micro-environment does not dictate the Igh-V restriction specificity of T cell suppressor inducer factor (TsiF) from allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have ascertained previously from a study of fully allogeneic irradiation chimeras in mice that the H-2 restriction of the suppressor factor (Ly-2 T suppressor factor) is determined by the post-thymic environment protected by the donor cells, rather than by the thymic environment of the recipient. In the present study, the author analyzed differentiation influences that determine the Igh restriction specificities of the suppressor inducer T cell factor(s) (TsiF) that are produced by Ly-1+ splenic T cells in fully allogeneic bone marrow chimeras in mice. AKR mice that had been lethally irradiated and reconstituted with B10 marrow cells, [B10----AKR] chimeras, produced Ly-1 TsiF after hyper-immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) which suppressed antigen--specifically the primary antibody responses to SRBC that were generated in cells of the same Igh-Vb haplotype of donor strain and not those generated in cells of the recipient Igh-Va type. Similar results were obtained when Ly-1 TsiF from [B6----BALB/c] and [BALB/c----B6] chimeras were analyzed. Furthermore, the Ly-1 TsiF from [BALB/c----B6] chimeras suppressed the primary antibody responses of both BALB/c [H-2d, Igh-Va, Igh-Ca] and BAB-14 (H-2d, Igh-Va, Igh-Cb), but not those of CAL-20 (H-2d, Igh-Vd, Igh-Cd). These results demonstrate clearly that the Ly-1 TsiF from allogeneic bone marrow chimeras are donor Igh-V-restricted and are not influenced by the recipient micro-environment, presumably that were provided by the thymuses of the recipient mice

  9. Deutsch-slawischer Siedlungs- und Sprachkontakt im Gebiet zwischen Saale und Neiße – vorgestellt an ausgewählten Ortsnamen (Siedlungsnamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Bily

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saale und Elbe bilden im Wesentlichen die westliche Begrenzung des ehemals kompakten altsorbischen Sprachgebietes. Im Norden schließt das Altsorbische an das Altpolabische, im Osten und Südosten an das Polnische und Tschechische an. Eigennamen bilden eine wichtige Quelle sowohl für die Aufhellung der Geschichte der Besiedlung wie auch ethnischer, sprachlicher und sozialer Verhältnisse, denn historische Siedlungsprozesse fanden ihren Niederschlag u.a. in historischen Belegen von Namen. Diese Belege wie auch die Ableitungsbasen und Benennungsmotive ebenso wie die phonologischen und morphologischen Merkmale der Namen des altsorbischen Kontaktgebietes enthalten eine Vielzahl von Zeugnissen deutsch-slawischer Kontinuität. Auf der Grundlage umfangreicher Studien zu Ortsnamen stellt der Beitrag ausgewählte Beispiele vor. Im ehemals altsorbischen Kontaktgebiet können Ortsnamen (Siedlungsnamen und ihre historische Überlieferung Hinweise auf Siedlungs- und Sprachkontakt geben. Dies belegen eine ganze Reihe von Merkmalen, so z.B.: 1. Unterscheidende Bestimmungswörter 2. Parallele Namengebung mit zeitweiliger Mehrnamigkeit 3. Umbenennung 4. Übersetzung 5. Benennungsparallelismus im deutsch-slawischen Kontaktgebiet 6. Scheinbare sekundäre semantische Verankerung (SSSV 7. Namenpaare 8. Unterscheidende Zusätze 9. Mischnamen (Hybride

  10. Host cell reactivation studies with epidermal cells of mice sensitive and resistant to carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary epidermal cells from AKR, BALB/c, CD-1, and SENCAR mice, listed in order of least to most sensitive to epidermal carcinogenesis by initiation and promotion protocols, were found to be equally competent to ''reactivate'' herpes simplex virus type 1 irradiated by germicidal ultraviolet radiation. Nontumorigenic BALB/c epidermal cell lines selected in vitro for resistance to terminal differentiation after in vivo or in vitro treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens showed virus survival curves similar to those of primary cells. Similarly, primary cultures which were allowed to grow to confluency following a single treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (100 ng/ml) retained normal host cell reactivation. Host cell reactivation studies with mouse dermal fibroblasts could not be done because of the failure of the herpes simplex virus to infect these cells and produce plaques. These results demonstrate that survival of ultraviolet light-damaged virus in primary epidermal cells in culture is unrelated to whether the cells are derived from mice sensitive or resistant to epidermal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, virus survival is not changed by tumor promoter treatment or by treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens which results in differentiation-resistant cells

  11. Humanized mice

    OpenAIRE

    Macchiarini, Francesca; Manz, Markus G.; Palucka, A Karolina; Shultz, Leonard D.

    2005-01-01

    Animal models have been instrumental in increasing the understanding of human physiology, particularly immunity. However, these animal models have been limited by practical considerations and genetic diversity. The creation of humanized mice that carry partial or complete human physiological systems may help overcome these obstacles. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop on humanized mouse models for immunity in Bethesda, MD, on June 13–14, 2005, during...

  12. MICE Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Coney, L

    2009-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling provides the only practical solution for preparing high brightness beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It comprises a dedicated beam line designed to generate a range of input emittances and momenta with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to select a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance is performed in the upstream magnetic...

  13. Differenz als Belastungsprobe. Verhandlungen des deutsch-jüdischen Gesprächs in Bernhard Schlinks Erzählung »Die Beschneidung«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Bitter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schlinks Erzählung stellt anhand zweier Liebender das Scheitern eines deutsch-jüdischen Gesprächs dar und verhandelt die Frage, wie viele Differenzen eine Beziehung aushält. Die titelgebende Beschneidung tritt dabei nicht nur auf der Handlungsebene auf, wo der Protagonist durch Konversion zum Judentum die Differenz zu seiner jüdischen Freundin zu überwinden hofft. Auch auf metaphorischer Ebene problematisiert die Erzählung die ›Selbstbeschneidung‹ des Protagonisten, der aus Angst vor Tadel von jüdischen Figuren viele seiner Gedanken nicht ausspricht. Als Opfer antideutscher Vorurteile ruft er diverse antisemitische Stereotype auf. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, inwiefern die Erzählung damit für solch stereotypes Gedankengut sensibilisiert und subtil gegen einen antisemitischen und revisionistischen Diskurs anschreibt oder inwiefern sich der Text vielmehr in einen solchen Diskurs einschreibt.

  14. Importance and use of an environment management system implementation and innovative optimization approach es using the example of the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG; Bedeutung und Nutzung der Implementierung eines Umweltmanagementsystems und innovative Ansaetze zur Optimierung am Beispiel der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polysos, Julia

    2014-07-01

    Environmental protection is an important business objective in RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK). The management of the company intends the company wide certification according DIN ISO 14001. The law concerning the hard coal financing includes a continuous and socially compatible staff reduction. The company is aimed to manage the hard coal phase-out process considering a sustainable handling of the long-term contamination including public acceptance. The optimization potential includes the implementation and continuation of an area-wide environment management system, the realization of the commissioning management and the environmental evaluation.

  15. 48. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Joint annual meeting of the DGNR and OeGNR. Abstracts; 48. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Gemeinsame Jahrestagung der DGNR und OeGNR. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    The conference proceedings of the 48. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie contain abstracts on the following issues: neuro-oncological imaging, multimodal imaging concepts, subcranial imaging, spinal codes, interventional neuroradiology, innovative techniques like high-field MRT and hybrid imaging methods, inflammable and metabolic central nervous system diseases and epilepsy.

  16. MICE Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Coney, L

    2009-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling provides the only practical solution for preparing high brightness beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). It comprises a dedicated beam line designed to generate a range of input emittances and momenta with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to select a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance is performed in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in liquid hydrogen and acceleration by RF cavities. A second spectrometer identical to the first and another particle identification system provide a measurement of the outgoing emittance. In late 2009, it is expected that the beam and many of the particle identification detectors will be in the final commissioning phase, and the first measurement of input beam emittance will take place in 2010. The steps of commissi...

  17. Restricted antibody formation to sheep erythrocytes of allogeneic bone marrow chimeras histoincompatible at the K end of the H-2 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing a new method for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, irradiation chimeras constructed from various combinations of marrow cells from B10 H-2 recombinant mice and AKR recipients were prepared. Though these chimeras had well-developed populations of T and B cells, they showed strikingly different patterns of responses in the primary antibody formation to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC), a T dependent antigen. These are (a) AKR mice treated with C57BL/10 cells, [B10 leads to AKR] fully H-2 incompatible, and AKR mice treated with B10.A (5R) cells, [5R leads to AKR] I-J,E compatible chimeras that were almost completely unresponsive to SRBC; (b) AKR mice treated with B10.BR cells [BR leads to AKR] fully H-2 compatible, and AKR mice treated with B10 AKM cells, [AKM leads to AKR] chimeras where donor and recipient differed only at H-2D, showed the same number of plaque-forming cells (PFC) as B10 control mice; (c) AKR mice treated with B10.A cells, [B10 leads to AKR] chimeras, where donor and recipient were matched at H-2K-I-E region, showed about one-half the number of PFC as the control mice. From these results we conclude that in allogeneic bone marrow chimeras primary antibody response to T-dependent antigen, such as SRBC, is generated when at least the K end of the H-2 complex is compatible between donor and recipient

  18. Der deutsch-französische Konflikt um die Präsidentschaft der Europäischen Zentralbank in der deutschen und französischen Presse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Plontz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Die vorliegende quantitative Inhaltsanalyse diente folgenden Zielen: zum einen der Beschreibung der Berichterstattung über einen mitteleskalierten Konflikt, über den deutsch-französischen Streit um den Vorsitz der Europäischen Zentralbank, und zum anderem dem Aufspüren möglicher Einflußgrößen, die eine deeskalationsorientierte Berichterstattung begünstigen könnten. Zwei deutsche Tageszeitungen, die Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung und die Süddeutsche Zeitung, und zwei französische Tageszeitungen, Le Figaro und Le Monde, wurden untersucht. Insgesamt wurden 1067 Kodiereinheiten (Textabsätze verschlüsselt. Die Verschlüsselung erfolgte anhand eines Kodiersystems für mittel eskalierte Konflikte, das sich an das Kodiersystem für hoch eskalierte Konflikte der Projektgruppe Friedensforschung der Universität Konstanz anlehnt (s. Kempf, 2003, S.137-40. Die Analyse der latenten Klassen ergab fünf Klassen zur Beschreibung der Berichterstattungsstile: Dies sind von der größten zur kleinsten Klasse geordnet: „Abwertung des Gegenübers“, „Betonung der Konfliktintensität mit Unterstützung deeskalationsorientierter Bemühungen“, „Stellungnahme zum Konfliktverlauf“, „Idealisierung der eigenen Seite“, „deeskalationsorientierte Kritik der eigenen Seite“. Die eskalationsorientierten Stile entsprechen den in der Theorie der sozialen Identität von Taifel & Turner (1986 beschriebenen Prozessen des Gruppenvergleichs: Benachteiligung der Außengruppe (vgl. „Abwertung des Gegenübers“ und Bevorzugung der Innengruppe (vgl. „Idealisierung der eigenen Seite“. Insgesamt lässt sich die Berichterstattung als überwiegend eskalationsorientiert mit einigen deeskalationsorientierten Merkmalen kennzeichnen. Die Kontingenzanalysen ergaben, dass die französischen Zeitungen, die Pro-Oppositionszeitungen und die in der letzten Konfliktphase veröffentlichten Zeitungsartikel häufiger deeskalationsorientierte Berichterstattungsstile

  19. German Quality in the Service of a European Public Sphere? An Analysis of the Deutsche Welle’s European Journal program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Ludmila Popescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis of the European Union has rendered the European public sphere as a forever emerging concept marked by uncertainties regarding its structure. In this context, eyes of both European officials and citizens turn towards the media, the main communication link between the EU and its citizens. The present paper looks at a media product that is designed to permeate multiple national public spheres, the weekly news show European Journal, a half-hour TV program produced by Deutsche Welle and rebroadcast by partner TV channels throughout Europe. Considering the main characteristics of the European public sphere as identified in the literature, with a focus on horizontal Europeanization, and using the method of content analysis, this paper looks at the means employed by the European Journal to support the integration process and to add a European dimension to national public sphere. Findings suggest that the type of public sphere promoted by the European Journal is not centered around the EU as a distinct entity, but around the member states, approach which supports the idea of a horizontal Europeanization.

  20. Shaping the System - The DRG Evaluation Project of the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, DGGG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, W; Renner, S P; Siam, K; Babapirali, J; Roeder, N; Dausch, E; Hildebrandt, T; Hillemanns, P; Nehmzow, M; Zygmunt, M; Piroth, D; Schem, C; Schwenzer, T; Friese, K; Wallwiener, D; Beckmann, M W

    2013-08-01

    Introduction: The German DRG system is annually adapted to the changing services provided. For the further development, the self-governing body and its DRG Institute (InEK) depend on participation of the users. Methods: For one of the DRG evaluation projects initiated by DGGG, cost and performance data for the year 2011 from 16 hospitals were available. After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed. In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK. In addition, 3 modification proposals were addressed to the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, DIMDI) for further development of the diagnosis classification ICD-10-GM. For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements. Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system 2014 shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system. PMID:24771931

  1. Akrüülmaja / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. valminud valge eramu (ehitusalune pind 73,28 m2) Jaapanis Fuji mäe lähistel Yamanashis. Arhitekt Takeshi Hosaka, konstruktor Hirofumi Ono. Igast ruumist avaneb vaade aeda ja eemale loodusele, kuid säilib vajalik privaatsus. I ja II korruse plaan, lõige, 9 värv. vaadet

  2. Leishmaniasis in beige mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, C E; Farrell, J P

    1982-01-01

    The courses of two protozoal diseases, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, were examined in three groups of C57BL/6J mice. One group of mice was homozygous recessive for the beige gene (bg/bg). Beige mice are the genetic homologue of the human Chédiak-Higashi syndrome and, among other defects, are profoundly deficient in natural killer cell activity. Wild-type (+/+) mice, which respond to experimental cutaneous or visceral leishmaniasis by eventually eliminating their parasites, and heteroz...

  3. The MICE luminosity monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, A.; Forrest, D; F.J.P. Soler

    2013-01-01

    The MICE experiment will provide the first measurement of ionisation cooling, a technique suitable for reducing the transverse emittance of a tertiary muon beam in a future neutrino factory accelerator facility. MICE is presently in the final stages of commissioning its beam line. The MICE luminosity monitor has proved an invaluable tool throughout this process, providing independent measurements of particle rate from the MICE target, normalisation for beam line detectors and verification of ...

  4. Development of an indicator system for the German action plan to global climate change (DAS); Entwicklung eines Indikatorensystems fuer die Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie an den Klimawandel (DAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Nickel, Darla [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (DAS: Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie) (BUNDESREGIERUNG 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and foremost, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide guidance for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in the process. The Strategy is divided into 13 action fields and two cross-sectional fields (=14+15). (1) Human health (2) Building sector (3) Water regime, water management, coastal and marine protection (4) Soil (5) Biological diversity (6) Agriculture (7) Woodland and forestry (8) Fishery (9) Energy industry (conversion, transport and supply) (10) Financial services industry (11) Transport, transport infrastructure (12) Trade and industry (13) Tourism industry (14) Spatial, regional and physical development planning (15) Civil protection. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and implement the DAS. This will be made available for download from www.anpassung.net. An integral part of this will be the 'Tatenbank' (www.tatenbank.anpassung.net), the 'Klimalotse' (www.klimalotse.anpassung.net), FISKA (special information system 'Adaptation') and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far as the Indicator System is concerned, it has been decided to prepare a Report on Indicators for the challenges facing Germany and the

  5. Massenmedien und Versöhnung: Die Berichterstattung über den deutsch-französischen Friedensprozeß nach dem 2. Weltkrieg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Jaeger

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag beinhaltet die ersten Ergebnisse einer Langzeitstudie, bei der flächendeckend die deutsche Nachkriegsberichterstattung über Frankreich von 1946 bis 1970 inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet wurde. Die Studie stützt sich dabei auf das Modell der Nachrichtenfaktoren von Johan Galtung, welche nach seiner Ansicht die Auswahl der Themen bestimmen, die zu einer Nachricht werden. Genau in diesen Selektionsroutinen liegt jedoch die implizite Gefahr, Konflikte zu vertiefen statt sie einzudämmen bzw. durch ein breites Verständnis der Hintergründe gewaltfrei bearbeitbar zu machen. Für die Zeit nach einem Krieg könnten sie Hindernisse auf dem Weg zur Annäherung und Aussöhnung ehemaliger Gegner darstellen. Wie jedoch sieht die Berichterstattung nach dem Krieg tatsächlich aus? Zeigen Massenmedien Bereitschaft zu einer veränderten Berichterstattung? Der Fall der französisch-deutschen Aussöhnung, welcher als Beispiel für einen gelungenen Aussöhnungsprozess gelten kann, belegt, dass Friedensprozesse von den Medien durchaus adäquat begleitet werden können: Z.B. ist der Anteil "positiver" Themen bzw. Berichterstattung konsistent höher als der "negativer", und der Anteil von Non-Elite-Themen steigt an und kündet von Interesse an französischer Lebensart und Kultur. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Negativismus in den Medien kein Naturgesetz ist, sondern überwunden werden kann, wenn Frieden und Versöhnung auf der Tagesordnung stehen.

  6. Von Studierenden für Studierende: Das Projekt "Archiv deutsche Medizinstudierendenschaft" und seine Bedeutung für die Weiterentwicklung der studentischen Lehre [From students to students: The project "Archiv deutsche Medizinstudierendenschaft" (Archive of German Medical Student Bodies, or ADM and its relevance for the advancement of the medical curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glahn, Julia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] The “Archiv deutsche Medizinstudierendenschaft” (Archive of German Medical Student Bodies, ADM is a joint project between the Federation of Medical Students' Associations (bvmd, the local student councils in medicine (lead-managed by the council in Aachen, and the Institute for History, Theory and Ethics in Medicine at the RWTH Aachen University. It does not only contribute to the comprehensive archival storage, indexing, and evaluation of the written sources of different student councils, but it also particularly aims at strengthening the student self-administration and, hence, at improving the medical curriculum. A crucial aim is to critically analyze student initiatives in teaching in the recent past and to extract possible parameters for success and failure, e.g., by examining student claims and argumentations within a historical context or by questioning their recent strategies in order to improve them. Thus, the historical documents also provide strategies for the explanation and justification of their current efforts to improve the medical curriculum. The essential aim of the ADM is to professionalize the collegiate commitment in medical teaching and education, to implement student interests in the advancement of the German Medical Licensing Act and the medical curriculum more specifically, but also to comprise the sociopolitical activities of medical student bodies and to evaluate their international activities and exchange. [german] Das „Archiv Deutsche Medizinstudierendenschaft“ (ADM ist ein Gemeinschaftsprojekt der „Bundesvertretung der Medizinstudierenden in Deutschland e.V.“ (bvmd, der Fachschaften Medizin (unter der Federführung der Aachener Fachschaft und des „Instituts für Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin“ an der RWTH Aachen. Es dient nicht nur der umfassenden Archivierung, Erschließung und Auswertung von zeitgeschichtlichen und aktuellen Quellen aller Studierendenorganisationen und

  7. German energy policy; Deutsche Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinwaechter, L. (ed.)

    2007-07-01

    In his introductory paper on energy supply assurance, Frank Umbach analyzes central challenges in energy supply in Europe and the USA in the decades to come. He assumes that petroleum and natural gas will continue to be important energy sources for some time to come. Roland Goetz investigates the role of Russia in petroleum and natural gas supply and points out the mutual interdependence: While Russia is the most important energy supplier for the EU, Western Europe is the biggest market for Russian energy sources. Elisabeth strecker investigates the subject of energy from an information and communication aspect. For example, different scales and forecasts of resources, ranges, production volumes and prices are the result of an information policy governed by specific interests. Kai Kleinwaechter goes into the current problem of electricity market regulation in Germany. Starting from a historical outline, the financial, oranisational and personal interdependences between the EU, the German government, the German states governments, public utilities and industrial consumers (''iron pentagram'') are presented. WErner Schilling discusses energy policy on a state basis, using the example of the German state of Brandenburg (orig.)

  8. Das deutsche Kriegsgefangenenwesen 1939 - 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Geck, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Zusammenfassung: Die vorliegende Untersuchung zum deutschen Kriegsgefangenenwesen (KGW) im Zweiten Weltkrieg schließt eine wichtige Lücke innerhalb der geschichtswissenschaftlichen Forschungen zum Themenkreis der Kriegsgefangenschaft in deutschem Gewahrsam. Bisherige Studien (bis einschließlich 1997) behandeln vor allem sozial- und kulturgeschichtliche Aspekte der Kriegsgefangenen (Kgf.), der Lagergesellschaft und dem Alltag von Soldaten in Kriegsgefangenschaft. Der Verfasser indes legt mit s...

  9. Deutsche Privathochschulen: Ein emerging market?

    OpenAIRE

    Priddat, Birger P.

    2009-01-01

    Die Universität Witten/Herdecke stand kurz vor einer Insolvenz. Im Sog der Geschehnisse ist ihr Präsident Birger P. Priddat im Dezember 2008 von seinem Amt zurückgetreten. Er skizziert hier den Bildungsmarkt in Deutschland.

  10. Deutsche trauen dem Euro nicht

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    NeueBanken_Umfrage:Ablehnungsquote2liegtimmernochbei62ProzentDieAkzeptanzdesEurosteigtinDeutschlandnurlangsam,diemeistenBunde...

  11. Der Deutsche Kolonialroman der Kaiserzeit

    OpenAIRE

    Brasch, Anna Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Die Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Kolonialroman der Kaiserzeit, für den Frieda von Bülows Romane „Tropenkoller“ und „Im Lande der Verheißung“ exemplarisch ausgewählt wurden. Untersucht wird die Darstellung des Fremden, was gleichbedeutend ist mit der Darstellung des Selbst. Die Analyse stützt sich auf eine postkoloniale Kulturwissenschaft in der Nachfolge Edward W. Saids; grundlegende Annahmen sind, dass Orient und Okzident vom Menschen geschaffene Kategorien sind, die nicht mit der Realitä...

  12. Deutsche Literatur im polnischen Literaturunterricht

    OpenAIRE

    Orłowski, Hubert

    1993-01-01

    Although the presence of German language literature in handbooks and readers used in teaching literature in high schools and technical schools has undergone the evolution within the last fifty years, it has not changed so much as not being able to determine several relevant characteristics of its presence. (The above mentioned applies also to the reading list.) There are three features which seem to be especially distinctive for establishing the place of German language literature in teaching...

  13. Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ). Publications 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual record of ''publications'' of the German Cancer Research Center gives a complete list of the results published by the scientific staff of the center - articles in journals - chapters in books - monographs, reports - diploma, Ph.D./MD theses. The appendix of the record contains a list of special guest lectures delivered in the center. There are two registers - the alphabetically ordered register of authors and - a register listing the authors according to their division in alphabetical order. Both registers contain numbers cross-referring to the publications. In publications which originated from collaboration with other institutions the external authors are marked with *. Short discriptions of the research programs, the divisions, and Central Scientific Services of the center supplement this record. (orig.)

  14. Kooperationsbeziehungen im deutsch- polnischen Grenzraum

    OpenAIRE

    Pauli, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with the questions how cultural boundaries manifest themselves in German-Polish cooperation, how they influence cooperation and to which extent they can be overcome. Starting from this point, conclusions are drawn for cultural integration processes, which are defined as closely linked to cultural boundaries and their overcoming. The theses developes a middle-range model as a research heuristic and herewith delivers a theory-led definition of cultural boundaries and cultural ...

  15. Deutsche BP. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tasks and activities of this German petroleum and natural gas company are described including a multitude of financial data (profit-and-loss account, balance sheet, etc.). The company works in the field of extraction, production, processing, storage, transport and marketing of petroleum, natural gas and their products. (UA)

  16. Application of photogrammetry, remote sensing and GIS in the environmental monitoring of the Deutsche Steinkohle AG; Einsatz von Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung und GIS im Umweltmonitoring der Deutschen Steinkohle AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosen, P.; Spreckels, V. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Geoinformation/Vermessung; Busch, W.; Matejka, H. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik und Markscheidewesen; Fischer, C. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. fuer Geotechnik und Markscheidewesen; DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Oberpfaffenhofen (DE). Deutsches Fernerkundungsdatenzentrum (DFD)

    2006-03-15

    Due to legal restrictions, the German hard coal mining company Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK) is obliged to conduct a monitoring on surface changes (subsidence) caused by mining activity (e.g. topographic surface, groundwater, water, flora and fauna, soil). To fulfill legal demands and to do this effectively, process chains by use of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Geo-Informationssystems (GIS) have been established. Photogrammetric methods are used to generate high resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) from which in combination with subsidence data geometrical changes at the topographic surface are deduced. The potential use of active sensors (Laser Scanning and Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems) to deduct DEM has been investigated. The applicability of SAR satellite data to detect and observe subsidence and resulting movements - point wise or with spatial extent - using differential SAR Interferometry (dInSAR) as well as persistent scatterer technology (here: the use of the approach from Gamma Remote Sensing AG - IPTA) is currently under investigation. Optical Remote Sensing data supports the environmental monitoring by use of selected high resolution systems in the spectral and/or in the spatial domain (e.g. from airborne imaging spectrometer HyMap trademark or from the IKONOS satellite system). To analyze these state of the art data sets customized routines were developed. GIS (here: ESRIArcGIS) are used by DSK since more than 15 years. Within the environmental monitoring different methods and models have been developed, which allow an efficient data handling, analyzing processes and user-oriented presentation. The core system is represented by a data server (Geodatenzentralbank - GDZB) based on ORACLE, whereas the data structures are extended to the fourth domain 'time'. Since 1988, these processes are enhanced successfully by numerous research and development projects (R and D) in tight cooperation with Clausthal University of Technology

  17. „Ob man an die kleinen Kinder gedacht hat ...?“ Die Verhandlungen über medizinische Hilfe für deutsche Flüchtlinge in Dänemark am Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs.

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Schultheiss

    2010-01-01

    Anfang Mai 1945 befanden sich fast 250.000 deutsche Flüchtlinge aus den „Ostgebieten“ in Dänemark, die in das besetzt gehaltene Königreich evakuiert worden waren. Von der Ankunft des ersten Flüchtlings im Februar bis zur deutschen Kapitulation in Dänemark am 5. Mai 1945 verloren 6.580 Flüchtlinge das Leben. Darunter waren mehr als 4.000 Kinder, die vor allem an Unterernährung und Lungenentzündungen starben. Der vorliegende Beitrag untersucht, wie es zu dieser Sterblichkeit kommen konnte und b...

  18. Warum können schwedische Männer Krankenschwestern (sjuksköterskor) werden, deutsche aber nur Krankenpfleger? : zum Einfluß sprachinterner und sprachexterner Faktoren im Deutschen und im Schwedischen

    OpenAIRE

    Nübling, Damaris

    2010-01-01

    In schwedischen Krankenhäusern ist es selbstverständlich, einen Krankenpfleger mit Syster 'Schwester' anzusprechen (also z.B. Syster Nils 'Schwester Nils'). Auch die Berufsbezeichnung von Schwester Nils ist weiblich: Er ist sjuksköterska, wörtlich 'Krankenpflegerin' (-ska ist schwedisches Movierungssuffix), also 'Krankenschwester'. Der im Schwedischen ganz geläufige Satz han är sjuksköterska 'er ist Krankenschwester' klingt für deutsche Ohren ungrammatisch. Vor etwa 30 Jahren war dies in Schw...

  19. Customized solutions instead of mass-produced systems. Small but impressive success of German producers in Japan; Massarbeit statt Massenware. Deutsche Firmen erzielen kleine, aber feine Erfolge in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemer, J.; Klempert, O.

    2002-02-01

    Japan houses four of the world's ten biggest producers of solar cells and does not need imported mass-produced systems. On the other hand, some German producers were able to achieve a small but significant success with customized solutions. [German] Auslaendische Photovoltaikprodukte werden in Japan, der Heimat von vier der zehn weltgroessten Solarzellenhersteller, ungefaehr so dringend benoetigt wie Eulen in Athen. An etwas ausgefallenen Exemplaren, die in der heimischen Massenproduktion nicht geboten werden, hat man allerdings auch dort Bedarf. Einige deutsche Anbieter haben so bereits einen Fuss in die Tuer zu Nippons gigantischem Markt bekommen. (orig.)

  20. MICE IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conventions, and Exhibitions) industry has exploded worldwide over the past decade. The benefits brought by meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions are also benefiting other sectors involved in MICE events, including hotels, travel, and retail. Industry analysts estimate that the income from the global MICE industry will soon exceed USD 220 billion, and is expected to increase by 8-10% each year.

  1. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10–23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R = −0.80, p = 0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R = 0.81, p = 0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains. The online version of this

  2. A Family of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 There is a family of mice in my house. They are father mouse, mother mouse and baby mouse. Baby mouse likes dancing. He is very cute. Father mouse likes watching TV. He likes the sports on TV best. These three mice are clever.

  3. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  4. Generation of Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Andrew; Haruyama, Naoto; Kulkarni, Ashok B.

    2009-01-01

    This unit describes detailed step-by-step protocols, reagents, and equipment required for successful generation of transgenic mice using pronuclear injection. The experimental methods and practical tips given here will help guide beginners in understanding what is required and what to avoid in these standard protocols for efficiently generating transgenic mice.

  5. The MICE Online Systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to test transverse cooling of a muon beam, demonstrating an important step along the path toward creating future high intensity muon beam facilities. Protons in the ISIS synchrotron impact a titanium target, producing pions which decay into muons that propagate through the beam line to the MICE cooling channel. Along the beam line, particle identification (PID) detectors, scintillating fiber tracking detectors, and beam diagnostic tools identify and measure individual muons moving through the cooling channel. The MICE Online Systems encompass all tools; including hardware, software, and documentation, within the MLCR (MICE Local Control Room) that allow the experiment to efficiently record high quality data. Controls and Monitoring (C&M), Data Acquisition (DAQ), Online Monitoring and Reconstruction, Data Transfer, and Networking all fall under the Online Systems umbrella. C&M controls all MICE systems including the target, conventional an...

  6. 'Fixed headways' for engine maintenance. Efficient production management in the competence centre for diesel engines at Deutsche Bahn's Bremen maintenance facility; Getaktete Motoreninstandhaltung. Effizientes Produktionsmanagement im Kompetenzzentrum fuer Dieselmotoren DB-Werk Bremen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traut, L. [ITO GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Frerich, R. [DB Fahrzeuginstandhaltung GmbH, Bremen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The 'competence centre for diesel engines' in Deutsche Bahn's maintenance facility in Bremen is in charge of maintaining all internal-combustion engines used in the group's entire fleet. A veritable production line has now been set up for the scheduled inspection of diesel engines for multiple units and railcars to operate according to centralized time cycles. Each working day is divided into eight clocked periods for the dismantling, maintenance, reassembly and testing of engines. This shop-floor concept has produced several impressive results: - a considerable shortening of the throughput time for each engine to one week, - a high process stability with little outlay on control interventions and excellent compliance with deadlines, - improved productivity and operating economics, and - enhanced use of employees' qualifications and more flexible employee rostering. All of Deutsche Bahn's maintenance facilities are using the methods and layout rules of a progressive form of production management to improve their efficiency. They are assisted in this by the Strategic Product Support Unit of the group's specialized vehicle-maintenance subsidiary, DB Fahrzeuginstandhaltung GmbH. (orig.)

  7. 银行业的协调与配置--以德意志银行为例%The allocation of resources and coordination in Deutsche Banking industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超

    2015-01-01

    近年来,银行业面临一些新的机遇和挑战:经济发展的全球化和世界经济一体化提供了一个广阔的市场;顾客不再仅仅局限于国内,而是来自世界各地;与此同时,竞争对手也遍布全球。随着政府对于银行管制的逐步放松及进入壁垒的逐步瓦解,银行同其它金融机构的竞争日益激烈,而非金融机构的进入则更加剧了这一竞争。差异化和标准化经营可以帮助传统银行应对激烈的竞争,摆脱目前举步维艰的局面。但如何协调二者关系则成为摆在银行业面前的新的难题。文章以德意志银行为例,借助波特价值链理论,通过分析其价值链活动的跨国配置,选择与之相适应的协调机制,给出相关建议,以期对我国银行如何面对当前激烈的竞争具有一定借鉴意义。%In recent years, the banking industry is facing new opportunities and challenges:the globalization and the world economic integration of the economic development has provided a broad market;the customer is no lon-ger only confined to the own country, but from all over the world;at the same time, competitors also spread all over the world. With the gradual relaxation of government regulation to the banks and the gradual disintegration of barriers to join, the competition between the other financial institutions and banks has increasingly become fierce, the joining of the non-financial institutions has even intensified the competition. Differentiation and standardization management could help traditional banks to deal with the fierce competition and get rid of the current difficult situa-tion. But how to coordinate the relationship between them has become a new problem in front of the banking indus-try. Taking the Deutsche Banks as examples, with the Porter value chain theory, by analyzing the transnational configure of their value chain activities and choosing the suitable coordination mechanism, this paper will

  8. Measures in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Schlutzenberg, Farmer

    2013-01-01

    This thesis analyses extenders in fine structural mice. Kunen showed that in the inner model for one measurable cardinal, there is a unique measure. This result is generalized, in various ways, to mice below a superstrong cardinal. The analysis is then used to show that certain tame mice satisfy $V=\\mathsf{HOD}$. In particular, the approach proides a new proof of this result for the inner model $M_n$ for $n$ Woodin cardinals. It is also shown that in $M_n$, all homogeneously Suslin sets of re...

  9. Mice Status Report: September 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Blondel, Alain; Hanson, G.

    2010-01-01

    This report is prepared for the MICE Project Board meeting of September 2010. It constitutes an update of the reports produced for the MICE Funding Agency Committee in December 20081, October 20092 and April 20103 and concentrates on the progress made since. The design of the MICE experiment can be found in the MICE proposal

  10. Exploring MICE Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU BO

    2006-01-01

    @@ With commerce and entertainment increasingly intertwined and the Chinese economy becoming more internationally integrated, Meetings,Incentives, Conference and Exhibitions (MICE) travel, is regarded by many travel agencies as one of the most potentially profitable tourism trends of the future.

  11. MICE Particle Identification Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is being built, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), to demonstrate the feasibility of ionization cooling of muon beams. This is one of the major technological steps needed in the development of a muon collider and a neutrino factory based on muon decays in a storage ring. MICE will use particle detectors to measure the cooling effect with high precision, achieving a precision on the measurement of emittance of 0.1% or better...

  12. Animal experimental model of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction after allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in lethally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The graft-versus-host (GVH) disease represents a serious still unsolved problem in the human allogenic transplantation of bone marrow. An experimental model of GVH reaction after an allogenic transplantation of bone marrow in the adult mouse has been worked out as a prerequisite for further studies on the therapeutic influence of this syndrome. 3 groups have been formed out of 82 lethally X-irradiated C57 Bl mice. The non-transplanted control group died to a hundred per cent within 12 days. While out of the 2nd group treated with syngenic bone marrow 55 per cent survived from the 22nd day, 30 per cent of the third animal group, allogenicly transplanted with histoincompatible AKR donor marrow developed a chronic GVH syndrome. The following symptoms were observed: retardation, alterations of the skin, diarrhea, edemas of the legs, failing increase of leukocytes in blood and proliferation of lymphocytes in bone marrow of about 60 per cent (18 per cent in syngenically transplanted animals), in lacking proliferation of hematopoiesis. The increase of liver and especially spleen index is not characteristic in comparison with the syngenically transplanted group, since in the latter there is also an increase of the values on account of a strong hematopoetic proliferation. The model is suitable and sufficiently well characterized for the performance of further experimental studies. (author)

  13. Transgenic mice: beyond the knockout

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. Lance

    2010-01-01

    Transgenic mice have had a tremendous impact on biomedical research. Most researchers are familiar with transgenic mice that carry Cre recombinase (Cre) and how they are used to create conditional knockouts. However, some researchers are less familiar with many of the other types of transgenic mice and their applications. For example, transgenic mice can be used to study biochemical and molecular pathways in primary cultures and cell suspensions derived from transgenic mice, cell-cell interac...

  14. Transgenic mice susceptible to poliovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Koike; Taya, C; Kurata, T; Abe, S.; Ise, I; Yonekawa, H; Nomoto, A

    1991-01-01

    Poliovirus-sensitive transgenic mice were produced by introducing the human gene encoding cellular receptors for poliovirus into the mouse genome. Expression of the receptor mRNAs in tissues of the transgenic mice was analyzed by using RNA blot hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. The human gene is expressed in many tissues of the transgenic mice just as in tissues of humans. The transgenic mice are susceptible to all three poliovirus serotypes, and the mice inoculated with poliov...

  15. Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden messen: Übersetzung des „Perceived Medical School Stress Instruments“ in die deutsche Sprache [Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the “Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument” to the German language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltmer, Edgar

    2013-05-01

    Burn-out. Vitaliano et al. haben bereits 1984 ein 13 Items umfassendes Instrument zur Messung der spezifischen Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden, das „Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS, vorgestellt. Es wurde seitdem im englischsprachigen Bereich breit eingesetzt und validiert. Bislang liegt jedoch keine deutschsprachige Version des Instrumentes vor. Ziel des Projektes war die Übersetzung des PMSS in die deutsche Sprache, um es im Rahmen von Studien im deutschsprachigen Raum einzusetzen.Methodik: Die englischsprachigen Items des PMSS wurden von drei Untersuchern in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt. Die Versionen wurden synoptisch gegenübergestellt und auf dieser Basis wurde für jedes Item eine deutschsprachige Version formuliert. Diese Versionen wurden von Muttersprachlerinnen in die englische Sprache zurückübersetzt. Auf der Basis dieser Rückübersetzungen, eines kognitiven Debriefings an 19 deutschen Medizinstudierenden und einer testtheoretischen Evaluation an 169 deutschen Medizinstudierenden wurden dann die endgültigen deutschsprachigen Formulierungen festgelegt. Ergebnisse: Das PMSS konnte ohne größere Schwierigkeiten in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt werden. Sowohl zwischen den Übersetzungen in die deutsche Sprache als auch zwischen beiden Rückübersetzungen waren die Übereinstimmungen groß. Bei Diskrepanzen erfolgte die Einigung schnell und unkompliziert. Der Einsatz der deutschsprachigen Version erbrachte einen guten Wert für die Reliabilität (Cronbachs Alpha 0,81.Schlussfolgerung: Es steht nun auch für deutschsprachigen Raum ein spezifisches Instrument zur Messung der Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden zur Verfügung.

  16. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R;

    2013-01-01

    thoroughly validated antibodies and oligos, we give a detailed brain anatomical characterization of transgenic mice over expressing Neuroglobin. Moreover, using permanent middle artery occlusion the effect of elevated levels of Neuroglobin on ischemic damage was studied. Lastly, the impact of mouse strain...... genetic background on ischemic damage was investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A four to five fold increase in Neuroglobin mRNA and protein expression was seen in the brain of transgenic mice. A β-actin promoter was used to drive Neuroglobin over expression, but immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization...... infarct volume 24 hours after ischemia. Immunohistochemistry showed no selective sparing of Neuroglobin expressing cells in the ischemic core or penumbra. A significant difference in infarct volume was found between mice of the same strain, but from different colonies. SIGNIFICANCE: In contrast to some...

  17. MICE Particle Identification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, D A

    2009-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is being built, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), to demonstrate the feasibility of ionization cooling of muon beams. This is one of the major technological steps needed in the development of a muon collider and a neutrino factory based on muon decays in a storage ring. MICE will use particle detectors to measure the cooling effect with high precision, achieving a precision on the measurement of emittance of 0.1% or better. The particle i.d. detectors and trackers must work in harsh environmental conditions due to high magnetic fringe fields and RF noise. We will briefly describe the MICE particle i.d. detector systems, and show some current performance measurements of these detectors.

  18. II Infused Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR-α plays an important role in attenuating hypertension. The current study determines the anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory role of PPAR-α agonist during a slow-pressor dose of Ang II (400 ng/kg/min. Ten to twelve week old male PPAR-α KO mice and their WT controls were implanted with telemetry devices and infused with Ang II for 12 days. On day 12 of Ang II infusion, MAP was elevated in PPAR-α KO mice compared to WT (161±4 mmHg versus 145±4 mmHg and fenofibrate (145 mg/kg/day reduced MAP in WT + Ang II mice (134±7 mmHg. Plasma IL-6 levels were higher in PPAR-α KO mice on day 12 of Ang II infusion (30±4 versus 8±2 pg/mL and fenofibrate reduced plasma IL-6 in Ang II-treated WT mice (10±3 pg/mL. Fenofibrate increased renal expression of CYP4A, restored renal CYP2J expression, reduced the elevation in renal ICAM-1, MCP-1 and COX-2 in WT + Ang II mice. Our results demonstrate that activation of PPAR-α attenuates Ang II-induced hypertension through up-regulation of CYP4A and CYP2J and an attenuation of inflammatory markers such as plasma IL-6, renal MCP-1, renal expression of ICAM-1 and COX-2.

  19. MICE Particle Identification System

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M

    2010-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, MICE, at the ISIS accelerator lo- cated at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, will be the first experiment to study muon cooling at high precision. Demonstration of muon ionization cooling is an essential step towards the construction of a neutrino factory or a muon collider. Muons are produced by pion decay in a superconducting solenoid and reach MICE with a range of emittances and momenta. The purity of the muon beam is ensured by a system of particle detectors we will briefly describe here.

  20. Mice Drawer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancedda, Ranieri

    2008-01-01

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions (from 100 to 150-days) by living space, food, water, ventilation and lighting. Mice can be accommodated either individually (maximum 6) or in groups (4 pairs). MDS is integrated in the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation (uploading and downloading) to the ISS and in an EXPRESS Rack in Destiny, the US Laboratory during experiment execution. Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton. This bone loss experienced by astronauts is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population. MDS will help investigate the effects of unloading on transgenic (foreign gene that has been inserted into its genome to exhibit a particular trait) mice with the Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1, OSF-1, a growth and differentiation factor, and to study the genetic mechanisms underlying the bone mass pathophysiology. MDS will test the hypothesis that mice with an increased bone density are likely to be more protected from osteoporosis, when the increased bone mass is a direct effect of a gene involved in skeletogenesis (skeleton formation). Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton, a loss that is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population on Earth. Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1 (OSF-1), also known as pleiotrophin (PTN) or Heparin-Binding Growth- Associated Molecule (HB-GAM) belongs to a family of secreted heparin binding proteins..OSF-1 is an extracellular matrix-associated growth and

  1. The MICE PID Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2008-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well below 1%. The MICE time-of-flight system will measure timing with a resolution better than 70 ps per plane, in a harsh environment due to high particle rates, fringe magnetic fields and electron backgrounds from RF dark current.

  2. Status of MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Bross, Alan D.; Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling is the only practical method for preparing high-brilliance beams needed for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory comprises a dedicated beamline to generate a range of input emittance and momentum, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance is performed in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillati...

  3. The MICE PID Instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Bonesini(Sezione INFN Milano Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica G. Occhialini, Milano, Italy)

    2008-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well be...

  4. Retinoblastoma in transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Windle, J J; Albert, D. M.; O'Brien, J. M.; Marcus, D. M.; Disteche, Ch.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Mellon, P L

    1990-01-01

    Retinoblastoma, a malignancy of the eye occurring in young children, has been widely studied as a model for genetic predisposition to cancer. This disease is caused by mutations in both alleles of an anti-oncogene (the retinoblastoma gene, Rb) that inactivate or eliminate the Rb encoded protein, pl05rb. Here we report that expression of a viral oncogene, the simian virus 40 T antigen, in the retina of transgenic mice produces heritable ocular tumours with histological, ultrastructural and imm...

  5. Transthoracic Echocardiography in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Respress, Jonathan L.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, murine models have become the primary avenue for studying the molecular mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction resulting from changes in gene expression. Transgenic and gene targeting methods can be used to generate mice with altered cardiac size and function,1-3 and as a result, in vivo techniques are needed to evaluate their cardiac phenotype. Transthoracic echocardiography, pulse wave Doppler (PWD), and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) can be used to provide dimensional measurement...

  6. Adiposity-Related Biochemical Phenotype in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 6 (SAMP6)

    OpenAIRE

    NIIMI, Kimie; TAKAHASHI, Eiki; ITAKURA, Chitoshi

    2009-01-01

    Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 6 (SAMP6) is a model of senile osteoporosis. From 10 to 22 wk of age, SAMP6 mice were heavier than age-matched AKR/J and SAMR1 mice. Body mass indices of 10- and 25-wk-old SAMP6 mice were higher than those of age-matched AKR/J and SAMR1 mice, indicating obesity in the SAMP6 animals. We compared the blood biochemical values among SAMP6, SAMR1, and AKR/J mice to assess whether the SAMP6 strain has abnormal obesity-related parameters. Plasma glucose, triglyceri...

  7. Shaping the System – The DRG Evaluation Project of the German Society for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe, DGGG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, W.; Renner, S. P.; Siam, K.; Babapirali, J.; Roeder, N.; Dausch, E.; Hildebrandt, T.; Hillemanns, P.; Nehmzow, M.; Zygmunt, M.; Piroth, D.; Schem, C.; Schwenzer, T.; Friese, K.; Wallwiener, D.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The German DRG system is annually adapted to the changing services provided. For the further development, the self-governing body and its DRG Institute (InEK) depend on participation of the users. Methods: For one of the DRG evaluation projects initiated by DGGG, cost and performance data for the year 2011 from 16 hospitals were available. After plausibility checks and corrections, analyses for service and cost homogeneity were performed. In cases of inadequate DRG-representation attributes were sought that would make an appropriate reimbursement possible. Conspicuities and potential solutions were checked for clinical plausibility. Results: 44 concrete modification proposals for further development of the G-DRG system were formulated and submitted in due time to the InEK. In addition, 3 modification proposals were addressed to the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information (Deutsches Institut für Medizinische Dokumentation und Information, DIMDI) for further development of the diagnosis classification ICD-10-GM. For all modification proposals care was taken to minimise misdirected incentives and to reduce the potential for disputes with the cost bearers and their auditors services in settlements. Discussion: The publication of the G-DRG system 2014 shows which modification proposals have been realised. Essentially, an appropriate redistribution of the resources among the gynaecological and obstetrics departments is to be expected. The financial pressure that is caused by the generally inadequate financing of hospitals will not be reduced by a further development of the G-DRG system. PMID:24771931

  8. Lernstrategien und -techniken im Kontext des Tertiärsprachenunterrichts. Eine empirische Studie zu Deutsch als L3 nach Englisch als L2 // Learning Strategies and Techniques in the Context of Tertiary Language Teaching. An Empirical Study of German as an L3 Language after English as an L2 Language

    OpenAIRE

    Petravić, Ana; Horvatić Čajko, Irena

    2015-01-01

    In diesem Beitrag wird die Förderung der lernstrategischen Kompetenz im Tertiärsprachenunterricht untersucht. Ausgehend von der tertiärsprachendidaktischen Verortung von Lernstrategien im Spannungsfeld von Sprachbewusstheit und Sprachlernbewusstheit und vor dem Hintergrund der Lernstrategiedebatte werden die Ergebnisse der ersten empirischen Untersuchung in Kroatien zur Nutzung von Lernstrategien und -techniken im L3-Unterricht Deutsch nach Englisch bei jugendlichen DaF-Anfängern präsentiert....

  9. Carotid chemoreceptor development in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shirahata, Machiko; Kostuk, Eric W.; Pichard, Luis E

    2012-01-01

    Mice are the most suitable species for understanding genetic aspects of postnatal developments of the carotid body due to the availability of many inbred strains and knockout mice. Our study has shown that the carotid body grows differentially in different mouse strains, indicating the involvement of genes. However, the small size hampers investigating functional development of the carotid body. Hypoxic and/or hyperoxic ventilatory responses have been investigated in newborn mice, but these r...

  10. Of mice and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Askhøj; Troelsen, Karin de Linde Lind; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects nearly 1 % of the population. It is a complex disease, which may be caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studies in human genetics have led to the identification of more than 50 human genes, involved in isolated CHD or genetic syndromes, where...... CHD is part of the phenotype. Furthermore, mapping of genomic copy number variants and exome sequencing of CHD patients have led to the identification of a large number of candidate disease genes. Experiments in animal models, particularly in mice, have been used to verify human disease genes and to...

  11. Emittance Measurement in MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Terrence L.; Kaplan, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling provides the only practical solution to prepare high-brilliance beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, is installing the first set of particle detectors ever built to measure to 0.1% the emittance of a 200 MeV/c or so muon beam in and out of a cooling cell, and thus measure the cooling cell's performance. Two identical "emittometers" (a precise scin...

  12. Inborn anemias in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, five hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, an α-thalassemia, and a new target-cell anemia. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus our wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse. Each anemia is studied through: (a) characterization of peripheral blood values, (b) determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions, (c) measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis, (d) histological and biochemical study of blood-forming tissue, (e) functional tests of the stem cell component, (f) examination of responses to erythroid stimuli, and (g) transplantation of tissue between individuals of differently affected genotypes

  13. Status of MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Bross, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling is the only practical method for preparing high-brilliance beams needed for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The muon ionization cooling experiment (MICE) under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory comprises a dedicated beamline to generate a range of input emittance and momentum, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. A first measurement of emittance is performed in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating-fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in liquid hydrogen with RF acceleration. A second spectrometer identical to the first and a particle identification system will measure the outgoing emittance. Plans for measurements of emittance and cooling are described.

  14. Emittance Measurement in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Hart, Terrence L

    2008-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling provides the only practical solution to prepare high-brilliance beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, is installing the first set of particle detectors ever built to measure to 0.1% the emittance of a 200 MeV/c or so muon beam in and out of a cooling cell, and thus measure the cooling cell's performance. Two identical "emittometers" (a precise scintillating-fiber tracker in solenoidal magnetic field and a 50 ps time-of-flight station) measure the six phase-space coordinates of each muon. Another TOF plane and two Cherenkov counters assure the purity of the incoming muon beam. A downstream electron/muon calorimeter eliminates contamination from decay electrons.

  15. Mice, men and MHC supertypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Claus

    2010-01-01

    vaccine formulations. Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, causes severe neurologic and ocular disease in congenitally infected and immunocompromised individuals. No protective vaccine exists against human toxoplasmosis. However, studies with mice have revealed immunodominant cytotoxic T...

  16. Owls and larks in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Martina; Wicht, Helmut; von Gall, Charlotte; Korf, Horst-Werner

    2015-01-01

    Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl) has been shown to be associated with several health risks. A number of studies show that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior, which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork, and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration. PMID:26029157

  17. Owls and larks in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina ePfeffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl has been shown to be associated with a number of health risks. Recent studies indicate that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in the most commonly used inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration.

  18. Tamoxifen administration to mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Jonathan; Littlewood, Trevor; Soucek, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The strategy of fusing a protein of interest to a hormone-binding domain (HBD) of a steroid hormone receptor allows fine control of the activity of the fused protein. Such fusion proteins are inactive in the absence of ligand, because they are complexed with a variety of intracellular polypeptides. Upon ligand binding, the receptor is released from its inhibitory complex and the fusion protein becomes functional. In the murine estrogen receptor (ER) fusion system, proteins are fused to the HBD of the ER. The system relies on the use of a mutant ER known as ER(TAM). Compared to the wild-type HBD, ER(TAM) has 1000-fold lower affinity for estrogen, yet remains responsive to activation by the synthetic steroid 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Because 4-OHT is expensive, animals can be treated with the cheaper precursor tamoxifen, which is converted into 4-OHT by a liver enzyme. Here we present an overview of the methods used to deliver tamoxifen to mice. The most used method is intraperitoneal injection, because the amount of administered compound can be better controlled, but delivery by oral gavage is also possible. For short-term and immediate-effect studies or when conversion of tamoxifen by the liver is to be avoided, 4-OHT can be used directly. PMID:25734062

  19. Stress inoculation modeled in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Brockhurst, J; Cheleuitte-Nieves, C; Buckmaster, C L; Schatzberg, A. F.; Lyons, D M

    2015-01-01

    Stress inoculation entails intermittent exposure to mildly stressful situations that present opportunities to learn, practice and improve coping in the context of exposure psychotherapies and resiliency training. Here we investigate behavioral and hormonal aspects of stress inoculation modeled in mice. Mice randomized to stress inoculation or a control treatment condition were assessed for corticosterone stress hormone responses and behavior during open-field, object-exploration and tail-susp...

  20. Transplacental Arsenic Carcinogenesis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Waalkes, Michael P.; Liu, Jie; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.

    2007-01-01

    Our work has focused on the carcinogenic effects of in utero arsenic exposure in mice. Our data show a short period of maternal exposure to inorganic arsenic in the drinking water is an effective, multi-tissue carcinogen in the adult offspring. These studies have been reproduced in three temporally separate studies using two different mouse strains. In these studies pregnant mice were treated with drinking water containing sodium arsenite at up to 85 ppm arsenic from day 8 to 18 of gestation,...

  1. AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR OF LABORATORY MICE

    OpenAIRE

    D. Cinghiţă; D. Stănescu

    2005-01-01

    In this work we study agonistic behavior of laboratory white mice when they are kept in captivity. For all this experimental work we used direct observation of mice, in small lists, because we need a reduced space to emphasize characteristics of agonistic behavior. Relations between members of the same species that live in organized groups are based in most cases on hierarchical structure. Relations between leader and subservient, decided by fighting, involve a thorough observation between i...

  2. Human Malaria in Immunocompromised Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Badell, Edgar; Oeuvray, Claude; Moreno, Alicia; Soe, Soe; Van Rooijen, Nico; Bouzidi, Ahmed; Druilhe, Pierre

    2000-01-01

    We have recently described that sustained Plasmodium falciparum growth could be obtained in immunodeficient mice. We now report the potential of this new mouse model by assaying the effect of the passive transfer of antibodies (Abs) which in humans have had a well-established effect. Our results show that the total African adult hyperimmune immunoglobulin Gs (HI-IgGs) strongly reduce P. falciparum parasitemia similarly to that reported in humans, but only when mice are concomitantly reconstit...

  3. Tuberculosis Susceptibility of Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Gregory W.; Arikan, Meltem Cevik; Lee, Jinhee; Ren, Fucheng; Greiner, Dale; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2007-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to infections, including tuberculosis (TB), is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes. Despite the clinical importance of this problem, little is known about how diabetes impairs protective immunity. We modeled this phenomenon by infecting acute (⩽ 1 mo) or chronic (⩾ 3 mo) diabetic mice with a low aerosol dose of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Erdman. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) treatment of C57BL/6 mice, while another m...

  4. Textsammlung zum deutsch-chinesischen Wissenschaftsdialog

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Elmar (Ed.)

    2013-01-01

    [Table of Content] # Part 1: Application-oriented Research/Anwendungsorientierte Forschung. A) Thomas Heupel: Anwendungsorientierte Forschungsentwicklung und 'Forschende Lehre' als Herausforderungen eines berufsbegleitenden Studiums ...1 # Part 2: Optimizing Business Processes/Ansätze zur Prozessoptimierung in der Wirtschaft. B) Shimin Sun: A Study on the Establishment and Management of the Supply Chain of High Quality Pork ...13 C) Shimin Sun: A Study on the Establishment and Management of t...

  5. Soll die Deutsche Bahn privatisiert werden?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Der folgende Beitrag befasst sich mit verschiedenen Varianten der Organisation der Eigentumsverhältnisse an der Deutschen Bahn (DB). Im Januar 1994 wurde die DB formell privatisiert in Form der Überführung in eine Aktiengesellschaft, an der der Bund 100 Prozent der Anteile hält. Die Aktien werden folglich nicht an der Börse gehandelt. Aus diesem Grund wird in der politischen Diskussion häufig der Begriff "Börsengang" als Synonym für Privatisierung verwendet. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrages werden ...

  6. Spartenorganisation, "Tracking Stock" und deutsches Aktienrecht

    OpenAIRE

    Baums, Theodor

    1995-01-01

    "Tracking Stock", zum Teil auch als "Targeted Stock" bezeichnet, ist eine Innovation des U.S.-amerikanischen Kapitalmarkts. Mit Tracking Stocks bezeichnet man Aktien, deren Gewinnbezugsrecht sich lediglich nach dem Ergebnis einer bestimmten Unternehmenssparte, nicht des Gesamtunternehmens, bemißt. Ein typisches Beispiel bildet die Schaffung von Tracking Stocks im Zusammenhang mit der Übernahme von Electronic Data Systems (EDS) durch General Motors im Jahre 1984. Die bisherigen Aktionäre von E...

  7. Members' meeting of the Deutsches Atomforum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the example of nuclear energy, the crisis of people in the modern industrial society is analysed by means of six themes: 1) the fear-envy syndrome; 2) the identity crisis; 3) projection and identification; 4) citizens initiatives; 5) information policies; 6) group aims. The author infers that in reality, almost too much information has already been given, it is already difficult for the recipient to still get a clear picture. In his opinion, it is not a question of deficit of information but rather a deficit of confidence. The ever more abstract and non-transparent industrial society combines to produce fear in people. This fear might have found a field af activity in citizens' initiatives to prevent nuclear power plant construction. Accordingly, it is necessary before anything, to develop a relationship of confidence between citizens' initiatives, nuclear power plant builders and operators as well as politicians. (HP)

  8. Annual report 1982 of Deutsches Atomforum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization and the activities of this institution in general as well as the activities in 1982 in the following fields are reported: engineering and industry public relations and press, law and administration, economy and industry, international cooperation. (UA)

  9. Lernerautonomie, Lehrerautonomie und Deutsch als Fremdsprache

    OpenAIRE

    Apeltauer, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Learner autonomy has been discussed since the 70th in the last century. It was argued, that learners should be familiar with foreign language learning, because language learning will get more and more important in a society of the future. So even after school time people should be able to develop foreign language skills without any formal teaching. In recent time a new concept has been added: teacher autonomy. Learner autonomy and teacher autonomy are interdependent. In other words: We can no...

  10. Sprachatlanten im Kontakt - Tschechisch-Deutsch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kloferová, Stanislava

    MünsterHamburgLondon : LIT Verlag, 2003 - (Eichler, E.), s. 39-53 ISBN 3-8258-6635-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9061902 Keywords : geolinguistic * Czech-German contacts Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  11. Tschechisch-deutsche Konfliktgemeinschaft 1848 – 1939

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavačka, Milan

    Linz : Trauner Verlag, 2013 - (Amt der Oberösterreichischen Landesregierung Direktion Kultur), s. 193-200 ISBN 978-3-99033-158-3 Institutional support: RVO:67985963 Keywords : Czech-german realations * Czech Lands * 19th century Subject RIV: AB - History

  12. Deutsche Shell AG. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tasks and activities of this German petroleum company are described, and financial data are presented (balance sheet, profit-and-loss account, etc.). The company is active in petroleum prospecting, extraction and processing and in the marketing of petroleum products. (UA)

  13. Combined effect of levan and cytotoxic agents on the growth of experimental tumours in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Leibovici, J.; Stark, Y.; Wolman, M.

    1983-01-01

    The combined effect of the polysaccharide levan (previously shown to exert a host-dependent as well as direct antitumoural activity) and the cytotoxic agents cyclophosphamide (CY), methotrexate (MTX), vincristine (VINC) and 5-fluoro-uracil (SFU) was studied in Lewis lung carcinoma and AKR lymphoma. Combined chemo- and immunotherapy was applied beginning on the day of tumour cell inoculation. Additive effects were obtained with the combined treatments, compared to single treatments, with all t...

  14. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  15. Thy-1+ dendritic cells in murine epidermis are bone marrow-derived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thy-1+, Ly-5+ dendritic cells have recently been described as a resident cell population in murine epidermis, but their ontogeny and function are unknown. The origin and turnover of epidermal Thy-1+ cells utilizing chimeric mice were investigated. Lethally x-irradiated AKR/J (Thy-1.1+) and AKR/Cum (Thy-1.2+) mice were reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells with or without thymocytes from congenic AKR/Cum or AKR/J mice, respectively. The density of residual indigenous Thy-1.1+ cells in AKR/J chimeras and Thy-1.2+ cells in AKR/Cum chimeras was substantially reduced following x-irradiation, as determined by immunofluorescence staining of epidermal sheets. Epidermal repopulation by allogeneic Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells was first observed at 5 weeks in AKR/J chimeras and at 7 weeks in AKR/Cum chimeras and progressed slowly. Repopulation was not enhanced by increasing the number of allogeneic bone marrow cells injected from 2 X 10(7) to 10(8) cells or by the addition of 8 X 10(7) allogeneic thymocytes to the donor inoculate. Epidermal repopulation by allogeneic Thy-1.2+ cells was not seen in AKR/J mice reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow cells and allogeneic Thy-1.2+ AKR/Cum thymocytes. Taken together, these results indicate that Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells are derived from the bone marrow and suggest that they are not related to conventional peripheral T-lymphocytes

  16. Practical pathology of aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper M. M. Treuting

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington.

  17. Progress of the MICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2015-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. The demonstration is based on a simplified version of a neutrino factory cooling channel. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation has been developed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. The muon beamline has been characterized and a preliminary measure of the beam emittance, using a particle-by-particle method with only the TOF detector system, has been performed (MICE STEP I). Data taking for the study of the properties that determine the cooling performance (MICE Step IV) has just started in 2015, while the demonstration of ionization cooling with re-acceleration is foreseen for 2017.

  18. Elevated Plus Maze for Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Komada, Munekazu; Takao, Keizo; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Although the mouse genome is now completely sequenced, the functions of most of the genes expressed in the brain are not known. The influence of a given gene on a specific behavior can be determined by behavioral analysis of mutant mice. If a target gene is expressed in the brain, behavioral phenotype of the mutant mice could elucidate the genetic mechanism of normal behaviors. The elevated plus maze test is one of the most widely used tests for measuring anxiety-like behavior. The test is ba...

  19. Deficiency in early development of the thymus-dependent cells in irradiation chimeras attributable to recipient's environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone marrow chimeras were prepared using reciprocal combinations of AKR and C3H mice. When C3H mice were recipients, the number of thymocytes recoverable from such chimeras (C3H recipient chimeras) was small as compared with that from chimeras for which AKR mice were used as recipients (AKR recipient chimeras) regardless of donor strain. The thymocytes from C3H recipient chimeras showed a profound deficiency in generating proliferative responses to stimulation by anti-CD3 mAb (2C11) or anti-TCR (alpha, beta) mAb (H57-597), even though the expression of CD3 and TCR molecules fell within the same range as that in AKR recipient chimeras. Furthermore, after stimulation with immobilized 2C11, the proportion of IL-2R+ cells in the thymocytes from C3H recipient chimeras was much less than that in AKR recipient chimeras. However, no significant difference in proliferative responses to 2C11 plus PMA, in influx of Ca2+ after stimulation with 2C11 or IL-2 production in response to 2C11 plus PMA or PMA plus A23187 was demonstrated between C3H and AKR recipient chimeras. These findings suggest that the thymocytes from C3H recipient chimeras have a deficiency in the signal transduction system as compared with chimeras for which AKR mice are the recipients. The thymic stromal component involved in this difference in the C3H recipient chimeras is discussed

  20. Cassava is not a goitrogen in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine the effect of cassava on the thyroid function of mice, the authors fed fresh cassava root to mice and compared this diet with low iodine diet and Purina. Cassava provided a low iodine intake and increased urine thiocyanate excretion and serum thiocyanate levels. Mice on cassava lost weight. The thyroid glands of mice on cassava were not enlarged, even when normalized for body weight. The 4- and 24-hr thyroid uptakes of mice on cassava were similar to those of mice on low iodine diets. Protein-bound [125I]iodine at 24 hr was high in mice on either the cassava or low iodine diets. The thyroid iodide trap (T/M) was similar in mice on cassava and low iodine diets. When thiocyanate was added in vitro to the incubation medium, T/M was reduced in all groups of mice; under these conditions, thiocyanate caused a dose-related inhibition of T/M. The serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations of mice on cassava were reduced compared with mice on Purina diet. Thyroid T4 and T3 contents of mice on cassava were relatively low compared with mice on Purina diet. Hepatic T3 content and T4 5'-monodeiodination in liver homogenates were reduced in mice on cassava compared with other groups. The data show that cassava does not cause goiter in mice. The thiocyanate formed from ingestation of cassava is insufficient to inhibit thyroid iodide transport or organification of iodide. The cassava diet leads to rapid turnover of hormonal iodine because it is a low iodine diet. It also impairs 5'-monodeiodination of T4 which may be related to nutritional deficiency. These data in mice do not support the concept that cassava per se has goitrogenic action in man

  1. Flatiron Mice and Ferroportin Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Erin E.; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Flatiron mice provide the first genetic model that fully recapitulates the iron-loading disorder ferroportin disease. Unlike the other known genetic causes of hemochromatosis, missense mutations in the ferroportin gene are autosomal dominant. These new findings show that ferroportin disease results from dominant negative effects rather than haplo-insufficiency.

  2. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin;

    2006-01-01

    with wild-type C57BL/6N mice on an atherogenic diet. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated in Spd-/- mice. Treatment of Spd-/- mice with a recombinant fragment of human SP-D resulted in decreases of HDL-C (21%) as well as total cholesterol (26%), and LDL cholesterol (28%). Plasma TNF...

  3. Progress on Cherenkov Reconstruction in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Daniel M; Rajaram, Durga; Winter, Miles; Cremaldi, Lucien; Sanders, David; Summers, Don

    2016-01-01

    Two beamline Cherenkov detectors (Ckov-a,-b) support particle identification in the MICE beamline. Electrons and high-momentum muons and pions can be identified with good efficiency. We report on the Ckov-a,-b performance in detecting pions and muons with MICE Step I data and derive an upper limit on the pion contamination in the standard MICE muon beam.

  4. Giardia lamblia infections in adult mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, L G; Conrad, J T; Nash, T E

    1994-01-01

    An adult mouse-Giardia lamblia model was developed and used to study host-parasite interactions, including antigenic variation. The H7/1 clone of isolate GS infected mice consistently and produced infections in 14 mouse strains tested. Infection patterns were mouse strain and Giardia isolate dependent. Antigenic variation occurred in immunocompetent mice but not in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency.

  5. From mice to men: lessons from mutant ataxic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cendelin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Ataxic mutant mice can be used to represent models of cerebellar degenerative disorders. They serve for investigation of cerebellar function, pathogenesis of degenerative processes as well as of therapeutic approaches. Lurcher, Hot-foot, Purkinje cell degeneration, Nervous, Staggerer, Weaver, Reeler, and Scrambler mouse models and mouse models of SCA1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6, SCA7, SCA23, DRPLA, Niemann-Pick disease and Friedreich ataxia are reviewed with special regard to cerebellar pathology, pat...

  6. Progress of MICE RFCC Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Green, M.; Li, N.; Niinikoski, T.; Pan, H.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Bross, A.; Carcagno, R.; Kashikhin, V.; Sylvester, C.; Chen, A. B.; Guo, Bin; Li, Liyi; Xu, Fengyu; Cao, Y.; Sun, S.; Wang, Li; Yin, Lixin; Luo, Tianhuan; Summers, Don; Smith, B.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Kaplan, D.

    2012-05-20

    Recent progress on the design and fabrication of the RFCC (RF and superconducting Coupling Coil) module for the international MICE (Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment) are reported. The MICE ionization cooling channel has two RFCC modules, each having four 201- MHz normal conducting RF cavities surrounded by one superconducting coupling coil (solenoid) magnet. The magnet is designed to be cooled by three cryocoolers. Fabrication of the RF cavities is complete; preparation for the cavity electro-polishing, low power RF measurements, and tuning are in progress at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Fabrication of the cold mass of the first coupling coil magnet has been completed in China and the cold mass arrived at LBNL in late 2011. Preparations for testing the cold mass are currently under way at Fermilab. Plans for the RFCC module assembly and integration are being developed and are described.

  7. MAUS: MICE Analysis User Software

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) has developed the MICE Analysis User Software (MAUS) to simulate and analyse experimental data. It serves as the primary codebase for the experiment, providing for online data quality checks and offline batch simulation and reconstruction. The code is structured in a Map-Reduce framework to allow parallelization whether on a personal machine or in the control room. Various software engineering practices from industry are also used to ensure correct and maintainable physics code, which include unit, functional and integration tests, continuous integration and load testing, code reviews, and distributed version control systems. Lastly, there are various small design decisions like using JSON as the data structure, using SWIG to allow developers to write components in either Python or C++, or using the SCons python-based build system that may be of interest to other experiments.

  8. Clostridium difficile in gnotobiotic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Onderdonk, A B; Cisneros, R L; Bartlett, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Germfree mice associated with Clostridium difficile developed intestinal disease characterized by polymorphonuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, diarrhea, and cecal cytotoxin concentrations positive at a 10(-6) dilution. The numbers of viable bacteria never exceeded 10(10) colony-forming units per g (dry weight). Despite the high toxin levels and chronic inflammation over a 30-day period, the mortality rate was low (less than 2%). Daily treatment of these animals with two oral dos...

  9. Linkage Disequilibrium in Wild Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Laurie, Cathy C.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Anderson, Amy D; Weir, Bruce S.; Livingston, Robert J; Dean, Matthew D.; Smith, Kimberly L.; Schadt, Eric E; Nachman, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studi...

  10. Heterotopic Heart Transplantation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Fengchun; Kang, Sang Mo

    2007-01-01

    The mouse heterotopic heart transplantation has been used widely since it was introduced by Drs. Corry and Russell in 1973. It is particularly valuable for studying rejection and immune response now that newer transgenic and gene knockout mice are available, and a large number of immunologic reagents have been developed. The heart transplant model is less stringent than the skin transplant models, although technically more challenging. We have developed a modified technique and have complete...

  11. Antiretroviral Restriction Factors in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Smita; Rein, Alan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in contemporary retrovirus research is the discovery of “restriction factors”. These are cellular proteins that act after virus entry to inhibit infection by or replication of retroviruses (and other viruses and intracellular pathogens). We briefly discuss here three antiretroviral restriction factors in mice: Fv1, APOBEC3, and tetherin, touching on both biological and molecular aspects of these restriction systems.

  12. Pup mortality in laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Elin M

    2015-01-01

    Successful mouse breeding is a crucial part of providing animals for research. However, loss of single pups or entire litters after birth is a relatively common problem. Determining how pups die is crucial for the understanding of mortality, but the scientific literature does not provide a clear picture of pup mortality and the reason why pups die is still poorly understood. The overall aim with this thesis was to investigate the causes of pup mortality in laboratory mice, focusing on mat...

  13. Progressive Neurodegeneration in Aspartylglycosaminuria Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Mononen, Ilkka; Heisterkamp, Nora; Groffen, John; Kaartinen, Vesa

    1998-01-01

    Aspartylglycosaminuria (AGU) is one of the most common lysosomal storage disorders in humans. A mouse model for AGU has been recently generated through targeted disruption of the glycosylasparaginase gene, and at a young age the glycosyl asparaginase-deficient mice demonstrated many pathological changes found in human AGU patients (Kaartinen V, Mononen I, Voncken J-W, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Heisterkamp N, Groffen J: A mouse model for aspartylglycosaminuria. Nat Med 1996, 2:1375–1378). Our current ...

  14. Hepatotoxicity of ethanol in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldin, R D; Wickramasinghe, S. N.

    1987-01-01

    Mice continuously exposed to ethanol vapour (for up to 19 days) developed fatty change in the liver (from 2 days onwards) and lesions resembling those of alcoholic hepatitis in man (from 5 days onwards). They also showed biochemical evidence of liver cell damage. Sera from ethanol-treated animals contained immunoglobulins that bound to the hepatocytes of ethanol-treated but not of control animals suggesting that exposure to ethanol was followed by an immunological response to a hepatocyte neo...

  15. Primordial Germ Cells in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Saitou, Mitinori; Yamaji, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Germ cell development creates totipotency through genetic as well as epigenetic regulation of the genome function. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the first germ cell population established during development and are immediate precursors for both the oocytes and spermatogonia. We here summarize recent findings regarding the mechanism of PGC development in mice. We focus on the transcriptional and signaling mechanism for PGC specification, potential pluripotency, and epigenetic reprogramming ...

  16. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alphen, Adriaan

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection of visual surround would slip across the retina and retinal slip of more than only a few degrees per second would cause blurring of the projected image and reduce visual acuity (Westheimer and McKe...

  17. Postconditioning in rats and mice

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Objective . For subsequent studies on the molecular mechanisms of postconditioning, we aimed to identify a robust postconditioning protocol in rat and mouse heart. Design. Isolated rat hearts were subjected to different postconditioning protocols (study 1 and 2). The protection was compared to preconditioning. Rats (study 3) in vivo in two different laboratories were postconditioned. Isolated mouse hearts (study 4) and mice in vivo (study 5) were postconditioned. Results. Postconditioning did...

  18. Arterial Pressure Monitoring in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin; Ho, David; Gao, Shumin; Hong, Chull; Vatner, Dorothy E.; Vatner, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of mice for the evaluation and study of cardiovascular pathophysiology is growing rapidly, primarily due to the relative ease for developing genetically engineered mouse models. Arterial pressure monitoring is central to the evaluation of the phenotypic changes associated with cardiovascular pathology and interventions in these transgenic and knockout models. There are four major techniques for measuring arterial pressure in the mouse: tail cuff system, implanted fluid filled catheter...

  19. Measuring Motor Coordination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Deacon, Robert M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Mice are increasingly being used in behavioral neuroscience, largely replacing rats as the behaviorist's animal of choice. Before aspects of behavior such as emotionality or cognition can be assessed, however, it is vital to determine whether the motor capabilities of e.g. a mutant or lesioned mouse allow such an assessment. Performance on a maze task requiring strength and coordination, such as the Morris water maze, might well be impaired in a mouse by motor, rather than cognitive, impairme...

  20. Occupational medicine at RAG Deutsche Steinkohle; Arbeitsmedizin bei der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, Volker [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    ''Safety at work and protection of the health of employees are on a par with production and profitability''. This is part of the mission statement of RAG. For several decades the company has promoted the health of its employees inter alia with an excellently staffed and equipped occupational medicine department. The comprehensive biennial examination is exemplary in the industry and unique in relation to the number of employees. An industrial health management system awarded prizes several times by external auditors rounds off the range of services. (orig.)

  1. German RPV safety assessment. Underpinning of the procedure by complementary test results measured in the hot cells; Der deutsche RDB-Sicherheitsnachweis. Untermauerung der Vorgehensweise durch ergaenzende Kennwertermittlung in den Heissen Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Elisabeth; Hein, Hieronymus; Gundermann, Arnulf [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany); Hoffmann, Harald [VGB (Germany); Koenig, Guenter; Ilg, Ulf [EnBW (Germany); Nagel, Gerhard [e-on Kernkraft (Germany); Widera, Martin [RWE (Germany); Rebsamen, Daniel [KKW Goesgen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    adequate for T0 determination and show a tendency toward lower values than compact specimens. The measured crack arrest fracture toughness values are mostly enveloped by the lower-bound ASME KIa curve. [German] Das in Deutschland anzuwendende Vorgehen beim Sicherheitsnachweis fuer Reaktordruckbehaelter ist in der Regel KTA 3201.2 festgelegt. Es basiert zum Teil auf einem in den USA in den 70iger Jahren entwickelten rein deterministischen Konzept. Die Materialkennkurve wird darin mit Hilfe der RTNDT (Referenztemperatur) indiziert, die mittels mechanisch-technologischer Versuche bestimmt wird. Der Vergleich mit den Bruchmechanikkennwerten zeigt, dass die KIc(T-RTNDT)-Kurve die experimentellen Daten einhuellt. Weltweit sind Bestrebungen im Gange, neben dem bewaehrten RTNDT-Konzept ein auf bruchmechanischen Kennwerten basierendes Konzept einzufuehren. Ein wesentlicher Vorteil des neuen Konzepts besteht darin, dass es eine direkte Ermittlung der Sproedbruchuebergangstemperatur aus bruchmechanischen Versuchen und damit eine realistischere Uebertragung auf das Bauteilverhalten ermoeglicht. Um die Einfuehrung des Master-Kurve-Konzeptes in die Integritaetsbewertung des RDB in Deutschland voranzubringen, sind noch eine Reihe von offenen Fragestellungen wie z.B. die Bezugnahme auf eine repraesentative Datenbasis fuer bestrahlte deutsche RDB-Werkstoffe und der Einfluss der Probenform- und groesse zu klaeren. Es besteht weiterhin die Notwendigkeit, das bestehende mit dem neuen Konzept zu vergleichen und die Frage zu klaeren, inwieweit Crack Arrest Kurven an bestrahltem Werkstoff erstellt werden koennen und wie sich Crack Arrest in das neue Sicherheitskonzept integrieren lasst. Im Rahmen des Vorhabens CARISMA wurde eine Datenbasis zur Charakterisierung der Bruchzaehigkeit von vorbestrahlten originalen RDB Werkstoffen erstellt, die fuer alle vier deutschen DWR-Baulinien repraesentativ sind. Das RTNDT- und das Master- Kurve-Konzept wurden bei der Bewertung der generierten Daten angewendet

  2. Utilization of ashes from sewage sludge incineration as construction material. German-Japanese joint research. Final report; Verwertung von Aschen aus der Klaerschlammverbrennung in der Baustoffindustrie. Deutsch-Japanische Zusammenarbeit. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyfried, C.F.; Rosenwinkel, K.H.; Wiebusch, B.; Hauck, D.; Ruppik, M.; Mengel, K.; Schirmer, T.

    1998-11-01

    during the firing process. However, the chemical composition of the ashes has also a strong impact on the elution behaviour of the ceramic products. Ashes with a high content of calcium increase the leachability, and ashes with a high content of iron decrease the leaching of heavy metals. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um Wege einer stofflichen Verwertung von Klaerschlammaschen in der Bauindustrie im Sinne der Kreislaufwirtschaft aufzuzeigen, wurden die oertlichen und zeitlichen Unterschiede in der Rohstoffqualitaet ermittelt. Dazu wurde der Ascheaustrag von vier kommunalen Mono-Klaerschlammverbrennungsanlagen ueber einen Zeitraum von einem Jahr beprobt und analysiert. Der sich ergebende Jahresgang in der Aschequalitaet konnte mit Betriebsdaten der vorgeschalteten Klaeranlagen verknuepft werden. Damit wurde die stoffliche Entstehungsgeschichte der Klaerschlammaschen im Verlauf der Abwassersammlung, -reinigung und Schlammbehandlung beschrieben. So haben im Fall einer Mischentwaesserung die Niederschlaege im Einzugsgebiet einen direkten Einfluss auf den SiO{sub 2}- und den P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Gehalt in den Aschen. Beide Gehalte in der Asche korrelieren stark miteinander. Auch wirkt sich der Faellmitteleinsatz mit einer analgenspezifischen Verzoegerungszeit direkt auf die Aschequalitaet aus. Je nach Schlammkonditionierungsmittel bieten sich unterschiedliche Verwertungswege in der Bauindustrie an. Bei grobkeramischen Versuchen wurde die Auswirkung von fuenf Klaerschlammaschen als Zusatzstoff oder Rohstoffersatz auf das Formgebungs-, Trocknungs- und Brennverhalten sowie auf die keramischen Eigenschaften bestimmt. Klaerschlammaschen wirken einerseits bei der Formgebung als Magerungsmittel; andererseits verschlechtern sie durch ihre hohe Eigenporositaet das rheologische Verhalten der Asche-Ton-Mischungen. Wird das keramische Produkt unterhalb der Sintertemperature gebrannt, wirken die Aschen porosierend auf den keramischen Scherben, was auf den hohen Kalziumgehalt der Klaerschlammaschen

  3. Nationallizenzen aus Sicht und im Förderspektrum der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG: Grundlagen und Einbindung in die Förderstrukturen / National licences from the point of view and in the funding spectrum of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG: basic principles and embedding into the structures of funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutz, Reinhard

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG ist the biggest third-party research funding organisation in Germany. In 2007 it supplied 15 Million Euro for national licences for archived digital content and for the first time 18.5 Million Euro for national licences for current subscriptions of e-journals in oder to support research information infrastructure. The paper describes DFG's aims and the hithero installation process of national licences funding program since 2004. Furthermore a basic outline of the focus initiative "Digital Information 2008-2012" will be given. The initiative is part of DFG's system of nationwide literature supply for research purposes which includes support for the important area of special subject collections. This system is funded by the DFG since decades.

  4. Die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Medizin hat ihr Suchportal für Medizin und Gesundheitswesen um einen entscheidenden Schritt weiterentwickelt: Integration der Bibliothekskontofunktion in MEDPILOT [The German National Library of Medicine has extended the functions of the search portal for Medicine and Health by adding an important feature: the integration of the user accounts in MEDPILOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinnenthal, Kendra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] In order to provide users fast access to the order- and account functions of the “Medicine. Health.” catalogue, the German National Library of Medicine has completely integrated these functions into the search portal MEDPILOT. This article presents the objectives, the implementation and its evaluation through a usability study.[german] Um den Nutzern über nur einen Rechercheeinstieg in MEDPILOT auch Bestell- und Kontofunktionen des Kataloges Medizin. Gesundheit. bieten zu können, hat die Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Medizin (ZB MED diese Funktionen des OPAC komplett in MEDPILOT eingebunden. Der Artikel stellt die Zielsetzung, die organisatorische Umsetzung sowie die Evaluation durch eine Usability-Studie vor.

  5. Conference Report: “Thirty Years of German–Beninese Cooperation in Social Science Research on Benin: Topics, Conclusions, Future Prospects” – Thurnau/Bayreuth, 8–10 March 2012 Konferenzbericht: “30 Jahre sozialwissenschaftliche Benin-Forschung in deutsch-beninischer Zusammenarbeit: Themen, Ergebnisse, Ausblicke” – Thurnau/Bayreuth, 8.-10. März 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannett Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the contributions and debates from a conference on German–Beninese cooperation in social science research (8–10 March 2012, University of Bayreuth. In drawing on the experiences from more than three decades of social science research on this West African country, it refers to examples from the past and present of African Studies in Germany, as well as describing the potential for German–African cooperation in this field in the future. Aside from this, it raises the question of whether and how social science cooperation is possible given the economic and power disparities. It is argued that cooperation “on equal terms” will not be easy to achieve but must be consistently striven for – personally as well as politically.Dieser Bericht fasst die Beiträge und Debatten einer Konferenz zur deutsch-beninischen Kooperation in der Sozialforschung (Universität Bayreuth, 8.-10. März 2012 zusammen. Indem Erfahrungen aus drei Jahrzehnten Sozialforschung zu diesem westafrikanischen Land skizziert werden, entsteht beispielhaft ein Bild der Afrikaforschung in Deutschland. Die Potenziale deutsch-afrikanischer Zusammenarbeit in diesem Bereich werden deutlich. Gleichzeitig wird die Frage beleuchtet, ob und wie angesichts der vorhandenen wirtschaftlichen Unterschiede und hierarchischen Strukturen eine Kooperation in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung möglich ist. Die Autorinnen halten eine Zusammenarbeit zu gleichen Bedingungen für schwer erreichbar, plädieren aber dafür, sich kontinuierlich dafür einzusetzen – persönlich und politisch.

  6. Idiotypic manipulation in mice: BALB/c mice can express the crossreactive idiotype of A/J mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, M.; Leo, O.; Hiernaux, J.; Urbain, J

    1983-01-01

    The response of A/J mice to arsonate-coupled keyhole limpet hemocyanin is characterized by a crossreactive idiotype (CRIA). CRIA+ antibodies are restricted to the Igh-Ic haplotype and are never expressed in BALB/c mice after immunization with antigen. Studies at the DNA level suggest that the gene encoding the CRIA heavy chain in A/J mice is probably absent in the genome of BALB/c mice. Despite this, using the immunization cascade tool, we have been able to induce the expression of CRIA+ anti...

  7. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon sel...

  8. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; Bari, AD; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, VJ; Warburton, P; Watson, S; White, C.; Whyte, CG

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final m...

  9. Effect of melittin on mice stomach

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Zinadah, Osama; Rahmy, Tarek; Alahmari, Abeer; Abdu, Faiza

    2013-01-01

    Melittin, the main bee venom component, has many positive biological effects and a relatively low toxicity in various cell types. However, there is no evidence of the effect of melittin on gastrointestinal cells. In the present study, we investigated the histological and immuonohistochemical effects of melittin on mice stomach. Adult male mice (Albino Swiss) were randomly divided into two groups (7 mice for each group): control group and melittin only treated group (10 and 40 μg/kg). These mi...

  10. Zinc metabolism in genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent reports indicate that the concentrations and total amounts of several essential trace metals in various tissues of genetically obese rodents differ markedly from lean controls. In the present studies the absorption, retention and tissue distribution of zinc was compared in obese (ob/ob) and lean (+/?) C57BL/6J mice. When administered 0.1 and 1 umole 65Zn by stomach tube and killed after 4 h, fasted 10 week old obese mice had 2.7 and 2.2 times more radioactivity in their carcasses, respectively, than age-matched lean mice. Higher levels of 65Zn were also present in the intestinal mucosa of obese mice. To eliminate possible differences in the effects of fasting and gastric emptying rates between the phenotypes, zinc absorption and retention were determined according to the method of Heth and Hoekstra. Analysis of data revealed that obese and lean mice absorbed 43 and 18% of the oral dose, respectively. Also, the rate of 65Zn excretion between 2 and 6 days post-treatment was similar for obese and lean mice. After 6 days obese mice had significantly lower levels of radioisotope in skin, muscle plus bone, spleen and testes and higher levels of 65Zn in liver, small intestine and adipose tissue compared to tissues from lean mice. These results demonstrate increased absorption, altered tissue distribution and similar excretion of zinc in ob/ob mice

  11. Aortic Impedance in Little Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Taffet, George E.; Hartley, Craig J.

    2008-01-01

    The Little dwarf mouse lives 30% longer than its age-matched wild-type (WT) mouse. We determined aortic input impedance in 21 (8 Little, 13 WT) 4 month-old mice. Modulus of impedance was calculated from the Fourier transformed aortic pressure (P) and average luminal flow velocity (Vavg) as ∣Zi∣ = ∣P∣/∣Vavg∣. Characteristic impedance was estimated by averaging the 2nd-10th harmonic of the impedance moduli. We found the impedance modulus ∣Zi∣ to be similar in the 2 groups (WT vs. Little; mean±S...

  12. Measuring the Strength of Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Deacon, Robert M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Kondziela7 devised the inverted screen test and published it in 1964. It is a test of muscle strength using all four limbs. Most normal mice easily score maximum on this task; it is a quick but insensitive gross screen, and the weights test described in this article will provide a finer measure of muscular strength. There are also several strain gauge-based pieces of apparatus available commercially that will provide more graded data than the inverted screen test, but their cost may put them ...

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Evolution in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Stephen D.; Sage, Richard D.; Prager, Ellen M.; Ritte, Uzi; Wilson, Allan C.

    1983-01-01

    This study extends knowledge of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in mice to include 208 animals belonging to eight species in the subgenus Mus. Highly purified mtDNA from each has been subjected to high-resolution restriction mapping with respect to the known sequence of one mouse mtDNA. Variation attributed to base substitutions was encountered at about 200 of the 300 cleavage sites examined, and a length mutation was located in or near the displacement loop. The variability of different ...

  14. Lymphocytes from Chronically Stressed Mice Confer Antidepressant-Like Effects to Naive Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Brachman, Rebecca A.; Lehmann, Michael L.; Maric, Dragan; Herkenham, Miles

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether cells of the adaptive immune system retain the memory of psychosocial stress and thereby alter mood states and CNS function in the host. Lymphocytes from mice undergoing chronic social defeat stress or from unstressed control mice were isolated and adoptively transferred into naive lymphopenic Rag2−/− mice. Changes in affective behavior, hippocampal cell proliferation, microglial activation states, and blood cytokine levels were examined in reconstituted stress-naive mice....

  15. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  16. Experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in immunosuppressed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice were immunosuppressed by means of whole-body irradiation or cyclophosphamide, in order to investigate the influence on the initial phase of infection induced by a strain of the fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, in the yeast phase and inoculated intraperitoneally. A group of mice was irradiated with 600 rad (cobalt γ-irradiation) 24 h before infection. Two groups were treated with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg intravenously), one two days before, and the other, one day after infection. A control group received the fungus, but no radiation of cyclophosphamide. All animals developed lesions at the site of inoculation. Metastatic lesions were observed in 100% of the animals in the irradiated group, 67% in each of the cyclophosphamide-treated groups and 33% in the control group. These lesions were found both in the liver and lungs, being more numerous in the irradiated group, followed by the cyclophosphamide-treated group in which the drug was given after the infection; they were slight in both viscera in the other cyclophosphamide-treated group and also slight in the liver and absent in the lungs of the controls. (Auth.)

  17. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  18. Commissioning of the MICE RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, A.; Stanley, T.; White, C.; Ronald, K.; Whyte, C.G.; Dick, A.J.; Speirs, D.C.; Alsari, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is being constructed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. The muon beam will be cooled using multiple hydrogen absorbers then reaccelerated using an RF cavity system operating at 201MHz. This paper describes recent progress in commissioning the amplifier systems at their design operation conditions, installation and operation as part of the MICE project.

  19. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith L; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin;

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd......-/-) mice. Atherogenesis involves both inflammation and lipid deposition, and we investigated the role of SP-D in the development of atherosclerosis. SP-D synthesis was localized to vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were 5.6-fold smaller in the aortic roots in Spd-/- mice compared...... with wild-type C57BL/6N mice on an atherogenic diet. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated in Spd-/- mice. Treatment of Spd-/- mice with a recombinant fragment of human SP-D resulted in decreases of HDL-C (21%) as well as total cholesterol (26%), and LDL cholesterol (28%). Plasma TNF...

  20. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Japan, Ibaraki; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Drews, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Winter, M.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  1. Pion Contamination in the MICE Muon Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogomilov, M.; et al.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  2. PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN THE MICE BEAMLINE

    CERN Document Server

    Coney, L; Karadzhov, Y

    2010-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is being built at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) to test ionization cooling of a muon beam. Successful demonstration of cooling is a necessary step along the path toward creating future high intensity muon beams in either a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. Production of particles in the MICE beamline begins with a titanium target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. The resulting pions are captured, momentum-selected, and fed into a 5T superconducting decay solenoid which contains the pions and their decay muons. Another dipole then selects the final particles for propagation through the rest of the MICE beamline. Within the last year, the MICE target has been redesigned, rebuilt, and has begun operating in ISIS. The decay solenoid has also become operational, dramatically increasing the number of particles in the MICE beamline. In parallel, particle identification detectors have also been installed and commissioned. In this paper, the commissioning of t...

  3. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  4. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ∼1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling

  5. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone differentially improve cognition in aged female mice

    OpenAIRE

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to 24-mo-old gonadally intact female mice treated for 6 wk with silastic capsules containing either testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or empty c...

  6. The Mice and the Cat

    OpenAIRE

    ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī, Niẓām al-Dīn; Muhaddis, Ali; Utas, Bo

    2011-01-01

    This work consists of an edition of a hitherto unknown manuscript of the Persian poem Mūš u gurbah (The Cat and the Mice), ascribed to ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī (d. 771–772 A.H.q. [corresponding to Aug. 1369 – July 1371 A.D.]), a facsimile of this manuscript which is preserved in the National Library of Tunis, and translations into English and Swedish of the poem. ‘Ubayd-i Zākānī’s authorship of the poem Mūš u gurbah is discussed and refuted in favour of a more likely theory, namely that Mūš u gurbah w...

  7. Experimental Study of Mouse Cytomegalovirus Infected Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔雯; 董永绥; 方峰

    2002-01-01

    Summary: In order to investigate the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, the mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infected mice were experimentally studied. 6 to 8 week old female BALB/C mice with immunosuppression were selected to undergo the MCMV inoculations: intracranial inoculation and peritoneal inoculation. MCMV of the infected mice in various organs and tissues were detected by using β-gal staining and in situ nucleic acid hybridization assay. The pathological changes were observed in HE staining paraffin-embedded sections. It was found that all the MCMV infected mice showed the retardation of growth and development, and feather looseness. Both intracranial inoculation of 104 PFU viruses or peritoneal inoculation of 106 PFU viruses resulted in the pathological changes, to some extent, of various organs and tissues in the mice. The pathological changes in liver were consistent with the amount of β-gal staining positive cells, indicating the liver lesions were mainly caused by viral proliferation. It was also found that the viruses in the immunosuppressed mice subjected to intracranial inoculation could spread to whole body organs, while the viruses in the immunosuppressed mice subjected to intrapeitoneal inoculation couldn't spread to the brain, suggesting blood-brain barrier could prevent the virus from spreading to the brain.

  8. Biological Effect of Magnetic Field in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Wei ZENG

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the biological effect of magnetic field in mice bodies. Method: With a piece of permanent magnet embeded in mice bodies beside the femoral artery and vein to measure the electrophoretic velocity(um/s). Result: The magnetic field in mice bodies on the experiment group that the electrophoretic velocity is faster more than control and free group.Conclusion:The magnetic field in animal's body can raise the negative electric charges on the surface of erythrocyte to improve the microcirculation, this is the biological effect of magnetic field.

  9. The transplantation barrier of nude mice

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Heidrun; Bösing-Schneider, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Syngeneic memory cells can be stimulated to yield a secondary immune response after their transfer into irradiated euthymie recipients as well as into young thymusless nude mice. It is shown that nude mice older than twelve weeks of age are not permissive towards memory cell activation as it is found in non-irradiated euthymie animals. This barrier to isogeneie or congeneic cells seems to be caused by a pool of cyclophosphamide-sensitive cells. Since young nude mice could be rendered as unper...

  10. Comparison of bleomycin-induced pulmonary apoptosis between NMRI mice and C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Safaeian, L.; Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Rabbani, M.; Sadeghi, H.M.; Afshar-Moghaddam, N.; Sarahroodi, S.

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis has a critical role in the pathogenesis of bleomycin induced-pulmonary fibrosis. The severity of fibrosis varies among different strains of mice. Recent studies have indicated that expression of apoptotic regulatory genes may be specific in different cell types in various strains. In this study, bleomycin-induced pulmonary apoptosis in NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute, USA) albino mice were compared with C57BL/6 black mice. Pulmonary fibrosis induced by single intratracheal ad...

  11. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research 2013 August 2013 (historical) Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development of vitiligo may protect against—or even reverse—the pigmentation ...

  12. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation prevented the accelerated expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from mice immunized by transfer of immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLNC) or by prior infection. Nevertheless, worms in irradiated immune mice were smaller and less fecund than those in controls. In adoptively immunized and irradiated mice expulsion could not be achieved by increasing the numbers of IMLNC transferred, although the effect upon worm length was more severe. Thus IMLNC express a direct, anti-worm immunity which is independent of their role in worm expulsion. IMLNC cause expulsion in irradiated mice only when adequate levels of bone marrow-derived cells are available. The results are discussed in terms of a possible antibody-mediated basis for direct anti-worm immunity. (author)

  13. The olfactory transcriptomes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Soria, Ximena; Levitin, Maria O; Saraiva, Luis R; Logan, Darren W

    2014-09-01

    The olfactory (OR) and vomeronasal receptor (VR) repertoires are collectively encoded by 1700 genes and pseudogenes in the mouse genome. Most OR and VR genes were identified by comparative genomic techniques and therefore, in many of those cases, only their protein coding sequences are defined. Some also lack experimental support, due in part to the similarity between them and their monogenic, cell-specific expression in olfactory tissues. Here we use deep RNA sequencing, expression microarray and quantitative RT-PCR in both the vomeronasal organ and whole olfactory mucosa to quantify their full transcriptomes in multiple male and female mice. We find evidence of expression for all VR, and almost all OR genes that are annotated as functional in the reference genome, and use the data to generate over 1100 new, multi-exonic, significantly extended receptor gene annotations. We find that OR and VR genes are neither equally nor randomly expressed, but have reproducible distributions of abundance in both tissues. The olfactory transcriptomes are only minimally different between males and females, suggesting altered gene expression at the periphery is unlikely to underpin the striking sexual dimorphism in olfactory-mediated behavior. Finally, we present evidence that hundreds of novel, putatively protein-coding genes are expressed in these highly specialized olfactory tissues, and carry out a proof-of-principle validation. Taken together, these data provide a comprehensive, quantitative catalog of the genes that mediate olfactory perception and pheromone-evoked behavior at the periphery. PMID:25187969

  14. The olfactory transcriptomes of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Ibarra-Soria

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory (OR and vomeronasal receptor (VR repertoires are collectively encoded by 1700 genes and pseudogenes in the mouse genome. Most OR and VR genes were identified by comparative genomic techniques and therefore, in many of those cases, only their protein coding sequences are defined. Some also lack experimental support, due in part to the similarity between them and their monogenic, cell-specific expression in olfactory tissues. Here we use deep RNA sequencing, expression microarray and quantitative RT-PCR in both the vomeronasal organ and whole olfactory mucosa to quantify their full transcriptomes in multiple male and female mice. We find evidence of expression for all VR, and almost all OR genes that are annotated as functional in the reference genome, and use the data to generate over 1100 new, multi-exonic, significantly extended receptor gene annotations. We find that OR and VR genes are neither equally nor randomly expressed, but have reproducible distributions of abundance in both tissues. The olfactory transcriptomes are only minimally different between males and females, suggesting altered gene expression at the periphery is unlikely to underpin the striking sexual dimorphism in olfactory-mediated behavior. Finally, we present evidence that hundreds of novel, putatively protein-coding genes are expressed in these highly specialized olfactory tissues, and carry out a proof-of-principle validation. Taken together, these data provide a comprehensive, quantitative catalog of the genes that mediate olfactory perception and pheromone-evoked behavior at the periphery.

  15. Cytochrome P450 humanised mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Frank J

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humans are exposed to countless foreign compounds, typically referred to as xenobiotics. These can include clinically used drugs, environmental pollutants, food additives, pesticides, herbicides and even natural plant compounds. Xenobiotics are metabolised primarily in the liver, but also in the gut and other organs, to derivatives that are more easily eliminated from the body. In some cases, however, a compound is converted to an electrophile that can cause cell toxicity and transformation leading to cancer. Among the most important xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes are the cytochromes P450 (P450s. These enzymes represent a superfamily of multiple forms that exhibit marked species differences in their expression and catalytic activities. To predict how humans will metabolise xenobiotics, including drugs, human liver extracts and recombinant P450s have been used. New humanised mouse models are being developed which will be of great value in the study of drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in vivo, and in carrying out human risk assessment of xenobiotics. Humanised mice expressing CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, two major drug-metabolising P450s, have revealed the feasibility of this approach.

  16. Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE)

    CERN Document Server

    Zisman, M S

    2004-01-01

    There is presently considerable activity worldwide on developing the technical capability for a “neutrino factory” based on a muon storage ring and, a muon collider. Muons are obtained from the decay of pions produced when an intense proton beam hits a high-Z target, so the initial muon beam has a large 6-dimensional phase space. To increase the muons’ phase-space density, we use ionization cooling, which is based on energy loss in an absorber, followed by re-acceleration with high-gradient, normal-conducting RF cavities. The absorber of choice is liquid hydrogen to minimize multiple scattering. A superimposed solenoidal focusing channel contains the muons. Although the physics is straightforward, the technology and its implementation are not. The international MICE collaboration will demonstrate ionization cooling of a muon beam in a short section of a typical cooling channel. The experiment is approved for operation at Rutherford Appleton Lab. We will measure the cooling effect...

  17. Abolished synthesis of cholic acid reduces atherosclerotic development in apolipoprotein E knockout mice[S

    OpenAIRE

    Slätis, Katharina; Gåfvels, Mats; Kannisto, Kristina; Ovchinnikova, Olga; Paulsson-Berne, Gabrielle; Parini, Paolo; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Eggertsen, Gösta

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of abolished cholic acid (CA) synthesis in the ApoE knockout model [apolipoprotein E (apoE) KO],a double-knockout (DKO) mouse model was created by crossbreeding Cyp8b1 knockout mice (Cyp8b1 KO), unable to synthesize the primary bile acid CA, with apoE KO mice. After 5 months of cholesterol feeding, the development of atherosclerotic plaques in the proximal aorta was 50% less in the DKO mice compared with the apoE KO mice. This effect was associated with reduced inte...

  18. Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Observing the Euthanasia of Other Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia recommends that sensitive animals should not be present during the euthanasia of others, especially of their own species, but does not provide guidelines on how to identify a sensitive species. To determine if mice are a sensitive species we reviewed literature on empathy in mice, and measured the cardiovascular and activity response of mice observing euthanasia of conspecifics. We studied male 16-wk-old C57BL/6N mice and found no increase in cardiovascular parameters or activity in the response of the mice to observing CO2 euthanasia. Mice observing decapitation had an increase in all values, but this was paralleled by a similar increase during mock decapitations in which no animals were handled or euthanized. We conclude that CO2 euthanasia of mice does not have an impact on other mice in the room, and that euthanasia by decapitation likely only has an effect due to the noise of the guillotine. We support the conceptual idea that mice are both a sensitive species and display empathy, but under the controlled circumstances of the euthanasia procedures used in this study there was no signaling of stress to witnessing inhabitants in the room. PMID:27423146

  19. MICE: a mouse imaging collaboration environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Jacek; Flask, Chris; Wilson, David; Johnson, David; Muzic, Raymond F., Jr.; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2006-03-01

    With the ever-increasing complexity of science and engineering, many important research problems are being addressed by collaborative, multidisciplinary teams. We present a web-based collaborative environment for small animal imaging research, called the Mouse Imaging Collaboration Environment (MICE). MICE provides an effective and user-friendly tool for managing and sharing of the terabytes of high-resolution and high-dimension image data generated at small animal imaging core facilities. We describe the design of MICE and our experience in the implementation and deployment of a beta-version baseline-MICE. The baseline-MICE provides an integrated solution from image data acquisition to end-user access and long-term data storage at our UH/Case Small Animal Imaging Resource Center. As image data is acquired from scanners, it is pushed to the MICE server which automatically stores it in a directory structure according to its DICOM metadata. The directory structure reflects imaging modality, principle investigators, animal models, scanning dates and study details. Registered end-users access this imaging data through an authenticated web-interface. Thumbnail images are created by custom scripts running on the MICE server while data down-loading is achieved through standard web-browser ftp. MICE provides a security infrastructure that manages user roles, their access privileges such as read/write, and the right to modify the access privileges. Additional data security measures include a two server paradigm with the Web access server residing outside a network firewall to provide access through the Internet, and the imaging data server - a large RAID storage system supporting flexible backup policies - residing behind the protected firewall with a dedicated link to the Web access server. Direct network link to the RAID storage system outside the firewall other than this dedicated link is not permitted. Establishing the initial image directory structure and letting the

  20. Metabolic characteristics of long-lived mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej eBartke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS can extend longevity in worms, insects, and mammals. In laboratory mice, mutations with the greatest, most consistent, and best documented positive impact on lifespan are those that disrupt growth hormone (GH release or actions. These mutations lead to major alterations in IIS but also have a variety of effects that are not directly related to the actions of insulin or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1. Long-lived GH-resistant GHRKO mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene, as well as Ames dwarf (Prop1df and Snell dwarf (Pit1dw mice lacking GH (along with prolactin and TSH, are diminutive in size and have major alterations in body composition and metabolic parameters including increased subcutaneous adiposity, increased relative brain weight, small liver, hypoinsulinemia, mild hypoglycemia, increased adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity, and reduced serum lipids. Body temperature is reduced in Ames, Snell, and female GHRKO mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that both Ames dwarf and GHRKO mice utilize more oxygen per gram (g of body weight than sex- and age-matched normal animals from the same strain. They also have reduced respiratory quotient (RQ, implying greater reliance on fats, as opposed to carbohydrates, as an energy source. Differences in oxygen consumption (VO2 were seen in animals fed or fasted during the measurements as well as in animals that had been exposed to 30% calorie restriction or every-other-day feeding. However, at the thermoneutral temperature of 30°C, VO2 did not differ between GHRKO and normal mice. Thus, the increased metabolic rate of the GHRKO mice, at a standard animal room temperature of 23°C, is apparently related to increased energy demands for thermoregulation in these diminutive animals. We suspect that increased oxidative metabolism combined with enhanced fatty acid oxidation contribute to the extended longevity of

  1. Therapeutic cloning in individual parkinsonian mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tabar, Viviane; Tomishima, Mark; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Wakayama, Sayaka; Menon, Jayanthi; Chan, Bill; Mizutani, Eiji; Al-Shamy, George; Ohta, Hiroshi; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Studer, Lorenz

    2008-01-01

    Cell transplantation with embryonic stem (ES) cell progeny requires immunological compatibility with host tissue. ‘Therapeutic cloning’ is a strategy to overcome this limitation by generating nuclear transfer (nt)ES cells that are genetically matched to an individual. Here we establish the feasibility of treating individual mice via therapeutic cloning. Derivation of 187 ntES cell lines from 24 parkinsonian mice, dopaminergic differentiation, and transplantation into individually matched host...

  2. Trauma enhanced mortality in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn (B) or wound (W) trauma after exposure to radiation (R) may complicate 1) the elucidation of injury induction mechanisms and, 2) development of effective treatments for tissue damage and infections. Mouse models of sublethal B and W trauma with R, termed ''combined injury'' (CI), were used to evaluate dose and quality of R with type of injury, as well as responses to and therapy for bacterial challenges. B6D2F/J female mice were bilaterally exposed to doses of 60Co R (5-12 Gy), 0.4 Gy/min. Two hr after exposure, mice were anesthetized with methoxyfluorane and subjected to either 30% dorsal skin B or W. After R, W, B, RW, or RB, mice were given 0.5 ml 0.9% NaCl i.p. The LD50/30 radiation doses were: R = 9.63, RB = 8.2, and RW = 7.61 Gy. Slopes of CI survival curves were the same, but different (rho < .01) from that for R mice, and survival times of CI mice were 25-75% lower than for R mice. W, 48 hr before or 0.1, 24 or 48 hr after sublethal 7 Gy resulted in synergistic increases in mortality of 40, 25, 60 and 80%, respectively. In all CI, R, W, and B mice, intestinal bacteria were cultured from blood, spleen and liver. Challenge with opportunistic pathogens that routinely results in 5% mortality in normal mice, yielded increased mortality (95, 60, 26, 15, and 15% respectively) in RW, RB, R, W, and B animals. These CI models are used to evaluate immuno-modulators of non-specific resistance to bacterial infections

  3. Mice cloned from embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wakayama, Teruhiko; Rodriguez, Ivan; Perry, Anthony C F; Yanagimachi, Ryuzo; Mombaerts, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Cloning allows the asexual reproduction of selected individuals such that the offspring have an essentially identical nuclear genome. Cloning by nuclear transfer thus far has been reported only with freshly isolated cells and cells from primary cultures. We previously reported a method of cloning mice from adult somatic cells after nuclear transfer by microinjection. Here, we apply this method to clone mice from widely available, established embryonic stem (ES) cell ...

  4. Bacterial Infections in Myd88-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Villano, Jason S; Rong, Fang; Cooper, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    Three breeding colonies of Myd88−/− mice had a history of significant morbidity and mortality. Although strain-specific poor reproductive performance might explain neonatal death and dystocia, mice were found dead or required euthanasia because of moribundity, distended abdomen, head tilt, and seizures. Histopathology results included bacteremia, placentitis, metritis, peritonitis with abscess formation, and suppurative meningoencephalitis. Intralesional gram-negative coccobacilli were presen...

  5. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-05-23

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  6. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan SHA; Zheng-fang XIONG; Hui-shu LIU; Zheng ZHENG; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated.This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice.Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests.Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controis, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group.Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome.

  7. Tracking multiple mice through severe occlusions

    OpenAIRE

    Branson, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, I address the problem of tracking multiple identical mice through severe occlusions from video of a side of their cage. A solution to this problem would greatly benefit medical research because of the key role animal testing plays in medical research. As the majority of visual tracking algorithms are intended for tracking people or cars, they are not directly applicable to the mouse tracking problem. Mice are extremely deformable, unconstrained three-dimensional objects. They ...

  8. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Xiao-yan; Xiong, Zheng-fang; Liu, Hui-shu; Zheng, Zheng; Ma, Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated. This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice. Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests. Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controls, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group. Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome. PMID:21602842

  9. Lessons from Loricrin-Deficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Peter J.; de Viragh, Pierre A.; Scharer, Elisabeth; Bundman, Donnie; Longley, Mary Ann; Bickenbach, Jackie; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Suga, Yasushi; Zhou, Zhijian,; Huber, Marcel; Hohl, Daniel; Kartasova, Tonja; Jarnik, Michal; Steven, Alasdair C.; Roop, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    The epidermal cornified cell envelope (CE) is a complex protein–lipid composite that replaces the plasma membrane of terminally differentiated keratinocytes. This lamellar structure is essential for the barrier function of the skin and has the ability to prevent the loss of water and ions and to protect from environmental hazards. The major protein of the epidermal CE is loricrin, contributing ∼70% by mass. We have generated mice that are deficient for this protein. These mice showed a delay ...

  10. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  11. Polaprezinc Protects Mice against Endotoxin Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Ohata, Shuzo; Moriyama, Chihiro; Yamashita, Atsushi; Nishida, Tadashi; Kusumoto, Chiaki; Mochida, Shinsuke; Minami, Yukari; Nakada, Junya; Shomori, Kohei; Inagaki, Yoshimi; Ohta, Yoshiji; Matsura, Tatsuya

    2010-01-01

    Polaprezinc (PZ), a chelate compound consisting of zinc and l-carnosine (Car), is an anti-ulcer drug developed in Japan. In the present study, we investigated whether PZ suppresses mortality, pulmonary inflammation, and plasma nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in endotoxin shock mice after peritoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and how PZ protects against LPS-induced endotoxin shock. PZ pretreatment inhibited the decrease in the survival rate of mice after ...

  12. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W.; Hensch, Takao K.

    2012-01-01

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a “critical period” for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of...

  13. Site selection and exploration in other countries. German-Russian co-operation for developing a methodology for site investigation and selection in hard rock formations; Standortsuche und Standorterundung - Wie machen es die Anderen? Deutsch-russische Zusammenarbeit zur Entwicklung eines methodischen Ansatzes fuer die Standortsuche und Standortauswahl in Hartgesteinsformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krone, J.; Jobmann, M. [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH (Germany); Gupalo, T. [VNIPI Promtechnologii (VNIPI PT) (Germany); Fahrenholz, C.; Brewitz, W.; Fein, E. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Hammer, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    German and Russian scientists cooperate in two exemplary site selection programmes in the southern Ural mountains (Mayak) and central Sibiria (Nishnekans) in order to develop a methodological approach for detailed characterisation of ultimate storage sites in crystalline rock for high-activity, heat generating radioactive waste. Based on the results of earlier investigations, it will be shown how a programme for site analysis can be established on the basis of earlier site-specific safety analyses. Already in an early phase of site exploration, a selective combination of the development of a geological site model with ultimate storage planning and design and with a safety analysis will provide information on the actual extent of information required and enable appropriate site selection. (orig.) [German] An Hand von zwei Beispielen russischer Standortauswahlprogramme im Suedural (Mayak) und Zentralsibirien (Nishnekansker Granitoidmassiv) erarbeiten russische und deutsche Wissenschaftler gegenwaertig gemeinsam einen methodischen Ansatz fuer die detaillierte Standortcharakterisierung und -auswahl zur Endlagerung hochradioaktiver waermeerzeugender Abfaelle im Kristallingestein. Aufbauend auf Ergebnisse frueher Erkundungsstadien soll gezeigt werden, wie ein mittels standortspezifischer Sicherheitsanalysen begruendetes und auf daraus abgeleiteten ergaenzenden Erkundungsmassnahmen ausgerichtetes Programm zur weiteren Standorterkundung erarbeitet werden kann, um letztlich den Nachweis der Standorteignung fuehren zu koennen. Bereits in einer fruehen Phase der Standorterkundung fuehrt die zielgerichtete Verknuepfung der Earbeitung eines geologischen Standortmodells sowie der Endlageplanung und -auslegung mit der Durchfuehrung einer Sicherheitsanalyse zur Ermittung des realen Erkundungsbedarfs und zu einer begruendeten Standortauswahl. (orig.)

  14. INTERHEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Mikheev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of the left and right hemispheres in realization of behavior for SHR, DBA/2 and C57BL/6 males mice in open field was studied. All three lines of mice differed each from other in elements of individual behavior. Comparison of effects of unilateral inactivation in SHR mice revealed domination of the right hemisphere in regulation of total duration of rearings and grooming, the most specialization of hemispheres being registered in regulation of temporary parameters of behavioral reactions. In DBA/2 mice, the left hemisphere dominated in control of rearings, and the right one did on seating. In C57BL/6 mice, the right hemisphere dominated only on locomotion. Therefore, the cortex of the brain (after inactivation did not participate in regulation of individual behavior in the majority of the experiments (11 from 18. In two cases, the symmetric participation of hemispheres in regulation of behavioral reactions was obtained, and in 5 cases, the unilateral domination of hemispheres in control of behavioral elements was registered. Thus, in three lines of mice, the pattern of interhemispheric asymmetry of individual behavior is principally different.

  15. Lessons from Tau-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazi D. Ke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Both Alzheimer's disease (AD and frontotemporal dementia (FTD are characterized by the deposition of hyperphosphorylated forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau in neurons and/or glia. This unifying pathology led to the umbrella term “tauopathies” for these conditions, also emphasizing the central role of tau in AD and FTD. Generation of transgenic mouse models expressing human tau in the brain has contributed to the understanding of the pathomechanistic role of tau in disease. To reveal the physiological functions of tau in vivo, several knockout mouse strains with deletion of the tau-encoding MAPT gene have been established over the past decade, using different gene targeting constructs. Surprisingly, when initially introduced tau knockout mice presented with no overt phenotype or malformations. The number of publications using tau knockout mice has recently markedly increased, and both behavioural changes and motor deficits have been identified in aged mice of certain strains. Moreover, tau knockout mice have been instrumental in identifying novel functions of tau, both in cultured neurons and in vivo. Importantly, tau knockout mice have significantly contributed to the understanding of the pathophysiological interplay between Aβ and tau in AD. Here, we review the literature that involves tau knockout mice to summarize what we have learned so far from depleting tau in vivo.

  16. Radioprotective efficiency of fullerenol in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajkovic, S.; Dobric, S.; Dragojevic-Simic, V.; Milovanovic, Z. [National Poison Control Centre, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade (Czechoslovakia); Djordjevic, A. [Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Novi Sad (Czechoslovakia)

    2005-07-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that fullerenol, a polyhydroxylated derivative of fullerene (C{sub 60}(OH){sub n} n = 12-26), has a high antioxidative potential. Since any radiation injury is mainly a consequence of the action of free radical species, the aim of this study was to examine radioprotective efficiency of fullerenol in whole-body irradiated mice. The experiment was performed on male, adult, white mice, whole-body irradiated with X-rays doses of 6 to 8 Gy (X-ray energy of 8 MV). Fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} was given in doses of 10 and 100 mg/kg i.p. 30 minutes before irradiation. The experimental groups consisted of 25-30 animals each. The survival rate and body mass gain of irradiated animals were monitored for 30 days after irradiation. The mean lethal times (LT{sub 50}) of irradiated mice and mean lethal dose of X-rays were calculated and compared. The results showed that fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24}, in a dose of 100 mg/kg i.p., prolonged LT{sub 50} of irradiated mice. This effect was especially pronounced in mice irradiated with 7 and 8 Gy of X-rays. It seems that radioprotective efficiency of fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} is more marked in mice irradiated by higher doses of X-rays. (orig.)

  17. Characteristics of scratching behavior in ADJM mice (atopic dermatitis from Japanese mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasone, Tasuku; Sato, Takumi; Matsushima, Yoshibumi; Inoue, Toshio; Kamei, Chiaki

    2015-04-01

    In order to elucidate the characteristics of scratching behavior in atopic dermatitis from Japanese mice (ADJM) mice, the effects of some antagonists of pruritogens on this behavior were studied. Both male and female ADJM mice showed frequent scratching behavior around the face, abdomen and back. The number of scratching behavior around the face was greater than on the abdomen and back, and scratching behavior in female mice was significantly more frequent than in male mice. Histamine H1 antagonist, chlorpheniramine, p.o., inhibited this behavior potently and dose-dependently. Histamine H1 antagonist with serotonin 5-TH(5-hydroxytryptamine)2 antagonist, cyproheptadine, also inhibited this behavior. However, NK1 antagonist, aprepitant, p.o., had no significant inhibitory effect even at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o., Mu antagonist, naloxone, and kappa agonist, nalfurafine, significantly inhibited this behavior at doses of 0.3 mg/kg, s.c., and 0.01 mg/kg, p.o., respectively. Histamine contents in the skin of ADJM mice were significantly higher than in BALB/c mice. These results strongly indicate that scratching behavior in ADJM mice is related with histamine H1, opioid mu and opioid kappa receptors. PMID:25578901

  18. A comparison of UVB-carcinogenesis between nude mice and nude beige mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Yasuda, Kazuhiro; Hashimoto, Noriyoshi; Hayakawa, Jun-ichiro; Nikaido, Osamu [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Hiai, Hiroshi

    1998-06-01

    To gain an insight into the relationship between UVB-carcinogenesis and natural killer activity, we examined ultraviolet light-induced carcinogenesis in mice with high natural killer activity (KSN) and mice with natural killer deficiency (KSN-bg). We exposed mice six times a week to three levels of daily ultraviolet B (UVB) doses; 320, 160 and 0 J/m{sup 2}/day. During the latency period of skin tumor development in KSN mice, we detected no suppression of the natural killer activity at both 320 and 160 J/m{sup 2}/day. Even at 1340 J/m{sup 2}/day, we could not detect any significant suppression of NK activity in KSN mice. When we irradiated spleen cells in vitro, we observed NK activity suppression. Next, we compared the carcinogenic effects of UVB-irradiation on KSN and KSN-bg mice. At 320 J/m{sup 2}/day, we detected no significant differences between them. In contrast, at 160 J/m{sup 2}/day, KSN-bg mice showed a significantly higher rate of skin tumor induction than KSN mice (p<0.05). Most UVB-induced tumors were squamous cell carcinoma, the rest were spindle cell carcinoma, papilloma and mixed type. Our results suggest that NK activity plays a protective role against UVB-carcinogenesis from low daily-doses of UVB-irradiation. (author)

  19. Craniofacial Statistical Deformation Models of Wild-type mice and Crouzon mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Hermann, Nuno V.; Oubel, Estanislao; Larsen, Rasmus; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Larsen, Per; Perlyn, Chad A.; Morriss-Kay, Gillian M.; Kreiborg, Sven

    2007-01-01

    of Micro CT scannings of the heads of wild-type (normal) mice and Crouzon mice were investigated. Statistical deformation models were built to assess the anatomical differences between the groups, as well as the within-group anatomical variation. Following the approach by Rueckert et al. we built an...

  20. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  1. Trace metals and otolith defects in mocha mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfsen, R M; Erway, L C

    1984-01-01

    Mocha mice with pigment anomalies of the coat, eyes, and inner ears also have congenital otolith defects, and they exhibit progressive cochlear degeneration. Mocha mice were first reported to exhibit otolith defects comparable to those of pallid mice. Since manganese supplementation is effective in preventing the otolith defects in pallid mice and in pastel mink, we sought to establish whether or not manganese also might be effective in mocha mice. The otolith defects of mocha mice were prevented or reduced by supplementing the pregnant dams with manganese and/or zinc. The mocha mice also exhibited high perinatal mortality that was not reduced by the supplementary metals. Surviving mocha mice have behavioral anomalies associated with their inner ear defects. Preliminary observations of auditory-evoked brainstem responses and of cochlear degeneration in the mocha mice are discussed. PMID:6736600

  2. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  3. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26657007

  4. Spatial learning by mice in three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jonathan J.; Harding, Elizabeth; Fortier, Mathilde; James, Benjamin; Donnett, Megan; Kerslake, Alasdair; O’Leary, Alice; Zhang, Ningyu; Jeffery, Kate

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether mice can represent locations distributed throughout three-dimensional space, by developing a novel three-dimensional radial arm maze. The three-dimensional radial maze, or “radiolarian” maze, consists of a central spherical core from which arms project in all directions. Mice learn to retrieve food from the ends of the arms without omitting any arms or re-visiting depleted ones. We show here that mice can learn both a standard working memory task, in which all arms are initially baited, and also a reference memory version in which only a subset are ever baited. Comparison with a two-dimensional analogue of the radiolarian maze, the hexagon maze, revealed equally good working-memory performance in both mazes if all the arms were initially baited, but reduced working and reference memory in the partially baited radiolarian maze. This suggests intact three-dimensional spatial representation in mice over short timescales but impairment of the formation and/or use of long-term spatial memory of the maze. We discuss potential mechanisms for how mice solve the three-dimensional task, and reasons for the impairment relative to its two-dimensional counterpart, concluding with some speculations about how mammals may represent three-dimensional space. PMID:25930216

  5. Effectiveness of BCG vaccination to aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Tsukasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice. Results The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old. The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis.

  6. The superconducting solenoid magnets for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.

    2002-12-22

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a channel of superconducting solenoid magnets. The magnets in MICE are around the RF cavities, absorbers (liquid or solid) and the primary particle detectors [1], [2]. The MICE superconducting solenoid system consists of eighteen coils that are grouped in three types of magnet assemblies. The cooling channel consists of two complete cell of an SFOFO cooling channel. Each cell consists of a focusing coil pair around an absorber and a coupling coil around a RF cavity that re-accelerates the muons to their original momentum. At the ends of the experiment are uniform field solenoids for the particle detectors and a set of matching coils used to match the muon beam to the cooling cells. Three absorbers are used instead of two in order to shield the detectors from dark currents generated by the RF cavities at high operating acceleration gradients.

  7. Magnetic biomineralisation in Huntington's disease transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration levels of biogenic magnetite nanoparticles in transgenic R6/2 Huntington's disease (HD) mice have been investigated, using seven control and seven HD mice each from an 8 week-old litter and from a 12 week-old litter. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetisation data were collected on a SQUID magnetometer, and analysed using a model comprising dia/paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and superparamagnetic contributions, to extract the magnetite and ferritin concentrations present. It was found that magnetite was present in both superparamagnetic and blocked states. A larger spread and higher concentration of magnetite levels was found in the diseased mice for both the 8 week-old and 12 week-old batches, compared to the controls

  8. Payload Processing for Mice Drawer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Experimental payloads flown to the International Space Station provide us with valuable research conducted in a microgravity environment not attainable on earth. The Mice Drawer System is an experiment designed by Thales Alenia Space Italia to study the effects of microgravity on mice. It is designed to fly to orbit on the Space Shuttle Utilization Logistics Flight 2 in October 2008, remain onboard the International Space Station for approximately 100 days and then return to earth on a following Shuttle flight. The experiment apparatus will be housed inside a Double Payload Carrier. An engineering model of the Double Payload Carrier was sent to Kennedy Space Center for a fit check inside both Shuttles, and the rack that it will be installed in aboard the International Space Station. The Double Payload Carrier showed a good fit quality inside each vehicle, and Thales Alenia Space Italia will now construct the actual flight model and continue to prepare the Mice Drawer System experiment for launch.

  9. NAD metabolism in HPRT-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomelli, Gabriella; Di Marcello, Federica; Notarantonio, Laura; Sestini, Silvia; Cerboni, Barbara; Bertelli, Matteo; Pompucci, Giuseppe; Jinnah, Hyder A.

    2016-01-01

    The activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) is virtually absent in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND), an X-linked genetic disorder characterized by uric acid accumulation and neurodevelopmental dysfunction. The biochemical basis for the neurological and behavioral abnormalities have not yet been completely explained. Prior studies of cells from affected patients have shown abnormalities of NAD metabolism. In the current studies, NAD metabolism was evaluated in HPRT gene knock-out mice. NAD content and the activities of the enzymes required for synthesis and breakdown of this coenzyme were investigated in blood, brain and liver of HPRT− and control mice. NAD concentration and enzyme activities were found to be significantly increased in liver, but not in brain or blood of the HPRT− mice. These results demonstrate that changes in NAD metabolism occur in response to HPRT deficiency depending on both species and tissue type. PMID:19319672

  10. Splenic melanosis in agouti and black mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalczyk-Wetula, Dominika; Wieczorek, Justyna; Płonka, Przemysław M

    2015-01-01

    An interesting example of extradermal deposition of melanin in vertebrates, notably in mammals, is splenic melanosis. In particular, if the phenomenon of splenic melanosis is correlated with hair or skin pigmentation, it must reflect the amount and perhaps the quality of pigment produced in hair follicle melanocytes. The present paper is our first study on splenic pigmentation in mice of phenotype agouti. We used untreated mixed background mice C57BL/6;129/SvJ (black - a/a, agouti - A/a, A/A), and as a control - black C57BL/6 and agouti fur from 129/SvJ mice, Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). After euthanasia skin and spleen was evaluated macroscopically, photographed and collected for further analysis using Fontana-Masson and hematoxylin-eosin staining and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at X-band. Spleens of the agouti mice revealed splenic melanosis but were slightly weaker pigmented than their black counterparts, while the presence of pheomelanin was difficult to determine. The fur of both phenotypes was of similar melanin content, with the same tendency as in the spleens. The contribution of pheomelanin in the agouti fur was on the border of detectability by EPR. Histological and EPR analysis confirmed the presence of melanin in the melanotic spleens. The shape of the EPR signal showed a dominance of eumelanin in fur and in melanized spleens in both phenotypes of mice. Therefore, splenic melanosis does reflect the hair follicle pigmentation not only in black, but also in agouti mice. PMID:26291042

  11. Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2014-12-15

    The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins. In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study. This evidence suggests that xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals. PMID:25192637

  12. The Memory of MICE: The Configuration Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The configuration database (CDB) is the memory of the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). Its principle aim is to store temporal data associated with the running of the experiment; these data are used throughout the life cycle of experiment, from running the experiment through data analysis. The CDB also serves as a moderator in the MICE state machine by defining allowable operating states of subsystems depending on the overall state of MICE and other subsystems. Master and slave CDBs, with multiple mirrored pair raid arrays, have been set up in different parts of the site to increase resilience, as well as off site backups. Access to the CDB is via a Python API, which communicates with a WSDL interface provided by a web-service on the CDB. The priority is to ensure availability of the CDB in the experiment control room. The master CDB is located in the MICE control where it is only used by the running experiment. In the event of the failure of the master, the slave can easily be promoted to master. Read only access to the CDB for data analysis and reconstruction is provided by the slave which has an up to the minute copy of the data. As MICE is a precision experiment which will measure a 10% muon cooling effect with 1% precision, it is imperative that we minimize our systematic errors; the CDB will ensure reproducible and documented running conditions in a highly resilient manner. A description of the hardware and software used in the the MICE CDB will be described in what follows.

  13. The Memory of MICE: The Configuration Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A. J.; Colling, D. J.; Hanlet, P.

    2012-12-01

    The configuration database (CDB) is the memory of the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). Its principle aim is to store temporal data associated with the running of the experiment; these data are used throughout the life cycle of experiment, from running the experiment through data analysis. The CDB also serves as a moderator in the MICE state machine by defining allowable operating states of subsystems depending on the overall state of MICE and other subsystems. Master and slave CDBs, with multiple mirrored pair raid arrays, have been set up in different parts of the site to increase resilience, as well as off site backups. Access to the CDB is via a Python API, which communicates with a WSDL interface provided by a web-service on the CDB. The priority is to ensure availability of the CDB in the experiment control room. The master CDB is located in the MICE control where it is only used by the running experiment. In the event of the failure of the master, the slave can easily be promoted to master. Read only access to the CDB for data analysis and reconstruction is provided by the slave which has an up to the minute copy of the data. As MICE is a precision experiment which will measure a 10% muon cooling effect with 1% precision, it is imperative that we minimize our systematic errors; the CDB will ensure reproducible and documented running conditions in a highly resilient manner. A description of the hardware and software used in the the MICE CDB will be described in what follows.

  14. Aorta Atherosclerosis Lesion Analysis in Hyperlipidemic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, Sarajo; Yin, Changjun; Weber, Christian; Hu, Desheng; Habenicht, Andreas JR

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice are used as experimental models to study human atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice are constitutively hyperlipidemic and develop intima plaques that resemble human plaques. Various issues including experimental design for lesion analysis, dietary conditions, isolation of the aorta, staining methods, morphometry, group size, age, the location within the arterial tree, and statistical analyses are important parameters that need to be addressed to obtain robust data. Here, we provide detailed methods to quantify aorta atherosclerosis. PMID:27366759

  15. Mutagenicity testing of irradiated onions in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onions (Allium cepa) were exposed to 300 Gy 60Co gamma-rays and immediately after treatment they were freeze dried before incorporation at a level of 2% in the diet of eight-week-old mice. There was no increase (P > 0.05) in the frequency of micronuclei in the mice fed either on irradiated or unirradiated onions. The results also indicated that onions exposed to gamma-rays could not significantly enhance (P > 0.05) the percentage of abnormal sperm. (U.K.)

  16. MICE Spectrometer Solenoid Magnetic Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonova, M. [Fermilab

    2013-09-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate ionization cooling in a muon beam. Its goal is to measure a 10% change in transverse emittance of a muon beam going through a prototype Neutrino Factory cooling channel section with an absolute measurement accuracy of 0.1%. To measure emittances, MICE uses two solenoidal spectrometers, with Solenoid magnets designed to have 4 T fields, uniform at 3 per mil level in the tracking volumes. Magnetic field measurements of the Spectrometer Solenoid magnet SS2, and analysis of coil parameters for input into magnet models will be discussed.

  17. Hyperbaric Hyperoxia Accelerates Fracture Healing in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Shigeo; Wada, Eiji; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2013-01-01

    Increased oxygen tension influences bone metabolism. This study comprised two main experiments: one aimed to determine the bone mineral apposition and bone formation rates in vivo under hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO), and the other aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure to HBO on fracture healing. In experiment 1, male mice were exposed to HBO [90 min/day at 90% O2 at 2 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 5 days]. In experiment 2, an open femur fracture model was created in mice, followed by exposu...

  18. Acute cytomegalovirus infections in leukemic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, D. R.; Rapp, F

    1980-01-01

    Mice infected with 2 x 10(3) plaque-forming units of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) 3 days after receiving 300 to 400 spleen focus-forming units of Friend leukemia virus developed a more severe MCMV infection than did normal animals. Increased severity was demonstrated by the increased amounts of MCMV recoverable from the salivary glands of leukemic mice 1 to 5 weeks postinfection. In addition, the difference in the number of virus isolations from the kidneys, spleens, livers, and lungs of anim...

  19. Increased adiposity in annexin A1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand T Akasheh

    Full Text Available Production of Annexin A1 (ANXA1, a protein that mediates the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids, is altered in obesity, but its role in modulation of adiposity has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate modulation of ANXA1 in adipose tissue in murine models of obesity and to study the involvement of ANXA1 in diet-induced obesity in mice. Significant induction of ANXA1 mRNA was observed in adipose tissue of both C57BL6 and Balb/c mice with high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity versus mice on chow diet. Upregulation of ANXA1 mRNA was independent of leptin or IL-6, as demonstrated by use of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and IL-6 KO mice. Compared to WT mice, female Balb/c ANXA1 KO mice on HFD had increased adiposity, as indicated by significantly elevated body weight, fat mass, leptin levels, and adipocyte size. Whereas Balb/c WT mice upregulated expression of enzymes involved in the lipolytic pathway in response to HFD, this response was absent in ANXA1 KO mice. A significant increase in fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as development of insulin resistance was observed in ANXA1 KO mice on HFD compared to WT mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels and blunted downregulation of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue was observed in ANXA1 KO mice compared to diet-matched WT mice. However, no differences between WT and KO mice on either chow or HFD were observed in expression of markers of adipose tissue inflammation. These data indicate that ANXA1 is an important modulator of adiposity in mice, with female ANXA1 KO mice on Balb/c background being more susceptible to weight gain and diet-induced insulin resistance compared to WT mice, without significant changes in inflammation.

  20. Social and Sexual Behaivours of Mice in Partial Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aou, Shuji; Hasegawa, Katsuya; Kumei, Yasuhiro; Inoue, Katarzyna; Zeredo, Jorge; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Watanabe, Yuuki

    2012-07-01

    We examined social and sexual behaviours in normal ICR mice, C57BL mice and obese db/db mice lacking leptin receptors in low gravity conditions using parabolic-flight to generate graded levels of partial gravity. Although both normal and obese mice floated with vigorous limb and tail movements when a floor is smooth in microgravity but they were rather stable if a floor is cover by carpet. Obese mice were more stable and socially contacted longer with a partner in low-gravity conditions. When they returned to the home cage after parabolic flights, obese mice started to eat sooner without restless behaviour, while control mice showed restless behaviour without eating. Face grooming, an indicator of stress response, was found more often in the control mice than the obese mice. Obese mice returned to resting condition faster than the control. We also analysed sexual behaviour of ICR mice and C57BL mice but not db/db mice since they are sexually inactive. Social and sexual behaviour could be evaluated in partial gravity conditions to get basic data concerning whether rodents can communicate and reproduce in Moon, Mars and space or not. Supported by Grant-in-Aid for Exploratory Research (JSPS) to S Aou and FY2010 grants from JAXA and Japan Society for Promotion of Science to Y. Kumei.

  1. Transplantation of Hymenolepis diminuta into naive, immune and irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 100% of 7- to 10-day-old Hymenolepis diminuta became established when surgically transplanted from donor mice into the duodenum of naive recipient mice. Transplanted tapeworms survived 8 to 12 days, by which time they had survived much longer in total than they would have done in the donor. Mice previously immunized by a primary infection rejected transplants within 4 days. Sub-lethal irradiation (550 rad) delayed rejection by immune mice but such mice still rejected worms much more quickly than did naive mice. Surgery was shown to delay by 2 to 3 days the rejection of worms by naive mice, and the importance of circumventing surgery by administering the worms per os is emphasized. Prospects for reconstituting irradiated immune mice are considered vis-a-vis work with nematodes, and the differences which, on present knowledge, appear to exist between nematode and cestode rejection are briefly discussed. (author)

  2. Ascorbate Synthesis Pathway: DUAL ROLE OF ASCORBATE IN BONE HOMEOSTASIS*

    OpenAIRE

    Gabbay, Kenneth H.; Bohren, Kurt M.; Morello, Roy; Bertin, Terry; Liu, Jeff; Vogel, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Using mouse gene knock-out models, we identify aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2, Akr1a4 (GR)) and aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21, Akr1b3 (AR)) as the enzymes responsible for conversion of d-glucuronate to l-gulonate, a key step in the ascorbate (ASC) synthesis pathway in mice. The gene knock-out (KO) mice show that the two enzymes, GR and AR, provide ∼85 and ∼15% of l-gulonate, respectively. GRKO/ARKO double knock-out mice are unable to synthesize ASC (>95% ASC deficit) and develop scurvy. The G...

  3. Effects of leptin on sympathetic nerve activity in conscious mice

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Donald A.; Despas, Fabien; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, has emerged as an important regulator of regional sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) with pathophysiological implications in obesity. Genetically engineered mice are useful to understand the molecular pathways underlying the SNA responses evoked by leptin. However, so far the effect of leptin on direct SNA in mice has been studied under general anesthesia. Here, we examined the sympathetic responses evoked by leptin in conscious mice. Mice were instrumente...

  4. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on diabetic nephropathy in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-yongHE; Zhi-binLIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS) on the renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. METHODES: Nine weeks old male C57 BI/6J mice were made diabetes with two or three consecutive intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, 72 h later, hyperglycemic mice with glucose levels higher than glucose 300 mg/dL were used. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into three groups and administrated intragastrically with vehicle or Gl-PS (125 mg/

  5. Effect of aging and radiation in mice of different genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented on the life span of nine inbred strains and five hybrid strains of mice based on 400 mice of each sex for inbred and 200 mice of each sex for hybrid. Some of these mice were exposed when 120 days old to 250 R or 450 R of x radiation delivered at a dose rate of 60 R/min. Data on strain, sample size, and mean survival times are presented in tables

  6. Young Little Mice Express a Premature Cardiovascular Aging Phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Hartley, Craig J.; Pham, Thuy T.; Darlington, Gretchen; Entman, Mark L.; Taffet, George E.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effect of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiency on the aging mouse arterial system, we compared the hemodynamics in young (4 months) and old (30 months) growth hormone–releasing hormone receptor null dwarf (Little) mice and their wild-type littermates. Young Little mice had significantly lower peak and mean aortic velocity and significantly higher aortic impedance than young wild-type mice. However, unlike the wild-type mice, there were no significant c...

  7. Cardiac Function in Young and Old Little Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Anilkumar K.; Amador-Noguez, Daniel; Darlington, Gretchen J.; Scholz, Beth A.; Michael, Lloyd H.; Hartley, Craig J.; Mark L Entman; George E. Taffet

    2007-01-01

    We studied cardiac function in young and old, wild-type (WT), and longer-living Little mice using cardiac flow velocities, echocardiographic measurements, and left ventricular (LV) pressure (P) to determine if enhanced reserves were in part responsible for longevity in these mice. Resting/baseline cardiac function, as measured by velocities, LV dimensions, +dP/dtmax, and −dP/dtmax, was significantly lower in young Little mice versus young WT mice. Fractional shortening (FS) increased signific...

  8. Unexpected regeneration in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Brandon; Cheng, Lily I; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-02-01

    Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5-11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight. PMID:19226206

  9. Hyperalgesic activity of kisspeptin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spampinato Simona

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide known for its role in the hypothalamic regulation of the reproductive axis. Following the recent description of kisspeptin and its 7-TM receptor, GPR54, in the dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horns of the spinal cord, we examined the role of kisspeptin in the regulation of pain sensitivity in mice. Results Immunofluorescent staining in the mouse skin showed the presence of GPR54 receptors in PGP9.5-positive sensory fibers. Intraplantar injection of kisspeptin (1 or 3 nmol/5 μl induced a small nocifensive response in naive mice, and lowered thermal pain threshold in the hot plate test. Both intraplantar and intrathecal (0.5 or 1 nmol/3 μl injection of kisspeptin caused hyperalgesia in the first and second phases of the formalin test, whereas the GPR54 antagonist, p234 (0.1 or 1 nmol, caused a robust analgesia. Intraplantar injection of kisspeptin combined with formalin enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation at Ser800 at the injection site, and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral dorsal horn as compared to naive mice and mice treated with formalin alone. Conclusion These data demonstrate for the first time that kisspeptin regulates pain sensitivity in rodents and suggest that peripheral GPR54 receptors could be targeted by novel drugs in the treatment of inflammatory pain.

  10. Chronotypes and rhythm stability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Helmut; Korf, Horst-Werner; Ackermann, Hanns; Ekhart, Daniel; Fischer, Claudia; Pfeffer, Martina

    2014-02-01

    Humans come in different chronotypes: The phase of their sleep-wake cycle with respect to the phase of the external, sidereal cycle of night and day differs. Colloquially, the early chronotypes are addressed as "larks," the late ones as "owls." The human chronotype can be quantified in hours and minutes of local time by determining the median of the sleep phase. Demographically, early and late human chronotypes differ with respect to the stability of their rhythms and the prevalence of several widespread diseases and risk factors, such as depression, nicotine abuse, and others. Inbred mice are widely used in chronobiological research as model organisms, but up to now there was no way to chronotype them. We have developed a method to chronotype mice in hours and fractions of hours by measuring the median of activity (MoA) and have shown that different mouse strains have significantly different MoAs and, thus, chronotypes. We have further developed methods to estimate the stability of the behavioral rhythms and found that "late" mice have relatively instable rhythms. Our methods permit the use of inbred mice for investigations into the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. PMID:24079808

  11. [Pharmacokinetics--pharmacodynamics of modafinil in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhang-Qing; Hong, Zong-Yuan; Wang, Wu-San; Tao, Fang

    2012-01-01

    To guide the reasonable clinical application of modafinil (MOD), pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of MOD in mice and the correlation between them were investigated. Male mice (Kunming strain) were given a single oral dose of MOD (120 mg x kg(-1)). The plasma concentration of MOD was measured by HPLC and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS 3.0 software. For another batch of male Kunming strain mice, their locomotor activities were recorded by an infrared ray passive sensor after a same oral dose of MOD, and the synchronization and correlation between the changes of MOD plasma concentration and the locomotor activity induced by MOD were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the plasma concentration-time curve of MOD was fitted to two-compartment open model with a first order absorption. The main pharmacokinetic parameters t1/2alpha, t1/2beta, t(max), C(max) and AUC(0-inifinity) were 0.42 h, 3.10 h, 1.00 h, 41.34 mg x L(-1) and 142.22 mg x L(-1) x h, respectively. MOD significantly increased locomotor activity and the effect lasted for about 4 h. The changes of MOD plasma concentration and the locomotor activity induced by MOD were synchronous. In conclusion, there is a significant correlation between the effect of MOD and its plasma concentration after administration of 120 mg x kg(-1) in mice. PMID:22493813

  12. Dentin Dysplasia in Notum Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, P; Read, R W; Hansen, G M; Powell, D R; Kantaputra, P N; Zambrowicz, B; Brommage, R

    2016-07-01

    Secreted WNT proteins control cell differentiation and proliferation in many tissues, and NOTUM is a secreted enzyme that modulates WNT morphogens by removing a palmitoleoylate moiety that is essential for their activity. To better understand the role this enzyme in development, the authors produced NOTUM-deficient mice by targeted insertional disruption of the Notum gene. The authors discovered a critical role for NOTUM in dentin morphogenesis suggesting that increased WNT activity can disrupt odontoblast differentiation and orientation in both incisor and molar teeth. Although molars in Notum(-/-) mice had normal-shaped crowns and normal mantle dentin, the defective crown dentin resulted in enamel prone to fracture during mastication and made teeth more susceptible to endodontal inflammation and necrosis. The dentin dysplasia and short roots contributed to tooth hypermobility and to the spread of periodontal inflammation, which often progressed to periapical abscess formation. The additional incidental finding of renal agenesis in some Notum (-/-) mice indicated that NOTUM also has a role in kidney development, with undiagnosed bilateral renal agenesis most likely responsible for the observed decreased perinatal viability of Notum(-/-) mice. The findings support a significant role for NOTUM in modulating WNT signaling pathways that have pleiotropic effects on tooth and kidney development. PMID:26926082

  13. New Model of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kamai, Yasuki; Kubota, Mikie; Kamai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Tsunemichi; Fukuoka, Takashi; Filler, Scott G.

    2001-01-01

    We established a straightforward murine model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. Mice were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate, anesthetized, and then inoculated by placing cotton wool balls saturated with Candida albicans sublingually for 2 h. A prolonged, reproducible infection was induced. This model may be useful for antifungal screening or pathogenesis studies.

  14. Progress of the MICE experiment at RAL

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2013-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. The demonstration comprises one cell of the US Neutrino Factory Study II cooling channel. Results obtained on the construction of the beamline and its instrumentation (STEP I) will be reviewed, together with progress towards final measurements of ionization cooling (STEP IV and VI).

  15. Focusing solenoids for the MICE cooling channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a design for focusing solenoids for the low beta sections for the proposed Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). There are three focusing solenoid pairs that will be around the muon absorbers for MICE. The two solenoid coils have an inside diameter of 510 mm, a length of 180 mm, and a thickness of 100 mm. A distance of 260 mm separates the two coils in the pair. The coils are designed to operate at opposite polarity, in order to create a gradient field in the low beta sections of the MICE cooling channel. As result, the force pushing the coil pair apart approaches 270 metric tons when the coils operate close to the short sample current for the superconductor. The forces between the coils will be carried by a support structure that is both on the inside and the outside the coils. During some modes of operation for MICE, the coils may operate at the same polarity, which means that the force between the coils pushes them together. The focusing magnet must be designed for both modes of operation. This support structure for the coils will be part of the focusing magnet quench protection system

  16. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Minna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/- mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule.

  17. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika Marie; Larsen, Christian Schiøth; Jakesevic, Maja; Rune, Ida; Christensen, Britt Tranberg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Bahl, Martin Iain; Licht, Tine Rask; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis

    2014-01-01

    Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize" the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gu...

  18. The Physiology of Obese-Hyperglycemic Mice [ob/ob Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Per Lindström

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes key aspects of what has been learned about the physiology of leptin deficiency as it can be observed in obese-hyperglycemic ob/ob mice. These mice lack functional leptin. They are grossly overweight and hyperphagic, particularly at young ages, and develop severe insulin resistance. They have been used as a model for obesity and as a rich source of pancreatic islets with high insulin release capacity. The leptin deficiency manifests also with regard to immune function, t...

  19. Defect in negative selection in lpr donor-derived T cells differentiating in non-lpr host thymus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transplantation of bone marrow cells of lpr/lpr mice into irradiated normal mice fails to develop massive lymphadenopathy or autoimmunity but causes severe graft-vs.-host-like syndrome. To elucidate an abnormality of lpr/lpr bone marrow-derived T cells, we transplanted bone marrow cells of Mlsb lpr/lpr mice into H-2-compatible Mlsa non-lpr mice. Although lpr/lpr T cell precursors repopulated the host thymus as well as +/+ cells, a proportion of CD4+CD8+ cells decreased, and that of both CD4- and CD8- single-positive cells increased compared with those of +/+ recipients. Notably, in MRL/lpr----AKR and C3H/lpr----AKR chimeras, CD4 single-positive thymocytes contained an increased number of V beta 6+ cells in spite of potentially deleting alleles of Mlsa, whereas V beta 6+ mature T cells were deleted in the MRL/+ ----AKR and C3H/+ ----AKR chimeras. There was no difference between MRL/+ ----AKR and MRL/lpr----AKR chimeras in their proportion of V beta 3+ cells because both host and donor strain lack the deleting alleles. Interleukin 2 receptor expression of mature T cells, in the thymus and lymph node, was obviously higher in the MRL/lpr----AKR chimeras, in particular in the forbidden V beta 6+ subset. Moreover, lpr donor-derived peripheral T cells showed vigorous anti-CD3 response. These results indicate that lpr-derived T cells escape not only tolerance-related clonal deletion but also some induction of unresponsiveness in the non-lpr thymus

  20. Thiocyanate supplementation decreases atherosclerotic plaque in mice expressing human myeloperoxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, P E; Laura, R P; Maki, R A;

    2015-01-01

    appreciably altered. Serum MPO levels steadily increased in mice on the high-fat diet, however, comparison of SCN(-)-supplemented versus control mice showed no significant changes in MPO protein, cholesterol, or triglyceride levels; thiol levels were decreased in supplemented mice at one time-point. Plaque...... curve (AUC). Mean serum SCN(-) concentrations were elevated in the supplemented mice (200-320 μM) relative to controls (< 120 μM). Normalized aortic root plaque areas at sacrifice were 26% lower in the SCN(-)-supplemented mice compared with controls (P = 0.0417), but plaque morphology was not...

  1. Microsatellite analysis in two populations of Kunming mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Haitao; Wei, Hong; Yue, Bingfei; Xu, Ping; Huang, Honggang

    2009-01-01

    Kunming mice are the most widely used outbred colony in China. Differences in biological characters and drug reactions among different populations have been observed when using Kunming mice. But the molecular genetic profiles of Kunming mice and the extent of genetic differentiation among...... populations are unclear. Fifteen microsatellite markers were screened by a fluorescence-based semi-automated genotyping method for the two main populations of Kunming mice from Beijing (BJ) and Shanghai (SH) in China. The observed number of alleles, effective number of alleles, observed heterozygosity...... national plan for the unification and standardization of the populations of Kunming mice in China....

  2. The Results of Tests of the MICE Spectrometer Solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) spectrometer solenoid magnets will be the first magnets to be installed within the MICE cooling channel. The spectrometer magnets are the largest magnets in both mass and surface area within the MICE ooling channel. Like all of the other magnets in MICE, the spectrometer solenoids are kept cold using 1.5 W (at 4.2 K) pulse tube coolers. The MICE spectrometer solenoid is quite possibly the largest magnet that has been cooled using small coolers. Two pectrometer magnets have been built and tested. This report discusses the results of current and cooler tests of both magnets.

  3. Hepatic immunophenotyping for streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun; Eun, Hyuk Soo; Kim, So Yeon; Jeong, Jong-Min; Seo, Wonhyo; Byun, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Won-Il; Yi, Hyon-Seung

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence revealed that diabetes induces abnormal immune responses that result in serious complications in organs. However, the effect of hyperglycemia on hepatic immunity remains obscure. We evaluated the population and function of hepatic immune cells in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemic mice. CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-knockout mice and mice with a depletion of regulatory T cells (DEREG) were used to investigate the migration and role of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in hyperglycemic mice. The inflammatory cytokines and hepatic transaminase levels were significantly increased in the hyperglycemic mice. The population and number of infiltrating monocytes, granulocytes, and Tregs were enhanced in the livers of the hyperglycemic mice. Hepatic monocytes other than macrophages showed the increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the hyperglycemic mice. The CCR2 knockout and DEREG chimeric mice exhibited increased populations of activated T cells and neutrophils compared to the WT chimeric mice, which promoted hepatic inflammation in the hyperglycemic mice. The migration of CCR2 knockout Tregs into the liver was significantly reduced compared to the WT Tregs. We demonstrated that hyperglycemia contributes to increase in infiltrating monocytes and Tregs, which are associated with hepatic immune dysfunction in mice. CCR2-mediated migration of Tregs regulates hyperglycemia-induced hepatic inflammation. PMID:27464894

  4. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  5. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY. Scientific annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main event in 1992 was the beginning of the research program of HERA. The annual report covers activities in research, machinery, central data processing, development, and operation. There is much interest in international cooperation. (HP)

  6. Unterrichtsmethoden beim Hörverstehen: Im Fach Deutsch

    OpenAIRE

    Solveig Þórðardóttir 1986

    2010-01-01

    Í þessari ritgerð er leitast við að setja fram ákveðnar kennsluaðferðir i hlustun í þýskri tungumálakennslu. Leitast er eftir því að skilgreina hugtakið heyrn og hvað gerist i hlustun? Byrjað er á því að setja fram aðferðir og æfingar sem koma oftast fyrir í kennslubókum sem notaðar eru á Íslandi og þær eru settar fram með faghugtökum. Sett eru fram fimm kennslubækur en sú fimmta er ekki notuð á Íslandi. Þessar bækur eru allar fyrir byrjendur í þýsku fyrir utan fimmtu bókina sem er fyrir le...

  7. Deutsches Atomforum e.V. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German unity and the realization of the European market confront the German energy supply with extraordinary tasks. In this situation, the ideological quarrel about the role of nuclear energy seems unintelligable. The German Atomforum presentes its annual report 1991 and shows its members and the public what it has been doing to save nuclear energy as an energy-political reality for Germany. (orig.)

  8. Deutsche Keramische Gesellschaft e.V. Annual meeting 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abstracts of 20 papers cover the following subject areas: Microfracture mechanisms in Al2O3 ceramics; modelling and measurement of the thermal shock behaviour of ceramics; fibre-reinforced carbon; preparation of super-conducting fibres consisting of Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide prepared by the glass-ceramics manufacturing route; high-temperature failure of vitrous bonded Al2O3; creep behaviour of whisker-reinforced oxide ceramics; platelet-reinforced mullite ceramics; effect of age-hardening on the mechanical behaviour and the microstructure of Y-doped Si3N4; methods of fatigue life prediction for ceramic materials. (MM)

  9. Auswirkungen der EU-Erweiterung auf die deutsche Bauwirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Reuter, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Ab dem 1. Mai 2011 können Arbeitnehmer aus den 2004 der EU beigetretenen Staaten ohne Beschränkungen einen Arbeitsplatz in Deutschland annehmen. Die Bauwirtschaft hatte zum Zeitpunkt der EU-Osterweiterung besonders große Befürchtungen, dass es zu ruinöser Konkurrenz auf den Baumärkten kommen könnte. Allerdings hatte nach Auffassung des Autors die Einführung eines Bau-Mindestlohns mit dem Arbeitnehmerentsendegesetz 1997 für die Bauwirtschaft wesentlich gravierendere Folgen als die Osterweiteru...

  10. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY. Scientific annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific annual report 1991 presented by DESY again is a very detailed summary of the activities. The HERA activities reported for the most part deal with the preparatory work for the scientific programme for electron-proton collisions in HERA, and with the modified DORIS III electron-positron storage ring. But at the time this annual report will have been published, the physics studies at HERA will have yielded the first and certainly interesting scientific results, and there also are scientific results available of experiments with the newly installed beam guides in DORIS. (orig.)

  11. DER EINFLUSS DER ANGLIZISMEN AUF DIE DEUTSCHE WIRTSCHAFTSSPRACHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present world has become small and manageable, in the era of modern means of transport and communication. The modern mass tourism brings millions of people each year to other countries. The economy, trade and transport are internationally intertwined, and mergers of large organizations do not represent any longer a rarity at the present time. More and more supranational organizations arise. States unite to form larger groups, such as the European Union. The word of the moment seems to be integration. Therefore, at least in the united Europe, a common language is necessary and the idea of multilingualism is becoming more and more important. In Europe today it is no longer enough to only master one language but someone must be able to at least speak one or two foreign languages fluently. The role of this common language seems to be inhered by the English language, because it is estimated that nearly two billion people routinely use English and the USA currently enjoy a dominant position in the world, politically, militarily, and economically. The Paper presents the influence of English words and the English Business vocabulary on the German Business environment.

  12. Deutsche Spuren in Estland / Jochen Hümmrich-Welt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hümmrich-Welt, Jochen

    2008-01-01

    Tallinna ja Eesti ajaloost alates 1219. a. kuni tänapäevani, pikemalt tutvustatakse keskaega, Eesti mõisaid, Tallinna Niguliste kirikut ja Mustpeade maja. Saksa mõjust Eesti ajaloole ja kultuurile

  13. Vom Krisenherd zum Wunderwerk? Der deutsche Arbeitsmarkt im Wandel

    OpenAIRE

    Herzog-Stein, Alexander; Lindner, Fabian; Sturn, Simon; van Treeck, Till

    2010-01-01

    Trotz der größten Wirtschaftskrise nach dem 2. Weltkrieg ist die Beschäftigung in Deutschland nicht gefallen. In anderen europäischen Ländern, die sogar weniger von der Wirtschaftskrise betroffen waren, ist die Beschäftigung stark gesunken. Dieses "Arbeitsmarktwunder" erklärt sich durch die schnelle Reduzierung der Arbeitszeit ("interne Flexibilität") und das Horten von Arbeitskräften durch die Hinnahme einer geringeren Produktivität. Die Reduzierung der Arbeitszeit hat etwa 1,1 Millionen Arb...

  14. Geschichte der Lexikographie mit Deutsch und Dänisch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Mogensen, Jens Erik

    1995-01-01

    Man kunne tro, at leksikografiens historie kan beskrives i form af uafbrudt forbedring af teori og praksis. Det er ikke tilfældet. Den første dansk-tyske ordbog blev trykt i 1764. Et første højdepunkt i dette sprogpars leksikografiske historie foreligger mellem 1800 og 1830. Hermed menes et både ...

  15. Ist der deutsche Mittelstand tatsächlich ein Innovationsmotor?

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Berlemann; Vera Jahn

    2014-01-01

    Michael Berlemann und Vera Jahn, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität Hamburg, liefern in diesem Beitrag eine qualitative und quantitative Abgrenzung des Mittelstands und zeigen auf, dass sich mit Hilfe dieser Abgrenzung die Hypothese stützen lässt, dass mittelständische Unternehmen überdurchschnittlich innovativ sind.

  16. Isländisch-deutsche Lexikographie im 20. Jh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla

    Bilingual German ↔ Icelandic dictionaries have been produced since 1886. In this paper I will give a short description of the existing German ↔ Icelandic dictionaries concentrating on the question: Who writes why what kind of dictionaries when and for what user groups? This question will be...

  17. Berliner Platz 1 Neu Deutsch im Alltag : Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch

    CERN Document Server

    Lemcke, Christiane; Rodi, Margert; Rohrmann, Lutz; Scherling, Theo

    2009-01-01

    Berliner Platz NEU ist ein Lehrwerk für Erwachsene und Jugendliche ab 16 Jahren. Es wurde speziell für Lernende ohne Vorkenntnisse konzipiert und ermöglicht eine intensive Vorbereitung auf den Alltag in den deutschsprachigen Ländern.

  18. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY. Scientific annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of the symbiosis between particle physics and synchrotron radiation research, the spectrum of research done at DESY is extraordinarily large, from research on elementary particles to solid state and surface physics, geosciences, chemistry and materials research up to molecular biology and medical diagnostics. This programme is unique in Europe. In 1995, research work was done by nearly 3000 scientists from 280 different institutions in 35 countries. About 1200 of these scientists were experts in particle physics. DESY is also one of the most important national research centers of Germany: The experimental facilities of HERA and DORIS III are used by about 1700 scientists from more than 90 German universities and research institutions. The annual report deals with research, machines and operation. (orig./DG)

  19. Linguistische kontrastive Studien Deutsch-Thailändisch: Eine Bestandsaufnahme

    OpenAIRE

    Attaviriyanupap, Korakoch

    2009-01-01

    This article is a survey and synthesis of German-Thai linguistic contrastive studies conducted between 1978 and 2008. Its objective is to give an overview of linguistic contrastive studies on these two languages. The first part is the analysis and synthesis of all these Thai-German linguistic contrastive studies in terms of quantity, characteristics and researched topics as well as the methodology used. In the second part, all relevant factors leading to this resulted overall picture are disc...

  20. Deutsche und albanische Phraseologismen mit Tierbezeichnungen im Kontrast

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiku, Milote

    2011-01-01

    The object of this article are animal idioms in contemporary German and Albanian: the article treats those units that denote animal names in their formal structure with phraseological, figurative meaning. The aim of the article is to identify and describe the differences and similarities between these two languages from the viewpoint of a contrastive analysis. The German phraseology has often been the subject of inter-linguistic comparisons. However, this can not be claimed for the German – A...

  1. Deutsche und albanische Phraseologismen mit Tierbezeichnungen im Kontrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiku, Milote

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article are animal idioms in contemporary German and Albanian: the article treats those units that denote animal names in their formal structure with phraseological, figurative meaning. The aim of the article is to identify and describe the differences and similarities between these two languages from the viewpoint of a contrastive analysis. The German phraseology has often been the subject of inter-linguistic comparisons. However, this can not be claimed for the German – Albanian language analysis. In this article, some similarities and differences in animal symbolism in the German and Albanian phraseology are illustrated by typical examples, and equivalence relations between the German and Albanian animal idioms are identified.It can be concluded that the animal names in idiom units indicate positive and negative characteristics or behavior of people. One result is that the negative semantic characteristics predominate in both languages. The animal name depends on a concrete idiom not only from the ideas and values that are attributed to an animal in a language community, but also from the already existing structures and pragmatic rules in a concrete language.

  2. Corporate Governance im deutsch-niederländischen Rechtsvergleich

    OpenAIRE

    Hagedorn, A.

    2015-01-01

    Mein Resümee lautet, dass die größere Quantität der Vorschriften im niederländischen Corporate Governance Kodex verhältnismäßig nicht zu mehr Transparenz und Integrität geführt hat. Es zeigt sich, dass die Quantität von Bestimmungen eben nicht automatisch zu qualitativer Verbesserung führt. Deutschen Unternehmen ist anzuraten, ihre Aktivitäten im Hinblick auf Corporate Governance und Compliance in den Niederlanden sorgfältig zu prüfen.

  3. Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY. Scientific annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main event in 1993 was the commissioning start-up of DESY as synchrotron radiation source. The annual report covers activities in research (also DESY-Zeuthen), machinery, central data processing, development, and operation. There is much interest in international cooperation. (orig.)

  4. Energy policy. Energiepolitik. Ein deutsch-lateinamerikanischer Dialog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakainski, M.

    1981-01-01

    The present publication is a documentation of the international technical meeting 'Energy Supply for Latin America: State-of-affairs, Problems and Possible Solutions in Ecuador', a joint conference by the Konrad Adenauer-Stiftung and the Instituto Nacional de Energia of Ecuador held at Quito in May 1980. It was the aim of this meeting to expand and to intensify the German-Latin American dialog in the field of energy supply by the help of specific analyses concerning the two countries. The German energy policy within the system of social economy was to be introduced beyond the field of energy industry and technology in order to expand the basis of discussion for future decisions on energy policy in Ecuador. The technical meeting is part of a supporting programme of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung. It aims at supporting the young government of Ecuador which for the first time had been elected democratically in formulating and developing a rational energy policy. The introductory lectures give a survey of the problems and possible solutions of the world energy supply and determine the position of energy policy in Latin America, in Ecuador and the F.R. of Germany, the latter emphasizing structural policy in the energy sector. An essential problem for Ecuador is the insufficient information basis for decisions in the field of energy. The contributions of part two are to meet this deficiency without being able to sufficiently cope with all fields within the framework of the given possibilities. Renewable energy sources have different chances of utilization in Ecuador. They are considered in part three of the book and assessed from the technical and economical print of view. Finally, selected technologies for energy utilization, taking into account the topical issues of Ecuador, are presented.

  5. Hyperoxia Inhibits T Cell Activation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Meissler, J.; Aguayo, E. T.; Globus, R.; Aguado, J.; Candelario, T.

    2013-02-01

    Background: The immune response is blunted in mice and humans in spaceflight. The effects of hyperoxia in mice alter expression of some of the same immune response genes. If these two conditions are additive, there could be an increased risk of infection in long duration missions. Immunosuppression is seen in healthy astronauts who have flown in space; however little is known about the mechanisms that cause the reduced immunity in spaceflight. Here we examine the role of oxidative stress on mice exposed to periods of high O2 levels mimicking pre-breathing protocols and extravehicular activity (EVA). To prevent decompression sickness, astronauts are exposed to elevated oxygen (hyperoxia) before and during EVA activities. Spaceflight missions may entail up to 24 hours of EVA per crewmember per week to perform construction and maintenance tasks. The effectiveness and success of these missions depends on designing EVA systems and protocols that maximize human performance and efficiency while minimizing health and safety risks for crewmembers. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted on the immune system under 100% oxygen exposures to determine the potential for immune compromise due to prolonged and repeated EVAs. Methods: Animals were exposed to hyperoxic or control conditions for 8 hours per day over a period of 3 days, initiated 4 hours into the dark cycle (12h dark/12h light), using animal environmental control cabinets and oxygen controller (Biospherix, Lacona, NY). Experimental mice were exposed to 98-100% oxygen as a model for pre-breathing and EVA conditions, while control mice were maintained in chambers supplied with compressed air. These are ground control studies where we use real-time RTPCR (qRTPCR) to measure gene expression of the early immune gene expression during bead activation of splenocytes of normoxic and hyperoxic mice. All procedures were reviewed and approved by the IACUC at Ames Research Center. After the last 8h of hyperoxic exposure

  6. Detection of social approach in inbred mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michel; Jamon, Marc

    2009-10-12

    An experiment was designed to automatically assess the relative level of social interaction during encounters involving trios of inbred mice consisting of two familiar cage mate males plus an unfamiliar third male. The automation of the spatial positioning was obtained by using a video-tracking program. In addition social behaviours were manually scored. To evaluate the influence of basic motor properties on the evaluation of the level of social interaction, we analysed two strains (C57BL/6J and 129S2/Sv) that are frequently employed in transgenic research, and show very different levels of motor activity. Correlations between manual and automated parameters showed that spatial parameters correctly fitted the level of social interaction between mice. In both strains C57BL/6J and 129S2/Sv, a proximity parameter (duration of bouts during which two individuals were close to each other) defined the social approach and correctly assessed the discrimination of social novelty. PMID:19379777

  7. Effects of chronic centrifugation on mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janer, L.; Duke, J.

    1984-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that exposure to excess gravity in vitro alters the developmental sequence in embryonic mouse limbs and palates (Duke, Janer and Campbell, 1984; Duke, 1983). The effects of excess gravity on in vivo mammalian development was investigated using a small animal centrifuge. Four-week old female mice exposed to excess gravities of 1.8-3.5 G for eight weeks weighed significantly less than controls. Mice were mated after five weeks of adaptation to excess G, and sacrificed either at gestational day 12 or 18. There were fewer pregnancies in the centrifuged group (4/36) than in controls (9/31), and crown rump lengths (CRL) of embryos developing in the centrifuge were less than CRLs of 1-G embryos. These results show that although immersed in amniotic fluid, embryos are responsive to Delta-G.

  8. Radiation effects on DNA methylation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ionizing radiation on DNA methylation in liver, brain and spleen were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total methylated cytosine level in the genome was reduced within 8 hours after 3.8 Gy of irradiation in liver of adult mice. But no appreciable effect was observed in brain and spleen. When mice were irradiated at newborn, liver DNA revealed no change in methylated cytosine level. Even though slight effects of radiation were detected in he methylation of the c-myc and c-fos genes, they were only temporary and no long-term effects were observed. These data suggest that the effect of radiation on DNA methylation in vivo is not prevailing a DNA damage, but rather influenced much through biological parameters. (author)

  9. [Pulmonary calcification in C3H mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, M; Uchida, K; Shigemura, M; Fujiwara, H; Kusano, N

    1985-10-01

    C3H mice including aged retired breeding females, aged virginal females, young virginal females and young males were examined for the incidence and severity of pulmonary calcification. Pulmonary calcification appeared in aged females, but not in young mice of either sex, and the lesions in aged breeders were more severe and frequent than in aged virgins. These results indicate that spontaneous pulmonary calcification is observed in aged females of the C3H strain. The findings of increased incidence and severity of pulmonary lesions in aged breeders suggest that pregnancy, delivery and lactation are important enhancing factors. Calcified lesions were also observed in kidney, heart, brain, ovary, choroid plexus, cornea and artery in the animals examined. PMID:4085573

  10. Proteome analysis of developing mice diastema region

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Mi Chae1, Young-Joo Jin1, Hyeng-Soo Kim2, Gi-Jeong Gwon1, Wern-Joo Sohn1,2, Sung-Hyun Kim3, Myoung-Ok Kim4, Sanggyu Lee2, Jo-Young Suh5 & Jae-Young Kim1*

    2012-01-01

    Different from humans, who have a continuous dentition ofteeth, mice have only three molars and one incisor separatedby a toothless region called the diastema in the hemimandibular arch. Although tooth buds form in the embryonicdiastema, they regress and do not develop into teeth. In thisstudy, we evaluated the proteins that modulate the diastemaformation through comparative analysis with molar-formingtissue by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy(LC-MS/MS) proteome analysis. From t...

  11. After GWAS: mice to the rescue?

    OpenAIRE

    Ermann, Joerg; Laurie H. GLIMCHER

    2012-01-01

    The genetics of human autoimmune diseases remain incompletely understood, despite significant progress from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In this review we outline how mouse studies may help filling these knowledge gaps. Forward genetic approaches including mutagenesis screens and quantitative trait locus mapping can be used to identify candidate genes for in depth analysis in human patient populations. Reverse genetic approaches utilize genetically engineered mice to analyze the fu...

  12. Adipocytes impair leukemia treatment in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Behan, James W.; Yun, Jason P.; Proektor, Marina P.; Ehsanipour, Ehsan A.; Arutyunyan, Anna; Moses, Ara S.; Avramis, Vassilios I; Louie, Stan G; Butturini, Anna; Heisterkamp, Nora; Mittelman, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased cancer incidence and mortality. We have previously found that obesity in children is associated with a 50% increased recurrence of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in high-risk patients. We have therefore developed novel in vivo and in vitro preclinical models to study the mechanism(s) of this association. Obesity increased relapse after monotherapy with vincristine (p=0.03) in obese mice injected with syngeneic ALL cells. This occurred even though the d...

  13. Minocycline affects cocaine sensitization in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hu; Uz, Tolga; Manev, Hari

    2009-01-01

    Growing evidence has pointed to an interaction between the tetracycline antibiotic minocycline and drugs with abuse liability such as opioids and amphetamines. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that similar to its effects on methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, minocycline may influence the behavioral effects of cocaine. Experiments were performed in male C57BL/6J mice using an automated system to measure locomotor activity. We found that 80 mg/kg minocycline significantly re...

  14. MICE data handling on the Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionisation cooling for the first time, for application to a future Neutrino factory or Muon Collider. The experiment is currently under construction at the ISIS synchrotron at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), UK. In this paper we present a system – the Raw Data Mover, which allows us to store and distribute MICE raw data – and a framework for offline reconstruction and data management. The aim of the Raw Data Mover is to upload raw data files onto a safe tape storage as soon as the data have been written out by the DAQ system and marked as ready to be uploaded. Internal integrity of the files is verified and they are uploaded to the RAL Tier-1 Castor Storage Element (SE) and placed on two tapes for redundancy. We also make another copy at a separate disk-based SE at this stage to make it easier for users to access data quickly. Both copies are check-summed and the replicas are registered with an instance of the LCG File Catalog (LFC). On success a record with basic file properties is added to the MICE Metadata DB. The reconstruction process is triggered by new raw data records filled in by the mover system described above. Off-line reconstruction jobs for new raw files are submitted to RAL Tier-1 and the output is stored on tape. Batch reprocessing is done at multiple MICE enabled Grid sites and output files are shipped to central tape or disk storage at RAL using a custom File Transfer Controller.

  15. Vocal Ontogeny in Neotropical Singing Mice (Scotinomys)

    OpenAIRE

    Polly Campbell; Bret Pasch; Ashley L Warren; Phelps, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teg...

  16. The Gut Microbiota of Wild Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Weldon, L; Abolins, S; Lenzi, L.; Bourne, C; Riley, EM; Viney, M

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota profoundly affects the biology of its host. The composition of the microbiota is dynamic and is affected by both host genetic and many environmental effects. The gut microbiota of laboratory mice has been studied extensively, which has uncovered many of the effects that the microbiota can have. This work has also shown that the environments of different research institutions can affect the mouse microbiota. There has been relatively limited study of the microbiota of wild m...

  17. Eosinophilia in transgenic mice expressing interleukin 5

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    Experiments in vitro suggest that although interleukin 5 (IL-5) stimulates the late stages of eosinophil differentiation, other cytokines are required for the generation of eosinophil progenitor cells. In this study transgenic mice constitutively expressing the IL-5 gene were established using a genomic fragment of the IL-5 gene coupled to the dominant control region from the gene encoding human CD2. Four independent eosinophilic transgenic lines have thus far been established, two of which w...

  18. Radioprotectors and Tumors: Molecular Studies in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayle Woloschak, David Grdina

    2010-03-10

    This proposal investigated effects of radiation using a set of archival tissues. Main interests of this proposal were to investigate effects of irradiation alone or in the presence or radioprotectors; to investigate these effects on different tissues; and to use/develop molecular biology techniques that would be suitable for work with archived tissues. This work resulted in several manuscripts published or in preparation. Approach for evaluation of gene copy numbers by quantitative real time PCR has been developed and we are striving to establish methods to utilize Q-RT-PCR data to evaluate genomic instability caused by irradiation(s) and accompanying treatments. References: 1. Paunesku D, Paunesku T, Wahl A, Kataoka Y, Murley J, Grdina DJ, Woloschak GE. Incidence of tissue toxicities in gamma ray and fission neutron-exposed mice treated with Amifostine. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008, 84(8):623-34. PMID: 18661379, http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1080/09553000802241762?cookieSet=1 2. Wang Q, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Tissue and data archives from irradiation experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory over a period of four decades, in press in Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 3. Alcantara M, Paunesku D, Rademaker A, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TISSUE TOXICITIES IN B6CF1 MICE IRRADIATED WITH FISSION NEUTRONS OR COBALT 60 GAMMA RAYS: Gender modulates accumulation of tissue toxicities caused by low dose rate fractionated irradiation; in preparation; this document has been uploaded as STI product 4. Wang Q, Paunesku T Wanzer B and Woloschak GE. Mitochondrial gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice with lymphoid cancers; in preparation 5. Wang Q, Raha, S, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Evaluation of gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice; in preparation

  19. Antidepressant activity of fingolimod in mice

    OpenAIRE

    di Nuzzo, Luigi; Orlando, Rosamaria; Tognoli, Cristina; Di Pietro, Paola; Bertini, Giuseppe; Miele, Jessica; Bucci, Domenico; Motolese, Marta; Scaccianoce, Sergio; Caruso, Alessandra; Mauro, Gianluca; De Lucia, Carmine; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bruno, Valeria; Fabene, Paolo Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that fingolimod, the first oral drug approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS), acts as a direct inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and enhances the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the CNS. Both mechanisms are relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of major depression. We examined the antidepressant activity of fingolimod in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a model of reactive depression endowed ...

  20. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Gebara; Florian Udry; Sébastien Sultan; Nicolas Toni

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the d...

  1. Melanosis and associated tumors in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein-Szanto, A.; Bradl, M; Porter, S; Mintz, B

    1991-01-01

    Melanosis was found to various extents in a wide array of tissues of all 23 autopsied mice whose transgene consisted of the tyrosinase promoter fused to the simian virus 40 early-region oncogenic sequences. Pigmentation in a given animal was attributable to any or all of the following; an increase in numbers of some normally pigmented cells of neural crest origin (a result compatible with early stages of transformation); elicitation of melanin synthesis in some cells that normally have little...

  2. Tetrabenazine is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Tie-Shan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ expansion in Huntingtin protein (Htt. PolyQ expansion in Httexp causes selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN in HD patients. A number of previous studies suggested that dopamine signaling plays an important role in HD pathogenesis. A specific inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2 tetrabenazine (TBZ has been recently approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of HD patients in the USA. TBZ acts by reducing dopaminergic input to the striatum. Results In previous studies we demonstrated that long-term feeding with TBZ (combined with L-Dopa alleviated the motor deficits and reduced the striatal neuronal loss in the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128 mice. To further investigate a potential beneficial effects of TBZ for HD treatment, we here repeated TBZ evaluation in YAC128 mice starting TBZ treatment at 2 months of age ("early" TBZ group and at 6 months of age ("late" TBZ group. In agreement with our previous studies, we found that both "early" and "late" TBZ treatments alleviated motor deficits and reduced striatal cell loss in YAC128 mice. In addition, we have been able to recapitulate and quantify depression-like symptoms in TBZ-treated mice, reminiscent of common side effects observed in HD patients taking TBZ. Conclusions Our results further support therapeutic value of TBZ for treatment of HD but also highlight the need to develop more specific dopamine antagonists which are less prone to side-effects.

  3. Humanized hemato-lymphoid system mice

    OpenAIRE

    Theocharides, Alexandre P.A.; Rongvaux, Anthony; Fritsch, Kristin; Flavell, Richard A.; Manz, Markus G.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, incrementally improved xenograft mouse models, supporting the engraftment and development of a human hemato-lymphoid system, have been developed and now represent an important research tool in the field. The most significant contributions made by means of humanized mice are the identification of normal and leukemic hematopoietic stem cells, the characterization of the human hematopoietic hierarchy, and their use as preclinical therapy models for malignant hematopoietic ...

  4. Retro-orbital injections in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yardeni, Tal; Eckhaus, Michael; Morris, H. Douglas; Huizing, Marjan; Hoogstraten-Miller, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous vascular access is technically challenging in the adult mouse and even more challenging in neonatal mice. The authors describe the technique of retro-orbital injection of the venous sinus in the adult and neonatal mouse. This technique is a useful alternative to tail vein injection for the administration of non-tumorigenic compounds. The authors report that they have routinely used this technique in the adult mouse to administer volumes up to 150 µl without incident. Administratio...

  5. Treatment of wound sepsis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local and systemic effect of penicillin therapy, supplemented by immunoglobulins, and pentoxifylline on wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in mice irradiated with 6.5 Gy 60Co γ-rays. Treatment with 62.5 mg/kg penicillin-G was administered for 10 days. Numbers of bacteria were significantly reduced from 7.3 (± 0.3) to 5.3 (± 0.4) log10 CFU/mg ± muscle in treated animals. Administration of immunoglobulin G i.v. or pentoxifylline i.p. alone, or in addition to penicillin-G, did not further reduce the number of bacteria. Increase in the dose of penicillin to 250 mg/kg decreased the number of bacteria more than 62.5 mg/kg. Bacteria were recovered from spleens and/or livers of all 13 untreated mice, and only in six of the 13 penicillin-treated mice (P<0.05). Penicillin therapy reduced the systemic spread of S. aureus. (author)

  6. Zoopharmacognosy in diseased laboratory mice: conflicting evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minesh Kapadia

    Full Text Available Zoopharmacognosy denotes a constellation of learned ingestive responses that promote healing and survival of infected or poisoned animals. A similar self-medication phenomenon was reported in diseased laboratory rodents. In particular, a series of studies revealed that autoimmune MRL/lpr mice readily consume solutions paired or laced with cyclophosphamide (CY, an immunosuppressive drug that prevents inflammatory damage to internal organs. However, due to design limitations, it could not be elucidated whether such a response reflects the learned therapeutic effect of CY, or a deficit in sensory input. We presently assess the behavioural effects of prolonged consumption of CY-laced, 16% sucrose solution in a continuous choice paradigm, with tap water available ad lib. Contrary to overall expectation, MRL/lpr mice did not increase their intake of CY with disease progression. Moreover, they ingested lower doses of CY and preferred less CY-laced sucrose solution than age-matched controls. The results obtained could not confirm zoopharmacognosy in diseased MRL/lpr mice, likely due to impaired responsiveness to palatable stimulation, or attenuated survival mechanisms after prolonged inbreeding in captivity. However, by revealing the effectiveness of unrestricted drinking of drug-laced sucrose solution on behavior and immunity, the current study supports broader use of such an administration route in behavioural studies sensitive to external stressors.

  7. Inhaled Anesthetic Potency in Aged Alzheimer Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Shannon L.; Caltagarone, Breanna M.; LaFerla, Frank M.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Kelz, Max B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of elderly patients with frank or incipient Alzheimer’s disease (AD) requiring surgery is growing as the population ages. General anesthesia may exacerbate symptoms of and the pathology underlying AD, so minimizing anesthetic exposure may be important. This requires knowledge of whether the continuing AD pathogenesis alters anesthetic potency. METHODS We determined the induction potency and emergence time for isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane using the minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration for loss of righting reflex as an end point in 12- to 14-mo-old triple transgenic Alzheimer (3xTgAD) mice and wild type C57BL6 controls. 3xTgAD mice model AD by harboring three distinct mutations: the APPSwe, Tau, and PS1 human transgenes, each of which has been associated with familial forms of human AD. RESULTS The 3xTgAD mice exhibited mild resistance (from 8% to 30%) to volatile anesthetics but displayed indistinguishable emergence patterns from all three inhaled anesthetics. CONCLUSIONS These results show that the genetic vulnerabilities and neuropathology associated with AD produce a small but significant decrease in sensitivity to the hypnotic actions of three inhaled anesthetics. Emergence times were not altered. PMID:19820240

  8. High tidal volume ventilation in infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Vincenzo; Zosky, Graeme R; Hantos, Zoltán; Turner, Debra J; Sly, Peter D

    2008-06-30

    Infant mice were ventilated with either high tidal volume (V(T)) with zero end-expiratory pressure (HVZ), high V(T) with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (HVP), or low V(T) with PEEP. Thoracic gas volume (TGV) was determined plethysmographically and low-frequency forced oscillations were used to measure the input impedance of the respiratory system. Inflammatory cells, total protein, and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum were measured as markers of pulmonary and systemic inflammatory response, respectively. Coefficients of tissue damping and tissue elastance increased in all ventilated mice, with the largest rise seen in the HVZ group where TGV rapidly decreased. BALF protein levels increased in the HVP group, whereas serum IL-6 rose in the HVZ group. PEEP keeps the lungs open, but provides high volumes to the entire lungs and induces lung injury. Compared to studies in adult and non-neonatal rodents, infant mice demonstrate a different response to similar ventilation strategies underscoring the need for age-specific animal models. PMID:18515194

  9. Novel transcranial magnetic stimulation coil for mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Stephen; Stark, Spencer; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) shows potential for non-invasive treatment of various neurological disorders. Significant work has been performed on the design of coils used for TMS on human subjects but few reports have been made on the design of coils for use on the brains of animals such as mice. This work is needed as TMS studies utilizing mice can allow rapid preclinical development of TMS for human disorders but the coil designs developed for use on humans are inadequate for optimal stimulation of the much smaller mouse brain. A novel TMS coil has been developed with the goal of inducing strong and focused electric fields for the stimulation of small animals such as mice. Calculations of induced electric fields were performed utilizing an MRI derived inhomogeneous model of an adult male mouse. Mechanical and thermal analysis of this new TMS helmet-coil design have also been performed at anticipated TMS operating conditions to ensure mechanical stability of the new coil and establish expected linear attraction and rotational force values. Calculated temperature increases for typical stimulation periods indicate the helmet-coil system is capable of operating within established medical standards. A prototype of the coil has been fabricated and characterization results are presented.

  10. How do mice follow odor trails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, David; Trastour, Sophie; Mishra, Shruti; Mathis, Alexander; Murthy, Venkatesh; Brenner, Michael P.

    2015-11-01

    Mice are excellent at following odor trails e.g. to locate food or to find mates. However, it is not yet understood what navigation strategies they use. In principle, they could either evaluate temporal differences between sniffs or they could use concurrent input from the two nostrils. It is unknown to what extend these two strategies contribute to mice's performance. When mice follow trails, odors evaporate from the ground, are transported by flow in the air, and are then inhaled with the two nostrils. In order to differentiate between the two navigation strategies, we determine what information the mouse receives: first, we calculate the airflow by numerically solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. We then determine the spatiotemporal odor concentration from the resulting advection-diffusion equations. Lastly, we determine the odor amount in each nostril by calculating the inhalation volumes using potential flow theory. Taken together, we determine the odor amount in each nostril during each sniff, allowing a detailed study of navigation strategies.

  11. Heart regeneration in adult MRL mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leferovich, John M.; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Samulewicz, Stefan; Zhang, Xiang-Ming; Zwas, Donna; Lankford, Edward B.; Heber-Katz, Ellen

    2001-08-01

    The reaction of cardiac tissue to acute injury involves interacting cascades of cellular and molecular responses that encompass inflammation, hormonal signaling, extracellular matrix remodeling, and compensatory adaptation of myocytes. Myocardial regeneration is observed in amphibians, whereas scar formation characterizes cardiac ventricular wound healing in a variety of mammalian injury models. We have previously shown that the MRL mouse strain has an extraordinary capacity to heal surgical wounds, a complex trait that maps to at least seven genetic loci. Here, we extend these studies to cardiac wounds and demonstrate that a severe transmural, cryogenically induced infarction of the right ventricle heals extensively within 60 days, with the restoration of normal myocardium and function. Scarring is markedly reduced in MRL mice compared with C57BL/6 mice, consistent with both the reduced hydroxyproline levels seen after injury and an elevated cardiomyocyte mitotic index of 10-20% for the MRL compared with 1-3% for the C57BL/6. The myocardial response to injury observed in these mice resembles the regenerative process seen in amphibians.

  12. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W; Hensch, Takao K

    2012-10-16

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a "critical period" for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR(-/-)) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular "brakes" on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  13. State of drilling and blasting technique at RAG Deutsche Steinkohle; Stand der Bohr- und Sprengtechnik bei RAG Deutsche Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sablotny, Horst; Opolony, Klaus; Schmidt, Ralf [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Servicebereich Technik- und Logistikdienste, Herne (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The German hard coal mining industry is further running through a difficult adjustment process under revised political frame conditions with the final expiry in 2018. The requirements in all departments to increase productivity, cost optimization and know-how protection are still on a very high level. The state of the art concerning drilling ans blasting technique at heading operations and also a short overview about methane drainage drilling during production in the seam Zollverein 1/2 on Prosper-Haniel mine will be presented.

  14. Schätzung genetisch-statistischer Parameter bei Fleischrindern der Rassen Deutsche Angus und Deutsches Fleckvieh sowie deren Einfachkreuzungen

    OpenAIRE

    Müllenhoff, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Untersuchung wurden an einer aus zwei Fleischrinderrassen bestehenden Mutterkuhherde mit jeweils ca. 150 weiblichen Tieren der Rassen Dt. Angus und Dt. Fleckvieh über einen Zeitraum von sieben Zuchtjahren (1997/98 bis einschl. 2003/04) Leistungsdaten hinsichtlich Reproduktions- und Produktionsmerkmalen erhoben und ausgewertet. Ziel der Arbeit war es an den Reinzuchtdaten der ersten fünf Zuchtjahre für die beiden Rassen Dt. Angus und Dt. Fleckvieh genetisch-st...

  15. 30th congress of Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie und Tuberkulose. 30. Kongress, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie und Tuberkulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferlinz, R.; Steppling, H.; Wolfart, W.

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings volume contains 196 papers on the following subjects: 1. Tuberculosis, 2. sarcoidosis, 3. the lung in the borderline area between health and disease, 4. biochemical aspects of bronchopulmonary diseases, 5. topical diagnostics, 6. current therapy, 7. physiotherapy, 8. thoracic surgery, 9. carcinoma research, 10. free papers. Radiological and nuclear diagnostic methods are discussed.

  16. Technical dictionary mining. German - English/English - German. 2. ed.; Fachwoerterbuch Bergbau. Deutsch - Englisch/Englisch - Deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabeck, Andreas; Lyons, David S. (comps.)

    2008-07-01

    A basic knowledge of the respective foreign language is necessary for the user to get the best out of this specialist dictionary. When several options are listed, the most common English translation of the German term is usually given first. With more than 10,000 key words listed in both the English and the German sections, it has been decided for reasons of clarity and practicality that compound terms be entered throughout under their respective noun.

  17. Fluvastatin Influences Hair Color in C57Bl/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Jóźwiak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our recent in vitro experiments suggest that fluvastatin may influence tyrosinase (key enzyme of melanogenesis synthesis. The aim of the present study was to verify those findings in experiments, in vitro, in melanoma cell line, and in vivo, in mice. The expression of tyrosinase in B16F10 melanoma cell line, after induction of melanogenesis by UVB irradiation, was examined by Western blot analysis. Afterwards, the effect of fluvastatin on melanin synthesis in hair follicles of C57Bl/6 mice was investigated. The expression of tyrosinase was reduced in the presence of fluvastatin. In mice after anagen induction over the dorsal skin, gel containing fluvastatin in various concentrations was injected subcutaneously, while in part of control groups of mice, gel with placebo was injected. In addition, gel with fluvastatin was injected to four week-old mice (mice in first postnatal anagen without anagen induction. In extension, injections of gel with fluvastatin or placebo were performed in mice without anagen induction (but after first postnatal anagen. In part of study group of mice (mice after anagen induction and injection of fluvastatin regrowth of depigmented hair was observed, while in all control groups (mice after injection of placebo, such hair depigmentation over the skin area was not found. In conclusion, this study, for the first time, shows that fluvastatin might affect melanin synthesis in vivo.

  18. Kinematics of treadmill locomotion in mice raised in hypergravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojados, Mickael; Herbin, Marc; Jamon, Marc

    2013-05-01

    The study compared the motor performance of adult C57Bl/6J mice previously exposed to a 2G gravity environment during different periods of their development. 12 mice were housed in a large diameter centrifuge from the conception to Postnatal day 10 (P10). Another group of 10 mice was centrifuged form P10 to P30, and a third group of 9 mice was centrifuged from conception to P30. Their gait parameters, and kinematics of joint excursions were compared with 11 control mice, at the age of 2 months using a video-radiographic apparatus connected to a motorized treadmill. The mice that returned to Earth gravity level at the age of P10 showed a motor pattern similar to control mice. At variance the two groups that were centrifuged from P10 to P30 showed a different motor pattern with smaller and faster strides to walk at the same velocity as controls. On the other hand all the centrifuged mice showed significant postural changes, particularly with a more extended ankle joint, but the mice centrifuged during the whole experimental period differed even more. Our results showed that the exposure to hypergravity before P10 sufficed to modify the posture, suggesting that postural control starts before the onset of locomotion, whereas the gravity constraint perceived between P10 and P30 conditioned the tuning of quadruped locomotion with long term consequences. These results support the existence of a critical period in the acquisition of locomotion in mice. PMID:23352767

  19. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  20. The tissue distribution of recombinant adiponectin in type 2 diabetic mice and diet-induced obesity mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the tissue distribution of 125I labeled adiponectin recombinant globular form (125I-gAcrp) in Diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and normal mice. 125I-gAcrp was prepared and injected into different types of mice through the veins of tails, and then the radio-counts in brain, glandular angularis, heart, lung, liver, spleen, stomach, intestine, adipose tissue, kidney, muscle, testis, uterus and blood were measured at 0.5 and 2 h, respectively. The results showed that 125I-gAcrp has a much higher uptake at 2 h in the liver of T2DM mice and in the glandular angularis of DIO mice than that of at 0.5 h, whilst it has a lower uptake in the liver of DIO mice at 2 h, and also the uptake of 125I- gAcrp in the stomach, intestine and testis of DIO mice and in uterus of T2DM mice groups were increased. The result indicated that glandular angularis, testis and uterus probably play roles in the process of fat metabolism and blood glucose regulation of adiponectin in DIO and T2DM mice, besides liver and muscle. (authors)

  1. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment

  2. Impaired fear response in mice lacking GIT1

    OpenAIRE

    Schmalzigaug, Robert; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Bonner, Pamela E.; Davidson, Collin E.; Wetsel, William C.; Premont, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 1 (GIT1) belongs to the family of Arf GAP proteins, and has been implicated in the regulation of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) sequestration, cell migration, synapse formation and dendritic spine morphogenesis in neurons. To extend these cellular studies on GIT1 to an in vivo system, we generated mice with globally inactivated Git1 gene by breeding mice carrying a conditional Git1flox allele with mice expressing the CMV-Cre transgene. ...

  3. Dengue Virus Tropism in Humanized Mice Recapitulates Human Dengue Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Mota; Rebeca Rico-Hesse

    2011-01-01

    Animal models of dengue virus disease have been very difficult to develop because of the virus' specificity for infection and replication in certain human cells. We developed a model of dengue fever in immunodeficient mice transplanted with human stem cells from umbilical cord blood. These mice show measurable signs of dengue disease as in humans (fever, viremia, erythema and thrombocytopenia), and after infection with the most virulent strain of dengue serotype 2, humanized mice showed infec...

  4. Crocin attenuates lipopolysacchride-induced acute lung injury in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jian WANG; Kuai, Jianke; Luo, Zhonghua; Wang, Wuping; Wang, Lei; Ke, Changkang; LI, XIAOFEI; Ni, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    Crocin, a representative of carotenoid compounds, exerts a spectrum of activities including radical scavenger, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties. To investigate the protective effect of crocin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1 mg/kg). The mice received intragastric injection of crocin (50 mg/kg) 1 h before LPS administration. Pulmonary histological changes were evaluated by hematox...

  5. Aerosols Transmit Prions to Immunocompetent and Immunodeficient Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Haybaeck; Mathias Heikenwalder; Britta Klevenz; Petra Schwarz; Ilan Margalith; Claire Bridel; Kirsten Mertz; Elizabeta Zirdum; Benjamin Petsch; Thomas J Fuchs; Lothar Stitz; Adriano Aguzzi

    2011-01-01

    Prions, the agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, colonize the brain of hosts after oral, parenteral, intralingual, or even transdermal uptake. However, prions are not generally considered to be airborne. Here we report that inbred and crossbred wild-type mice, as well as tga20 transgenic mice overexpressing PrP(C), efficiently develop scrapie upon exposure to aerosolized prions. NSE-PrP transgenic mice, which express PrP(C) selectively in neurons, were also susceptible to...

  6. Metabolic effects of intra-abdominal fat in GHRKO mice

    OpenAIRE

    Masternak, Michal M.; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Spong, Adam; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Salmon, Adam B.; Hughes, Larry F; Liberati, Teresa; Boparai, Ravneet; Kopchick, John J.; Westbrook, Reyhan

    2011-01-01

    Mice with targeted deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO mice) are GH resistant, small, obese, hypoinsulinemic, highly insulin sensitive and remarkably long-lived. To elucidate the unexpected coexistence of adiposity with improved insulin sensitivity and extended longevity, we examined effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat on metabolic traits related to insulin signaling and longevity. Comparison of results obtained in GHRKO mice and in normal anima...

  7. Cytomegalovirus infection of adipose tissues induces steatitis in adult mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Price, P; Eddy, K. S.; Papadimitriou, J M; Robertson, T. A.; Shellam, G R

    1990-01-01

    Young adult mice infected with MCMV were shown to develop inflammatory lesions in the peripancreatic and salivary gland adipose tissues. MCMV replication was detected by immunoperoxidase staining and electron microscopy in adipocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and pericytes in brown and white adipose tissues. More infected cells were detected in C3H mice than in BALB/c, BALB.B, BALB.K or C57BL/6 mice. Peripancreatic steatitis consisted of a monocytic infiltrate surrounding focal necrosis...

  8. Severe iron deficiency anemia in transgenic mice expressing liver hepcidin

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas, Gaël; Bennoun, Myriam; Porteu, Arlette; Mativet, Sandrine; Beaumont, Carole; Grandchamp, Bernard; Sirito, Mario; Sawadogo, Michèle; Kahn, Axel; Vaulont, Sophie

    2002-01-01

    We recently reported the hemochromatosis-like phenotype observed in our Usf2 knockout mice. In these mice, as in murine models of hemochromatosis and patients with hereditary hemochromatosis, iron accumulates in parenchymal cells (in particular, liver and pancreas), whereas the reticuloendothelial system is spared from this iron loading. We suggested that this phenotypic trait could be attributed to the absence, in the Usf2 knockout mice, of a secreted liver-specific peptide, hepcidin. We con...

  9. Aerosols transmit prions to immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Stitz, L.; Aguzzi, A; Haybaeck, J.; Heikenwalder, M.; Schwarz, P.; Fuchs, T J; Klevenz, B.; Bridel, C; Petsch, B; Margalith, I.; Zirdum, E.; Mertz, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    Prions, the agents causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, colonize the brain of hosts after oral, parenteral, intralingual, or even transdermal uptake. However, prions are not generally considered to be airborne. Here we report that inbred and crossbred wild-type mice, as well as tga20 transgenic mice overexpressing PrP(C), efficiently develop scrapie upon exposure to aerosolized prions. NSE-PrP transgenic mice, which express PrP(C) selectively in neurons, were also susceptible to...

  10. Plasmin Is Essential in Preventing Periodontitis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sulniute, Rima; Lindh, Tomas; Wilczynska, Malgorzata; Li, Jinan; Ny, Tor

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis involves bacterial infection, inflammation of the periodontium, degradation of gum tissue, and alveolar bone resorption, which eventually leads to loss of teeth. To study the role of the broad-spectrum protease plasmin in periodontitis, we examined the oral health of plasminogen (Plg)–deficient mice. In wild-type mice, the periodontium was unaffected at all time points studied; in Plg-deficient mice, periodontitis progressed rapidly, within 20 weeks. Morphological study results ...

  11. Central depressant and nootropic effects of daytime melatonin in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Abiola, Akanni A; Lillian, Eniafe A

    2014-01-01

    Background Effects of orally administered daytime melatonin on novelty induced behaviors and spatial working memory in mice were evaluated using the open field, the Y maze and the radial arm maze. Purpose To ascertain the possible nootropic and/or central excitatory or inhibitory effects of daytime oral melatonin in mice. Methods Adult male mice from our colony, assigned to three and four groups for open field tests and memory tests respectively were given vehicle (normal saline), a standard ...

  12. Reconstitution of the gastrointestinal microflora of lactobacillus-free mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Tannock, G W; Crichton, C.; Welling, G W; Koopman, J. P.; Midtvedt, T

    1988-01-01

    A colony of mice that do not harbor lactobacilli in their digestive tracts but whose intestinal microflora is otherwise functionally similar to that of conventional animals was derived. Methods used to reconstitute the intestinal microflora of the mice included inoculation of the animals with cultures of specific microbes, noncultivable microbes attached to epithelial cells, and cecal contents from conventional mice treated with chloramphenicol. Twenty-six microflora-associated characteristic...

  13. The Economic and Social Effects Analysis of MICE Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunchao Lu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the MICE tourism fully swings, with its enormous economic and social effects. It causes the attention of the community, and was called “the pearl of tourism crown.” The development of convention tourism has effects of society and economy, advantage and disadvantage as well. Beginning with tourism theoretical connotation, the paper reveals MICE tourism with its economical and social effect and then point out the enlightenment of the MICE.

  14. Failure to transmit disease from gray tremor mutant mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, G A; Banks, S; Lund,D.; Reichert, C. (rapporteur); Groth, D; Torchia, M; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

    1997-01-01

    Mice homozygous for mutant alleles at the gray tremor (gt) locus develop a marked non-intention tremor beginning at 8 days of age. Most homozygous mice die by 3 months. Homozygotes exhibit intense vacuolation of the central nervous system gray matter and vacuolation and hypomyelination of some white matter tracts. Based on neuropathological similarities with scrapie, other investigators inoculated wild-type mice with gray tremor brain homogenates to test the hypothesis of transmissibility. Pu...

  15. Safety assessment of inhaled xylitol in mice and healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kline Joel N; Businga Thomas R; Watt Janet L; Launspach Janice; Durairaj Lakshmi; Thorne Peter S; Zabner Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical research center of a university hospital. Mice underwent a baseline methacholine challenge, exposure to either aerosolized saline o...

  16. High Precision Measurement of Muon Beam Emittance Reduction in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Muon ionization cooling, an essential ingredient of a neutrino factory, will be demonstrated for the first time by the MICE experiment. The central part of MICE consists of a short section of a neutrino factory cooling channel and the emittance reduction achieved in this experiment is quite modest, 10% to 15%. In order to extrapolate the performance of a full cooling channel from these values, it is crucial for MICE to achieve an emittance measurement accuracy of 10

  17. Experimental sialodacryoadenitis virus infection in athymic CD-1 mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Percy, D H; Bond, S.J.; MacInnes, J I; Descôteaux, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the susceptibility of nude mice to sialodacryoadenitis virus. Young adult male CD-1 nude mice were inoculated intranasally with virus, killed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 20 days postinoculation and examined for virus-induced lesions in tissues including respiratory tract. Inoculated and control mice were examined by virus isolation and serology. In a companion study, male Wistar rats were inoculated intranasally with the same inoculum, and examined by his...

  18. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Pasch, Bret; Warren, Ashley L; Phelps, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides the raw material for

  19. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  20. THC Prevents MDMA Neurotoxicity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Touriño

    Full Text Available The majority of MDMA (ecstasy recreational users also consume cannabis. Despite the rewarding effects that both drugs have, they induce several opposite pharmacological responses. MDMA causes hyperthermia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage, especially at warm ambient temperature. However, THC, the main psychoactive compound of cannabis, produces hypothermic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, THC may have a neuroprotective effect against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. Mice receiving a neurotoxic regimen of MDMA (20 mg/kg x 4 were pretreated with THC (3 mg/kg x 4 at room (21 degrees C and at warm (26 degrees C temperature, and body temperature, striatal glial activation and DA terminal loss were assessed. To find out the mechanisms by which THC may prevent MDMA hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, the same procedure was carried out in animals pretreated with the CB(1 receptor antagonist AM251 and the CB(2 receptor antagonist AM630, as well as in CB(1, CB(2 and CB(1/CB(2 deficient mice. THC prevented MDMA-induced-hyperthermia and glial activation in animals housed at both room and warm temperature. Surprisingly, MDMA-induced DA terminal loss was only observed in animals housed at warm but not at room temperature, and this neurotoxic effect was reversed by THC administration. However, THC did not prevent MDMA-induced hyperthermia, glial activation, and DA terminal loss in animals treated with the CB(1 receptor antagonist AM251, neither in CB(1 and CB(1/CB(2 knockout mice. On the other hand, THC prevented MDMA-induced hyperthermia and DA terminal loss, but only partially suppressed glial activation in animals treated with the CB(2 cannabinoid antagonist and in CB(2 knockout animals. Our results indicate that THC protects against MDMA neurotoxicity, and suggest that these neuroprotective actions are primarily mediated by the reduction of hyperthermia through the activation of CB(1 receptor, although CB(2 receptors may also contribute to

  1. Increased phagocytic activity of splenectomized mice challenged with Listeria monocytogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adult splenectomized mice exhibited increased resistance to infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Phagocytosis, by reticuloendothelial cells, of test particles (51Cr-labelled sheep erythrocytes) was the same in splenectomized and control mice. However, 24 h exposure to Listeria, which failed to influence phagocytic activity of normal mice, greatly enhanced the blood clearance and liver uptake of the test particles in splenectomized mice. The presence of a cell population and/or product in the spleen which modulates macrophage activation upon the exposure to appropriate stimuli is postulated. (author)

  2. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  3. SJL/L-selectin-deficient mice develop experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Uboldi, C. (Chiara)

    2006-01-01

    The role of L-selectin in the pathogenesis of EAE is still not clarified and previous investigations were not conclusive. To address whether L-selectin is involved in the development of EAE, SJL/L-sel-/- mice were generated backcrossing L-selectin-deficient mice into the SJL mouse strain. EAE was induced by active immunization with proteolipid protein (PLP). SJL wt and SJL/L-sel-/- mice had indistinguishable EAE symptoms and in brain of EAE affected mice CD45 + cell infiltrates were detected...

  4. Quantitative study of wound infection in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial infection of simple wounds was studied directly and quantitatively in adult mice given 6.5 Gy 60 Co. Three days later when neutropenia was evident, the skin and the medial gluteus muscle of anaesthetized mice were incised. A suspension of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Streptococcus pygenes was inoculated into the wound. Bacteria per mg muscle were enumerated 3, 4 or 7 days later. The geometric means of bacteria per mg were greater in irradiated than in non-irradiated mice. Phagocytic cells were present in the wounded tissue. Hence sublethal ionizing radiation enhanced the susceptibility of mice to infections of wounds by these four bacterial species. (author)

  5. Partial return yoke for MICE step IV and final step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  6. [Digestive tract dilation in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillén-Pernía, B; Lugo-Yarbuh, A; Moreno, E

    2001-09-01

    This paper will analyze alterations in the digestive tract (DT) of mice with chronic Chagas' disease infection produced by Trypanosoma cruzi from different sources. X-rays of the DT of 18 mice infected with T. cruzi and 6 control mice were compared after the ingestion of a barium sulfate solution over a period of 6 hours. 120 days post-infection (pi) the X-rays of the DT of the 5 mice of group 1A infected with trypanosomes DMI isolated from the opossum Didelphis marsupialis, and 4 mice in group 2A infected with the isolate EP taken from a patient with acute Chagas' disease, showed swelling of the stomach and the colon (C). 180 days pi, the X-rays of the DT of the 5 mice of group 1B infected with isolated DMI and the 4 mice in group 2B infected with isolate EP, showed an even greater swelling of the C. Histological examination of the DT of all infected mice showed extensive changes of the intestinal muscle layer, such as the diminution of the muscular and mucous layers and the loss of colonic folds and myoenteric plexus. These results suggest that T. cruzi populations caused severe alterations in the digestive system of the mice used in the experiment, and that the same alterations could occur in the digestive organs of humans, especially those living in areas where Chagas' disease is endemic, but where these abnormalities have not yet been reported. PMID:11552508

  7. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection was...... more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...

  8. Partial Return Yoke for MICE Step IV and Final Step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Holger [Brookhaven; Plate, Stephen [Brookhaven; Berg, J.Scott [Brookhaven; Tarrant, Jason [Rutherford; Bross, Alan [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  9. Partial return yoke for MICE step IV and final step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Plate, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tarrant, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Bross, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-05-03

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  10. Effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin on exsanguine thrombocytopenia mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM:To investigate effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin on exsanguine thrombocytopenia mice. METHODS:Normal peripheral platelet counts were performed on sample obtained from the tail vein of purebred Babl/c mice including experimental and control groups before experimentation. rhTPO was injected into the mice by intraperitoneal injection once a day for 7 days. On the seventh and the fourteenth day, the mice were phlebotomized from the supra-obitalis vein in order to make exsanguine thrombocytopenia animal model. At the same time, we observed the biological activity of recombinant human thrombopoietin in vivo and the mice's death rate. RESULTS: On the seventh day and the fourteenth day, platelet counts of mice treated by rhTPO were higher than those by PBS (P<0.05). Moreover the platelet counts of mice in experimental group of rhTPO showed increasing tendency following experimental days. In addition, death happened in two groups after those mice were phlebotomized from the supra-obitalis vein, but the death rate in negative control group was evidently higher than that in experimental group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:rhTPO had obvious biological activity in increasing platelet production, which resulted in the drop in thrombocytopenia mice's death rate.

  11. Hemotopoetic radiation damage in mice with the leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of congenital carriage of tumorgenic viruses on the radioresistance of mice exposed to ionizing radiation is studied. Mice were irradiated by γ-rays of 137Cs source at 0.5-8.0 Gy doses and 1.5 Gy/min dose rate. It is shown that mice-carriers of virus (T-leukosis) are more radiosensitive according to survival rate and hemopoiesis state. It is supposed that the decrease in leukosal mice ability to repair postradiation damages is the basis of these regularities

  12. CNS depressant activities of roots of Coccos nucifera in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Sarkar, Abhijit; Gain, Sumanta; Jana, Sandip; Mandal, Soumit

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Coccos nucifera (EECN) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EECN significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics viz. pentobarbital sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EECN showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EECN caused significant protection against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of C. nucifera. PMID:21485298

  13. Establishment and detection of HBV transgenic mice with YMDD mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-qin YOU; Yang-shu CHEN; Guang-ze LIU; Fu-qiang YANG; Chen, Mei-Juan; Xiu-mei LI; Zhou, Jun-Hui; Kong, Xiang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish the hepatitis B virus(HBV) transgenic mice with YMDD mutation,and provide an animal model for research of HBV prevention and therapeutic approach.Methods 1.3 copies HBV genome containing YMDD mutation associated with lamivudine resistance was injected into the zygote of FVB/N female mice by microinjection.Integration and passage of exogenous gene in transgenic mice was confirmed by PCR.The expression of HBsAg in liver and kidney tissues in transgenic mice was identified...

  14. Behavioral characterization of mice lacking Trek channels

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkovic, Kelsey; Palmersheim, Jaime; Lesage, Florian; Wickman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels are thought to underlie background K+ conductance in many cell types. The Trek subfamily of K2P channels consists of three members, Trek1/Kcnk2, Trek2/Kcnk10, and Traak/Kcnk4, all three of which are expressed in the rodent CNS. Constitutive ablation of the Trek1 gene in mice correlates with enhanced sensitivity to ischemia and epilepsy, decreased sensitivity to the effects of inhaled anesthetics, increased sensitivity to thermal and mechanical pain, and resis...

  15. Behavioral characterization of mice lacking Trek channels

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey Mirkovic; Florian Lesage

    2012-01-01

    Two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels are thought to underlie background K+ conductance in many cell types. The Trek subfamily of K2P channels consists of three members, Trek1/Kcnk2, Trek2/Kcnk10, and Traak/Kcnk4, all three of which are expressed in the rodent CNS. Constitutive ablation of the Trek1 gene in mice correlates with enhanced sensitivity to ischemia and epilepsy, decreased sensitivity to the effects of inhaled anesthetics, increased sensitivity to thermal and mechanical pain, and res...

  16. 5-Azacytidine-induced exencephaly in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, I K; Takeuchi, Y. K.

    1985-01-01

    Maternal intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg 5-azacytidine to pregnant S1c:ICR mice on gestational Day 7.5 resulted in a high incidence of exencephalic offspring. Histological examination of untreated 7.5 days mouse embryos revealed that the head folds were formed in the anterior halves of the embryos, whereas the primitive streaks still remained in the posterior halves. At 12 hours after 5-azacytidine administration (8.0 days embryos), numerous pyknotic cells were observed in the neure...

  17. Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice

    OpenAIRE

    Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L.; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J. Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2014-01-01

    The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to...

  18. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  19. Hyperaldosteronism in Klotho-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Stephanie S.; Kempe, Daniela S.; Leibrock, Christina B.; Rexhepaj, Rexhep; Siraskar, Balasaheb; Boini, Krishna M.; Ackermann, Teresa F.; Föller, Michael; Hocher, Berthold; Rosenblatt, Kevin P.; Kuro-o, Makoto; Lang, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Klotho is a membrane protein participating in the inhibitory effect of FGF23 on the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. It participates in the regulation of renal tubular phosphate reabsorption and stimulates renal tubular Ca2+ reabsorption. Klotho hypomorphic mice (klothohm) suffer from severe growth deficit, rapid aging, and early death, events largely reversed by a vitamin D-deficient diet. The present study explored the role of Klotho deficiency in mineral and electrolyte...

  20. Behavioral characterization of mice lacking Trek channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey eMirkovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-pore domain K+ (K2P channels are thought to underlie background K+ conductance in many cell types. The Trek subfamily of K2P channels consists of three members, Trek1/Kcnk2, Trek2/Kcnk10, and Traak/Kcnk4, all three of which are expressed in the rodent CNS. Constitutive ablation of the Trek1 gene in mice correlates with enhanced sensitivity to ischemia and epilepsy, decreased sensitivity to the effects of inhaled anesthetics, increased sensitivity to thermal and mechanical pain, and resistance to depression. While the distribution of Trek2 mRNA in the CNS is broad, little is known about the relevance of this Trek family member to neurobiology and behavior. Here, we probed the effect of constitutive Trek2 ablation, as well as the simultaneous constitutive ablation of all three Trek family genes, in paradigms that assess motor activity, coordination, anxiety-related behavior, learning and memory, and drug-induced reward-related behavior. No differences were observed between Trek2–/– and Trek1/2/Traak–/– mice in coordination or total distance traveled in an open-field. A gender-dependent impact of Trek ablation on open-field anxiety-related behavior was observed, as female but not male Trek2–/– and Trek1/2/Traak–/– mice spent more time in, and made a greater number of entries into, the center of the open-field than wild-type counterparts. Further evaluation of anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box, however, did not reveal a significant influence of genotype on performance for either gender. Furthermore, Trek–/– mice behaved normally in tests of learning and memory, including contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition, and with respect to opioid-induced motor stimulation and conditioned place preference. Collectively, these data argue that despite their broad distribution in the CNS, Trek channels exert a minimal influence on a wide-range of behaviors.