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Sample records for akr mice deutsches

  1. Depressed levels of prostaglandin F2α in mice lacking Akr1b7 increase basal adiposity and predispose to diet-induced obesity.

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    Volat, Fanny E; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Pastel, Emilie; Morio, Béatrice; Sion, Benoit; Hamard, Ghislaine; Guichardant, Michel; Colas, Romain; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Martinez, Antoine

    2012-11-01

    Negative regulators of white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion are poorly documented in vivo. Prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) is a potent antiadipogenic factor in cultured preadipocytes, but evidence for its involvement in physiological context is lacking. We previously reported that Akr1b7, an aldo-keto reductase enriched in adipose stromal vascular fraction but absent from mature adipocytes, has antiadipogenic properties possibly supported by PGF(2α) synthase activity. To test whether lack of Akr1b7 could influence WAT homeostasis in vivo, we generated Akr1b7(-/-) mice in 129/Sv background. Akr1b7(-/-) mice displayed excessive basal adiposity resulting from adipocyte hyperplasia/hypertrophy and exhibited greater sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. Following adipose enlargement and irrespective of the diet, they developed liver steatosis and progressive insulin resistance. Akr1b7 loss was associated with decreased PGF(2α) WAT contents. Cloprostenol (PGF(2α) agonist) administration to Akr1b7(-/-) mice normalized WAT expansion by affecting both de novo adipocyte differentiation and size. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Akr1b7(-/-) mice with cloprostenol suggested that decreased adipocyte size resulted from inhibition of lipogenic gene expression. Hence, Akr1b7 is a major regulator of WAT development through at least two PGF(2α)-dependent mechanisms: inhibition of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. These findings provide molecular rationale to explore the status of aldo-keto reductases in dysregulations of adipose tissue homeostasis.

  2. Identification of the common radiation-sensitive and glucose metabolism-related expressed genes in the thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice

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    Bong, Jin Jong; Kang, Yumi; Choi, Suk Cjul; Choi, Moo Hyun; Choi, Seung Jin; Kim, Hee Sun [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Our goal was to identify the common radiation-sensitive expressed genes in the thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice on 100 days after irradiation. Thus, we performed microarray analysis for thymus of ICR and AKR/J mice, respectively. We categorized differential expressed genes by the analysis of DAVID Bioinformatics Resources v 6.7 and GeneSpring GX 11.5.1 and validated gene expression patterns by QPCR analysis. Our result demonstrated that radiation-sensitive expressed genes and signaling pathways in the thymus of irradiated ICR and AKR/J mice.

  3. Germ-line reinsertions of AKR murine leukemia virus genomes in Akv-1 congenic mice.

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    Rowe, W P; Kozak, C A

    1980-08-01

    Congenic mouse strains NIH,Akv-1 and NIH,Akv-2 carry the two high ecotropic virus-inducing loci of the AKR mouse on the NIH Swiss genetic background. Progeny tests of animals in three separate congenic families show that both Avk-1 and Akv-2 are stably transmitted as classical mendelian loci in these mice. However, during the process of inbreeding, additional chromosomal viral loci were detected in several NIH.Akv-1 sublines. These loci appeared only in the progeny of virus-positive females. They segregate with mendelian ratios, are unlinked to markers on chromsome 7 near Akv-1, and are phenotypically expressed as high-virus-inducing loci. The generation of new loci for viurs induction, no doubt resulting from the rare germ-line reintegration of the endogenous ectropic provirus, represents a unique form of gene duplication and rearrangement.

  4. DNA repair and damage pathway related cancer suppressor genes in low-dose-rate irradiated AKR/J an IR mice

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    Bang, Hyun Soon; Bong, Jin Jong; Kang, Yumi; Choi, Moo Hyun; Lee, Hae Un; Yoo, Jae Young; Choi, Seung Jin; Kim, Hee Sun [Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Mi [Global Research Lab, BAERI Institute, Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    It has been reported that low-dose-rate radiation stimulates the immune response, prolongs life span and inhibits carcinogenesis. The high dose-rate radiation influences the expression of DNA repair and damage-related genes. In contrast, DNA repair and damage signaling triggered by low-dose-rate irradiation remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the differential expression of DNA repair and damage pathway related genes in the thymus of AKR/J and ICR mice after 100th day low-dose-rate irradiation. Our findings demonstrated that low-dose-rate γ -radiation suppressed tumorigenesis.

  5. Sulindac inhibits pancreatic carcinogenesis in LSL-KrasG12D-LSL-Trp53R172H-Pdx-1-Cre mice via suppressing aldo-keto reductase family 1B10 (AKR1B10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haonan; Yang, Allison L; Chung, Yeon Tae; Zhang, Wanying; Liao, Jie; Yang, Guang-Yu

    2013-09-01

    Sulindac has been identified as a competitive inhibitor of aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10), an enzyme that plays a key role in carcinogenesis. AKR1B10 is overexpressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and exhibits lipid substrate specificity, especially for farnesyl and geranylgeranyl. There have been no studies though showing that the inhibition of PDAC by sulindac is via inhibition of AKR1B10, particularly the metabolism of farnesyl/geranylgeranyl and Kras protein prenylation. To determine the chemopreventive effects of sulindac on pancreatic carcinogenesis, 5-week-old LSL-Kras(G12D)-LSL-Trp53(R172H)-Pdx-1-Cre mice (Pan(kras/p53) mice) were fed an AIN93M diet with or without 200 p.p.m. sulindac (n = 20/group). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that average animal survival in Pan(kras/p53) mice was 143.7 ± 8.8 days, and average survival with sulindac was increased to 168.0 ± 8.8 days (P sulindac, the incidence of PDAC was reduced to 56% (P sulindac significantly decreased Ki-67-labeled cell proliferation and markedly reduced the expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Raf and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and 2. In in vitro experiments with PDAC cells from Pan(kras/p53) mice, sulindac exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of AKR1B10 activity. By silencing AKR1B10 expression through small interfering RNA or by sulindac treatment, these in vitro models showed a reduction in Kras and human DNA-J homolog 2 protein prenylation, and downregulation of phosphorylated C-raf, ERK1/2 and MEK1/2 expression. Our results demonstrate that sulindac inhibits pancreatic carcinogenesis by the inhibition of Kras protein prenylation by targeting AKR1B10.

  6. Beneficial metabolic effects of CB1R anti-sense oligonucleotide treatment in diet-induced obese AKR/J mice.

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    Yuting Tang

    Full Text Available An increasing amount of evidence supports pleiotropic metabolic roles of the cannibinoid-1 receptor (CB1R in peripheral tissues such as adipose, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas. To further understand the metabolic consequences of specific blockade of CB1R function in peripheral tissues, we performed a 10-week-study with an anti-sense oligonucleotide directed against the CB1R in diet-induced obese (DIO AKR/J mice. DIO AKR/J mice were treated with CB1R ASO Isis-414930 (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg/week or control ASO Isis-141923 (25 mg/kg/week via intraperitoneal injection for 10 weeks. At the end of the treatment, CB1R mRNA from the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group in the epididymal fat and kidney was decreased by 81% and 63%, respectively. Body weight gain was decreased in a dose-dependent fashion, significantly different in the 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO group (46.1±1.0 g vs veh, 51.2±0.9 g, p<0.05. Body fat mass was reduced in parallel with attenuated body weight gain. CB1R ASO treatment led to decreased fed glucose level (at week 8, 25 mg/kg/week group, 145±4 mg/dL vs veh, 195±10 mg/dL, p<0.05. Moreover, CB1R ASO treatment dose-dependently improved glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, whereas control ASO exerted no effect. Liver steatosis was also decreased upon CB1R ASO treatment. At the end of the study, plasma insulin and leptin levels were significantly reduced by 25 mg/kg/week CB1R ASO treatment. SREBP1 mRNA expression was decreased in both epididymal fat and liver. G6PC and fatty acid translocase/CD36 mRNA levels were also reduced in the liver. In summary, CB1R ASO treatment in DIO AKR/J mice led to improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. The beneficial effects of CB1R ASO treatment strongly support the notion that selective inhibition of the peripheral CB1R, without blockade of central CB1R, may serve as an effective approach for treating type II diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  7. No effects of GSM-modulated 900 MHz electromagnetic fields on survival rate and spontaneous development of lymphoma in female AKR/J mice

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    Hansen Volkert W

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several reports indicated that non-thermal electromagnetic radiation such as from mobile phones and base stations may promote cancer. Therefore, it was investigated experimentally, whether 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure influences lymphoma development in a mouse strain that is genetically predisposed to this disease. The AKR/J mice genome carries the AK-virus, which leads within one year to spontaneous development of thymic lymphoblastic lymphoma. Methods 320 unrestrained female mice were sham-exposed or exposed (each n = 160 animals to GSM like 900 MHz electromagnetic fields for 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, at an average whole body specific absorption rate (SAR value of 0.4 W/kg. Animals were visually checked daily and were weighed and palpated weekly. Starting with an age of 6 months, blood samples were taken monthly from the tail. Animals with signs of disease or with an age of about 46 weeks were sacrificed and a gross necropsy was performed. Results Electromagnetic field exposure had a significant effect on body weight gain, with higher values in exposed than in sham-exposed animals. However, survival rate and lymphoma incidence did not differ between exposed and sham-exposed mice. Conclusion These data do not support the hypothesis that exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields is a significant risk factor for developing lymphoma in a genetically predisposed species, even at a relatively high exposure level.

  8. Activation of pregnane X receptor by pregnenolone 16 α-carbonitrile prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in AKR/J mice.

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    Yongjie Ma

    Full Text Available Pregnane X receptor (PXR is known to function as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism through selective transcription of genes responsible for maintaining physiological homeostasis. Here we report that the activation of PXR by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN in AKR/J mice can prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of PCN treatment are seen with reduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lack of hepatic accumulation of lipid and lipid storage in the adipose tissues. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal that PCN treatment on high-fat diet-fed mice reduces expression in the liver of G6Pase, Pepck, Cyp7a1, Cd36, L-Fabp, Srebp, and Fas genes and slightly enhances expression of Cyp27a1 and Abca1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue show that PCN treatment reduces expression of Pparγ2, Acc1, Cd36, but increases expression of Cpt1b and Pparα genes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Similarly, PCN treatment of animals on high-fat diet increases expression in brown adipose tissue of Pparα, Hsl, Cpt1b, and Cd36 genes, but reduces expression of Acc1 and Scd-1 genes. PXR activation by PCN in high-fat diet fed mice also increases expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue including Dio2, Pgc-1α, Pgc-1β, Cidea, and Ucp-3. These results verify the important function of PXR in lipid and energy metabolism and suggest that PXR represents a novel therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  9. Activation of pregnane X receptor by pregnenolone 16 α-carbonitrile prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in AKR/J mice.

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    Ma, Yongjie; Liu, Dexi

    2012-01-01

    Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is known to function as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism through selective transcription of genes responsible for maintaining physiological homeostasis. Here we report that the activation of PXR by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN) in AKR/J mice can prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of PCN treatment are seen with reduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lack of hepatic accumulation of lipid and lipid storage in the adipose tissues. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal that PCN treatment on high-fat diet-fed mice reduces expression in the liver of G6Pase, Pepck, Cyp7a1, Cd36, L-Fabp, Srebp, and Fas genes and slightly enhances expression of Cyp27a1 and Abca1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue show that PCN treatment reduces expression of Pparγ2, Acc1, Cd36, but increases expression of Cpt1b and Pparα genes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Similarly, PCN treatment of animals on high-fat diet increases expression in brown adipose tissue of Pparα, Hsl, Cpt1b, and Cd36 genes, but reduces expression of Acc1 and Scd-1 genes. PXR activation by PCN in high-fat diet fed mice also increases expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue including Dio2, Pgc-1α, Pgc-1β, Cidea, and Ucp-3. These results verify the important function of PXR in lipid and energy metabolism and suggest that PXR represents a novel therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  10. The Effect of PPARα, PPARδ, PPARγ, and PPARpan Agonists on Body Weight, Body Mass, and Serum Lipid Profiles in Diet-Induced Obese AKR/J Mice

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    W. Wallace Harrington

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α, δ, and γ subtypes increases expression of genes involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation and alters adiposity in animal models of obesity and type-2 diabetes. PPARpan agonists which activate all three receptor subtypes have antidiabetic activity in animal models without the weight gain associated with selective PPARγ agonists. Herein we report the effects of selective PPAR agonists (GW9578, a PPARα agonist, GW0742, a PPARδ agonist, GW7845, a PPARγ agonist, combination of PPARα and δ agonists, and PPARpan (PPARα/γ/δ activators (GW4148 or GW9135 on body weight (BW, body composition, food consumption, fatty acid oxidation, and serum chemistry of diet-induced obese AKR/J mice. PPARα or PPARδ agonist treatment induced a slight decrease in fat mass (FM while a PPARγ agonist increased BW and FM commensurate with increased food consumption. The reduction in BW and food intake after cotreatment with PPARα and δ agonists appeared to be synergistic. GW4148, a PPARpan agonist, induced a significant and sustained reduction in BW and FM similar to an efficacious dose of rimonabant, an antiobesity compound. GW9135, a PPARpan agonist with weak activity at PPARδ, induced weight loss initially followed by rebound weight gain reaching vehicle control levels by the end of the experiment. We conclude that PPARα and PPARδ activations are critical to effective weight loss induction. These results suggest that the PPARpan compounds may be expected to maintain the beneficial insulin sensitization effects of a PPARγ agonist while either maintaining weight or producing weight loss.

  11. AKR-501 (YM477) a novel orally-active thrombopoietin receptor agonist.

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    Fukushima-Shintani, Mari; Suzuki, Ken-ichi; Iwatsuki, Yoshiyuki; Abe, Masaki; Sugasawa, Keizo; Hirayama, Fukushi; Kawasaki, Tomihisa; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2009-04-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the principal physiologic regulator of platelet production. We have searched for small molecule compounds that mimic the action of TPO by using human TPO receptor-expressed in Ba/F3 cells, resulting in the discovery of AKR-501 (YM477). AKR-501 specifically targeted the TPO receptor and stimulated megakaryocytopoiesis throughout the development and maturation of megakaryocytes just as rhTPO did. AKR-501, however, was shown to be effective only in humans and chimpanzees with high species specificity. Therefore, we examined the in vivo platelet-increasing effect of AKR-501 in human platelet producing non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice transplanted with human fetal liver CD34(+) cells. Daily oral administration of AKR-501 dose-dependently increased the number of human platelets in these mice, with significance achieved at doses of 1 mg/kg and above. The peak unbound plasma concentrations of AKR-501 after administration at 1 mg/kg in NOD/SCID mice were similar to those observed following administration of an active oral dose in human subjects. These results suggest that AKR-501 is an orally-active TPO receptor agonist that may be useful in the treatment of patients with thrombocytopenia.

  12. Reductive detoxification of acrolein as a potential role for aldehyde reductase (AKR1A) in mammals.

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    Kurahashi, Toshihiro; Kwon, Myoungsu; Homma, Takujiro; Saito, Yuka; Lee, Jaeyong; Takahashi, Motoko; Yamada, Ken-Ichi; Miyata, Satoshi; Fujii, Junichi

    2014-09-12

    Aldehyde reductase (AKR1A), a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, suppresses diabetic complications via a reduction in metabolic intermediates; it also plays a role in ascorbic acid biosynthesis in mice. Because primates cannot synthesize ascorbic acid, a principle role of AKR1A appears to be the reductive detoxification of aldehydes. In this study, we isolated and immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from wild-type (WT) and human Akr1a-transgenic (Tg) mice and used them to investigate the potential roles of AKR1A under culture conditions. Tg MEFs showed higher methylglyoxal- and acrolein-reducing activities than WT MEFs and also were more resistant to cytotoxicity. Enzymatic analyses of purified rat AKR1A showed that the efficiency of the acrolein reduction was about 20% that of glyceraldehyde. Ascorbic acid levels were quite low in the MEFs, and while the administration of ascorbic acid to the cells increased the intracellular levels of ascorbic acid, it had no affect on the resistance to acrolein. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and protein carbonylation induced by acrolein treatment were less evident in Tg MEFs than in WT MEFs. These data collectively indicate that one of the principle roles of AKR1A in primates is the reductive detoxification of aldehydes, notably acrolein, and protection from its detrimental effects.

  13. The aldo-keto reductase AKR1B7 coexpresses with renin without influencing renin production and secretion.

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    Machura, Katharina; Iankilevitch, Elina; Neubauer, Björn; Theuring, Franz; Kurtz, Armin

    2013-03-01

    On the basis of evidence that within the adult kidney, the aldo-keto reductase AKR1B7 (aldo-keto reductase family 1, member 7, also known as mouse vas deferens protein, MVDP) is selectively expressed in renin-producing cells, we aimed to define a possible role of AKR1B7 for the regulation and function of renin cells in the kidney. We could confirm colocalization and corecruitment of renin and of AKR1B7 in wild-type kidneys. Renin cells in AKR1B7-deficient kidneys showed normal morphology, numbers, and intrarenal distribution. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) and renin mRNA levels of AKR1B7-deficient mice were normal at standard chow and were lowered by a high-salt diet directly comparable to wild-type mice. Treatment with a low-salt diet in combination with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor strongly increased PRC and renin mRNA in a similar fashion both in AKR1B7-deficient and wild-type mice. Under this condition, we also observed a strong retrograde recruitment of renin-expressing cell along the preglomerular vessels, however, without a difference between AKR1B7-deficient and wild-type mice. The isolated perfused mouse kidney model was used to study the acute regulation of renin secretion by ANG II and by perfusion pressure. Regarding these parameters, no differences were observed between AKR1B7-deficient and wild-type kidneys. In summary, our data suggest that AKR1B7 is not of major relevance for the regulation of renin production and secretion in spite of its striking coregulation with renin expression.

  14. Enzymes of the AKR1B and AKR1C subfamilies and uterine diseases

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    Tea eLanisnik Rizner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial and cervical cancers, uterine myoma, and endometriosis are very common uterine diseases. Worldwide, more than 800,000 women are affected annually by gynecological cancers, as a result of which, more than 360,000 die. During their reproductive age, about 70% of women develop uterine myomas, 10% to 15% suffer from endometriosis, and 35% to 50% from infertility associated with endometriosis. Uterine diseases are associated with aberrant inflammatory responses and concomitant increased production of prostaglandins (PG. They are also related to decreased differentiation, due to low levels of protective progesterone and retinoic acid, and to enhanced proliferation, due to high local concentrations of estrogens. The pathogenesis of these diseases can thus be attributed to disturbed PG, estrogen and retinoid metabolism and actions. Five human members of the aldo-keto reductase 1B (AKR1B and 1C (AKR1C superfamilies, i.e., AKR1B1, AKR1B10, AKR1C1, AKR1C2 and AKR1C3, have roles in these processes and can thus be implicated in uterine diseases. AKR1B1 and AKR1C3 catalyze the formation of PGF2alpha which stimulates cell proliferation. AKR1C3 converts PGD2 to 9alpha,11beta-PGF2, and thus counteracts the formation of 15deoxy-PGJ2, which can activate pro-apoptotic peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor beta. AKR1B10 catalyzes the reduction of retinal to retinol, and in thus lessens the formation of retinoic acid, with potential pro-differentiating actions. The AKR1C1-AKR1C3 enzymes also act as 17-keto- and 20-ketosteroid reductases to varying extents, and are implicated in increased estradiol and decreased progesterone levels. This review comprises a short introduction to uterine diseases, followed by an overview of the current literature on the AKR1B and AKR1C expression in the uterus and in uterine diseases. The potential implications of the AKR1B and AKR1C enzymes and their pathophysiologies are then discussed, followed by conclusions and

  15. Overexpression and enhanced specific activity of aldoketo reductases (AKR1B1 & AKR1B10) in human breast cancers.

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    Reddy, K Ashok; Kumar, P Uday; Srinivasulu, M; Triveni, B; Sharada, K; Ismail, Ayesha; Reddy, G Bhanuprakash

    2017-02-01

    The incidence of breast cancer in India is on the rise and is rapidly becoming the primary cancer in Indian women. The aldoketo reductase (AKR) family has more than 190 proteins including aldose reductase (AKR1B1) and aldose reductase like protein (AKR1B10). Apart from liver cancer, the status of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 with respect to their expression and activity has not been reported in other human cancers. We studied the specific activity and expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 in breast non tumor and tumor tissues and in the blood. Fresh post-surgical breast cancer and non-cancer tissues and blood were collected from the subjects who were admitted for surgical therapy. Malignant, benign and pre-surgical chemotherapy samples were evaluated by histopathology scoring. Expression of AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 was carried out by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) while specific activity was determined spectrophotometrically. The specific activity of AKR1B1 was significantly higher in red blood cells (RBC) in all three grades of primary surgical and post-chemotherapy samples. Specific activity of both AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 increased in tumor samples compared to their corresponding non tumor samples (primary surgical and post-chemotherapy). Immunoblotting and IHC data also indicated overexpression of AKR1B1 in all grades of tumors compared to their corresponding non tumor samples. There was no change in the specific activity of AKR1B1 in benign samples compared to all grades of tumor and non-tumors.

  16. AKRs expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes from smokers: the role of body mass index.

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    Barrón-Vivanco, B S; Rothenberg, S J; Medina-Díaz, I M; Robledo-Marenco, L; Rojas-García, A E; Hernández-Cadena, L; Poblete-Naredo, I; Elizondo, G; Albores, A

    2013-04-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) metabolize a wide range of substrates, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), generating metabolites (o-quinones) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are capable of initiating and promoting carcinogenesis. Exposure to PAHs, their metabolites, and ROS further increase AKRs isoform expression that may amplify oxidative damage. Human AKR enzymes are highly polymorphic, and allelic variants may contribute to different AKRs expression in individuals. Despite the importance of AKRs in PAHs metabolism, there are no studies that evaluate, in general human populations, the effect of PAHs on AKRs expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of tobacco smoke exposure, and AKR1A1*2 and AKR1C3*2 polymorphisms, on AKR1A1 and AKR1C1-AKR1C3 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in PBLs from smokers. In the smoker group, there is a statistically significant positive association between AKR1A1, AKR1C1, and AKR1C3 mRNA induction and urine cotinine levels in individuals with a body mass index (BMI) less than 25. However, AKR1A1*2 and AKR1C3*2 alleles did not influence AKR1A1 and AKR1C1-AKR1C3 mRNA levels. These results suggest that AKRs induction by PAHs in smokers' PBLs is associated with BMI; therefore, the role of adipose tissue accumulation in PAHs' effects needs further investigation.

  17. Lernpunkt Deutsch--Stage 1.

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    Theil, Elvira

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the first stage of "Lernpunkt Deutsch," a new three-stage German course designed for upper elementary and early secondary school. Describes the publisher's package of materials and the appropriateness of the course, utility of the different package elements, format of the materials, and assesses whether the course provides pedagogically…

  18. A Cavity QED Implementation of Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, E. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm is a generalization of the Deutsch algorithm which was the first algorithm written. We present schemes to implement the Deutsch algorithm and the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm via cavity QED.

  19. Cluster Multi-spacecraft Determination of AKR Angular Beaming

    CERN Document Server

    Mutel, R L; Pickett, J S

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of AKR emission using the four-spacecraft Cluster array were used to make the first direct measurements of the angular beaming patterns of individual bursts. By comparing the spacecraft locations and AKR burst locations, the angular beaming pattern was found to be narrowly confined to a plane containing the magnetic field vector at the source and tangent to a circle of constant latitude. Most rays paths are confined within 15 deg of this tangent plane, consistent with numerical simulations of AKR k-vector orientation at maximum growth rate. The emission is also strongly directed upward in the tangent plane, which we interpret as refraction of the rays as they leave the auroral cavity. The narrow beaming pattern implies that an observer located above the polar cap can detect AKR emission only from a small fraction of the auroral oval at a given location. This has important consequences for interpreting AKR visibility at a given location. It also helps re-interpret previously published...

  20. Herausforderungen durch die deutsche Wiedervereinigung

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    Stäglin, Reiner

    Die Wiedervereinigung stellte auch die Statistik vor große Aufgaben. Die als Organ der staatlichen Planung staatsnah orientierte Statistik der DDR musste auf das zur Neutralität und wissenschaftlichen Unabhängigkeit verpflichtete System der Bundesrepublik umgestellt werden. Ebenso verlangten die Universitäten eine Neuorientierung. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft hat sich vor allem dreier Aufgaben mit großem Engagement, aber auch mit Bedachtsamkeit angenommen: Aufnahme und Integration der Statistiker aus den neuen Bundesländern in die Gesellschaft, Begleitung der Neuausrichtung des Faches Statistik an deren Hochschulen und Sicherung sowie Nutzung von Datenbeständen der ehemaligen DDR.

  1. Powering FITL for Deutsche Telekom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, W. [T-Nova Deutsche Telekom Innovationsgesellschaft mbH Technologiezentrum (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Deutsche Telekom introduced the project OPAL (optical access line) 8 years ago. The development of new applications for FITL (FTTH, FTTB, FTTC) leads to new challenges for power systems. For the establishment of an optical fibre infrastructure at the subscriber line level a wide variety of possible optical fibre network topologies can be imagined. Different powering architectures must be developed including remote or local powering. This paper presents results and performances of the powering configurations to feed the optical network units (ONU) and remote OLT. Compared to conventional powering the centralised powering with remote feeding supply was implemented to power the ONU in the field economically. (orig.)

  2. Grundschullehrer/in (Muttersprache Deutsch)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Der Verein für die Förderung des deutschsprachigen Unterrichts im Pays de Gex (A.P.E.G.) sucht für die Monate September bis Dezember 2003, eventuell länger, eine Lehrkraft mit Muttersprache Deutsch für den Grundschulunterricht der Deutschen Abteilung des Lycée International von Ferney-Voltaire. Die Arbeit des Vereins wird vom CERN unterstützt. Der Unterricht findet einmal wöchentlich am Dienstagnachmittag von 13.30 Uhr bis 16.30 Uhr in Räumen des Collège in Prévessin statt. Falls Sie Interesse und Fragen haben, wenden Sie sich bitte telefonisch an die 1. Vorsitzende des Elternvereins Frau M. Dittus (0033(0)450.20.65.97) oder die Koordinatorin des Grundschulunterrichts der Deutschen Abteilung Frau Maurice-Gril (0033(0)450.41.29.34). Bewerbungen bitte bis zum 21.05.2003 an folgende Adresse: Lycée International Section Allemande, Madeleine Dittus Présidente A.P.E.G. B.P.156 01216 Ferney-Voltaire E-Mail : deutsche.abteilung.ferney@libertysurf.fr

  3. [Preparation and identification of rabbit anti-AKR1B10 polyclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Wang, Qingmei; Huang, Li; Zeng, Yuanqing; Hu, Zheng; Luo, Dixian

    2016-11-01

    Objective To prepare rabbit anti-aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) polyclonal antibody and identify its specificity. Methods AKR1B10 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and inserted into prokaryotic expression vector pET-15b to form recombinant plasmid pET-15b-AKR1B10. The recombinant plasmid pET-15b-AKR1B10 was transformed into E.coli DH5α. Isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) was used to induce the expression of the recombinant protein His-tagged AKR1B10 in E.coli DH5α. The expression products from different clones of E.coli DH5α were identified by SDS-PAGE. The positive bacteria were picked out and amplified. His-Tag-AKR1B10 protein was purified from the expression product of the positive clones by His-tagged purification column. The purified recombinant protein His-Tag-AKR1B10 was used to immunize New Zealand white rabbits. Antisera were acquired after two months. Anti-AKR1B10 polyclonal antibodies were purified by antigen purification column with AKR1B10 recombinant protein. Lastly, the purified polyclonal antibodies were identified by SDS-PAGE, ELISA, Western blotting. Results The recombinant plasmid pET-15b-AKR1B10 was constructed successfully, and the recombinant protein His-Tag-AKR1B10 with high purity was acquired. The purified polyclonal antibodies were able to specifically recognize AKR1B10 protein. Conclusion The rabbit anti-AKR1B10 polyclonal antibodies is prepared successfully with high specificity.

  4. A different Deutsch-Jozsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Debajyoti

    2015-06-01

    One of the early achievements of quantum computing was demonstrated by Deutsch and Jozsa (Proc R Soc Lond A Math Phys Sci 439(1907):553, 1992) regarding classification of a particular type of Boolean functions. Their solution demonstrated an exponential speedup compared to classical approaches to the same problem; however, their solution was the only known quantum algorithm for that specific problem so far. This paper demonstrates another quantum algorithm for the same problem, with the same exponential advantage compared to classical algorithms. The novelty of this algorithm is the use of quantum amplitude amplification, a technique that is the key component of another celebrated quantum algorithm developed by Grover (Proceedings of the twenty-eighth annual ACM symposium on theory of computing, ACM Press, New York, 1996). A lower bound for randomized (classical) algorithms is also presented which establishes a sound gap between the effectiveness of our quantum algorithm and that of any randomized algorithm with similar efficiency.

  5. [Bernt Ahrenholz : Verweise mit Demonstrativa im Gesprochenen Deutsch...] / Klaus Geyer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Geyer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Ahrenholz, Bernt. Verweise mit Demonstrativa im gesprochenen Deutsch : Grammatik, Zweitspracherwerb und Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Berlin ; New York : de Gruyter, 2007. (Linguistik - Impulse & Tendenzen ; 17)

  6. Ich spreche Deutsch: A User's Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassar, Sheila

    1969-01-01

    The textbook under discussion, "Ich spreche Deutsch" by Heinz Griesbach and Dora Schulz (London-Harlow: Longmans-Hueber, 1966), is intended to be a one-year introduction to German, particularly for less academic pupils and students. (FWB)

  7. Deutsch-dänische Kulturbrille

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Katarina Le; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla

    Dieser Leitfaden gibt Ihnen einen Einblick in eine Auswahl von möglichen interkulturellen Fettnäpfchen, in die man in der deutsch-dänischen Kommunikation treten kann. Der Leitfaden soll Ihnen ermöglichen, ein Bewusstsein über die Existenz solcher Fettnäpfchen und ihre Wirkung in der Kommunikation...... aufzubauen. Der Leitfaden bietet so eine erste Orientierung für die deutsch-dänische Zusammenarbeit, er kann und soll jedoch eine fundierte interkulturelle Ausbildung nicht ersetzen. Der Leitfaden wendet sich in dieser Version an diejenigen, die etwas kommunikationstheoretisches Wissen mitbringen oder...... Projekts Nationale Stereotype und Marketingstrategien in der deutsch-dänischen interkulturellen Kommunikation (SMiK). Mit dem Leitfaden stellen wir das im SMiK-Projekt erarbeitete und wissenschaftlich gesicherte Wissen um deutsch-dänische stereotype Handlungsmuster für die kleinen und mittelständischen...

  8. [Variation im heutigen Deutsch...] / Laura Tidrike

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tidrike, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Variation im heutigen Deutsch : Perspektiven für den Sprachunterricht / hrsg. v. Eva Neuland. Frankfurt am Main : Lang, 2006. (Sprache - Kommunikation - Kultur. Soziolinguistische Beiträge ; Vol. 4)

  9. Long-term In Vitro Treatment of Human Glioblastoma Cells with Temozolomide Increases Resistance In Vivo through Up-regulation of GLUT Transporter and Aldo-Keto Reductase Enzyme AKR1C Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Le Calvé

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM is the most frequent malignant glioma. Treatment of GBM patients is multimodal with maximum surgical resection, followed by concurrent radiation and chemotherapy with the alkylating drug temozolomide (TMZ. The present study aims to identify genes implicated in the acquired resistance of two human GBM cells of astrocytic origin, T98G and U373, to TMZ. Resistance to TMZ was induced by culturing these cells in vitro for months with incremental TMZ concentrations up to 1 mM. Only partial resistance to TMZ has been achieved and was demonstrated in vivo in immunocompromised mice bearing orthotopic U373 and T98G xenografts. Our data show that long-term treatment of human astroglioma cells with TMZ induces increased expression of facilitative glucose transporter/solute carrier GLUT/SLC2A family members, mainly GLUT-3, and of the AKR1C family of proteins. The latter proteins are phase 1 drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the maintenance of steroid homeostasis, prostaglandin metabolism, and metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. GLUT-3 has been previously suggested to exert roles in GBM neovascularization processes, and TMZ was found to exert antiangiogenic effects in experimental gliomas. AKR1C1 was previously shown to be associated with oncogenic potential, with proproliferative effects similar to AKR1C3 in the latter case. Both AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 proteins are involved in cancer pro-proliferative cell chemoresistance. Selective targeting of GLUT-3 in GBM and/or AKR1C proteins (by means of jasmonates, for example could thus delay the acquisition of resistance to TMZ of astroglioma cells in the context of prolonged treatment with this drug.

  10. Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part I, German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 1" focus on the development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The contents of this guide focus on: (1) course description, (2) broad goals and performance objectives,…

  11. Lernen Wir Deutsch!: Part 2, German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in German for use with "Lernen Wir Deutsch: Part 2" focus on development of basic skills through the use of short dialogues and structured exercises. The grammar of the course includes the study of nouns, pronouns, and verbs. Possessive determiners are…

  12. Health Information in German (Deutsch): MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → German (Deutsch) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/german.html Health Information in German (Deutsch) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  13. Structural analysis of sulindac as an inhibitor of aldose reductase and AKR1B10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Ruiz, Francesc X; Crespo, Isidro; Porté, Sergio; Mitschler, André; Parés, Xavier; Podjarny, Alberto; Farrés, Jaume

    2015-06-05

    Aldose reductase (AR, AKR1B1) and AKR1B10 are enzymes implicated in important pathologies (diabetes and cancer) and therefore they have been proposed as suitable targets for drug development. Sulindac is the metabolic precursor of the potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) sulindac sulfide, which suppresses prostaglandin production by inhibition of cyclooxygenases (COX). In addition, sulindac has been found to be one of the NSAIDs with higher antitumoral activity, presumably through COX inhibition. However, sulindac anticancer activity could be partially mediated through COX-independent mechanisms, including the participation of AR and AKR1B10. Previously, it had been shown that sulindac and sulindac sulfone were good AR inhibitors and the structure of the ternary complex with NADP(+) and sulindac was described (PDB ID 3U2C). In this work, we determined the three-dimensional structure of AKR1B10 with sulindac and established structure-activity relationships (SAR) of sulindac and their derivatives with AR and AKR1B10. The difference in the IC50 values for sulindac between AR (0.36 μM) and AKR1B10 (2.7 μM) might be explained by the different positioning and stacking interaction given by Phe122/Phe123, and by the presence of two buried and ordered water molecules in AKR1B10 but not in AR. Moreover, SAR analysis shows that the substitution of the sulfinyl group is structurally allowed in sulindac derivatives. Hence, sulindac and its derivatives emerge as lead compounds for the design of more potent and selective AR and AKR1B10 inhibitors.

  14. Activity improvement of a Kluyveromyces lactis aldo-keto reductase KlAKR via rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Wang, Ya-Jun; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-20

    Optically pure t-butyl 6-cyano-(3R, 5R)-dihydroxyhexanoate ((R)-1b) is the key chiral precursor for atorvastatin calcium, the most widely used cholesterol-lowering drug. Wild-type aldo-keto reductase KlAKR from Kluyveromyces lactis has ideal diastereoselectivity toward t-butyl 6-cyano-(5R)-hydroxy-3-oxohexanoate (1a, dep>99.5%) but poor activity. A rational engineering was used to improve the KlAKR activity. Based on homology modeling and molecular docking, two amino acid residues (295 and 296) were selected as mutation sites, and two rounds of site-saturation mutagenesis were performed. Among the mutants, KlAKR-Y295W/W296L exhibited the highest catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward 1a up to 12.37s(-1)mM(-1), which was 11.25-fold higher than that of wild-type KlAKR. Moreover, the majority of mutations have no negative impact on stereoselectivity. Using KlAKR-Y295W/W296L coupled with Exiguobacterium sibiricum glucose dehydrogenase (EsGDH) for cofactor regeneration, (R)-1b was accumulated up to 162.7mM with dep value above 99.5%. KlAKR-Y295W/W296L represents a robust tool for (R)-1b synthesis.

  15. Quantum Guessing via Deutsch-Jozsa

    OpenAIRE

    Nathanson, Michael

    2003-01-01

    We examine the "Guessing Secrets" problem arising in internet routing, in which the goal is to discover two or more objects from a known finite set. We propose a quantum algorithm using O(1) calls to an O(logN) oracle. This improves upon the best known classical result, which uses O(logN) questions and requires an additional O(logN^3) steps to produce the answer. In showing the possibilities of this algorithm, we extend the types of questions and function oracles that the Deutsch-Jozsa algori...

  16. Deutsche Modalpartikeln und chinesische Yuqi-Ci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于豪

    2010-01-01

    @@ Meistens wird Chinesisch als eine isolierende Sprache betrachtet,weil es keine rechte Grammatik in Europaer's Sinn gibt und sehr begriffsorientiert ist.Es ist ideographisch,d.h.jedem Begriff ist ein Schriftzeichen zugeordnet.Besonders hinsichtlich der Morphologie und der Syntax weisen Deutsch und Chinesisch nur ganz wenige Vergleichsmoglichkeiten auf.Trotzdem gibt es solche Wortart zwischen beiden Sprachen,nahmlich Modalpartikle,die er-staunlichen A hnlichkeiten haben und sich ziemlich gut miteinander vergleichen lassen konnen.Obwohl die Anzahl derartigen Untersuchungen insgesamt jedoch eher gering ist,scheint eine kontrastive Analyse nicht nur moglich,sondem auch sinnvoll zu sein.

  17. Neues aus dem Forschungsfeld Deutsch als Zweitsprache. Sammelrezension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Altmayer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neues aus dem Forschungsfeld Deutsch als Zweitsprache. Sammelrezension (Teil 2 von Bernt Ahrenholz (Hrsg. (2009, Empirische Befunde zu DaZ-Erwerb und Sprachförderung. Beiträge aus dem 3. ‚Workshop Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund‘; Karen Schramm & Christoph Schröder (Hrsg. (2009, Empirische Zugänge zu Spracherwerb und Sprachförderung in Deutsch als Zweitsprache; Stefan Jeuk (2010, Deutsch als Zweitsprache in der Schule. Grundlagen - Diagnose – Förderung

  18. Benzo(a)pyrene induces hepatic AKR1A1 mRNA expression in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Yáñez, Citlalli; García-Tavera, José Luis; Pérez-Núñez, Maria Teresa; Poblete-Naredo, Irais; Muñoz, Balam; Barron-Vivanco, Briscia S; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Zapata-Pérez, Omar; Albores, Arnulfo

    2012-07-01

    AKR1A1 or aldehyde reductase is a member of the aldo-keto reductases superfamily that is evolutionarily conserved among species. AKR1A1 is one of the five AKRs (AKR1A1 and 1C1-1C4) implicated in the metabolic benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) activation to reactive BaP 7,8-dione. BaP is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems and its metabolic activation is necessary to produce its toxic effects. Although the presence of AKR1A1 in fish has been reported, its tissue distribution in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and AKR1A1 inducibility by BaP are not known yet. Moreover, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression in fish has been used as a PAH biomarker of effect. Therefore, BaP effects on AKR1A1 and CYP1A gene expressions in tilapia, a species of commercial interest, were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. A partial AKR1A1 cDNA was identified, sequenced and compared with AKR1A1 reported sequences in the GenBank DNA database. Constitutive AKR1A1 mRNA expression was detected mainly in liver, similarly to that of CYP1A. BaP exposure resulted in statistically significant AKR1A1 and CYP1A mRNA induction in liver (20- and 120-fold, respectively) at 24 h. On the other hand, ethoxyquin (EQ) was used as control inducer for AKR1A1 mRNA. Interestingly, EQ also induced CYP1A mRNA levels in tilapia liver. Our results suggest that teleost AKR1A1, in addition to CYP1A, are inducible by BaP. The mechanism of AKR1A1 induction by BaP and its role in fish susceptibility to BaP toxic effects remains to be elucidated.

  19. STAR and AKR1B10 are down-regulated in high-grade endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinreih, Maša; Štupar, Saša; Čemažar, Luka; Verdenik, Ivan; Grazio-Frković, Snježana; Smrkolj, Špela; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2017-02-20

    Endometrial cancer is the most frequent gynecological malignancy in the developed world. The majority of cases are estrogen dependent, and are associated with diminished protective effects of progesterone. Endometrial cancer is also related to enhanced inflammation and decreased differentiation. In our previous studies, we examined the expression of genes involved in estrogen and progesterone actions, in inflammation and tumor differentiation, in tissue samples from endometrial cancer and adjacent control endometrium. The aims of the current study were to examine correlations between gene expression and several demographic characteristics, and to evaluate changes in gene expression with regard to histopathological and clinical characteristics of 51 patients. We studied correlations and differences in expression of 38 genes involved in five pathophysiological processes: (i) estrogen-stimulated proliferation; (ii) estrogen-dependent carcinogenesis; (iii) diminished biosynthesis of progesterone: (iv) enhanced formation of progesterone metabolites; and (v) increased inflammation and decreased differentiation. Spearman correlation coefficient analysis shows that expression of PAQR7 correlates with age, expression of SRD5A1, AKR1B1 and AKR1B10 correlate with body mass, while expression of SRD5A1 and AKR1B10 correlate with body mass index. When patients with endometrial cancer were stratified based on menopausal status, histological grade, myometrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and FIGO stage, Mann-Whitney U tests revealed significantly decreased expression of STAR (4.4-fold; adjusted p=0.009) and AKR1B10 (9-fold; adjusted p=0.003) in high grade versus low grade tumors. Lower levels of STAR might lead to decreased de-novo steroid hormone synthesis and tumor differentiation, and lower levels of AKR1B10 to diminished elimination of toxic electrophilic carbonyl compounds in high-grade endometrial cancer. These data thus reveal the potential STAR and AKR1B10 as

  20. Re-Purposing an OER for the Online Language Course: A Case Study of "Deutsch Interaktiv" by the Deutsche Welle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Edward M.; Hondo, Junko

    2014-01-01

    This paper will describe pedagogical approaches for re-purposing an open educational resource (OER) designed and produced by the Deutsche Welle. This free online program, "Deutsch Interaktiv," consists of authentic digital videos, slideshows and audio texts and gives a contemporary overview of the culture and language in Germany, Austria…

  1. Study of AKR hollow pattern characteristics at sub-auroral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Schwingenschuh, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    The Earth's auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is expected to exhibit a hollow pattern similar to that reported for the comparable emissions from Jupiter (e.g. Jovian decametric emissions - DAM). The hollow pattern is a hollow cone beam with apex at the point of AKR emission, axis tangent to the magnetic field direction, and an opening angle of the order of 80°. The properties of the hollow cone can be derived from the so-called dynamic spectrum which displays the radiation versus the observation time and the frequency. We analyze the auroral kilometric radiation recorded by the electric field experiment (ICE) onboard DEMETER micro-satellite. The dynamic spectra lead us to study the occurrence of the AKR recorded in the sub-auroral regions when the micro-satellite was at altitudes of about 700 km. We address in this contribution issues concerning the characteristics (occurrence, latitude and longitude) of the AKR hollow beam and their relations to the seasonal and solar activity variations.

  2. The ankyrin repeats and DHHC S-acyl transferase domain of AKR1 act independently to regulate switching from vegetative to mating states in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers A Hemsley

    Full Text Available Signal transduction from G-protein coupled receptors to MAPK cascades through heterotrimeric G-proteins has been described for many eukaryotic systems. One of the best-characterised examples is the yeast pheromone response pathway, which is negatively regulated by AKR1. AKR1-like proteins are present in all eukaryotes and contain a DHHC domain and six ankyrin repeats. Whilst the DHHC domain dependant S-acyl transferase (palmitoyl transferase function of AKR1 is well documented it is not known whether the ankyrin repeats are also required for this activity. Here we show that the ankyrin repeats of AKR1 are required for full suppression of the yeast pheromone response pathway, by sequestration of the Gβγ dimer, and act independently of AKR1 S-acylation function. Importantly, the functions provided by the AKR1 ankyrin repeats and DHHC domain are not required on the same molecule to fully restore WT phenotypes and function. We also show that AKR1 molecules are S-acylated at locations other than the DHHC cysteine, increasing the abundance of AKR1 in the cell. Our results have important consequences for studies of AKR1 function, including recent attempts to characterise S-acylation enzymology and kinetics. Proteins similar to AKR1 are found in all eukaryotes and our results have broad implications for future work on these proteins and the control of switching between Gβγ regulated pathways.

  3. Pretreatment AKR1B10 expression predicts the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma development after hepatitis C virus eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ayato; Genda, Takuya; Ichida, Takafumi; Amano, Nozomi; Sato, Sho; Tsuzura, Hironori; Sato, Shunsuke; Narita, Yutaka; Kanemitsu, Yoshio; Shimada, Yuji; Hirano, Katsuharu; Iijima, Katsuyori; Wada, Ryo; Nagahara, Akihito; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify the association between aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) expression and hepatocarcinogenesis after hepatitis C virus eradication. METHODS In this study, we enrolled 303 chronic hepatitis C patients who had achieved sustained virological response (SVR) through interferon-based antiviral therapy. Pretreatment AKR1B10 expression in the liver was immunohistochemically assessed and quantified as a percentage of positive staining area by using image-analysis software. A multivariate Cox analysis was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) of AKR1B10 expression for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development after achieving SVR. The cumulative incidences of HCC development were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. RESULTS Of the 303 chronic hepatitis C patients, 153 (50.5%) showed scarce hepatic AKR1B10 expression, quantified as 0%, which was similar to the expression in control normal liver tissues. However, the remaining 150 patients (49.5%) exhibited various degrees of AKR1B10 expression in the liver, with a maximal AKR1B10 expression of 73%. During the median follow-up time of 3.6 years (range 1.0-10.0 years), 8/303 patients developed HCC. Multivariate analysis revealed that only high AKR1B10 expression (≥ 8%) was an independent risk factor for HCC development (HR = 15.4, 95%CI: 1.8-132.5, P = 0.012). The 5-year cumulative incidences of HCC development were 13.7% and 0.5% in patients with high and low AKR1B10 expression, respectively (P < 0.001). During the follow-up period after viral eradication, patients expressing high levels of AKR1B10 expressed markedly higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and α-fetoprotein than did patients exhibiting low AKR1B10 expression. CONCLUSION Chronic hepatitis C patients expressing high levels of hepatic AKR1B10 had an increased risk of HCC development even after SVR. PMID:27672277

  4. Obituary: Lynne Karen Deutsch, 1954-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Ann L.

    2004-12-01

    It is with deep sadness and regret that we note the passing of our dear friend and colleague Prof. Lynne K. Deutsch. Lynne died on 2 April 2004 after a protracted illness and lengthy battle with complications caused by the blood disease Polycythaemia Vera. Lynne was born in Chicago on 26 November 1956 to Victor and Ailsa Deutsch. She lived with her family in the town of Morton Grove, IL until she was 8 years old, when they moved to Beverly Hills, CA. She was an outgoing child who played basketball and excelled in her studies. She graduated from Beverly Hills High School at the age of 16 after completing all high school requirements in only three years. Lynne had a beautiful singing voice, and was in the chorus in high school and college. Lynne earned her first bachelor's degree in philosophy from the University of California at Berkeley in 1977. She then returned to Berkeley and received a second bachelor's degree, this time in physics, in 1981. She was a graduate student and teaching assistant at MIT and earned an MS in physics from MIT in 1983. Lynne then attended the astronomy graduate program at Harvard University, where she earned her MA in 1985 and PhD in 1990. During her degree studies she began crafting mid-infrared instrumentation. These instruments were destined to be used by a host of eager observers to discover, identify, and study many emissions from the Solar System, and galactic and extragalactic sources. Lynne was a National Research Council Post-doctoral Fellow at NASA Ames Research Center from 1990 - 1992, where she played an important role in the development of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory/University of Arizona Mid-Infrared Array Camera (MIRAC), a well-known and much sought after instrument frequently used in studies of Mercury, Jupiter, the Moon, planetary nebulae, star formation regions, galactic center, young stellar objects, and extragalactic objects. After leaving NASA Ames Research Center, Lynne taught for several years (1993

  5. Elevated AKR1C3 expression promotes prostate cancer cell survival and prostate cell-mediated endothelial cell tube formation: implications for prostate cancer progressioan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Jeffrey S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldo-keto reductase (AKR 1C family member 3 (AKR1C3, one of four identified human AKR1C enzymes, catalyzes steroid, prostaglandin, and xenobiotic metabolism. In the prostate, AKR1C3 is up-regulated in localized and advanced prostate adenocarcinoma, and is associated with prostate cancer (PCa aggressiveness. Here we propose a novel pathological function of AKR1C3 in tumor angiogenesis and its potential role in promoting PCa progression. Methods To recapitulate elevated AKR1C3 expression in cancerous prostate, the human PCa PC-3 cell line was stably transfected with an AKR1C3 expression construct to establish PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis were performed to identify AKR1C3-mediated pathways of activation and their potential biological consequences in PC-3 cells. Western blot analysis, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and an in vitro Matrigel angiogenesis assays were applied to validate the pro-angiogenic activity of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants identified by bioinformatics analysis. Results Microarray and bioinformatics analysis suggested that overexpression of AKR1C3 in PC-3 cells modulates estrogen and androgen metabolism, activates insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 and Akt signaling pathways, as well as promotes tumor angiogenesis and aggressiveness. Levels of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R and Akt activation as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and secretion were significantly elevated in PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants in comparison to PC3-mock transfectants. PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants also promoted endothelial cell (EC tube formation on Matrigel as compared to the AKR1C3-negative parental PC-3 cells and PC3-mock transfectants. Pre-treatment of PC3-AKR1C3 transfectants with a selective IGF-1R kinase inhibitor (AG1024 or a non-selective phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K inhibitor (LY294002 abolished ability of the cells

  6. Maternal and offspring genetic variants of AKR1C3 and the risk of childhood leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yu; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Pan, Pi-Chen; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Chi-Kung; Su, Li; Xu, Xin; Li, Yi; Christiani, David C.

    2008-01-01

    The aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) gene located on chromosome 10p15-p14, a regulator of myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation, represents an important candidate gene for studying human carcinogenesis. In a prospectively enrolled population-based case–control study of Han Chinese conducted in Kaohsiung in southern Taiwan, a total of 114 leukemia cases and 221 controls

  7. A novel aldo-keto reductase from Jatropha curcas L. (JcAKR) plays a crucial role in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a potent electrophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudalkar, Shalini; Sreeharsha, Rachapudi Venkata; Reddy, Attipalli Ramachandra

    2016-05-20

    Abiotic stress leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which further results in the production of reactive carbonyls (RCs) including methylglyoxal (MG). MG, an α, β-dicarbonyl aldehyde, is highly toxic to plants and the mechanism behind its detoxification is not well understood. Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) play a role in detoxification of reactive aldehydes and ketones. In the present study, we cloned and characterised a putative AKR from Jatropha curcas (JcAKR). Phylogenetically, it forms a small clade with AKRs of Glycine max and Rauwolfia serpentina. JcAKR was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21(DE3) cells and the identity of the purified protein was confirmed through MALDI-TOF analysis. The recombinant protein had high enzyme activity and catalytic efficiency in assays containing MG as the substrate. Protein modelling and docking studies revealed MG was efficiently bound to JcAKR. Under progressive drought and salinity stress, the enzyme and transcript levels of JcAKR were higher in leaves compared to roots. Further, the bacterial and yeast cells expressing JcAKR showed more tolerance towards PEG (5%), NaCl (200mM) and MG (5mM) treatments compared to controls. In conclusion, our results project JcAKR as a possible and potential target in crop improvement for abiotic stress tolerance.

  8. Deutsch als "leicht zu erlernende Fremdsprache"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtz, Gunde

    2005-01-01

    die Nutzung leichter Stellen im Mittelpunkt (3. Dabei werden einige Kandidaten benannt, die sowohl aus vorliegenden Forschungsergebnissen als auch aus Beobachtungen in Alltag und Fremdsprachenunterricht (FSU gewonnen wurden. Die so gewonnenen Einsichten sind als Arbeitshypothesen und somit als im Wandel begriffen zu verstehen.Ich möchte mit diesem Beitrag einladen zu einer neuen Perspektive auf das Deutsche als Fremdsprache, und zwar mit der Absicht etwas zu verändern:"Applied linguistics is not simply a matter of matching up findings about language with pre-existing problems but of using findings to explore how the perception of problems might be changed. It may be that when problems are reformulated from a different point of view they become more amenable to solution. This changed perception may then, in turn, have implications for linguistics." (Cook : 2003: 10Mein Ziel ist erreicht, wenn sich vorliegende Fragestellung als Schlüssel zu verbesserter DaF-Unterrichtspraxis ("problems [...] become more amenable to solution" erweist. Falls sie sogar "implications for linguistics" zeitigt, umso besser.

  9. Remembering Albert deutsch, an advocate for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2011-12-01

    Albert Deutsch, journalist, advocate for the mentally ill, and honorary APA Fellow died 50 years ago. Author of The Mentally Ill in America and The Shame of the States, he believed in the obligation of individuals and institutions to advocate for patients. In 1961, he was in the midst of a vast project to assess the state of the art in psychiatric research. This article recalls aspects of Deutsch's life and work and places him in the historical context of individuals who have shown great compassion for disabled persons.

  10. Aldose reductase (AKR1B3) regulates the accumulation of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) and the expression of AGE receptor (RAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Shahid P; Hellmann, Jason; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-05-30

    Diabetes results in enhanced chemical modification of proteins by advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) precursors. These modifications have been linked to the development of several secondary diabetic complications. Our previous studies showed that aldose reductase (AR; AKR1B3) catalyzes the reduction of ALEs and AGEs precursors; however, the in vivo significance of this metabolic pathway during diabetes and obesity has not been fully assessed. Therefore we examined the role of AR in regulating ALEs and AGEs formation in murine models of diet-induced obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. In comparison with wild-type (WT) and AR-null mice fed normal chow, mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet (42% kcal fat) showed increased accumulation of AGEs and protein-acrolein adducts in the plasma. AGEs and acrolein adducts were also increased in the epididymal fat of WT and AR-null mice fed a HF diet. Deletion of AR increased the accumulation of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) protein adduct in the plasma and increased the expression of the AGE receptor (RAGE) in HF fed mice. No change in AGEs formation was observed in the kidneys of HF-fed mice. In comparison, renal tissue from AR-null mice treated with streptozotocin showed greater AGE accumulation than streptozotocin-treated WT mice. These data indicated that AR regulated the accumulation of lipid peroxidation derived aldehydes and AGEs under conditions of severe, but not mild, hyperglycemia and that deletion of AR increased RAGE-induction via mechanisms that were independent of AGEs accumulation.

  11. [Model of meningococcal sepsis in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnoproshina, L I; Ermakova, L G; Belova, T N; Filippov, Iu V; Efimov, D D

    1978-11-01

    The authors studied a possibility of obtaining experimental meningococcus sepsis model on mice. The use of cyclophosphane, iron compounds, yolk medium produced no significant organism. When 4--5% mucine was injected intraperitoneally together with meningococcus culture mice died with sepsis phenomena. Differences were revealed in the sensitivity of linear and mongrel mice to meningococcus infection--AKR mice proved to be more sensitive. At the same time it was found that mongrel mice weighing from 10 to 12 g could be used to induce meningococcus sepsis.

  12. High expression of AKR1B10 predicts low risk of early tumor recurrence in patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Qi, Lu-Nan; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Qin, Hong-Gui; Ye, Jia-Zhou; Lu, Shi-Dong; Ma, Liang; Xiang, Bang-De; Li, Le-Qun; You, Xue-Mei

    2017-01-01

    To clarify the relationship between aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) expression and early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, this study detected AKR1B10 expression in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 110 patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC underwent liver resection and analyzed its correlations with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of these patients. Detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, AKR1B10 mRNA expression showed significantly higher in HCC tissues than in adjacent non-tumor tissues, with a low level in normal liver tissues. Similar results was confirmed at the protein level using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. High AKR1B10 expression was negatively correlated with serum alpha-fetoprotein level and positively correlated with HBV-DNA level. Patients with high AKR1B10 expression had significantly higher disease-free survival than those with low expression within 2 years after liver resection. Multivariate analysis also confirmed high AKR1B10 expression to be a predictor of low risk of early HCC recurrence. In addition, high AKR1B10 expression was found to be a favorable factor of overall survival. These results suggest that AKR1B10 is involved in HBV-related hepatocarcinogenesis, but its high expression could predict low risk of early tumor recurrence in patients with HBV-related HCC after liver resection. PMID:28181486

  13. German financial media's responsiveness to Deutsche Bank's cultural change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauß, N.

    2015-01-01

    Based on first-order and second-order agenda building theory, this study analyzes the responsiveness of German financial media to frames of the "cultural change" proclaimed in the banking industry, exemplified by Deutsche Bank. Findings suggest a difference between the two major German financial med

  14. Kinder Lernen Deutsch. Materials Project Part I. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Teachers of German.

    The Kinder Lernen Deutsch (LKD) materials evaluation project identifies materials appropriate for the elementary school German classrooms in grades K-8. This guide consists of an annotated bibliography, with ratings, of these materials. The guiding principles by which the materials were assessed were: use of the communicative approach; integration…

  15. THE DEUTSCH MODEL--INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.

    THE DEUTSCH INTERVENTION MODEL IS BASED ON THE THEORY THAT ENVIRONMENT PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF COGNITIVE SKILLS AND OF FUNCTIONAL USE OF INTELLECTUAL CAPABILITIES. DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN HAVE INTELLECTUAL DEFICITS WHICH MAY BE OVERCOME BY USE OF MATCHED REMEDIAL MEASURES. LANGUAGE SKILLS AND MOTIVATION CAN BE IMPROVED BY TEACHING…

  16. An Applied Methodology for the Use of "Deutsch, Erstes Buch."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimler, G. Richard

    Discussion of teaching methods used with the text, "Deutsch, Erstes Buch" by Hugo Mueller, focuses on practical approaches to the problem of teaching culture through the spoken language and the use of pattern practice. While concentrating on Chapter Eight, "In der Sommerfrische," discussion is presented in subdivisions characteristic of every…

  17. Kinder Lernen Deutsch Materials Evaluation Project: Grades K-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Teachers of German.

    The Kinder Lernen Deutsch (Children Learn German) project, begun in 1987, is designed to promote German as a second language in grades K-8. The project is premised on the idea that the German program will contribute to the total development of the child and the child's personality. Included in this guide are a selection of recommended core…

  18. Inhibition of Human Steroid 5-Reductase (AKR1D1) by Finasteride and Structure of the Enzyme-Inhibitor Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, J.; Di Costanzo, L; Penning, T; Christianson, D

    2009-01-01

    The {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroid functionality is present in nearly all steroid hormones apart from estrogens. The first step in functionalization of the A-ring is mediated in humans by steroid 5{alpha}- or 5{beta}-reductase. Finasteride is a mechanism-based inactivator of 5{alpha}-reductase type 2 with subnanomolar affinity and is widely used as a therapeutic for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is also used for androgen deprivation in hormone-dependent prostate carcinoma, and it has been examined as a chemopreventive agent in prostate cancer. The effect of finasteride on steroid 5{beta}-reductase (AKR1D1) has not been previously reported. We show that finasteride competitively inhibits AKR1D1 with low micromolar affinity but does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator. The structure of the AKR1D1 {center_dot} NADP{sup +} {center_dot} finasteride complex determined at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution shows that it is not possible for NADPH to reduce the {Delta}{sup 1-2}-ene of finasteride because the cofactor and steroid are not proximal to each other. The C3-ketone of finasteride accepts hydrogen bonds from the catalytic residues Tyr-58 and Glu-120 in the active site of AKR1D1, providing an explanation for the competitive inhibition observed. This is the first reported structure of finasteride bound to an enzyme involved in steroid hormone metabolism.

  19. 125 years German Meteorological Association; 125 Jahre Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetzlaff, Gerd [Leipzig Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Meteorologie (LIM); Luedecke, Cornelia [International Commission on History of Meteorology, Muenchen (Germany); Behr, Hein Dieter (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    The book includes lectures on the historical development of the German Meteorological Association (Deutsche Meteorologische Gesellschaft DMG) from the year of foundation 1875 until 2005, taking into account the meteorological association in Western Germany (DMG) and in the German Democratic Republic (MG) after World War II, the reunion of DMG and DM. One of the contributions describes the history of the meteorological journal (Meteorologische Zeitschrift).

  20. Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Koji; Nakamura, Tadao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.

  1. Expression of aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1 gene in porcine ovary and uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Sue-Yun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C1 (AKR1C1 belongs to a superfamily of NADPH-dependent reductases that convert a wide range of substrates, including carbohydrates, steroid hormones, and endogenous prostaglandins. The 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD is a member of AKR family. The aims of this study were to determine its expression in the ovary and uterus endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Methods Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE experiments were performed to obtain the 5' and 3' ends of the porcine 20alpha-HSD cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR, northern blot analysis, and western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine 20alpha-HSD. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to determine the localization in the ovary. Results The porcine 20alpha-HSD cDNA is 957 bp in length and encodes a protein of 319 amino acids. The cloned cDNA was virtually the same as the porcine AKR1C1 gene (337 amino acids reported recently, and only differed in the C-terminal region (the AKR1C1 gene has a longer C-terminal region than our sequence. The 20alpha-HSD gene (from now on referred to as AKR1C1 cloned in this paper encodes a deletion of 4 amino acids, compared with the C-terminal region of AKR1C1 genes from other animals. Porcine AKR1C1 mRNA was expressed on day 5, 10, 12, 15 of the cycle and 0-60 of pregnancy in the ovary. The mRNA was also specifically detected in the uterine endometrium on day 30 of pregnancy. Western blot analysis indicated that the pattern of AKR1C1 protein in the ovary during the estrous cycle and uterus during early pregnancy was similar to that of AKR1C1 mRNA expression. The recombinant protein produced in CHO cells was detected at approximately 37 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that pig AKR1C1 protein was localized in the large luteal cells in the early stages of the estrous cycle and before parturition

  2. State of roadway supports in the mines of RAG Deutsche Steinkohle; Stand des Streckenausbaus bei der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opolony, Klaus [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistikdienste

    2011-03-15

    The drivage of roadways in the mines of RAG Deutsche Steinkohle poses a new major economic challenge every year. In 2009 about 500 Mio. Euro were invested in the preparatory work for development and gate roads. The roadway supports in gate road drivages are described in the contribution. These roadways and their support concepts are the basic prerequisite to ensure efficient coal extraction. About 90% of the total roadway drivages are undertaken in the seam horizon as spine and gate roads. (orig.)

  3. [Comparison of behavioral effects of fluoxetine, imipramine and new psychotropic drug TC-2153 on mice with hereditary predisposition to catalepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, E A; Tikhonova, M A; Volcho, K P; Khomenko, T M; Salakhutdinov, N F; Kulikov, A V; Popova, N K

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral effects of classic antidepressants, fluoxetine and imipramine, and new psychotropic benzopentathiepin TC-2153 (20 mg/kg, per os) were studied on mice differing in the predisposition to catalepsy-noncataleptic AKR strain and cataleptic strains CBA and AKR.CBA-D13Mit76 (D13). Mice of D13 strain was created by transferring the CBA-allele of major locus of catalepsy to AKR genome. In the forced swim test (FST) fluoxetine showed antidepressant effect on mice of all three strains, imipramine was effective only in D13 mice, while TC-2153 produced antidepressant effect on AKR and D13 mice. Unlike to imipramine and fluoxetine, TC-2153 did not produce negative side effects in the open field and elevated plus-maze tests. Thus, TC-2153 produces antidepressant effects similar to imipramine and fluoxetine, without any visible negative side effect on locomotory activity and anxiety. The D13 mice in the FST showed high sensitivity to the studied drugs in comparison to the parent strains and can be used as new genetic model for investigation of the mechanism of antidepressant effects.

  4. To study AKR1C2 and Twist expressions in various gastric tissues and the clinical pathological relations of AKR1C2 and Twist%AKR1C2与Twist在胃组织中的表达及其临床病理相关性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕威; 冯美燕; 宋鸿涛; 姜影; 佟丹丹; 李玉莲; 石清涛; 耿敬姝

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨醛酮还原酶1C2(AKR1C2)和转录因子Twist在不同胃组织中的表达及相关性.方法 应用免疫组化的方法检测AKR1C2和Twist在156例胃癌组织、31例胃不典型增生组织以及20例正常胃组织中的表达,比较两者的相关性.结果 AKR1C2在20例正常胃组织中均低表达;在31例不典型增生胃组织中有25例低表达,6例高表达,差异有统计学意义;在156例恶性胃癌组织中有70例低表达,86例高表达,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).Twist在20例正常胃组织中19例低表达,1例高表达;在31例不典型增生胃组织中有28例低表达,3例高表达,差异有统计学意义;在156例恶性胃癌组织中有49例低表达,107例高表达,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).AKR1C2与Twist的表达在胃癌组织中具有正相关性(P<0.01).AKR1C2在不同胃组织中的表达差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 AKR1C2和Twist 的表达特点可作为胃癌诊断、治疗及预后的参考指标.而且AKR1C2很可能参与到上皮间质转化过程中.%Objective To investigate the expressions of Aldo - Keto Rednetase I C2( AKR1C2 )and Twist in different gastric tissues and their clinical pathological relations. Methods Immiinoehemieal method is used to detect AKR1C2 mid Twist expressions in 156 cases of gastric carcinoma,31 cases of atypical hyperplasia and 20 cases of normal gastric tissues. The correlation of the two expressions was compared. Results The expression of AKRI C2 was not detected in all 20 normal gastric tissue cases. But, Its expression was lip - regulated in 6 atypi cal hyperplasia cases from 31 and 86 gastric carcinoma cases from 156. There wras statistical significance in latter ( P <0. 01 ).The expression of Twist was not detected in 19 normal gastric tissue cases from 20. But the expres sion of it wras up - regulated in 3 atypical hyperplasia cases from 31 and 107 gastric carcinoma cases from 156. There was statistical significance in lattei( P < 0. 01

  5. Quantum computation with classical light: The Deutsch Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin [Photonics and Mathematical Optics Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849 (Mexico); University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Francis, Jason [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); McLaren, Melanie [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I. [Photonics and Mathematical Optics Group, Tecnológico de Monterrey, Monterrey 64849 (Mexico); Forbes, Andrew [University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Johannesburg 2050 (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas, E-mail: konradt@ukzn.ac.za [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa); National Institute of Theoretical Physics, Durban Node, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000 (South Africa)

    2015-08-28

    We present an implementation of the Deutsch Algorithm using linear optical elements and laser light. We encoded two quantum bits in form of superpositions of electromagnetic fields in two degrees of freedom of the beam: its polarisation and orbital angular momentum. Our approach, based on a Sagnac interferometer, offers outstanding stability and demonstrates that optical quantum computation is possible using classical states of light. - Highlights: • We implement the Deutsh Algorithm using linear optical elements and classical light. • Our qubits are encoded in the polarisation and orbital angular momentum of the beam. • We show that it is possible to achieve quantum computation with two qubits in the classical domain of light.

  6. Learning and extinction of a passive avoidance response in mice with high levels of predisposition to catalepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'ev, D R; Zinov'eva, D V; Kulikov, A V

    2009-06-01

    This report presents results obtained from comparative analysis of learning and the dynamics of extinction of a conditioned passive avoidance response in ASC mice, which were bred for a high level of predisposition to catalepsy, and in CBA and AKR mice. The following findings were obtained: 1) impairments to the extinction of the memory of fear represent an important symptom of depression in ASC mice; 2) extinction is delayed in CBA mice; and 3) new inhibitory learning occurs quickly in AKR mice. Prolonged retention of the fear memory in ASC mice appears to be related to increased anxiety on prolonged testing without a punishment. The deficit of inhibition of the fear reaction in ASC mice allows this strain to be regarded as a genetic model of depression.

  7. Die Übersetzung von RDA ins Deutsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Oehlschläger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deutsch soll weiterhin die Ansetzungs- und Arbeitssprache bei der Erschliessung in Deutschland, Österreich und der deutschsprachigen Schweiz bleiben. Dieser Beschluss des Standardisierungsausschusses ist eine der Grundlagen für die Übersetzung des Standards Resource Description and Access (RDA ins Deutsche. Im folgenden Beitrag werden die Hintergründe, die Herangehensweise und verschiedene Aspekte erläutert, die zur Vorbereitung und Umsetzung der Übersetzung notwendig waren. Dabei werden auch Schwierigkeiten benannt, die während dieses Prozesses aufgetreten sind. German shall remain the working language for cataloguers in Germany, Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland. Amongst others, this agreement of the Committee for Library Standards is the basis for the translation of the standard Resource Description and Access (RDA into German. The article below explains the approach and the various aspects necessary to prepare the translation and the real translation work. It also names issues arising during the translation process.

  8. 5β-Reduced steroids and human Δ(4)-3-ketosteroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Penning, Trevor M

    2014-05-01

    5β-Reduced steroids are non-planar steroids that have a 90° bend in their structure to create an A/B cis-ring junction. This novel property is required for bile-acids to act as emulsifiers, but in addition 5β-reduced steroids have remarkable physiology and may act as potent tocolytic agents, endogenous cardiac glycosides, neurosteroids, and can act as ligands for orphan and membrane bound receptors. In humans there is only a single 5β-reductase gene AKR1D1, which encodes Δ(4)-3-ketosteroid-5β-reductase (AKR1D1). This enzyme is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily, but possesses an altered catalytic tetrad, in which Glu120 replaces the conserved His residue. This predominant liver enzyme generates all 5β-dihydrosteroids in the C19-C27 steroid series. Mutations exist in the AKR1D1 gene, which result in loss of protein stability and are causative in bile-acid deficiency.

  9. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs, CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party. Deutsche Bank AG, a global multipurpose bank

  10. The activity of SN33638, an inhibitor of AKR1C3, on testosterone and 17β-estradiol production and function in castration-resistant prostate cancer and ER-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarong Diana eYin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AKR1C3 is a novel therapeutic target in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC and ER-positive breast cancer because of its ability to produce testosterone and 17β-estradiol intratumorally, thus promoting nuclear receptor signaling and tumor progression. A panel of CRPC, ER-positive breast cancer and high/low AKR1C3-expressing cell lines were treated with SN33638, a selective inhibitor of AKR1C3, in the presence of hormone or prostaglandin precursors, prior to evaluation of cell proliferation and levels of 11β-prostaglandin F2α (11β-PGF2α, testosterone, 17β-estradiol and prostate-specific antigen (PSA. A meta-analysis of AKR1C3 mRNA expression in patient samples was also conducted, which revealed that AKR1C3 mRNA was upregulated in CRPC, but downregulated in ER-positive breast cancer. 11β-PGF2α and testosterone levels in the cell line panel correlated with AKR1C3 protein expression. SN33638 prevented 11β-PGF2α formation in cell lines that expressed AKR1C3, but partially inhibited testosterone formation and subsequently cell proliferation and/or PSA expression only in high (LAPC4 AKR1C3-overexpressing cells or moderate (22RV1 AKR1C3-expressing cell lines. SN33638 had little effect on 17β-estradiol production or estrone-stimulated cell proliferation in ER-positive breast cancer cell lines. Although SN33638 could prevent 11β-PGF2α formation, its ability to prevent testosterone and 17β-estradiol production and their roles in CRPC and ER-positive breast cancer progression was limited due to AKR1C3-independent steroid hormone production, except in LAPC4 AKR1C3 cells where the majority of testosterone was AKR1C3-dependent. These results suggest that inhibition of AKR1C3 is unlikely to produce therapeutic benefit in CRPC and ER-positive breast cancer patients, except possibly in the small subpopulation of CRPC patients with tumors that have upregulated AKR1C3 expression and are dependent on AKR1C3 to produce the testosterone required

  11. Effects of AKR1C3 on kidney damage of preeclamptic rats%AKR1C3对子痫前期大鼠肾损伤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金娅; 孙成娟; 张为远

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨AKR1C3对子痫前期大鼠肾脏损伤的影响及其可能的作用机制.方法 通过腹腔注射亚硝基左旋精氨酸甲酯(L-NAME)建立大鼠子痫前期的模型,治疗组同时采用灌胃的方法口服格列苯脲.40只Wistar雌鼠随机分为子痫前期组(孕鼠+L-NAME)、治疗组(孕鼠+L-NAME+格列苯脲)、未孕组(L-NAME)、对照组(孕鼠+生理盐水),每组10只.通过测血压、24 h尿蛋白和透射电镜观察肾脏结构确认子痫前期大鼠造模成功,采用RT-PCR、免疫印迹检测大鼠肾脏AKR1C3蛋白及mRNA含量,Elisa方法检测超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)、丙二醛(MDA)的浓度.结果 造模前各组大鼠的血压值差异无统计学意义;造模后子痫前期组血压明显高于对照组与治疗组[(143.83±9.62)比(120.83±4.31)及(129.43±14.41) mmHg,均P<0.05].造模前各组大鼠的24 h尿蛋白含量无差异;造模后子痫前期组的24h尿蛋白含量明显高于对照组与治疗组.子痫前期组大鼠肾脏中AKR1 C3蛋白及mRNA表达水平明显低于对照组[(0.48±0.09)比(0.98 ±0.27)、(0.05 ±0.02)比(0.87±0.45),均P<0.05].与子痫前期组相比,治疗组AKR1 C3蛋白及mRNA表达水平升高[(0.48±0.09)比(1.05±0.20)、(0.05±0.02)比(0.22 ±0.06),均P<0.05].与对照组相比子痫前期组SOD、CAT、GSH-Px的浓度明显降低,MDA的浓度升高;与子痫前期组相比,治疗组SOD、CAT、GSH-Px的浓度升高,MDA的浓度降低.结论 AKR1C3在子痫前期大鼠肾脏中表达降低,其作用途径可能与氧化应激有关.格列苯脲对子痫前期的治疗有一定的疗效.%Objective To explore the effects of AKR1 C3 on kidney damage of preeclamptic rats and elucidate the possible therapeutic mechanism of glyburide.Methods The rat model of preeclampsia was established by an intraperitoneal injection of Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME).A total of 40 Wistar rats were

  12. The prostaglandin F synthase activity of the human aldose reductase AKR1B1 brings new lenses to look at pathologic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eBresson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Prostaglandins are important regulators of female reproductive functions to which aldose reductases exhibiting hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity also contribute. Our work on the regulation of reproductive function by prostaglandins (PGs, lead us to the discovery that AKR1B5 and later AKR1B1 were highly efficient and physiologically relevant PGF synthases. PGE2 and PGF2α are the main prostanoids produced in the human endometrium and proper balance in their relative production is important for normal menstruation and optimal fertility. Recent evidence suggests that PGE2 and PGF2α may constitute a functional dyad with physiological relevance at least as important as the prostacyclin-thromboxane dyad in the vascular system. We have recently reported that AKR1B1 was expressed and modulated in association with PGF2α production in response to IL-1β in the human endometrium. In the present study, we show that the human AKR1B1 (gene ID: 231 also known as ALDR1 or ALR2 is a functional PGF2α synthase in different models of living cells and tissues. Using human endometrial cells, prostate and vascular smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells we demonstrate that IL-1β is able to up regulate COX-2 and AKR1B1 proteins as well as PGF2α production under normal glucose concentrations. We show that the promoter activity of AKR1B1 gene is increased by IL-1β particularly around the multiple stress response region (MSRR containing two putative antioxidant response elements (ARE adjacent to TonE and AP1.We also show that AKR1B1 is able to regulate PGE2 production through PGF2α acting on its FP receptor and that aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs like alrestatin, statil (ponalrestat and EBPC exhibit distinct and characteristic inhibition of PGF2α production in different cell models. The PGF synthase activity of AKR1B1 represents a new and important target to regulate ischemic and inflammatory responses associated with several human

  13. [Ulrike Plath. Esten und Deutsche in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Plath, Ulrike. Esten und Deutsche in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands: Freundheitskonstruktionen, lebenswelten, Kolonialphantasien 1750-1810 (Veröffenlichungen des Nordost-Instituts, Bd. 11.)Harrasowitz. Wiesbaden 2011

  14. Exome sequencing of senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) reveals deleterious mutations in degenerative disease-causing genes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are a series of mouse strains originally derived from unexpected crosses between AKR/J and unknown mice, from which phenotypically distinct senescence-prone (SAMP) and -resistant (SAMR) inbred strains were subsequently established. Although SAMP strains have been widely used for aging research focusing on their short life spans and various age-related phenotypes, such as immune dysfunction, osteoporosis, and brain atrophy, the responsible gene muta...

  15. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR17A1) of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 Degrades the Rice Field Herbicide Butachlor and Confers Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Chhavi; Sen, Sonia; Yadav, Shivam; Rai, Shweta; Rai, Lal Chand

    2015-01-01

    Present study deals with the identification of a novel aldo/keto reductase, AKR17A1 from Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and adds on as 17th family of AKR superfamily drawn from a wide variety of organisms. AKR17A1 shares many characteristics of a typical AKR such as- (i) conferring tolerance to multiple stresses like heat, UV-B, and cadmium, (ii) excellent activity towards known AKR substrates (isatin and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde), and (iii) obligate dependence on NADPH as a cofactor for enzyme activity. The most novel attribute of AKR17A1, first reported in this study, is its capability to metabolize butachlor, a persistent rice field herbicide that adversely affects agro-ecosystem and non-target organisms. The AKR17A1 catalyzed- degradation of butachlor resulted into formation of 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid and 2,6 bis (1,1, dimethylethyl) 4,-methyl phenol as the major products confirmed by GC-MS analysis.

  16. A Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR17A1 of Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 Degrades the Rice Field Herbicide Butachlor and Confers Tolerance to Abiotic Stresses in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhavi Agrawal

    Full Text Available Present study deals with the identification of a novel aldo/keto reductase, AKR17A1 from Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and adds on as 17th family of AKR superfamily drawn from a wide variety of organisms. AKR17A1 shares many characteristics of a typical AKR such as- (i conferring tolerance to multiple stresses like heat, UV-B, and cadmium, (ii excellent activity towards known AKR substrates (isatin and 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, and (iii obligate dependence on NADPH as a cofactor for enzyme activity. The most novel attribute of AKR17A1, first reported in this study, is its capability to metabolize butachlor, a persistent rice field herbicide that adversely affects agro-ecosystem and non-target organisms. The AKR17A1 catalyzed- degradation of butachlor resulted into formation of 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid and 2,6 bis (1,1, dimethylethyl 4,-methyl phenol as the major products confirmed by GC-MS analysis.

  17. Bioequivalence studies of tibolone in premenopausal women and effects on expression of the tibolone-metabolizing enzyme AKR1C (aldo-keto reductase) family caused by estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keon W; Kim, Yoon G

    2008-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the bioequivalence of a test formulation of tibolone with the marketed reference formulation in 24 young healthy female volunteers. Tibolone is a synthetic steroid hormone for menopausal women. Volunteers were treated with the 2 formulations of tibolone (total dose of active ingredient 2.5 mg) according to a 2 x 2 crossover design with a 1-week washout period. Plasma concentrations of 3alpha- and 3beta-hydroxytibolone, which are major metabolites of tibolone, were assayed in timed samples over a 24-hour period with a validated gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method that had a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL. The reference and test formulations gave a mean 3alpha-hydroxytibolone C(max) of 5.0 and 5.2 ng/mL, respectively, and a mean 3beta-hydroxytibolone C(max) of 16.4 and 16.5 ng/mL, respectively. The mean AUC(t) of 3alpha-hydroxytibolone was 24.7 and 24.3 ng h/mL, whereas the mean AUC(t) of 3beta-hydroxytibolone was 57.6 and 54.8 ng h/mL for the test and reference formulations, respectively. The authors did not find significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between the 2 formulations, but metabolite formation was different from reports in postmenopausal women. The authors therefore measured the effects of estradiol on the expression of the tibolone-metabolizing enzymes, from the aldo-keto reductase (AKR1C) family, using HepG2 cell (human hepatoma cells) and MCF-7 cell (human breast cancer cells). Estradiol increased mRNA levels of AKR1C1, AKR1C2, and AKR1C3 and protein levels of total AKR1C in HepG2 cells. Estradiol selectively enhanced levels of AKR1C2 mRNA in MCF-7 cells. Thus, changes in the major metabolites of tibolone might result from changes in AKR1C family expression by patient estrogen status.

  18. [The effect of volatile antioxidants of plant origin on leukemogenesis in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakova, E B; Erokhin, V N; Misharina, T A; Fatkullina, L D; Krementsova, A V; Semenov, V A; Terenina, M B; Vorob'eva, A K; Goloshchapov, A N

    2010-01-01

    The effect of savory essential oil added with drinking water (150 ng/ml) or with feed (2.5 microg/g) on the lifetime of AKR mice and the parameters of oxidative stress in animal blood were investigated. It was found for the first time that long-term administration of an essential oil in low doses increased the average lifetime of mice by 20-35% and was accompanied by a decrease in the hemolysis level and the content of lipid peroxidation products in erythrocytes of mice, as well as alteration in the structural state of their membranes and stabilization of polyunsaturated fatty acids level in mice liver cells.

  19. Conversion of Human Steroid 5[beta]-Reductase (AKR1D1) into 3[beta]-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase by Single Point Mutation E120H: Example of Perfect Enzyme Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Mo; Drury, Jason E.; Christianson, David W.; Penning, Trevor M. (UPENN)

    2012-10-10

    Human aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) and AKR1C enzymes are essential for bile acid biosynthesis and steroid hormone metabolism. AKR1D1 catalyzes the 5{beta}-reduction of {Delta}{sup 4}-3-ketosteroids, whereas AKR1C enzymes are hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). These enzymes share high sequence identity and catalyze 4-pro-(R)-hydride transfer from NADPH to an electrophilic carbon but differ in that one residue in the conserved AKR catalytic tetrad, His120 (AKR1D1 numbering), is substituted by a glutamate in AKR1D1. We find that the AKR1D1 E120H mutant abolishes 5{beta}-reductase activity and introduces HSD activity. However, the E120H mutant unexpectedly favors dihydrosteroids with the 5{alpha}-configuration and, unlike most of the AKR1C enzymes, shows a dominant stereochemical preference to act as a 3{beta}-HSD as opposed to a 3{alpha}-HSD. The catalytic efficiency achieved for 3{beta}-HSD activity is higher than that observed for any AKR to date. High resolution crystal structures of the E120H mutant in complex with epiandrosterone, 5{beta}-dihydrotestosterone, and {Delta}{sup 4}-androstene-3,17-dione elucidated the structural basis for this functional change. The glutamate-histidine substitution prevents a 3-ketosteroid from penetrating the active site so that hydride transfer is directed toward the C3 carbonyl group rather than the {Delta}{sup 4}-double bond and confers 3{beta}-HSD activity on the 5{beta}-reductase. Structures indicate that stereospecificity of HSD activity is achieved because the steroid flips over to present its {alpha}-face to the A-face of NADPH. This is in contrast to the AKR1C enzymes, which can invert stereochemistry when the steroid swings across the binding pocket. These studies show how a single point mutation in AKR1D1 can introduce HSD activity with unexpected configurational and stereochemical preference.

  20. Rational design of an AKR1C3-resistant analog of PR-104 for enzyme-prodrug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowday, Alexandra M; Ashoorzadeh, Amir; Williams, Elsie M; Copp, Janine N; Silva, Shevan; Bull, Matthew R; Abbattista, Maria R; Anderson, Robert F; Flanagan, Jack U; Guise, Christopher P; Ackerley, David F; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V

    2016-09-15

    The clinical stage anti-cancer agent PR-104 has potential utility as a cytotoxic prodrug for exogenous bacterial nitroreductases expressed from replicating vector platforms. However substrate selectivity is compromised due to metabolism by the human one- and two-electron oxidoreductases cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) and aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3). Using rational drug design we developed a novel mono-nitro analog of PR-104A that is essentially free of this off-target activity in vitro and in vivo. Unlike PR-104A, there was no biologically relevant cytotoxicity in cells engineered to express AKR1C3 or POR, under aerobic or anoxic conditions, respectively. We screened this inert prodrug analog, SN34507, against a type I bacterial nitroreductase library and identified E. coli NfsA as an efficient bioactivator using a DNA damage response assay and recombinant enzyme kinetics. Expression of E. coli NfsA in human colorectal cancer cells led to selective cytotoxicity to SN34507 that was associated with cell cycle arrest and generated a robust 'bystander effect' at tissue-like cell densities when only 3% of cells were NfsA positive. Anti-tumor activity of SN35539, the phosphate pre-prodrug of SN34507, was established in 'mixed' tumors harboring a minority of NfsA-positive cells and demonstrated marked tumor control following heterogeneous suicide gene expression. These experiments demonstrate that off-target metabolism of PR-104 can be avoided and identify the suicide gene/prodrug partnership of E. coli NfsA/SN35539 as a promising combination for development in armed vectors.

  1. The Metaphysics of {D-CTCs}: On the Underlying Assumptions of {Deutsch}'s Quantum Solution to the Paradoxes of Time Travel

    CERN Document Server

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse'', and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent ...

  2. Graphene-based room-temperature implementation of a modified Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Daniela; Dragoman, Mircea

    2015-12-04

    We present an implementation of a one-qubit and two-qubit modified Deutsch-Jozsa quantum algorithm based on graphene ballistic devices working at room temperature. The modified Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm decides whether a function, equivalent to the effect of an energy potential distribution on the wave function of ballistic charge carriers, is constant or not, without measuring the output wave function. The function need not be Boolean. Simulations confirm that the algorithm works properly, opening the way toward quantum computing at room temperature based on the same clean-room technologies as those used for fabrication of very-large-scale integrated circuits.

  3. Two Thematic Units for the Middle School Curriculum: An Initiative by the "Kinder lernen Deutsch" Steering Committee's Writing Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Iris; Freimann-Cavanaugh, Corinna; Eichler, Ester

    2009-01-01

    The Kinder lernen Deutsch Committee (KLD) is a standing committee of the AATG that has existed since 1987 and that was originally charged to support the advocacy of German in grades K-8. With generous funding by the Standige Arbeitsgruppe Deutsch als Fremdsprache (StADaF) from the German government and the Goethe-Institut, the Kinder lernen…

  4. Managing conflict in Dutch organizations: A test of the relevance of DeutschUs cooperation theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.K.W. de Dreu; D. Tjosvold

    1997-01-01

    Deutsch's theory of cooperative and competitive conflict may be usefully extended to Dutch people. Results of LISREL analyses on data collected from interviews of Dutch employees in 2 companies indicate that competitive goals interfered with the open, constructive discussion of opposing views. Howev

  5. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  6. The Place of "Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache" in the German Curriculum. A Report of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Gerd K.

    The "Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache," an examination developed by the Adult Education Centers in West Germany and the Goethe Institute to measure a student's proficiency in German as a foreign language, consists of two main parts, group testing and individual testing. The group testing section covers listening and reading…

  7. Integration of HPV6 and downregulation of AKR1C3 expression mark malignant transformation in a patient with juvenile-onset laryngeal papillomatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ulrich Huebbers

    Full Text Available Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP is associated with low risk human papillomavirus (HPV types 6 and 11. Malignant transformation has been reported solely for HPV11-associated RRP in 2-4% of all RRP-cases, but not for HPV6. The molecular mechanisms in the carcinogenesis of low risk HPV-associated cancers are to date unknown. We report of a female patient, who presented with a laryngeal carcinoma at the age of 24 years. She had a history of juvenile-onset RRP with an onset at the age of three and subsequently several hundred surgical interventions due to multiple recurrences of RRP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR or bead-based hybridization followed by direct sequencing identified HPV6 in tissue sections of previous papilloma and the carcinoma. P16(INK4A, p53 and pRb immunostainings were negative in all lesions. HPV6 specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH revealed nuclear staining suggesting episomal virus in the papilloma and a single integration site in the carcinoma. Integration-specific amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts PCR (APOT-PCR showed integration in the aldo-keto reductase 1C3 gene (AKR1C3 on chromosome 10p15.1. ArrayCGH detected loss of the other gene copy as part of a deletion at 10p14-p15.2. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of the protein AKR1C3 showed a marked reduction of its expression in the carcinoma. In conclusion, we identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying a first case of HPV6-associated laryngeal carcinoma in juvenile-onset RRP, i.e. that HPV6 integration in the AKR1C3 gene resulted in loss of its expression. Alterations of AKR1C gene expression have previously been implicated in the tumorigenesis of other (HPV-related malignancies.

  8. Identification of a novel polyfluorinated compound as a lead to inhibit the human enzymes aldose reductase and AKR1B10: structure determination of both ternary complexes and implications for drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Ruiz, Francesc X; Mitschler, André; Porté, Sergio; de Lera, Ángel R; Martín, María J; Manzanaro, Sonia; de la Fuente, Jesús A; Terwesten, Felix; Betz, Michael; Klebe, Gerhard; Farrés, Jaume; Parés, Xavier; Podjarny, Alberto

    2014-03-01

    Aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are mostly monomeric enzymes which fold into a highly conserved (α/β)8 barrel, while their substrate specificity and inhibitor selectivity are determined by interaction with residues located in three highly variable external loops. The closely related human enzymes aldose reductase (AR or AKR1B1) and AKR1B10 are of biomedical interest because of their involvement in secondary diabetic complications (AR) and in cancer, e.g. hepatocellular carcinoma and smoking-related lung cancer (AKR1B10). After characterization of the IC50 values of both AKRs with a series of polyhalogenated compounds, 2,2',3,3',5,5',6,6'-octafluoro-4,4'-biphenyldiol (JF0064) was identified as a lead inhibitor of both enzymes with a new scaffold (a 1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diol). An ultrahigh-resolution X-ray structure of the AR-NADP(+)-JF0064 complex has been determined at 0.85 Å resolution, allowing it to be observed that JF0064 interacts with the catalytic residue Tyr48 through a negatively charged hydroxyl group (i.e. the acidic phenol). The non-competitive inhibition pattern observed for JF0064 with both enzymes suggests that this acidic hydroxyl group is also present in the case of AKR1B10. Moreover, the combination of surface lysine methylation and the introduction of K125R and V301L mutations enabled the determination of the X-ray crystallographic structure of the corresponding AKR1B10-NADP(+)-JF0064 complex. Comparison of the two structures has unveiled some important hints for subsequent structure-based drug-design efforts.

  9. Health education and peer leaders' role in improving low vaccination coverage in Akre district, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, M A; Al-Dabbagh, S A; Al-Habeeb, Q S

    2013-02-01

    The role of religious leaders in improving vaccination coverage has not been well researched. This intervention study investigated the role of a health education campaign and peer spiritual leaders in improving vaccination coverage rates in Akre district in Kurdistan region, Iraq. An information campaign was conducted in 30 villages with low vaccination coverage. The participation of peer spiritual leaders was sought in 15 villages of the Sorchi tribe known to have persistent low coverage rates. The vaccination coverage rates of DPT1, DPT2, DPT3 and measles vaccines during the post-intervention period (January to June 2007) were significantly improved (95.5%, 90.0%, 84.4% and 80.3% respectively) compared with the pre-intervention period (January to June 2006) (55.9%, 42.7%, 21.5% and 27.6% respectively). The dropout rates of those vaccines were also significantly decreased. Vaccination in villages where spiritual leaders were involved improved significantly more than other villages.

  10. Review: Larissa Förster, Postkoloniale Erinnerungslandschaften. Wie Deutsche und Herero in Namibia des Kriegs von 1904 gedenken (2010 Buchbesprechung: Larissa Förster, Postkoloniale Erinnerungslandschaften. Wie Deutsche und Herero in Namibia des Kriegs von 1904 gedenken (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhart Kößler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of the Monograph: Larissa Förster (2010, Postkoloniale Erinnerungslandschaften. Wie Deutsche und Herero in Namibia des Kriegs von 1904 gedenken, Frankfurt am Main & New York: Campus, ISBN 978-3-593-39160-1, 391 pages. Besprechung der Monographie: Larissa Förster (2010, Postkoloniale Erinnerungslandschaften. Wie Deutsche und Herero in Namibia des Kriegs von 1904 gedenken, Frankfurt am Main & New York: Campus, ISBN 978-3-593-39160-1, 391 Seiten.

  11. Experimental realization of Deutsch's algorithm in a one-way quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tame, M S; Prevedel, R; Paternostro, M; Böhi, P; Kim, M S; Zeilinger, A

    2007-04-06

    We report the first experimental demonstration of an all-optical one-way implementation of Deutsch's quantum algorithm on a four-qubit cluster state. All the possible configurations of a balanced or constant function acting on a two-qubit register are realized within the measurement-based model for quantum computation. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical model, therefore demonstrating the successful performance of the algorithm.

  12. Implementation of Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with Superconducting Quantum-Interference Devices via Raman Transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zhi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical scheme is proposed to implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm with SQUIDs (superconducting quantum-interference devices) in cavity via Raman transition. The scheme only requires a quantized cavity field and classical microwave pulses. In this scheme, no transfer of quantum information between the SQUIDs and the cavity is required, the cavity field is only virtually excited and thus the cavity decay is suppressed.

  13. HISTORIA DE LAS ESTRATEGIAS PERIODISTICAS DEL PERIODICO VALDIVIA’S DEUTSCHE ZEITUNG, 1886-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Bernedo Pinto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the strategies applied by the editors of Valdivia’s Deutsche Zeitung, a German language newspaper in Valdivia (Chile, between 1886 and 1912. It seeks to explain the reasons behind the success or failure of these strategies and the social, political and economic elements involved. The author concludes that the closure of this paper was due to the inability to find a journalistics strategy in tune with the news interests of its readers

  14. Scheme for implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm in cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shi-Biao

    2004-09-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm in cavity QED. The scheme is based on the resonant interaction of atoms with a cavity mode. The required experimental techniques are within the scope of what can be obtained in the microwave cavity QED setup. The experimental implementation of the scheme would be an important step toward more complex quantum computation in cavity QED.

  15. Quantum computation with classical light: implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Goyal, Sandeep K; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I; Forbes, Andrew; Konrad, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We propose an optical implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm using classical light in a binary decision-tree scheme. Our approach uses a ring cavity and linear optical devices in order to efficiently quarry the oracle functional values. In addition, we take advantage of the intrinsic Fourier transforming properties of a lens to read out whether the function given by the oracle is balanced or constant.

  16. Geschlecht als Modernisierungsfaktor deutsch-jüdischer Identitäten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Karsch

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Sammelband Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte als Geschlechtergeschichte. Studien zum 19. und 20. Jahrhundert beleuchtet die Relevanz der Kategorie „Geschlecht“ für den historischen Verlauf von Akkulturation, Verbürgerlichung und Säkularisierung. Dabei erweist sich die Familie als Schnittstelle der Umbruchsprozesse, in denen jüdische Identitäten und das Verhältnis zur Mehrheitsgesellschaft ausgehandelt wurden.

  17. Geschlecht als Modernisierungsfaktor deutsch-jüdischer Identitäten

    OpenAIRE

    Margret Karsch

    2006-01-01

    Der Sammelband Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte als Geschlechtergeschichte. Studien zum 19. und 20. Jahrhundert beleuchtet die Relevanz der Kategorie „Geschlecht“ für den historischen Verlauf von Akkulturation, Verbürgerlichung und Säkularisierung. Dabei erweist sich die Familie als Schnittstelle der Umbruchsprozesse, in denen jüdische Identitäten und das Verhältnis zur Mehrheitsgesellschaft ausgehandelt wurden.

  18. Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulde, Stephan; Riebe, Mark; Lancaster, Gavin P T; Becher, Christoph; Eschner, Jürgen; Häffner, Hartmut; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Chuang, Isaac L; Blatt, Rainer

    2003-01-02

    Determining classically whether a coin is fair (head on one side, tail on the other) or fake (heads or tails on both sides) requires an examination of each side. However, the analogous quantum procedure (the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm) requires just one examination step. The Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm has been realized experimentally using bulk nuclear magnetic resonance techniques, employing nuclear spins as quantum bits (qubits). In contrast, the ion trap processor utilises motional and electronic quantum states of individual atoms as qubits, and in principle is easier to scale to many qubits. Experimental advances in the latter area include the realization of a two-qubit quantum gate, the entanglement of four ions, quantum state engineering and entanglement-enhanced phase estimation. Here we exploit techniques developed for nuclear magnetic resonance to implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm on an ion-trap quantum processor, using as qubits the electronic and motional states of a single calcium ion. Our ion-based implementation of a full quantum algorithm serves to demonstrate experimental procedures with the quality and precision required for complex computations, confirming the potential of trapped ions for quantum computation.

  19. 49. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts; 49. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-10-15

    The conference proceedings of the 48. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie contain abstracts on the following issues: neuro-oncological imaging, multimodal imaging concepts, subcranial imaging, spinal codes, interventional neuroradiology.

  20. [Sven Jüngerkes. Deutsche Besatzungsverwaltung in Lettland 1941-1945. Eine Kommunikations- und Kulturgeschichte nationalsozialistischer Organisationen] / Toomas Hiio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiio, Toomas, 1965-

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Jüngerkes, Sven.Deutsche Besatzungsverwaltung in Lettland 1941-1945. Eine Kommunikations- und Kulturgeschichte nationalsozialistischer Organisationen (Historische Kulturwissenschaft, 15). (Konstanz: UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, 2010)

  1. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan Meets with Michael Cohrs,CEO of Corporate & Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHongwei

    2004-01-01

    Invited by the CPAFFC, Michael Cohrs, Chief Executive Officer of the Corporate and Investment Banking of Deutsche Bank, visited Beijing from February 26 to 28, 2004. Vice Premier Zeng Peiyan of the State Council met with Cohrs and his party.

  2. 50. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts; 50. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-09-15

    The volume on the 50th annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie includes the abstracts concerning the following issues: infectious central nervous system diseases, neurodegenerations, infarction, petrosal bone pathology, neurointerventions.

  3. [Ulrike Plath. Esten und Deutsche in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands. Fremdheitskonstruktionen, Lebenswelten, Kolonialphantasien 1750-1850] / Lea Leppik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Leppik, Lea, 1962-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Plath, Ulrike. Esten und Deutsche in den baltischen Provinzen Russlands. Fremdheitskonstruktionen, Lebenswelten, Kolonialphantasien 1750-1850 (Veröffentlichungen des Nordost-Institut, 11). Harrasowitz. Wiesbaden 2011.

  4. The Role of Human Aldo-Keto Reductases (AKRs in the Metabolic Activation and Detoxication of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Interconversion of PAH-catechols and PAH o-Quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li eZhang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. They are procarcinogens requiring metabolic activation to elicit their deleterious effects. Aldo-keto reductases (AKR catalyze the oxidation of proximate carcinogenic PAH trans-dihydrodiols to yield electrophilic and redox-active PAH o-quiniones. AKRs are also found to be capable of reducing PAH o-quinones to form PAH catechols. The interconversion of o-quinones and catechols results in the redox cycling of PAH o-quinones to give rise to the generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, PAH catechols can be intercepted through phase II metabolism by which PAH o-quinones could be detoxified and eliminated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the role of human AKRs in the metabolic activation/detoxication of PAH and the relevance of phase II conjugation reactions to human lung carcinogenesis.

  5. AKR1D1基因编码区克隆、序列分析及在卵泡中的表达特性研究%Molecular Cloning,Bioinformatics of the Goose AKR1D1 Gene cDNA Coding Domain Sequence,and Its Differential Expression Profiles in Ovarian Follicles of Different Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文捷; 李欣欣; 刘贺贺; 王继文

    2016-01-01

    [Objective]The study was to clone the A K R 1D1 gene's cDNA coding domain sequence of geese and predict its structure,function and expression profiles.[Methods]Using Tianfu meat-type geese as materials,we cloned the goose's A KR1D1 coding domain sequence (CDS) by RTPCR,and predicted its protein structure and functions through several bioinformational tools and analyzed its expression in ovarian follicles of different stages of goose by real-time quantitative PCR.[Results]The results showed that the goose's AKR1D1 CDS consisted of 981 nucleotides that encoded 326 amino acids residues, and the amino acid homology of goose A KR1D1 shared 95.71% identity with chicken. The analysis of amino acid sequence revealed that the goose AKR1D1 encoded water-soluble protein and its relative molecular weight was 37 263.7 Da. Subcellular location of A KR1D1 was primarily in the cytoplasm and chondriosome,and it did not belong to the secreted protein. It is predicted that the AKR1D1 protein contained 18 phosphorylation sites,3 glycosylation sites. The secondary structure of AKR1D1 was mainly composed of random coil,while the tertiary structure of domain area showed a formic form helix structure. The results of real-time quantitative PCR revealed that goose AKR1D1 expressed most in theca layer and granulosa layer with 2~4 mm,at the lowest in theca layer of F5 and granulosa layer of F1.[Conclusion]A KR1D1 may play an important role in the recruitment,selection,screening,atresia and ovulation of the follicle by regulating the dynamic balance of steroid hormones.%【目的】克隆鹅AKR1D1基因编码区序列,预测其蛋白结构、功能,并研究其在鹅各等级卵泡中的表达特性。【方法】以天府肉鹅母系为材料,采用RT-PCR技术克隆鹅AKR1D1基因编码区序列,利用多种生物信息学分析软件预测其结构与功能,并应用荧光定量PCR技术检测其在各等级卵泡中的表达特性。【结果】结果表明:鹅AKR1D1

  6. ICE 3 and ICE-T: new railcar generation for the Deutsche Bahn; ICE 3 und ICE-T - neue Triebwagengeneration fuer die Deutsche Bahn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, H. [DB Reise und Touristik AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Starting with the 1999 summer timetable the Deutsche Bahn AG (DB) put the first five tilting electric ICE railcars (ICE-T) into operation on the Gaeubahn between Stuttgart und Singen and onward to Zuerich. The journey between the two centres was shortened by 17 minutes to 2 hours and 45 minutes. Since June 1999 the first ICE 3 railcars, ordered mainly for the new Cologne-Rhine/Main line and cross-border service, have been on trial-running on DB tracks where after a short time speeds of more than 300 km/h were reached without problems. For the DB both vehicle types represent a new development stage in respect of its high-speed vehicles: - Introduction of the railcar concept with power distributed underfloor (traction, braking, on-board energy), - linking of ICE comfort and tilting with the ICE-T, - four-system technology for important power and train security systems in Europe with the ICE 3, - control concept on the basis of the Train Communication Network (TCN). (orig.) [German] Zum Beginn des Sommerfahrplans 1999 hat die Deutsche Bahn AG (DB) die ersten fuenf elektrischen ICE-Triebwagen (ICE-T) mit Neigetechnik auf der Gaeubahn zwischen Stuttgart und Singen und weiter nach Zuerich planmaessig eingesetzt. Die Fahrzeit zwischen den beiden Zentren verkuerzt sich dadurch um 17 Minuten auf jetzt noch 2 Stunden und 45 Minuten. Seit Juni 1999 fahren die ersten ICE 3-Triebwagen, die vorrangig fuer die Neubaustrecke Koeln-Rhein/Main und den grenzueberschreitenden Einsatz bestellt wurden, im Erprobungseinsatz auf Gleisen der DB, wo Geschwindigkeiten von ueber 300 km/h schon nach kurzer Zeit problemlos erreicht wurden. (orig.)

  7. [Effect of genotype and day or night time of testing on mice behavior in the light-dark box and the open-field tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, M V; Kulikov, A V

    2010-01-01

    The light-dark box (LDB) and the open-field (OF) tests are widespread experimental models for studying locomotion and anxiety in laboratory rats and mice. The fact that rodents are nocturnal animals and more active at night raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments carried out in the light phase are methodologically correct. Parameters of behavior of four mouse strains (C57BL/6J, DBA2/J, AKR/J and CBA/LacJ) in the light-dark box and open-field tests in the light and dark phases were compared. No significant influence of the phase of testing on anxiety in LDB and OF tests was revealed. In the OF test CBA mice showed increased locomotor activity, whereas AKR and C57BL/6 mice showed increased defecation in the dark phase. It was concluded that: 1) the phase of testing is not crucial for the expression of anxiety in LDB and OF; 2) the sensitivity to the phase of testing depends on the genotype; 3) the indices of behavior in the genotypes sensitive to the phase of testing (locomotion in the CBA and defecation in the AKR and C57BL/6 mouse strains) are increased in the dark phase.

  8. RELIMINARY STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF LAVAMISOLE ON THE IMMUNE RESPONSE OF MICE INFECTED WITH LEISHMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Ali Mohammadian

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of various strains of mice to infection by Leishmania tropica (major was recently studied in this laboratory. The infection in A/J, C3H, CBA, AKR/J, AKR/CU, and C57B1 mice (the semi resistant strains remained cutaneous and the animals recovered within 4-6 months. However BALB/c mice developed generalized infection after two months of exposure resulting in death 3-4 months later. When compared to the semi resistant strains, BALB/c mice exhibited a poor delayed hypersensitivity (DH to Leishmania antigen, but a relatively higher humoral response. In this study, the effect of levamisole on modulation of cell mediated immunity, d well as regulation of disease in A/J and BALB/c mice was investigat6d and compared: 1. Thirty days after infection, the titer of antibody in levamisole treated A/J or BALB/c mice was similar to the corresponding untreated control. However, when compared to the controls, the magnitude of DH was decreased in levamisole treated A/J mice but partially increased in similarly treated BALB/c mice. The course and severity of infection was influenced by levamisole treatment in A/J mice. Forty-eight days after infection, approximately 45% of the control mice as compared to 5% of the treated animals exhibited cutaneous ulcers. Furthermore, the mortality rate in the control animals was 27%, whereas, none of the treated. A/J mice died during this period. Similarly 48 days after infection. 100% of the untreated control BALB/c mice and 65% of the, levamisole treated animals developed ulcers. The drug, however, had no effect on the death of the infected BALB/c. Levamisole in doses 2-8 times higher than that used In vivo had no effect on the In vitro proliferation of the organism.

  9. Deutsche Wortpaare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彧

    2007-01-01

    在德语学习过程中,我们经常会碰到一些固定词组,比如:mit Kindund Kegel,durch dick und dünn等等。这些词组在德语中叫做Wortpaar,意思是”对偶词组”。它们的特点是:1.形式固定。一般就是这几个词一起出现,不能用别的词来代替其中的词。2.语音和谐。大部分这类词组都押头韵(Stabreim)或押尾韵(Endreim),读来琅琅上口,方便记忆。3.表达的意思是融合性的。也就是说,它们所表达的意义不是单就这几个单词义所组合起来的,而是整体上表示一种新的意义。

  10. Schreiben Deutsch

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Das DESI-Konstrukt Textproduktion ist in einer dreifachen theoretischen Verortung innerhalb der linguistischen Text-, Schreibprozess- und Schreibentwicklungsforschung, der Curriculumforschung und der empirischen Aufsatzforschung entstanden (vgl. Harsch u.a. 2007). Schreibfähigkeit wird dabei im Sinne der funktionalen Textlinguistik (Brinker 1988; deBeaugrande/Dressler 1981; Nussbaumer 1991) verstanden, bei der Texte als „komplex strukturierte, thematisch wie konzeptuell zusammenhängende sprac...

  11. Implementation of n-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm using resonant interaction in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hong-Fu; Zhang Shou

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement the n-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm based on resonant interaction between the atoms and a single-mode cavity. In the scheme, the resonant transitions between two ground states and one excited state of an atom are changed alternately by adjusting the cavity frequency appropriately, and the operations required to complete the algorithm can be significantly simplified following the increment of the number of qubits. The implementation of the scheme in experiment would show the full power of quantum algorithm and would be significative and important for more complicated quantum algorithm in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  12. Scheme for Implementing Refined Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm via Superconducing Qubits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-Qian; ZHENG Xiao-Hu; CHEN Han-Shuang; YU Ben-Li; WANG Mao-Sheng; ZHANG Gang; CAO Zhuo-Liang

    2008-01-01

    We propose a scheme of implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm based on superconducing charge qubits, which would be a key step to scale more complex quantum algorithms and very important for constructing a real quantum computer via superconducting charge qubits. The present scheme is simple but fairly efficient, and easily manipulated because arbitrary two-qubit can be selectively and effectively coupled by a common inductance. More manipulations can be carried out before decoherence sets in. The proposed scheme is in line with current technology.

  13. Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte, XXVII-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Trimbur

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although Israel has only one German department, in Jerusalem, German studies are flourishing in this country. Not only has the Israeli University system just been enhanced by a new center devoted to this field (in Beer Sheva, under Professor Frank Stern, the Institute of German  History of Tel Aviv University has confirmed its dynamism and capabilities for in-depth work with the publication of the new Tel Aviver Jahrbuch für deutsche Geschichte. Complementing the broad range of works publish...

  14. Deterministic implementations of single-photon multi-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithms with linear optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Liu, Ji-Zhen

    2017-02-01

    It is very important to seek an efficient and robust quantum algorithm demanding less quantum resources. We propose one-photon three-qubit original and refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithms with polarization and two linear momentums degrees of freedom (DOFs). Our schemes are constructed by solely using linear optics. Compared to the traditional ones with one DOF, our schemes are more economic and robust because the necessary photons are reduced from three to one. Our linear-optic schemes are working in a determinate way, and they are feasible with current experimental technology.

  15. Deutsche Bundespost/FTZ activities in the Olympus experimentation program: Ojectives and experiment set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugert, M.

    1989-05-01

    The activities of the Telecommunications Engineering Center (FTZ) of the Deutsche Bundespost in the Olympus Experimentation Program are presented. The various communication experiments which are to be carried out in the framework of the GECO (Group of Experimenters of CEPT Administrations for Olympus) are described. These include: TV news gathering/TV distribution, teleseminar experiments, data distribution to microterminal experiments, SMS-TDMA (time division multiple access) experiments, and TDMA frequency diversity experiments. The applied experiment configurations and the layout and design of the transportable 20/30 GHz earth stations to be used in the experiments are described.

  16. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies: III Deutsch-Südwestafrika (SWA)

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-S dwestafrika (SWA) during the early twentieth century. For the postal history of the First World War in the German colonies Togo, Kamerun and Deutsch-Ostafrika/German East Africa (GEA), see the ASC working papers 116, 117 and 119.

  17. Die Behandlung von arbeitsbezogenen Problemen in deutsch-litauischen Geschäftstelefonaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rūta Eidukevičienė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Beitrag widmet sich einem bis jetzt in Litauen kaum untersuchten Thema, nämlich der deutsch-litauischen geschäftlichen Telefonkommunikation. Das gesamte Korpus besteht aus 42 Telefonaten. Den konkreten Untersuchungsgegenstand dieses Beitrags bildet ein authentisches deutsch-litauisches Geschäftstelefonat, in dem ein berufsbezogenes Problem bzw. ein problematischer Sachverhalt behandelt wird. Das Gespräch wird unternehmensintern im Rahmen einer fest etablierten Zusammenarbeit zwischen einer deutschen Mitarbeiterin des Stammhauses in Deutschland und einer litauischen Kollegin in der litauischen Niederlassung geführt. Bei der exemplarischen Analyse des Telefonats wird auf Ansätze der traditionellen amerikanischen Konversationsanalyse und der sich später im deutschsprachigen Raum etablierten Handlungsmusteranalyse zurückgegriffen. Auf dieser methodischen Grundlage werden die einzelnen Handlungssequenzen des Telefonats rekonstruiert und die von den Beteiligten zu bewältigenden Interaktionsaufgaben sowie deren Realisierung erläutert. Darüber hinaus wird deutlich gemacht, wie sich die Beteiligten am institutionellen und interkulturellen Kontext der Kommunikation orientieren bzw. inwieweit sie diese Kontexte als handlungsrelevant betrachten.

  18. 胆囊胆固醇结石易患鼠和免患鼠肝胆脂质代谢和分泌的差别%Differences between hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism and secretion in genetically gallstone-susceptible and gallstone-resistant mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国强; 赵力; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate differences between hepatic and biliary lipid metabolism and secretion of genetically gallstone-susceptible (C57L) and resistant (AKR) mice and the mechanism of cholesterol gallstone formation.Methods The inbred C57L and AKR mice were fed a lithogenic diet containing 15% fat, 1.25% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid for four weeks. Hepatic cholesterol content and secretion rates of biliary lipids, as well as phenotypes of the liver and gallbladder were determined and examined before and after the feeding of the lithogenic diet. Results Both before and after ingestion of the lithogenic diet, hepatic secretion rates of all biliary lipids in C57L mice were markedly higher than that of AKR mice (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively), whereas hepatic cholesterol contents of C57L mice were significantly lower than that of AKR mice (P<0.05). Furthermore, after consumption of the lithogenic diet, the increase in hepatic secretion rate of biliary cholesterol in C57L mice was significantly higher than that in AKR mice (P<0.01). Cholesterol gallstones formed in C57L mice and fatty livers developed in AKR mice. Conclusions Biliary cholesterol hypersecretion is the key pathophysiological defect of gallstone formation, lith genes have effects on biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in C57L mice. Lithogenic bile is formed at the canalicular membrane and precedes the development of cholesterol gallstones. It is most likely that cholesterol and bile acid hyposecretion make the AKR strain susceptible to the development of fatty livers and resistant to gallstone formation.%目的研究胆囊胆固醇结石易患鼠(C57L)和免患鼠(AKR)肝胆脂质代谢和分泌的特征以及胆囊胆固醇结石形成的机制.方法用含15%脂肪、1.25%胆固醇和0.5%胆酸的结石餐饲喂C57L和AKR鼠四周,检测并比较两种鼠在结石餐干预前、后肝脏胆固醇含量、肝内胆汁中脂质的分泌率以及胆

  19. Deutsche Fachsprachen: alte und neue Erfahrungen mit dem Begriff ‚Kultur’ in den Geisteswissenschaften und im Bereich Deutsch als Fremdsprache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. P. Monteiro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Nas áreas de estudos Alemão como Língua Estrangeira e Alemão para Fins Específicos é evidente, nos últimos anos, o uso inflacionário e até, às vezes, impróprio, de conceitos relacionados aos adjetivos cultural e intercultural. Frequentemente, os conceitos são usados de tal forma que apenas servem para fomentar o crescimento, a fixação e a difusão de estereótipos e preconceitos. No semestre de inverno 2006/07 foi oferecido um curso denominado “Fachsprachen und Kultur” (Magisterstudiengang Deutsch als Fremdsprache, no qual deveriam ser estudados os conceitos de cultura usados nas diferentes disciplinas. Aqui são apresentadas as conclusões de alguns participantes sobre o uso do conceito nas suas áreas principais ou secundárias. Os resulta dos mostram que se faz urgente e necessário ocupar-se com os conceitos de cultura que vigoram em nossa disciplina, para que estereótipos não se tornem a base de uma didática do Alemão como Língua Estrangeira.

  20. Expression of the prostaglandin F synthase AKR1B1 and the prostaglandin transporter SLCO2A1 in human fetal membranes in relation to spontaneous term and preterm labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana A Alzamil

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human labour is a complex series of cellular and molecular events that occur at the materno-fetal and uterine levels. Many hypotheses have been proposed for the initiation of human labour, one hypothesis suggests that maturation of the fetus releases a signal in the amniotic fluid that will be transmitted to myometrium via the fetal membranes and initiate uterine contractions. There is strong evidence that prostaglandins (PGs play a central role in initiation and progression of human labour. Objectives: In this study we intended to investigate the expression of prostaglandin F synthase and the prostaglandin transporter in the human fetal membranes and to explore the relationship between cytokines and PGs in the mechanism of human labour. Methods: We used fetal membranes obtained before labour at term and after spontaneous labour at term or preterm to identify the changes in prostaglandin F synthase (AKR1B1 and human prostaglandin transporter (SLCO2A1 proteins in relation to parturition. Using fetal membranes explants we tested the effect of cytokines (interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor alpha on PG production and the concomitant changes in cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2, AKR1B1 and SLCO2A1 expression. Results: Expression of PTGS2 and AKR1B1 was upregulated in the fetal membranes in association with term labour while SLCO2A1 was downregulated with advancing gestation and during term labour. Before labour, IL-1 increased the expression of PTGS2, however during labour TNF upregulated PTGS2 and AKR1B1 proteins. Conclusions: The prostaglandin F synthase AKR1B1 is upregulated while prostaglandin transporter is downregulated during term labour. The amnion is more responsive than choriodecidua to stimulation with pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mechanisms of term and preterm labour are different.

  1. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies : III Deutsch-Südwestafrika (SWA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-S dwestafrika (SWA) during the early twentieth century. For the

  2. High-Content Functional Screening of AEG-1 and AKR1C2 for the Promotion of Metastasis in Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Liu, Huawei; Hao, Ming; Wang, Junsong; Zhang, Honghai; Yang, Gengxia; Hao, Meijun; Sheng, Shoupeng; Sun, Yu; Long, Jiang; Li, Juan; Zhuang, Fengfeng; Hu, Caixia; Li, Li; Zheng, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most lethal cancer types in humans, but our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process remains insufficient. Here, we conducted high-content screening of the potential genes involved in liver cancer metastasis, which we selected from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database, based on the SAMcell method and RNA interference technology. We identified two powerful genes in the liver cancer metastasis process, AEG-1 and AKR1C2, both of which proved to be positive regulators in promoting metastasis in liver cancer. Further clinical results verified their roles in liver cancer. In summary, these findings could provide new insight into the liver cancer mechanism and potentially therapeutic novel targets for liver cancer therapies in the future.

  3. Schreibkompetenz in der Zielsprache Deutsch in einem mehrsprachigen Schweizer Kontext: Zur Entwicklung von Basisstandards am Beispiel eines bilingualen Schulmodells (Romanisch-Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Peyer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Im Fokus dieses Artikels stehen Verfahren zur Erarbeitung von Basisstandards (Grundkompetenzen für die Schreibkompetenz in Deutsch in einem mehrsprachigen Kontext. Gegenstand derUntersuchungen ist die bilinguale Schule der bündnerromanischen Minderheit der Schweiz. Basierend auf qualitativ validierten Kann-Beschreibungen wurden kommunikative Testaufgaben entwickelt und bei einer grossen Stichprobe (N = 325 eingesetzt; die entstandenen Lernertextewurden mithilfe eines analytischen Ratings eingestuft. Nebst dem Verfahren des Standard-Settings werden an dieser Stelleauch Resultate der quantitativen Auswertung der Daten diskutiert. Beispielsweise zeigte sich im Rahmen von Multifacetten-Rasch-Analysen, dass die Bewertungskriterien ‚lexikalisches Spektrum‘, ,grammatikalisches Spektrum‘ und ‚Kohärenz‘ besonders hoch korrelieren und somit tentativ alseine Schreibkompetenz-Dimension interpretiert werden können. Using the example of the bilingual school for the Romansh-German minority group, this study describes procedures forestablishing minimum standards for writing competence in German in a multilingual context. Based on qualitatively vali-dated can-do descriptions communication test tasks were formulated and administered to a large sample (N=325. The resulting learner texts were subsequently classified with the help of an analytical rating scale. In addition to discussing the procedure used for the setting of standards the results of a quantitative evaluation of the data are presented.For instance, a multi-facetted Rasch analysis showed that therating criteria ‘lexical range’, ‘grammatical range’ and ‘coherence’ correlated particularly highly and can thus be tentatively interpreted as a single dimension of writing competence.

  4. Amerikas Einschätzung der deutschen Atomforschung: Das deutsche Uranprojekt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark

    2002-07-01

    Die amerikanischen Wissenschaftler und ihre emigrierten Kollegen, die am Bau der Atombombe beteiligt waren, verfügten über sehr widersprüchliche und großteils falsche Informationen über den Fortschritt des deutschen Uranprogramms. Noch nach Kriegsende lässt sich dies an Aussagen des Leiters der amerikanischen Alsos-Mission, Samuel Goudsmit, festmachen. Tatsächlich war das deutsche Programm hinsichtlich seiner wissenschaftlichen Grundlagen und des Managements nicht so unterlegen, wie vielfach behauptet wurde. Aber die deutschen Behörden waren nicht in der Lage, Geld und Ressourcen in gleichem Maße in das Uranprojekt zu investieren, wie etwa in das Peenemünder Raketenprojekt.

  5. The competitive strength of German brown coal; Deutsche Braunkohle im Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, D.

    1997-01-01

    On the occasion of a celebration on 4 December 1996, Dr.-Ing. Dieter Henning, Chairman of the Board of Rheinbraun-AG, outlined the changes in the energy-political boundary conditions in Germany and Europe, strategies for maintaining the competitive strength of brown coal, and the importance of this feld of industry, and especially of the Garzweiler II oopen-cast mine, for the structural development of the Rhenish brown coal district. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die gemeinsame Barbara-Feier am 4. Dezember 1996 in der Erfthalle Kerpen-Tuernich war dem Vorstandsvorsitzenden der Rheinbraun AG, Bergwerksdirektor Dr.-Ing. Dieter Henning Anlass genug, von den Fuehrungskraeften des Rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbaus und den Bergingenieuren vom Bezirksverein Rheinische Braunkohle, die Veraenderungen der energiewirtschaftlichen Rahmenbedingungen in Deutschland und Europa, die Sicherung der Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit der Braunkohle und die Bedeutung dieses Industriezweiges und vor allem von Garzweiler II fuer die strukturelle Entwicklung des rheinischen Reviers, darzulegen. (orig.)

  6. From Globalization to Liquidation: The Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and the First World War in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Moazzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and its liquidation during the First World War to examine the challenges faced by German businesses during the war in China and China’s involvement in Allied economic warfare. This case suggests the detrimental effect that political crises and global shifts of power had on foreign businesses in modern China’s globalized treaty port economy. It also reveals China’s role in the global economic warfare of the Allies, showing that China first resisted Allied demands for a full liquidation of the German bank but eventually acquiesced to Allied pressure and handed control over the liquidation to the Allies. As a consequence, China ended up violating the very international law it had put so much value on when entering the war.

  7. Von schnellen Teilchen und hellem Licht 50 Jahre Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Lohrmann, Erich

    2009-01-01

    Das 1959 in Hamburg als Zentrum für Elementarteilchenforschung gegründete "Deutsche Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY" gelangte durch Pionierleistungen in der Entwicklung von Hochenergie-Beschleunigern und Speicherringen zu weltweiter Anerkennung. Seiner internationalen Nutzergemeinde sind eine Reihe wichtiger Entdeckungen über die Materiebausteine Quarks und Gluonen und die Kräfte, welche die Welt im Innersten zusammenhalten, zu verdanken. Zusätzlich wurde die Synchrotronstrahlung für breite Anwendungsgebiete erschlossen und ihre Nutzung systematisch ausgebaut mit Ergebnissen, die gleichrangig neben denen in der Teilchenforschung stehen. Dieses Buch behandelt die Entwicklung des Forschungszentrums von den Anfängen bis in das Jahr 2003, in dem mit dem Beschluss zum Bau des Europäischen Röntgenlasers in Hamburg eine Änderung der Schwerpunktsetzung in der Beschleunigerentwicklung erfolgte, die seitdem auf neuartige Photonenquellen gerichtet ist. Die wichtigsten nachfolgenden Ereignisse werden ebenfalls kurz...

  8. Cybernetics and Social Order. Models and Images of Society in Norbert Wiener and Karl Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carradore

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution aims at defining the relation between cybernetics and social theory from the perspective of society as order. After an historical framework of the cybernetic movement, a careful reading of the works of Norbert Wiener, in which he introduced the concept of feed-back and the idea of information society, has revealed a keen awareness about the social effects of technological innovation. Among the social scientists who had made use of cybernetic concepts, it has been considered the work of Karl Deutsch, which was one of the first completely cybernetic perspective for the study of political and social phenomena. The main conclusion is that cybernetics, as a meeting point between different disciplines, has produced an image of self-regulated society in line with the image of society as order.

  9. Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode: An Audio-Lingual-Oral Approach to the Teaching of German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson Public Schools, ND. Instructional Media Center.

    This teaching guide, designed to accompany Chilton's "Deutsch Durch Audio-Visuelle Methode" for German 1 and 2 in a three-year secondary school program, focuses major attention on the operational plan of the program and a student orientation unit. A section on teaching a unit discusses four phases: (1) presentation, (2) explanation, (3)…

  10. Social Psychological Consequences of Interpersonal Relations: A Confirmatory Approach to Testing Deutsch's Theory of Cooperation and Conflict Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quahwu

    This study tested M. Deutsch's theory of cooperation and conflict resolution using an intervention project at an inner city alternative high school in New York City. The study was designed to test the theory by confirmatory structural modeling and by evaluating the intervention. The procedure involved a pre- and post-test procedure administered…

  11. Sex reversal in C57BL/6J XY mice caused by increased expression of ovarian genes and insufficient activation of the testis determining pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Correa

    Full Text Available Sex reversal can occur in XY humans with only a single functional WT1 or SF1 allele or a duplication of the chromosome region containing WNT4. In contrast, XY mice with only a single functional Wt1, Sf1, or Wnt4 allele, or mice that over-express Wnt4 from a transgene, reportedly are not sex-reversed. Because genetic background plays a critical role in testis differentiation, particularly in C57BL/6J (B6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that Wt1, Sf1, and Wnt4 are dosage sensitive in B6 XY mice. We found that reduced Wt1 or Sf1 dosage in B6 XY(B6 mice impaired testis differentiation, but no ovarian tissue developed. If, however, a Y(AKR chromosome replaced the Y(B6 chromosome, these otherwise genetically identical B6 XY mice developed ovarian tissue. In contrast, reduced Wnt4 dosage increased the amount of testicular tissue present in Sf1+/- B6 XY(AKR, Wt1+/- B6 XY(AKR, B6 XY(POS, and B6 XY(AKR fetuses. We propose that Wt1(B6 and Sf1(B6 are hypomorphic alleles of testis-determining pathway genes and that Wnt4(B6 is a hypermorphic allele of an ovary-determining pathway gene. The latter hypothesis is supported by the finding that expression of Wnt4 and four other genes in the ovary-determining pathway are elevated in normal B6 XX E12.5 ovaries. We propose that B6 mice are sensitive to XY sex reversal, at least in part, because they carry Wt1(B6 and/or Sf1(B6 alleles that compromise testis differentiation and a Wnt4(B6 allele that promotes ovary differentiation and thereby antagonizes testis differentiation. Addition of a "weak" Sry allele, such as the one on the Y(POS chromosome, to the sensitized B6 background results in inappropriate development of ovarian tissue. We conclude that Wt1, Sf1, and Wnt4 are dosage-sensitive in mice, this dosage-sensitivity is genetic background-dependant, and the mouse strains described here are good models for the investigation of human dosage-sensitive XY sex reversal.

  12. The mtDNA nt7778 G/T polymorphism augments formation of lymphocytic foci but does not aggravate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Müller

    Full Text Available A polymorphism in the ATP synthase 8 (ATP8 gene of the murine mitochondrial genome, G-to-T transversion at position 7778, has been suggested to increase susceptibility to multiple autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP. The polymorphism also induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, secretory dysfunction and β-cell mass adaptation. Here, we have used two conplastic mouse strains, C57BL/6N-mtAKR/J (B6-mtAKR; nt7778 G; control and C57BL/6N-mtFVB/N (B6-mtFVB; nt7778 T, to address the question if the polymorphism also affects the course of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Therefore, two age groups of mice (3 and 12-month-old, respectively were subjected to up to 7 injections of the secretagogue cerulein (50 µg/kg body weight at hourly intervals. Disease severity was assessed at time points from 3 hours to 7 days based on pancreatic histopathology, serum levels of α-amylase and activities of myeloperoxidase (MPO in lung tissue. A comparison of cerulein-induced pancreatic tissue damage and increases of α-amylase and MPO activities showed no differences between the age-matched groups of both strains. Interestingly, histological evaluation of pancreatic tissue of both untreated and cerulein-treated B6-mtAKR and B6-mtFVB mice also revealed the presence of infiltrates of immune cells surrounding ducts and vessels; a finding that is compatible with an early stage of AIP. After recovery from cerulein-induced pancreatitis (day 7 after the injections, 12-month-old B6-mtFVB mice but not B6-mtAKR mice displayed aggravated lymphocytic lesions. A comparison of 12-month-old mice with other age groups of both strains revealed that lymphocytic foci were largely absent in 3-month-old mice, while 24-month-old mice were more affected. Together, our data suggest that the mtDNA nt7778 G/T polymorphism does not aggravate cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Autoimmune-like lesions, however, may progress faster if

  13. Analysis of the incubation periods, induction of obesity and histopathological changes in senescence-prone and senescence-resistant mice infected with various scrapie strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, R I; Meeker, H; Sersen, E; Kozlowski, P

    1998-11-01

    The similarity in histopathological changes seen in scrapie-infected mice and in an uninfected senescence-accelerated mouse strain led to a study in which the mouse strain that is prone to senescence (SAMP8), a strain that is resistant to senescence (SAMR1) and a progenitor strain (AKR) of these two strains were infected with three different scrapie strains, ME7, 139A and 22L. For each scrapie strain, the incubation period was shortest in AKR mice and longest in SAMR1 mice. The induction of obesity was a function of scrapie strain and not mouse strain; ME7 caused obesity in all mouse strains, whereas the average weights of mice injected with 139A and 22L did not differ significantly from mice injected with homogenates of normal mouse brain. The pattern of vacuolation seen in the brain of each mouse strain was primarily dependent on the scrapie strain injected. There were, in general, similarities to the patterns induced in other inbred strains; e.g. ME7 caused extensive forebrain vacuolation, 22L caused prominent vacuolation in the cerebellum, and the 139A strain induced characteristic white matter vacuolation. Vacuolation was also seen in the medulla and midbrain of SAMP8 mice injected with normal mouse brain, which is consistent with the occurrence of accelerated ageing changes in the brain of this strain. Further analysis of the differences among these mouse strains should provide information relating to the observed differences in scrapie incubation periods.

  14. Trauer und Tourismus. Reisen des Volksbundes Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge 1950–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Kolbe

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The German War Grave Commission (Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge, VDK has offered package tours to the German war graves of World War II in Western Europe since 1950, and since 1990/91 increasingly also to Eastern Europe. Based on a study of the actors’ practices, the article identifies the generation-specific, gender-specific and societal functions of these tours and their change over time. Despite several generational changes in the traveller groups and partly modified interpretations of WWII, some of the tours’ functions remained constant. To this day, they provide a place of mourning for the relatives of soldiers killed in action. Besides this function of remembrance, they also had the social function of building a community of experience of mourners and war victims – initially for the war widows, later for their children and grandchildren. Finally, the tours made it possible for certain groups to undertake tourist trips abroad which they could not have attempted alone – during the first post-war decades, particularly war widows with little or no travel experience (to Western Europe; since 1990/91, the generation of aged veterans (to Eastern Europe. The article draws on a wide range of VDK archival material that reveals perspectives of the organisation as well as preferences and practices of the travellers. * * * Seit 1950 bot der Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge (VDK Gruppenreisen zu den deutschen Kriegsgräberstätten des Zweiten Weltkriegs in Westeuropa an, seit 1990/91 vermehrt auch Reisen nach Osteuropa. Ausgehend von den Praktiken der Akteure arbeitet der Beitrag die generationenspezifischen, geschlechterspezifischen und gesellschaftlichen Funktionen dieser Reisen im zeitlichen Wandel heraus. Trotz des mehrfachen Generationenwechsels der Klientel und teilweise veränderter Deutungen des Zweiten Weltkriegs blieben einige Funktionen der Reisen gleich. Bis heute bieten sie den Angehörigen gefallener Soldaten

  15. The German coal market in 1999; Der deutsche Steinkohlenmarkt im Jahr 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semrau, G. [Kohlenwirtschaft e.V., Essen (Germany); Cosack, C. [Gesamtverband des Deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Essen (Germany)

    2000-04-13

    With about 65 mill. t coal units the coal market in Germany is currently the largest in western Europe. German coal covered a good 60% of this market in 1999. Imported coal accounted for the remaining 40%. The sales of the German coal mining industry again fell considerably in 1999. Part of this reduction is a consequence of the financial aid specified in the coal policy agreement of March 1997. However, the sale of indigenous coal came under further pressure because of the fall of international coal prices and the reduction of coal freight rates. The collieries reacted to this trend by cutting output to about 40.5 mill. t. The coal agreement of March 1997 provides an assured future for German coal until 2005. It also forms the basis for reorganisation of the management of the German coal mining industry: Since 1 January 1999 all German collieries have been united under one roof. Because of the deterioration in external boundary conditions, however, DSK had to bring forward retrenchment measures. The new mining plan provides for output of 26 mill. t coal units with a work-force of 36000 up to the year 2005. (orig.) [German] Der Steinkohlenmarkt in Deutschland ist mit derzeit rund 65 Mill. t SKE der groesste in Westeuropa. Die deutsche Steinkohle deckte 1999 gut 60% dieses Markts ab. Die restlichen knapp 40% entfielen auf die Importkohlen, die ihren Beitrag mit gut 24 Mill. t SKE behaupteten. Der Hauptanteil dieser Importe kam dabei aus Polen und Suedafrika. Der Absatz des deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus ist im Jahr 1999 weiter erheblich zurueckgenommen worden. Ein Teil dieses Rueckgangs ist Folge der in der kohlenpolitischen Vereinbarung vom Maerz 1997 festgelegten Finanzhilfen. Der Absatz heimischer Steinkohlen geriet aber weiter unter Druck wegen des Verfalls der internationalen Kohlenpreise und des Einbruchs bei den Kohlenfrachtraten. Hinzu kam die bis Mitte 1999 dauernde Stahlkrise. Die Bergbaubetriebe haben auf diese Entwicklung entsprechend reagiert und die

  16. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  17. Identification of bacterial strains by laboratories participating in the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum quality assurance programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, R; Reubsaet, F A G

    2007-10-01

    The quality assurance programme (QAP) of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) is a proficiency testing system developed to service the laboratory animal discipline. QAP comprises the quarterly distribution of two bacterial strains originating from various species of animals for identification to the species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing. We compared identification results reported by QAP participants over the years 1996-2004 with those obtained by the Dutch Bacterial Diagnostics reference laboratory on 68 samples comprising 71 bacterial strains and a fungus. Significant differences were found in the frequency of reported and correct identifications when bacteria were assigned to different groups based on morphology by Gram stain and on origin (animal versus environmental, rodent and rabbit versus other animal species, pathogen versus non-pathogens). Rodent and rabbit pathogens yielded 73% correct identifications, and with all bacterial strains only 60% of the identifications were correct. We assume that most QAP participants were from laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories. If this is true, the capabilities of laboratories in the laboratory animal discipline to correctly identify bacterial species are well below what are considered acceptable limits for human diagnostic laboratories. The distribution of cultured bacteria circumvents the most difficult step in the microbiological monitoring of animals, namely primary culture from clinical samples. We propose to set up a QAP that comprises the distribution of specimens mimicking clinical samples normally submitted to laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories.

  18. Vibrational molecular quantum computing: basis set independence and theoretical realization of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, Carmen M; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2004-12-22

    The phase of quantum gates is one key issue for the implementation of quantum algorithms. In this paper we first investigate the phase evolution of global molecular quantum gates, which are realized by optimally shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The specific laser fields are calculated using the multitarget optimal control algorithm, our modification of the optimal control theory relevant for application in quantum computing. As qubit system we use vibrational modes of polyatomic molecules, here the two IR-active modes of acetylene. Exemplarily, we present our results for a Pi gate, which shows a strong dependence on the phase, leading to a significant decrease in quantum yield. To correct for this unwanted behavior we include pressure on the quantum phase in our multitarget approach. In addition the accuracy of these phase corrected global quantum gates is enhanced. Furthermore we could show that in our molecular approach phase corrected quantum gates and basis set independence are directly linked. Basis set independence is also another property highly required for the performance of quantum algorithms. By realizing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm in our two qubit molecular model system, we demonstrate the good performance of our phase corrected and basis set independent quantum gates.

  19. Differential gene expression between squamous cell carcinoma of esophageus and its normal epithelium;altered pattern of mal,akr1c2,and rab11a expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sakineh Kazemi-Noureini; Sergio Colonna-Romano; Abed-Ali Ziaee; Mohammad-Ali Malboobi; Mansour Yazdanbod; Parviz Setayeshgar; Bruno Maresca

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To identify the altered gene expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus (ESCC) in relation to adjacent normal esophageal epithelium.METHODS: Total RNA was extracted using SV total RNA isolation kit from snap frozen tissues of ESCC samples and normal esophageal epithelium far from the tumor. Radiolabeled cDNA were synthesized from equal quantities of total RNAs of tumor and normal tissues using combinations of 24 arbitrary 13-mer primers and three different anchoring oligo-dT primers and separated on sequencing gels. cDNA with considerable different amounts of signals in tumor and normal tissue were reamplified and cloned.Using southern blot, the clones of each band were controlled for false positive results caused by probable heterogeneity of cDNA population with the same size. Clones that confirmed differential expression by slot blot selected for sequencing and northern analysis. Corresponding full-length gene sequences was predicted using human genome project data, related transcripts were translated and used for various protein/motif searches to speculate their probable functions.RESULTS: The 97 genes showed different levels of cDNA in tumor and normal tissues of esophagus. The expression of mai gene was remarkably down regulated in all 10surveyed tumor tissues. Akr1c2, a member of the aldoketo reductase 1C family, which is involved in metabolism of sex hormones and xenobiotics, was up-regulated in 8out of 10 inspected ESCC samples. Rab11a, RPL7, and RPL28 showed moderate levels of differential expression.Many other cDNAs remained to further studies.CONCLUSION: The mai gene which is switched-off in all ESCC samples can be considered as a tumor suppressor gene that more studies in its regulation may lead to valuable explanations in ESCC development. Akr1c2 which is upregulated in ESCC probably plays an important role in tumor development of esophagus and may be proposed as a potential molecular target in ESCC treatments. Differential

  20. Association analysis of ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic renal insufficiency among Asian Indians with type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Arvind

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine association of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ADP ribosyltransferase-1 (ADPRT1, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B1 (AKR1B1, receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase-2 (GFPT2, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 genes with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI among Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes; and to identify epistatic interactionss between genes from the present study and those from renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS, and chemokine-cytokine, dopaminergic and oxidative stress pathways (previously investigated using the same sample set. Methods Type 2 diabetes subjects with CRI (serum creatinine ≥3.0 mg/dl constituted the cases (n = 196, and ethnicity and age matched individuals with diabetes for a duration of ≥ 10 years, normal renal functions and normoalbuminuria recruited as controls (n = 225. Allelic and genotypic constitution of 10 polymorphisms (SNPs from five genes namely- ADPRT1, AKR1B1, RAGE, GFPT2 and PAI-1 with diabetic CRI was investigated. The genetic associations were evaluated by computation of odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to correlate various clinical parameters with genotypes, and to study epistatic interactions between SNPs in different genes. Results Single nucleotide polymorphisms -429 T>C in RAGE and rs7725 C>T SNP in 3' UTR in GFPT2 gene showed a trend towards association with diabetic CRI. Investigation using miRBase statistical tool revealed that rs7725 in GFPT2 was a perfect target for predicted miRNA (hsa miR-378 suggesting the presence of the variant 'T' allele may result in an upregulation of GFPT2 contributing to diabetic renal complication. Epistatic interaction between SNPs in transforming growth factor TGF-β1 (investigated using the same sample set and reported elsewhere and GFPT2 genotype was observed. Conclusions

  1. A scheme to implement the Deutsch-Josza algorithm on a superconducting charge-qubit quantum computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Wenyi; LONG Guilu

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the implementation of the Deutsch-Josza quantum algorithm in a superconducting charge-qubit quantum computer. Different from previous studies, we have used the inductance coupled system of You et al. The detailed pulse sequences have been designed for the four possible functions in a 2-qubit system. The result is generalized to an arbitrary n-qubit system. This scheme will be useful for practical implementation of the algorithm.

  2. Schemes of implementation in NMR of quantum processors and Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by using virtual spin representation

    OpenAIRE

    Kessel, Alexander R.; Yakovleva, Natalia M.

    2002-01-01

    Schemes of experimental realization of the main two qubit processors for quantum computers and Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm are derived in virtual spin representation. The results are applicable for every four quantum states allowing the required properties for quantum processor implementation if for qubit encoding virtual spin representation is used. Four dimensional Hilbert space of nuclear spin 3/2 is considered in details for this aim

  3. Implementing the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by using Schr(o)dinger cat states in cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Rong-Can; Li Hong-Cai; Lin Xiu; Chen Mei-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme to implement the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm by using Schr(o)dinger cat states in cavity quantum electron-dynamics (QED). The scheme is based on the Raman interaction of a degenerate three-level A-type atom with a coherent state in a cavity. By using Schr(o)dinger cat states, the atomic spontaneous emission can be minimized and the Hadamard transformation in our scheme is not needed.

  4. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies: IV Deutsch-Ostafrika / German East Africa (GEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-Ostafrika/German East Africa (GEA) during the early twentieth century. For the postal history of the First World War in the German colonies Togo, Kamerun and Deutsch-Südwestafrika (SWA), see the ASC working papers 116, 117 and 118.

  5. Implementation of a Deutsch-like quantum algorithm utilizing entanglement at the two-qubit level on an NMR quantum-information processor

    OpenAIRE

    Dorai, Kavita; Arvind; Kumar, Anil

    2001-01-01

    We describe the experimental implementation of a recently proposed quantum algorithm involving quantum entanglement at the level of two qubits using NMR. The algorithm solves a generalisation of the Deutsch problem and distinguishes between even and odd functions using fewer function calls than is possible classically. The manipulation of entangled states of the two qubits is essential here, unlike the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm and the Grover's search algorithm for two bits.

  6. DEWEK 2000: 5. German wind energy conference. Proceedings; DEWEK 2000: 5. Deutsche Windenergiekonferenz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purroy, B. (comp.)

    2000-07-01

    world since the meeting is not only directed to scientists and engineers but will also be of interest for bankers, developers and users. Conference subjects will focus on the technical development of 2 MW plus wind turbines and the special problems -solved and unsolved - of wind energy utilisation in complex terrain and in the offshore area. (orig.) [German] Die Deutsche Windenergie-Konferenz wird vom DEWI zum fuenften Mal veranstaltet, eine Konferenz, die sich in den letzten Jahren als ''The Technical Conference'' etablierte. Der Tradition folgend ist die Konferenz trotz der Themenfuelle wieder auf zwei Tage beschraenkt, damit auch dem Vielbeschaeftigten die Moeglichkeit geboten wird, sich ueber die neuesten technischen und wissenschaftlichen Entwicklungen und Erfahrungen aus dem Bereich der Windenergie zu informieren. Die schnelle, weltweite Verbreitung der Windenergie, mit den daraus resultierenden neuen Herausforderungen fuer Technik und Betrieb, veranlasste uns, noch staerker als frueher darauf zu achten, die Verbindung zwischen Theorie und Anwendung bei der Auswahl der Themenschwerpunkte sicherzustellen. Mit 109 eingesandten Vortragsvorschlaegen, darunter 27 englischsprachigen aus 17 Laendern, erreichte die DEWEK 2000 bisher schon eine sehr gute Resonanz. Erstmals wird es bei der DEWEK eine Simultanuebersetzung Deutsch-Englisch geben, damit auch unseren auslaendischen Gaesten eine Teilnahme moeglich ist. Die ausserordentlich hohe Qualitaet der Vortragsvorschlaege machten es uns diesmal besonders schwer, die erforderliche Unterscheidung zwischen Vortrag und Poster zu treffen. In einem Umfang wie niemals zuvor werden in den Berichten ganz konkrete Themen aus der Anwendung der Windenergie behandelt, ein Spiegel der von Standort zu Standort sich aendernden Einsatzbedingungen einer sich weltweit rasant ausbreitenden neuen Energietechnologie. Wir glauben mit unserer Erfahrung die richtige Auswahl der Vortraege getroffen zu haben und hoffen Ihnen

  7. An Implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm on Molecular Vibronic Coherences Through Four-Wave Mixing a Theoretical Study

    CERN Document Server

    Bihary, Z; Lidar, D A; Apkarian, V A; Bihary, Zsolt; Glenn, David R.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2002-01-01

    Time-Frequency Resolved Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (TFRCARS) was recently proposed as a means to implement quantum logic using the molecular ro-vibrational manifold as a quantum register [R. Zadoyan et al., Chem. Phys. 266, 323 (2001)]. We give a concrete example of how this can be accomplished through an illustrative algorithm that solves the Deutsch-Jozsa problem. We use realistic molecular parameters to recognize that, as the problem size expands, shaped pulses must be tailored to maintain fidelity of the algorithm.

  8. DEWEK 2000: 5. German wind energy conference. Proceedings; DEWEK 2000: 5. Deutsche Windenergiekonferenz. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purroy, B. (comp.)

    2000-07-01

    world since the meeting is not only directed to scientists and engineers but will also be of interest for bankers, developers and users. Conference subjects will focus on the technical development of 2 MW plus wind turbines and the special problems -solved and unsolved - of wind energy utilisation in complex terrain and in the offshore area. (orig.) [German] Die Deutsche Windenergie-Konferenz wird vom DEWI zum fuenften Mal veranstaltet, eine Konferenz, die sich in den letzten Jahren als ''The Technical Conference'' etablierte. Der Tradition folgend ist die Konferenz trotz der Themenfuelle wieder auf zwei Tage beschraenkt, damit auch dem Vielbeschaeftigten die Moeglichkeit geboten wird, sich ueber die neuesten technischen und wissenschaftlichen Entwicklungen und Erfahrungen aus dem Bereich der Windenergie zu informieren. Die schnelle, weltweite Verbreitung der Windenergie, mit den daraus resultierenden neuen Herausforderungen fuer Technik und Betrieb, veranlasste uns, noch staerker als frueher darauf zu achten, die Verbindung zwischen Theorie und Anwendung bei der Auswahl der Themenschwerpunkte sicherzustellen. Mit 109 eingesandten Vortragsvorschlaegen, darunter 27 englischsprachigen aus 17 Laendern, erreichte die DEWEK 2000 bisher schon eine sehr gute Resonanz. Erstmals wird es bei der DEWEK eine Simultanuebersetzung Deutsch-Englisch geben, damit auch unseren auslaendischen Gaesten eine Teilnahme moeglich ist. Die ausserordentlich hohe Qualitaet der Vortragsvorschlaege machten es uns diesmal besonders schwer, die erforderliche Unterscheidung zwischen Vortrag und Poster zu treffen. In einem Umfang wie niemals zuvor werden in den Berichten ganz konkrete Themen aus der Anwendung der Windenergie behandelt, ein Spiegel der von Standort zu Standort sich aendernden Einsatzbedingungen einer sich weltweit rasant ausbreitenden neuen Energietechnologie. Wir glauben mit unserer Erfahrung die richtige Auswahl der Vortraege getroffen zu haben und hoffen Ihnen

  9. Influence of Trypanosoma cruzi strain on the pathogenesis of chronic myocardiopathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The murine model of chronic Chaga's myocardiopathy was developed in 201 inbred and outbred mice. The experimental groups consisted of 1st: 73 inbred AKR and A/J mice inoculated with one of the following. Trypanosoma cruzi strains: Peruvian (Type I, 12 SF (Type II or Colombian (Type III; 2nd: 128 outbred Swiss mice, chronically infected either with Type II or Type III strains isolated from human patients from different geographical areas. All T. cruzi strains were previoulsly characterized by their morphobiological behaviour in mice and by isoenzymatic patterns. For the 1st group the inoculum was 5 x 10**4 for the Peruvian strain and 1 x 10**5 for the 12 SF and Colombian strains. In the 2nd group-Swiss mice the inoculum size varied from 2 x 10**4 to 2 x 10**5. The inbred animals were killed at a 3 time-point scale (90, 180 and 240 days post-infection. The Swiss mice were killed from 180 to 660 days after infection. The evaluation of parasitemia and serology (xeodiagnosis and indirect immunofluorescent test was performed. The incidence of macroscopic alterations of the heart and cardiac index were evaluated. Histopathological lesions of the myocardium were graded. The influence of T. cruzi strain on the intensity of cardiac lesions was evaluated by the Chi-square test; the incidence of inflammatory lesions and its relationship to the parasite strain was evaluated by the Fisher test. The influence of the duration of infection was evaluated by using the Gamma Coefficient of Kruskal and Goodman and its measure of significance. Slight to severe microscopic alterations occurred in 85% of the chronically infected nice. There were a clear predominance on the incidence and intensity of inflammatory and fibrotic alterations for the mice infected with Type III strains. Statistical analysis has shown significant differences among the infected groups, in the inflammatory and fibrotic lesions. Macroscopic alterations (right cavities dilatation and apex

  10. Natural gas. Reserves - exploration - production. Glossary. German - English - French - Russian; Erdgas. Reserven - Exploration - Produktion. Glossar. Deutsch - Englisch - Franzoesisch -Russisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, H.; Bandlowa, T.; Guerber, B.; Kosinowski, M.; Sedlacek, R.

    1997-12-31

    International cooperation in the natural gas sector has intensified considerably during the last several years, particularly between the east and the west. This has made it necessary for the most important terms in the fields of geology, economic geology and production technology to be used in the same sense. The various national and regional classification systems for natural gas reserves and wells also need to be correlated. For these reasons, the `Working Party on Gas` of the European Economic Commission of the United Nations in Geneva prepared a three-language Glossary of natural Gas Reserves. The glossary presented here is a thoroughly revised edition of the 1996 edition and now also includes a German language section. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die in den letzten Jahren immer intensivere internationale Kooperation auf dem Erdgassektor - besonders zwischen Ost und West - erfordert eine sinngemaess gleiche Handhabung der wichtigsten erdgasgeologischen, lagerstaettenkundlichen und produktionstechnischen Fachbegriffe sowie eine Korrelation der verschiedenen regionalen und ueberregionalen Klassifikationssysteme fuer Erdgasreserven und Erdgasbohrungen. Dieser Erfordernis hat die `Working Party on Gas` der Europaeischen Wirtschaftskommission der Vereinten Nationen in Genf mit der Erarbeitung eines dreisprachigen `Glossary of Natural Gas Reserves` Rechnung getragen. Das vorliegende Glossar ist eine gruendlich ueberarbeitete und um eine deutsche Fassung erweiterte Neuauflage dieses `Glossary` von 1996. (orig.)

  11. The metaphysics of D-CTCs: On the underlying assumptions of Deutsch's quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Lucas

    2016-11-01

    I argue that Deutsch's model for the behavior of systems traveling around closed timelike curves (CTCs) relies implicitly on a substantive metaphysical assumption. Deutsch is employing a version of quantum theory with a significantly supplemented ontology of parallel existent worlds, which differ in kind from the many worlds of the Everett interpretation. Standard Everett does not support the existence of multiple identical copies of the world, which the D-CTC model requires. This has been obscured because he often refers to the branching structure of Everett as a "multiverse", and describes quantum interference by reference to parallel interacting definite worlds. But he admits that this is only an approximation to Everett. The D-CTC model, however, relies crucially on the existence of a multiverse of parallel interacting worlds. Since his model is supplemented by structures that go significantly beyond quantum theory, and play an ineliminable role in its predictions and explanations, it does not represent a quantum solution to the paradoxes of time travel.

  12. Trends in Preferences in the Market for Alternative Investments: A Summary of Recent Deutsche Bank Alternative Investment Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Benrud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study introduced to the literature information on and from the Deutsche Bank Alternative Investment Survey: 2002-2009. Approach: All the survey data for our analysis is from the DBAIS survey. We obtained the interest rate data, from the St. Louis Federal Reserve. Results: Our results present important summaries of the trends and relationships among participants in the alternative investments market. The importance of the survey is evident by the growth from 168 to over 1000 respondents and the number of questions has tripled. Conclusion/Recommendations: Interesting findings include a dramatic increase in the use of managed accounts. Also, planned increases in allocations to the styles distressed debt and convertible arbitrage are positively correlated with each other and the Baa bond rate and they are each negatively correlated with planned increases in allocations to most other styles.

  13. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies : IV Deutsch-Ostafrika / German East Africa (GEA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-Ostafrika/German East Africa (GEA) during the early twentieth c

  14. Pathobiology of aging mice and GEM: background strains and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, C F; Treuting, P M; Ward, J M

    2012-01-01

    The use of induced and spontaneous mutant mice and genetically engineered mice (and combinations thereof) to study cancers and other aging phenotypes to advance improved functional human life spans will involve studies of aging mice. Genetic background contributes to pathology phenotypes and to causes of death as well as to longevity. Increased recognition of expected phenotypes, experimental variables that influence phenotypes and research outcomes, and experimental design options and rationales can maximize the utility of genetically engineered mice (GEM) models to translational research on aging. This review aims to provide resources to enhance the design and practice of chronic and longevity studies involving GEM. C57BL6, 129, and FVB/N strains are emphasized because of their widespread use in the generation of knockout, transgenic, and conditional mutant GEM. Resources are included also for pathology of other inbred strain families, including A, AKR, BALB/c, C3H, C57L, C58, CBA, DBA, GR, NOD.scid, SAMP, and SJL/J, and non-inbred mice, including 4WC, AB6F1, Ames dwarf, B6, 129, B6C3F1, BALB/c,129, Het3, nude, SENCAR, and several Swiss stocks. Experimental strategies for long-term cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to assess causes of or contributors to death, disease burden, spectrum of pathology phenotypes, longevity, and functional healthy life spans (health spans) are compared and discussed.

  15. Implementation of a Controlled-Phase Gate and Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm with Superconducting Charge Qubits in a Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ke-Hui; ZHOU Zheng-Wei; GUO Guang-Can

    2007-01-01

    Based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a cavity, we propose a scheme for implementing a quantum controlled-phase gate (QPG) and Deutsch-Jozsa (DJ) algorithm by a controllable interaction. In the present scheme, the SQUID works in the charge regime, and the cavity field is ultilized as quantum data-bus, which is sequentially coupled to only one qubit at a time. The interaction between the selected qubit and the data bus, such as resonant and dispersive interaction, can be realized by turning the gate capacitance of each SQUID.Especially, the busis not excited and thus the cavity decay is suppressed during the implementation of DJ algorithm.For the QPG operation, the mode of the bus is unchanged in the end of the operation, although its mode is really excited during the operations. Finally, for typical experiment data, we analyze simply the experimental feasibility of the proposed scheme. Based on the simple operation, our scheme may be realized in this solid-state system, and our idea may be realized in other systems.

  16. Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) at the SOFIA Science Center: engineering and scientific contributions to the airborne observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jürgen; Colditz, Sebastian; Lachenmann, Michael; Pfüller, Enrico; Schindler, Karsten; Wiedemann, Manuel; Zinnecker, Hans; Krabbe, Alfred

    2016-09-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a 2.5-meter infrared telescope built into a Boeing 747SP. In 2014 SOFIA reached its "Full Operational Capability" milestone and nowadays takes off about three times a week to observe the infrared sky from altitudes above most of the atmosphere's water vapor content. Despite reaching this major milestone, efforts to improve the observatory's performance are continuing in many areas. The team of the Deutsches SOFIA Institut, DSI (German SOFIA Institute) at the SOFIA Science Center in Moffett Field, CA works in several engineering areas to improve the observatory's performance and its efficiency. DSI supports the allocation process of SOFIA's observation time for guest observers, provides and supports two facility science instruments and conducts an observing program of stellar occultations by small objects of the solar system. This paper summarizes results and ongoing work on a spare secondary mirror made of aluminum, the new and improved Focal Plane Imager (FPI+) that has become a facility science instrument, the Field-Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer (FIFI-LS), new cameras and optics for the Fine Field and Wide Field Imagers (FFI+ and WFI+), real-time astrometric solution of star field images, ground support equipment and astronomical observations.

  17. Frequent major errors in antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial strains distributed under the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Quality Assurance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, R

    2012-07-01

    The Quality Assurance Program (QAP) of the Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ) was a proficiency testing system developed to service the laboratory animal discipline. The QAP comprised the distribution of bacterial strains from various species of animals for identification to species level and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). Identification capabilities were below acceptable standards. This study evaluated AST results using the DKFZ compilations of test results for all bacterial strains showing the number of participants reporting the strain as resistant (R), sensitive (S) or intermediate susceptible (I) to each antibiotic substance used. Due to lack of information about methods used, it was assumed that what the majority of the participants reported (R or S) was the correct test result and that an opposite result was a major error (ME). MEs occurred in 1375 of 14,258 (9.7%) of test results and ME% ranged from 0% to 23.2% per bacterial group-agent group combination. Considerable variation in MEs was found within groups of bacteria and within groups of agents. In addition to poor performance in proper species classification, the quality of AST in laboratory animal diagnostic laboratories seems far below standards considered acceptable in human diagnostic microbiology.

  18. „Frankophone Germanistik“ in Saarbrücken: Chancen für die Germanistik im deutsch-französischen Grenzraum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Weiershausen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aus historischen Gründen wurde in Saarbrücken eine auf Frankreich hin orientierte Germanistik-Professur geschaffen, die sich – mit dem Wandel der Situation und der Erfordernisse – im Laufe der Zeit verändert hat. Im folgenden Beitrag geht es um die Erfahrungen einer grenzüberschreitenden Germanistik im Saarland – und Impulse für eine Alternative zwischen einer Germanistik als Einzelphilologie und einer Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft:1. Hintergründe: Universität und Nation — 2. „Neuere deutsche Literaturwissenschaft“ — 3. Deutsch-französische Germanistik in Saarbrücken — 4. Interkulturelles Lernen in der Praxis

  19. Geschlecht als Modernisierungsfaktor deutsch-jüdischer Identitäten Gender as a Factor of Modernization for German-Jewish Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margret Karsch

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Der Sammelband Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte als Geschlechtergeschichte. Studien zum 19. und 20. Jahrhundert beleuchtet die Relevanz der Kategorie „Geschlecht“ für den historischen Verlauf von Akkulturation, Verbürgerlichung und Säkularisierung. Dabei erweist sich die Familie als Schnittstelle der Umbruchsprozesse, in denen jüdische Identitäten und das Verhältnis zur Mehrheitsgesellschaft ausgehandelt wurden.The collection German-Jewish History as Gender History. Studies on the Nineteenth and Twentieth Century (Deutsch-jüdische Geschichte als Geschlechtergeschichte. Studien zum 19. und 20. Jahrhundert illuminates the relevance of the category “gender” for the historical course of acculturation, bourgeoisification, and secularization. The family is the space in which the processes of radical change collide and in which Jewish identities and the relationship to the majority society are negotiated.

  20. Muusikamaailm : "Kevadpühitsus" sajandi teoseks. Nikolaus Harnoncourt"i juubel. Kent Nagano Deutsche Operisse. "Musica viva" Münchenis / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Lääne-Euroopa populaarsete muusikaajakirjade "BBC Music Magazine" ja "Le Mond de la Musique" küsitluse põhjal osutus 20. saj. tähtsaimaks muusikateoseks I. Stravinski ballett "Kevadpühitsus". N. Harnoncourt tähistas 6. dets. 70. juubelit. Dirigendi tegevusest. K. Nagano kinnitati Berliini Deutsche Operi muusikadirektoriks aastast 2001. Dirigendi senisest tegevusest. Baieri Raadio korraldatava uue muusika sarja "Musica viva" kontsertidest

  1. Experience of aviation emergency rescue training in Allegemeiner Deutsche Automobil Club%德国汽车俱乐部空中急救培训体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新蕾; 魏彦芳; 孔令山; 宋娟; 巩秀静; 张金凤; 薛婧杰

    2014-01-01

    德国汽车俱乐部(Allegemeiner Deutsche Automobil Club,ADAC)自1970年制造第一架空中急救直升机至今,创建并完善了航空医疗救援体系、院前急救体系,以及集医疗、教学培训为一体的综合性培训机构.值得探讨和借鉴.

  2. Sprachlicher Ausbau in gesprochenen und geschriebenen Texten : zum Gebrauch komplexer Nominalphrasen als Merkmale literater Strukturen bei Jugendlichen mit Deutsch als Erst- und Zweitsprache in verschiedenen Schulformen

    OpenAIRE

    Siekmeyer, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Viele Schüler haben Schwierigkeiten, sich im formellen Register, das durch das Schriftliche repräsentiert wird, angemessen auszudrücken. Dies gilt nicht nur für Schüler mit Deutsch als Zweitsprache, denn oft erwerben Seiteneinsteiger, die in einer anderen Sprache literarisiert wurden, die literaten Strukturen des Deutschen recht schnell. Die Grundannahmen, auf denen die vorliegende Arbeit aufbaut, lauten: Die Fähigkeit zur Registerdifferenzierung, die von Erfahrungs- und Bildungsmöglichkeiten...

  3. Integrated Pesticide Management at the Deutsche Bahn in Germany - guidelines for the sustainable vegetation management for maintenance of constructions and areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Below, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Deutsche Bahn has compiled guidelines for a sustainable vegetation management which follows the Directive 2009/128/EC. This integrated management includes tools like preventive measures, ensuring of the necessary level and check of success of applied plant protection measure. In detail, practical guidance for all constructions and areas are given where different legal regulations and requirements have to be implemented. The specific guidelines are available for unpaved surfaces, hard surfaces and railway tracks.

  4. 24 January 2011 - President of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft M. Kleiner in the ATLAS visitor centre and underground experimental area with Former Spokesperson P. Jenni, accompanied by P. Mättig and Adviser R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    24 January 2011 - President of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft M. Kleiner in the ATLAS visitor centre and underground experimental area with Former Spokesperson P. Jenni, accompanied by P. Mättig and Adviser R. Voss.

  5. [Christian Westerhoff. Zwangsarbeit im Ersten Weltkrieg. Deutsche Arbeitskräftepolitik im besetzten Polen und Litauen 1914-1918, Tilman Plath.Zwischen Schonung und Menschenjagden. Die Arbeitseinsatzpolitik in den baltischen Generalbezirken des Reich

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiio, Toomas, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Westerhoff, Christian. Zwangsarbeit im Ersten Weltkrieg. Deutsche Arbeitskräftepolitik im besetzten Polen und Litauen 1914-1918 (Studien zur historischen Migrationsforschung, 25). Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh. Padeborn 2011

  6. Zusammenfassungen in Deutsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Wiedenmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available 1. Eine hybride Heuristik zur Lösung des Triangulations-ProblemsGloria Cerasela Crişan, Camelia Mihaela Pintea2. Vorschlag einer datenbasierten Architektur für eine Kardiologie-Netzwerk-AnwendungHorea Adrian Greblă, Călin Ovidiu Cenan3. Erziehungswissenschaftliche Forschung: zur technologischen Dimension des PrivatlebensLiliana Mâţă4. Ausgewählte Operationen für Assembler EncodingTomasz Praczyk5. Computerbasierte Programme zur Sprechtherapie bei Dyslalie und Dyslexie-DysgraphieIolanda Tobolcea, Mirela Danubianu6. Gedacht soap, jedoch gesagt ‘oaps’. Der Lautvorspann (Sound Preparation Period: Backward Calculation von der Äußerung bis zur Muskel-InnervierungNora Wiedenmann7. State of the Art: Lösungskonzepte für KoalitionsspieleSimina Brânzei8. Die Faktoren von Intelligenz-Entwicklung und individuelle PerformanzGheorghe Dumitriu9. Einige Ergebnisse zur Fuzzy-TheorieAngel Garrido10. Wissensfusion in akademischen NetzwerkenHorea Adrian Grebla, Calin Ovidiu Cenan, Liana Stanca11. Eine Delphi-Anwendung für die syntaktische und lexikalische Analyse eines Phrasen verwendenden Cocke-Younger-Kasami -Algorithmus.Bogdan Pătruţ, Ioana Boghian12. Über ein Problem von Passdaten bei Gebrauch von Bézier-KurvenCarmen Violeta Muraru13. State of the Art: Verifizierung von Unterschriften-Biometrie-DatenMohamed Soltane, Noureddine Doghmane, Noureddine Guersi14. Die Neurowissenschaften des Lehrens von Erzähltexten: zur Erleichterung der sozialenund emotionalen EntwicklungLisa Whalen15. Logische Grundlagen der Künstlichen IntelligenzAngel Garrido16. Psychologisch-mystische Aspekte zu St. Evagrius Ponticus und St. Maximus dem BekennerGheorghe Teofil Popovici17. Geo-spatiale Analyse-StrukturElisabeta Antonia Haller18. Henric Sanielevici – von der Literaturkritik zur Anatomie oder Wie beeinflusst der Schädelumfang die Literatur?Adrian Jicu19. Wie komplex das menschliche Gehirn funktioniert: die beiden HemisphärenIulia Cristina Timofti20. Interview mit Dr. Georgios K. Matis, Neurochirurgen, Demokrit-Universität Thrakien, School, der medizinischen Fakultät, Alexandroupolis, GriechenlandRuxandra Alexandru

  7. Deutsche Sage(10)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    DeutscheSage(10)DieSagevondenvierZudenStraenBerlinsdiewelchewahrschein-lichihrenNamenvondeminderzweitendes13.Jahrhundertsgest...

  8. Deutsche Sage(8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    DeutscheSage(8)DieSagevomUrsprungdersogenanntenSpeck-undBrotstiftungzuAllendorfundderWerraEinederromantischstenPartiendesscho...

  9. Deutsche Sage(7)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    DeutscheSage(7): DerbackerzuDortmundVorvielen,vielenJahrenhatzuDortmundeinreichergelebt,derhatzwarkeinenGottesdienstundistind...

  10. Deutsche Sage(11)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    DeutscheSage(11)EinBackervonMarburggingberLand2,umWeizenaufzukaufen;alserberdenFrauenbergkam,fanderdorteingroBesTuchausgebrei...

  11. Mehed ruumis / Rosalyn Deutsche

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Deutsche, Rosalyn

    2004-01-01

    1985. a. ilmunud T. J. Clarki raamatust "Modernse elu maalikunst: Pariis Manet' ja tema järgijate kunstis". 1989. a. ilmunud Edward W. Soja raamatust "Postmodernistlikud geograafiad" ja David Harvey raamatust "Postmodernne olukord". 1984. a. avaldatud Fredric Jamesoni artiklist "Postmodernism ehk hiliskapitalismi kultuuriline loogika". Bibliograafia lk. 81

  12. Deutsch 7-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The Manitoba Department of Education's curriculum guide to German instruction in grades 7 through 9 presents the approved curriculum, makes recommendations for its implementation, and provides information about sets of teaching materials from which teachers can make appropriate selections. The guide outlines the rationale for the curriculur and…

  13. Deutsch 100, 200, 300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Manitoba's curriculum guide for German 100, 200, and 300 is designed to (1) make teachers of these courses aware of the official policy concerning the nature, goals, and objectives of the courses and approved teaching materials, and (2) provide instructional guidelines. The guide provides information about three sets of teaching materials from…

  14. Pionierin der deutsch-jüdischen Geschichtsschreibung. Leben und Werk Selma Sterns A Pioneer of German-Jewish Historiography: The Life and Work of Selma Stern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Schaser

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Im Spannungsfeld von deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte, Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung sowie Wissenschafts- und Exilgeschichte untersucht Marina Sassenberg die Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Selma Sterns Werk und Leben. Seit 1916 verstärkt mit den Auswirkungen von Antisemitismus und Antifeminismus konfrontiert, spiegelt sich in Sterns autobiographischen Schriften und in ihrem wissenschaftlichen Werk zur deutsch-jüdischen Geschichte zunächst ihre Suche als Frau und Intellektuelle nach einem Ort in der deutschen Gesellschaft und im Wissenschaftsbetrieb wider. Ihre Erfahrungen im Nationalsozialismus, in der Emigration in den USA und nach der Rückkehr nach Europa führten zunächst zu einer deutlichen Zäsur in ihrem Werk, bevor sie fünf Jahre nach Kriegsende zu einer Neukonzeption deutsch-jüdischer Geschichte überging, mit der sie an ihre alten Geschichtsentwürfe anknüpfen sollte.Within the tense areas of German-Jewish historiography, women and gender research, and scientific and exile history, Marina Sassenberg examines the interaction between Selma Stern’s work and life. Having been increasingly confronted with effects of anti-Semitism and antifeminism since 1916, Stern’s autobiographical writings and her scientific work on German-Jewish history initially reflect her search for a place in German society and in the scientific community as a woman and an intellectual. Her experiences in National Socialism, in immigration in the USA, and after her return to Europe led at first to a clear break in her work before, five years after the end of the war, she turned to a new conception of German-Jewish history which would tie into her previous historical ideas.

  15. Practical dictionary of environment, nature conservation and land use. English-German; Praxis-Woerterbuch Umwelt, Naturschutz und Landnutzungen. Deutsch-Englisch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, C.P. (ed.) [Stiftung Europaeisches Naturerbe (Euronatur), Ludwigsburg (Germany); Schreiner, J. [Alfred Toepfer Akademie fuer Naturschutz, Schneverdingen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    More than 30,000 English and 30,000 German terms from these subject fields: agriculture, air pollution abatement, biotope conservation, climate protection, ecology, environmental administration, environmental eduction, environmental engineering, environmental ethics, environmental information, environmental policy, environmental research, fishery, forestry, hunting, landscape management, landscape planning, preventive health care, radiation protection, recycling, regional planning, settlement development, soil conservation, water management, waste, wildlife conservation. (orig.) [German] Mehr als 30 000 deutsche und 30 000 englische Stichworte aus den Themenbereichen: Abfall, Artenschutz, Biotopschutz, Bodenschutz, Fischerei, Forstwirtschaft, Gesundheitsvorsorge, Gewaesserschutz, Jagd, Klimaschutz, Landschaftspflege, Landschaftsplanung, Landwirtschaft, Luftreinhaltung, Oekologie, Raumordnung, Siedlungsentwicklung, Strahlenschutz, Umweltbildung, Umweltethik, Umweltforschung, Umweltinformation, Umweltpolitik, Umwelttechnik, Umweltverwaltung, Wasserwirtschaft, Wiederverwertung. (orig.)

  16. Implementation of Deutsch Algorithm Using Para-Hydrogen Induced Polarization%利用仲氢诱导极化技术实现Deutsch算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田佳欣; 刘文卿; 宋艳红; 轩亚楠; 李军方; 姚叶锋; 魏达秀

    2015-01-01

    The NMR system is one of the physical systems that can be used to realize quantum computation. However, NMR-based quantum computing could have many drawbacks with increasing qubit number. One of the underlying reasons is that the signal of pseudo-pure state decreases exponentially with increasing qubit number. Besides, the process required to prepare a pseudo-pure state becomes more complicated as the spin system gets larger. Furthermore, the pseudo-pure state in NMR system is in fact a mixed state, making it difficult to realize quantum entanglement. In this paper, we used parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) technique to prepare a genuine pure state for NMR quantum computation with significantly enhanced signal intensity. The initial state was applied to implement a two-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm and a three-qubit Deutsch-like algorithm.%核磁共振系统是实现量子计算的有效物理体系之一。但是随着量子位数的不断增加,运用核磁共振技术实现计算任务存在明显的局限性,原因之一是量子计算的初始态—赝纯态,随着量子位数的增加,信号指数性的衰减,量子位数越多制备赝纯态所需的脉冲序列越复杂,越不容易实现,不利于量子位数的扩展;另外,由于核磁共振中制备的赝纯态实际上也是一种混合态,用于实现量子信息任务时存在一定的争议。该文介绍的利用仲氢诱导极化技术(PHIP)制备出的实验初态,能够解决初态处于混合态的问题,并且信号强度显著增强,作者利用此态实现了ALTADENA条件下的两量子位的Deutsch-Jozsa量子算法和PASADENA条件下的三量子位的Deutsch-Like量子算法。

  17. Deutsch-slawischer Siedlungs- und Sprachkontakt im Gebiet zwischen Saale und Neiße – vorgestellt an ausgewählten Ortsnamen (Siedlungsnamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Bily

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saale und Elbe bilden im Wesentlichen die westliche Begrenzung des ehemals kompakten altsorbischen Sprachgebietes. Im Norden schließt das Altsorbische an das Altpolabische, im Osten und Südosten an das Polnische und Tschechische an. Eigennamen bilden eine wichtige Quelle sowohl für die Aufhellung der Geschichte der Besiedlung wie auch ethnischer, sprachlicher und sozialer Verhältnisse, denn historische Siedlungsprozesse fanden ihren Niederschlag u.a. in historischen Belegen von Namen. Diese Belege wie auch die Ableitungsbasen und Benennungsmotive ebenso wie die phonologischen und morphologischen Merkmale der Namen des altsorbischen Kontaktgebietes enthalten eine Vielzahl von Zeugnissen deutsch-slawischer Kontinuität. Auf der Grundlage umfangreicher Studien zu Ortsnamen stellt der Beitrag ausgewählte Beispiele vor. Im ehemals altsorbischen Kontaktgebiet können Ortsnamen (Siedlungsnamen und ihre historische Überlieferung Hinweise auf Siedlungs- und Sprachkontakt geben. Dies belegen eine ganze Reihe von Merkmalen, so z.B.: 1. Unterscheidende Bestimmungswörter 2. Parallele Namengebung mit zeitweiliger Mehrnamigkeit 3. Umbenennung 4. Übersetzung 5. Benennungsparallelismus im deutsch-slawischen Kontaktgebiet 6. Scheinbare sekundäre semantische Verankerung (SSSV 7. Namenpaare 8. Unterscheidende Zusätze 9. Mischnamen (Hybride

  18. Genetic determinants of sensitivity to beryllium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino-Hutchison, Lauren M; Sorrentino, Claudio; Nadas, Arthur; Zhu, Yiwen; Rubin, Edward M; Tinkle, Sally S; Weston, Ainsley; Gordon, Terry

    2009-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD), an irreversible, debilitating granulomatous lung disease is caused by exposure to beryllium. This occupational hazard occurs in primary production and machining of Be-metal, BeO, beryllium - containing alloys, and other beryllium products. CBD begins as an MHC Class II-restricted, T(H)1 hypersensitivity, and the Human Leukocyte Antigen, HLA-DPB1E(69), is associated with risk of developing CBD. Because inbred strains of mice have not provided good models of CBD to date, three strains of HLA-DPB1 transgenic mice in an FVB/N background were developed; each contains a single allele of HLA-DPB1 that confers a different magnitude of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR approximately 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR approximately 3), and HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR approximately 46). The mouse ear swelling test (MEST) was employed to determine if these different alleles would support a hypersensitivity response to beryllium. Mice were first sensitized on the back and subsequently challenged on the ear. In separate experiments, mice were placed into one of three groups (sensitization/challenge): C/C, C/Be, and Be/Be. In the HLA-DPB1*1701 mice, the strain with the highest risk transgene, the Be/Be group was the only group that displayed significant maximum increased ear thickness of 19.6% +/- 3.0% over the baseline measurement (p beryllium in seven inbred strains were investigated through use of the MEST, these included: FVB/N, AKR, Balb/c, C3H/HeJ, C57/BL6, DBA/2, and SJL/J. The FVB/N strain was least responsive, while the SJL/J and C57/BL6 strains were the highest responders. Our results suggest that the HLA-DPB1*1701 transgene product is an important risk factor for induction of the beryllium-sensitive phenotype. This model should be a useful tool for investigating beryllium sensitization.

  19. Psychiatric research and science policy in Germany: the history of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (German Institute for Psychiatric Research) in Munich from 1917 to 1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, M M

    2000-09-01

    The Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Psychiatrie (DFA) in Munich, one of the most important research institutes in the field of theoretical and clinical psychiatry, was founded in 1917 by Emil Kraepelin. Its financial existence between the world wars was assured by generous donations from the Jewish American scholar and philanthropist James Loeb. The scientific work done by Walther Spielmeyer (neuropathology), Felix Plaut (serology), Kurt Schneider (clinical psychiatry) and Ernst Rudin (psychiatric genetics) earned the DFA a reputation as an international center for psychiatry and neurology. During the 'Third Reich' Ernst Rudin cooperated with the National Socialist health system. His genetic concepts provided support for eugenic programmes such as forced sterilization of individuals with psychoses. These complex interactions underscore the importance of the DFA in understanding the recent history of medicine in Germany.

  20. Cómo explicar el nazismo: «Deutsches Requiem» y la Psicología de masas del fascismo

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Alberto Julián

    2011-01-01

    En este ensayo voy a contrastar la interpretación de Borges a la de un intelectual austríaco que fue testigo y víctima del régimen de Hitler, Wilhelm Reich. Reich escribió una temprana obra, desde su perspectiva de médico y psicoanalista, interpretando el fenómeno: La psicología de masas del fascismo, de 1934, que revisó y reescribió para la edición norteamericana, aparecida en 1946, el mismo año que Borges publicó «Deutsches Requiem» en la revista Sur. Si bien ambos pensadores tienen objetiv...

  1. Differenz als Belastungsprobe. Verhandlungen des deutsch-jüdischen Gesprächs in Bernhard Schlinks Erzählung »Die Beschneidung«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Bitter

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Schlinks Erzählung stellt anhand zweier Liebender das Scheitern eines deutsch-jüdischen Gesprächs dar und verhandelt die Frage, wie viele Differenzen eine Beziehung aushält. Die titelgebende Beschneidung tritt dabei nicht nur auf der Handlungsebene auf, wo der Protagonist durch Konversion zum Judentum die Differenz zu seiner jüdischen Freundin zu überwinden hofft. Auch auf metaphorischer Ebene problematisiert die Erzählung die ›Selbstbeschneidung‹ des Protagonisten, der aus Angst vor Tadel von jüdischen Figuren viele seiner Gedanken nicht ausspricht. Als Opfer antideutscher Vorurteile ruft er diverse antisemitische Stereotype auf. Der Beitrag geht der Frage nach, inwiefern die Erzählung damit für solch stereotypes Gedankengut sensibilisiert und subtil gegen einen antisemitischen und revisionistischen Diskurs anschreibt oder inwiefern sich der Text vielmehr in einen solchen Diskurs einschreibt.

  2. Design and optimisation of quantum logic circuits for a three-qubit Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm implemented with optically-controlled, solid-state quantum logic gates

    CERN Document Server

    Del Duce, A; Bayvel, P

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the design and optimisation of quantum logic circuits suitable for the experimental demonstration of a three-qubit quantum computation prototype based on optically-controlled, solid-state quantum logic gates. In these gates, the interaction between two qubits carried by the electron-spin of donors is mediated by the optical excitation of a control particle placed in their proximity. First, we use a geometrical approach for analysing the entangling characteristics of these quantum gates. Then, using a genetic programming algorithm, we develop circuits for the refined Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm investigating different strategies for obtaining short total computational times. We test two separate approaches based on using different sets of entangling gates with the shortest possible gate computation time which, however, does not introduce leakage of quantum information to the control particles. The first set exploits fast approximations of controlled-phase gates as entangling gates, while the other one a...

  3. Importance and use of an environment management system implementation and innovative optimization approach es using the example of the RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG; Bedeutung und Nutzung der Implementierung eines Umweltmanagementsystems und innovative Ansaetze zur Optimierung am Beispiel der RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polysos, Julia

    2014-07-01

    Environmental protection is an important business objective in RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK). The management of the company intends the company wide certification according DIN ISO 14001. The law concerning the hard coal financing includes a continuous and socially compatible staff reduction. The company is aimed to manage the hard coal phase-out process considering a sustainable handling of the long-term contamination including public acceptance. The optimization potential includes the implementation and continuation of an area-wide environment management system, the realization of the commissioning management and the environmental evaluation.

  4. 48. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Joint annual meeting of the DGNR and OeGNR. Abstracts; 48. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie. Gemeinsame Jahrestagung der DGNR und OeGNR. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-15

    The conference proceedings of the 48. Annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Neuroradiologie contain abstracts on the following issues: neuro-oncological imaging, multimodal imaging concepts, subcranial imaging, spinal codes, interventional neuroradiology, innovative techniques like high-field MRT and hybrid imaging methods, inflammable and metabolic central nervous system diseases and epilepsy.

  5. Formation of 6-thioguanine and 6-mercaptopurine from their 9-alkyl derivatives in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J A; Vidale, E

    1986-01-01

    Several 9-alkyl, 6-thiopurines have been reported to have more favorable therapeutic indexes than do the parent drugs, 6-mercaptopurine (MP) and 6-thioguanine (TG). Some of these compounds were reported to be active against cells in culture resistant to 6-thiopurines, and it has been assumed that their mechanisms of action may differ from those of TG and MP. 9-(n-Butyl)-6-thioguanine was essentially inactive toward Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro when compared with TG (50% effective dose, 250 and 1 microM, respectively). However, lethal doses of 9-(n-butyl)-6-thioguanine and TG in mice were similar when these agents were given i.p. daily for 9 consecutive days (50% lethal dose, 13 and 9 mg/kg/day). Similar organ toxicities were observed upon histopathological examination of dying animals. The cumulative, daily urinary excretion of TG was virtually identical in mice given 20- and 10-mg/kg/day of doses of 9-(n-butyl)-6-thioguanine or TG, respectively, for 9 days. The TG formed was identified by ultraviolet light (340 nm) detection following separation on a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography system and by fluorescent detection of the permanganate oxidation product separated on a strong anion-exchange system. Dealkylation of 9-(n-butyl)-6-mercaptopurine and 9-ethyl-6-mercaptopurine also occurred in AKR mice. At near equitoxic doses, the daily cumulative urinary excretion of MP from 9-(n-butyl)-6-mercaptopurine and 9-ethyl-6-mercaptopurine was about 20-30% of that observed in mice receiving MP. The MP was confirmed in each case by enzymatic peak-shift of MP to 6-thiouric acid and ultraviolet light detection using the high performance liquid chromatography systems referred to above. The results suggest that these 9-alkyl derivatives serve as prodrugs for TG and MP, a finding that explains a number of their pharmacological and toxicological properties.

  6. A low carbohydrate, high protein diet suppresses intratumoral androgen synthesis and slows castration-resistant prostate tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokidis, H Bobby; Yieng Chin, Mei; Ho, Victor W; Adomat, Hans H; Soma, Kiran K; Fazli, Ladan; Nip, Ka Mun; Cox, Michael; Krystal, Gerald; Zoubeidi, Amina; Tomlinson Guns, Emma S

    2015-06-01

    Dietary factors continue to preside as dominant influences in prostate cancer prevalence and progression-free survival following primary treatment. We investigated the influence of a low carbohydrate diet, compared to a typical Western diet, on prostate cancer (PCa) tumor growth in vivo. LNCaP xenograft tumor growth was studied in both intact and castrated mice, representing a more advanced castration resistant PCa (CRPC). No differences in LNCaP tumor progression (total tumor volume) with diet was observed for intact mice (P = 0.471) however, castrated mice on the Low Carb diet saw a statistically significant reduction in tumor growth rate compared with Western diet fed mice (P = 0.017). No correlation with serum PSA was observed. Steroid profiles, alongside serum cholesterol and cholesteryl ester levels, were significantly altered by both diet and castration. Specifically, DHT concentration with the Low Carb diet was 58% that of the CRPC-bearing mice on the Western diet. Enzymes in the steroidogenesis pathway were directly impacted and tumors isolated from intact mice on the Low Carb diet had higher AKR1C3 protein levels and lower HSD17B2 protein levels than intact mice on the Western diet (ARK1C3: P = 0.074; HSD17B2: P = 0.091, with α = 0.1). In contrast, CRPC tumors from mice on Low Carb diets had higher concentrations of both HSD17B2 (P = 0.016) and SRD5A1 (P = 0.058 with α = 0.1) enzymes. There was no correlation between tumor growth in castrated mice for Low Carb diet versus Western diet and (a) serum insulin (b) GH serum levels (c) insulin receptor (IR) or (d) IGF-1R in tumor tissue. Intact mice fed Western diet had higher serum insulin which was associated with significantly higher blood glucose and tumor tissue IR. We conclude that both diet and castration have a significant impact on the endocrinology of mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors. The observed effects of diet on cholesterol and steroid regulation impact tumor tissue DHT specifically and are

  7. Akrüülmaja / Sergio Pirrone

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pirrone, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    2006. a. valminud valge eramu (ehitusalune pind 73,28 m2) Jaapanis Fuji mäe lähistel Yamanashis. Arhitekt Takeshi Hosaka, konstruktor Hirofumi Ono. Igast ruumist avaneb vaade aeda ja eemale loodusele, kuid säilib vajalik privaatsus. I ja II korruse plaan, lõige, 9 värv. vaadet

  8. Berlin-Hamburg maglev train, an integral element of the Deutsche Bahn AG high-speed network; Die Magnetschnellbahn Berlin-Hamburg als integraler Bestandteil des Hochgeschwindigkeitsnetzes der Deutschen Bahn AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechner, H. [Magnetschnellbahn-Planungsgesellschaft mbH, Schwerin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Berlin will soon be a turntable of traffic in Europa and a gateway to Eastern Europe. The Deutsche Bahn AG high-speed network is an important element. In September 1998, the Berlin-Hanover ICE connection was finished; the Berlin-Hamburg maglev connection will follow by 2005. Berlin will be the linking point of the two systems. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bereits in wenigen Jahren wird Berlin europaeische Verkehrsdrehscheibe und Tor zu Osteuropa sein. Eine Voraussetzung dafuer ist die Anbindung an das Hochgeschwindigkeitsstreckennetz der Deutschen Bahn. Ein wichtiger Schritt dahin ist die Inbetriebnahme der ICE-Verbindung Berlin - Hannover im September 1998; ein folgender wird die Magnetschnellbahnverbindung Berlin - Hamburg im Jahr 2005 sein. Im Hochgeschwindigkeitskonzept der Deutschen Bahn AG wird Berlin die Schnittstelle zwischen Rad/Schiene- und Magnetschwebetechnik bilden und die Verknuepfung der beiden Systeme erstmals demonstrieren. (orig.)

  9. Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (DBS: Konzept, Umsetzung und Perspektiven für eine umfassende Datenbasis zum Bibliothekswesen in Deutschland: 10 Fragen von Bruno Bauer an Ronald M. Schmidt, Leiter der DBS / Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (DBS: Concept, implementation and prospect for a comprehensive database on library statistics in Germany: 10 questions interview with Ronald M. Schmidt, head of DBS, by Bruno Bauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Ronald M.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The DBS, Deutsche Bibliotheksstatistik (German Library Statistics, http://www.bibliotheksstatistik.de, reports since 1974. Around 9000 libraries file data on facilities, equipment, holdings, usage, budget and staff.Data collection, evaluation, and presentation today are carried out online only. Aim of DBS is the formation of a national data pool containing statistical data on all types of libraries.The interview informs about the concept of DBS and its differentation of public, university and specialised libraries. It covers at length the increasing important topic of data collection of holdings and usage in digital libraries. The DBS process of data evaluation and publication will be described and connections between DBS and the library benchmark index BIX will be explained. Finally international cooperation options for DBS will be discussed.

  10. Disturbances in cholesterol, bile acid and glucose metabolism in peroxisomal 3-ketoacylCoA thiolase B deficient mice fed diets containing high or low fat contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Francès, Valérie; Arnauld, Ségolène; Kaminski, Jacques; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Clémencet, Marie-Claude; Chamouton, Julie; Athias, Anne; Grober, Jacques; Gresti, Joseph; Degrace, Pascal; Lagrost, Laurent; Latruffe, Norbert; Mandard, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase B (ThB) catalyzes the thiolytic cleavage of straight chain 3-ketoacyl-CoAs. Up to now, the ability of ThB to interfere with lipid metabolism was studied in mice fed a laboratory chow enriched or not with the synthetic agonist Wy14,643, a pharmacological activator of the nuclear hormone receptor PPARα. The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether ThB could play a role in obesity and lipid metabolism when mice are chronically fed a synthetic High Fat Diet (HFD) or a Low Fat Diet (LFD) as a control diet. To investigate this possibility, wild-type (WT) mice and mice deficient for Thb (Thb(-/-)) were subjected to either a synthetic LFD or a HFD for 25 weeks, and their responses were compared. First, when fed a normal regulatory laboratory chow, Thb(-/-) mice displayed growth retardation as well as a severe reduction in the plasma level of Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin Growth Factor-I (IGF-I), suggesting alterations in the GH/IGF-1 pathway. When fed the synthetic diets, the corrected energy intake to body mass was significantly higher in Thb(-/-) mice, yet those mice were protected from HFD-induced adiposity. Importantly, Thb(-/-) mice also suffered from hypoglycemia, exhibited reduction in liver glycogen stores and circulating insulin levels under the LFD and the HFD. Thb deficiency was also associated with higher levels of plasma HDL (High Density Lipoproteins) cholesterol and increased liver content of cholesterol under both the LFD and the HFD. As shown by the plasma lathosterol to cholesterol ratio, a surrogate marker for cholesterol biosynthesis, whole body cholesterol de novo synthesis was increased in Thb(-/-) mice. By comparing liver RNA from WT mice and Thb(-/-) mice using oligonucleotide microarray and RT-qPCR, a coordinated decrease in the expression of critical cholesterol synthesizing genes and an increased expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis (Cyp7a1, Cyp17a1, Akr1d1) were

  11. The new European and German law regarding abnormal occurrences - Seveso in the gas industry; Das neue europaeische und deutsche Stoerfallrecht - Seveso in der Gaswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evers, C. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    On 3rd February 1999 the deadline for the realisation of directive 96/82/EC for the control of major accident hazards (Seveso II directive - Directive on the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH)) expired. At the same time a modification to the Federal Pollution Control Act became effective. A fundamental reenactment of the ordinance regarding abnormal occurrences is imminent. The article outlines the contents of the European and planned German rulings and their consequences for gas supply companies. In the light of the example of the pipeline network of the public gas supply in particular it deals from a legal viewpoint with the problems of the newly created term of the `operating area`, with which an abandonment of plant-related pollution control seems to be linked. In conclusion, two fundamental operator obligations are portrayed as examples - the compilation of a concept for the prevention of major accidents and the setting-up of a safety management system. (orig.) [Deutsch] Am 3. Februar 1999 lief die Frist zur Umsetzung der Richtlinie 96/82/EG zur Beherrschung der Gefahren bei schweren Unfaellen mit gefaehrlichen Stoffen (Seveso-II-Richtline [engl.: Directive on the Control Of Major Accident Hazards - COMAH]) ab. Zum gleichen Zeitpunkt trat eine Aenderung des Bundesimmissionsschutzgesetzes in Kraft. Eine grundlegende Novellierung der Stoerfallverordnung steht bevor. Der Beitrag skizziert die Inhalte der europaeischen und geplanten deutschen Regelungen und deren Auswirkungen auf Gasversorgungsunternehmen. Am Beispiel des Pipelinenetzes insbesondere der oeffentlichen Gasversorgung geht er aus juristischer Sicht auf den neugeschaffenen Begriff des `Betriebsbereichs` ein, mit dem eine Abkehr vom anlagenbezogenen Immissionsschutz verbunden zu sein scheint. Abschliessend werden zwei fundamentale Betreiberpflichten exemplarisch dargestellt: Die Erstellung eines Konzepts zur Verhuetung schwerer Unfaelle und der Aufbau eines Sicherheitsmanagementsystems. (orig.)

  12. Development of an indicator system for the German action plan to global climate change (DAS); Entwicklung eines Indikatorensystems fuer die Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie an den Klimawandel (DAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenthaler, Konstanze; Andrian-Werburg, Stefan von [Bosch und Partner GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Nickel, Darla [Ecologic gGmbH Institut fuer Internationale und Europaeische Umweltpolitik, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    On 17th December 2008 the German Federal Cabinet adopted the German Strategy for Adaptation to Climate Change (DAS: Deutsche Anpassungsstrategie) (BUNDESREGIERUNG 2008). The DAS has created the framework for adapting to the consequences of climate change in Germany. First and foremost, the DAS contributes its guidelines at Federal level, to provide guidance for agents at other levels. The Strategy lays the foundation for a medium-term process. In conjunction with the individual Federal States and other groups representing various sectors of society, the Strategy provides a step-by-step assessment of the risks of climate change. Furthermore, it states the potential requirements for action, and defines the appropriate goals and potential adaptation measures to be developed and implemented in the process. The Strategy is divided into 13 action fields and two cross-sectional fields (=14+15). (1) Human health (2) Building sector (3) Water regime, water management, coastal and marine protection (4) Soil (5) Biological diversity (6) Agriculture (7) Woodland and forestry (8) Fishery (9) Energy industry (conversion, transport and supply) (10) Financial services industry (11) Transport, transport infrastructure (12) Trade and industry (13) Tourism industry (14) Spatial, regional and physical development planning (15) Civil protection. In due course, the Federal Environment Agency (UBA) will design a comprehensive set of tools to support and implement the DAS. This will be made available for download from www.anpassung.net. An integral part of this will be the 'Tatenbank' (www.tatenbank.anpassung.net), the 'Klimalotse' (www.klimalotse.anpassung.net), FISKA (special information system 'Adaptation') and an Indicator System to aid adaptation. The latter is one of the key tasks identified for the DAS. As far as the Indicator System is concerned, it has been decided to prepare a Report on Indicators for the challenges facing Germany and the

  13. Massenmedien und Versöhnung: Die Berichterstattung über den deutsch-französischen Friedensprozeß nach dem 2. Weltkrieg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Jaeger

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Beitrag beinhaltet die ersten Ergebnisse einer Langzeitstudie, bei der flächendeckend die deutsche Nachkriegsberichterstattung über Frankreich von 1946 bis 1970 inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet wurde. Die Studie stützt sich dabei auf das Modell der Nachrichtenfaktoren von Johan Galtung, welche nach seiner Ansicht die Auswahl der Themen bestimmen, die zu einer Nachricht werden. Genau in diesen Selektionsroutinen liegt jedoch die implizite Gefahr, Konflikte zu vertiefen statt sie einzudämmen bzw. durch ein breites Verständnis der Hintergründe gewaltfrei bearbeitbar zu machen. Für die Zeit nach einem Krieg könnten sie Hindernisse auf dem Weg zur Annäherung und Aussöhnung ehemaliger Gegner darstellen. Wie jedoch sieht die Berichterstattung nach dem Krieg tatsächlich aus? Zeigen Massenmedien Bereitschaft zu einer veränderten Berichterstattung? Der Fall der französisch-deutschen Aussöhnung, welcher als Beispiel für einen gelungenen Aussöhnungsprozess gelten kann, belegt, dass Friedensprozesse von den Medien durchaus adäquat begleitet werden können: Z.B. ist der Anteil "positiver" Themen bzw. Berichterstattung konsistent höher als der "negativer", und der Anteil von Non-Elite-Themen steigt an und kündet von Interesse an französischer Lebensart und Kultur. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Negativismus in den Medien kein Naturgesetz ist, sondern überwunden werden kann, wenn Frieden und Versöhnung auf der Tagesordnung stehen.

  14. In the Know "auf deutsch"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Renate A.

    1977-01-01

    A classroom "Whiz Quiz," patterned after a television academic game show, was conducted by students in a college German class. The game was conducted entirely in German and sample questions are reproduced here. (CHK)

  15. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1st quarter 1997. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 1. Vierteljahr 1997. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Eletrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG, sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  16. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 2nd quarter 1997. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 2. Vierteljahr 1997. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  17. Quarterly report on the electric power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany. 4th quarter 1997. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 4. Quartal 1997. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  18. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 3rd quarter 1997. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 3. Vierteljahr 1997. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  19. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 3rd quarter 1998. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 3. Vierteljahr 1998. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    1999-02-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  20. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 4th quarter 1998. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, an overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 4. Vierteljahr 1998. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    1999-07-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  1. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 2nd quarter 1998. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 2. Vierteljahr 1998. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    1998-10-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (orig.)

  2. MICE IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conventions, and Exhibitions) industry has exploded worldwide over the past decade. The benefits brought by meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions are also benefiting other sectors involved in MICE events, including hotels, travel, and retail. Industry analysts estimate that the income from the global MICE industry will soon exceed USD 220 billion, and is expected to increase by 8-10% each year.

  3. Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden messen: Übersetzung des „Perceived Medical School Stress Instruments“ in die deutsche Sprache [Measurement of specific medical school stress: translation of the “Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument” to the German language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltmer, Edgar

    2013-05-01

    Burn-out. Vitaliano et al. haben bereits 1984 ein 13 Items umfassendes Instrument zur Messung der spezifischen Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden, das „Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument“ (PMSS, vorgestellt. Es wurde seitdem im englischsprachigen Bereich breit eingesetzt und validiert. Bislang liegt jedoch keine deutschsprachige Version des Instrumentes vor. Ziel des Projektes war die Übersetzung des PMSS in die deutsche Sprache, um es im Rahmen von Studien im deutschsprachigen Raum einzusetzen.Methodik: Die englischsprachigen Items des PMSS wurden von drei Untersuchern in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt. Die Versionen wurden synoptisch gegenübergestellt und auf dieser Basis wurde für jedes Item eine deutschsprachige Version formuliert. Diese Versionen wurden von Muttersprachlerinnen in die englische Sprache zurückübersetzt. Auf der Basis dieser Rückübersetzungen, eines kognitiven Debriefings an 19 deutschen Medizinstudierenden und einer testtheoretischen Evaluation an 169 deutschen Medizinstudierenden wurden dann die endgültigen deutschsprachigen Formulierungen festgelegt. Ergebnisse: Das PMSS konnte ohne größere Schwierigkeiten in die deutsche Sprache übersetzt werden. Sowohl zwischen den Übersetzungen in die deutsche Sprache als auch zwischen beiden Rückübersetzungen waren die Übereinstimmungen groß. Bei Diskrepanzen erfolgte die Einigung schnell und unkompliziert. Der Einsatz der deutschsprachigen Version erbrachte einen guten Wert für die Reliabilität (Cronbachs Alpha 0,81.Schlussfolgerung: Es steht nun auch für deutschsprachigen Raum ein spezifisches Instrument zur Messung der Stressbelastung von Medizinstudierenden zur Verfügung.

  4. A Family of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 There is a family of mice in my house. They are father mouse, mother mouse and baby mouse. Baby mouse likes dancing. He is very cute. Father mouse likes watching TV. He likes the sports on TV best. These three mice are clever.

  5. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  6. Schemann, Hans; Mellado Blanco, Carmen; Buján, Patricia; Iglesias, Nelly; Larreta P.; Mansilla Ana (2013): Idiomatik Deutsch-Spanish/Diccionario idiomático alemán-español.Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag GmBH. 1202 pp.

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Markič; Vida Jesenšek

    2013-01-01

    Schemann, Hans; Mellado Blanco, Carmen; Buján, Patricia; Iglesias, Nelly; Larreta P.; Mansilla Ana (2013): Idiomatik Deutsch-Spanish/Diccionario idiomático alemán-español.Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag GmBH. 1202 pp.

  7. The conduction system of the heart in mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi: histopathological lesions and electrocardiographic correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic focal and diffuse myiocarditis with interstitial fibrosis developed in Swiss outbred mice and in the inbred AKR and A/J strains of mice which were chronically infected with several Trypanosoma cruzi strains belonging to three biological types (Type I, II and III. High incidence of electrocardiographic changes with predominance of intraventricular conduction disturbances, 1st. and 2nd. degree AV block, arrhythmias, comparable with those found in human Chagas' disease, were also present. Morphological study of the conduction tissue of the heart revealed inflammatory and fibrotic changes. The presence of inflammation in the inter-atrial septum almost always coincided with the inflammatory involvement of the ventricular conduction system. Focal inflammation was associated with vacuolization and focal necrosis of the specific fibers. Most of the lesions were seen affecting the His bundel (76.3% of the cases, the right bundle branch (73.3%, AV node (43.9% and left bundle branch (37.5%. Correlation between morphological changes in the conduction tissue and electrocardiographic alteration occured in 53.0 to 62.5% of the cases, according to the experimental groups.Em camundongos suiços não isogênicos e em camundongos isogênicos das linhagens AKR e A/J, cronicamente infectados com cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi representativas de três tipos biológicos (Tipos I, II e III foi observada uma miocardite crônica difusa e focal com graus variáveis de fibrose intersticial. Observou-se alta incidência de alterações eletrocardiográficas com predominância de distúrbios da condução intraventricular, bloqueios A-V de 1º e 2º graus e arritmias, comparáveis às encontradas na doença de Chagas humana. O estudo histopatológico do sistema de condução do coração mostrou alterações inflamatórias e fibróticas. A presença de inflamação no septo inter-atrial em geral coincidiu com o envolvimento do sistema de condução pelo processo inflamat

  8. Inter-Strain Differences in Liver Injury and One-Carbon Metabolism in Alcohol-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Masato; Ji, Cheng; Kosyk, Oksana; Shymonyak, Svitlana; Melnyk, Stepan; Kono, Hiroshi; Tryndyak, Volodymyr; Muskhelishvili, Levan; Pogribny, Igor P.; Kaplowitz, Neil; Rusyn, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholic liver injury is a major public health issue worldwide. Even though the major mechanisms of this disease have been established over the past decades, little is known about genetic susceptibility factors that may predispose individuals who abuse alcoholic beverages to liver damage and subsequent pathological conditions. We hypothesized that a panel of genetically diverse mouse strains may be used to examine the role of ER stress and one-carbon metabolism in the mechanism of inter-individual variability in alcoholic liver injury. We administered alcohol (up to 27 mg/kg/d) in high fat diet using intragastric intubation model for 28 days to male mice from 14 inbred strains (129S1/SvImJ, AKR/J, BALB/cJ, BALB/cByJ, BTBR T+tf/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/10J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, KK/HIJ, MOLF/EiJ, NZW/LacJ, PWD/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ). Profound inter-strain differences (more than 3-fold) in alcohol-induced steatohepatitis were observed among the strains in spite of consistently high levels of urine alcohol that was monitored throughout the study. We found that endoplasmic reticulum stress genes were induced only in strains with the highest liver injury. Liver glutathione and methyl donor levels were affected in all strains, albeit to a different degree. Most pronounced effects that were closely associated with the degree of liver injury were hyperhomocysteinemia and strain-dependent differences in expression patterns of one-carbon metabolism-related genes. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that strain differences in alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis are striking and independent of alcohol exposure and the most severely affected strains exhibit major differences in the expression of ER stress markers and genes of one-carbon metabolism. PMID:22307928

  9. German-Russian cooperation in the field of industrial gas turbines for gas pumping stations in the CIS. Final report; Deutsch-Russische Zusammenarbeit bei Industriegasturbinen fuer Erdgas-Pumpstationen der GUS. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renkel, M.; Kuehnel, R.; Kraus, M.

    1997-06-23

    The final report contains information on the work performed under the `German-Russian cooperation in the field of industrial gas turbines for gas pumping stations in the CIS` between September 1, 1994 and November 30, 1996. During this period the following major tasks were completed: Task A: Preliminary analysis and design work for the development of components for a new IGT power turbine (preliminary design with aerodynamic blade profiles, turbine disks and casings) Task B: Provision of an improved casting process using a large single-crystal hollow blade as an example (after adaptation of the MTU tools to suit Russian machinery directionally solidified single-crystal blades were cast from Russian alloys furnished by MTU and then evaluated) Task C: Investigations into innovative blade technologies in terms of design and materials. (Description of problems encountered in connection with turbine blades and of corrective measures aimed at increasing the blade life; 3 casting test series at VIAM). Despite the very good cooperation with the Russian partners VIAM/Moscow and Motorostroitel/Samara the project was delayed and finally stopped because of problems with the Russian customs authorities as well as problems in connection with deliveries and contractual matters. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Schlussbericht enthaelt Angaben ueber die im Rahmen der `Deutsch-Russischen Zusammenarbeit bei Industriegasturbinen fuer Erdgas-Pumpstationen der GUS` durchgefuehrten Arbeiten im Zeitraum zwischen dem 1. September 1994 und dem 30. November 1996. In diesem Zeitraum sind im Arbeitsprogramm folgende Hauptaufgaben bearbeitet worden: Aufgabe A: Analytisch-konstruktive Vorarbeiten zu Komponenten-Entwicklung am Beispiel einer neuen IG-Nutzturbine (Auslegung eines Vorentwurfs mit aerodynamischen Schaufelprofilen, Turbinenscheiben und -gehaeuse). Aufgabe B: Bereitstellung verbesserter Gusstechnologie am Beispiel einer grossen einkristallin erstarrten Hohlschaufel (nach Anpassung von MTU

  10. MICE Particle Identification System

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M

    2010-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment, MICE, at the ISIS accelerator lo- cated at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, will be the first experiment to study muon cooling at high precision. Demonstration of muon ionization cooling is an essential step towards the construction of a neutrino factory or a muon collider. Muons are produced by pion decay in a superconducting solenoid and reach MICE with a range of emittances and momenta. The purity of the muon beam is ensured by a system of particle detectors we will briefly describe here.

  11. Colorful Kindergarten Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

  12. Mice Drawer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancedda, Ranieri

    2008-01-01

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions (from 100 to 150-days) by living space, food, water, ventilation and lighting. Mice can be accommodated either individually (maximum 6) or in groups (4 pairs). MDS is integrated in the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation (uploading and downloading) to the ISS and in an EXPRESS Rack in Destiny, the US Laboratory during experiment execution. Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton. This bone loss experienced by astronauts is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population. MDS will help investigate the effects of unloading on transgenic (foreign gene that has been inserted into its genome to exhibit a particular trait) mice with the Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1, OSF-1, a growth and differentiation factor, and to study the genetic mechanisms underlying the bone mass pathophysiology. MDS will test the hypothesis that mice with an increased bone density are likely to be more protected from osteoporosis, when the increased bone mass is a direct effect of a gene involved in skeletogenesis (skeleton formation). Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton, a loss that is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population on Earth. Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1 (OSF-1), also known as pleiotrophin (PTN) or Heparin-Binding Growth- Associated Molecule (HB-GAM) belongs to a family of secreted heparin binding proteins..OSF-1 is an extracellular matrix-associated growth and

  13. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and severe disability, but effective treatments are limited. Neuroglobin, a neuronal heme-globin, has been advocated as a novel pharmacological target in combating stroke and neurodegenerative disorders based on cytoprotective properties. Using...... thoroughly validated antibodies and oligos, we give a detailed brain anatomical characterization of transgenic mice over expressing Neuroglobin. Moreover, using permanent middle artery occlusion the effect of elevated levels of Neuroglobin on ischemic damage was studied. Lastly, the impact of mouse strain...... genetic background on ischemic damage was investigated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A four to five fold increase in Neuroglobin mRNA and protein expression was seen in the brain of transgenic mice. A β-actin promoter was used to drive Neuroglobin over expression, but immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization...

  14. The MICE PID Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2008-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well below 1%. The MICE time-of-flight system will measure timing with a resolution better than 70 ps per plane, in a harsh environment due to high particle rates, fringe magnetic fields and electron backgrounds from RF dark current.

  15. Psychopharmacological Studies in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Since 1998, when the laboratory of Medicinal Pharmacology was established in the Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, I have been interested in psychopharmacological research topics. During this period, we identified a number of novel regulatory mechanisms that control the prefrontal dopamine system through functional interaction between serotonin1A and dopamine D2 receptors or between serotonin1A and σ1 receptors. Our findings suggest that strategies that enhance the prefrontal dopamine system may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We also found that environmental factors during development strongly impact the psychological state in adulthood. Furthermore, we clarified the pharmacological profiles of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine, providing novel insights into their mechanisms of action. Finally, we developed the female encounter test, a novel method for evaluating motivation in mice. This simple method should help advance future psychopharmacological research. In this review, we summarize the major findings obtained from our recent studies in mice.

  16. MPD in Telomerase Null Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    telomere dysfunctional mice will further fuel the genomic instability generated from progressive Figure 5 5FU treated telomere dysfunction bone...marrow has increased megakaryocytic colonies. Equal number of bone marrow cells from the 5FU treated mice of the various indicated cohorts are...We treated the cohorts of the G4 mTerc mutant mice with telomere dysfunction and normal G0 controls with 5FU at (50mg/kg body weight) once every

  17. Musterwiderrufsbelehrungen der Deutsche Gesetzgeber als Kautelarjurist

    OpenAIRE

    Kindl, Johann

    2017-01-01

    [eng] In the last years, the German legislator has been characterized by the provision to legal operators of forms consisting of a kind of instructions about the correct application of the law. The most important and well-known example of a legally privileged prototype is the one of the forms informing the consumer about his or her right to cancel, which are included in the EGBGB (Law of Introduction to the German Civil Code) in the form of an annex. The experience has posed so...

  18. Weltkonjunktur und deutsche Konjunktur im Winter 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    [Weltkonjunktur bleibt vorerst schwach] Die Weltkonjunktur hat im Jahr 2012 weiter an Fahrt verloren. Zur Jahreswende 2012/13 scheint der Tiefpunkt der globalen konjunkturellen Dynamik zwar durchschritten zu sein. Doch belasten Unsicherheiten den Ausblick, die insbesondere im Zusammenhang mit der Staatsschuldenkrise im Euroraum und dem zukünftigen finanzpolitischen Kurs in den Vereinigten Staaten stehen. Für die Prognose ist angenommen, dass sich die Lage im Euroraum allmählich weiter entspan...

  19. Das deutsche Adverbialsystem (The German Adverbial System)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droescher, W. O.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the surface structure of German adverbs proceeding from the standpoint of dependence-valence grammar. On the basis of their meaning, adverbs are classified as modal, temporal and locational. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  20. Adverbialpositionen im deutsch-englischen Vergleich

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Werner; Pittner, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Der Ausgangspunkt ist die These, daß die verschiedenen Adverbialklassen im Deutschen unterschiedliche Basispositionen aufweisen und daß sich diese durch unterschiedliche strukturelle Anforderungen an die Klassen ergeben. Es soll gezeigt werden, daß sich die plausible Vermutung, daß die Adverbialklassen in Sprachen wie dem Deutschen und dem Englischen entsprechenden strukturellen Bedingungen unterliegen, bestätigt. Unterschiede im Verhalten der Adverbiale in den beiden Sprachen werden demnach ...

  1. Das deutsche Kriegsgefangenenwesen 1939 - 1945

    OpenAIRE

    Geck, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    Zusammenfassung: Die vorliegende Untersuchung zum deutschen Kriegsgefangenenwesen (KGW) im Zweiten Weltkrieg schließt eine wichtige Lücke innerhalb der geschichtswissenschaftlichen Forschungen zum Themenkreis der Kriegsgefangenschaft in deutschem Gewahrsam. Bisherige Studien (bis einschließlich 1997) behandeln vor allem sozial- und kulturgeschichtliche Aspekte der Kriegsgefangenen (Kgf.), der Lagergesellschaft und dem Alltag von Soldaten in Kriegsgefangenschaft. Der Verfasser indes legt mit s...

  2. Das Projekt "Deutsch als Zweitsprache in Dialektumgebung"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straßl, Katharina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the ongoing project "German as a Second Language in a Dialect-Speaking Environment" which is concerned with the acquisition of German as a second language by immigrant children in the German-Speaking part of Switzerland. As this is one of the areas where a distinct dialect coexists with the standard variety, the language acquisition poses a challenge for immigrant children: The daily input does not correspond at all, or only in part, to what the immigrant children should learn (e.g. for achievement in school and career opportunities, namely standard German. The aims of the project are to evaluate existing language measuring methods for preschool children and to develop a test that is adapted to the bilingualism of the immigrant children and the specific diglossic learning situation. Furthermore, an empirical pilot study deals with the language abilities of primary school children and examines how and to what extend the local dialect influences the use of standard German in spoken and written texts.

  3. Wie viele Tempora hat das Deutsche?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. ten Cate

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the question of how many tenses exist in the German language. Answers to this question range from a minimum of one up to no less than about thirteen, but the main problem is, what exactly has to be counted. One has to distinguish between tense forms and temporal functions, and standard German has about 6 forms and 6 functions. Almost every form expresses more than one function, so that about 12 pairs of form and function may be found. Such overlap is not necessary, because speakers can avoid using two forms for one function. However, since this situation is not excluded in principle, we have to accept a certain redundancy in the German tense system.

  4. Deutsche Sage(9)Die Brembr Stadtmusikanten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    DeutscheSage(9)DieBremerStadtmusikantenEshatteeinManneinenEsel,2derschonlangeJaherdieunver-drossenzurgetragenhatte,dessenaber...

  5. Language awareness und Deutsch als Fremdsprache

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Der Beitrag diskutiert die Rolle des Konzepts der Language Awareness im Fach DaF. Es hat zunächst aus angrenzenden Fächern wie der Fremdsprachendidaktik und der Didaktik des Faches DaZ Eingang in die Didaktik des Faches DaF gefunden. Hier hat es bisher vor allem in der Entwicklung von Curricula eine Rolle gespielt. Eine Perspektive zur weiteren Forschung ist aus Sicht der Autorin im Bereich der Teacher Language Awareness zu sehen. The paper discusses the role of the concept of Language Awaren...

  6. Deutsche Fremdwortlexikografie zwischen 1800 und 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heier, Anke

    The thesis considers the German lexicography of foreign words from a general evolutionary and selected works based perspective. Using an analytical approach focusing on lexicographic and extended with cultural-semiotic aspects, it is examined if and to what extent a lexicographic and programmatic...

  7. Textsammlung zum deutsch-chinesischen Wissenschaftsdialog

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Elmar

    2013-01-01

    [Table of Content] # Part 1: Application-oriented Research/Anwendungsorientierte Forschung. A) Thomas Heupel: Anwendungsorientierte Forschungsentwicklung und 'Forschende Lehre' als Herausforderungen eines berufsbegleitenden Studiums ...1 # Part 2: Optimizing Business Processes/Ansätze zur Prozessoptimierung in der Wirtschaft. B) Shimin Sun: A Study on the Establishment and Management of the Supply Chain of High Quality Pork ...13 C) Shimin Sun: A Study on the Establishment and Management of t...

  8. Deutsch-estnische Begegnungen bei Fregattenbesuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Fregati Bayern külaskäigust Tallinnasse. Fregati külastusvisiit Tallinnase tähistas kahekümne aasta täitumist kaitse- ja sõjalise koostöö algusest Saksamaa ja Eesti vahel ning 10 aasta täitumist Eesti kuulumisest NATOsse

  9. Deutsche Industrie: Durchwachsene Lage, positive Aussichten

    OpenAIRE

    Lucke, Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    During the first nine months of this year, German industry almost fully compensated for the decline in production of late 2012 and, in 2013, will only just fall short of last year's figures, by an estimated 0.5 percent. Should the economic recovery in the euro area gain momentum as anticipated for next year, an increase in industrial production of three percent is possible. Recent significant improvements in the global economy in particular are having a positive impact on the manufacturing se...

  10. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  11. Inborn anemias in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, S.E.; Barker, J.E.; Russell, E.S.

    1981-06-01

    hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, five hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, an ..cap alpha..-thalassemia, and a new target-cell anemia. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus our wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse. Each anemia is studied through: (a) characterization of peripheral blood values, (b) determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions, (c) measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis, (d) histological and biochemical study of blood-forming tissue, (e) functional tests of the stem cell component, (f) examination of responses to erythroid stimuli, and (g) transplantation of tissue between individuals of differently affected genotypes.

  12. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  13. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-12-31

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  14. Mice, men and MHC supertypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Claus

    2010-01-01

    vaccine formulations. Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, causes severe neurologic and ocular disease in congenitally infected and immunocompromised individuals. No protective vaccine exists against human toxoplasmosis. However, studies with mice have revealed immunodominant cytotoxic T...

  15. Owls and larks in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina ePfeffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans come in different chronotypes and, particularly, the late chronotype (the so-called owl has been shown to be associated with a number of health risks. Recent studies indicate that laboratory mice also display various chronotypes. In mice as well as in humans, the chronotype shows correlations with the period length and rhythm stability. In addition, some mouse models for human diseases show alterations in their chronotypic behavior which are comparable to those humans. Thus, analysis of the behavior of mice is a powerful tool to unravel the molecular and genetic background of the chronotype and the prevalence of risks and diseases that are associated with it. In this review, we summarize the correlation of chronotype with free-running period length and rhythm stability in the most commonly used inbred mouse strains, in mice with a compromised molecular clockwork and in a mouse model for neurodegeneration.

  16. Annual report of the electric power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany 1995. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Jahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1995. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    For the year under report, figures are given on: Origin and consumption of electric power; power generation in public utilities, industrial plants and the Deutsche Bahn AG; development of power consumption in the network of public utilities in the federal states; net power generation and consumption in industry and development of the gross power generation in public power plants and industrial units in the federal states. (HS) [Deutsch] Fuer das Berichtsjahr werden in Tabellen Zahlen dargestellt betreffend: Herkunft und Verbleib der elektrischen Arbeit; Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG; Entwicklung des Stromverbrauches aus dem Netz der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetsversorgung in den Bundeslaendern; Netto-Stromerzeugung und -Stromverbrauch der Industrie und Entwicklung der Brutto-Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Kraftwerke und der industriellen Eigenanlagen in den Bundeslaendern. (HS)

  17. Annual report of the electric power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany 1997. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Jahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1997. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    1999-01-01

    For the year under report, figures are given on: Origin and consumption of electric power; power generation in public utilities, industrial plants and the Deutsche Bahn AG; development of power consumption in the network of public utilities in the federal states; net power generation and consumption in industry and development of the gross power generation in public power plants and industrial units in the federal states. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer das Berichtsjahr werden in Tabellen Zahlen dargestellt betreffend: Herkunft und Verbleib der elektrischen Arbeit; Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG; Entwicklung des Stromverbrauchs aus dem Netz der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetsversorgung in den Bundeslaendern; Netto-Stromerzeugung und -Stromverbrauch der Industrie und Entwicklung der Brutto-Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Kraftwerke und der industriellen Eigenanlagen in den Bundeslaendern. (orig.)

  18. Annual report of the electric power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany 1996. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Jahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1996. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    For the year under report, figures are given on: Origin and consumption of electric power; power generation in public utilities, industrial plants and the Deutsche Bahn AG; development of power consumption in the network of public utilities in the federal states; net power generation and consumption in industry and development of the gross power generation in public power plants and industrial units in the federal states. (orig.) [Deutsch] Fuer das Berichtsjahr werden in Tabellen Zahlen dargestellt betreffend: Herkunft und Verbleib der elektrischen Arbeit; Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG; Entwicklung des Stromverbrauchs aus dem Netz der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetsversorgung in den Bundeslaendern; Netto-Stromerzeugung und -Stromverbrauch der Industrie und Entwicklung der Brutto-Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Kraftwerke und der industriellen Eigenanlagen in den Bundeslaendern. (orig.)

  19. Xenotropic type C virus expression in murine thymomas induced by radiation or 3-methylcholanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, A. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY); Duran-Reynals, M.L.

    1981-10-01

    Thymic lymphoma incidence and thymic expression of MuLV with xenotropic infectivity was monitored in AKR, RF, and reciprocal F/sub 1/ mice of the AKR X RF cross after treatment with either ..gamma.. radiation or the chemical carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). These two inbred strains and the F/sub 1/ hybrids developed similary high incidences of thymoma, and lymphomatous cells from AKR mice and (ARK) X RF..integral..)F/sub 1/ mice were observed to be expressing MuLV with xenotropic host range. However, lymphoma cells from RF mice and (RF) X AKR..integral..)F/sub 1/ mice did not shed xenotropic MuLV. Thymic xenotropic virus expression was therefore not correlated with a high incidence of radiation or chemically induced thymoma, but rather appeared to be a phenotype genetically transmitted by AKR mice to F/sub 1/ mice of the AKR X RF cross as a dominant trait in induced thymomas. In addition, a maternal effect on thymic xenotropic virus expression in induced thymomas was observed by the comparison of reciprocal F/sub 1/ hybrids in this cross.

  20. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 2nd quarter 2000. Power generation in public-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units, and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 2. Vierteljahr 2000. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    2001-01-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation in plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (HS) [German] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitendes Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (HS)

  1. Quarterly report on the electric power industry in the Federal Republic of Germany. 3rd quarter 1999. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Vierteljahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 3. Vierteljahr 1999. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    2000-02-01

    The report provides data on public electricity supply, on power generation plants of the mining industry and the manufacturing industry, and on the German Federal Railways. The data have been derived from the monthly reports of the Federal Office of Statistics. (HS) [German] Der Bericht enthaelt Zahlen fuer die oeffentliche Versorgung, fuer die Eigenanlagen im Bergbau und Verarbeitenden Gewerbe und fuer die Deutsche Bundesbahn. Die Zahlen sind den monatlichen Berichten des Statistischen Bundesamtes entnommen. (HS)

  2. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  3. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii: sexual transmission in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Asgari, Qasem; Keshavarz Valian, Hossein; REZAEIAN, Mostafa; SHOJAEE, Saeedeh; Mehrabani, Davood

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate sexual transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in mice. RH strain tachyzoites were intraperitoneally inoculated into 10 Balb/C male mice and after 48 h, their semen were collected from epididymis and examined by giemsa staining and PCR. Twenty Balb/C female mice mated with four infected male mice four times and any mating time was 48 h whilst 20 female control mice mated with four uninfected male mice for 8 days. Female mate choice was assessed using a three-cha...

  5. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  6. Progress of the MICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2015-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. The demonstration is based on a simplified version of a neutrino factory cooling channel. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation has been developed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. The muon beamline has been characterized and a preliminary measure of the beam emittance, using a particle-by-particle method with only the TOF detector system, has been performed (MICE STEP I). Data taking for the study of the properties that determine the cooling performance (MICE Step IV) has just started in 2015, while the demonstration of ionization cooling with re-acceleration is foreseen for 2017.

  7. Conference Report: “Thirty Years of German–Beninese Cooperation in Social Science Research on Benin: Topics, Conclusions, Future Prospects” – Thurnau/Bayreuth, 8–10 March 2012 Konferenzbericht: “30 Jahre sozialwissenschaftliche Benin-Forschung in deutsch-beninischer Zusammenarbeit: Themen, Ergebnisse, Ausblicke” – Thurnau/Bayreuth, 8.-10. März 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannett Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the contributions and debates from a conference on German–Beninese cooperation in social science research (8–10 March 2012, University of Bayreuth. In drawing on the experiences from more than three decades of social science research on this West African country, it refers to examples from the past and present of African Studies in Germany, as well as describing the potential for German–African cooperation in this field in the future. Aside from this, it raises the question of whether and how social science cooperation is possible given the economic and power disparities. It is argued that cooperation “on equal terms” will not be easy to achieve but must be consistently striven for – personally as well as politically.Dieser Bericht fasst die Beiträge und Debatten einer Konferenz zur deutsch-beninischen Kooperation in der Sozialforschung (Universität Bayreuth, 8.-10. März 2012 zusammen. Indem Erfahrungen aus drei Jahrzehnten Sozialforschung zu diesem westafrikanischen Land skizziert werden, entsteht beispielhaft ein Bild der Afrikaforschung in Deutschland. Die Potenziale deutsch-afrikanischer Zusammenarbeit in diesem Bereich werden deutlich. Gleichzeitig wird die Frage beleuchtet, ob und wie angesichts der vorhandenen wirtschaftlichen Unterschiede und hierarchischen Strukturen eine Kooperation in der sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung möglich ist. Die Autorinnen halten eine Zusammenarbeit zu gleichen Bedingungen für schwer erreichbar, plädieren aber dafür, sich kontinuierlich dafür einzusetzen – persönlich und politisch.

  8. Turning Back the Aging Clock -- in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 164250.html Turning Back the Aging Clock -- in Mice Elderly rodents treated with cellular therapy regained lost fur, became ... 2017 THURSDAY, March 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Aging mice became more youthful following a new cellular therapy ...

  9. Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 (historical) Modified Protein Improves Vitiligo Symptoms in Mice Altering a key protein involved in the development ... pigmentation loss associated with the skin disorder in mice, according to recent research funded by the NIH’s ...

  10. Nanoparticles Ease Aching Joints in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161188.html Nanoparticles Ease Aching Joints in Mice Treatment might one ... News) -- New research in mice suggests that tiny nanoparticles might one day be a better way to ...

  11. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Adriaan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  12. Progress on Cherenkov Reconstruction in MICE

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Daniel M; Rajaram, Durga; Winter, Miles; Cremaldi, Lucien; Sanders, David; Summers, Don

    2016-01-01

    Two beamline Cherenkov detectors (Ckov-a,-b) support particle identification in the MICE beamline. Electrons and high-momentum muons and pions can be identified with good efficiency. We report on the Ckov-a,-b performance in detecting pions and muons with MICE Step I data and derive an upper limit on the pion contamination in the standard MICE muon beam.

  13. Socially induced morphine pseudosensitization in adolescent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Stephen R; Hofford, Rebecca S; Roberts, Kris W; Wellman, Paul J; Eitan, Shoshana

    2010-03-01

    Given that social influences are among the strongest predictors of adolescents' drug use, this study examined the effect of social interaction on morphine-induced hyperlocomotion in both adolescent and adult mice. Three experimental groups of adolescent and adult male mice were examined (i) morphine-treated mice (twice daily, 10-40 mg/kg, subcutaneous), (ii) saline-injected mice housed together with the morphine-treated mice ('saline cage-mates'), and (iii) saline-injected mice housed physically and visually separated from the morphine-treated mice ('saline alone'). After the treatment period, mice were tested individually for their locomotor response to 10 mg/kg morphine (subcutaneous). Adolescent saline cage-mates, though administered morphine for the very first time, exhibited an enhanced hyperlocomotion response similar to the locomotor sensitization response exhibited by the morphine-treated mice. This was not observed in adults. In adults, there were no significant differences in morphine-induced hyperlocomotion between saline alone and saline cage-mates. As expected, morphine-treated adults and adolescents both exhibited locomotor sensitization. These results show a vulnerability to social influences in adolescent mice, which does not exist in adult mice.

  14. Postnatal Hematopoiesis and Gut Microbiota in NOD Mice Deviate from C57BL/6 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Silke Malling Damlund

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND 1–4 in NOD mice. Furthermore, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface in NOD compared to C57BL/6 mice.

  15. Ascorbate synthesis pathway, dual role of ascorbate in bone homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using mouse gene knock-out models, we identify aldehyde reductase (EC 1.1.1.2, Akr1a4 (GR)) and aldose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21, Akr1b3 (AR)) as the enzymes responsible for conversion of D-glucuronate to L-gulonate, a key step in the ascorbate (ASC) synthesis pathway in mice. The gene knock-out (KO) m...

  16. Aldo-keto Reductase Family 1 B10 as a Novel Target for Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    cells via identifying the functional domain(s). Body 1) AKR1B10 silencing inhibits breast cancer cells BT-20 growth in culture and...Laboratory of Chemical Biology, Guangdong Province, Tsinghua University Graduate School at Shenzhen , Guangdong 518055 and 6School of Medicine, Tsinghua...breast cancer. Silencing of AKR1B10 in BT-20 human breast cancer cells inhibited cell growth in culture and tumorigenesis in female nude mice. Taken

  17. Postnatal hematopoiesis and gut microbiota in NOD mice deviate from C57BL/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate f...

  18. AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR OF LABORATORY MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Cinghiţă

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study agonistic behavior of laboratory white mice when they are kept in captivity. For all this experimental work we used direct observation of mice, in small lists, because we need a reduced space to emphasize characteristics of agonistic behavior. Relations between members of the same species that live in organized groups are based in most cases on hierarchical structure. Relations between leader and subservient, decided by fighting, involve a thorough observation between individuals. Each member of a group has its own place on the ierarchical scale depending on resultes of fhights – it can be leader or it can be subsurvient, depending on if it wines or looses the fight. Once hierarchical scale made, every animal will adjust its behavior. After analyzing the obtained data we have enough reasons to believe that after fights the winner, usually, is the massive mouse, but it is also very important the sexual ripeness, so the immature male will be beaten. The leader male had a big exploring area and it checks up all territory.The females can be more aggressive, its fights are more brutal, than male fights are, when they fight for supremacy, but in this case fights are not as frequent as in the case of males. Always the superior female, on hierarchical scale, shows males its own statute, so the strongest genes will be perpetuated.

  19. Mice embryology: a microscopic overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvadori, Maria Letícia Baptista; Lessa, Thais Borges; Russo, Fabiele Baldino; Fernandes, Renata Avancini; Kfoury, José Roberto; Braga, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we studied the embryology of mice of 12, 14, and 18 days of gestation by gross observation, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Grossly, the embryos of 12 days were observed in C-shaped region of the brain, eye pigmentation of the retina, first, second, and third pharyngeal arches gill pit nasal region on the fourth ventricle brain, cervical curvature, heart, liver, limb bud thoracic, spinal cord, tail, umbilical cord, and place of the mesonephric ridge. Microscopically, the liver, cardiovascular system and spinal cord were observed. In the embryo of 14 days, we observed structures that make up the liver and heart. At 18 days of gestation fetuses, it was noted the presence of eyes, mouth, and nose in the cephalic region, chest and pelvic region with the presence of well-developed limbs, umbilical cord, and placenta. Scanning electron microscopy in 18 days of gestation fetuses evidenced head, eyes closed eyelids, nose, vibrissae, forelimb, heart, lung, kidney, liver, small bowel, diaphragm, and part of the spine. The results obtained in this work describe the internal and external morphology of mice, provided by an integration of techniques and review of the morphological knowledge of the embryonic development of this species, as this animal is of great importance to scientific studies.

  20. Amylin induces hypoglycemia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Guerreiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amylin is a 37-aminoacid pancreatic protein that exerts control over several metabolic events such as glycemia and lacticemia. Amylin has long been shown to induce increases in arterial plasma glucose. We decided to investigate whether amylin plays additional roles in the glucose metabolism. We evaluated glucose homeostasis using whole blood from the tail tip of fasting, conscious, unrestrained normal and streptozotocyn-induced diabetic mice following subcutaneous administration of mouse amylin. Subcutaneous injection of 1 μg mouse amylin caused a transient decrease in whole blood glucose in both normal and diabetic mice in the absence of insulin. The blood glucose levels were lowest approximately 2 hours after amylin administration, after that they gradually recovered to the levels of the control group. The hypoglycemic effect followed a dose-dependent response ranging from 0.1 to 50 µg / mouse. These results reveal the ability for amylin in the direct control of glycemia at low doses in the absence of insulin.

  1. Bacterial infections in Myd88-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Jason S; Rong, Fang; Cooper, Timothy K

    2014-04-01

    Three breeding colonies of Myd88(-/-) mice had a history of significant morbidity and mortality. Although strain-specific poor reproductive performance might explain neonatal death and dystocia, mice were found dead or required euthanasia because of moribundity, distended abdomen, head tilt, and seizures. Histopathology results included bacteremia, placentitis, metritis, peritonitis with abscess formation, and suppurative meningoencephalitis. Intralesional gram-negative coccobacilli were present, often in extremely high number. Cultures of samples of the cardiac blood of a mouse and from water-bottle sipper tubes provided to some affected mice grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In addition, affected tissues from 2 mice and feces from a third tested PCR-positive for P. aeruginosa. Although the mice had received autoclaved reverse-osmosis-purified drinking water, we suspect that the mice were inoculated with P. aeruginosa through contaminated sipper tubes. Because of the deficiency in most of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, these Myd88(-/-) mice were unlikely to have developed competitive innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in bacterial infections. These clinical cases underscore the importance of understanding how genotype, phenotype and environment affect animal health. Sound husbandry and experimental practices are needed to prevent the exposure of immuno-deficient mice to pathogens.

  2. Euthanasia of neonatal mice with carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, K.; Corrow, D.; Stockwell, J.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent method used to euthanize rodents in biomedical research. The purpose of this study was to determine the time of CO2 exposure required to euthanize neonatal mice (0 to 10 days old). Multiple groups of mice were exposed to 100% CO 2 for time periods between 5 and 60 min. Mice were placed in room air for 10 or 20 min after CO2 exposure, to allow for the chance of recovery. If mice recovered at one time point, a longer exposure was examined. Inbred and outbred mice were compared. Results of the study indicated that time to death varied with the age of the animals and could be as long as 50 min on the day of birth and differed between inbred and outbred mice. Institutions euthanizing neonatal mice with CO2 may wish to adjust their CO 2 exposure time periods according the age of the mice and their genetic background. Copyright 2005 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science.

  3. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith L; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd......-/-) mice. Atherogenesis involves both inflammation and lipid deposition, and we investigated the role of SP-D in the development of atherosclerosis. SP-D synthesis was localized to vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were 5.6-fold smaller in the aortic roots in Spd-/- mice compared...... with wild-type C57BL/6N mice on an atherogenic diet. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated in Spd-/- mice. Treatment of Spd-/- mice with a recombinant fragment of human SP-D resulted in decreases of HDL-C (21%) as well as total cholesterol (26%), and LDL cholesterol (28%). Plasma TNF...

  4. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Brashaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, C.; Chignoli, F.; Cline, D.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, G.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Drews, M.; Drielsma, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Franchini, P.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gardener, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Greis, J. R.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lagrange, J.-B.; Langlands, J.; Lau, W.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Mazza, R.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Oates, A.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, P.; Sakamato, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Speirs, D.; Stanley, T.; Stokes, G.; Summers, D. J.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Uchida, M. A.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Virostek, S.; Vretenar, M.; Warburton, P.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Winter, M.; Yang, X.; Young, A.; Zisman, M.

    2016-03-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240 MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than ~1% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is fπ < 1.4% at 90% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  5. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Japan, Ibaraki; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Drews, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Winter, M.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  6. IL-6 Compared to Young Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflamm-aging indicates the chronic inflammatory state resulting from increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators such as IL-6 in the elderly. Our principle objective was to identify cell types that were affected with aging concerning IL-6 secretion in the murine model. We compared IL-6 production in spleen cells from both young and aged mice and isolated several types of cells from spleen and investigated IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production. IL-6 protein productions in cultured stromal cells from aged mice spleen were significantly high compared to young mice upon LPS stimulation. IL-6 mRNA expression level of freshly isolated stromal cells from aged mice was high compared to young mice. Furthermore, stromal cells of aged mice highly expressed IL-6 mRNA after LPS injection in vivo. These results suggest that stromal cells play a role in producing IL-6 in aged mice and imply that they contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in the elderly.

  7. Leukemogenesis in heterozygous PU.1 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genik, Paula C; Vyazunova, Irina; Steffen, Leta S; Bacher, Jeffery W; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; McKercher, Scott; Ullrich, Robert L; Fallgren, Christina M; Weil, Michael M; Ray, F Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Most murine radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias involve biallelic inactivation of the PU.1 gene, with one allele being lost through a radiation-induced chromosomal deletion and the other allele affected by a recurrent point mutation in codon 235 that is likely to be spontaneous. The short latencies of acute myeloid leukemias occurring in nonirradiated mice engineered with PU.1 conditional knockout or knockdown alleles suggest that once both copies of PU.1 have been lost any other steps involved in leukemogenesis occur rapidly. Yet, spontaneous acute myeloid leukemias have not been reported in mice heterozygous for a PU.1 knockout allele, an observation that conflicts with the understanding that the PU.1 codon 235 mutation is spontaneous. Here we describe experiments that show that the lack of spontaneous leukemia in PU.1 heterozygous knockout mice is not due to insufficient monitoring times or mouse numbers or the genetic background of the knockout mice. The results reveal that spontaneous leukemias that develop in mice of the mixed 129S2/SvPas and C57BL/6 background of knockout mice arise by a pathway that does not involve biallelic PU.1 mutation. In addition, the latency of radiation-induced leukemia in PU.1 heterozygous mice on a genetic background susceptible to radiation-induced leukemia indicates that the codon 235 mutation is not a rate-limiting step in radiation leukemogenesis driven by PU.1 loss.

  8. Biological Effect of Magnetic Field in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Wei ZENG

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the biological effect of magnetic field in mice bodies. Method: With a piece of permanent magnet embeded in mice bodies beside the femoral artery and vein to measure the electrophoretic velocity(um/s). Result: The magnetic field in mice bodies on the experiment group that the electrophoretic velocity is faster more than control and free group.Conclusion:The magnetic field in animal's body can raise the negative electric charges on the surface of erythrocyte to improve the microcirculation, this is the biological effect of magnetic field.

  9. Experimental osteoarthritis models in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Julia; Grässel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a slowly progressing, degenerative disorder of synovial joints culminating in the irreversible destruction of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. It affects almost everyone over the age of 65 and influences life quality of affected individuals with enormous costs to the health care system. Current therapeutic strategies seek to ameliorate pain and increase mobility; however, to date none of them halts disease progression or regenerates damaged cartilage or bone. Thus, there is an ultimate need for the development of new, noninvasive treatments that could substitute joint replacement for late- or end-stage patients. Therefore, osteoarthritis animal models for mimicking of all OA features are important. Mice develop an OA pathology that is comparable to humans, rapidly develop OA due to the short lifetime and show reproducible OA symptoms. They provide a versatile and widely used animal model for analyzing molecular mechanisms of OA pathology. One major advantage over large animal models is the availability of knockout or transgenic mice strains to examine genetic predispositions/contributions to OA.In this chapter, we describe three widely used instability-inducing murine osteoarthritis models. The most common two methods for surgical induction are: (1) destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) and (2) anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). In the DMM model, the medial meniscotibial ligament is transected while in the ACLT model the anterior cruciate ligament is destroyed. In the third, chemical induced instability method, intraarticular collagenase is injected into the knee joint. Intraarticular collagenase weakens articular ligaments which cause instability of the joint, and full-blown OA develops within 6 weeks. For morphological evaluation, we correspond mainly to the recommendations of OARSI for histological assessment of osteoarthritis in mouse. For statistical evaluation summed or mean scores of all four knee areas

  10. Intravenous injections in neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombash Lampe, Sara E; Kaspar, Brian K; Foust, Kevin D

    2014-11-11

    Intravenous injection is a clinically applicable manner to deliver therapeutics. For adult rodents and larger animals, intravenous injections are technically feasible and routine. However, some mouse models can have early onset of disease with a rapid progression that makes administration of potential therapies difficult. The temporal (or facial) vein is just anterior to the ear bud in mice and is clearly visible for the first two days after birth on either side of the head using a dissecting microscope. During this window, the temporal vein can be injected with volumes up to 50 μl. The injection is safe and well tolerated by both the pups and the dams. A typical injection procedure is completed within 1-2 min, after which the pup is returned to the home cage. By the third postnatal day the vein is difficult to visualize and the injection procedure becomes technically unreliable. This technique has been used for delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors, which in turn can provide almost body-wide, stable transgene expression for the life of the animal depending on the viral serotype chosen.

  11. Mice lacking neurofibromin develop gastric hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu; Chen, Jian; Richardson, James A.

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms are among many manifestations of the genetic disease neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, the physiological and pathological functions of the Nf1 gene in the GI system have not been fully studied, possibly because of a lack of mouse models. In this study, we generated conditional knockout mice with Nf1 deficiency in the GI tract. These mice develop gastric epithelial hyperplasia and inflammation together with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. The gastric phenotypes observed in these mutant mice seem to be the consequence of loss of Nf1 in gastric fibroblasts, resulting in paracrine hyperactivation of the ERK pathway in the gastric epithelium. These mice provide a useful model to study the pathogenesis of GI lesions in a subset of patients with NF1 and to investigate the role of the Nf1 gene in the development of GI neoplasms. PMID:19661150

  12. Zika Infection Shrinks Testicles in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163733.html Zika Infection Shrinks Testicles in Mice Study authors unsure ... 22, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Feb. 22, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Zika virus can be sexually transmitted through semen, and ...

  13. Social transfer of pain in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Monique L.; Hostetler, Caroline M.; Heinricher, Mary M.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2016-01-01

    A complex relationship exists between the psychosocial environment and the perception and experience of pain, and the mechanisms of the social communication of pain have yet to be elucidated. The present study examined the social communication of pain and demonstrates that “bystander” mice housed and tested in the same room as mice subjected to inflammatory pain or withdrawal from morphine or alcohol develop corresponding hyperalgesia. Olfactory cues mediate the transfer of hyperalgesia to the bystander mice, which can be measured using mechanical, thermal, and chemical tests. Hyperalgesia in bystanders does not co-occur with anxiety or changes in corticosterone and cannot be explained by visually dependent emotional contagion or stress-induced hyperalgesia. These experiments reveal the multifaceted relationship between the social environment and pain behavior and support the use of mice as a model system for investigating these factors. In addition, these experiments highlight the need for proper consideration of how experimental animals are housed and tested.

  14. Electroencephalographic changes with age in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, B E; Zolovick, A J; Elias, M F

    1975-01-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) changes, as measured by the awake state, slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid-eye movement (REM) patterns and ratio of REM/total sleep, were recorded in aging male mice of DBA/2J and C57BL/6J strains. Results indicate that there is a significant increase in the awake state accompanied by significant decrease in SWS with advancing age for both strains, although these changes appear more pronounced in DBA/2J mice than C57BL/6J mice. Of considerable significance is the finding that REM sleep is absent in mice of DBA/2J strain at 23.5 months of age. Based on these findings, the conclusion was reached that strain DBA/2J ages significantly faster than C57BL/6J. The difference in aging between the two strains emphasizes the need for additional studies dealing with genetic aspects of aging.

  15. Annual report of the electric power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany 2000. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Jahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2000. Stromerzeugung der allgemeinen Elektrizitaetswerke einschliesslich der Deutschen Bahn AG und der industriellen Eigenanlagen sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasch, G.M.

    2002-05-01

    For the year under report, figures are given on: Origin and consumption of electric power; power generation in public utilities, industrial plants and the Deutsche Bahn AG; development of power consumption in the network of public utilities in the federal states; net power generation and consumption in industry and development of the gross power generation in public power plants and industrial units in the federal states. [German] Fuer das Berichtsjahr werden in Tabellen Zahlen dargestellt betreffend: Herkunft und Verbleib der elektrischen Arbeit; Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG; Entwicklung des Stromverbrauchs aus dem Netz der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetsversorgung in den Bundeslaendern; Netto-Stromerzeugung und -Stromverbrauch der Industrie und Entwicklung der Brutto-Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Kraftwerke und der industriellen Eigenanlagen in den Bundeslaendern.

  16. Annual report of the electric power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany 1998. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Jahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1998. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    1999-12-01

    For the year under report, figures are given on: Origin and consumption of electric power; power generation in public utilities, industrial plants and the Deutsche Bahn AG; development of power consumption in the network of public utilities in the federal states; net power generation and consumption in industry and development of the gross power generation in public power plants and industrial units in the federal states. (orig.) [German] Fuer das Berichtsjahr werden in Tabellen Zahlen dargestellt betreffend: Herkunft und Verbleib der elektrischen Arbeit; Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG; Entwicklung des Stromverbrauchs aus dem Netz der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetsversorgung in den Bundeslaendern; Netto-Stromerzeugung und -Stromverbrauch der Industrie und Entwicklung der Brutto-Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Kraftwerke und der industriellen Eigenanlagen in den Bundeslaendern. (orig.)

  17. Annual report of the electric power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany 1999. Power generation in publicly-owned electric utilities, the industrial independent units and the Deutsche Bahn AG, and overall power consumption in the Federal Republic of Germany; Jahresbericht ueber die Elektrizitaetswirtschaft in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1999. Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG sowie Gesamtstromverbrauch in der Bundesrepublik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, L.

    2000-08-01

    For the year under report, figures are given on: Origin and consumption of electric power; power generation in public utilities, industrial plants and the Deutsche Bahn AG; development of power consumption in the network of public utilities in the federal states; net power generation and consumption in industry and development of the gross power generation in public power plants and industrial units in the federal states. (orig.) [German] Fuer das Berichtsjahr werden in Tabellen Zahlen dargestellt betreffend: Herkunft und Verbleib der elektrischen Arbeit; Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetswerke, der industriellen Eigenanlagen und der Deutschen Bahn AG; Entwicklung des Stromverbrauchs aus dem Netz der oeffentlichen Elektrizitaetsversorgung in den Bundeslaendern; Netto-Stromerzeugung und -Stromverbrauch der Industrie und Entwicklung der Brutto-Stromerzeugung der oeffentlichen Kraftwerke und der industriellen Eigenanlagen in den Bundeslaendern. (orig.)

  18. Antifatigue effect of Gracilaria eucheumoides in mice

    OpenAIRE

    SHAO, JIN-TING; Wang, Mei-Yan; ZHENG, LU-BIN

    2013-01-01

    Gracilaria eucheumoides Linn (Gracilariaceae; G. eucheumoides) is abundant in dietary fiber, which aids the clearance of excess cholesterol from the blood and maintains stable blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifatigue effect of G. eucheumoides in mice and the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Mice were randomly divided into four groups and three of the groups were administered different doses of G. eucheumoides extract. ...

  19. Metabolic characteristics of long-lived mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej eBartke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic suppression of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS can extend longevity in worms, insects, and mammals. In laboratory mice, mutations with the greatest, most consistent, and best documented positive impact on lifespan are those that disrupt growth hormone (GH release or actions. These mutations lead to major alterations in IIS but also have a variety of effects that are not directly related to the actions of insulin or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1. Long-lived GH-resistant GHRKO mice with targeted disruption of the GH receptor gene, as well as Ames dwarf (Prop1df and Snell dwarf (Pit1dw mice lacking GH (along with prolactin and TSH, are diminutive in size and have major alterations in body composition and metabolic parameters including increased subcutaneous adiposity, increased relative brain weight, small liver, hypoinsulinemia, mild hypoglycemia, increased adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity, and reduced serum lipids. Body temperature is reduced in Ames, Snell, and female GHRKO mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that both Ames dwarf and GHRKO mice utilize more oxygen per gram (g of body weight than sex- and age-matched normal animals from the same strain. They also have reduced respiratory quotient (RQ, implying greater reliance on fats, as opposed to carbohydrates, as an energy source. Differences in oxygen consumption (VO2 were seen in animals fed or fasted during the measurements as well as in animals that had been exposed to 30% calorie restriction or every-other-day feeding. However, at the thermoneutral temperature of 30°C, VO2 did not differ between GHRKO and normal mice. Thus, the increased metabolic rate of the GHRKO mice, at a standard animal room temperature of 23°C, is apparently related to increased energy demands for thermoregulation in these diminutive animals. We suspect that increased oxidative metabolism combined with enhanced fatty acid oxidation contribute to the extended longevity of

  20. Pregnant phenotype in aquaporin 8-deficient mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-yan SHA; Zheng-fang XIONG; Hui-shu LIU; Zheng ZHENG; Tong-hui MA

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Aquaporin 8 (AQP8) is expressed within the female reproductive system but its physiological function reminds to be elucidated.This study investigates the role of AQP8 during pregnancy using AQP8-knockout (AQP8-KO) mice.Methods: Homozygous AQP8-KO mice were mated, and the conception rate was recorded. AQP8-KO pregnant mice or their offspring were divided into 5 subgroups according to fetal gestational day (7, 13, 16, 18 GD) and newborn. Wild type C57 pregnant mice served as the control group. The number of pregnant mice, total embryos and atrophic embryos, as well as fetal weight, placental weight and placental area were recorded for each subgroup. The amount of amniotic fluid in each sac at 13, 16, and 18 GD was calculated. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance of factorial design and chi-square tests.Results: Conception rates did not differ significantly between AQP8-KO and wild type mice. AQP8-KO pregnant mice had a significantly higher number of embryos compared to wild type controls. Fetal/neonatal weight was also significantly greater in the AQP8-KO group compared to age-matched wild type controls. The amount of amniotic fluid was greater in AQP8-KO pregnant mice than wild type controis, although the FM/AFA (fetal weight/amniotic fluid amount) did not differ. While AQP8-KO placental weight was significantly larger than wild type controls, there was no evidence of placental pathology in either group.Conclusion: The results suggest that AQP8 deficiency plays an important role in pregnancy outcome.

  1. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    OpenAIRE

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris, R. Adron

    2006-01-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the κ-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower a...

  2. Serum amyloid A regulates monopoiesis in hyperlipidemic Ldlr(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishack, Paulette A; Sontag, Timothy J; Getz, Godfrey S; Reardon, Catherine A

    2016-08-01

    We previously showed that feeding a Western-type diet (WTD) to Ldlr(-/-) mice lacking serum amyloid A (SAA) (Saa(-/-) Ldlr(-/-) mice), the level of total blood monocytes was higher than in Ldlr(-/-) mice. In this investigation we demonstrate that higher levels of bone marrow monocytes and macrophage-dendritic cell progenitor (MDP) cells were found in WTD-fed Saa(-/-) Ldlr(-/-) mice compared to Ldlr(-/-) mice and lower levels of GMP cells and CMP cells in Ldlr(-/-) mice. These data indicate that SAA regulates the level of bone marrow monocytes and their myeloid progenitors in hyperlipidemic Ldlr(-/-) mice.

  3. Palmoplantar keratoderma in Slurp2-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Christopher M.; Procaccia, Shiri; Tran, Deanna; Tu, Yiping; Barnes, Richard H.; Larsson, Mikael; Allan, Bernard B.; Young, Lorraine C.; Hong, Cynthia; Tontonoz, Peter; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.; Beigneux, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    SLURP1, a member of the Ly6 protein family, is secreted by suprabasal keratinocytes. Mutations in SLURP1 cause a palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) known as mal de Meleda. Another secreted Ly6 protein, SLURP2, is encoded by a gene located ~20 kb downstream from SLURP1. SLURP2 is produced by suprabasal keratinocytes. To investigate the importance of SLURP2, we first examined Slurp2 knockout mice in which exon 2–3 sequences had been replaced with lacZ and neo cassettes. Slurp2−/− mice exhibited hyperkeratosis on the volar surface of the paws (i.e., PPK), increased keratinocyte proliferation, and an accumulation of lipid droplets in the stratum corneum. They also exhibited reduced body weight and hind limb clasping. These phenotypes are very similar to those of Slurp1−/− mice. To solidify a link between Slurp2 deficiency and PPK and to be confident that the disease phenotypes in Slurp2−/− mice were not secondary to the effects of the lacZ and neo cassettes on Slurp1 expression, we created a new line of Slurp2 knockout mice (Slurp2X−/−) in which Slurp2 was inactivated with a simple nonsense mutation. Slurp2X−/− mice exhibited the same disease phenotypes. Thus, Slurp2 deficiency and Slurp1 deficiencies cause the same disease phenotypes. PMID:26967477

  4. INTERHEMISPHERIC ASYMMETRY OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Mikheev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of the left and right hemispheres in realization of behavior for SHR, DBA/2 and C57BL/6 males mice in open field was studied. All three lines of mice differed each from other in elements of individual behavior. Comparison of effects of unilateral inactivation in SHR mice revealed domination of the right hemisphere in regulation of total duration of rearings and grooming, the most specialization of hemispheres being registered in regulation of temporary parameters of behavioral reactions. In DBA/2 mice, the left hemisphere dominated in control of rearings, and the right one did on seating. In C57BL/6 mice, the right hemisphere dominated only on locomotion. Therefore, the cortex of the brain (after inactivation did not participate in regulation of individual behavior in the majority of the experiments (11 from 18. In two cases, the symmetric participation of hemispheres in regulation of behavioral reactions was obtained, and in 5 cases, the unilateral domination of hemispheres in control of behavioral elements was registered. Thus, in three lines of mice, the pattern of interhemispheric asymmetry of individual behavior is principally different.

  5. Dysfunctional dopaminergic neurotransmission in asocial BTBR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, M; Dodero, L; Federici, M; Migliarini, S; Errico, F; Napolitano, F; Krashia, P; Di Maio, A; Galbusera, A; Bifone, A; Scattoni, M L; Pasqualetti, M; Mercuri, N B; Usiello, A; Gozzi, A

    2014-08-19

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by pronounced social and communication deficits and stereotyped behaviours. Recent psychosocial and neuroimaging studies have highlighted reward-processing deficits and reduced dopamine (DA) mesolimbic circuit reactivity in ASD patients. However, the neurobiological and molecular determinants of these deficits remain undetermined. Mouse models recapitulating ASD-like phenotypes could help generate hypotheses about the origin and neurophysiological underpinnings of clinically relevant traits. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), behavioural and molecular readouts to probe dopamine neurotransmission responsivity in BTBR T(+) Itpr3(tf)/J mice (BTBR), an inbred mouse line widely used to model ASD-like symptoms owing to its robust social and communication deficits, and high level of repetitive stereotyped behaviours. C57BL/6J (B6) mice were used as normosocial reference comparators. DA reuptake inhibition with GBR 12909 produced significant striatal DA release in both strains, but failed to elicit fMRI activation in widespread forebrain areas of BTBR mice, including mesolimbic reward and striatal terminals. In addition, BTBR mice exhibited no appreciable motor responses to GBR 12909. DA D1 receptor-dependent behavioural and signalling responses were found to be unaltered in BTBR mice, whereas dramatic reductions in pre- and postsynaptic DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptor function was observed in these animals. Overall these results document profoundly compromised DA D2-mediated neurotransmission in BTBR mice, a finding that is likely to have a role in the distinctive social and behavioural deficits exhibited by these mice. Our results call for a deeper investigation of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in mouse lines exhibiting ASD-like phenotypes, and possibly in ASD patient populations.

  6. Lovastatin protects against experimental plague in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Ayyadurai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is an ectoparasite-borne deadly infection caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium classified among the group A bioterrorism agents. Thousands of deaths are reported every year in some African countries. Tetracyclines and cotrimoxazole are used in the secondary prophylaxis of plague in the case of potential exposure to Y. pestis, but cotrimoxazole-resistant isolates have been reported. There is a need for additional prophylactic measures. We aimed to study the effectiveness of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug known to alleviate the symptoms of sepsis, for plague prophylaxis in an experimental model. METHODOLOGY: Lovastatin dissolved in Endolipide was intraperitoneally administered to mice (20 mg/kg every day for 6 days prior to a Y. pestis Orientalis biotype challenge. Non-challenged, lovastatin-treated and challenged, untreated mice were also used as control groups in the study. Body weight, physical behavior and death were recorded both prior to infection and for 10 days post-infection. Samples of the blood, lungs and spleen were collected from dead mice for direct microbiological examination, histopathology and culture. The potential antibiotic effect of lovastatin was tested on blood agar plates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lovastatin had no in-vitro antibiotic effect against Y. pestis. The difference in the mortality between control mice (11/15; 73.5% and lovastatin-treated mice (3/15; 20% was significant (P<0.004; Mantel-Haenszel test. Dead mice exhibited Y. pestis septicemia and inflammatory destruction of lung and spleen tissues not seen in lovastatin-treated surviving mice. These data suggest that lovastatin may help prevent the deadly effects of plague. Field observations are warranted to assess the role of lovastatin in the prophylaxis of human plague.

  7. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13tm), BALB/c-Il13/Il4tm, and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm index mice. However, only Il13tm and Il13/Il4tm mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13tm showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2tm1.1Flv Il2rgtm1.1Flv/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits. PMID:27538858

  8. Demodex musculi Infestation in Genetically Immunomodulated Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter C; Zeiss, Caroline J; Beck, Amanda P; Scholz, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Demodex musculi, a prostigmatid mite that has been reported infrequently in laboratory mice, has been identified with increasing frequency in contemporary colonies of immunodeficient mice. Here we describe 2 episodes of D. musculi infestation with associated clinical signs in various genetically engineered mouse strains, as well as treatment strategies and an investigation into transmissibility and host susceptibility. The first case involved D. musculi associated with clinical signs and pathologic lesions in BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice, which have a defect in type 2 helper T cell (Th2) immunity. Subsequent investigation revealed mite transmission to both parental strains (BALB/c-Tg[DO11.10] and BALB/c-Il13(tm)), BALB/c-Il13/Il4(tm), and wild-type BALB/c. All Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) mice remained infested throughout the investigation, and D. musculi were recovered from all strains when they were cohoused with BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) index mice. However, only Il13(tm) and Il13/Il4(tm) mice demonstrated persistent infestation after index mice were removed. Only BALB/c-Tg(DO11.10)Il13(tm) showed clinical signs, suggesting that the phenotypic dysfunction of Th2 immunity is sufficient for persistent infestation, whereas clinical disease associated with D. musculi appears to be genotype-specific. This pattern was further exemplified in the second case, which involved NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2r(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) and C;129S4 Rag2(tm1.1Flv) Il2rg(tm1.1Flv)/J mice with varying degrees of blepharitis, conjunctivitis, and facial pruritis. Topical amitraz decreased mite burden but did not eliminate infestation or markedly ameliorate clinical signs. Furthermore, mite burden began to increase by 1 mo posttreatment, suggesting that topical amitraz is an ineffective treatment for D. musculi. These experiences illustrate the need for vigilance regarding opportunistic and uncommon pathogens in rodent colonies, especially among mice with immunologic deficits.

  9. Effectiveness of BCG vaccination to aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Tsukasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis (TB still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice. Results The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old. The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice. Conclusion These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis.

  10. Spatial learning by mice in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jonathan J; Harding, Elizabeth; Fortier, Mathilde; James, Benjamin; Donnett, Megan; Kerslake, Alasdair; O'Leary, Alice; Zhang, Ningyu; Jeffery, Kate

    2015-08-01

    We tested whether mice can represent locations distributed throughout three-dimensional space, by developing a novel three-dimensional radial arm maze. The three-dimensional radial maze, or "radiolarian" maze, consists of a central spherical core from which arms project in all directions. Mice learn to retrieve food from the ends of the arms without omitting any arms or re-visiting depleted ones. We show here that mice can learn both a standard working memory task, in which all arms are initially baited, and also a reference memory version in which only a subset are ever baited. Comparison with a two-dimensional analogue of the radiolarian maze, the hexagon maze, revealed equally good working-memory performance in both mazes if all the arms were initially baited, but reduced working and reference memory in the partially baited radiolarian maze. This suggests intact three-dimensional spatial representation in mice over short timescales but impairment of the formation and/or use of long-term spatial memory of the maze. We discuss potential mechanisms for how mice solve the three-dimensional task, and reasons for the impairment relative to its two-dimensional counterpart, concluding with some speculations about how mammals may represent three-dimensional space.

  11. Cacao polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Ryo; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-04-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically severe disease; however, no effective treatment has been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether cacao bean (Theobroma cacao) polyphenols ameliorate autoimmune myocarditis. We used an experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model in Balb/c mice. Mice with induced EAM were treated with a cacao polyphenol extract (CPE, n=12) or vehicle (n=12). On day 21, hearts were harvested and analyzed. Elevated heart weight to body weight and fibrotic area ratios as well as high cardiac cell infiltration were observed in the vehicle-treated EAM mice. However, these increases were significantly suppressed in the CPE-treated mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR revealed that mRNA expressions of interleukin (Il)-1β, Il-6, E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and collagen type 1 were lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. The mRNA expressions of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase (Nox)2 and Nox4 were increased in the vehicle-treated EAM hearts, although CPE treatment did not significantly suppress the transcription levels. However, compared with vehicle treatment of EAM hearts, CPE treatment significantly suppressed hydrogen peroxide concentrations. Cardiac myeloperoxidase activity, the intensity of dihydroethidium staining and the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB p65 were also lower in the CPE group compared with the vehicle group. Our data suggest that CPE ameliorates EAM in mice. CPE is a promising dietary supplement to suppress cardiovascular inflammation and oxidative stress.

  12. Lipid transport in cholecystokinin knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Alexandra; Yang, Qing; Huesman, Sarah; Rider, Therese; Lo, Chunmin C

    2015-11-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released in response to lipid feeding and regulates pancreatic digestive enzymes vital to the absorption of nutrients. Our previous reports demonstrated that cholecystokinin knockout (CCK-KO) mice fed for 10 weeks of HFD had reduced body fat mass, but comparable glucose uptake by white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that CCK is involved in energy homeostasis and lipid transport from the small intestine to tissues in response to acute treatment with dietary lipids. CCK-KO mice with comparable fat absorption had increased energy expenditure and were resistant to HFD-induced obesity. Using intraduodenal infusion of butter fat and intravenous infusion using Liposyn III, we determined the mechanism of lipid transport from the small intestine to deposition in lymph and adipocytes in CCK-KO mice. CCK-KO mice had delayed secretion of Apo B48-chylomicrons, lipid transport to the lymphatic system, and triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acid uptake by epididymal fat in response to acute treatment of intraduodenal lipids. In contrast, CCK-KO mice had comparable TG clearance and lipid uptake by white adipocytes in response to TGs in chylomicron-like emulsion. Thus, we concluded that CCK is important for lipid transport and energy expenditure to control body weight in response to dietary lipid feeding.

  13. Lern- und Reisemotivation bei Deutsch lernenden japanischen Studenten

    OpenAIRE

    Christ-Kagoshima, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    This research note refers to the evaluation of questionnaires handed to students of several faculties at Hokkaido University in summer semester 2009. The students are learning German as a foreign language. They were asked about their knowledge of German speaking countries, their usage of media as a means of obtaining cultural knowledge about DACH (D eutschland, A ustria, CH Conf. Helvetica), and about their learning and travelling motivation. Obtaining knowledge of a country whose language on...

  14. 1989 und die Folgen. Deutsche Gegenwartsgeschichte im Nachwendefilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf G. Renner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Schlöndorffs Filme Die verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum und Die Stille nach dem Schuss spiegeln in signifikanter Weise einen Wandel des intellektuellen Diskurses über Politik in Deutschland nach 1945, zugleich konturieren sie ihn mit unterschiedlichen ästhetischen Mitteln. Die Verlorene Ehre der Katharina Blum rekonstruiert die ideologische Situation des Jahres 1968, in der Schlöndorff in enger Zusammenarbeit mit Böll eine markante Position bezieht, die Stille nach dem Schuss skizziert demgegenüber eine Bewusstseinslage, in der erstmals nach der Wende des Jahres 1989 die politischen und ideologischen Widersprüche innerhalb der früheren DDR und die Aufarbeitung der Stasivergangenheit offen thematisiert werden. Dabei beleuchtet Schlöndorff zugleich kritisch die eigene Haltung als westlicher Intellektueller gegenüber der DDR und im vereinigten Deutschland. Dagegen machen die neueren Filme Der Baader Meinhof Komplex und Die innere Sicherheit auf je unterschiedliche Weise die Neubewertung der Außerparlamentarischen Opposition und der Baader Meinhof Gruppe deutlich, die ebenfalls nach 1989 einsetzt. Dabei führt der Film von Eichinger und Edel zu einer Historisierung und ideologiekritischen Entheroisierung, seine Präsentation einer Phase der politischen Opposition in Deutschland wird mit Mitteln des action-Films entfaltet. Petzolds Film dagegen zeigt die Folgen dieser Bewegung in der für die „Berliner Schule" typischen Konzentration auf das Private.

  15. Lexikoneintraege fuer deutsche Adverbien (Dictionary Entries for German Adverbs)

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberger, Ralf

    1994-01-01

    Modifiers in general, and adverbs in particular, are neglected categories in linguistics, and consequently, their treatment in Natural Language Processing poses problems. In this article, we present the dictionary information for German adverbs which is necessary to deal with word order, degree modifier scope and other problems in NLP. We also give evidence for the claim that a classification according to position classes differs from any semantic classification.

  16. Empirische Analyse einer verdolmetschten Gerichtsverhandlung aus dem Slowenischen ins Deutsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Burjan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit dem Diskurs in einer Gerichtsverhandlung mit verschiedensprachigen Parteien. Die übliche Konversation im Gerichtssaal findet in Form eines Dialogs statt, wobei die Strategie des Gespräches durch den Richter als Gesprächsmoderator determiniert wird. Die Interaktion im gedolmetschten Diskurs verläuft anders als im nicht gedolmetschten Diskurs. Bei gedolmetschten Verhandlungen übernimmt der Gerichtsdolmetscher, als ein Mittler in der Konversation, die verantwortungsvolle Aufgabe, die richterliche Strategie der Konversation, also den eigentlichen Verhandlungsablauf, sinngemäß und originaltreu in den zielsprachlichen Kontextzu transportieren. Meistert er seine Aufgabe, wird ein reibungsloser Kommunikationsablauf im Sinne der gegenseitigen Einflussnahme der jeweiligen Kommunikationsteilnehmer gewährleistet. Scheitert er bei seinem Vorhaben, so kommt es in der Kommunikation zu Störungen, die durch zusätzliche sprachliche Interventionen beseitigt werden müssen. Seine Tätigkeit wird determiniert und mitbeeinflusst von den Unterschieden in der Rechtsterminologie der beiden Sprachen (Sprachregister, von dem vorgegebenen Dolmetschmodus, und von der Gesprächsstrategie des Sprachmoderators. Somit ist das Ziel des vorliegenden Beitrags, anhand einer empirischen Analyse einer gedolmetschten Zeugenvernehmung herauszufinden, inwiefern es dem Gerichtsdolmetscher gelingt, den ausgangssprachlichen Diskurs originaltreu in die Zielsprache zu übertragen und auf welche Probleme er bei diesem Übertragungsprozess stößt. Der vorliegenden Untersuchung dienen die von den Gerichten veranlassten Audioaufnahmen von mündlichen Verhandlungen als Korpus.

  17. Das deutsche Sprachprofil an der Universität Roskilde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra; Barfod, Sonja; Schwarz, Lena

    2015-01-01

    As part of its internationalization strategy, Roskilde University, Denmark, offers German language courses as an accompaniment to all bachelor students of the humanities and social sciences. This article introduces the context, learning objectives and organization of this so-called language profile....... The German language profile is presented from three perspectives: a language policy perspective, on which the language profile was developed; from the perspective of the teachers who design the language profile inspired by the CLIL approach; finally, from the students’ perspective. How do students experience...... their learning process? How do they evaluate their learning results? Die Universität Roskilde, Dänemark, bietet als Teil ihrer Internationalisierungsstrategie studienbegleitenden Fremdsprachenunterricht für alle Studierenden in den geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Bachelorstudiengängen an. Der vorliegende...

  18. DER EINFLUSS DER ANGLIZISMEN AUF DIE DEUTSCHE WIRTSCHAFTSSPRACHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present world has become small and manageable, in the era of modern means of transport and communication. The modern mass tourism brings millions of people each year to other countries. The economy, trade and transport are internationally intertwined, and mergers of large organizations do not represent any longer a rarity at the present time. More and more supranational organizations arise. States unite to form larger groups, such as the European Union. The word of the moment seems to be integration. Therefore, at least in the united Europe, a common language is necessary and the idea of multilingualism is becoming more and more important. In Europe today it is no longer enough to only master one language but someone must be able to at least speak one or two foreign languages fluently. The role of this common language seems to be inhered by the English language, because it is estimated that nearly two billion people routinely use English and the USA currently enjoy a dominant position in the world, politically, militarily, and economically. The Paper presents the influence of English words and the English Business vocabulary on the German Business environment.

  19. Deutsche und albanische Phraseologismen mit Tierbezeichnungen im Kontrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiku, Milote

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this article are animal idioms in contemporary German and Albanian: the article treats those units that denote animal names in their formal structure with phraseological, figurative meaning. The aim of the article is to identify and describe the differences and similarities between these two languages from the viewpoint of a contrastive analysis. The German phraseology has often been the subject of inter-linguistic comparisons. However, this can not be claimed for the German – Albanian language analysis. In this article, some similarities and differences in animal symbolism in the German and Albanian phraseology are illustrated by typical examples, and equivalence relations between the German and Albanian animal idioms are identified.It can be concluded that the animal names in idiom units indicate positive and negative characteristics or behavior of people. One result is that the negative semantic characteristics predominate in both languages. The animal name depends on a concrete idiom not only from the ideas and values that are attributed to an animal in a language community, but also from the already existing structures and pragmatic rules in a concrete language.

  20. Deutsche und albanische Phraseologismen mit Tierbezeichnungen im Kontrast

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiku, Milote

    2011-01-01

    The object of this article are animal idioms in contemporary German and Albanian: the article treats those units that denote animal names in their formal structure with phraseological, figurative meaning. The aim of the article is to identify and describe the differences and similarities between these two languages from the viewpoint of a contrastive analysis. The German phraseology has often been the subject of inter-linguistic comparisons. However, this can not be claimed for the German – A...

  1. Deutsche Sage(9)Die Wichel als Schuhmacher in Eschwege

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    DeutscheSage(9)DieWichtelalsSchuhmacherinEschwegeInderaltenReichstadtEschwegelebteeinstMeisterJobsen,einarmerSchuhflicker。2Ei...

  2. Geschichte der Lexikographie mit Deutsch und Dänisch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Mogensen, Jens Erik

    1995-01-01

    Man kunne tro, at leksikografiens historie kan beskrives i form af uafbrudt forbedring af teori og praksis. Det er ikke tilfældet. Den første dansk-tyske ordbog blev trykt i 1764. Et første højdepunkt i dette sprogpars leksikografiske historie foreligger mellem 1800 og 1830. Hermed menes et både ...

  3. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  4. Rhipicephalus microplus strain Deutsch, 10 BAC clone sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, has a genome over 2.4 times the size of the human genome, and with over 70% of repetitive DNA, this genome would prove very costly to sequence at today's prices and difficult to assemble and analyze. We used labeled DNA probes from the coding reg...

  5. ‚Gedenke, dass Du eine deutsche Frau bist‘

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Müller

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christiane Streubel untersucht den Einfluss radikaler Nationalistinnen in der Weimarer Republik. Feminismus und Nationalismus, weithin als unvereinbar verstanden, wird bei den völkisch-antisemitischen Agitatorinnen in der Idee der Volksgemeinschaft zusammengedacht. Im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung steht insbesondere das eigenständige Engagement dieser Frauenbewegung, die Streubel als völkisch-nationalen Feminismus (vgl. S. 402 bezeichnet.

  6. Was ist die deutsche Sprache wert? : Fakten und Potenzen

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Kaum hatte Finnland am 1. Juli 1999 den Vorsitz im EU-Ministerrat übernommen, waren für die informellen Treffen der EU-Minister - erstmalig beim Treffen der Industrieminister am 3. Juli in Oulu - neben der Gastgebersprache Finnisch nur noch Englisch und Französisch als Arbeitssprachen vorgesehen. Deutschland und daraufhin auch Österreich wollten jedoch auf ihre Sprache - die Muttersprache der größten Sprachgemeinschaft der EU - nicht verzichten und bestanden (unter Berufung auf das Gewohnheit...

  7. Israelische Public Diplomacy und ihre Wahrnehmung durch deutsche Journalisten

    OpenAIRE

    Florian Fleischer; Katharina Füser; Johanna Isermeyer

    2014-01-01

    Public Diplomacy stellt insbesondere für Staaten in internationalen Konflikten wie Israel ein wichtiges Kommunikationsinstrument dar, um ausländische Bevölkerungen zu erreichen. Der Artikel zeigt die Ergebnisse einer Studie, in der untersucht wurde, wie die israelische Public Diplomacy von deutschen Journalisten aufgenommen und verarbeitet wird. Journalisten kommt dabei eine Schlüsselrolle als Mittler zwischen dem israelischen Staat und der deutschen Bevölkerung zu. In Anlehnun...

  8. Israelische Public Diplomacy und ihre Wahrnehmung durch deutsche Journalisten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Fleischer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Public Diplomacy stellt insbesondere für Staaten in internationalen Konflikten wie Israel ein wichtiges Kommunikationsinstrument dar, um ausländische Bevölkerungen zu erreichen. Der Artikel zeigt die Ergebnisse einer Studie, in der untersucht wurde, wie die israelische Public Diplomacy von deutschen Journalisten aufgenommen und verarbeitet wird. Journalisten kommt dabei eine Schlüsselrolle als Mittler zwischen dem israelischen Staat und der deutschen Bevölkerung zu. In Anlehnung an den Katalog der Public Diplomacy-Maßnahmen von Gilboa (2006 wurde die Relevanz einzelner Maßnahmen für Journalisten erfragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass persönliche Kontakte für Journalisten nach wie vor eine wichtige Quelle darstellen und nicht von Cyber-Public Diplomacy ersetzt werden können. Staatliche Public Diplomacy wird zwar wahrgenommen, jedoch wird ihre Objektivität bezweifelt, während NGOs und Stiftungen als vertrauenswürdiger eingestuft werden. Des Weiteren wird Israel in der Öffentlichkeit nach wie vor dominierend mit dem Nahostkonflikt identifiziert, was sich nach Meinung der befragten Journalisten auch in Zukunft nicht durch gezielte Öffentlichkeitsarbeit verhindern lässt.

  9. Socially-induced morphine pseudo-sensitization in adolescent mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Stephen R.; Hofford, Rebecca S.; Roberts, Kris W.; Wellman, Paul J.; Eitan, Shoshana

    2010-01-01

    Given that social influences are among the strongest predictors of adolescents’ drug use, this study examined the effect of social interaction on morphine-induced hyper-locomotion in both adolescent and adult mice. Three experimental groups of adolescent and adult male mice were examined: 1) morphine-treated mice (twice daily, 10–40 mg/kg, s.c.), 2) saline-injected mice housed together with the morphine-treated mice (‘saline cage-mates’), and 3) saline-injected mice housed physically and visu...

  10. Phenylthiocarbamide produces conditioned taste aversions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; Pour, Lindsay; Boughter, John D

    2005-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that SWR/J (SW) mice avoid phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) to a greater degree than C3HeB/FeJ mice in 48 h, two-bottle preference tests given in ascending series. The authors hypothesized, based also on previous work, that SW mice might form a conditioned taste aversion over time due to the toxic properties of PTC. We directly tested this hypothesis by attempting to condition a taste aversion to sucrose by injections of PTC. In experiment 1, PTC was nearly as effective as a strong dose of LiCl in reducing sucrose drinking. In experiment 2, the sucrose aversions were parametrically modified by both sucrose concentration and PTC dose, a hallmark of conditioned taste aversion. We conclude that PTC can cause a conditioned taste aversion and discuss the importance of considering toxic effects of aversive tastants when analyzing behavioral strain differences.

  11. Ghrelin reverses experimental diabetic neuropathy in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyoraku, Itaru; Shiomi, Kazutaka [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Kangawa, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka 565-8565 (Japan); Nakazato, Masamitsu, E-mail: nakazato@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Neurology, Respirology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Ghrelin, an acylated peptide produced in the stomach, increases food intake and growth hormone secretion, suppresses inflammation and oxidative stress, and promotes cell survival and proliferation. We investigated the pharmacological potential of ghrelin in the treatment of polyneuropathy in uncontrolled streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in mice. Ghrelin or desacyl-ghrelin was administered daily for 4 weeks after STZ-induced diabetic polyneuropathy had developed. Ghrelin administration did not alter food intake, body weight gain, blood glucose levels, or plasma insulin levels when compared with mice given saline or desacyl-ghrelin administration. Ghrelin administration ameliorated reductions in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities in diabetic mice and normalized their temperature sensation and plasma concentrations of 8-isoprostaglandin {alpha}, an oxidative stress marker. Desacyl-ghrelin failed to have any effect. Ghrelin administration in a mouse model of diabetes ameliorated polyneuropathy. Thus, ghrelin's effects represent a novel therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of this otherwise intractable disorder.

  12. Atrial tachyarrhythmia in Rgs5-null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Qin

    Full Text Available AIMS: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of regulator of G-protein signaling 5 (Rgs5, a negative regulator of G protein-mediated signaling, on atrial repolarization and tachyarrhythmia (ATA in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: In present study, the incidence of ATA were increased in Rgs5(-/- Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts during program electrical stimulation (PES (46.7%, 7 of 15 and burst pacing (26.7%, 4 of 15 compared with wild-type (WT mice (PES: 7.1%,1 of 14; burst:7.1%,1 of 14 (P30 s but none of them observed in WT mice. Atrial prolonged repolarization was observed in Rgs5(-/- hearts including widened P wave in surface ECG recording, increased action potential duration (APD and atrial effective refractory periods (AERP, all of them showed significant difference with WT mice (P<0.05. At the cellular level, whole-cell patch clamp recorded markedly decreased densities of repolarizing K(+ currents including I(Kur (at +60 mV: 14.0±2.2 pF/pA and I(to (at +60 mV: 16.7±1.3 pA/pF in Rgs5(-/- atrial cardiomyocytes, compared to those of WT mice (at +60 mV I(to: 20.4±2.0 pA/pF; I(kur: 17.9±2.0 pF/pA (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Rgs5 is an important regulator of arrhythmogenesis in the mouse atrium and that the enhanced susceptibility to atrial tachyarrhythmias in Rgs5(-/- mice may contribute to abnormalities of atrial repolarization.

  13. Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2014-12-15

    The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins. In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study. This evidence suggests that xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals.

  14. Mapping pathological phenotypes in Reelin mutant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina eMichetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neurodevelopmental disorders with multifactorial origin characterized by social communication and behavioural perseveration deficits. Several studies showed an association between the reelin gene mutation and increased risk of ASD and a reduced reelin expression in some brain regions of ASD subjects, suggesting a role for reelin deficiency in ASD etiology. Reelin is a large extracellular matrix glycoprotein playing important roles during development of the central nervous system. To deeply investigate the role of reelin dysfunction as vulnerability factor in ASD, we investigated the behavioural, neurochemical and brain morphological features of reeler male mice. We recently reported a genotype-dependent deviation in ultrasonic vocal repertoire and a general delay in motor development in reeler pups. We now report that adult male heterozygous reeler mice did not show social behaviour and communication deficits during male-female social interactions. Wildtype and heterozygous mice also showed a typical light/dark locomotor activity profile, with a peak during the central interval of the dark phase. However, when faced with a mild stressful stimulus (a saline injection only heterozygous mice showed an over response to stress. At the end of the behavioural studies, we conducted high performance liquid chromatography and magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy to investigate whether reelin mutation influences brain monoamine and metabolites levels in regions involved in ASD. Low levels of dopamine in cortex and high levels of glutamate and taurine in hippocampus were detected in heterozygous mice, in line with clinical data collected on ASD children. Altogether, our data detected subtle but relevant neurochemical abnormalities in reeler mice supporting this mutant line, particularly male subjects, as a valid experimental model to estimate the contribution played by reelin deficiency in the global ASD

  15. Splenic Stromal Cells from Aged Mice Produce Higher Levels of IL-6 Compared to Young Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihyun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Shiokawa, Aya; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Inflamm-aging indicates the chronic inflammatory state resulting from increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators such as IL-6 in the elderly. Our principle objective was to identify cell types that were affected with aging concerning IL-6 secretion in the murine model. We compared IL-6 production in spleen cells from both young and aged mice and isolated several types of cells from spleen and investigated IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production. IL-6 protein productions in cultured stromal cells from aged mice spleen were significantly high compared to young mice upon LPS stimulation. IL-6 mRNA expression level of freshly isolated stromal cells from aged mice was high compared to young mice. Furthermore, stromal cells of aged mice highly expressed IL-6 mRNA after LPS injection in vivo. These results suggest that stromal cells play a role in producing IL-6 in aged mice and imply that they contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in the elderly. PMID:24729663

  16. Molecular basis of cleft palates in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noriko; Funato; Masataka; Nakamura; Hiromi; Yanagisawa

    2015-01-01

    Cleft palate, including complete or incomplete cleft palates, soft palate clefts, and submucosal cleft palates, is the most frequent congenital craniofacial anomaly in humans. Multifactorial conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, induce the formation of cleft palates. The process of palatogenesis is temporospatially regulated by transcription factors, growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and membranous molecules; a single ablation of these molecules can result in a cleft palate in vivo. Studies on knockout mice were reviewed in order to identify genetic errors that lead to cleft palates. In this review, we systematically describe these mutant mice and discuss the molecular mechanisms of palatogenesis.

  17. State of drilling and blasting technique at RAG Deutsche Steinkohle; Stand der Bohr- und Sprengtechnik bei RAG Deutsche Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sablotny, Horst; Opolony, Klaus; Schmidt, Ralf [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Servicebereich Technik- und Logistikdienste, Herne (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The German hard coal mining industry is further running through a difficult adjustment process under revised political frame conditions with the final expiry in 2018. The requirements in all departments to increase productivity, cost optimization and know-how protection are still on a very high level. The state of the art concerning drilling ans blasting technique at heading operations and also a short overview about methane drainage drilling during production in the seam Zollverein 1/2 on Prosper-Haniel mine will be presented.

  18. 30th congress of Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie und Tuberkulose. 30. Kongress, Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Pneumologie und Tuberkulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferlinz, R.; Steppling, H.; Wolfart, W.

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings volume contains 196 papers on the following subjects: 1. Tuberculosis, 2. sarcoidosis, 3. the lung in the borderline area between health and disease, 4. biochemical aspects of bronchopulmonary diseases, 5. topical diagnostics, 6. current therapy, 7. physiotherapy, 8. thoracic surgery, 9. carcinoma research, 10. free papers. Radiological and nuclear diagnostic methods are discussed.

  19. Deutsch/Romanisch - Lateinisch/Deutsch: Neue Thesen zu den Pariser Gesprächen und zu den Kasseler Glossen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kragl

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Literary history projects the clear image that the beginnings of German literature lie in the 8th and 9th century, the Old High German period, when German literature first flourished with texts like the Hildebrandslied or Otfrids Evangelienbuch. The Old High German period is presented as a compact formation, precisely defined in time and space, of high literary value and ‘national’ coinage. The following paper attempts, in a preliminary manner, to question this notion by arguing that it is high time to free Old High German literature from the pathos of 19th century research. Its topic is language contact between German on the one hand and Latin / Romance on the other, albeit not in terms of high culture, but of language acquisition. It therefore deals with literature in the etymological sense of ‘written with letters’: the so-called ‘Old High German’ or ‘Parisian Conversations’ and the ‘Kasseler Glosses’ or ‘Conversations’.

  20. Deutsche Minderheit und deutsches Kulturerbe im Baltikum ist weiterhin präsent / Klaus Brähming

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brähming, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Baltimaid külastas Saksa Bundestag'i CDU / CSU-bloki (Kristlik-Demokraatlik Liit ja Kristlik-Sotsiaalne Liit) delegatsioon. Tõdeti, et Baltimaades elab väike, ent see-eest väga aktiivne saksa vähemus. Delegatsioon avaldas soovi kultuurisuhete tugevdamiseks Baltimaadega

  1. Increased adiposity in annexin A1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rand T Akasheh

    Full Text Available Production of Annexin A1 (ANXA1, a protein that mediates the anti-inflammatory action of glucocorticoids, is altered in obesity, but its role in modulation of adiposity has not yet been investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate modulation of ANXA1 in adipose tissue in murine models of obesity and to study the involvement of ANXA1 in diet-induced obesity in mice. Significant induction of ANXA1 mRNA was observed in adipose tissue of both C57BL6 and Balb/c mice with high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity versus mice on chow diet. Upregulation of ANXA1 mRNA was independent of leptin or IL-6, as demonstrated by use of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and IL-6 KO mice. Compared to WT mice, female Balb/c ANXA1 KO mice on HFD had increased adiposity, as indicated by significantly elevated body weight, fat mass, leptin levels, and adipocyte size. Whereas Balb/c WT mice upregulated expression of enzymes involved in the lipolytic pathway in response to HFD, this response was absent in ANXA1 KO mice. A significant increase in fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as development of insulin resistance was observed in ANXA1 KO mice on HFD compared to WT mice. Elevated plasma corticosterone levels and blunted downregulation of 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in adipose tissue was observed in ANXA1 KO mice compared to diet-matched WT mice. However, no differences between WT and KO mice on either chow or HFD were observed in expression of markers of adipose tissue inflammation. These data indicate that ANXA1 is an important modulator of adiposity in mice, with female ANXA1 KO mice on Balb/c background being more susceptible to weight gain and diet-induced insulin resistance compared to WT mice, without significant changes in inflammation.

  2. Banishing Asthma-Inducing Mice Allergens on The Cheap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163963.html Banishing Asthma-Inducing Mice Allergens on the Cheap Do-it-yourself approach ... in kids with a mouse allergy, researchers say. Mice are a common cause of asthma flare-ups ...

  3. A novel and simple method for endotracheal intubation of mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, E. N.; Ince, C.; Koeman, A.; Emons, V. M.; Brouwer, L. A.; van Luyn, M. J. A.; Westerink, B. H. C.; Remie, R.

    2007-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation in mice is necessary for experiments involving intratracheal instillation of various substances, repeated pulmonary function assessments and mechanical ventilation. Previously described methods for endotracheal intubation in mice require the use of injection anaesthesia to im

  4. Color vision: mice see hue too.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Bevil R

    2007-06-19

    A transgenic mouse has been generated with three cone types, instead of the normal murine two. Remarkably, some of these mice use the extra cone to make trichromatic color discriminations similar to those that are the basis of human color vision.

  5. Hyperglycemia impairs atherosclerosis regression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Nathalie; Kumar, Nikit; Olivas, Victor R; Eberlé, Delphine; Stephens, Kyle; Raffai, Robert L

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic patients are known to be more susceptible to atherosclerosis and its associated cardiovascular complications. However, the effects of hyperglycemia on atherosclerosis regression remain unclear. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia impairs atherosclerosis regression by modulating the biological function of lesional macrophages. HypoE (Apoe(h/h)Mx1-Cre) mice express low levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) and develop atherosclerosis when fed a high-fat diet. Atherosclerosis regression occurs in these mice upon plasma lipid lowering induced by a change in diet and the restoration of apoE expression. We examined the morphological characteristics of regressed lesions and assessed the biological function of lesional macrophages isolated with laser-capture microdissection in euglycemic and hyperglycemic HypoE mice. Hyperglycemia induced by streptozotocin treatment impaired lesion size reduction (36% versus 14%) and lipid loss (38% versus 26%) after the reversal of hyperlipidemia. However, decreases in lesional macrophage content and remodeling in both groups of mice were similar. Gene expression analysis revealed that hyperglycemia impaired cholesterol transport by modulating ATP-binding cassette A1, ATP-binding cassette G1, scavenger receptor class B family member (CD36), scavenger receptor class B1, and wound healing pathways in lesional macrophages during atherosclerosis regression. Hyperglycemia impairs both reduction in size and loss of lipids from atherosclerotic lesions upon plasma lipid lowering without significantly affecting the remodeling of the vascular wall.

  6. Hyperalgesic activity of kisspeptin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spampinato Simona

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kisspeptin is a neuropeptide known for its role in the hypothalamic regulation of the reproductive axis. Following the recent description of kisspeptin and its 7-TM receptor, GPR54, in the dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horns of the spinal cord, we examined the role of kisspeptin in the regulation of pain sensitivity in mice. Results Immunofluorescent staining in the mouse skin showed the presence of GPR54 receptors in PGP9.5-positive sensory fibers. Intraplantar injection of kisspeptin (1 or 3 nmol/5 μl induced a small nocifensive response in naive mice, and lowered thermal pain threshold in the hot plate test. Both intraplantar and intrathecal (0.5 or 1 nmol/3 μl injection of kisspeptin caused hyperalgesia in the first and second phases of the formalin test, whereas the GPR54 antagonist, p234 (0.1 or 1 nmol, caused a robust analgesia. Intraplantar injection of kisspeptin combined with formalin enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation at Ser800 at the injection site, and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the ipsilateral dorsal horn as compared to naive mice and mice treated with formalin alone. Conclusion These data demonstrate for the first time that kisspeptin regulates pain sensitivity in rodents and suggest that peripheral GPR54 receptors could be targeted by novel drugs in the treatment of inflammatory pain.

  7. Unexpected regeneration in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, Brandon; Cheng, Lily I; Matzinger, Polly

    2009-02-01

    Complete regeneration of damaged extremities, including both the epithelium and the underlying tissues, is thought to occur mainly in embryos, fetuses, and juvenile mammals, but only very rarely in adult mammals. Surprisingly, we found that common strains of mice are able to regenerate all of the tissues necessary to completely fill experimentally punched ear holes, but only if punched at middle age. Although young postweaning mice regrew the epithelium without typical pre-scar granulation tissue, they showed only minimal regeneration of connective tissues. In contrast, mice punched at 5-11 months of age showed true amphibian-like blastema formation and regrowth of cartilage, fat, and dermis, with blood vessels, sebaceous glands, hair follicles, and, in black mice, melanocytes. These data suggest that at least partial appendage regeneration may be more common in adult mammals than previously thought and call into question the common view that regenerative ability is lost with age. The data suggest that the age at which various inbred mouse strains become capable of epimorphic regeneration may be correlated with adult body weight.

  8. Insulin receptor knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accili, D

    1997-04-01

    Targeted mutagenesis of the insulin receptor gene in mice has yielded unexpected results. This article reviews recent findings and analyzes this animal model can further our understanding of the mechanism of insulin action and its impairment in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is analyzed. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997;8:101-104). Published 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  9. Quercetin alters energy metabolism in swimming mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianquan; Gao, Weina; Wei, Jingyu; Yang, Jijun; Pu, Lingling; Guo, Changjiang

    2012-10-01

    Quercetin has been demonstrated to be effective in increasing physical endurance in mice and humans. However, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this study, male Kunming mice were fed a diet containing 0.1% quercetin for 14 days before swimming for 60 min. The overall serum metabolic profile was investigated by a ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic approach. Serum glucose, lactate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN), as well as hepatic and muscular glycogen were measured biochemically. The results of metabolomic analysis showed that swimming induced a significant change in serum metabolic profile. Relative increases in the levels of lactate, alanine, low-density lipoprotein-very low-density lipoprotein, and unsaturated fatty acids, and decreases in choline, phosphocholine, and glucose were observed after swimming. With quercetin supplementation, these changes were attenuated. The results of biochemical assays were consistent with the data obtained from metabolomic analysis, in that serum NEFA was increased while lactate and NPN decreased after exposed to quercetin in swimming mice. Similar change in NEFA was also found in liver and gastrocnemius muscle tissues. Our current findings suggest that quercetin alters energy metabolism in swimming mice and increased lipolysis may contribute to the actions of quercetin on physical endurance.

  10. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the heat transfer problems associatedwith a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This reportdescribes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world,to the abosrber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and theninto helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for freeconvection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber.

  11. Reinstatement of Conditioned Suppression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Dirikx

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Return of fear after successful exposure therapy calls for a better understanding of the mechanisms of relapse. Classical conditioning research provides a useful framework for conceptualising the acquisition, extinction and reappearance of fear. The present paper focuses on reinstatement, the return of extinguished conditioned responses due to the experience of one or more unconditioned stimuli (USs after extinction. This phenomenon illustrates that unpredictable USs can lead to a return of fear after successful exposure. The data we present is one of the first demonstrations that conditioned suppression of instrumental behaviour can be used as an index of classical conditioning in laboratory mice. The procedure proves to be a promising instrument for assessing fear in mice, both in the context of research aimed at unravelling the functional characteristics of learning and memory in healthy mice and in the context of research aimed at unravelling the neurobiological substrate of psychiatric disorders, e.g., in studies with transgenic and knockout mice. Using this procedure, we report the first observation of reinstatement of conditioned suppression in this species.

  12. Salsalate activates brown adipose tissue in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A.D. van; Nahon, K.J.; Kooijman, S.; Berg, S.M. van den; Kanhai, A.A.; Kikuchi, T.; Heemskerk, M.M.; Harmelen,V. van; Lombès, M.; Hoek,A.M. van den; Winther, M.P. de; Lutgens, E.; Guigas, B.; Rensen, P.C.; Boon, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Salsalate improves glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the mechanism is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to unravel the molecular mechanisms involved in these beneficial metabolic effects of salsalate by treating mice with salsalate during and after d

  13. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on diabetic nephropathy in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-yongHE; Zhi-binLIN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS) on the renal damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. METHODES: Nine weeks old male C57 BI/6J mice were made diabetes with two or three consecutive intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, 72 h later, hyperglycemic mice with glucose levels higher than glucose 300 mg/dL were used. The diabetic mice were randomly divided into three groups and administrated intragastrically with vehicle or Gl-PS (125 mg/

  14. Effect of aging and radiation in mice of different genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storer, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Data are presented on the life span of nine inbred strains and five hybrid strains of mice based on 400 mice of each sex for inbred and 200 mice of each sex for hybrid. Some of these mice were exposed when 120 days old to 250 R or 450 R of x radiation delivered at a dose rate of 60 R/min. Data on strain, sample size, and mean survival times are presented in tables.

  15. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Minna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/- mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule.

  16. The Mice Drawer System (MDS experiment and the space endurance record-breaking mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieri Cancedda

    Full Text Available The Italian Space Agency, in line with its scientific strategies and the National Utilization Plan for the International Space Station (ISS, contracted Thales Alenia Space Italia to design and build a spaceflight payload for rodent research on ISS: the Mice Drawer System (MDS. The payload, to be integrated inside the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation and inside the Express Rack in the ISS during experiment execution, was designed to function autonomously for more than 3 months and to involve crew only for maintenance activities. In its first mission, three wild type (Wt and three transgenic male mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the control of a bone-specific promoter (PTN-Tg were housed in the MDS. At the time of launch, animals were 2-months old. MDS reached the ISS on board of Shuttle Discovery Flight 17A/STS-128 on August 28(th, 2009. MDS returned to Earth on November 27(th, 2009 with Shuttle Atlantis Flight ULF3/STS-129 after 91 days, performing the longest permanence of mice in space. Unfortunately, during the MDS mission, one PTN-Tg and two Wt mice died due to health status or payload-related reasons. The remaining mice showed a normal behavior throughout the experiment and appeared in excellent health conditions at landing. During the experiment, the mice health conditions and their water and food consumption were daily checked. Upon landing mice were sacrificed, blood parameters measured and tissues dissected for subsequent analysis. To obtain as much information as possible on microgravity-induced tissue modifications, we organized a Tissue Sharing Program: 20 research groups from 6 countries participated. In order to distinguish between possible effects of the MDS housing conditions and effects due to the near-zero gravity environment, a ground replica of the flight experiment was performed at the University of Genova. Control tissues were collected also from mice maintained on Earth in standard vivarium cages.

  17. Mice with megabase humanization of their immunoglobulin genes generate antibodies as efficiently as normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Andrew J; Macdonald, Lynn E; Stevens, Sean; Karow, Margaret; Dore, Anthony T; Pobursky, Kevin; Huang, Tammy T; Poueymirou, William T; Esau, Lakeisha; Meola, Melissa; Mikulka, Warren; Krueger, Pamela; Fairhurst, Jeanette; Valenzuela, David M; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Yancopoulos, George D

    2014-04-01

    Mice genetically engineered to be humanized for their Ig genes allow for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice), providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human therapeutic antibodies. Unfortunately, existing HumAb mice do not have fully functional immune systems, perhaps because of the manner in which their genetic humanization was carried out. Heretofore, HumAb mice have been generated by disrupting the endogenous mouse Ig genes and simultaneously introducing human Ig transgenes at a different and random location; KO-plus-transgenic humanization. As we describe in the companion paper, we attempted to make mice that more efficiently use human variable region segments in their humoral responses by precisely replacing 6 Mb of mouse Ig heavy and kappa light variable region germ-line gene segments with their human counterparts while leaving the mouse constant regions intact, using a unique in situ humanization approach. We reasoned the introduced human variable region gene segments would function indistinguishably in their new genetic location, whereas the retained mouse constant regions would allow for optimal interactions and selection of the resulting antibodies within the mouse environment. We show that these mice, termed VelocImmune mice because they were generated using VelociGene technology, efficiently produce human:mouse hybrid antibodies (that are rapidly convertible to fully human antibodies) and have fully functional humoral immune systems indistinguishable from those of WT mice. The efficiency of the VelocImmune approach is confirmed by the rapid progression of 10 different fully human antibodies into human clinical trials.

  18. Aging Kit mutant mice develop cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ye

    Full Text Available Both bone marrow (BM and myocardium contain progenitor cells expressing the c-Kit tyrosine kinase. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of c-Kit mutations on: i. myocardial c-Kit(+ cells counts and ii. the stability of left ventricular (LV contractile function and structure during aging. LV structure and contractile function were evaluated (echocardiography in two groups of Kit mutant (W/Wv and W41/W42 and in wild type (WT mice at 4 and 12 months of age and the effects of the mutations on LV mass, vascular density and the numbers of proliferating cells were also determined. In 4 month old Kit mutant and WT mice, LV ejection fractions (EF and LV fractional shortening rates (FS were comparable. At 12 months of age EF and FS were significantly decreased and LV mass was significantly increased only in W41/W42 mice. Myocardial vascular densities and c-Kit(+ cell numbers were significantly reduced in both mutant groups when compared to WT hearts. Replacement of mutant BM with WT BM at 4 months of age did not prevent these abnormalities in either mutant group although they were somewhat attenuated in the W/Wv group. Notably BM transplantation did not prevent the development of cardiomyopathy in 12 month W41/W42 mice. The data suggest that decreased numbers and functional capacities of c-Kit(+ cardiac resident progenitor cells may be the basis of the cardiomyopathy in W41/W42 mice and although defects in mutant BM progenitor cells may prove to be contributory, they are not causal.

  19. Differential androgenesis in gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihyang; Yoon, Yongdal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis account for at least 75% of the total testosterone produced in the normal adult male. Whereas the production of estrogen from androgen is catalyzed by aromatase cytochrome P450, which is found in many tissues, including gonad, brain, adipose tissue, bone, and heart. The gamma-irradiation causes the impairment of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male mice. The present study was performed to analyze changes in testosterone concentrations and expression of steroidogenic enzyme of mice after whole body gamma-irradiation. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were irradiated with 6.5 or 10 Gy. At days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 after irradiation, testes were removed and processed for paraffin sections and isolation of mRNA. We calculated the gonad index from body and testis weight, and checked the testis volume. Hormonal analysis was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and intratesticular fluid. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression kinetics of the apoptotic gene and the cytochrome P450 aromatase gene after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated mice, the body weight reduced in comparison to that of the control group. Therefore, gonad indices increased. The testosterone concentrations in serum and intratesticular fluid were significantly reduced. RT- PCR data represented that the expression of Fas, Fas ligand, and aromatase cytochrome P450 showed the specific patterns against control groups. These results indicated that gamma- irradiation of adult mice induced the alteration of androgenesis and suggested that might counteract the spermatogenesis.

  20. The cyclotron maser theory of AKR and Z-mode radiation. [Auroral Kilometric Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The cyclotron maser mechanism which may be responsible for the generation of auroral kilometric radiation and Z-mode radiation is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the basic concepts of the cyclotron maser theory, particularly the relativistic effect of the cyclotron resonance condition. Recent development of the theory is reviewed. Finally, the results of a computer simulation study which helps to understand the nonlinear saturation of the maser instability are reported.

  1. Wound healing in hemophilia B mice and low tissue factor mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Dougald M; Mackman, Nigel; Hoffman, Maureane

    2010-04-01

    Wound healing involves a number of physiologic mechanisms including coagulation, inflammation, formation of granulation tissue, and tissue remodeling. Coagulation with robust thrombin generation leading to fibrin formation is necessary for wound healing. It is less clear if there is a requirement for ongoing coagulation to support tissue remodeling. We have studied wound healing in mice with defects in both the initiation (low tissue factor) and propagation (hemophilia B) phases. In hemophilia B mice, dermal wound healing is delayed; this delay is associated with bleeding into the granulation tissue. Mice can be treated with replacement therapy (factor IX) or bypassing agents (factor VIIa) to restore thrombin generation. If treated just prior to wound placement, mice will have normal hemostasis in the first day of wound healing. As the therapeutic agents clear, the mice will revert to hemophilic state. If the primary role of coagulation in wound healing is to provide a stable platelet/fibrin plug that is loaded with thrombin, then treating hemophilic animals just prior to wound placement should restore normal wound healing. The results from this study did not support that hypothesis. Instead the results show that restoring thrombin generation only at the time of wound placement did not improve the delayed wound healing. In preliminary studies on low tissue factor mice, there also appears to be a delay in wound healing with evidence of bleeding into the granulation tissue. The current data suggests that ongoing coagulation function needs to be maintained to support a normal wound healing process.

  2. Sinoatrial node dysfunction induces cardiac arrhythmias in diabetic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Speerschneider, Tobias; Winther, Sine V

    2014-01-01

    and electrophysiological characteristics were investigated in diabetic db/db and control db/+mice.ResultsWe found improved contractile function and impaired filling dynamics of the heart in db/db mice, relative to db/+controls. Electrophysiologically, we observed comparable heart rates in the two mouse groups, but SAN...... recovery time was prolonged in diabetic mice. Adrenoreceptor stimulation increased heart rate in all mice and elicited cardiac arrhythmias in db/db mice only. The arrhythmias emanated from the SAN and were characterized by large RR fluctuations. Moreover, nerve density was reduced in the SAN region...

  3. Mice Do Not Habituate to Metabolism Cage Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Darusman, Huda Shalahudin;

    2013-01-01

    state of the mice also indicated impaired well-being in the metabolism cage housed mice. However, monitoring body weight and feed intake was found misleading in assessing the wellbeing of mice over a longer time course, and the forced swim test was found poorly suited for studying chronic stress in mice...... of abnormality were monitored. Forced swim tests were conducted to determine whether the animals experienced behavioral despair and the serotonergic integrity was tested using an 8-OH-DPAT challenge. The metabolism cage housed mice excreted approximately tenfold higher amounts of corticosterone metabolites...

  4. True Niacin Deficiency in Quinolinic Acid Phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Pyridine nucleotide coenzymes (PNCs) are involved in over 500 enzyme reactions. PNCs are biosynthesized from the amino acid L-tryptophan (L-Trp), as well as the vitamin niacin. Hence, "true" niacin-deficient animals cannot be "created" using nutritional techniques. We wanted to establish a truly niacin-deficient model animal using a protocol that did not involve manipulating dietary L-Trp. We generated mice that are missing the quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRT) gene. QPRT activity was not detected in qprt(-/-)mice. The qprt(+/+), qprt(+/-) or qprt(-/-) mice (8 wk old) were fed a complete diet containing 30 mg nicotinic acid (NiA) and 2.3 g L-Trp/kg diet or an NiA-free diet containing 2.3 g L-Trp/kg diet for 23 d. When qprt(-/-)mice were fed a complete diet, food intake and body weight gain did not differ from those of the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice. On the other hand, in the qprt(-/-) mice fed the NiA-free diet, food intake and body weight were reduced to 60% (pniacin such as blood and liver NAD concentrations were also lower in the qprt(-/-) mice than in the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice. Urinary excretion of quinolinic acid was greater in the qprt(-/-) mice than in the qprt(+/+) and the qprt(+/-) mice (pniacin-deficient mice.

  5. Bone phenotypes of P2 receptor knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orriss, Isabel; Syberg, Susanne; Wang, Ning;

    2011-01-01

    The action of extracellular nucleotides is mediated by ionotropic P2X receptors and G-protein coupled P2Y receptors. The human genome contains 7 P2X and 8 P2Y receptor genes. Knockout mice strains are available for most of them. As their phenotypic analysis is progressing, bone abnormalities have...... been observed in an impressive number of these mice: distinct abnormalities in P2X7-/- mice, depending on the gene targeting construct and the genetic background, decreased bone mass in P2Y1-/- mice, increased bone mass in P2Y2-/- mice, decreased bone resorption in P2Y6-/- mice, decreased bone...... formation and bone resorption in P2Y13-/- mice. These findings demonstrate the unexpected importance of extracellular nucleotide signalling in the regulation of bone metabolism via multiple P2 receptors and distinct mechanisms involving both osteoblasts and osteoclasts....

  6. Pure paraflagellar rod protein protects mice against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrightsman, R A; Miller, M J; Saborio, J L; Manning, J E

    1995-01-01

    The paraflagellar rod proteins (PAR) purified from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were shown to protect mice against an otherwise lethal challenge inoculum of 10(3) bloodstream-form trypomastigotes. The injection route used for immunization was shown to have a marked impact on the development of protective immunity. Mice receiving subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of PAR proteins had reduced bloodstream parasitemias and showed 100% survival following challenge. In contrast, mice immunized via the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route developed parasitemia levels equivalent to those of unimmunized controls and did not survive infection. Western blotting (immunoblotting) demonstrated that sera from both i.p. and s.c. immunized mice reacted specifically with PAR proteins; however, the antibody titer of the i.p. immunized mice was approximately 64-fold greater than that of the s.c. immunized mice, suggesting that the protective response in the s.c. immunized mice is cell mediated rather than humoral.

  7. Anthelmintic tests on Toxocara canis infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, P E; Clarkson, M J; Kerslake, M

    1981-04-04

    One hundred and forty mice were infected orally with 1000 embryonated Toxocara canis eggs. Groups of 10 mice were then treated with high doses of piperazine, mebendazole, oxfendazole, albendazole, fenbendazole and diethylcarbamazine for four days, either immediately after infection or three weeks after infection. The mice were killed three to six weeks after treatment and the number of larvae in the brains and muscles estimated and compared with those in untreated mice. Few larvae were recovered from the muscles of any of the mice, including the untreated controls, despite the use of a variety of recognised techniques. Large numbers of live larvae were recovered from the brains of the mice and there was no significant difference between the treated and untreated mice.

  8. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, J; Strumia, M

    1931-04-30

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells.

  9. Comprehensive Energy Balance Measurements in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Lee; Bentley, Liz; Cox, Roger D

    2016-09-01

    In mice with altered body composition, establishing whether it is food intake or energy expenditure, or both, that is the major determinant resulting in changed energy balance is important. In order to ascertain where the imbalance is, the acquisition of reproducible data is critical. Therefore, here we provide detailed descriptions of how to determine energy balance in mice. This encompasses protocols for establishing energy intake from home cage measurement of food intake, determining energy lost in feces using bomb calorimetry, and using equations to calculate parameters such as energy intake (EI), digested energy intake (DEI), and metabolisable energy intake (MEI) to determine overall energy balance. We also discuss considerations that should be taken into account when planning these experiments, including diet and sample sizes. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. MISS- Mice on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcetti, G. C.; Schiller, P.

    2005-08-01

    The use of rodents for scientific research to bridge the gap between cellular biology and human physiology is a new challenge within the history of successful developments of biological facilities. The ESA funded MISS Phase A/B study is aimed at developing a design concept for an animal holding facility able to support experimentation with mice on board the International Space Station (ISS).The MISS facility is composed of two main parts:1. The MISS Rack to perform scientific experiments onboard the ISS.2. The MISS Animals Transport Container (ATC) totransport animals from ground to orbit and vice- versa.The MISS facility design takes into account guidelines and recommendations used for mice well-being in ground laboratories. A summary of the MISS Rack and MISS ATC design concept is hereafter provided.

  11. Virulence of ureaplasmal urease for mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ligon, J V; Kenny, G E

    1991-01-01

    Ureaplasmas killed mice within 5 min after intravenous injection. The 50% lethal dose of whole ureaplasmal organisms was 32 micrograms per mouse, a value also found for crystalline jackbean urease. The reaction was specific to urease, since protection was afforded by intraperitoneal injection of 200 micrograms of flurofamide, a potent urease inhibitor. The finding that a similar lethal effect was produced by injection of 200 mumol of NH4+ indicates that the toxicity of urease is mediated by a...

  12. MICE data handling on the Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniak, J.; Mice Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The international Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionisation cooling for the first time, for application to a future Neutrino factory or Muon Collider. The experiment is currently under construction at the ISIS synchrotron at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), UK. In this paper we present a system - the Raw Data Mover, which allows us to store and distribute MICE raw data - and a framework for offline reconstruction and data management. The aim of the Raw Data Mover is to upload raw data files onto a safe tape storage as soon as the data have been written out by the DAQ system and marked as ready to be uploaded. Internal integrity of the files is verified and they are uploaded to the RAL Tier-1 Castor Storage Element (SE) and placed on two tapes for redundancy. We also make another copy at a separate disk-based SE at this stage to make it easier for users to access data quickly. Both copies are check-summed and the replicas are registered with an instance of the LCG File Catalog (LFC). On success a record with basic file properties is added to the MICE Metadata DB. The reconstruction process is triggered by new raw data records filled in by the mover system described above. Off-line reconstruction jobs for new raw files are submitted to RAL Tier-1 and the output is stored on tape. Batch reprocessing is done at multiple MICE enabled Grid sites and output files are shipped to central tape or disk storage at RAL using a custom File Transfer Controller.

  13. p53 Suppresses Tetraploid Development in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Takuro Horii; Masamichi Yamamoto; Sumiyo Morita; Mika Kimura; Yasumitsu Nagao; Izuho Hatada

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian tetraploid embryos die in early development because of defects in the epiblast. Experiments with diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice, obtained via the aggregation of embryonic stem cells, clarified that while tetraploid cells are excluded from epiblast derivatives, diploid embryos with tetraploid extraembryonic tissues can develop to term. Today, this method, known as tetraploid complementation, is usually used for rescuing extraembryonic defects or for obtaining completely embryonic s...

  14. Manufacture of diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, T Y; Markert, C L

    1980-01-01

    Tetraploid mouse embryos were produced by cytochalasin B treatment. These embryos usually die before completion of embryonic development and are abnormal morphologically and physiologically. The tetraploid embryos can be rescued to develop to maturity by aggregating them with normal diploid embryos to produce diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice. The diploid/tetraploid chimeric embryos are frequently abnormal: the larger the proportion of tetraploid cells, the greater the abnormality. By karyotyp...

  15. Tetrabenazine is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Tie-Shan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ expansion in Huntingtin protein (Htt. PolyQ expansion in Httexp causes selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN in HD patients. A number of previous studies suggested that dopamine signaling plays an important role in HD pathogenesis. A specific inhibitor of vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2 tetrabenazine (TBZ has been recently approved by Food and Drug Administration for treatment of HD patients in the USA. TBZ acts by reducing dopaminergic input to the striatum. Results In previous studies we demonstrated that long-term feeding with TBZ (combined with L-Dopa alleviated the motor deficits and reduced the striatal neuronal loss in the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128 mice. To further investigate a potential beneficial effects of TBZ for HD treatment, we here repeated TBZ evaluation in YAC128 mice starting TBZ treatment at 2 months of age ("early" TBZ group and at 6 months of age ("late" TBZ group. In agreement with our previous studies, we found that both "early" and "late" TBZ treatments alleviated motor deficits and reduced striatal cell loss in YAC128 mice. In addition, we have been able to recapitulate and quantify depression-like symptoms in TBZ-treated mice, reminiscent of common side effects observed in HD patients taking TBZ. Conclusions Our results further support therapeutic value of TBZ for treatment of HD but also highlight the need to develop more specific dopamine antagonists which are less prone to side-effects.

  16. Radioprotectors and Tumors: Molecular Studies in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayle Woloschak, David Grdina

    2010-03-10

    This proposal investigated effects of radiation using a set of archival tissues. Main interests of this proposal were to investigate effects of irradiation alone or in the presence or radioprotectors; to investigate these effects on different tissues; and to use/develop molecular biology techniques that would be suitable for work with archived tissues. This work resulted in several manuscripts published or in preparation. Approach for evaluation of gene copy numbers by quantitative real time PCR has been developed and we are striving to establish methods to utilize Q-RT-PCR data to evaluate genomic instability caused by irradiation(s) and accompanying treatments. References: 1. Paunesku D, Paunesku T, Wahl A, Kataoka Y, Murley J, Grdina DJ, Woloschak GE. Incidence of tissue toxicities in gamma ray and fission neutron-exposed mice treated with Amifostine. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008, 84(8):623-34. PMID: 18661379, http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1080/09553000802241762?cookieSet=1 2. Wang Q, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Tissue and data archives from irradiation experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory over a period of four decades, in press in Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 3. Alcantara M, Paunesku D, Rademaker A, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TISSUE TOXICITIES IN B6CF1 MICE IRRADIATED WITH FISSION NEUTRONS OR COBALT 60 GAMMA RAYS: Gender modulates accumulation of tissue toxicities caused by low dose rate fractionated irradiation; in preparation; this document has been uploaded as STI product 4. Wang Q, Paunesku T Wanzer B and Woloschak GE. Mitochondrial gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice with lymphoid cancers; in preparation 5. Wang Q, Raha, S, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Evaluation of gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice; in preparation

  17. The mesenchymal stem cells derived from transgenic mice carrying human coagulation factor VIII can correct phenotype in hemophilia A mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Gong, Xiuli; Gong, Zhijuan; Ren, Xiaoyie; Ren, Zhaorui; Huang, Shuzhen; Zeng, Yitao

    2013-12-20

    Hemophilia A (HA) is an inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by coagulant factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. Previous studies showed that introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) modified by FVIII-expressing retrovirus may result in phenotypic correction of HA animals. This study aimed at the investigation of an alternative gene therapy strategy that may lead to sustained FVIII transgene expression in HA mice. B-domain-deleted human FVIII (hFVIIIBD) vector was microinjected into single-cell embryos of wild-type mice to generate a transgenic mouse line, from which hFVIIIBD-MSCs were isolated, followed by transplantation into HA mice. RT-PCR and real-time PCR analysis demonstrated the expression of hFVIIIBD in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. Immunohistochemistry showed the presence of hFVIIIBD positive staining in multi-organs of recipient HA mice. ELISA indicated that plasma hFVIIIBD level in recipient mice reached its peak (77 ng/mL) at the 3rd week after implantation, and achieved sustained expression during the 5-week observation period. Plasma FVIII activities of recipient HA mice increased from 0% to 32% after hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplantation. APTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) value decreased in hFVIIIBD-MSCs transplanted HA mice compared with untreated HA mice (45.5 s vs. 91.3 s). Our study demonstrated an effective phenotypic correction in HA mice using genetically modified MSCs from hFVIIIBD transgenic mice.

  18. Heart regeneration in adult MRL mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leferovich, John M.; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Samulewicz, Stefan; Zhang, Xiang-Ming; Zwas, Donna; Lankford, Edward B.; Heber-Katz, Ellen

    2001-08-01

    The reaction of cardiac tissue to acute injury involves interacting cascades of cellular and molecular responses that encompass inflammation, hormonal signaling, extracellular matrix remodeling, and compensatory adaptation of myocytes. Myocardial regeneration is observed in amphibians, whereas scar formation characterizes cardiac ventricular wound healing in a variety of mammalian injury models. We have previously shown that the MRL mouse strain has an extraordinary capacity to heal surgical wounds, a complex trait that maps to at least seven genetic loci. Here, we extend these studies to cardiac wounds and demonstrate that a severe transmural, cryogenically induced infarction of the right ventricle heals extensively within 60 days, with the restoration of normal myocardium and function. Scarring is markedly reduced in MRL mice compared with C57BL/6 mice, consistent with both the reduced hydroxyproline levels seen after injury and an elevated cardiomyocyte mitotic index of 10-20% for the MRL compared with 1-3% for the C57BL/6. The myocardial response to injury observed in these mice resembles the regenerative process seen in amphibians.

  19. Antifatigue effect of Gracilaria eucheumoides in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jin-Ting; Wang, Mei-Yan; Zheng, Lu-Bin

    2013-12-01

    Gracilaria eucheumoides Linn (Gracilariaceae; G. eucheumoides) is abundant in dietary fiber, which aids the clearance of excess cholesterol from the blood and maintains stable blood glucose levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antifatigue effect of G. eucheumoides in mice and the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying this effect. Mice were randomly divided into four groups and three of the groups were administered different doses of G. eucheumoides extract. A loaded swimming test demonstrated that the swimming times of the low-, medium- and high-dose groups were longer than those of the control group. Examinations revealed that the liver and muscle glycogen, lactate dehydrogenase and blood glucose concentration levels of the treatment groups were higher than those of the control group (P0.05). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the gene expression levels of glucose transport protein 4 and AMP-activated protein kinase in the medium-dose group exhibited the largest increases, compared with the other treatment groups, and were 3.0- and 1.8-fold higher than those in the control group, respectively. The results of the present study indicated that G. eucheumoides exerts an antifatigue effect on mice.

  20. Antiamnesic effects of Desmodium gangeticum in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-09-01

    Dementia is a mental disorder characterized by loss of intellectual ability sufficiently severe enough to interfere with one's occupational or social activities. Desmodium gangeticum commonly known as Salparni, is widely used in ayurveda for the treatment of neurological disorders. The present work was designed to assess the potential of aqueous extract of D. gangeticum (DG) as a nootropic agent in mice. DG (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 7 successive days to both young and older mice. Exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) induced amnesia and ageing induced amnesia were the interoceptive behavioral models. To delineate the mechanism by which DG exerts nootropic activity, the effect of DG on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. Pretreatment with DG (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o.) for seven successive days significantly improved learning and memory in mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both, scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and natural ageing. DG also decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. Hence, D. gangeticum appears to be a promising candidate for improving memory and it would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this plant in the management of dementia and Alzheimer disease.

  1. Zoopharmacognosy in diseased laboratory mice: conflicting evidence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minesh Kapadia

    Full Text Available Zoopharmacognosy denotes a constellation of learned ingestive responses that promote healing and survival of infected or poisoned animals. A similar self-medication phenomenon was reported in diseased laboratory rodents. In particular, a series of studies revealed that autoimmune MRL/lpr mice readily consume solutions paired or laced with cyclophosphamide (CY, an immunosuppressive drug that prevents inflammatory damage to internal organs. However, due to design limitations, it could not be elucidated whether such a response reflects the learned therapeutic effect of CY, or a deficit in sensory input. We presently assess the behavioural effects of prolonged consumption of CY-laced, 16% sucrose solution in a continuous choice paradigm, with tap water available ad lib. Contrary to overall expectation, MRL/lpr mice did not increase their intake of CY with disease progression. Moreover, they ingested lower doses of CY and preferred less CY-laced sucrose solution than age-matched controls. The results obtained could not confirm zoopharmacognosy in diseased MRL/lpr mice, likely due to impaired responsiveness to palatable stimulation, or attenuated survival mechanisms after prolonged inbreeding in captivity. However, by revealing the effectiveness of unrestricted drinking of drug-laced sucrose solution on behavior and immunity, the current study supports broader use of such an administration route in behavioural studies sensitive to external stressors.

  2. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Hundahl

    Full Text Available Neuroglobin (Ngb, a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN. The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1 and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night.

  3. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundahl, Christian A; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Georg, Birgitte; Faltoft, Birgitte; Hannibal, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency on circadian behavior. Ngb-deficient and wild-type (wt) mice were placed in running wheels and their activity rhythms, endogenous period and response to light stimuli were investigated. The effect of Ngb deficiency on the expression of Period1 (Per1) and the immediate early gene Fos was determined after light stimulation at night and the neurochemical phenotype of Ngb expressing neurons in wt mice was characterized. Loss of Ngb function had no effect on overall circadian entrainment, but resulted in a significantly larger phase delay of circadian rhythm upon light stimulation at early night. A light-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb-positive neurons. The present study demonstrates for the first time that the genetic elimination of Ngb does not affect core clock function but evokes an increased behavioural response to light concomitant with increased Per1 gene expression in the SCN at early night.

  4. APP Causes Hyperexcitability in Fragile X Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmark, Cara J.; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Hays, Seth A.; Filon, Mikolaj J.; Ray, Brian C.; Westmark, Pamela R.; Gibson, Jay R.; Huber, Kimberly M.; Wong, Robert K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-beta protein precursor (APP) and metabolite levels are altered in fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and in the mouse model of the disorder, Fmr1KO mice. Normalization of APP levels in Fmr1KO mice (Fmr1KO/APPHET mice) rescues many disease phenotypes. Thus, APP is a potential biomarker as well as therapeutic target for FXS. Hyperexcitability is a key phenotype of FXS. Herein, we determine the effects of APP levels on hyperexcitability in Fmr1KO brain slices. Fmr1KO/APPHET slices exhibit complete rescue of UP states in a neocortical hyperexcitability model and reduced duration of ictal discharges in a CA3 hippocampal model. These data demonstrate that APP plays a pivotal role in maintaining an appropriate balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I) in neural circuits. A model is proposed whereby APP acts as a rheostat in a molecular circuit that modulates hyperexcitability through mGluR5 and FMRP. Both over- and under-expression of APP in the context of the Fmr1KO increases seizure propensity suggesting that an APP rheostat maintains appropriate E/I levels but is overloaded by mGluR5-mediated excitation in the absence of FMRP. These findings are discussed in relation to novel treatment approaches to restore APP homeostasis in FXS. PMID:28018172

  5. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jeremy B; Jones, Catherine S; Gündüz, Islam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P; Herman, Jeremy S; Rambau, R Victor; Noble, Leslie R; Berry, R J; Giménez, Mabel D; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríoa

    2009-01-22

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the 'Orkney' lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history.

  6. Intestinal microbiota modulates gluten-induced immunopathology in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, Heather J; McCarville, Justin L; Huebener, Sina; Litwin, Owen; Meisel, Marlies; Jabri, Bana; Sanz, Yolanda; Murray, Joseph A; Jordana, Manel; Alaedini, Armin; Chirdo, Fernando G; Verdu, Elena F

    2015-11-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. The recent increase in CD incidence suggests that additional environmental factors, such as intestinal microbiota alterations, are involved in its pathogenesis. However, there is no direct evidence of modulation of gluten-induced immunopathology by the microbiota. We investigated whether specific microbiota compositions influence immune responses to gluten in mice expressing the human DQ8 gene, which confers moderate CD genetic susceptibility. Germ-free mice, clean specific-pathogen-free (SPF) mice colonized with a microbiota devoid of opportunistic pathogens and Proteobacteria, and conventional SPF mice that harbor a complex microbiota that includes opportunistic pathogens were used. Clean SPF mice had attenuated responses to gluten compared to germ-free and conventional SPF mice. Germ-free mice developed increased intraepithelial lymphocytes, markers of intraepithelial lymphocyte cytotoxicity, gliadin-specific antibodies, and a proinflammatory gliadin-specific T-cell response. Antibiotic treatment, leading to Proteobacteria expansion, further enhanced gluten-induced immunopathology in conventional SPF mice. Protection against gluten-induced immunopathology in clean SPF mice was reversed after supplementation with a member of the Proteobacteria phylum, an enteroadherent Escherichia coli isolated from a CD patient. The intestinal microbiota can both positively and negatively modulate gluten-induced immunopathology in mice. In subjects with moderate genetic susceptibility, intestinal microbiota changes may be a factor that increases CD risk.

  7. Dehydration anorexia is attenuated in oxytocin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Karam, Joseph; Phillips, Donnesha; Li, Xia; Amico, Janet A

    2005-06-01

    Evidence in rats suggests that central oxytocin (OT) signaling pathways contribute to suppression of food intake during dehydration (i.e., dehydration anorexia). The present study examined water deprivation-induced dehydration anorexia in wild-type and OT -/- mice. Mice were deprived of food alone (fasted, euhydrated) or were deprived of both food and water (fasted, dehydrated) for 18 h overnight. Fasted wild-type mice consumed significantly less chow during a 60-min refeeding period when dehydrated compared with their intake when euhydrated. Conversely, fasting-induced food intake was slightly but not significantly suppressed by dehydration in OT -/- mice, evidence for attenuated dehydration anorexia. In a separate experiment, mice were deprived of water (but not food) overnight for 18 h; then they were anesthetized and perfused with fixative for immunocytochemical analysis of central Fos expression. Fos was elevated similarly in osmo- and volume-sensitive regions of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus in wild-type and OT -/- mice after water deprivation. OT-positive neurons expressed Fos in dehydrated wild-type mice, and vasopressin-positive neurons were activated to a similar extent in wild-type and OT -/- mice. Conversely, significantly fewer neurons within the hindbrain dorsal vagal complex were activated in OT -/- mice after water deprivation compared with activation in wild-type mice. These findings support the view that OT-containing projections from the hypothalamus to the hindbrain are necessary for the full expression of compensatory behavioral and physiological responses to dehydration.

  8. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  9. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.;

    2014-01-01

    an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after...... of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions......Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize'' the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether...

  10. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of digoxin in polyuria in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and lithium carbonate-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Kagami, Mai; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Ishii, Makoto; Toda, Takahiro; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2011-06-01

    In humans, digoxin is mainly eliminated through the kidneys unchanged, and renal clearance represents approximately 70% of the total clearance. In this study, we used the mouse models to examine digoxin pharmacokinetics in polyuria induced by diabetes mellitus and lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)) administration, including mechanistic evaluation of the contribution of glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption. After digoxin administration to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, digoxin CL/F increased to approximately 2.2 times that in normal mice. After treatment with Li(2)CO(3) (0.2%) for 10 days, the CL/F increased approximately 1.1 times for normal mice and 1.6 times for STZ mice. Creatinine clearance (CLcr) and the renal mRNA expression levels of mdr1a did not differ significantly between the normal, STZ, and Li(2)CO(3)-treated mice. The urine volume of STZ mice was approximately 26 mL/day, 22 times that of normal mice. The urine volume of Li(2)CO(3)-treated mice increased approximately 7.3 times for normal mice and 2.3 times for STZ mice. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of digoxin may be significantly reduced in the presence of polyuria either induced by diabetes mellitus or manifested as an adverse effect of Li(2)CO(3) in diabetic patients, along with increased urine volume.

  11. Diet-induced obese mice retain endogenous leptin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaway, Nickki; Mahbod, Parinaz; Rivero, Belen; Norman, Lee Ann; Gertler, Arieh; D'Alessio, David A; Perez-Tilve, Diego

    2015-06-02

    Obesity is characterized by hyperleptinemia and decreased response to exogenous leptin. This has been widely attributed to the development of leptin resistance, a state of impaired leptin signaling proposed to contribute to the development and persistence of obesity. To directly determine endogenous leptin activity in obesity, we treated lean and obese mice with a leptin receptor antagonist. The antagonist increased feeding and body weight (BW) in lean mice, but not in obese models of leptin, leptin receptor, or melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency. In contrast, the antagonist increased feeding and BW comparably in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, an increase associated with decreased hypothalamic expression of Socs3, a primary target of leptin. These findings demonstrate that hyperleptinemic DIO mice retain leptin suppression of feeding comparable to lean mice and counter the view that resistance to endogenous leptin contributes to the persistence of DIO in mice.

  12. Contact hypersensitivity response to isophorone diisocyanate in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, M.L.; Brown, T.A.; Brown, R.D.; Munson, A.E. (Virginial Commonwealth Univ., Richmond (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Isophorone diisocyanate was evaluated for its potential as a sensitizing agent for allergic contact hypersensitivity in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice were sensitized with 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0% isophorone diisocyanate and challenged with 3.0% isophorone diisocyanate. Doses of isophorone diisocyanate were selected from assays for primary irritancy. Mice received 20 microliters by direct dermal application, for 5 days, to sites prepared by shaving, dermabrading and, in some mice, with intra dermal injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. The rest period was 7 days. Measurement of the contact hypersensitivity response in mice was by radioisotopic assay two days after challenge and mouse ear swelling one and two days after challenge. Mice demonstrated statistically significant dose-dependent contact hypersensitivity responses to isophorone diisocyanate with or without adjuvant pretreatment.

  13. Behavioral characteristics of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saki Imai

    Full Text Available We have previously identified Usp46, which encodes for ubiquitin-specific peptidase 46, as a quantitative trait gene affecting the immobility time of mice in the tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test. The mutation that we identified was a 3-bp deletion coding for lysine (Lys 92, and mice with this mutation (MT mice, as well as Usp46 KO mice exhibited shorter TST immobility times. Behavioral pharmacology suggests that the gamma aminobutyric acid A (GABAA receptor is involved in regulating TST immobility time. In order to understand how far Usp46 controls behavioral phenotypes, which could be related to mental disorders in humans, we subjected Usp46 MT and KO mice to multiple behavioral tests, including the open field test, ethanol preference test, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex test, sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, marble burying test, and novel object recognition test. Although behavioral phenotypes of the Usp46 MT and KO mice were not always identical, deficiency of Usp46 significantly affected performance in all these tests. In the open field test, activity levels were lower in Usp46 KO mice than wild type (WT or MT mice. Both MT and KO mice showed lower ethanol preference and shorter recovery times after ethanol administration. Compared to WT mice, Usp46 MT and KO mice exhibited decreased sucrose preference, took longer latency periods to bite pellets, and buried more marbles in the sucrose preference test, novelty-suppressed feeding test, and marble burying test, respectively. In the novel object recognition test, neither MT nor KO mice showed an increase in exploration of a new object 24 hours after training. These findings indicate that Usp46 regulates a wide range of behavioral phenotypes that might be related to human mental disorders and provides insight into the function of USP46 deubiquitinating enzyme in the neural system.

  14. N-glycans and metastasis in galectin-3 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Shyam K; Srinivasan, Nithya; Budnar, Srikanth; Bane, Sanjay M; Upadhya, Archana; Thorat, Rahul A; Ingle, Arvind D; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V; Kalraiya, Rajiv D

    2015-05-01

    Poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine (polyLacNAc) on N-glycans facilitate lung specific metastasis of melanoma cells by serving as high affinity ligands for galectin-3, expressed in highest amounts in the lungs, on almost all its tissue compartments including on the surface of vascular endothelium. PolyLacNAc not only aids in initial arrest on the organ endothelium but in all the events of extravasation. Inhibition of polyLacNAc synthesis, or competitive inhibition of its interaction with galectin-3 all inhibited these processes and experimental metastasis. Transgenic galectin-3 mice, viz., gal-3(+/+) (wild type), gal-3(+/-) (hemizygous) and gal-3(-/-) (null) have been used to prove that galectin-3/polyLacNAc interactions are indeed critical for lung specific metastasis. Gal-3(+/-) mice which showed metastasis. However, surprisingly, the number and size of metastatic colonies in gal-3(-/-) mice was very similar as that seen in gal-3(+/+) mice. The levels of lactose binding lectins on the lungs and the transcripts of other galectins (galectin-1, -8 and -9) which are expressed on lungs and have similar sugar binding specificities as galectins-3, remain unchanged in gal-3(+/+) and gal-3(-/-) mice. Further, inhibition of N-glycosylation with Swainsonine (SW) which drastically reduces metastasis of B16F10 cells in gal-3(+/+) mice, did not affect lung metastasis when assessed in gal-3(-/-) mice. Together, these results rule out the possibility of some other galectin taking over the function of galectin-3 in gal-3(-/-) mice. Chimeric mice generated to assess if absence of any effect on metastasis is due to compromised tumor immunity by replacing bone marrow of gal-3(-/-) mice with that from gal-3(+/+) mice, also failed to impact melanoma metastasis. As galectin-3 regulates several immune functions including maturation of different immune cells, compromised tumor immunity could be the major determinant of melanoma metastasis in gal-3(-/-) mice and warrants thorough investigation.

  15. Dysregulation of the humoral immune response in old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, K S; Wang, Y F; Guéret, R; Weksler, M E

    1995-06-01

    The increase in autoantibodies with age of both experimental animals and humans has been thought to reflect a shift in the antibody repertoire from foreign to self antigens. In mice, before immunization, the age-associated increase in antibodies reactive with a prototypic autoantigen, bromelain-treated autologous erythrocytes (BrMRBC), reflected a 3-fold increase in serum IgM and the number of IgM-secreting spleen cells in old compared with young mice. However, the percentage of the IgM-secreting spleen cell repertoire reactive with BrMRBC in old mice was actually approximately 50% that in young mice. In contrast, after immunization with sheep erythrocytes (SRBC), old mice showed a 5-fold increase in the percentage of IgM-secreting cells reactive with BrMRBC while young mice showed no significant increase. The converse is true for the percentage of IgM-secreting spleen cells in old mice specific for SBRC, which is 10% the number generated by young mice. The increased autoantibody response of old mice is not, however, linked to their poor response to the nominal antigen. Thus, immunization with phosphorylcholine (PC) conjugated keyhole limpet hemocyanin, an antigen that induces a comparable anti-PC response in old and young mice, also induced more autoantibody forming cells in old than young mice. The increased autoantibody response of old mice after immunization can be accounted for by both an increased number of Ig-secreting spleen cells as well as an increased percentage of the expressed repertoire of IgM-secreting spleen cells that react with autoantigens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Pure paraflagellar rod protein protects mice against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The paraflagellar rod proteins (PAR) purified from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were shown to protect mice against an otherwise lethal challenge inoculum of 10(3) bloodstream-form trypomastigotes. The injection route used for immunization was shown to have a marked impact on the development of protective immunity. Mice receiving subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of PAR proteins had reduced bloodstream parasitemias and showed 100% survival following challenge. In contrast, mice immunized via t...

  17. Methylphenidate restores novel object recognition in DARPP-32 knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, Charles J; McNaughton, Caitlyn H; Vishnevetsky, Donna; Fienberg, Allen A

    2013-09-15

    Previously, we have shown that Dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32kDa (DARPP-32) knockout mice required significantly more trials to reach criterion than wild-type mice in an operant reversal-learning task. The present study was conducted to examine adult male and female DARPP-32 knockout mice and wild-type controls in a novel object recognition test. Wild-type and knockout mice exhibited comparable behavior during the initial exploration trials. As expected, wild-type mice exhibited preferential exploration of the novel object during the substitution test, demonstrating recognition memory. In contrast, knockout mice did not show preferential exploration of the novel object, instead exhibiting an increase in exploration of all objects during the test trial. Given that the removal of DARPP-32 is an intracellular manipulation, it seemed possible to pharmacologically restore some cellular activity and behavior by stimulating dopamine receptors. Therefore, a second experiment was conducted examining the effect of methylphenidate. The results show that methylphenidate increased horizontal activity in both wild-type and knockout mice, though this increase was blunted in knockout mice. Pretreatment with methylphenidate significantly impaired novel object recognition in wild-type mice. In contrast, pretreatment with methylphenidate restored the behavior of DARPP-32 knockout mice to that observed in wild-type mice given saline. These results provide additional evidence for a functional role of DARPP-32 in the mediation of processes underlying learning and memory. These results also indicate that the behavioral deficits in DARPP-32 knockout mice may be restored by the administration of methylphenidate.

  18. Central depressant and nootropic effects of daytime melatonin in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Adejoke Y. Onaolapo; Abiola, Akanni A; Lillian, Eniafe A

    2014-01-01

    Background Effects of orally administered daytime melatonin on novelty induced behaviors and spatial working memory in mice were evaluated using the open field, the Y maze and the radial arm maze. Purpose To ascertain the possible nootropic and/or central excitatory or inhibitory effects of daytime oral melatonin in mice. Methods Adult male mice from our colony, assigned to three and four groups for open field tests and memory tests respectively were given vehicle (normal saline), a standard ...

  19. The MICE Demonstration of Ionization Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, J.; Blackmore, V.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Collomb, N.; Snopok, P.

    2015-05-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at the Neutrino Factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at the Muon Collider. The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization cooling channel, the muon beam passes through a material (the absorber) in which it loses energy. The energy lost is then replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect of energy loss and re-acceleration is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). A major revision of the scope of the project was carried out over the summer of 2014. The revised project plan, which has received the formal endorsement of the international MICE Project Board and the international MICE Funding Agency Committee, will deliver a demonstration of ionization cooling by September 2017. In the revised configuration a central lithium-hydride absorber provides the cooling effect. The magnetic lattice is provided by the two superconducting focus coils and acceleration is provided by two 201 MHz single-cavity modules. The phase space of the muons entering and leaving the cooling cell will be measured by two solenoidal spectrometers. All the superconducting magnets for the ionization cooling demonstration are available at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the first single-cavity prototype is under test in the MuCool Test Area at Fermilab. The design of the cooling demonstration experiment will be described together with a summary of the performance of each of its components. The cooling performance of the revised configuration will also be presented.

  20. THC Prevents MDMA Neurotoxicity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Touriño

    Full Text Available The majority of MDMA (ecstasy recreational users also consume cannabis. Despite the rewarding effects that both drugs have, they induce several opposite pharmacological responses. MDMA causes hyperthermia, oxidative stress and neuronal damage, especially at warm ambient temperature. However, THC, the main psychoactive compound of cannabis, produces hypothermic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Therefore, THC may have a neuroprotective effect against MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. Mice receiving a neurotoxic regimen of MDMA (20 mg/kg x 4 were pretreated with THC (3 mg/kg x 4 at room (21 degrees C and at warm (26 degrees C temperature, and body temperature, striatal glial activation and DA terminal loss were assessed. To find out the mechanisms by which THC may prevent MDMA hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, the same procedure was carried out in animals pretreated with the CB(1 receptor antagonist AM251 and the CB(2 receptor antagonist AM630, as well as in CB(1, CB(2 and CB(1/CB(2 deficient mice. THC prevented MDMA-induced-hyperthermia and glial activation in animals housed at both room and warm temperature. Surprisingly, MDMA-induced DA terminal loss was only observed in animals housed at warm but not at room temperature, and this neurotoxic effect was reversed by THC administration. However, THC did not prevent MDMA-induced hyperthermia, glial activation, and DA terminal loss in animals treated with the CB(1 receptor antagonist AM251, neither in CB(1 and CB(1/CB(2 knockout mice. On the other hand, THC prevented MDMA-induced hyperthermia and DA terminal loss, but only partially suppressed glial activation in animals treated with the CB(2 cannabinoid antagonist and in CB(2 knockout animals. Our results indicate that THC protects against MDMA neurotoxicity, and suggest that these neuroprotective actions are primarily mediated by the reduction of hyperthermia through the activation of CB(1 receptor, although CB(2 receptors may also contribute to

  1. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  2. Diacylglycerol lipase a knockout mice demonstrate metabolic and behavioral phenotypes similar to those of cannabinoid receptor 1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Powell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After creating >4650 knockouts (KOs of independent mouse genes, we screened them by high-throughput phenotyping and found that cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cnr1 KO mice had the same lean phenotype published by others. We asked if our KOs of DAG lipase a or b (Dagla or Daglb, which catalyze biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid (EC 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, or Napepld, which catalyzes biosynthesis of the EC anandamide, shared the lean phenotype of Cnr1 KO mice. We found that Dagla KO mice, but not Daglb or Napepld KO mice, were among the leanest of 3651 chow-fed KO lines screened. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high fat diet-fed Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice were leaner than wild type (WT littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 47% and 45% lower in Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice, respectively, relative to WT values. In contrast, neither Daglb nor Napepld KO mice were lean. Weanling Dagla KO mice ate less than WT mice and had body weight similar to pair-fed WT mice, and adult Dagla KO mice had normal activity and VO2 levels, similar to Cnr1 KO mice. Our Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also had low fasting insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, and after a glucose challenge had normal glucose but very low insulin levels. Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also showed similar responses to a battery of behavioral tests. These data suggest: 1 the lean phenotype of young Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice is mainly due to hypophagia; 2 in pathways where ECs signal through Cnr1 to regulate food intake and other metabolic and behavioral phenotypes observed in Cnr1 KO mice, Dagla alone provides the 2-AG that serves as the EC signal; and 3 small molecule Dagla inhibitors with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of Cnr1 inverse agonists are likely to mirror the ability of these Cnr1 inverse agonists to lower body weight and improve glycemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, but may also induce undesirable neuropsychiatric

  3. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  4. Circadian behaviour in neuroglobin deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian A; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb), a neuron-specific oxygen-binding globin with an unknown function, has been proposed to play a key role in neuronal survival. We have previously shown Ngb to be highly expressed in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The present study addresses the effect of Ngb deficiency......-induced increase in Per1, but not Fos, gene expression was observed in Ngb-deficient mice. Ngb expressing neurons which co-stored Gastrin Releasing Peptide (GRP) and were innervated from the eye and the geniculo-hypothalamic tract expressed FOS after light stimulation. No PER1 expression was observed in Ngb...

  5. Bone marrow transplantation. [Mice, gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storb, R.; Santos, G.W.

    1979-03-01

    Bone marrow transplantation has been increasingly used to treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency diseases, severe aplastic anemia, and malignant hematologic diseases, especially leukemia. At the Workshop a number of problems were discussed, e.g., conditioning regimens aimed at overcoming the problem of marrow graft rejection and reducing the incidence of recurrent leukemia, prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), possible mechanisms involved in stable graft-host tolerance, graft-versus-leukemia effect in mice, and finally, the possible use of autologous marrow transplantation.

  6. Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Database of Physiological Parameters for Early Life Rats and Mice provides information based on scientific literature about physiological parameters. Modelers...

  7. Partial Return Yoke for MICE Step IV and Final Step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, Holger [Brookhaven; Plate, Stephen [Brookhaven; Berg, J.Scott [Brookhaven; Tarrant, Jason [Rutherford; Bross, Alan [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  8. Partial return yoke for MICE step IV and final step

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Plate, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Tarrant, J. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL); Bross, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-05-03

    This paper reports on the progress of the design and construction of a retro-fitted return yoke for the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). MICE is a proof-of-principle experiment aiming to demonstrate ionization cooling experimentally. In earlier studies we outlined how a partial return yoke can be used to mitigate stray magnetic field in the experimental hall; we report on the progress of the construction of the partial return yoke for MICE Step IV. We also discuss an extension of the Partial Return Yoke for the final step of MICE; we show simulation results of the expected performance.

  9. Chronic rapamycin treatment causes diabetes in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Christine E; Partap, Uttara; Patchen, Bonnie K; Swoap, Steven J

    2014-08-15

    Current evidence indicates that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin both increases longevity and, seemingly contradictorily, impairs glucose homeostasis. Most studies exploring the dimensions of this paradox have been based on rapamycin treatment in mice for up to 20 wk. We sought to better understand the metabolic effects of oral rapamycin over a substantially longer period of time in HET3 mice. We observed that treatment with rapamycin for 52 wk induced diabetes in male mice, characterized by hyperglycemia, significant urine glucose levels, and severe glucose and pyruvate intolerance. Glucose intolerance occurred in male mice by 4 wk on rapamycin and could be only partially reversed with cessation of rapamycin treatment. Female mice developed moderate glucose intolerance over 1 yr of rapamycin treatment, but not diabetes. The role of sex hormones in the differential development of diabetic symptoms in male and female mice was further explored. HET3 mice treated with rapamycin for 52 wk were gonadectomized and monitored over 10 wk. Castrated male mice remained glucose intolerant, while ovariectomized females developed significant glucose intolerance over the same time period. Subsequent replacement of 17β-estradiol (E2) in ovariectomized females promoted a recovery of glucose tolerance over a 4-wk period, suggesting the protective role of E2 against rapamycin-induced diabetes. These results indicate that 1) oral rapamycin treatment causes diabetes in male mice, 2) the diabetes is partially reversible with cessation of treatment, and 3) E2 plays a protective role against the development of rapamycin-induced diabetes.

  10. Experimental oral and nasal transmission of rabies virus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, K M; Casey, G A

    1979-01-01

    Weanling female white Swiss mice were exposed to challenge virus standard rabies virus and street virus isolates from various domestic and wild animals. Virus was given free choice as suspension or as infected mouse brain by stomach tube, by single injection of suspension into the oral cavity of unanesthetized mice, by repeated injection into the oral cavity of anesthetized mice and by single application to the external nares of anesthetized mice. Challenge virus standard virus in mouse brain suspension and a suspension of skunk salivary glands infected with street virus (titers greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) consistently produced high rates of infection in mice exposed intranasally, low to high rates of infection in mice exposed by forced feeding and other artificial methods of oral exposure and very low rates of infection when given free choice. Street virus isolates passaged intracerebrally in mice had titers less than or equal to 10(4.5) MICLD50/0.03 ml and rarely caused rabies in mice exposed orally or nasally by any method. The results indicate that with the isolates used, virus of high titer (greater than or equal to 10(6)MICLD50/0.03 ml) is required to consistently produce infection in mice by the nasal route and that the mucosa of the nasal cavity probably is the chief route of infection even after oral administration.

  11. Functional recovery in aging mice after experimental stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwani, Bharti; Liu, Fudong; Xu, Yan; Persky, Rebecca; Li, Jun; McCullough, Louise D

    2011-11-01

    Aging is a non-modifiable risk factor for stroke. Since not all strokes can be prevented, a major emerging area of research is the development of effective strategies to enhance functional recovery after stroke. However, in the vast majority of pre-clinical stroke studies, the behavioral tests used to assess functional recovery have only been validated for use in young animals, or are designed for rats. Mice are increasingly utilized in stroke models but well validated behavioral tests designed for rats are not necessarily reproducible in mice. We examined a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate functional recovery in an aging murine model of stroke. We found that the vertical pole, hanging wire and open field can accurately assess acute behavioral impairments after stroke in both young and aging male mice, but animals recover rapidly on these tasks. The corner test can accurately and repeatedly differentiate stroke from sham animals up to 30 days post stroke and can be performed reliably in aging mice. Aging male mice had significantly worse behavioral impairment compared to young male mice in the first two weeks after stroke but eventually recovered to the same degree as young mice. In contrast, chronic infarct size, as measured by ipsilateral cerebral atrophy, was significantly lower in aging male mice compared to young male mice. Reactive gliosis, formation of glial scar, and an enhanced innate immune response was seen in the aging brain and may contribute to the delayed behavioral recovery seen in the aging animals.

  12. Effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin on exsanguine thrombocytopenia mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM:To investigate effect of recombinant human thrombopoietin on exsanguine thrombocytopenia mice. METHODS:Normal peripheral platelet counts were performed on sample obtained from the tail vein of purebred Babl/c mice including experimental and control groups before experimentation. rhTPO was injected into the mice by intraperitoneal injection once a day for 7 days. On the seventh and the fourteenth day, the mice were phlebotomized from the supra-obitalis vein in order to make exsanguine thrombocytopenia animal model. At the same time, we observed the biological activity of recombinant human thrombopoietin in vivo and the mice's death rate. RESULTS: On the seventh day and the fourteenth day, platelet counts of mice treated by rhTPO were higher than those by PBS (P<0.05). Moreover the platelet counts of mice in experimental group of rhTPO showed increasing tendency following experimental days. In addition, death happened in two groups after those mice were phlebotomized from the supra-obitalis vein, but the death rate in negative control group was evidently higher than that in experimental group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:rhTPO had obvious biological activity in increasing platelet production, which resulted in the drop in thrombocytopenia mice's death rate.

  13. Methanol teratogenicity in mutant mice with deficient catalase activity and transgenic mice expressing human catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Michelle T; Wiley, Michael J; Wells, Peter G

    2013-04-01

    The role of catalase in methanol (MeOH) teratogenesis is unclear. In rodents it both detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS) and metabolizes MeOH and its formic acid (FA) metabolite. We treated pregnant mice expressing either high (hCat) or low catalase activity (aCat), or their wild-type (WT) controls, with either MeOH (4g/kg ip) or saline. hCat mice and WTs were similarly susceptible to MeOH-initiated ophthalmic abnormalities and cleft palates. aCat and WT mice appeared resistant, precluding assessment of the developmental impact of catalase deficiency. Catalase activity was respectively increased at least 1.5-fold, and decreased by at least 35%, in hCat and aCat embryos and maternal livers. MeOH and FA pharmacokinetic profiles were similar among hCat, aCat and WT strains. Although the hCat results imply no ROS involvement, embryo culture studies suggest this may be confounded by maternal factors and/or a requirement for higher catalase activity in the hCat mice.

  14. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S; Jakesevic, Maja; Rune, Ida; Tranberg, Britt; Vogensen, Finn K; Nielsen, Dennis S; Bahl, Martin I; Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Axel K; Hansen, Camilla H F

    2014-08-01

    Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize" the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly β cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions.

  15. Fisetin disposition and metabolism in mice: Identification of geraldol as an active metabolite. : Fisetin disposition and metabolism in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Touil, Yasmine; Auzeil, Nicolas; Boulinguez, François; Saighi, Hanane; Regazzetti, Anne; Scherman, Daniel; Chabot, Guy

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Although the natural flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been recently identified as an anticancer agent with antiangiogenic properties in mice, its in vivo pharmacokinetics and metabolism are presently not characterized. Our purpose was to determine the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of fisetin in mice and determine the biological activity of a detected fisetin metabolite. After fisetin administration of an efficacious dose of 223 mg/kg i.p. in mice...

  16. Comparative toxicity of acephate in laboratory mice, white-footed mice, and meadow voles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The LD50 (95% confidence limits) of the organophosphorus insecticide acephate was estimated to be 351, 380, and 321 mg/kg (295?416, 280?516, and 266?388 mg/kg) for CD-1 laboratory mice (Mus musculus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis), and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), respectively. In a second study, these species were provided mash containing 0, 25, 100, and 400 ppm acephate for five days. Brain and plasma cholinesterase activities were reduced in a dose-dependent manner to a similar extent in the three species (inhibition of brain acetyl-cholinesterase averaged for each species ranged from 13 to 22% at 25 ppm, 33 to 42% at 100 ppm, and 56 to 57% at 400 ppm). Mash intake, body or liver weight, plasma enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate aminotransferase), hepatic enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, and glutathione S-transferase), and cytochrome content (P-450 and b5) were not affected by acephate ingestion, although values differed among species. In a third experiment, mice and voles received 400 ppm acephate for 5 days followed by untreated food for up to 2 weeks. Mean inhibition of brain acetylcholin-esterase for the three species ranged from 47 to 58% on day 5, but by days 12 and 19, activity had recovered to 66 to 76% and 81 to 88% of concurrent control values. These findings indicate that CD-1 laboratory mice, white-footed mice, and meadow voles are equally sensitive to acephate when maintained under uniform laboratory conditions. Several factors (e.g., behavior, food preference, habitat) could affect routes and degree of exposure in the field, thereby rendering some species of wild rodents ecologically more vulnerable to organophosphorus insecticides.

  17. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P CLA on d14. Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P CLA increased lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P CLA in CO-fed mice and increased in SO-fed mice (P CLA (P CLA-induced lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  18. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Tang

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  19. Oestrogen sulfotransferase ablation sensitizes mice to sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaojuan; Guo, Yan; Jiang, Mengxi; Hu, Bingfang; Li, Zhigang; Fan, Jie; Deng, Meihong; Billiar, Timothy R; Kucera, Heidi R; Gaikwad, Nilesh W; Xu, Meishu; Lu, Peipei; Yan, Jiong; Fu, Haiyan; Liu, Youhua; Yu, Lushan; Huang, Min; Zeng, Su; Xie, Wen

    2015-08-10

    Sepsis is the host's deleterious systemic inflammatory response to microbial infections. Here we report an essential role for the oestrogen sulfotransferase (EST or SULT1E1), a conjugating enzyme that sulfonates and deactivates estrogens, in sepsis response. Both the caecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and lipopolysaccharide models of sepsis induce the expression of EST and compromise the activity of oestrogen, an anti-inflammatory hormone. Surprisingly, EST ablation sensitizes mice to sepsis-induced death. Mechanistically, EST ablation attenuates sepsis-induced inflammatory responses due to compromised oestrogen deactivation, leading to increased sepsis lethality. In contrast, transgenic overexpression of EST promotes oestrogen deactivation and sensitizes mice to CLP-induced inflammatory response. The induction of EST by sepsis is NF-κB dependent and EST is a NF-κB-target gene. The reciprocal regulation of inflammation and EST may represent a yet-to-be-explored mechanism of endocrine regulation of inflammation, which has an impact on the clinical outcome of sepsis.

  20. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuan; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  1. Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed autoimmune disorders such a rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Women, the media pointed out, have a higher-than-average incidence of many autoimmune disorders. These events suggest the need to know more about what makes the immune system work so well and what makes it go awry. At ORNL's Biology Division, progress is being in understanding the underlying causes of immune disease by studying mice having a disease that causes them to be underdeveloped; to have scaly skin, small ears, and large spleens; to open their eyes late; and to die early. These [open quotes]scurfy[close quotes]mice are helping us better understand the role of the thymus gland in autoimmune disease.

  2. Teratogenic effects of noise in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, M.; Takigawa, H.

    1989-07-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the hazardous effects of noise on embryonic development. The experiment was composed of two parts; one was the observation of the effect due to noise alone, and the other was the observation of the combined effect of noise and known teratogens. ICR mice were exposed to a wide octave-band noise at 100 dB(C) for 6 hours a day in three ways: the first group was exposed to a continuous noise only on day 7 of pregnancy (group "N"), the second was exposed to an intermittent noise (15 min ON/15 min OFF) only on day 7 of pregnancy (group "IN"), and the third was exposed daily to a continuous noise during days 7-12 of pregnancy (group "RN"). Cadmium sulfate or trypan blue was applied as a teratogen, and was administered intraperitoneously on day 7 of pregnancy. On day 18 of pregnancy, mice were sacrificed and the developmental status and external malformations of their fetuses were examined. Each type of noise exposure did not significantly induce embryolethality and fetal growth retardation. However, teratogenicity was observed in groups "N" and "IN". Combined effects of teratogen and noise did not show clear-cut interactions.

  3. The MICE Demonstration of Muon Ionization Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrange, Jean-Baptiste [Imperial Coll., London; Hunt, Christopher [Imperial Coll., London; Palladino, Vittorio [INFN, Naples; Pasternak, Jaroslaw [Imperial Coll., London

    2016-06-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well-characterised neutrino beams necessary to elucidate the physics of flavour at the Neutrino Factory and to provide lepton-antilepton collisions up to several TeV at the Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate muon ionization cooling, the technique proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam at such facilities. In an ionization-cooling channel, the muon beam traverses a material (the absorber) loosing energy, which is replaced using RF cavities. The combined effect is to reduce the transverse emittance of the beam (transverse cooling). The configuration of MICE required to deliver the demonstration of ionization cooling is being prepared in parallel to the execution of a programme designed to measure the cooling properties of liquid-hydrogen and lithium hydride. The design of the cooling-demonstration experiment will be presented together with a summary of the performance of each of its components and the cooling performance of the experiment.

  4. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  5. Photoperiod and reproduction in female deer mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitsett, J.M.; Miller, L.L.

    1982-03-01

    Female deer mice were exposed to a short day photoperiod beginning during 1 of 3 stages of life. In the first experiment, exposure to SD during adulthood resulted in a minimal disruption of reproductive condition; many females bore 2 litters after the onset of this treatment. In the second experiment, females reared on SD from weaning matured normally, as measured by vaginal introitus; however, vaginal closure occurred in approximately one-half of these females by 9 weeks of age. In the third experiment, females were born of mothers housed on either an SD or a long day photoperiod, and were continued on the maternal photoperiod until 6 weeks of postnatal age. The SD photoperiod markedly inhibited reproductive maturation as measured by vaginal patency, ovarian weight, and uterine weight. A comparison of reproductive organ weights and vaginal condition provided evidence for the validity of the latter measure as an index of reproductive state. As assayed by the present testing procedure, the sensitivity of the reproductive system to photoperiod decreases as a function of age in female deer mice.

  6. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A

    1981-01-01

    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  7. Molecular hydrogen attenuates neuropathic pain in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kawaguchi

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain remains intractable and the development of new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Accumulating evidence indicates that overproduction of oxidative stress is a key event in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, repeated intra-peritoneal or intrathecal injections of antioxidants are unsuitable for continuous use in therapy. Here we show a novel therapeutic method against neuropathic pain: drinking water containing molecular hydrogen (H2 as antioxidant. The effect of hydrogen on neuropathic pain was investigated using a partial sciatic nerve ligation model in mice. As indicators of neuropathic pain, temporal aspects of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were analysed for 3 weeks after ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were measured using the von Frey test and the plantar test, respectively. When mice were allowed to drink water containing hydrogen at a saturated level ad libitum after ligation, both allodynia and hyperalgesia were alleviated. These symptoms were also alleviated when hydrogen was administered only for the induction phase (from day 0 to 4 after ligation. When hydrogen was administered only for the maintenance phase (from day 4 to 21 after ligation, hyperalgesia but not allodynia was alleviated. Immunohistochemical staining for the oxidative stress marker, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, showed that hydrogen administration suppressed oxidative stress induced by ligation in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion. In conclusion, oral administration of hydrogen water may be useful for alleviating neuropathic pain in a clinical setting.

  8. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  9. Sleep in Kcna2 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messing Albee

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shaker codes for a Drosophila voltage-dependent potassium channel. Flies carrying Shaker null or hypomorphic mutations sleep 3–4 h/day instead of 8–14 h/day as their wild-type siblings do. Shaker-like channels are conserved across species but it is unknown whether they affect sleep in mammals. To address this issue, we studied sleep in Kcna2 knockout (KO mice. Kcna2 codes for Kv1.2, the alpha subunit of a Shaker-like voltage-dependent potassium channel with high expression in the mammalian thalamocortical system. Results Continuous (24 h electroencephalograph (EEG, electromyogram (EMG, and video recordings were used to measure sleep and waking in Kcna2 KO, heterozygous (HZ and wild-type (WT pups (P17 and HZ and WT adult mice (P67. Sleep stages were scored visually based on 4-s epochs. EEG power spectra (0–20 Hz were calculated on consecutive 4-s epochs. KO pups die by P28 due to generalized seizures. At P17 seizures are either absent or very rare in KO pups ( Conclusion Kv1.2, a mammalian homologue of Shaker, regulates neuronal excitability and affects NREM sleep.

  10. Dedicated low-field MRI in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choquet, P; Breton, E; Goetz, C; Constantinesco, A [Laboratoire de Biomecanique, IMFS, Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, CHU Hautepierre, 1 Avenue Moliere, 67098 Strasbourg (France); Marin, C [Service d' Anatomo-Pathologie, Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, CHU Hautepierre, 1 Avenue Moliere, 67098 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: Andre.CONSTANTINESCO@chru-strasbourg.fr

    2009-09-07

    The rationale of this work is to point out the relevance of in vivo MR images of mice obtained using a dedicated low-field system. For this purpose a small 0.1 T water-cooled electro-magnet and solenoidal radio frequency (RF) transmit-receive coils were used. All MR images were acquired in three-dimensional (3D) mode. An isolation cell was designed allowing easy placement of the RF coils and simple delivery of gaseous anesthesia as well as warming of the animal. Images with and without contrast agent were obtained in total acquisition times on the order of half an hour to four hours on normal mice as well as on animals bearing tumors. Typical in plane pixel dimensions range from 200 x 200 to 500 x 500 {mu}m{sup 2} with slice thicknesses ranging between 0.65 and 1.50 mm. This work shows that, besides light installation and low cost, dedicated low-field MR systems are suitable for small rodents imaging, opening this technique even to small research units.

  11. Surgical stress delays prostate involution in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sazzad Hassan

    Full Text Available Androgens control growth of prostate epithelial cells and androgen deprivation induces apoptosis, leading to prostate involution. We investigated the effects of surgical stress on prostate involution induced by androgen ablation and determined the underlying mechanisms. Androgen ablation in mice was induced by surgical castration and administration of the anti-androgenic drugs bicalutamide and MDV3100. Surgical stress was induced by sham castration under isoflurane anesthesia. Surgical stress delayed apoptosis and prostate involution induced by anti-androgenic drugs. These effects of stress were prevented by administering the selective beta2-adrenoreceptor antagonist ICI118,551 and were also blocked in BAD(3SA/WT mice expressing phosphorylation-deficient mutant BAD3SA. These results indicate that apoptosis and prostate involution in response to androgen ablation therapy could be delayed by surgical stress via the beta2-adrenoreceptor/BAD signaling pathway. Thus, surgery could interfere with androgen ablation therapy, whereas administration of beta2-adrenoreceptor antagonists may enhance its efficacy.

  12. Early Neurobehavioral Development of Mice Lacking Endogenous PACAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Jozsef; Sandor, Balazs; Tamas, Andrea; Kiss, Peter; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Nagy, Andras D; Fulop, Balazs D; Juhasz, Tamas; Manavalan, Sridharan; Reglodi, Dora

    2017-04-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide. In addition to its diverse physiological roles, PACAP has important functions in the embryonic development of various tissues, and it is also considered as a trophic factor during development and in the case of neuronal injuries. Data suggest that the development of the nervous system is severely affected by the lack of endogenous PACAP. Short-term neurofunctional outcome correlates with long-term functional deficits; however, the early neurobehavioral development of PACAP-deficient mice has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe the postnatal development of physical signs and neurological reflexes in mice partially or completely lacking PACAP. We examined developmental hallmarks during the first 3 weeks of the postnatal period, during which period most neurological reflexes and motor coordination show most intensive development, and we describe the neurobehavioral development using a complex battery of tests. In the present study, we found that PACAP-deficient mice had slower weight gain throughout the observation period. Interestingly, mice partially lacking PACAP weighed significantly less than homozygous mice. There was no difference between male and female mice during the first 3 weeks. Some other signs were also more severely affected in the heterozygous mice than in the homozygous mice, such as air righting, grasp, and gait initiation reflexes. Interestingly, incisor teeth erupted earlier in mice lacking PACAP. Motor coordination, shown by the number of foot-faults on an elevated grid, was also less developed in PACAP-deficient mice. In summary, our results show that mice lacking endogenous PACAP have slower weight gain during the first weeks of development and slower neurobehavioral development regarding a few developmental hallmarks.

  13. Perfluorocarbon emulsion therapy attenuates pneumococcal infection in sickle cell mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmi, Nawal; Andrew, Peter W; Pandya, Hitesh C

    2015-05-15

    Impaired immunity and tissue hypoxia-ischemia are strongly linked with Streptococcus pneumoniae pathogenesis in patients with sickle cell anemia. Perfluorocarbon emulsions (PFCEs) have high O2-dissolving capacity and can alleviate tissue hypoxia. Here, we evaluate the effects of intravenous PFCE therapy in transgenic sickle cell (HbSS) mice infected with S. pneumoniae. HbSS and C57BL/6 (control) mice intravenously infected with S. pneumoniae were treated intravenously with PFCE or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and then managed in either air/O2 (FiO2 proportion, 50%; hereafter referred to as the PFCE-O2 and PBS-O2 groups) or air only (hereafter, the PFCE-air and PBS-air groups) gas mixtures. Lungs were processed for leukocyte and bacterial counts and cytokine measurements. HbSS mice developed severe pneumococcal infection significantly faster than C57BL/6 mice (Kaplan-Maier analysis, P < .05). PFCE-O2-treated HbSS mice had significantly better survival at 72 hours than HBSS mice treated with PFCE-air, PBS-O2, or PBS-air (P < .05). PFCE-O2-treated HbSS mice also had significantly lower pulmonary leukocyte counts, lower interleukin 1β and interferon γ levels, and higher interleukin 10 levels than PFCE-air-treated HbSS mice. Clearance of S. pneumoniae from lungs of HbSS mice or C57BL/6 mice was not altered by PFCE treatment. Improved survival of PFCE-O₂-treated HbSS mice infected with S. pneumoniae is associated with altered pulmonary inflammation but not enhanced bacterial clearance.

  14. Dysfunctional muscle and liver glycogen metabolism in mdx dystrophic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Stapleton

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a severe, genetic muscle wasting disorder characterised by progressive muscle weakness. DMD is caused by mutations in the dystrophin (dmd gene resulting in very low levels or a complete absence of the dystrophin protein, a key structural element of muscle fibres which is responsible for the proper transmission of force. In the absence of dystrophin, muscle fibres become damaged easily during contraction resulting in their degeneration. DMD patients and mdx mice (an animal model of DMD exhibit altered metabolic disturbances that cannot be attributed to the loss of dystrophin directly. We tested the hypothesis that glycogen metabolism is defective in mdx dystrophic mice.Dystrophic mdx mice had increased skeletal muscle glycogen (79%, (P<0.01. Skeletal muscle glycogen synthesis is initiated by glycogenin, the expression of which was increased by 50% in mdx mice (P<0.0001. Glycogen synthase activity was 12% higher (P<0.05 but glycogen branching enzyme activity was 70% lower (P<0.01 in mdx compared with wild-type mice. The rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen breakdown, glycogen phosphorylase, had 62% lower activity (P<0.01 in mdx mice resulting from a 24% reduction in PKA activity (P<0.01. In mdx mice glycogen debranching enzyme expression was 50% higher (P<0.001 together with starch-binding domain protein 1 (219% higher; P<0.01. In addition, mdx mice were glucose intolerant (P<0.01 and had 30% less liver glycogen (P<0.05 compared with control mice. Subsequent analysis of the enzymes dysregulated in skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism in mdx mice identified reduced glycogenin protein expression (46% less; P<0.05 as a possible cause of this phenotype.We identified that mdx mice were glucose intolerant, and had increased skeletal muscle glycogen but reduced amounts of liver glycogen.

  15. Chronic inflammation induces telomere dysfunction and accelerates ageing in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurk, Diana; Wilson, Caroline; Passos, Joao F.; Oakley, Fiona; Correia-Melo, Clara; Greaves, Laura; Saretzki, Gabriele; Fox, Chris; Lawless, Conor; Anderson, Rhys; Hewitt, Graeme; Pender, Sylvia L. F.; Fullard, Nicola; Nelson, Glyn; Mann, Jelena; van de Sluis, Bart; Mann, Derek A.; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with normal and pathological ageing. Here we show that chronic, progressive low-grade inflammation induced by knockout of the nfkb1 subunit of the transcription factor NF-kappa B induces premature ageing in mice. We also show that these mice have reduced regenerati

  16. Altered food consumption in mice lacking lysophosphatidic acid receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusaulcy, R; Daviaud, D; Pradère, J P; Grès, S; Valet, Ph; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    2009-12-01

    The release of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by adipocytes has previously been proposed to play a role in obesity and associated pathologies such as insulin resistance and diabetes. In the present work, the sensitivity to diet-induced obesity was studied in mice lacking one of the LPA receptor subtype (LPA1R). Conversely to what was observed in wild type (WT) mice, LPA1R-KO-mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) showed no significant increase in body weight or fat mass when compared to low fat diet (LFD). In addition, in contrast to what was observed in WT mice, LPA1R-KO mice did not exhibit over-consumption of food associated with HFD. Surprisingly, when fed a LFD, LPA1R-KO mice exhibited significant higher plasma leptin concentration and higher level of adipocyte leptin mRNA than WT mice. In conclusion, LPA1R-KO mice were found to be resistant to diet-induced obesity consecutive to a resistance to fat-induced over-consumption of food that may result at least in part from alterations in leptin expression and production.

  17. Cardiovascular effects of uremia in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    LDL. As opposed to rats and CD-1 mice, apoE-/- mice did not have impaired cardiac structure and function (as assessed by echocardiography, histology, gene expression analysis) upon the induction of uremia. Since the uremic apoE -/- mouse is normotensive and did not develop myocardial calcifications...

  18. Complement deficiency promotes cutaneous wound healing in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafail, Stavros; Kourtzelis, Ioannis; Foukas, Periklis G; Markiewski, Maciej M; DeAngelis, Robert A; Guariento, Mara; Ricklin, Daniel; Grice, Elizabeth A; Lambris, John D

    2015-02-01

    Wound healing is a complex homeostatic response to injury that engages numerous cellular activities, processes, and cell-to-cell interactions. The complement system, an intricate network of proteins with important roles in immune surveillance and homeostasis, has been implicated in many physiological processes; however, its role in wound healing remains largely unexplored. In this study, we employ a murine model of excisional cutaneous wound healing and show that C3(-/-) mice exhibit accelerated early stages of wound healing. Reconstitution of C3(-/-) mice with serum from C3(+/+) mice or purified human C3 abrogated the accelerated wound-healing phenotype. Wound histology of C3(-/-) mice revealed a reduction in inflammatory infiltrate compared with C3(+/+) mice. C3 deficiency also resulted in increased accumulation of mast cells and advanced angiogenesis. We further show that mice deficient in the downstream complement effector C5 exhibit a similar wound-healing phenotype, which is recapitulated in C5aR1(-/-) mice, but not C3aR(-/-) or C5aR2(-/-) mice. Taken together, these data suggest that C5a signaling through C5aR may in part play a pivotal role in recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells to the wound environment, which in turn could delay the early stages of cutaneous wound healing. These findings also suggest a previously underappreciated role for complement in wound healing, and may have therapeutic implications for conditions of delayed wound healing.

  19. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  20. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  1. Selective reconstitution of T lymphocyte subsets in scid mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, J; Rudolphi, A; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1991-01-01

    The 'empty' splenic T-cell compartment of young scid mice was partially and selectively reconstituted by low numbers of adoptively transferred congenic (C.B-17, BALB/c) or semi-allogeneic (dm2), but not completely allogeneic (C57BL/6) CD4+ T cells from adult donor mice. Under the same experimenta...

  2. The pathogenesis of Chlamydia pneumoniae-type pneumonitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施毅; 印洁; 詹化文; 冯根宝; 张希龙; 苏欣; 宋勇; 夏锡荣; 周晓军; 申萍

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate mice as experimental animals for Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pneumoniae) infection and investigate the pathogenesis of C.pneumoniae derived pneumonitis.Methods Icr mice were inoculated with the C.pneumoniae strain, CWL-029, either intranasally or intravenously. After a single dose inoculation, mice were killed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th and 60th days. The pathological changes in lung tissue were analyzed.Results The Icr mice were shown to be susceptible to C.pneumoniae. Inoculation into mice with C.pneumoniae induced a prolonged course of lung infection, as demonstrated by persistence of lung pathology (up to 60 days). Via intranasal inoculation of mice, lung pathology was characterized by patchy interstitial pneumonitis with predominately neutrophil leukocyte infiltration early (within the first 7 days) and lymphocyte infiltration in the later stages (14 days later) of infection. After intravenous inoculation, a similarly developed interstitial pneumonitis was observed, but it was milder and patchier, especially in early stages. C.pneumoniae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) intermittently in the lung tissue. Inoculated mice developed serum IgG antibody responses.Conclusion The Icr mice were susceptible to C.pneumoniae, resulting in a pulmonary infection characterized by interstitial pneumonitis, occurring most strongly via intranasal inoculation.

  3. Neuroglobin-overexpression reduces traumatic brain lesion size in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Song

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that over-expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic brain injuries. In this study we tested the neuroprotective effects of Ngb over-expression against traumatic brain injury (TBI in mice. Results Both Ngb over-expression transgenic (Ngb-Tg and wild-type (WT control mice were subjected to TBI induced by a controlled cortical impact (CCI device. TBI significantly increased Ngb expression in the brains of both WT and Ngb-Tg mice, but Ngb-Tg mice had significantly higher Ngb protein levels at the pre-injury baseline and post-TBI. Production of oxidative tissue damage biomarker 3NT in the brain was significantly reduced in Ngb-Tg mice compared to WT controls at 6 hours after TBI. The traumatic brain lesion volume was significantly reduced in Ngb Tg mice compared to WT mice at 3 weeks after TBI; however, there were no significant differences in the recovery of sensorimotor and spatial memory functional deficits between Ngb-Tg and WT control mice for up to 3 weeks after TBI. Conclusion Ngb over-expression reduced traumatic lesion volume, which might partially be achieved by decreasing oxidative stress.

  4. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  5. Antistress, Adoptogenic Activity of Sida cordifolia Roots in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumanth, Meera; Mustafa, S S

    2009-05-01

    Ethanol extract of roots of Sida cordifolia was evaluated for antistress, adaptogenic activity using cold restraint stress and swim endurance in mice. Mice pretreated with extract of Sida cordifolia showed significant improvement in the swim duration and reduced the elevated WBC, blood glucose and plasma cortisone.

  6. Preferences for nest boxes as environmental enrichment for laboratory mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Weerd, HA; Van Loo, PLP; Van Zutphen, LFM; Koolhaas, JM; Baumans, [No Value

    1998-01-01

    In nature, mice live in burrows with nest chambers where they breed and may hide from predators. In the laboratory, a shelter or refuge is an easily applicable form of enrichment which may enhance the welfare of laboratory mice by giving them more control over their environment. Six nest boxes made

  7. Transmission of multiple system atrophy prions to transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Middleton, Lefkos; Dexter, David T; Gentleman, Steve M; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2013-11-26

    Prions are proteins that adopt alternative conformations, which become self-propagating. Increasing evidence argues that prions feature in the synucleinopathies that include Parkinson's disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Although TgM83(+/+) mice homozygous for a mutant A53T α-synuclein transgene begin developing CNS dysfunction spontaneously at ∼10 mo of age, uninoculated TgM83(+/-) mice (hemizygous for the transgene) remain healthy. To determine whether MSA brains contain α-synuclein prions, we inoculated the TgM83(+/-) mice with brain homogenates from two pathologically confirmed MSA cases. Inoculated TgM83(+/-) mice developed progressive signs of neurologic disease with an incubation period of ∼100 d, whereas the same mice inoculated with brain homogenates from spontaneously ill TgM83(+/+) mice developed neurologic dysfunction in ∼210 d. Brains of MSA-inoculated mice exhibited prominent astrocytic gliosis and microglial activation as well as widespread deposits of phosphorylated α-synuclein that were proteinase K sensitive, detergent insoluble, and formic acid extractable. Our results provide compelling evidence that α-synuclein aggregates formed in the brains of MSA patients are transmissible and, as such, are prions. The MSA prion represents a unique human pathogen that is lethal upon transmission to Tg mice and as such, is reminiscent of the prion causing kuru, which was transmitted to chimpanzees nearly 5 decades ago.

  8. Essential fatty acid deficiency in mice impairs lactose digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovac, S.; Los, E. L.; Stellaard, F.; Rings, E. H. H. M.; Verkade, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency in mice induces fat malabsorption. We previously reported indications that the underlying mechanism is located at the level of the intestinal mucosa. We have investigated the effects of EFA deficiency on small intestinal morphology and function. Mice were fed an

  9. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  10. REVIEW - Thermal Physiology of Laboratory Mice: Defining Thermoneutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In terms of total number of publications, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has emerged as the most popular test subject in biomedical research. Mice are used as models to study obesity, diabetes, eNS diseases and variety of other pathologies. Mice are classified as homeotherms...

  11. Toxicological characteristics of nanoparticulate anatase titanium dioxide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanmei; Liu, Jie; Ma, Linglan; Li, Na; Liu, Huiting; Wang, Jue; Zheng, Lei; Liu, Chao; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Yan, Jingying; Wang, Sisi; Wang, Han; Zhang, Xueguang; Hong, Fashui

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to examine liver injury, immune response, and other physiological effects in mice caused by intragastric administration of nanoparticulate anatase titanium dioxide (5nm), we assessed T lymphocytes, B lymphocyte and NK lymphocyte counts, hematological indices, biochemical parameters of liver functions, and histopathological changes in nanoparticulate titanium dioxide -treated mice. Indeed, mice treated with higher dose nanoparticulate titanium dioxide displayed a reduction in body weight, an increase in coefficients of the liver and histopathological changes in the liver. Specifically, in these nanoparticulate titanium dioxide -treated mice, interleukin-2 activity, white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, thrombocytes, reticulocytes, T lymphocytes (CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+)), NK lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, and the ratio of CD4 to CD8 of mice were decreased, whereas NO level, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, red (cell) distribution width, platelets, hematocrit, mean platelet volume of mice were increased. Furthermore, liver functions were also disrupted, as evidenced by the enhanced activities of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and cholinesterase, an increase of the total protein, and the reduction of ratio of albumin to globulin, the total bilirubin, triglycerides, and the total cholesterol levels. These results suggested that the liver function damage observed in mice treated with higher dose nanoparticulate titanium dioxide is likely associated with the damage of haemostasis blood system and immune response. However, low dose nanoparticulate anatase TiO(2) has little influences on haemostasis blood system and immune response in mice.

  12. Peromyscus leucopus mice: a potential animal model for haematological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Desierto, Marie J; Ueda, Yasutaka; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Chen, Jichun; Young, Neal S

    2014-10-01

    Peromyscus leucopus mice share physical similarities with laboratory mice Mus musculus (MM) but have higher agility and longer lifespan. We compared domesticated P. leucopus linville (PLL) and M. musculus C57BL/6 (MMB6) mice for cellular composition of peripheral blood (PB), bone marrow (BM) and spleen. PLL mice had significantly fewer platelets and significantly more monocytes in the blood, and notably fewer megakaryocytes in the BM. Spleens of PLL mice were significantly smaller, with 50% fewer cells and reduced 'red pulp'. There was no obvious haematological change in PLL mice between 2-8 and 16-26 months of age, except for a significant increase in blood monocytes. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content showed no change with age but differed significantly between different cell types. Treating two to eight month-old PLL mice with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in drinking water for three months did not affect cellular ROS content, but increased blood leucocytes especially the concentration of monocytes. The low platelets, low megakaryocytes, high monocytes and low splenic erythropoiesis in PLL mice resemble human measurements better than the values seen in MMB6.

  13. Vitamin D receptor signaling enhances locomotive ability in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Sadaoki; Suzuki, Miho; Tashiro, Yoshihito; Tanaka, Keisuke; Takeda, Satoshi; Aizawa, Ken; Hirata, Michinori; Yogo, Kenji; Endo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Bone fractures markedly reduce quality of life and life expectancy in elderly people. Although osteoporosis increases bone fragility, fractures frequently occur in patients with normal bone mineral density. Because most fractures occur on falling, preventing falls is another focus for reducing bone fractures. In this study, we investigated the role of vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling in locomotive ability. In the rotarod test, physical exercise enhanced locomotive ability of wild-type (WT) mice by 1.6-fold, whereas exercise did not enhance locomotive ability of VDR knockout (KO) mice. Compared with WT mice, VDR KO mice had smaller peripheral nerve axonal diameter and disordered AChR morphology on the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Eldecalcitol (ED-71, ELD), an analog of 1,25(OH)2 D3 , administered to rotarod-trained C57BL/6 mice enhanced locomotor performance compared with vehicle-treated nontrained mice. The area of AChR cluster on the extensor digitorum longus was greater in ELD-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. ELD and 1,25(OH)2 D3 enhanced expression of IGF-1, myelin basic protein, and VDR in rat primary Schwann cells. VDR signaling regulates neuromuscular maintenance and enhances locomotive ability after physical exercise. Further investigation is required, but Schwann cells and the neuromuscular junction are targets of vitamin D3 signaling in locomotive ability.

  14. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  15. Epidermal hyperplasia and appendage abnormalities in mice lacking CD109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mii, Shinji; Murakumo, Yoshiki; Asai, Naoya; Jijiwa, Mayumi; Hagiwara, Sumitaka; Kato, Takuya; Asai, Masato; Enomoto, Atsushi; Ushida, Kaori; Sobue, Sayaka; Ichihara, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2012-10-01

    CD109, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoprotein, is highly expressed in several types of human cancer tissues, in particular, squamous cell carcinomas. In normal human tissues, human CD109 expression is limited to certain cell types including myoepithelial cells of the mammary, lacrimal, salivary, and bronchial glands and basal cells of the prostate and bronchial epithelium. Although CD109 has been reported to negatively regulate transforming growth factor-β signaling in keratinocytes in vitro, its physiologic role in vivo remains largely unknown. To investigate the function of CD109 in vivo, we generated CD109-deficient (CD109(-/-)) mice. Although CD109(-/-) mice were born normally, transient impairment of hair growth was observed. At histologic analysis, kinked hair shafts, ectatic hair follicles with an accumulation of sebum, and persistent hyperplasia of the epidermis and sebaceous glands were observed in CD109(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed thickening of the basal and suprabasal layers in the epidermis of CD109(-/-) mice, which is where endogenous CD109 is expressed in wild-type mice. Although CD109 was reported to negatively regulate transforming growth factor-β signaling, no significant difference in levels of Smad2 phosphorylation was observed in the epidermis between wild-type and CD109(-/-) mice. Instead, Stat3 phosphorylation levels were significantly elevated in the epidermis of CD109(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. These results suggest that CD109 regulates differentiation of keratinocytes via a signaling pathway involving Stat3.

  16. Expression of interferon inducible protein-10 in pancreas of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Li; Su-Wen Zhu; Dong-Juan Liu; Guo-Liang Liu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of interferon inducible protein-10 (IP-10) in pancreas of mice and to discuss its possible role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.METHODS: Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were used as experiment group and BALB/c mice as non-diabetic prone model. Immunohistochemistry method was used to evaluate the expression of IP-10 in the pancreas of NOD mice and BALB/c mice. Immunoelectron microscope was used to show the location of IP-10 in pancreatic islet β cells.RESULTS: Pancreatic islets were positively stained in all the NOD mice. Insulitis could be found in mice at the age of 4 wk. The weakly positive results were found in control group with no insulitis. Immunoelectron microscopy further demonstrated that IP-10 was produced by pancreatic β cells and stored in cytoplasm of the cells.CONCLUSION: IP-10 can be largely produced in pancreatic islets of NOD mice at the age of 2 wk when there is no significant insulitis, and may play an important part in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes by attracting immune cells to infiltrate the pancreatic islets.

  17. Aberrant phenotypes of transgenic mice expressing dimeric human erythropoietin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Seong-Jo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dimeric human erythropoietin (dHuEPO peptides are reported to exhibit significantly higher biological activity than the monomeric form of recombinant EPO. The objective of this study was to produce transgenic (tg mice expressing dHuEPO and to investigate the characteristics of these mice. Methods A dHuEPO-expressing vector under the control of the goat beta-casein promoter, which produced a dimer of human EPO molecules linked by a 2-amino acid peptide linker (Asp-Ile, was constructed and injected into 1-cell fertilized embryos by microinjection. Mice were screened using genomic DNA samples obtained from tail biopsies. Blood samples were obtained by heart puncture using heparinized tubes, and hematologic parameters were assessed. Using the microarray analysis tool, we analyzed differences in gene expression in the spleens of tg and control mice. Results A high rate of spontaneous abortion or death of the offspring was observed in the recipients of dHuEPO embryos. We obtained 3 founder lines (#4, #11, and #47 of tg mice expressing the dHuEPO gene. However, only one founder line showed stable germline integration and transmission, subsequently establishing the only transgenic line (#11. We obtained 2 F1 mice and 3 F2 mice from line #11. The dHuEPO protein could not be obtained because of repeated spontaneous abortions in the tg mice. Tg mice exhibited symptoms such as short lifespan and abnormal blood composition. The red blood cell count, white blood cell count, and hematocrit levels in the tg mice were remarkably higher than those in the control mice. The spleens of the tg mice (F1 and F2 females were 11- and -21-fold larger than those of the control mice. Microarray analysis revealed 2,672 spleen-derived candidate genes; more genes were downregulated than upregulated (849/764. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR were used for validating the results of the microarray

  18. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang XF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Feng Zhang,1,2 Jung-Hyun Park,1 Yun-Jung Choi,1 Min-Hee Kang,1 Sangiliyandi Gurunathan,1 Jin-Hoi Kim11Department of Animal Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2College of Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of ChinaBackground: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice.Methods: The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc. At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions.Results: The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of

  19. Intestinal Bicarbonate Secretion in Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke LL

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Gene-targeted disruption of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR in mice results in an intestinal disease phenotype that is remarkably similar to bowel disease in cystic fibrosis patients. In the intestinal segment downstream from the stomach (i.e., the duodenum, CFTR plays an important role in bicarbonate secretion that protects the epithelium from acidic gastric effluent. In this report, we examine the role of CFTR in cAMP-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in the murine duodenum and the mechanisms of acid-base transport that are revealed in CFTR knockout (CF mice. Ion substitution, channel blocker and pH stat studies comparing duodena from wild-type and CF mice indicate that CFTR mediates a HCO(3(- conductance across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the presence of a favorable cell-to-lumen HCO(3(- gradient, the CFTR-mediated HCO(3(- current accounts for about 80% of stimulated HCO(3(- secretion. Exposure of the duodenal mucosa to acidic pH reveals another role of CFTR in facilitating HCO(3(- secretion via an electroneutral, 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-stilbene-2,2' disulfonic acid (DIDS sensitive Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchange process. In CF duodenum, other apical membrane acid-base transporters retain function, thereby affording limited control of transepithelial pH. Activity of a Cl(--dependent anion exchanger provides near-constant HCO(3(- secretion in CF intestine, but under basal conditions the magnitude of secretion is lessened by simultaneous activity of a Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE. During cAMP stimulation of CF duodenum, a small increase in net base secretion is measured but the change results from cAMP inhibition of NHE activity rather than increased HCO(3(- secretion. Interestingly, a small inward current that is sensitive to the anion channel blocker, 5-nitro-2(3-phenylpropyl amino-benzoate (NPPB, is also activated during cAMP stimulation of the CFTR-null intestine but the identity of the current is yet to be

  20. Technique for measuring carbon monoxide uptake in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depledge, M.H.; Collis, C.H.; Chir, B.; Barrett, A.

    1981-04-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring carbon monoxide (CO) uptake in mice. Each animal was placed in a syringe and allowed to rebreathe a mixture of CO and helium (He) for 60 s. CO uptake was detemined from a comparison of CO and He concentrations before and after rebreathing. Weight specific CO uptake increased with body weight in CBA mice weighing between 20 to 35 gr. In larger mice, size dependence was less marked, although a slight fall in CO uptake was observed in older animals. Anaesthesia reduced ventilatory rate and CO uptake to a variable extent. The method is reproducible, non-invasive and does not require anaesthesia; consequently, it can be used to study serial changes in lung function. It is sensitive enough to detect lung damage in CBA mice following 16 Gy total body irradiation. Values of diffusing capacity obtained for mice using this method are consistent with published values.

  1. Effects of Cow's Milk on Reproduction in ICR Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU-XIA MA; NAOYUKI EBINE; KAZUO AOKI; MASAHIRO KUSUNOKI; JUNICHI MISUMI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of Cow's milk on the reproduction in male mice. Methods Twenty-four male mice were divided randomly into two groups: milk group (M) and control group (C). Each mouse was given 10 mL milk per day from 4 to 16 weeks in the group M. At the age of 17 weeks, all the mice were sacrificed. Results Serum testosterone was decreased in the group M (P=0.037). No significant difference was found in weight of testes, seminal vesicle or adrenal gland of mice between the groups C and M. However, the weight of seminal vesicle decreased when expressed in g/100g body weight in the group M. Epididymal sperm concentration, motility, morphology, and sperm head number were not affected by milk. Conclusion Cow's milk has adverse effects on the reproductive system in ICR male mice. Further studies are needed to clarify the specific effects of milk on reproductive health.

  2. Reduction of choline acetyltransferase activities in APP770 transgenic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing the 770-amino acid isoform of human Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein exhibit extracellular b -amyloid deposits in brain regions including cerebral cortex and hippocampus, which are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease patients. Significant reduction in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activities has been observed in both cortical and hippocampal brain regions in the transgenic mice at the age of 10 months compared with the age-matched non-transgenic mice, but such changes have not been observed in any brain regions of the transgenic mice under the age of 5 months. These results suggest that deposition of b -amyloid can induce changes in the brain cholinergic system of the transgenic mice.

  3. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoki; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Furushima, Kenryo; Takamune, Kazufumi; Li, Zhenghua; Abe, Shin-Ichi; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi

    2016-06-02

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1(+/-) male mice. Healthy Prm1(+/-) offspring were then produced by transferring blastocysts obtained via in vitro fertilization using zona-free oocytes and sperm from Prm1(+/-) mice. This result suggests that sperm lacking Prm1 can generate offspring despite being abnormally shaped and having destabilised DNA, decondensed chromatin and a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. Nevertheless, these mice showed little derangement of expression profiles.

  4. Antigenic specificity of serum antibodies in mice fed soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Bruun, S.W.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    ingesting soy protein. Methods: Blood from mice fed a soy-containing diet was analyzed using ELISA and immunoblot for antibody reactivity towards various soy protein fractions and pure soy proteins/subunits. Mice bred on a soy-free diet were used as controls. Results: The detectable antigenic specificity...... of the serum antibodies of soy-consuming mice comprised glycinin and beta-conglycinin. Immunoblots with soy protein extract demonstrated antibody reactivity towards both the basic and the acidic chains of glycinin and the beta-conglycinin subunits with an individual response pattern among mice. Moreover......Background: Soybean protein is used in a number of food products but unfortunately is also a common cause of food allergy. Upon ingestion of soy protein, healthy mice like other animals and humans generate a soy-specific antibody response in the absence of signs of illness. Not much is known about...

  5. Peripheral surgical wounding and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.

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    Zhipeng Xu

    Full Text Available Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation, CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.

  6. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  7. Probiotics protect mice from ovariectomy-induced cortical bone loss.

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    Claes Ohlsson

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota (GM modulates the hosts metabolism and immune system. Probiotic bacteria are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host and can alter the composition of the GM. Germ-free mice have increased bone mass associated with reduced bone resorption indicating that the GM also regulates bone mass. Ovariectomy (ovx results in bone loss associated with altered immune status. The purpose of this study was to determine if probiotic treatment protects mice from ovx-induced bone loss. Mice were treated with either a single Lactobacillus (L strain, L. paracasei DSM13434 (L. para or a mixture of three strains, L. paracasei DSM13434, L. plantarum DSM 15312 and DSM 15313 (L. mix given in the drinking water during 6 weeks, starting two weeks before ovx. Both the L. para and the L. mix treatment protected mice from ovx-induced cortical bone loss and bone resorption. Cortical bone mineral content was higher in both L. para and L. mix treated ovx mice compared to vehicle (veh treated ovx mice. Serum levels of the resorption marker C-terminal telopeptides and the urinary fractional excretion of calcium were increased by ovx in the veh treated but not in the L. para or the L. mix treated mice. Probiotic treatment reduced the expression of the two inflammatory cytokines, TNFα and IL-1β, and increased the expression of OPG, a potent inhibitor of osteoclastogenesis, in cortical bone of ovx mice. In addition, ovx decreased the frequency of regulatory T cells in bone marrow of veh treated but not probiotic treated mice. In conclusion, treatment with L. para or the L. mix prevents ovx-induced cortical bone loss. Our findings indicate that these probiotic treatments alter the immune status in bone resulting in attenuated bone resorption in ovx mice.

  8. Voluntary exercise produces antidepressant and anxiolytic behavioral effects in mice.

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    Duman, Catharine H; Schlesinger, Lee; Russell, David S; Duman, Ronald S

    2008-03-14

    Reports of beneficial effects of exercise on psychological health in humans are increasingly supported by basic research studies. Exercise is hypothesized to regulate antidepressant-related mechanisms and we therefore characterized the effects of chronic exercise in mouse behavioral paradigms relevant to antidepressant actions. Mice given free access to running wheels showed antidepressant-like behavior in learned helplessness, forced-swim (FST) and tail suspension paradigms. These responses were similar to responses of antidepressant drug-treated animals. When tested under conditions where locomotor activity was not altered, exercising mice also showed reduced anxiety compared to sedentary control mice. In situ hybridization analysis showed that BDNF mRNA was increased in specific subfields of hippocampus after wheel running. We chose one paradigm, the FST, in which to investigate a functional role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the behavioral response to exercise. We tested mice heterozygous for a deletion of the BDNF gene in the FST after wheel-running. Exercising wild-type mice showed the expected antidepressant-like behavioral response in the FST but exercise was ineffective in improving FST performance in heterozygous BDNF knockout mice. A possible functional contribution of a BDNF signaling pathway to FST performance in exercising mice was investigated using the specific MEK inhibitor PD184161 to block the MAPK signaling pathway. Subchronic administration of PD184161 to exercising mice blocked the antidepressant-like behavioral response seen in vehicle-treated exercising mice in the FST. In summary, chronic wheel-running exercise in mice results in antidepressant-like behavioral changes that may involve a BDNF related mechanism similar to that hypothesized for antidepressant drug treatment.

  9. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S.

    2014-01-01

    of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions...... an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after...... inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters...

  10. Hepatoprotective effect of Chenopodium murale in mice

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    Mohammad Saleem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of drugs has its roots in medicinal plants that appeal researchers to identify new therapeutical entities from plants. The current study was conducted to determine its hepatoprotective activity. The results showed that aqueous methanolic extract of Chenopodium murale (200 and 500 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.001 decrease in paracetamol induced increased levels of liver enzymes (alanin transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These findings were further supported by histopathological investigations by microscope and detection of phytoconstituents having hepatoprotective potential e.g. qurecetin, kaempferol and gallic acid by HPLC. Conclusively aqueous methanolic extract of C. murale possess hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage in mice.

  11. Antinociceptive Effect of Promethazine in Mice

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    Amir Farshchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe present study was undertaken to investigate the nociception activity of promethazine, a tranquillizer devoid of hypnotic activity in mice.Materials and MethodsAntinociception was evaluated, using the acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick, hot plate and formalin pain tests.ResultsPromethazine (4 and 6 mg/kg and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg produced a significant inhibition of the second phase response in the formalin pain model (P0.05 and administration of naloxone (0.1 mg/kg couldn't block the antinociceptive effect of promethazine.ConclusionThe data obtained suggest that antinociceptive effects of the promethazine may be mediated via peripheral and not central mechanisms.

  12. Tumor angiogenesis in mice and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alani, Rhoda M; Silverthorn, Courtney F; Orosz, Kate

    2004-06-01

    Over the past decade much research has focused on understanding the molecular pathways that regulate the development of a tumor-associated vasculature. In 1999, Lyden and colleagues showed that mice deficient in one to three Id1 or Id3 alleles could not support the growth of tumor xenografts due to defects in tumor-associated angiogenesis. Three recently published manuscripts have now re-examined the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature using more clinically relevant tumor model systems. Remarkably, all three studies have found strikingly different results compared to the original xenograft data published in 1999. Below we review the current understanding of the role of Id genes in the development of a tumor-associated vasculature given the most recent data and suggest ways in which animal tumor model systems might be put to better use to provide more clinically relevant information.

  13. Anxiolytic effect of noscapine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahmi, Parvin; Rostami, Parvin; Rashidi, Armin; Khodarahmi, Iman

    2006-01-01

    The anxiety-related effects of noscapine were investigated using male Balb-c mice. Since noscapine-induced locomotion may alter the animals' activity level in the dark-light model, the anxiety-related effects of noscapine were studied at doses with no effect on locomotion (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.8, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/kg). The parameter measured in dark-light model was the time spent in lit compartment. Intraperitoneal administration of noscapine (0.1-0.5 mg/kg) did not produce a significant effect on the time spent in the light, whereas higher doses (0.8, 1, 1.5 and 2 mg/kg) increased it significantly, implying an anxiolytic effect.

  14. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

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    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  15. p53 suppresses tetraploid development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Takuro; Yamamoto, Masamichi; Morita, Sumiyo; Kimura, Mika; Nagao, Yasumitsu; Hatada, Izuho

    2015-03-10

    Mammalian tetraploid embryos die in early development because of defects in the epiblast. Experiments with diploid/tetraploid chimeric mice, obtained via the aggregation of embryonic stem cells, clarified that while tetraploid cells are excluded from epiblast derivatives, diploid embryos with tetraploid extraembryonic tissues can develop to term. Today, this method, known as tetraploid complementation, is usually used for rescuing extraembryonic defects or for obtaining completely embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived pups. However, it is still unknown why defects occur in the epiblast during mammalian development. Here, we demonstrated that downregulation of p53, a tumour suppressor protein, rescued tetraploid development in the mammalian epiblast. Tetraploidy in differentiating epiblast cells triggered p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, suggesting the activation of a tetraploidy checkpoint during early development. Finally, we found that p53 downregulation rescued tetraploid embryos later in gestation.

  16. Genetics of meiosis and recombination in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcun-Filas, Ewelina; Schimenti, John C

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis is one of the most critical developmental processes in sexually reproducing organisms. One round of DNA replication followed by two rounds of cell divisions results in generation of haploid gametes (sperm and eggs in mammals). Meiotic failure typically leads to infertility in mammals. In the process of meiotic recombination, maternal and paternal genomes are shuffled, creating new allelic combinations and thus genetic variety. However, in order to achieve this, meiotic cells must self-inflict DNA damage in the form of programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). Complex processes evolved to ensure proper DSB repair, and to do so in a way that favors interhomolog reciprocal recombination and crossovers. The hallmark of meiosis, a structurally conserved proteinaceous structure called the synaptonemal complex, is found only in meiotic cells. Conversely, meiotic homologous recombination is an adaptation of the mitotic DNA repair process but involving specialized proteins. In this chapter, we summarize current developments in mammalian meiosis enabled by genetically modified mice.

  17. An Application of Molecular Genotyping in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Underkoffler Lara A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite markers are simple sequence repeats within the mammalian genome that can be used for identifying disease loci, mapping genes of interest as well as studying segregation patterns related to meiotic nondisjunction. Different strains of mice have variable CA repeat lengths and PCR based methods can be used to identify them, thus allowing for specific genotypes to be assigned. Molecular genotyping offers such identification at any developmental stage, which allows for a broad range of anomalies to be studied. We studied chromosomal segregation in relation to nondisjunction in early-gestation mouse embryos using molecular genotyping. Information on the parental origin as well as the number of chromosomes a given progeny carried was obtained in our analysis.

  18. Behavioral characterization of system xc- mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullagh, Elizabeth A; Featherstone, David E

    2014-05-15

    The slc7a11 gene encodes xCT, an essential component of 'system xc-', a plasma membrane exchanger that imports cystine and exports glutamate. Slc7a11 is expressed primarily in the brain, but its role there is not clear. We performed behavioral tests on two different strains of homozygous slc7a11 mutant mice ('sut' and 'xCT'), as well as heteroallelic offspring of these two strains ('xCT/sut') and their associated genetic backgrounds. Homozygous sut mutant males showed reduced spontaneous alternation in spontaneous alternation tasks as well as reduced movement in an open field maze, but xCT and xCT/sut strains did not show significant changes in these tasks compared to appropriate controls. Neither xCT nor sut mutants showed differences from controls in rotarod tests. Female behavioral phenotypes were independent of estrus cycle stage. To ensure that homozygous xCT, sut, and xCT/sut strains all represent protein null alleles, we measured whole brain xCT protein levels using immunoblots. xCT, sut and xCT/sut strains showed no detectable xCT protein expression, confirming them as null alleles. Previously published microdialysis experiments showed reduced striatal glutamate in xCT mutants. Using the same methods, we measured reduced interstitial glutamate levels in the striatum but not cerebellum of sut mutants. However, we detected no glutamate change in the striatum or cerebellum of sut/xCT mice. We detected no changes in whole brain EAAT-1, -2, or -3 expression. We conclude that the behavioral and chemical differences exist between slc7a11 mutant strains, but we were unable to definitively attribute any of these differences to loss of system xc-.

  19. Chronic toxicity study of cyclohexanone in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M

    1986-10-01

    A 2-year chronic toxicity assay of cyclohexanone (CAS: 108-94-1) was conducted in F344 rats and (C57BL/6 X C3H)F1 mice by administering a solution of cyclohexanone in drinking water. Two concentrations were given to rats, 6,500 and 3,300 ppm (wt/vol). Male mice received 13,000 and 6,500 ppm, while female mice were given three concentrations, 25,000, 13,000, and 6,500 ppm. Each treatment group consisted of 50 or 52 male and 50 or 52 female rats or mice, except 47 male mice treated with the highest dose and 41 female mice treated with the highest dose, and there was a group of untreated controls of each species. Survival and weight gain were similar to those of controls at the lowest cyclohexanone dose in both sexes of both species, but weight gain was depressed at all of the higher doses. Survival was good (greater than 80% at 90 wk) in all groups except in female mice at the 2 highest doses; at 25,000 ppm of cyclohexanone, only 50% of mice lived beyond 1 year. Most of the neoplasms in the treated groups did not differ significantly in number from those in the controls. Male rats receiving 3,300 ppm cyclohexanone had a 13% incidence of adrenal cortex adenomas (7 animals) compared with an incidence of 2% in controls; the incidence of this neoplasm did not increase in the male rats receiving 6,500 ppm or in the female rats given either dose. The mice had a statistically significant increase in incidence of lymphomas-leukemias among the females given 6,500 ppm, but not among the groups given higher doses of cyclohexanone. Male mice given 6,500 ppm cyclohexanone showed an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas, 50% versus 32.5% in controls, but the incidence of these neoplasms was only 37% in the male mice given 13,000 ppm cyclohexanone. The incidence of lymphomas in male mice and of hepatocellular neoplasms in female mice given cyclohexanone did not differ from that in the controls. The evidence for carcinogenic activity of cyclohexanone is

  20. Increased sensitivity to kindling in mice lacking TSP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendus, D; Rankin-Gee, E K; Mustapha, M; Porter, B E

    2015-10-01

    The development of a hyperexcitable neuronal network is thought to be a critical event in epilepsy. Thrombospondins (TSPs) regulate synaptogenesis by binding the neuronal α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. TSPs regulate synapse formation during development and in the mature brain following injury. It is unclear if TSPs are involved in hyperexcitability that contributes to the development of epilepsy. Here we explore the development of epilepsy using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in mice lacking TSP1 and TSP2. Unexpectedly, we found increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling in mice lacking TSP1, while mice lacking TSP2 kindled similar to wild-type. We found that the increased seizure susceptibility in the TSP1 knockout (KO) mice was not due to a compensatory increase in TSP2 mRNA as TSP1/2 KO mice were sensitive to PTZ, similar to the TSP1 KO mice. Furthermore, there were similar levels of TGF-B signal activation during kindling in the TSP1 KO mice compared to wild-type. We observed decreased expression of voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit CACNA2D1 mRNA in TSP1, TSP2, and TSP1/2 KO mice. Decreased CACNA2D2 mRNA was only detected in mice that lacked TSP1 and α2δ-1/2 protein levels in the cortex were lower in the TSP 1/2 KO mice. CACNA2D2 knockout mice have spontaneous seizures and increased PTZ seizure susceptibility. Here we report similar findings, TSP1, and TSP1/2 KO mice have low levels of CACNA2D2 mRNA expression and α2δ-1/2 receptor level in the cortex, and are more susceptible to seizures. CACNA2D2 mutations in mice and humans can cause epilepsy. Our data suggest TSP1 in particular may control CACNA2D2 levels and could be a modifier of seizure susceptibility.

  1. Dynamics of testicular germ cell apoptosis in normal mice and transgenic mice overexpressing rat androgen-binding protein

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    Petrusz Peter

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number and type of testicular germ cells undergoing apoptosis in different age groups of mice (from 7 to 360 days of age was determined and compared in age-matched wild type (WT control and in a transgenic (TG mice homozygous to rat androgen binding protein (ABP using flow cytometry. Flow cytometric quantification revealed that the total number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis did not differ significantly in WT and TG mice up to Day 14. From Day 21 to Day 60, the number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis was consistently higher in TG than in WT mice. Starting from Day 90, the number of germ cells undergoing apoptosis in TG mice was lower than controls until Day 360. In 21–60 days old TG mice, spermatogonia, S-Phase cells, and primary spermatocytes are the cell types undergoing apoptosis at significantly greater numbers than those in WT mice. However, starting from day 60, the total number of spermatids undergoing apoptosis was significantly lower in TG mice than in age-matched WT controls. TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL in testicular sections from TG mice of 21 and 30 days of age confirmed the presence of increased numbers of apoptotic germ cells compared to their age matched controls. These data indicate that the continuous presence of greater than physiological concentrations of ABP in the mouse testis has a biphasic effect on the frequency of apoptosis in germ cells. The initial pre-pubertal increase in testicular germ cell apoptosis may result from direct or indirect actions of ABP and is likely to determine the subsequent life-death balance of germ cell populations in TG mice, whereas the subsequent reduction may result from maturation depletion. A wave of apoptosis during the pre-pubertal period is required for normal spermatogenesis to develop, and our data indicate that this apoptotic wave may be regulated by ABP and/or androgens.

  2. Assessment of dental fluorosis in Mmp20 +/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R; Tye, C E; Arun, A; MacDonald, D; Chatterjee, A; Abrazinski, T; Everett, E T; Whitford, G M; Bartlett, J D

    2011-06-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie dental fluorosis are poorly understood. The retention of enamel proteins hallmarking fluorotic enamel may result from impaired hydrolysis and/or removal of enamel proteins. Previous studies have suggested that partial inhibition of Mmp20 expression is involved in the etiology of dental fluorosis. Here we ask if mice expressing only one functional Mmp20 allele are more susceptible to fluorosis. We demonstrate that Mmp20 (+/-) mice express approximately half the amount of MMP20 as do wild-type mice. The Mmp20 heterozygous mice have normal-appearing enamel, with Vickers microhardness values similar to those of wild-type control enamel. Therefore, reduced MMP20 expression is not solely responsible for dental fluorosis. With 50-ppm-fluoride (F(-)) treatment ad libitum, the Mmp20 (+/-) mice had F(-) tissue levels similar to those of Mmp20 (+/+) mice. No significant difference in enamel hardness was observed between the F(-)-treated heterozygous and wild-type mice. Interestingly, we did find a small but significant difference in quantitative fluorescence between these two groups, which may be attributable to slightly higher protein content in the Mmp20 (+/-) mouse enamel. We conclude that MMP20 plays a nominal role in dental enamel fluorosis.

  3. IL-12 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Osteoclastogenesis in Mice

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    Masako Yoshimatsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is related to osteoclastogenesis in osteolytic diseases. Interleukin- (IL- 12 is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in host defense. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-12 on LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis. LPS was administered with or without IL-12 into the supracalvariae of mice, and alterations in the calvarial suture were evaluated histochemically. The number of osteoclasts in the calvarial suture and the mRNA level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, an osteoclast marker, were lower in mice administered LPS with IL-12 than in mice administered LPS alone. The serum level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP 5b, a bone resorption marker, was also lower in mice administered LPS with IL-12 than in mice administered LPS alone. These results revealed that IL-12 might inhibit LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL assays, apoptotic changes in cells were recognized in the calvarial suture in mice administered LPS with IL-12. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of both Fas and FasL were increased in mice administered LPS with IL-12. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis is inhibited by IL-12 and that this might arise through apoptotic changes in osteoclastogenesis-related cells induced by Fas/FasL interactions.

  4. Context-specific protection of TGFα null mice from osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Shirine E; Ulici, Veronica; Pest, Michael A; Hill, Tracy L; Welch, Ian D; Beier, Frank

    2016-07-26

    Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα) is a growth factor involved in osteoarthritis (OA). TGFα induces an OA-like phenotype in articular chondrocytes, by inhibiting matrix synthesis and promoting catabolic factor expression. To better understand TGFα's potential as a therapeutic target, we employed two in vivo OA models: (1) post-traumatic and (2) aging related OA. Ten-week old and six-month old male Tgfa null mice and their heterozygous (control) littermates underwent destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. Disease progression was assessed histologically using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) scoring system. As well, spontaneous disease progression was analyzed in eighteen-month-old Tgfa null and heterozygous mice. Ten-week old Tgfa null mice were protected from OA progression at both seven and fourteen weeks post-surgery. No protection was seen however in six-month old null mice after DMM surgery, and no differences were observed between genotypes in the aging model. Thus, young Tgfa null mice are protected from OA progression in the DMM model, while older mice are not. In addition, Tgfa null mice are equally susceptible to spontaneous OA development during aging. Thus, TGFα might be a valuable therapeutic target in some post-traumatic forms of OA, however its role in idiopathic disease is less clear.

  5. Effects of Hindlimb Unweighting on Arterial Contractile Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia; Ren, Xin-Ling; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if hindlimb unweighting in mice alters arterial contractile responses. Sixteen male C57B/6 mice and 16 male Chinese Kunming mice were divided into control and 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting groups, respectively. Using isolated arterial rings from different arteries of mouse, effects of 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting on arterial contractile responsiveness were examined in vitro. The results showed that, in arterial rings from both C57B/6 and Chinese Kunming mice, maximum isometric contractile tensions evoked by either KCl or phenylephrine were significantly lower in abdominal aortic, mesenteric arterial and femoral arterial rings from hindlimb unweighting, compared to control mice. However, the maximal contractile responses of common carotid rings to KCl and PE were not significantly different between control and hindlimb unweighting groups. The sensitivity (EC(sub 50)) of all arteries to KCl or PE showed no significant differences between control and hindlimb unweighting mice. These data indicated that 3 weeks hindlimb unweighting results in a reduced capacity of the arterial smooth muscle of the hindquarter to develop tension. In addition, the alterations in arterial contractile responses caused by hindlimb unweighting in mice are similar as those in rats. Our work suggested that hindlimb unweighting mouse model may be used as a model for the study of postflight cardiovascular deconditioning.

  6. Immunomodulatory and antioxidative activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yu; Feng, Cui-ping; Li, Xing; Chang, Ming-chang; Meng, Jun-long; Xu, Li-jing

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the immune activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) in vivo, 24 male and 24 female Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice in the four experimental groups were administered 0 (normal control), 50, 100, or 200mg/kg/d body weight CMP via gavage. After 30 days, the viscera index, leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, and biochemical parameters were measured. The effect of CMP on the expression of tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β in the spleens of experimental mice was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the administration of CMP improved the immune function in mice, significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, the spleen lymphocyte activity, the total quantity of white blood cells, and IgG function in mice serum. CMP exhibited significant antioxidative activity in mice, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in vivo. CMP upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β mRNA in high-dose groups compared to that observed for the control mice. We can thus conclude that CMP effectively improved the immune function through protection against oxidative stress. CMP thus shows potential for development as drugs and health supplements.

  7. First attempt to produce experimental Campylobacter concisus infection in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rune Aabenhus; Unne Stenram; Leif Percival Andersen; Henrik Permin; Asa Ljungh

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To infect mice with atypical Campylobacter concisus (C. concisus) for the first time.METHODS: Three separate experiments were conducted in order to screen the ability of five clinical C concisus isolates of intestinal origin and the ATCC 33237 type strain of oral origin to colonize and produce infection in immunocompetent BALB/cA mice.The majority of the BALB/cA mice were treated with cyclophosphamide prior to C. concisus inoculation to suppress immune functions. Inoculation of C. concisus was performed by the gastric route.RESULTS: C concisus was isolated from the liver, ileum and jejunum of cyclophosphamide-treated mice in the first experiment. No C concisus strains were isolated in the two subsequent experiments. Mice infected with C concisus showed a significant loss of body weight from day two through to day five of infection but this decreased at the end of the first week. Histopathological examination did not consistently find signs of inflammation in the gut, but occasionally microabscesses were found in the liver of infected animals.CONCLUSION: Transient colonization with C. concisua was observed in mice with loss of body weight. Future studies should concentrate on the first few days after inoculation and in other strains of mice.

  8. CCK Response Deficiency in Synphilin-1 Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wanli W; Smith, Megan; Yang, Dejun; Choi, Pique P; Moghadam, Alexander; Li, Tianxia; Moran, Timothy H

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a novel role for the cytoplasmic protein, synphilin-1(SP1), in the controls of food intake and body weight in both mice and Drosophila. Ubiquitous overexpression of human SP1 in brain neurons in transgenic mice results in hyperphagia expressed as an increase in meal size. However, the mechanisms underlying this action of SP1 remain to be determined. Here we investigate a potential role for altered gut feedback signaling in the effects of SP1 on food intake. We examined responses to peripheral administration of cholecytokinin (CCK), amylin, and the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, exendin-4. Intraperitoneal administration of CCK at doses ranging from 1-10 nmol/kg significantly reduced glucose intake in wild type (WT) mice, but failed to affect intake in SP1 transgenic mice. Moreover, there was a significant attenuation of CCK-induced c-Fos expression in the dorsal vagal complex in SP1 transgenic mice. In contrast, WT and SP1 transgenic mice were similarly responsive to both amylin and exendin-4 treatment. These studies demonstrate that SP1 results in a CCK response deficiency that may contribute to the increased meal size and overall hyperphagia in synphillin-1 transgenic mice.

  9. Age-related retinopathy in NRF2-deficient mice.

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    Zhenyang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cumulative oxidative damage is implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2 is a transcription factor that plays key roles in retinal antioxidant and detoxification responses. The purposes of this study were to determine whether NRF2-deficient mice would develop AMD-like retinal pathology with aging and to explore the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eyes of both wild type and Nrf2(-/- mice were examined in vivo by fundus photography and electroretinography (ERG. Structural changes of the outer retina in aged animals were examined by light and electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence labeling. Our results showed that Nrf2(-/- mice developed age-dependent degenerative pathology in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. Drusen-like deposits, accumulation of lipofuscin, spontaneous choroidal neovascularization (CNV and sub-RPE deposition of inflammatory proteins were present in Nrf2(-/- mice after 12 months. Accumulation of autophagy-related vacuoles and multivesicular bodies was identified by electron microscopy both within the RPE and in Bruch's membrane of aged Nrf2(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that disruption of Nfe2l2 gene increased the vulnerability of outer retina to age-related degeneration. NRF2-deficient mice developed ocular pathology similar to cardinal features of human AMD and deregulated autophagy is likely a mechanistic link between oxidative injury and inflammation. The Nrf2(-/- mice can provide a novel model for mechanistic and translational research on AMD.

  10. CCK Response Deficiency in Synphilin-1 Transgenic Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanli W Smith

    Full Text Available Previously, we have identified a novel role for the cytoplasmic protein, synphilin-1(SP1, in the controls of food intake and body weight in both mice and Drosophila. Ubiquitous overexpression of human SP1 in brain neurons in transgenic mice results in hyperphagia expressed as an increase in meal size. However, the mechanisms underlying this action of SP1 remain to be determined. Here we investigate a potential role for altered gut feedback signaling in the effects of SP1 on food intake. We examined responses to peripheral administration of cholecytokinin (CCK, amylin, and the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4. Intraperitoneal administration of CCK at doses ranging from 1-10 nmol/kg significantly reduced glucose intake in wild type (WT mice, but failed to affect intake in SP1 transgenic mice. Moreover, there was a significant attenuation of CCK-induced c-Fos expression in the dorsal vagal complex in SP1 transgenic mice. In contrast, WT and SP1 transgenic mice were similarly responsive to both amylin and exendin-4 treatment. These studies demonstrate that SP1 results in a CCK response deficiency that may contribute to the increased meal size and overall hyperphagia in synphillin-1 transgenic mice.

  11. Serotonin deficiency exacerbates acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyao; Song, Sidong; Pang, Qing; Zhang, Ruiyao; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Sushun; Meng, Fandi; Wu, Qifei; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-29

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure. Peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) is a cytoprotective neurotransmitter which is also involved in the hepatic physiological and pathological process. This study seeks to investigate the mechanisms involved in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, as well as the role of 5-HT in the liver's response to APAP toxicity. We induced APAP hepatotoxicity in mice either sufficient of serotonin (wild-type mice and TPH1-/- plus 5- Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)) or lacking peripheral serotonin (Tph1-/- and wild-type mice plus p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)). Mice with sufficient 5-HT exposed to acetaminophen have a significantly lower mortality rate and a better outcome compared with mice deficient of 5-HT. This difference is at least partially attributable to a decreased level of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Glutathione (GSH) depletion, peroxynitrite formation, hepatocyte apoptosis, elevated hepatocyte proliferation, activation of 5-HT2B receptor, less activated c-Jun NH₂-terminal kinase (JNK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in the mice sufficient of 5-HT versus mice deficient of 5-HT. We thus propose a physiological function of serotonin that serotonin could ameliorate APAP-induced liver injury mainly through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis ER stress and promoting liver regeneration.

  12. Thermal latency studies in opiate-treated mice

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    Noam Schildhaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The change in the reaction time of a tail or paw exposed to a thermal stimulus is a measure of nociceptive activity in laboratory animals. Tail-flick and plantar thermal sensitivity (Hargreaves tests are non-invasive, minimize stress, and can be used to screen animals for phenotype and drug activity. Objective: Hargreaves testing has been widely used in rats. We investigated its use to measure the activity of opiate analgesia in mice. Methods: Mice were used in thermal stimulus studies at 1-5 hours and 1-5 days to test acute and extended release preparations of buprenorphine. Results: Hargreaves testing had limited value at 1-5 hours because mice can have an obtunded response to opiate therapy. Tail-flick studies with restrained mice are not affected by the initial locomotor stimulation. Discussion: The present report describes a simple restraint system for mice. The utility of the system is demonstrated by examining the efficacy of acute and extended release buprenorphine injections in Balb/c and Swiss mice. Conclusion: Standardized tail-flick testing provides a sensitive robust method to monitor opiate activity in mice.

  13. Oxidative Stress-Dependent Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamez-Mendez, Ana María; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Ríos, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is involved in several cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial Endothelium vasodilator and vasoconstrictor agonists play a key role in regulation of vascular tone. In this study, we evaluated coronary vascular response in an 8 weeks diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice model. Coronary perfusion pressure in response to acetylcholine in isolated hearts from obese mice showed increased vasoconstriction and reduced vasodilation responses compared with control mice. Vascular nitric oxide assessed in situ with DAF-2 DA showed diminished levels in coronary arteries from obese mice in both basal and acetylcholine-stimulated conditions. Also, released prostacyclin was decreased in heart perfusates from obese mice, along with plasma tetrahydrobiopterin level and endothelium nitric oxide synthase dimer/monomer ratio. Obesity increased thromboxane A2 synthesis and oxidative stress evaluated by superoxide and peroxynitrite levels, compared with control mice. Obese mice treated with apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, reversed all parameters to normal levels. These results suggest that after 8 weeks on a high-fat diet, the increase in oxidative stress lead to imbalance in vasoactive substances and consequently to endothelial dysfunction in coronary arteries.

  14. High doses of recombinant erythropoietin stimulate platelet production in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, T.P.; Cottrell, M.B.; Clift, R.E.; Cullen, W.C.; Lin, F.K.

    1987-07-01

    Previously, recombinant erythropoietin (rEpo) was shown to increase the number and size of megakaryocytic colonies in vitro, and in vivo it elevates the number of megakaryocytes in mouse spleens. To test the hypothesis that rEpo would stimulate platelet production in mice, both normal mice and mice in rebound-thrombocytosis were injected with rEpo and the %35S incorporation into platelets was measured. A thrombocytopoiesis-stimulating factor (TSF or thrombopoietin) was used as a positive control. rEpo increased isotopic incorporation into platelets of both normal mice and mice in rebound-thrombocytosis, as did TSF, but required large doses (15 U rEpo/mouse). In other mice, hematocrits, platelet counts, platelet sizes, and 24-hr %35S incorporation into platelets were measured 2 days after injection of two equally divided doses of either rEpo or TSF. Significant increases in both platelet sizes and %35S incorporation into platelets were found after injections of 15 U rEpo/mouse or 2.3 U TSF/mouse. These data indicate that rEpo, at high doses, will stimulate platelet production in mice, and may suggest molecular similarities between rEpo and TSF and their ability to compete for common receptor sites on megakaryocytes and their progenitor cells.

  15. Resveratrol Protects the Brain of Obese Mice from Oxidative Damage

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    Shraddha D. Rege

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene is a polyphenolic phytoalexin that exerts cardioprotective, neuroprotective, and antioxidant effects. Recently it has been shown that obesity is associated with an increase in cerebral oxidative stress levels, which may enhance neurodegeneration. The present study evaluates the neuroprotective action of resveratrol in brain of obese (ob/ob mice. Resveratrol was administered orally at the dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight daily for three weeks to lean and obese mice. Resveratrol had no effect on body weight or blood glucose levels in obese mice. Lipid peroxides were significantly increased in brain of obese mice. The enzymatic antioxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and nonenzymatic antioxidants tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and glutathione were decreased in obese mice brain. Administration of resveratrol decreased lipid peroxide levels and upregulated the antioxidant activities in obese mice brain. Our findings indicate a neuroprotective effect of resveratrol by preventing oxidative damage in brain tissue of obese mice.

  16. Nicotinamide Riboside Opposes Type 2 Diabetes and Neuropathy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, Samuel A J; Weidemann, Benjamin J; Chadda, Ankita; Yorek, Matthew S; Holmes, Amey; Coppey, Lawrence J; Obrosov, Alexander; Kardon, Randy H; Yorek, Mark A; Brenner, Charles

    2016-05-27

    Male C57BL/6J mice raised on high fat diet (HFD) become prediabetic and develop insulin resistance and sensory neuropathy. The same mice given low doses of streptozotocin are a model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), developing hyperglycemia, severe insulin resistance and diabetic peripheral neuropathy involving sensory and motor neurons. Because of suggestions that increased NAD(+) metabolism might address glycemic control and be neuroprotective, we treated prediabetic and T2D mice with nicotinamide riboside (NR) added to HFD. NR improved glucose tolerance, reduced weight gain, liver damage and the development of hepatic steatosis in prediabetic mice while protecting against sensory neuropathy. In T2D mice, NR greatly reduced non-fasting and fasting blood glucose, weight gain and hepatic steatosis while protecting against diabetic neuropathy. The neuroprotective effect of NR could not be explained by glycemic control alone. Corneal confocal microscopy was the most sensitive measure of neurodegeneration. This assay allowed detection of the protective effect of NR on small nerve structures in living mice. Quantitative metabolomics established that hepatic NADP(+) and NADPH levels were significantly degraded in prediabetes and T2D but were largely protected when mice were supplemented with NR. The data justify testing of NR in human models of obesity, T2D and associated neuropathies.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in parkin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacino, James J; Sagi, Dijana; Goldberg, Matthew S; Krauss, Stefan; Motz, Claudia; Wacker, Maik; Klose, Joachim; Shen, Jie

    2004-04-30

    Loss-of-function mutations in parkin are the predominant cause of familial Parkinson's disease. We previously reported that parkin-/- mice exhibit nigrostriatal deficits in the absence of nigral degeneration. Parkin has been shown to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Loss of parkin function, therefore, has been hypothesized to cause nigral degeneration via an aberrant accumulation of its substrates. Here we employed a proteomic approach to determine whether loss of parkin function results in alterations in abundance and/or modification of proteins in the ventral midbrain of parkin-/- mice. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry revealed decreased abundance of a number of proteins involved in mitochondrial function or oxidative stress. Consistent with reductions in several subunits of complexes I and IV, functional assays showed reductions in respiratory capacity of striatal mitochondria isolated from parkin-/- mice. Electron microscopic analysis revealed no gross morphological abnormalities in striatal mitochondria of parkin-/- mice. In addition, parkin-/- mice showed a delayed rate of weight gain, suggesting broader metabolic abnormalities. Accompanying these deficits in mitochondrial function, parkin-/- mice also exhibited decreased levels of proteins involved in protection from oxidative stress. Consistent with these findings, parkin-/- mice showed decreased serum antioxidant capacity and increased protein and lipid peroxidation. The combination of proteomic, genetic, and physiological analyses reveal an essential role for parkin in the regulation of mitochondrial function and provide the first direct evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in the absence of nigral degeneration in a genetic mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

  18. Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkworth, J B; McMartin, D N; Rej, R; Narang, R S; Stein, V B; Briggs, R G; Kaminsky, L S

    1984-04-01

    The health hazard potential of soil collected from the surface of the Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, New York, was assessed in 90-day exposure studies. Female CD-1 mice were exposed to two concentrations of the volatile components of 1 kg of soil with and without direct soil contact. Control mice were identically housed but without soil. The soil was replaced weekly and 87 compounds were detected in the air in the cages above fresh and 7-day-old soil as analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of many of these compounds decreased during the 7-day exposure cycle. Histopathologic, hematologic, and serum enzyme studies followed necropsy of all mice. There was no mortality of mice exposed for up to 90 days under any condition. Thymus and spleen weights relative to body weight were increased after 4 weeks of exposure by inhalation but not after 8 or 12 weeks of exposure. alpha-, beta-, and delta- Benzenehexachlorides , pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in liver tissue from these animals. Mice exposed to 5- to 10-fold elevated concentration of volatiles had increased body and relative kidney weights. There was no chemically induced lesion in any animal exposed only to the volatile soil contaminants. Mice exposed by direct contact with the soil without elevated volatile exposure had increased body (10%) and relative liver weights (169%). Centrolobular hepatocyte hypertrophy, which involved 40 to 70% of the lobules, was observed in all mice in this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. AGEMAP: a gene expression database for aging in mice.

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    Jacob M Zahn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the AGEMAP (Atlas of Gene Expression in Mouse Aging Project gene expression database, which is a resource that catalogs changes in gene expression as a function of age in mice. The AGEMAP database includes expression changes for 8,932 genes in 16 tissues as a function of age. We found great heterogeneity in the amount of transcriptional changes with age in different tissues. Some tissues displayed large transcriptional differences in old mice, suggesting that these tissues may contribute strongly to organismal decline. Other tissues showed few or no changes in expression with age, indicating strong levels of homeostasis throughout life. Based on the pattern of age-related transcriptional changes, we found that tissues could be classified into one of three aging processes: (1 a pattern common to neural tissues, (2 a pattern for vascular tissues, and (3 a pattern for steroid-responsive tissues. We observed that different tissues age in a coordinated fashion in individual mice, such that certain mice exhibit rapid aging, whereas others exhibit slow aging for multiple tissues. Finally, we compared the transcriptional profiles for aging in mice to those from humans, flies, and worms. We found that genes involved in the electron transport chain show common age regulation in all four species, indicating that these genes may be exceptionally good markers of aging. However, we saw no overall correlation of age regulation between mice and humans, suggesting that aging processes in mice and humans may be fundamentally different.

  20. Scrapie strain-specific interactions with endogenous murine leukaemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, R I; Meeker, H C; Caruso, V; Sersen, E

    1999-01-01

    The finding that a senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) shows early brain ageing, with histopathological changes resembling those seen in scrapie, combined with the discovery of high levels of endogenous murine leukaemia virus (MuLV) in brains of SAMP8 mice prompted us to examine the effect of scrapie infection on MuLV titres in this strain and in one of its progenitors, the AKR strain. Three scrapie strains (ME7, 22L and 139A) that had a comparatively short incubation period in SAMP8 and AKR mice caused an increase in brain MuLV titres that was scrapie strain-specific: in each mouse strain, the greatest effect was with 1 39A, and the least with ME7. The 22A scrapie strain, which has a long incubation period in SAMP8 mice, did not affect MuLV titres in brains of this mouse strain. Previous analyses of scrapie incubation periods in AKR, SAMP8 and another strain derived from an AKR cross (SAMR1) showed an inverse relationship between brain MuLV titres and scrapie incubation periods. This finding, combined with the effect of scrapie on MuLV titres, suggests an interaction between the scrapie infectious process and MuLV replication.

  1. Metformin Reduces Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun Mi; Jang, An Hee; Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Kyu Hwa; Kim, Young Whan

    2016-09-01

    Metformin has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. We investigated whether metformin has an inhibitory effect on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model. A total of 62 mice were divided into 5 groups: control, metformin (100 mg/kg), BLM, and BLM with metformin (50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg). Metformin was administered to the mice orally once a day from day 1. We sacrificed half of the mice on day 10 and collected the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from their left lungs. The remaining mice were sacrificed and analyzed on day 21. The right lungs were harvested for histological analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers were determined via analysis of the harvested lungs on day 21. The mice treated with BLM and metformin (50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg) showed significantly lower levels of inflammatory cells in the BALF compared with the BLM-only mice on days 10 and 21. The histological examination revealed that the metformin treatment led to a greater reduction in inflammation than the treatment with BLM alone. The mRNA levels of collagen, collagen-1, procollagen, fibronectin, and transforming growth factor-β in the metformin-treated mice were lower than those in the BLM-only mice on day 21, although statistical significance was observed only in the case of procollagen due to the small number of live mice in the BLM-only group. Additionally, treatment with metformin reduced fibrosis to a greater extent than treatment with BLM alone. Metformin suppresses the inflammatory and fibrotic processes of BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model.

  2. Procedures for behavioral experiments in head-fixed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengcai V Guo

    Full Text Available The mouse is an increasingly prominent model for the analysis of mammalian neuronal circuits. Neural circuits ultimately have to be probed during behaviors that engage the circuits. Linking circuit dynamics to behavior requires precise control of sensory stimuli and measurement of body movements. Head-fixation has been used for behavioral research, particularly in non-human primates, to facilitate precise stimulus control, behavioral monitoring and neural recording. However, choice-based, perceptual decision tasks by head-fixed mice have only recently been introduced. Training mice relies on motivating mice using water restriction. Here we describe procedures for head-fixation, water restriction and behavioral training for head-fixed mice, with a focus on active, whisker-based tactile behaviors. In these experiments mice had restricted access to water (typically 1 ml/day. After ten days of water restriction, body weight stabilized at approximately 80% of initial weight. At that point mice were trained to discriminate sensory stimuli using operant conditioning. Head-fixed mice reported stimuli by licking in go/no-go tasks and also using a forced choice paradigm using a dual lickport. In some cases mice learned to discriminate sensory stimuli in a few trials within the first behavioral session. Delay epochs lasting a second or more were used to separate sensation (e.g. tactile exploration and action (i.e. licking. Mice performed a variety of perceptual decision tasks with high performance for hundreds of trials per behavioral session. Up to four months of continuous water restriction showed no adverse health effects. Behavioral performance correlated with the degree of water restriction, supporting the importance of controlling access to water. These behavioral paradigms can be combined with cellular resolution imaging, random access photostimulation, and whole cell recordings.

  3. Impaired bone formation in Pdia3 deficient mice.

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    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH2D3] is crucial for normal skeletal development and bone homeostasis. Protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3 mediates 1α,25(OH2D3 initiated-rapid membrane signaling in several cell types. To understand its role in regulating skeletal development, we generated Pdia3-deficient mice and examined the physiologic consequence of Pdia3-disruption in embryos and Pdia3+/- heterozygotes at different ages. No mice homozygous for the Pdia3-deletion were found at birth nor were there embryos after E12.5, indicating that targeted disruption of the Pdia3 gene resulted in early embryonic lethality. Pdia3-deficiency also resulted in skeletal manifestations as revealed by µCT analysis of the tibias. In comparison to wild type mice, Pdia3 heterozygous mice displayed expanded growth plates associated with decreased tether formation. Histomorphometry also showed that the hypertrophic zone in Pdia3+/- mice was more cellular than seen in wild type growth plates. Metaphyseal trabecular bone in Pdia3+/- mice exhibited an age-dependent phenotype with lower BV/TV and trabecular numbers, which was most pronounced at 15 weeks of age. Bone marrow cells from Pdia3+/- mice exhibited impaired osteoblastic differentiation, based on reduced expression of osteoblast markers and mineral deposition compared to cells from wild type animals. Collectively, our findings provide in vivo evidence that PDIA3 is essential for normal skeletal development. The fact that the Pdia3+/- heterozygous mice share a similar growth plate and bone phenotype to nVdr knockout mice, suggests that PDIA3-mediated rapid membrane signaling might be an alternative mechanism responsible for 1α,25(OH2D3's actions in regulating skeletal development.

  4. Alterations in the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex in conscious inbred polydipsic (STR/N) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C P; Cui, B R; Kannan, H; Qiu, D L

    2015-01-01

    STR/N is an inbred strain of mice which is known to exhibit extreme polydipsia and polyuria. We previously found central administration of angiotensin II enhanced cardiovascular responses in STR/N mice than normal mice, suggesting that STR/N mice might exhibit different cardiovascular responses. Therefore, in this study, we investigated daily mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate, and changes in the baroreceptor-heart rate reflex in conscious STR/N mice and control (ICR) mice. We found that variability in daily mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate was significantly larger in STR/N mice than in ICR mice (pSTR/N mice than in ICR mice. For baroreceptor reflex sensitivity, in the rapid response period, the slopes of PE and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were more negative in STR/N mice than in ICR mice. In the later period, the slopes of PE and SNP were negatively correlated between heart rate and blood pressure in ICR mice, but their slopes were positively correlated in STR/N mice. These results indicated that STR/N mice exhibited the different cardiovascular responses than ICR mice, suggesting that the dysfunction of baroreceptor reflex happened in conscious STR/N mice.

  5. Circadian aspects of hyperthermia in mice induced by Aconitum napellus

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador Sánchez de la Peña; Sothern, Robert B; Fernando Santillán López; Irene Mendoza Lujambio; José Waizel-Bucay; Carolina Olarte Sánchez; Claudia Pérez Monroy; Eduardo Tena Betancourt

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aconitum napellus (Acn) is used topically to relieve pain, itching and inflammation, and internally to reduce febrile states, among others. Any circadian time-related consequences of Acn administration are unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of two doses of Acn on body temperature (BT) of mice treated at six different times over 24 hours. Materials and Methods: BALB/c female mice were housed in six chambers (six mice each) with air temperature 24 ± 3°C,...

  6. Cerium-144-induced lung gumors in two strains of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    A major problem in the extrapolation of radiation cancer risk factors from one species or population to another is the choice of the risk model to use, either absolute or relative. The purpose of this study was to compare absolute and relative risk models in predicting the lung-tumor risks between a low lung-tumor incidence strain of mice and a high-incidence strain of mice. The conclusion from this study is that absolute risk is more accurate than relative risk for predicting lung tumor risk from high to low lung-tumor incidence strains of mice.

  7. Coping with parvovirus infections in mice: health surveillance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Lydia M; Bleich, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Parvoviruses of mice, minute virus of mice (MVM) and mouse parvovirus (MPV), are challenging pathogens to eradicate from laboratory animal facilities. Due to the impediment on rodent-based research, recent studies have focused on the assessment of re-derivation techniques and parvoviral potential to induce persistent infections. Summarizing recent data, this review gives an overview on studies associated with parvoviral impact on research, diagnostic methods, parvoviral persistence and re-derivation techniques, demonstrating the complex nature of parvovirus infection in mice and unfolding the challenge of controlling parvovirus infections in laboratory animal facilities.

  8. Metformin Reduces Bleomycin-induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sun Mi; Jang, An-Hee; Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Kyu Hwa; Kim, Young Whan

    2016-01-01

    Metformin has anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. We investigated whether metformin has an inhibitory effect on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model. A total of 62 mice were divided into 5 groups: control, metformin (100 mg/kg), BLM, and BLM with metformin (50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg). Metformin was administered to the mice orally once a day from day 1. We sacrificed half of the mice on day 10 and collected the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from their left lu...

  9. IMMUNORESPONSES OF HUMANIZED SCID MICE TO HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈力真; 王树蕙; 张云; 王世真

    1996-01-01

    HuPBL-SCID mice were used to explore how they would response to human ttmoor cells of 801/MLC.Living 801/MLC cells appeared to be fetal to the the mice due to the production of human TNF. The huP-BL-SCID rniee did not generate any noticeable amotmt of specific human immunoglobttlin either by single immunization with living 801/MLC cells or by repeated immunization with irradiated 801/MLC cells. Our preliminary experiments with huPBL-SCID mice showed that such chimeras would he a very useful models for tumor immunological researches.

  10. Viable offspring obtained from Prm1-deficient sperm in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Takeda; Kazuya Yoshinaga; Kenryo Furushima; Kazufumi Takamune; Zhenghua Li; Shin-ichi Abe; Shin-ichi Aizawa; Ken-ichi Yamamura

    2016-01-01

    Protamines are expressed in the spermatid nucleus and allow denser packaging of DNA compared with histones. Disruption of the coding sequence of one allele of either protamine 1 (Prm1) or Prm2 results in failure to produce offspring, although sperm with disrupted Prm1 or Prm2 alleles are produced. Here, we produced Prm1-deficient female chimeric mice carrying Prm1-deficient oocytes. These mice successfully produced Prm1 +/− male mice. Healthy Prm1 +/− offspring were then produced by transferr...

  11. Macrophages in protective immunity to Hymenolepis nana in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K; Muramatsu, K; Ito, A; Okamoto, K

    1992-12-01

    When mice were treated with carrageenan just before infection with eggs of Hymenolepis nana, they failed to exhibit sterile immunity to the egg challenge, with evidence of a decrease in the number of peripheral macrophages (Mø) and the rate of carbon clearance. Although there were high levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) released into the intestinal tracts of the parasitized mice at challenge infection, there was almost no release of IL-1 in those treated with carrageenan just before challenge. These results strongly suggest that Mø have an important role in protective immunity to H. nana in mice.

  12. Mapping Mammary Epithelial Cell Transformation in BRCA1 Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    1808 1858 2031 2025 18 mice FEMALE (1656) J-CrelFLOX+/+ X (2033) J-Cre/FLOX+/+/p-/- FEMALE (1656) J-Cre/FLOX+/+ X (2033) J-Cre/FLOX+/+/p-/- FEMALE (1656...J+ 1833 1689 1692 1493/1434 1851 1848 1849 1868 1870 1871 1869 1872 1656 1862 1655 1657 1665 1493/1434 18 mice FEMALE (1417/1244) J-Cre/FLOX+/- X... mice FEMALE (1655) J-Cre FLOX+/+ X (2063) J-Cre/FLOX+/+p+/- FEMALE (1809)J-Cre/FLOX+/+/p+/- X (1659) FLOX+/+ FEMALE (1809)J-Cre/FLOX+/+/p+/- X (1659

  13. Immune response after rabies oral immunization in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sloboda Pacheco da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to formulate an anti-rabies oral vaccine from the cell culture vaccine PV TECPAR to elicit the production of antibodies against the rabies in mice. A vaccine was developed using 10(7.5 DL50/0.03 ml viral antigens homogenised in lanovaseline to facilitate oral administration. Mice were vaccinated two times for seroconversion. Sera of the vaccinated mice showed a higher level of antibody production than the control group. These results could be used to direct the development of an anti-rabies oral vaccine.

  14. The design, construction and performance of the MICE target

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, C N; Howlett, L; Nicholson, R; Overton, E; Robinson, M; Smith, P J; Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Dobbs, A; Leaver, J; Long, K R; Shepherd, B; Adams, D; Capocci, E; McCarron, E; Tarrant, J

    2012-01-01

    The pion-production target that serves the MICE Muon Beam consists of a titanium cylinder that is dipped into the halo of the ISIS proton beam. The design and construction of the MICE target system are described along with the quality-assurance procedures, electromagnetic drive and control systems, the readout electronics, and the data-acquisition system. The performance of the target is presented together with the particle rates delivered to the MICE Muon Beam. Finally, the beam loss in ISIS generated by the operation of the target is evaluated as a function of the particle rate, and the operating parameters of the target are derived.

  15. Assessment psychophysiological of disability in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Amputation is considered as a defect and its outcome is person's disability and the incidences of psychological problems. This study examined psychophysiological of disability in male mice with amputed limb. This experimental study was conducted on 30 male mice were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 animals each: two intact control groups (NC, two groups  that their right hands (RH amputed from elbow joint and two other groups that their right feet (RF amputed from knee joint. Behavioral tests were performed in each group either after 30 or 60 days after amputation. To investigate the behavior paradigms, we used of forced swimming test for depression, elevated plus maze for anxiety, tail pinch test for stress, Morris water maze for spatial memory and object recognition test for learning. This study demonstrated that the immobility time in FST was RF group on day 30 significant increased compared to NC group on day 60. The open arms entries in EPM were significant decrease in RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 compared to NC group on day 60. The time in closed arms in EPM was RF group on day 60 significant increased compared to NC group on day 30. RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 significant increased in this parameter when compared to NC group on day 60. The time in open arms in EPM was significant different in NC group on day 30 as compared to NC group on day 60. RH and RF groups on days 30 and 60 significant decrease compared to NC group on day 60. To sum, limb amputation increased anxious behavior. The trend of working memory in ORT was deteriorated following limb amputation. The response to stress stimulus in TPT was increased post-amputation (P>0.05. The spatial memory in MWM also showed moderate deficit following amputation. Results from present study indicated that amputation can created some psychophysiological disorders. Major reason for which is probably animal's motor behavior defects, although further studies need to be done on

  16. Energy conservation with alternative `silent` (passive) cooling systems in office buildings and energetic evaluation of cold generation for `silent cooling`. German contribution to the IEA Programme ECBS Annex 28, low energy cooling. Final report; Energieeinsparung durch den Einsatz von alternativen Systemen der `stillen` (passiven) Kuehlung in Buerogebaeuden und energetische Bewertung der Kaelteerzeugung fuer die `stille Kuehlung`. Deutsche Beteiligung an dem IEA-Programm ECBS Annex 28, low energy cooling. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laabs, K.D.; Wolkenhauer, H. [STULZ GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Heinrich, G.; Franzke, U.; Seifert, C. [Institut fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Steimle, F.; Mengede, B. [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Thermodynamik und Klimatechnik

    1997-06-01

    In July 1993 a 3 years lasting research and development projekt, which deals with silent cooling systems (cold ceilings and cold beams), was started by the BMBF. During this projekt different tools, which allow the design of silent cooling systems, were developed in cooperation of the company STULZ GmbH Klimatechnik (coordination), the University of Essen and the ILK in Dresden. During this projekt different silent cooling systems were investigated in cooperation of the three organizations. These investigations were correlated with existing and available results form theoretical and practical investigations and publications. Main element of the investigated systems are cold surfaces and/or heat exchangers, which are installed in standard offices with different arrangements and forms. The heat transfer at the surfaces bases on free convection, which depends on the difference between the surfaces temperature and the air temperature inside the offices. By using water instead of air as heat distribution medium inside the building, it is possible to reduce the energy consumption in comparison to conventional air conditioning systems. Different variants of these systems were investigated under various operation parameters, so that a design tool could be developed by using the results form the investigations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter dem Thema: Einsatz von Systemen der `Stillen (passiven) Kuehlung` wurde im Juli 1993 ein Forschungsvorhaben mit einer Laufzeit von 3 Jahren vom BMBF gestartet. Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens werden unter Fuehrung der Fa. STULZ GmbH Klimatechnik und in Kooperation mit der UNI Essen und des ILK Dresden verschiedene TOOLS zur Auslegung von Deckenkuehlsystemen erarbeitet. Auf der Grundlage bekannter und vorliegender theoretischer wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse der gebaeudebezogenen Klimatechnik sowie Veroeffentlichungen bundesdeutscher Forschungseinrichtungen und Hochschulinstitute relevanter Arbeitsbereiche wurde gemeinsam mit technischen

  17. Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chise Tateno

    Full Text Available We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID. We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression-not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and

  18. Rhabdomyosarcomas in aging A/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B Sher

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcomas (RSCs are skeletal muscle neoplasms found in humans and domestic mammals. The A/J inbred strain developed a high frequency (between 70-80% of adult pleomorphic type (APT RSC at >20 months of age while BALB/cByJ also develop RSC but less frequently. These neoplasms invaded skeletal muscle surrounding either the axial or proximal appendicular skeleton and were characterized by pleomorphic cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, multiple nuclei, and cross striations. The diagnosis was confirmed by detection of alpha-sarcomeric actin and myogenin in the neoplastic cells using immunocytochemistry. The A/J strain, but not the related BALB/c substrains, is also characterised by a progressive muscular dystrophy homologous to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B. The association between the development of RSC in similar muscle groups to those most severely affected by the progressive muscular dystrophy suggested that these neoplasms developed from abnormal regeneration of the skeletal muscle exacerbated by the dysferlin mutation. Transcriptome analyses of RSCs revealed marked downregulation of genes in muscular development and function signaling networks. Non-synonymous coding SNPs were found in Myl1, Abra, Sgca, Ttn, and Kcnj12 suggesting these may be important in the pathogenesis of RSC. These studies suggest that A strains of mice can be useful models for dissecting the molecular genetic basis for development, progression, and ultimately for testing novel anticancer therapeutic agents dealing with rhabdomyosarcoma.

  19. Nitroglycerin tolerance in caveolin-1 deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Mao

    Full Text Available Nitrate tolerance developed after persistent nitroglycerin (GTN exposure limits its clinical utility. Previously, we have shown that the vasodilatory action of GTN is dependent on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3 activity. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1 is known to interact with NOS3 on the cytoplasmic side of cholesterol-enriched plasma membrane microdomains (caveolae and to inhibit NOS3 activity. Loss of Cav-1 expression results in NOS3 hyperactivation and uncoupling, converting NOS3 into a source of superoxide radicals, peroxynitrite, and oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that nitrate tolerance induced by persistent GTN treatment results from NOS3 dysfunction and vascular toxicity. Exposure to GTN for 48-72 h resulted in nitrosation and depletion (>50% of Cav-1, NOS3 uncoupling as measured by an increase in peroxynitrite production (>100%, and endothelial toxicity in cultured cells. In the Cav-1 deficient mice, NOS3 dysfunction was accompanied by GTN tolerance (>50% dilation inhibition at low GTN concentrations. In conclusion, GTN tolerance results from Cav-1 modification and depletion by GTN that causes persistent NOS3 activation and uncoupling, preventing it from participating in GTN-medicated vasodilation.

  20. Nitroglycerin tolerance in caveolin-1 deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Mao; Varadarajan, Sudhahar; Fukai, Tohru; Bakhshi, Farnaz R; Chernaya, Olga; Dudley, Samuel C; Minshall, Richard D; Bonini, Marcelo G

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate tolerance developed after persistent nitroglycerin (GTN) exposure limits its clinical utility. Previously, we have shown that the vasodilatory action of GTN is dependent on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS/NOS3) activity. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is known to interact with NOS3 on the cytoplasmic side of cholesterol-enriched plasma membrane microdomains (caveolae) and to inhibit NOS3 activity. Loss of Cav-1 expression results in NOS3 hyperactivation and uncoupling, converting NOS3 into a source of superoxide radicals, peroxynitrite, and oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that nitrate tolerance induced by persistent GTN treatment results from NOS3 dysfunction and vascular toxicity. Exposure to GTN for 48-72 h resulted in nitrosation and depletion (>50%) of Cav-1, NOS3 uncoupling as measured by an increase in peroxynitrite production (>100%), and endothelial toxicity in cultured cells. In the Cav-1 deficient mice, NOS3 dysfunction was accompanied by GTN tolerance (>50% dilation inhibition at low GTN concentrations). In conclusion, GTN tolerance results from Cav-1 modification and depletion by GTN that causes persistent NOS3 activation and uncoupling, preventing it from participating in GTN-medicated vasodilation.