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Sample records for akashiwo ccmp452 west

  1. Chloroplast genome sequencing analysis of Heterosigma akashiwo CCMP452 (West Atlantic and NIES293 (West Pacific strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lybrand Terry

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterokont algae form a monophyletic group within the stramenopile branch of the tree of life. These organisms display wide morphological diversity, ranging from minute unicells to massive, bladed forms. Surprisingly, chloroplast genome sequences are available only for diatoms, representing two (Coscinodiscophyceae and Bacillariophyceae of approximately 18 classes of algae that comprise this taxonomic cluster. A universal challenge to chloroplast genome sequencing studies is the retrieval of highly purified DNA in quantities sufficient for analytical processing. To circumvent this problem, we have developed a simplified method for sequencing chloroplast genomes, using fosmids selected from a total cellular DNA library. The technique has been used to sequence chloroplast DNA of two Heterosigma akashiwo strains. This raphidophyte has served as a model system for studies of stramenopile chloroplast biogenesis and evolution. Results H. akashiwo strain CCMP452 (West Atlantic chloroplast DNA is 160,149 bp in size with a 21,822-bp inverted repeat, whereas NIES293 (West Pacific chloroplast DNA is 159,370 bp in size and has an inverted repeat of 21,665 bp. The fosmid cloning technique reveals that both strains contain an isomeric chloroplast DNA population resulting from an inversion of their single copy domains. Both strains contain multiple small inverted and tandem repeats, non-randomly distributed within the genomes. Although both CCMP452 and NIES293 chloroplast DNAs contains 197 genes, multiple nucleotide polymorphisms are present in both coding and intergenic regions. Several protein-coding genes contain large, in-frame inserts relative to orthologous genes in other plastids. These inserts are maintained in mRNA products. Two genes of interest in H. akashiwo, not previously reported in any chloroplast genome, include tyrC, a tyrosine recombinase, which we hypothesize may be a result of a lateral gene transfer event, and an

  2. 有明海,八代海,及び鹿児島湾の海底泥中における有害赤潮ラフィド藻 Heterosigma akashiwo のシストの分布

    OpenAIRE

    今井, 一郎; 奥田, 亜友美; 板倉, 茂; 山口, 峰生

    2014-01-01

    The fish-killing flagellate Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) has a cyst stage in the life cycle. The cysts play an important role functioning as resistant cells to survive adverse environments. They also play a key role in initiating red tides in early summer in temperate coastal waters. Abundance and distribution of viable H. akashiwo cysts possessing germination ability in bottom sediments were investigated in Ariake Sea, Yatsushiro Sea, and Kagoshima Bay, west and south coast...

  3. The effect of UV-B radiation enhancement on the interspecific competition between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hui; TANG Xuexi; ZHANG Peiyu; CAI Hengjiang

    2005-01-01

    The responses of the interspecific competition between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo to UV-B radiation enhancement were studied by the co-culture method. The results showed that Heterosigma akashiwo exhibited inhibition on the growth of Skeletonema costatum, and with the increase of initial inoculation density of Heterosigma akashiwo, heavier inhibition on Skeletonema costatum appeared. Under different inoculation proportions, Heterosigma akashiwo could always be in predominance in competition with Skeletonema costatum. The UV-B radiation treatment could change the competition relationship between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, which could increase the competitive dominance of Skeletonema costatum and decrease the competitive dominance of Heterosigma akashiwo. When the inoculation proportions of Heterosigma akashiwo and Skeletonema costatum were H:S=1:4 and H:S=1:1, Skeletonema costatum was in predominance in this competition; however, Heterosigma akashiwo was in predominance when the inoculation proportion was H:S=4:1.

  4. Effect of CO2 enrichment on competition between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Da; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You; Ju, Qing; Yu, Qingyun; Tang, Xuexi

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the effect of CO2 enrichment and initial inoculum density on competition between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, two common algae seen in algal blooms. The initial inoculum density (0.2×104, 0.4×104, 0.8×104 cells/ml) had a significant effect on population growth and competition between H. akashiwo and S. costatum. The time required for population growth to reach the exponential growth phase and stationary phase decreased significantly as the initial density increased. When the two species were cultured together, S. costatum tended to outcompete H. akashiwo, especially when present at higher initial ratios. CO2 enrichment (5 000 μl/L CO2) increased the maximum population density and carrying capacity of H. akashiwo but decreased these measures for S. costatum. Thus, CO2 enrichment favored the growth of H. akashiwo over S. costatum.

  5. Development of real-time PCR method for rapid detection and quantification of Heterosigma akashiwo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan-ying; YU Zhi-gang; MI Tie-zhu

    2008-01-01

    To rapidly detect the harmful algae H. Akashiwo qualitatively and quantitatively, sequences of the 18S rDNA deduced from H. Akashiwo were used for designing species-specific primers, and a RFQ-PCR (Real-time Fluorescent Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) method was developed for quantitative detection of H.akashiwo. Primer H. Akashiwo and TaqMan probe were designed, and the specificity of primer was checked with PCR. A calibration curve was constructed with cycle threshold value against visual counted cell number. And the value of the curve was tested with other H. Akashiwo samples, which were assayed with both the RFQ-PCR method and visual count under microscope.

  6. Effect of anthracene on the interaction between Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis and Heterosigma akashiwo in laboratory cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rong; Wang, You; Wang, Renjun; Li, Wei; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-02-01

    Two species of marine phytoplankton, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis and Heterosigma akashiwo, were cultivated in bi-algal cultures to investigate the effect of anthracene (ANT) on the interaction between them. Without ANT, H. akashiwo out-competed P. helgolandica at low initial biomass ratios ( P. helgolandica ( P): H. akashiwo ( H) = 1:4 and 1:1), but not at the highest ( P: H = 4:1). This observation was consistent with the description in Lotka-Volterra two species competition model. It was found that P. helgolandica was excluded at low initial biomass ratios, while the unstable equilibrium between two species was predicted at the highest. For both species, carrying capacity and maximal specific growth rate decreased in bi-algal cultures compared to those in monocultures. H. akashiwo exhibited a higher sensitivity to ANT than P. helgolandica. This resulted markedly in a reduced cell density of H. akashiwo but an increased cell density of P. helgolandica. Carrying capacity of P. helgolandica was consistently higher in bi-algal cultures with ANT than those without ANT, suggesting that ANT, through the elimination of H. akashiwo, generated the dominance of P. helgolandica independently of initial biomass ratios. This study showed a density-dependent effect of harmful alga ( H. akashiwo) on dietary alga ( P. helgolandica), and indicated that ocean pollutant ANT could induce the succession of marine phytoplankton.

  7. Effect of Anthracene on the Interaction BetweenPlatymonas helgolandicavar. tsingtaoensis andHeterosigma akashiwo in Laboratory Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Rong; WANG You; WANG Renjun; LI Wei; TANG Xuexi

    2015-01-01

    Two species of marine phytoplankton,Platymonas helgolandicavar. tsingtaoensis andHeterosigma akashiwo, were cul-tivated in bi-algal cultures to investigate the effect of anthracene (ANT) on the interaction between them. Without ANT,H. akashiwo out-competedP. helgolandica at low initial biomass ratios (P. helgolandica (P): H. akashiwo (H)=1:4 and 1:1), but not at the highest (P:H=4:1). This observation was consistent with the description in Lotka-Volterra two species competition model. It was found that P. helgolandica was excluded at low initial biomass ratios, while the unstable equilibrium between two species was predicted at the highest. For both species, carrying capacity and maximal specific growth rate decreased in bi-algal cultures compared to those in monocultures.H. akashiwo exhibited a higher sensitivity to ANT thanP. helgolandica. This resulted markedly in a reduced cell den-sity ofH. akashiwo but an increased cell density ofP. helgolandica. Carrying capacity ofP. helgolandica was consistently higher in bi-algal cultures with ANT than those without ANT, suggesting that ANT, through the elimination ofH. akashiwo, generated the dominance ofP. helgolandica independently of initial biomass ratios. This study showed a density-dependent effect of harmful alga (H. akashiwo) on dietary alga (P. helgolandica), and indicated that ocean pollutant ANT could induce the succession of marine phytoplankton.

  8. Growth Characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo Virus and Its Possible Use as a Microbiological Agent for Red Tide Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasaki, Keizo; Tarutani, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Mineo

    1999-01-01

    The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 × 102 lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H9...

  9. Chloroplast His-to-Asp signal transduction: a potential mechanism for plastid gene regulation in Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Michael A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of homeostasis requires that an organism perceive selected physical and chemical signals within an informationally dense environment. Functionally, an organism uses a variety of signal transduction arrays to amplify and convert these perceived signals into appropriate gene transcriptional responses. These changes in gene expression serve to modify selective metabolic processes and thus optimize reproductive success. Here we analyze a chloroplast-encoded His-to-Asp signal transduction circuit in the stramenopile Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada Hada ex Y. Hara et Chihara [syn. H. carterae (Hulburt F.J.R. Taylor]. The presence, structure and putative function of this protein pair are discussed in the context of their evolutionary homologues. Results Bioinformatic analysis of the Heterosigma akashiwo chloroplast genome sequence revealed the presence of a single two-component His-to-Asp (designated Tsg1/Trg1 pair in this stramenopile (golden-brown alga. These data represent the first documentation of a His-to-Asp array in stramenopiles and counter previous reports suggesting that such regulatory proteins are lacking in this taxonomic cluster. Comparison of the 43 kDa H. akashiwo Tsg1 with bacterial sensor kinases showed that the algal protein exhibits a moderately maintained PAS motif in the sensor kinase domain as well as highly conserved H, N, G1 and F motifs within the histidine kinase ATP binding site. Molecular modelling of the 27 kDa H. akashiwo Trg1 regulator protein was consistent with a winged helix-turn-helix identity – a class of proteins that is known to impact gene expression at the level of transcription. The occurrence of Trg1 protein in actively growing H. akashiwo cells was verified by Western analysis. The presence of a PhoB-like RNA polymerase loop in Trg1 and its homologues in the red-algal lineage support the hypothesis that Trg1 and its homologues interact with a sigma 70 (σ70 subunit (encoded by

  10. Improvement of lipid production in the marine strains Alexandrium minutum and Heterosigma akashiwo by utilizing abiotic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Grünewald, C; Garcés, E; Alacid, E; Sampedro, N; Rossi, S; Camp, J

    2012-01-01

    Two different strains of microalgae, one raphidophyte and one dinoflagellate, were tested under different abiotic conditions with the goal of enhancing lipid production. Whereas aeration was crucial for biomass production, nitrogen deficiency and temperature were found to be the main abiotic parameters inducing the high-level cellular accumulation of neutral lipids. Net neutral lipid production and especially triacylglycerol (TAG) per cell were higher in microalgae (>200% in Alexandrium minutum, and 30% in Heterosigma akashiwo) under treatment conditions (25°C; 330 μM NaNO(3)) than under control conditions (20°C; 880 μM NaNO(3)). For both algal species, oil production (free fatty acids plus TAG fraction) was also higher under treatment conditions (57 mg L(-1) in A. minutum and 323 mg L(-1) in H. akashiwo). Despite the increased production and accumulation of lipids in microalgae, the different conditions did not significantly change the fatty acids profiles of the species analyzed. These profiles consisted of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in significant proportions. However, during the stationary phase, the concentrations per cell of some PUFAs, especially arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), were higher in treated than in control algae. These results suggest that the adjustment of abiotic parameters is a suitable and one of the cheapest alternatives to obtain sufficient quantities of microalgal biomass, with high oil content and minimal changes in the fatty acid profile of the strains under consideration. PMID:21766212

  11. Growth and physiological responses of a tropical toxic marine microgalga Heterosigma akashiwo (Heterokontophyta: Raphidophyceae) from Singapore waters to varying nitrogen sources and light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jerome Wai Kit; Yeo, Darren Chong Jinn; Leong, Sandric Chee Yew

    2015-09-01

    Strains of Heterosigma akashiwo have been identified in Singapore waters, but there have been few studies detailing the biology of such tropical strains. Management of such species is important for the integrity of aquaculture industries, as well as for food safety and public health. Coastal modifications may, however, be altering the productivity of such species. This study investigated the effects of two anthropogenic factors—nitrogen (N)-pollution and light-shading—upon a single strain of H. akashiwo which was isolated from Singapore waters. The study observed that H. akashiwo strains grew well under the pulsed supply of three N-sources—ammonium, nitrate, and urea. Growth rate values suggest its ability to out-grow diatom species, which typically dominate coastal environments. The light absorption capacity highlighted potential response dissimilarity under the different N-regime conditions. Light experiments also demonstrated the ability of H. akashiwo to tolerate decreased light conditions, which allow it to thrive at depth. The ability to accumulate intracellular stores of N-nutrients was also demonstrated and can be important for sustaining cell productivity. This study therefore indicated how poor management of coastal environments may enhance the bloom potential of such toxic bloomforming species.

  12. The link between shrimp farm runoff and blooms of toxic Heterosigma akashiwo in Red Sea coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria A. Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In May 2010 a copious bloom of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo was observed for the first time in Red Sea waters off the coasts of Saudi Arabia.This bloom was confined to an area where water and phytoplankton flow freely between the sea and a shrimp farm. The phytoplankton density and physico-chemical characteristics of the sea water were therefore investigated weekly at bloom and non-bloom sites in order to gain insightinto the environmental factors prevailing at the bloom site and their link with the shrimp farm runoff. The bloom site showed higher nutrient concentrations than the non-bloom site, indicating the possible role of the shrimp farm in flushing nutrients into this site. The bloom appeared on 27 May, coinciding with a decrease in salinity (19°C. The results of toxicological assays showed that both bloom samples and batch cultures of H. akashiwo were toxic toArtemia salina and exhibited haemolytic activity with respectto rabbit erythrocytes.Bloom samples showed a higher toxicity (LC50=8.9 ×10^4 cells ml-1 and haemolytic activity (EC50=3.64 × 104cells ml-1 than the batch cultures (LC50=11.6 × 104 cells ml-1, EC50=5.1 imes 104 cells ml-1. In the light ofthe results of this study, the link between H. akashiwoblooms and shrimp farm runoff should be considered during the monitoring of Red Sea coastal waters for the presence of harmful algal blooms.

  13. Behavioral and physiological changes during benthic-pelagic transition in the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo: potential for rapid bloom formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Tobin

    Full Text Available Many species of harmful algae transition between a motile, vegetative stage in the water column and a non-motile, resting stage in the sediments. Physiological and behavioral traits expressed during benthic-pelagic transition potentially regulate the timing, location and persistence of blooms. The roles of key physiological and behavioral traits involved in resting cell emergence and bloom formation were examined in two geographically distinct strains of the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Physiological measures of cell viability, division and population growth, and cell fatty acid content were made using flow cytometry and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry techniques as cells transitioned between the benthic resting stage and the vegetative pelagic stage. Video-based tracking was used to quantify cell-level swimming behaviors. Data show increased temperature and light triggered rapid emergence from the resting stage and initiated cell swimming. Algal strains varied in important physiological and behavioral traits, including survivorship during life-stage transitions, population growth rates and swimming velocities. Collectively, these traits function as "population growth strategies" that can influence bloom formation. Many resting cells regained the up-swimming capacity necessary to cross an environmentally relevant halocline and the ability to aggregate in near-surface waters within hours after vegetative growth supporting conditions were restored. Using a heuristic model, we illustrate how strain-specific population growth strategies can govern the timescales over which H. akashiwo blooms form. Our findings highlight the need for identification and quantification of strain-specific physiological and behavioral traits to improve mechanistic understanding of bloom formation and successful bloom prediction.

  14. Allelopathic effects of macroalga Corallina pilulifera on the red-tide forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Over the past few years, harmful algal blooms (HABs), such as red tides, have been frequently observed in coastal zones worldwide. The natural allelopathic interactions among macroalgae and red tide microalgae can alter the structure and succession of aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the influence of four environmental factors (temperature, salinity, light, and pH) on the allelopathic effects of the macroalgae Corallina pilulifera on red-tide forming Heterosigma akashiwo under laboratory conditions. Each of the factors had four levels: temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), salinity (10, 20, 30, and 40), light (20, 100, 200 and 400 μmol/(m2•s)), and pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, and 10. Two-factor experiments were designed for each two environmental factors, with six combination treatments (temperature-salinity, temperature-light, temperature-pH, salinity-light, salinity-pH, and light-pH). Results showed that the allelopathic effect was significantly influenced by temperature, salinity, light, and pH. As single factors, the low temperature (15°C), low salinity (10), high-intensity light (400 μmol/(m2•s)), and high pH (10) treatments substantially enhanced the allelopathic effect. The strongest allelopathic effect of C. pilulifera on H. akashiwo was observed under the following treatments: 15°C and salinity of 40, 25°C and pH 10, 25°C with medium- to high-intensity light at 200-400 μmol/(m 2 •s), 400 μmol/(m2•s) and salinity of 10, 400 μmol/(m2•s) and pH 10, and pH 10 with a salinity of 40.

  15. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance study of intracellular phosphate pools and polyphosphate metabolism in Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada (raphidophyceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of starvation and subsequent addition of phosphate-containing medium on the phosphate metabolic intermediates were studied by 31P-NMR spectroscopy of perchloric acid extracts and intact cells of Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada. When orthophosphate in the medium was completely depleted the medium was enriched with orthophosphate (4.5 μM). In the phosphate starved condition, the P cell quota was 76 fmol x cell-1 and the major components of phosphate intermediates were phosphodiester, sugar phosphate and orthophosphate (P/sub i/). After addition of P/sub i/, rapid uptake of P/sub i/ was observed and the P cell quota increased to 108 fmol x cell-1 in 2 h, 134 fmol x cell-1 in 5 h and 222 fmol x cell-1 in 1 day after addition of phosphate. The 31P-NMR spectrum indicated that a major portion of P was stored as polyphosphate, in which the average chain length of polyphosphate increased from 10 to 20 phosphate residues in one day after addition of P/sub i/

  16. Genome sequence and characterization of a virus (HaRNAV) related to picorna-like viruses that infects the marine toxic bloom-forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterosigma akashiwo (Rhaphidophyceae) is a unicellular, flagellated, bloom-forming, toxic alga of ecological and economic importance. Here, we report the results of sequencing and analyzing the genome of an 8.6-kb single-stranded RNA virus (HaRNAV-SOG263) that infects H. akashiwo. Our results show that HaRNAV is related to picorna-like viruses, but does not belong within any currently defined virus family. This is based on the genome organization and sequence comparisons of putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), helicase, and capsid protein sequences. The genome sequence predicts a single open reading frame (orf) encoding a polyprotein that contains conserved picorna-like protein domains, with putative nonstructural protein domains present in the N-terminus and the structural proteins in the C-terminus of the polyprotein. We have analyzed and compared the virus structural proteins from infectious and noninfectious particles. In this way, we identified structural protein cleavage sites as well as protein processing events that are presumably important for maturation of virus particles. The combination of genome structure and sequence relationships to other viruses suggests that HaRNAV is the first member of a proposed new virus family (Marnaviridae), related to picorna-like viruses

  17. Primary analysis on red tide of Akashiwo sanguinea in winter in Xiamen Sea%厦门海域一次冬季血红哈卡藻赤潮的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国斌

    2012-01-01

    According to the monitoring data of Akashiwo sanguinea red tide occurred in Xiamen Sea in January and February 2009,the characteristic of red tide,the relationships of environmental factors and the density of Akashiwo sanguinea were analyzed.The results showed that the red tide event was the earliest and the longest one in Xiamen Sea.Akashiwo sanguinea had more competitive advantages over Skeletonema costatum and had a strong adaptability to water temperature change during the red tide,and the reproduction could be simulated by higher salinity.Besides,Akashiwo sanguinea had more competitive advantages in inorganic phosphorus limited environment and was benefited by the high nitrogen.%本文根据2009年1—2月厦门海域一次冬季血红哈卡藻赤潮的调查数据,分析本次赤潮的变化特点,并对血红哈卡藻与环境因子的关系进行初步分析。结果表明:本次赤潮是厦门海域有记载的赤潮中,发生时间最早、持续时间最长的赤潮。赤潮中血红哈卡藻比中肋条藻更具竞争优势,对水温变化的适应性很强。盐度对血红哈卡藻的繁殖具有刺激作用。在无机磷限制环境中,血红哈卡藻更具竞争优势,而无机氮含量高有利于血红哈卡藻的生长。

  18. Effect of colloidal substances in red-tide seawater on the growth of Heterosigma akashiwo and Skeletonema costatum%赤潮水体中胶体物质对赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo)和中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum)生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫红; 崔鑫; 王江涛; 季乃云; 苗辉

    2009-01-01

    2004年2月9~10日在胶州湾发生的柔弱几内亚藻(Guinardia delicatula)赤潮期间分别在3个典型赤潮站位采集表层水样,利用过滤(0.7μm)和切向超滤(1000 Daltons)分离赤潮暴发水体中的胶体物质,分析了不同滤液及截留液的有机碳含量,并将赤潮异弯藻 (Heterosigma akashiwo)和中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum)在<1000 Daltons的超滤液及具有不同含量胶体物质(1000 Daltons~0.7μm)的截留液中进行培养.结果发现在发生柔弱几内亚藻赤潮期间水体中的溶解有机碳浓度会增加,特别是胶体有机碳浓度会成倍增长;在不同胶体含量海水中培养的赤潮异弯藻的最大生长率μmax和最大生物量Bf与对照组相比会随着胶体含量的增加而显著增大,而中肋骨条藻的最大生长率μmax和最大生物量Bf与对照组相比会随着胶体含量增加而显著降低,表明柔弱几内亚藻赤潮水体中的胶体物质对赤潮异弯藻的生长起促进作用,而对中肋骨条藻的生长起抑制作用.这说明柔弱几内亚藻在增殖过程中所产生的胶体物质具有他感作用,会影响其它微藻的生长,从而可能对柔弱几内亚藻赤潮的形成起重要作用.

  19. Oakland, West

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  20. 厦门同安湾海域血红哈卡藻赤潮前的自动监测研究%Automatic monitoring of Akashiwo sanguinea HAB Tong'an Bay,Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国斌

    2012-01-01

    使用2008 -2010年厦门同安湾海域血红哈卡藻赤潮前的水质在线自动监测系统数据,共计2160组,同时以人工监测数据为辅助,对该海域血红哈卡藻赤潮的诱因进行分析.研究结果表明:在同安湾海域生物、化学条件已具备的情况下,pH、溶解氧、叶绿素、营养盐并非赤潮诱因,清淤及盐度明显上升应是该海域血红哈卡藻赤潮的诱因.%According to the automatic monitoring2 160 data of Akashiwo sanguined HAB in Tong'an Bay,Xiamen from 2008 to 2010, analyse the inducement of red tide. The results of obvious clean out that pHNDO and Chl-a aren't the inducement of this red tide, sul-lage and evidence move up of salinity are the inducement of this red tide.

  1. The exploration of interactions approach between sea lettuce Ulva pertusa and Heterosigma akashiwo%孔石莼和赤潮异弯藻相互作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡恒江; 唐学玺

    2012-01-01

    选用大型海藻——孔石莼Ulva pertusa和赤潮微藻——赤潮异弯藻Heterosigma akashiwo为试验材料,在实验室条件下研究了藻体、培养液滤液和胞内物质对生长相互作用的影响.结果表明:孔石莼和赤潮异弯藻二者之间存在克生效应,孔石莼培养液滤液和胞内物质对赤潮异弯藻生长有显著的抑制作用(P<0.01),而赤潮异弯藻培养液滤液和胞内物质对孔石莼生长亦有显著的抑制作用(P<0.01).可以推测:孔石莼可能是通过分泌次生物质来抑制赤潮异弯藻的生长,而赤潮异弯藻可能是通过细胞的直接接触和分泌次生物质完成对孔石莼生长的抑制,其抑制物均存在于藻体和培养液中.%The interactive effects of sea lettuce Ulva pertusa, a red tide microalga Heterosigma akashiwo and their extracellular filtrate and intracellular products on the growth of the sea lettuce and microalga were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. An allelopathic effect between the sea lettuce and microalga was observed, and the extracellular filtrate and intracellular product of the sea lettuce led to inhibit the growth of the microalga. The extracellular filtrate and intracellular product of the microalga was found to show inhibition of the growth of sea lettuce simultaneously, indicating that the sea lettuce release extracellular products to inhibit the growth of the microalga, while direct cell-cell contact and releasing extracellular products were responsible for inhibitory effect of the microalga on sea lettuce. The sea lettuce and the microalga were both found to release intracellular products into the culture medium filtrates to affect the growth each other.

  2. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  3. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still th...... facing immediate endangerment, althoug the minority dialects (including East Greenlandic and Polar Eskimo) face increasing pressure from the standard Central West Greenlandic dialect....

  4. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  5. Census Snapshot: West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in West Virginia. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in West Virginia. In many ways, the almost 3,500 same-sex couples living in West Virginia are similar to married ...

  6. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  7. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  8. 不同pH对双胞旋沟藻和血红哈卡藻生长及光合特性的影响%The response of different pH on the growth and photosynthesis of Cochlodinium geminatum and Akashiwo sanguine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 董宏坡; 李霞; 吕颂辉

    2014-01-01

    双胞旋沟藻(Cochlodinium geminatum)和血红哈卡藻(Akashiwo sanguinea)是我国近海的两种赤潮藻种.研究了不同pH(8.30、7.80、6.80)值对上述两种甲藻的生长及光合作用特性的影响.研究结果表明:经过一段时间的培养,不同pH值下两种甲藻的细胞密度产生了差异,与对照组(8.30)相比,7.80组无显著性,6.80组则呈现显著性下降(p<0.05).在两种甲藻的三组实验培养结束时,经单因素方差分析结果表明,7.80组藻细胞的叶绿素a含量、最大光合效率(Fv/Fm)、最大相对电子传递速率(rETR)与对照组差异不明显,6.80组与对照组均表现出显著性降低(p<0.05),说明弱酸pH值条件对两种甲藻的光合特性具有抑制作用.

  9. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  10. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  11. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  12. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lul Raka; Monica Guardo

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  13. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  14. West Bank and Gaza : Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza is focusing on strengthening its education system: provision of schooling is relatively equitable and increased decentralization is planned. West Bank & Gaza (WB&G) spent 1.3 percent on public education as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This year, the Palestinian Authority (PA) published a report entitled Homestretch to Freedom, which outlines the obj...

  15. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  16. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  17. West-Side Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  18. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  19. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  20. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  1. GeoPowering the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  2. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005).

  3. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    , this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade......To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... by looking at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly...

  4. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  5. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic an...

  6. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  7. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  8. Status of the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power exhaust has been identified as a challenge for ITER and a potential showstopper on the roadmap towards fusion energy. Reliable power exhaust requires a thorough integration of physics and technology. The WEST project main objective is the minimization of risks for ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC) construction and operation. The WEST project also fills the gap on long pulse tokamak operation in the European fusion program. It offers a readily available integrated tokamak environment for ITER but also at a later stage for DEMO divertor testing. The assessment of ITER PFC performance and lifetime as well as innovative PFC under relevant power fluxes and particle fluence is the central thrust of the WEST program. Other issues including operation at high radiated fraction in compact divertor geometry, demonstration of detachment control over long pulse, exhaust physics at large aspect ratio and operation in double null are key topics which will be also tackled in the perspective of the fusion reactor. The WEST project consists in the transformation of the French Tore Supra facility into a diverted tokamak with ITER-like divertor PFC. The limited Tore Supra circular cross section plasma is turned into D-shape diverted plasma by the addition of two poloidal field coils inside the upper and lower region of the vacuum vessel. The carbon environment is changed into a tungsten environment with a set of new actively cooled plasma facing components. 9 MW of ICRH and 7 MW of LHCD will provide relevant heat and particle load conditions on the divertor PFC over duration up to 1000s. A new infrared thermography system, together with embedded temperature sensors and calorimetry of the cooling circuits will ensure PFC protection and accurate power balance. A new visible spectroscopy system will monitor all potential tungsten sources. The WEST assembly phase has started in October 2014. The manufacturing of the divertor coils casing, conductors and supporting

  9. West Nile Virus Cases, 2006-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains positive cases of West Nile virus found in humans by county of residence, 2006-present. Humans usually become infected with West Nile virus by...

  10. Dynamics of bacterial community during the bloom caused by Skeletonema costatum and Akashiwo sanguinea in Xiamen sea area%厦门海域2011年中肋骨条藻和血红哈卡藻赤潮期间细菌群落结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祎; 杨彩云; 李东; 田蕴; 郑天凌

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究2011年8月厦门海域爆发的由中肋骨条藻和血红哈卡藻共同引发的赤潮生消过程中细菌群落结构变化.[方法]应用变性梯度凝胶电泳技术(Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,DGGE)对两个赤潮站位和一个非赤潮站位的细菌群落结构进行研究.通过DGGE图谱分析确定赤潮生消过程中细菌群落中的关键菌群,借助Canoco软件分析细菌菌群与环境因子的相关性.[结果]在赤潮起始阶段细菌的群落结构与pH、N/P的相关性较大,在赤潮消亡阶段细菌的群落结构与盐度、温度呈明显的正相关.γ变形杆菌(Gammaproteobacteria) (47.7%)在赤潮期间处于主导位置,假交替单胞菌属(Pseudoalteromonas)、假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、交替单胞菌属(Alteromonas)、噬氢菌属(Hydrogenophaga)、Actibacter、Oleibacter等属均为优势菌群.香农-威列多样性指数表明,赤潮站位细菌多样性随着赤潮生消呈先升高后降低趋势,而非赤潮站位细菌多样性基本保持不变.通过Canoco对细菌菌群的主成分分析发现,在赤潮开始阶段Hydrogenophaga属为优势菌群,而在赤潮消退阶段则以Pseudomonas和Pseudoalteromonas属为主.赤潮站位藻际细菌和游离细菌群落多样性在藻密度较大时均达到最大值,然而两者与环境因子的相关性有较大差别.[结论]研究结果表明赤潮站位细菌群落多样性远高于非赤潮站位,细菌丰度随着赤潮藻密度的升高而增加,细菌与赤潮藻有着密切的关系.本文首次研究了多种优势藻引发的赤潮环境下细菌群落结构的变化,这对于多种藻引发的赤潮生消过程中细菌菌群结构有了深入的了解,为赤潮调控的研究提供了理论依据.%[Objective ] To investigate the dynamics of bacterial community in Xiamen sea during the bloom mainly caused by Skeletonema costatum and Akashiwo sanguine in August 2011. [Methods] Bacterial community structures of samples from

  11. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  12. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  13. Conjoined twins in West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Mabogunje, O A; Lawrie, J H

    1980-01-01

    12 cases of conjoined twins from West Africa were reported between 1936 and 1978. Eight sets were liveborn and were surgically separated either in local hospitals or abroad. Four were stillborn. Two new cases of stillborn conjoined twins were recently delivered at this hospital. The most common type and the ones most likely to be born alive were the omphalopagi. Surgical separation was successful in 5 cases but the twins separated at Zaria died about a month later. Emergency operations were p...

  14. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  15. Comments on Ode to the West Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 张冬妮

    2013-01-01

      Ode to the West Wind, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley, is considered as a masterpiece in the English literature, even in the whole culture. There is no denying that Ode to the West Wind is not simply to sing of the west wind, while there are many thoughts that Shel ey wants to express. This paper has comments on it from three aspects — the revolution, the new ideas and the writer himself.

  16. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights...... from Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa.
...

  17. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  18. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The event... areas: A race area, where all persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels participating in...

  19. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed approval of the revised regulation, 45 CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards, submitted by West Virginia...

  20. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  1. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It e

  2. West Nile virus: a growing concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, L. Hannah; Fikrig, Erol

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has subsequently spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean. This review describes the epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus in North America and the prospects for effective treatments and vaccines.

  3. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  4. The West and Contemporary Peace Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Alex J. Bellamy; Williams, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, senior UN officials have raised concerns about the decline of Western contributions to UN peace operations. Although this is a worrying trend for supporters of the UN, it does not mean that the West is playing a smaller role in peace operations per se. Instead, the West has increased its contribution to `hybrid' peace operations and missions that take place outside of the UN system. This article examines the West's contribution to both UN and non-UN peace operations since the...

  5. ISLAM, POLITICS AND IDENTITY IN WEST SUMATRA

    OpenAIRE

    Delmus Puneri Salim

    2013-01-01

    Since Indonesia has undergone a decentralisation phase, its regions have searched for their local identities. In West Sumatra, for instance, Islam is dominant. Con­se­quently, there has been a constant attempt to infuse Islamic values into social, political and economic aspects. The paper seeks to contextualise the key phases in the history of West Sumatra in the broader history of the archipelago and the Malay world, and to show how key events in West Sumatra and at the national level set th...

  6. Mangrove swamp rice production in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Agyen-Sampong, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove swamp rice cultivation, located in coastal areas where the population is relatively dense, is one of the oldest forms of rice culture in West Africa. Of approximately 1.2 million hectares of mangrove swamp in West Africa about 200 000 ha is cleared for mangrove swamp rice production in Guinea Bissau, the Gambia, Guinea, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The mangrove swamp rice areas in West Africa cover a wide range of climatic conditions from dry tropical climate (savanna) with 800 mm or le...

  7. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  8. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  9. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  10. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  11. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  12. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  13. Kilconnell Franciscan Friary, west exterior wall, door

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    West door jamb, arch and hood moulding. Moulding from intrados comprises: quadrant, hollow chamfer, right-angled rebate, quadrant, hollow chamfer. The hood, from extrados to intrados comprises: frontal fillet, hollow chamfer, quadrant.

  14. Muckross Franciscan Friary, exterior west wall, door

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    The west door in two orders. Moulding, from intrados, comprises: hollow chamfer, ogee, right-angled rebate, ogee, hollow chamfer. The hood, from exterior to interior, comprises: frontal fillet, hollow chamfer, quadrant, hollow chamfer.

  15. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  16. Development of West African Rainy Seasons (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of West African rainy seasons in the observed climatology can be understood in terms of two factors: continentality, i.e., the shape and placement of the African continent, and solar forcing. First, the observed features of the West African spring and summer precipitation climatology that distinguish it from the precipitation climatology of the tropical Atlantic to the east and Central/Eastern Africa to the west are presented. These include a lingering of the precipitation maximum along the Guinean coast in June and the apparent sudden movement of the precipitation maximum into the Sahel in early July. Then, these distinguishing features of the West Africa precipitation climatology are explained in terms of the regional dynamics and, finally, related to continentality and solar forcing through the roles of the African easterly jet, land surface temperature, and seasonally-varying SSTs.

  17. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Regina T. Riphahn; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  18. Equality of opportunity: East vs. West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Peichl, Andreas; Ungerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The case of German reunification has been subject to extensive research on earnings inequality and labor market integration. however, little is known about the development of equality of opportunity (EOp) in East and West Germany after 1990.Using German micro data, we empirically analyze how circumstances beyond the sphere of individual control explain inequality in East and West Germany. Our results suggest that equal opportunities in Germany have grown since reunification. Interestingly, EO...

  19. Nonviolent Activism in the West Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Buchhave, Eva Juliane; Schou Drivsholm, Louise; Finnemann, Mette; Thøgersen, Silja

    2013-01-01

    The West Bank has been under occupation since 1967. From the perspective of Giorgio Agamben (1998; 2005) the Palestinians have been assigned to elements of the state of exception and bare life, caused by political, legal, physical and economic constraints. According to Nancy Fraser’s (2008) theory these constraints result in misrepresentation, maldistribution and misrecognition within the West Bank society. The constraints limit nonviolent activism at multiple levels, including movement restr...

  20. Music and Dress in West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Skjold, Else

    2009-01-01

    Music and dress have played a significant role in the civilization process in West Europe. Both being aesthetic fields meant to be performed and put into play by human gesture, they have proved to be efficient tools for cultivating the movements, postures and gestures of the body. The material, cut and shape of the dress has manipulated the body to move in certain ways, as have rhythms and expressions in music. Significant for West Europe has been a duality between spirit and b...

  1. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  2. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  3. Emigration dynamics in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1995-01-01

    This report on the emigration dynamics at work in Western Africa opens by noting that this region comprises an important migration system with large legal and illegal movements of people within the region and to industrialized countries. Migration has been fueled by high growth rates coupled with lower growth rates of per capital income. Migration takes the form of continuing inflow into receiving countries, such as the Ivory Coast, sudden changes in migration status (in Ghana and Nigeria) reflecting sudden economic changes, a brain drain to developed countries, and an influx of refugees. The second section of the report presents a brief look at historical migratory patterns, including those of nomads which continue today. Data limitations are addressed in section 3, and the drawbacks of census data for migration information are noted. The next section describes the economic and demographic factors in the region which contribute to migration. These include the long lasting effects of colonization in general, the exploitation of minerals, patterns of agricultural development, poverty, and population growth. A closer examination of these forces at work is provided in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, and the migration stream from Burkina Faso to the Ivory Coast. Section 5 looks at the economic causes and effects of the brain drain. Social and cultural factors are covered in section 6, with an emphasis placed on family and migration networks. Section 7 covers political factors influencing migration, such as the efforts of people to retain contact with other members of their ethnic group who may live on the opposite side of an arbitrarily drawn (by colonizers) international border, the designation of administrative capital cities, and the ease in crossing borders without documentation. The next section describes the 1975 formation of the Economic Community for West Africa (ECOWAS) and its protocols regarding free movement of citizens within the states which comprise the

  4. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  5. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  6. Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

  7. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... used when none of the others can be used. It seems that some of the tense suffixes i.e. past (-sima, perfective, perfect, preterite) and future (-ler, begin, be about to, near future) originally had a more or less concrete aspectual meanings and have developed into more abstract tense meanings...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...

  8. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques ...... from Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa....

  9. Fast recession of a West Antarctic glacier

    OpenAIRE

    Rignot, EJ

    1998-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, reveal that the glacier hinge-line position retreated 1.2 ± 0.3 kilometers per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies that the ice thinned by 3.5 ± 0.9 meters per year. The fast recession of Pine Island Glacier, predicted to be a possible trigger for the disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is attributed to enhanced basal melting of the glacier floating tongue by warm ocean waters.

  10. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis o...

  11. I Chemistry Conference of West Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The I Chemistry Conference of West Bahia [1] aimed the meeting of the academic community of west Bahia state developing research activities at graduate level and postgraduate ones in several chemistry areas, mainly the analytic chemistry, natural products, theoretical chemistry, medicinal chemistry, chemistry teaching, spectroscopy, materials science, photochemistry and catalysis. Through the plenary lectures, short courses and poster presentation, invited researchers from other institutions and mainly students could share experiences as well as plan collaborations from multi and interdisciplinar nature, enabling a greater scientific aggrandizement of the research developed by emergent groups distributed along the inland cities of Brazil.

  12. West Nile virus-associated brachial plexopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahil, Mandeep; Nguyen, Thy Phuong

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most frequent cause of arbovirus infection in the USA. Only 20% of infected individuals are symptomatic. Less than 1% of symptomatic individuals display West Nile neuroinvasive disease. We report a rare case of WNV-associated brachial plexopathy in a young immunocompetent individual, without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis or encephalitis. Additionally, there was subjective and objective improvement after high-dose corticosteroids. This case adds to the clinical spectrum of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The literature regarding immunomodulatory treatment and WNV is reviewed. PMID:27030459

  13. Hydrocarbon accumulations of Mississippian Berea sandstone in west-central West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.L. (Peake Energy, Inc., Ravenswood, WV (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The Berea Sandstone is a widely recognized producer of oil and gas in the Appalachian basin. Subsurface mapping, core analysis, and production data from producing wells have been evaluated in west-central West Virginia, where the Berea Sandstone represents a wide range of nearshore and coastal environments. Fluvial system deposits are found in southern Jackson County as channel sands (Gay-Fink) and adjacent deltaic facies. Coastal sediments were deposited to the north as intertidal shoals, tidal flats, and coarse-grained tidal-creek point bars. Marine shelf sands are found to the west.

  14. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine. PMID:24084235

  15. Planning CCS Development in the West Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boavida, D.; Carneiro, J.; Martinez, R.; van den Broek, M.A.; Ramirez, Andrea; Rimi, A.; Tosato, G.; Gastine, M.

    2013-01-01

    Transport and storage of CO2 are the elements in the CCS chain with the lowest cost, but they may well prove to be the elements defining the timeline for CCS development. The EU FP7 COMET project aimed to pave the road towards CCS development in the West Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Morocco).

  16. West Bank and Gaza Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza has focused on increasingstudent learning outcomes by improving the quality ofeducation in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes as itprovides the necessary information to meetstakeholders’ decision-making needs. In order to gain abetter understanding of the strength...

  17. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  18. Hangzhou:EAST CITY,WEST LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ View over West Lake,Hangzhou is in Zhejiang Province,eastern coast area of China.It is one of the most important tourism cities here,famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritages,and the political,economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province as well.

  19. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...

  20. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  1. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  2. Territorial fragmentation of the West Bank

    OpenAIRE

    David Shearer

    2006-01-01

    A combination of checkpoints, physical obstacles and a permit system has cut the West Bank into three distinct areas – in addition to East Jerusalem. Within these areas, sub-enclaves have been created,isolating many Palestinian communities, restricting their access to services and stifling commerce.

  3. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  4. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  5. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  6. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  7. East-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements made in 1974-1975 at the Aarne Karjalainen Observatory do not show any east-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings. Combining the photometric data available for 1913-1975, one finds that the asymmetry varies in an irregular manner without correlating with Saturn's orbital period. (Auth.)

  8. Russian gas in the west European market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper relates to the Russian supply of natural gas to the west European market. Following themes are discussed: The resource basis of the gas industry; analysis of the European gas market; projects for Russian gas supply to Europe; international co-operation

  9. Fast Recession of a West Antarctic Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, E. J.

    1998-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, in West Antarctica, reveal that the hinge-line position of this major ice stream retreated 1.2+/-0.2 km per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies ice thinning at 3.5+/-0.6m ice per year.

  10. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... of approval of the West Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You... Virginia is amending its Code of State Regulations (CSR) to provide for the establishment of a minimum... other things, the establishment of a minimum incremental bonding rate of $10,000 per increment at CSR...

  11. Technological and West capitals needs of CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the decline of petroleum production in the former USSR and the needs of technology transfer and financing by West capitals. Statistical data connected with natural gas and crude oil production, refined petroleum products, and exports are also given. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Large Acrobatic Play Pilgrimage to the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁

    2006-01-01

    Hosted by Ministry of Culture and Guangzhou Municipal People's Government,Guangzhou Bureau of Culture organized a list of first-class singing and dancing and acrobatic plays in Guangzhou in September 2006. Among these plays, large original acrobatic play Pilgrimage to the West of Guangzhou Acrobatic Troupe went on the stage during October 12th and November 5th.

  13. Writing the New West: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  14. West Nile Virus: ecology, epidemiology and prevention

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Kříž, B.; Menne, B.

    Darmstadt : Steinkopff, 2006, s. 217-242 ISBN 3-7985-1591-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Grant ostatní: European Commission EVK2-2000-00070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  15. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  16. West Africa 2013: Re-examining Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Rojek, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) that occurred from 2013 to 2016 in the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone, with imported cases to three neighboring African countries as well as to the United States and Europe, constituted a major humanitarian disaster. The outbreak numbered over 28,500 cases, more than 10 times the number cumulatively registered from all previous EVD outbreaks combined, with at least 11,000 deaths, and resulted in billions of dollars of lost economic growth to an already impoverished region. The unprecedented scale of West Africa 2013 took the world by surprise and laid bare deficiencies in our response capacity to complex humanitarian disasters of highly infectious and lethal pathogens. However, the magnitude of West Africa 2013 also provided an, albeit unwelcome, unique opportunity and obligation to better understand the biology and epidemiology of EVD and, equally as important, the many scientific, economic, social, political, ethical, and logistical challenges in confronting emerging diseases in the modern era. Here we re-examine EVD, reviewing the unique challenges and scientific advances of West Africa 2013, contrasting them with the prior assumptions and classical teachings, identifying what they have taught us and what we still have to learn. PMID:27337474

  17. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  18. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act and... Noise Abatement Act (the Act), an airport operator may submit to the FAA Noise Exposure Maps which...

  19. Oceanographic and physiological parameters relating to Heterosigma akashiwo in Puget Sound - The Ecophysiology and Toxicity of Heterosigma akashiwo in Puget Sound: A Living Laboratory Ecosystem Approach

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over one half of the worlds fish production for human consumption currently comes from aquaculture, while wild fisheries yields are either stable or declining....

  20. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin's moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers

  1. The crustal thickness of West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

    2014-01-01

    P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

  2. Optimal for difficult roofs. East-west orientation; Optimal fuer schwierige Daecher. Ost-West-Ausrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouattour, Mohamed Ali [Solar Frontier Europe GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    With the help of CIS solar modules the unfavorable east-west roofs can be also use efficiently and profitably, since the good weak-light performance almost compensates the weak light components characterized irradiation conditions. [German] Mit Hilfe der CIS-Solarmodule lassen sich auch die unguenstige Ost-West-Daecher effizient und profitabel nutzen, da das gute Schwachlichtverhalten die hier von schwachen Lichtanteilen gepraegten Einstrahlungsverhaeltnisse nahezu kompensiert.

  3. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  4. Study of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia by MRI. Correlation between West syndrome and cerebral white matter lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical features of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied by MRI. The subjects were 10 patients with West syndrome associated with PVL. Occipital spike on electroencephalograms was considered an important characteristic finding of West syndrome. Patients with West syndrome associated with PVL had a lower cerebral blood flow volume at the early phase than those with cryptogenic West syndrome, suggesting a difference of pathophysiology between West syndrome with PVL and cryptogenic West syndrome. Abnormal findings on electroencephalograms and MRI, which are considered to affect the disease course, suggest the presence of cerebral cortical abnormalities, therefore, it is proved to be difficult to study the pathophysiology of West syndrome solely focusing on the findings of the cerebral cortical basal ganglia and the related parts. (Y.S.)

  5. Dental caries and oral health practices among 12 year old children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gathecha, Gladwell; Makokha, Anselimo; Wanzala, Peter; Omolo, Jared; Smith, Perry

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a common disease in children which causes pain with resultant effect on various physiological and social functions. The main objective of the study was to determine the association between dental caries and oral health knowledge and practice among children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 639 children aged 12 years attending public primary schools in Nairobi West and Mathira West districts between Augus...

  6. Aerial view of the West Area complex

    CERN Document Server

    1976-01-01

    The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

  7. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    traders, and where their differences lie. Finally, we show how a combined approach can make a significant contribution to the scholarly study of space in West Africa. We argue that continuing dialogue among fields can contribute to a reassessment of development policies.......Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted by...... historians and the ‘mobile space’ approach developed by geographers view exchange centres as nodes of transnational trade networks and places in production territories, and perceive spatial dynamics as highly dependent on shifts of trade flows and production activities. The objective of this article is to...

  8. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  9. West Nile viral infection of equids

    OpenAIRE

    Angenvoort, J.; Brault, A.C.; Bowen, R A; Groschup, M.H

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted between certain species of birds and mosquito vectors. Tangential infections of equids and subsequent equine epizootics have occurred historically. Although the attack rate has been estimated to be below 10%, mortality rates can approach 50% in horses that present clinical disease. Symptoms are most commonly presenting in the form of encephalitis with ataxia as well as limb weakness, recumbency and muscle fasciculation. The most effective stra...

  10. Stateless Palestinian children in the West Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rashdan, Ahlam; Diarra, Maimouna; Lund, Tyeisha

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to scrutinize the life opportunities of stateless Palestinian children living in the West Bank. Furthermore there will be a focus on how Israel violate their obligations as the Occupying Power of oPt. Israel is internationally acknowledged as a democratic state. As Occupying Power, Israel is justifying their violations and dominance through human rights, impairing the lives of stateless Palestinian children. Therefore it is essential to look back in time. Lookin...

  11. Migratory birds and West Nile virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rappole, J. H.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 94, s1 (2003), s. 47-58. ISSN 1364-5072. [Conference of Society for Applied Microbiology (U.K.) "Pathogens in the Environment and Changing Ecosystems". Nottingham, 08.07.2002-11.07.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : West Nile virus * bird migration Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2003

  12. Development of new diagnostics for WEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEST, the upgraded superconducting tokamak Tore Supra, will be an international experimental platform aimed to support ITER Physics program. The main objective of WEST is to provide relevant plasma conditions for validating plasma facing component (PFC) technology, in particular the actively cooled Tungsten divertor monoblocks, and also assessing high heat flux and high fluence plasma wall interactions with Tungsten in order to prepare ITER divertor operation. In parallel, WEST will also open new experimental opportunities for developing integrated H mode operation and exploring steady state scenarios in a metallic environment. In order to fulfil the Scientific Program of WEST, new diagnostics have been developed in addition to the already existing diagnostics of Tore Supra, modified and improved during the shutdown. For the PFC technology validation program, new tools have been implemented, like a full infrared survey of the PFC, a new calorimetry system, local temperature measurements (thermocouple and Bragg grating optical fiber), and several sets of Langmuir probes. For the analysis of long pulse H mode operation, new plasma diagnostics will be implemented, among which the Visible Spectroscopy diagnostic for W sources and transport studies, the Soft-Xray diagnostic based on gas electron multiplier detectors for transport and MHD studies, the X-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy diagnostic with advanced solid state detector properties for ion temperature, ion density and plasma rotation velocity measurements, and the ECE Imaging diagnostic for MHD and turbulence studies. Most of these new diagnostics are developed with the participation of French Universities or through international collaborations. This paper focuses on the description of these four plasma diagnostics. (author)

  13. Labour market segmentation in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    1993-01-01

    Es wird allgemein angenommen, daß Lohnarbeit die effektivste und produktivste Form der Arbeit ist. Es gibt Anzeichen dafür, daß die Zunahme der Lohnarbeit in Indonesien von einer Arbeitsmarktsegmentierung begleitet wird. Der Autor berichtet in der vorliegenden Studie über eine empirische Untersuchung der Arbeitsmarktsegmentierung in West-Sumatra aufgrund geschlechtsspezifischer, ethnischer, verwandtschaftlicher und regionaler Faktoren. Es wurden strukturierte Interviews mit 506 Personen und I...

  14. Aspleniaceae of Tadikek Mountain, West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Mildawati; Ardinis Arbain; Hary Fitrah

    2013-01-01

    Research on ferns of Aspleniaceae family of Tandikek Mountain in West Sumatra, Indonesia has been done through a survey method and direct collection in the field, followed by a study at Herbarium of ANDA (Andalas University). Eleven species consisting of Asplenium affine, A. batuense, A. belangeri, A. pellucidum, A. phylitidis, A. robustum, A. salignum, A. scalare, A. tenerum, A. unilateralis, and Asplenium sp1. have been found as part of the Asplenium genus. The species of Asplenium genus ha...

  15. IAIMS: An Interview with Dick West

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, Joan S.; Johnson, Frances E.

    1999-01-01

    Richard T. West, IAIMS (Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems) Program Officer at the National Library of Medicine for 13 years, reflects on the origin, development, effectiveness, and future of IAIMS efforts. He dwells on the changes that have taken place as the concept of IAIMS has evolved from a technology-based to an organization-based level of integration. The role of IAIMS in patient care, education, and research is discussed, along with the role of the librarian in t...

  16. West German Ostpolitik and the German Question

    OpenAIRE

    GERT KRELL

    1991-01-01

    The specific problems of West German Ostpolitik during the Cold War and the period of detente have acquired new interest under the current conditions of radical systemic change. The various options pursued by the Federal Republic and their development provide criteria for an evaluation of the future course of the united Germany's foreign policy. The article starts with laying out the basic conditions of the FRG's Ostpolitik and their inherent contradictions: revisionism versus reconciliation,...

  17. Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented

  18. Collaborative work between the West and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-01-01

    The “Collaborative Work between the West and Asia” session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  19. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella, de la, M.; M. A. Mateo; Wieringa, J. J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of s...

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of West Nile Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmerly, Sandra Abadie

    2003-01-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) should be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with symptoms of viral meningitis, encephalitis, and flaccid paralysis. The activity for 2003 started with human cases in July and is expected to continue spreading throughout the United States. Only 1 in 150 WNV infections result in severe neurologic illness, which is more common in the elderly population. Testing for the IgM antibody against WNV in both serum and spinal fluid is the diagnostic t...

  1. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk product...

  2. Health Perceptions - where the East meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M. Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

  3. Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Johnson, S. G.; Mariani, R. D.; Simpson, M. F.; Westphal, B. R.

    2000-03-20

    Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented.

  4. Ash composition of oils of West Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakirova, S.F.; Aleshin, G.N.; Kalinin, S.K.; Kotova, A.V.; Nadirov, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of studying the distribution of trace elements in oils of new fields of West Kazakhstan. It is indicated that for the majority of oils studied, the concentration of trace elements does not depend on the ash content of oils. For resinous asphaltenes and highly sulfur oils of the Buzachi region, there is an increase in the content of iron, vanadium, nickel with a rise in ash content of oils. This is possibly associated with their secondary enrichment with trace elements.

  5. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  6. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, M.H. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Joanny, M.; Roche, H.; Micolon, F.; Salasca, S.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring.

  7. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring

  8. The energy future of West Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect on the West German energy policy of environmentalists, politicians and trade unions is discussed. It is felt that without a growing nuclear power programme, possibly based in the longer term on fast breeder or high temperature thorium cycle systems, the only way in which West Germany can maintain its economic growth through the next two decades would be to rely on imported oil and coal. It is difficult to assess the precise effects of the hold-back of the nuclear programme by anti-nuclear pressure groups. Some of them could be wholly admirable if they lead to more efficient end use of energy and make the world a safer place to live in; at the same time too rapid a change could lead to extremely undesirable tensions and political problems. Some compromise is essential, and there is still time to achieve a proper balance; but the way ahead must be clarified before the beginning of 1980 if West Germany is to achieve a satisfactory and adequate energy supply by 1990, and thereafter. (U.K.)

  9. ISLAM, POLITICS AND IDENTITY IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmus Puneri Salim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Indonesia has undergone a decentralisation phase, its regions have searched for their local identities. In West Sumatra, for instance, Islam is dominant. Con­se­quently, there has been a constant attempt to infuse Islamic values into social, political and economic aspects. The paper seeks to contextualise the key phases in the history of West Sumatra in the broader history of the archipelago and the Malay world, and to show how key events in West Sumatra and at the national level set the parameters for later debates about Islam and identity in the region. The paper argues that now, as in the past, the relationship between Islam, a global religion, and Minangkabau culture was, and is, simul­ta­neously contested. It is also found that Islam as an ideology was subordinated after Independence days, and again under the New Order. The strong association between Islam and regional identity only solidified in the post-Suharto. Now, regional governments has been utilising claims that local customs are based on Islam and Islam is based on the Qur’an.

  10. Thorium residuals in West Chicago, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay and Company began operation of its west Chicago, Illinois, plant in 1931, processing thorium ores for thorium and rare earths. From that time until normal operations ceased in 1973, thorium residuals from the operation found their way offsite to Reed-Keppler City Park, the West Chicago Sewage Treatment Plant, and numerous other locations about the city and its environs. The present study located and identified such thorium residuals in the West Chicago area, a total of 75 epicenters having been found in addition to deposits at Reed-Keppler Park, the sewage-treatment plant, and down Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Deposits proved to be almost exclusively the dense, gray, insoluble particles of thorium-ore tailings from the process, which have been historically stored in two large piles in the site waste area. Epicenter locations and associated radiological parameters are given for the 75 locations, along with quantitative descriptions of the larger collections of material at the park, at the sewage-treatment plant, and on the banks of Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Not one of the areas of thorium residuals located outside security fences was found to violate the requirements of 10 CFR 20

  11. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  12. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudkevich, M.Y. [Tyumenskij Industrial`nyj Inst., Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The west Siberian basin results form a Paleozoic rifting in its north-northeastern segment (the Yamal-Taz depression) and from a Triassic rifting in its central-western segment (in the Ob Arch). Its Mesozoic-Cenozoic sedimentary cover has a maximum thickness of 8 km in the Yamal-Taz depression and 4 km in the Ob-Arch. Deep basins (with a water depth of 600 m) were not compensated by clay and siliceous sedimentation during the post-rift evolution of the area. Local extension still occurred during the Callovian, Tithonian, early Albian, Turonian and Eocene. The main axes of the Mesozoic and Paleogene deep-water basins were located in the west along the Urals and Paikhoy Ranges. Shortening affected the deep-water zones, whereas sedimentation increased in shelf regions, with the accumulation of marine pro-gradational lobes. Later on, shallow marine sedimentation and continental formations filled up the basin, reflecting the late stage compressional history of the west Siberian platform. The Neocomian stages of extension and compression were the most important for oil generation. The Malm and Neocomian horizons constitute five regional oil-and gas-bearing complexes. In each complex, the argilites are the source rocks, whereas pro-gradational lobes are the conducts for an eastward-directed hydrocarbon migration but also comprise good reservoirs. The shallow-water undaform zones are the main zones of hydrocarbon accumulation in the structural traps. Various lithologies occur, whereas the successive geochemical catagenesis zones affect progressively deeper horizons. Biogenic gas and immature oil occur at a depth of 0.6-1.7 km, whereas oil, gas and condensate occur at a depth of 1.7-4.0 km. (author). 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sediments

  14. Profiles Junior high School West Java in Education Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NFN Nahadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive studies have been conducted on the existing junior high profile in West Java on Education Learning Environment. The study was conducted by purposive sampling and descriptive done to get an idea about the profile of SMP in West Java implementation of the learning environment. in junior high school in West Java. Research conducted by distributing questionnaires, and observations based on the indicators developed. Based on this research, it is known that, PLH learning in junior high school in West Java has been in force since 2007 after the enactment of the Governor of West Java on environmental education for junior high school students in West Java. Learning that lasts generally implemented in conventional teacher, and it is without any innovations. It has made learning the essential condition runs well, but has not lasted optimally.

  15. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  16. Skin manifestations of West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, P; Schuffenecker, I; Zeller, H; Grelier, M; Vandenbos, F; Dellamonica, P; Counillon, E

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a potentially lethal arbovirus infection. Many notable outbreaks have occurred during the last few years throughout the world, including Europe and the USA. The severity of the disease is mainly related to the neurological complications. A maculopapular exanthema is reported as a clinical sign of the disease. Recently an outbreak of WNV infection occurred in southern France. Three patients out of 6 had a similar skin roseola-like eruption. The cluster of 3 cases of similar febrile roseola of unexplained cause during the same week led to the diagnosis of the first WNV human outbreak in France for 40 years. PMID:16286745

  17. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  18. West of Shetlands FPSO or TLP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most promising and active areas, in terms of exploration, for hydrocarbon production offshore Europe is located West of the Shetland Islands and lies in water depths ranging from 350 m to 900 m subject to an extremely harsh environment. Three different field-proven concepts from the Doris Engineering's point of view must be considered for this deep water area: a floating Production Storage and Off-loading (FPSO) unit, a production Tension Leg Platform (TLP) and a mini TLP designed to support wellheads and work aver facility. (author). 1 fig

  19. Combining theory and practice in West Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West German power plant school of the Technical Association of Large Power Plant Operators aims at the professional and advanced training of skilled personnel for the operation of power plant systems, provision of facilities for training, and setting of examinations. Guidelines which cover the ordering, manufacture, construction and operation of power plants and components, also cover the training of two grades of personnel. Training patterns are described and the function of two simulators, one based on a PWR and the other on a BWR are discussed. Official requirements are also outlined. (UK)

  20. Fragrance and Perfume in West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Moeran, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Fragrance and perfume connect with our most basic and primitive window on the world – our sense of smell. Animals use their sense of smell to find food, sense danger and mate. So, too, do human beings. Mothers and their babies bond through smell. Smell triggers memories buried long in our unconscious, probably because our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the oldest part of the brain, which is the seat of emotion and memory. Throughout the ages in Weste...

  1. Niobium content of soils from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Berger, I.A.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

  2. Regional trade and economic networks in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on economic networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa, brought on by urbanization, liberalizati...

  3. 77 FR 65493 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation...; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Legislative Rule, 45 CSR 8- Ambient Air Quality Standards. The amendments change the effective date of...

  4. GeoPowering the West - The Bountiful, Clean Energy Source for the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    GeoPowering the West will contribute to the overall increased use of domestic renewable energy resources, as recommended in the National Energy Policy, by: - Doubling the number of states with geothermal electric power facilities from four to eight by 2010, and Supplying the heat or power needs of 5 million Western homes and businesses by 2015.Geothermal Energy Program Office of Energy.

  5. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  6. West Side Silence: Producing "West Side Story" with Deaf and Hearing Actors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Details a collaborative production of "West Side Story" with hearing actors from MacMurray College and deaf actors from the Illinois School for the Deaf. Explores some of the practical dilemmas encountered as the distinctions between the Deaf and hearing communities were negotiated. Explains that the show explored the ways in which sign language…

  7. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  8. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014:the present global threaten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  9. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  10. Architecture of WEST plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To operate advanced plasma scenario (long pulse with high stored energy) in present and future tokamak devices under safe operation conditions, the control requirements of the plasma control system (PCS) leads to the development of advanced feedback control and real time handling exceptions. To develop these controllers and these exceptions handling strategies, a project aiming at setting up a flight simulator has started at CEA in 2009. Now, the new WEST (W Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project deals with modifying Tore Supra into an ITER-like divertor tokamak. This upgrade impacts a lot of systems including Tore Supra PCS and is the opportunity to improve the current PCS architecture to implement the previous works and to fulfill the needs of modern tokamak operation. This paper is dealing with the description of the architecture of WEST PCS. Firstly, the requirements will be presented including the needs of new concepts (segments configuration, alternative (or backup) scenario, …). Then, the conceptual design of the PCS will be described including the main components and their functions. The third part will be dedicated to the proposal RT framework and to the technologies that we have to implement to reach the requirements

  11. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  12. Compendium of NASA data base for the global tropospheric experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic/continental sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental and marine sulfur sources. The PEM West program encompassed two expeditions. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air was from mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) was modified by Asian outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum Asian outflow. Results from PEM West-A and B are public domain. PEM West-A data are summarized in NASA TM 109177 (published February 1995). Flight experiments were based at Guam, Hong Kong, and Japan. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The DAAC includes numerous other data such as meteorological and modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  13. Forest gradients in West Africa. A spatial gradient analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, van R.S.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and ulti

  14. Important Summer Concentrations of Seaducks in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    Aerial surveys for seaducks were conducted in West Greenland in July 1998 and 1999. Important concentrations of harlequin ducks, common eiders and red-breasted mergansers were located in central and southern West Greenland, while only few king eiders had yet arrived to the moulting grounds in cen...

  15. 77 FR 71667 - West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated 09/ 19/2012. Incident: Severe storms and straight-line...

  16. 77 FR 70204 - West Virginia; Disaster Number WV-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION West Virginia; Disaster Number WV-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated 09/ 19/2012. Incident: Severe Storms and Straight-line...

  17. BP Announces Withdrawal from West-to-East Gas Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 31, 2001, BP announced that BP would not participate in the bidding launched by PetroChina for the West-to-East gas transmission project,China's landmark project for West Development that is valued billions of US dollars.

  18. The Contrast between Festivals in China and In West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔烨辛; 乌日乐

    2013-01-01

    When we study a kind of language,it is important to know the phonetic culture background first.We are going to discuss the traditional festivals’origins,social background,and festival customs in China and in West.China has the festal likeness in representative tradition with west the place of the difference.

  19. Land Conflict, Migration, and Citizenship in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maze, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Land and property rights, migration, and citizenship are complex issues that cut across all social, economic, and political spheres of West Africa. This paper provides an overarching scoping of the most pressing contemporary issues related to land, migration, and citizenship, including how they intersect in various contexts and locations in West Africa. The way issues are analytically fram...

  20. A Romantic Study of Shelly's "Ode to the West Wind"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯敏贤

    2007-01-01

    Ode to the West Wind is one of the marvelous poetry of Percy Bysshe Shelley. In order to study the Romanticism in Shelly's Ode to the West Wind, this thesis, by studying the features of Romanticism, shows the fascinating romantic beauty and glamour of this poetry.

  1. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: West Virginia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in West Virginia for 2010. West Virginia administered new assessments in 2009, so comparisons to earlier years could not be made for the sake of discerning trends in subgroup achievement and gaps. Data on student achievement from earlier years are presented. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  2. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham; Nielsen, Troels F.D.; Makovicky, Emil; Hutchison, Mark T.

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from...... been conducted. No variation in P-T gradients between the three distinct crustal areas has been discerned. We find that the lithospheric mantle beneath this region extended to a depth of 215 km at the time of eruption, with a geotherm similar to those defined by peridotites from the Slave craton and...... the Kirkland Lake locality within the Superior craton. In supporting previous studies we find that the continental lithospheric mantle is layered and increases in fertility with depth. Twenty-five of 32 investigated samples are estimated to be derived from the diamond stability field that extends into...

  3. Geohydrologic study of the West Lake Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, R.E.; Eddy, P.A.; Arnett, R.C.; Robinson, G.A.

    1976-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to (1) collect and interpret geochemical data on the surface, unconfined, and confined waters of the West Lake Basin, and (2) evaluate the potential for radiochemical contamination of the uppermost confined aquifers. The report assesses the suitability of Gable Mountain Pond for receiving waste water from 200 East Area operations and applies a predictive digital computer model to assess the impacts to the groundwater regime of maintaining, increasing, or decreasing water discharge into Gable Mountain Pond. East of the 200 East Area lies a natural depression which has been dammed and used as a liquid waste disposal site (B Pond). B Pond waste waters directly recharge the underlying unconfined aquifer. This report will examine the suitability of using B Pond for receiving additional waste waters which would otherwise be discharged to Gable Mountain Pond. A predictive digital computer model will be used for assessments involving various discharges into B Pond.

  4. Changes in the West Antarctic ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The portion of the West Antarctic ice sheet that flows into the Ross Sea is thinning in some places and thickening in others. These changes are not caused by any current climatic change, but by the combination of a delayed response to the end of the last global glacial cycle and an internal instability. The near-future impact of the ice sheet on global sea level is largely due to processes internal to the movement of the ice sheet, and not so much to the threat of a possible greenhouse warming. Thus the near-term future of the ice sheet is already determined. However, too little of the ice sheet has been surveyed to predict its overall future behavior

  5. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk production is noticeable. The economy shows evident difficulties mainly due to the so called mismanaged Amin's regime and the ensuing Liberation War. Comments are made on the Queen Elisabeth National Park and some prices are given.

  6. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  7. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  8. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. L.; Scott, A. D., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. The PEM- West program encompassed two expeditions to study contrasting meteorological regimes in the Pacific. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental versus marine sulfur sources. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air is from the mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) is modified/mixed with Asian continental outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum continental outflow. PEM-B data (not included) will become public domain during the Summer of 1995. PEM West-A flight experiments were based at Japan, Hong Kong, and Guam. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), which include numerous data such as meteorological observations, modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  9. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  10. Structural Preconditions of West Bohemia Earthquake Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, M.; Špičák, A.; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-07-01

    The West Bohemia and adjacent Vogtland are well known for quasi-periodical earthquake swarms persisting for centuries. The seismogenic area near Nový Kostel involved about 90 % of overall earthquake activity clustered here in space and time. The latest major earthquake swarm took place in August-September 2011. In 1994 and 1997, two minor earthquake swarms appeared in another location, near Lazy. Recently, the depth-recursive tomography yielded a velocity image with an improved resolution along the CEL09 refraction profile passing between these swarm areas. The resolution, achieved in the velocity image and its agreement with the inverse gravity modeling along the collateral 9HR reflection profile, enabled us to reveal the key structural background of these West Bohemia earthquake swarms. The CEL09 velocity image detected two deeply rooted high-velocity bodies adjacent to the Nový Kostel and Lazy focal zones. They correspond to two Variscan mafic intrusions influenced by the SE inclined slab of Saxothuringian crust that subducted beneath the Teplá-Barrandian terrane in the Devonian era. In their uppermost SE inclined parts, they roof both focal zones. The high P-wave velocities of 6,100-6,200 m/s, detected in both roofing caps, indicate their relative compactness and impermeability. The focal domains themselves are located in the almost gradient-free zones with the swarm foci spread near the axial planes of profound velocity depressions. The lower velocities of 5,950-6,050 m/s, observed in the upper parts of focal zones, are indicative of less compact rock complexes corrugated and tectonically disturbed by the SE bordering magma ascents. The high-velocity/high-density caps obviously seal the swarm focal domains because almost no magmatic fluids of mantle origin occur in the Nový Kostel and Lazy seismogenic areas of the West Bohemia/Vogtland territory, otherwise rich in the mantle-derived fluids. This supports the hypothesis of the fluid triggering of earthquake

  11. Photographic as-builts for Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, E.K.; Wiegand, C.V.

    1995-04-19

    Located 35 miles West of Idaho Falls, Idaho, Argonne National Laboratory-West operates a number of nuclear facilities for the Department of Energy (DOE) through the University of Chicago. Part of the present mission of Argonne National Laboratory-West includes shutdown of the EBR-II Reactor. In order to accomplish this task the Engineering-Drafting Department is exploring cost effective methods of providing as-building services. A new technology of integrating photographic images and AUTOCAD drawing files is considered one of those methods that shows promise.

  12. The third child: a comparison between West Germany and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    David Alich

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights into third-birth dynamics in West Germany and Norway. Since the third-birth propensity between both countries differs remarkably, we seek to address the following questions in this paper: What are the characteristics of mothers with two and three children? What are the differences in third-birth dynamics between Norway and West Germany, and how can they be explained? Which factors have a similar influence on Norwegian and West German two-child moth...

  13. Gardner's hypothesis not proved in West German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With their assumption, which was based on a case control study, that preconceptional radiation exposure of furthers may be a cause of infant leukaemia, they British epidemiologist Gardner and his colleagues sowed uncertainty especially among the younger staff members of West Germany nuclear power plants. To test Gardner's hypothesis, a cross-sectional investigation was carried out among the staff of West German power plants by the Institute of Medical Statistics and Documentation of Mainz University, headed by Prof. Joerg Michaelis, in cooperation with the works medical officers of West German nuclear power plants. - The findings of the investigation do not support Gardner's hypothesis. (orig.)

  14. GENDERED SPACE IN WEST SUMBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Asih NURDIAH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendell stated that gender representation underlined the production of space in architecture both symbolically and functionally in certain cultures (Rendell et al. 2000. Thus, an exploration on the spatial functionality of traditional houses could show how cultural gender rules and roles generate the spatial arrangements. This empirical research explored the traditional houses in two kampongs: Tarung and Ratenggaro of West Sumba, Indonesia, which spaces are divided into two distinct spaces: male’s space and female’s space, each with its own entrance. This firm division leads to the questions on its relation with the traditional gender roles are represented inside the house. Interestingly, the spatial arrangement is not intended to create separation between men and women inside the house or to pose that the status and roles of men are higher than those of women. The research found that the space separation actually is a manifestation of the dynamic roles of male and female members of the house and the circular arrangement of the space around the fireplace at the centre of the house follows the dynamic of gender duality in Sumba culture.

  15. [West Nile virus: a new challenge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Nereida

    2003-09-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae, was first isolated in 1937. Since the original isolation of the WNV outbreaks have occurred with increase in frequency of cases in humans and horses, apparent increase in severe human disease and high avian death rates. In 1999, 2000 and 2002 outbreaks of the WNV encephalitis were reported in horses, birds and humans from New York and Canada. Ornithophilic mosquitoes are the principal vectors of the WNV and birds of several species chiefly migrants appear to be the major introductory or amplifying host. The pattern of outbreaks in the old and new world suggests that viremic migratory birds may also contribute to movement of the virus. If so, Central America, Caribbean Islands and countries of South America including Venezuela, are in potential risk for suffering a severe outbreak for WNV, since several species of birds have populations that pass trough New York and cross the western north Atlantic or Caribbean Sea. It is important the knowledge of the ecology of WNV as well of the efficacy of control efforts in order to minimize the public health impact in these countries, where all population is susceptible to this infection. PMID:14552056

  16. Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ∼ 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m-2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m-2. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m-2 for sulfate and 20 meq m-2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ∼ 5 meq m-2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Bowhead whale springtime song off West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kathleen M; Moore, Sue E; Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, M P

    2008-11-01

    Three songs were recorded from bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Disko Bay, West Greenland, during 59 h of recordings via sonobuoys deployed on seven days between 5 and 14 April 2007. Song elements were defined by units following the protocol of previous description of bowhead whale song. The two most prominent songs were loud, complex, and repeated in long bouts on multiple recording days while the third song was much simpler and recorded on only one day. Bowhead whale simple calls and faint song elements were also recorded using digital audio tape recorders and a dipping hydrophone deployed from the sea ice approximately 100-150 km southwest of Disko Bay on three separate days suggesting that song is also produced in the central portion of Baffin Bay in winter. Songs recorded in Disko Bay are from an area where approximately 85% of the whales have been determined to be adult females. Although it is not known which sex was singing, we speculate that, as in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), male bowhead whales may sing to mediate sexual competition or mate selection behaviors. This is the first detailed description of springtime songs for bowhead whales in the eastern Arctic. PMID:19045814

  18. Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos

  19. COMPARATIVE POETICS: FROM WEST TO EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Стеван Б. Брадић

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative poetics was formed as a concept in the mid-twentieth century, in the context of the French comparative literature theory, and has since gone through the process of numerous transformations and appropriations. While the French theorists understood it mainly as a way to overcome the semiotic borders in an attempt to relate literature to other forms of artistic expression, this essay focuses mainly on the anglicist-orientalist approach that has developed mainly within the framework of postcolonial studies. The essay offers an overview of central topics of this approach, such as constitution of literature as an autonomous discourse, the presence or absence of particular genres in different national literatures, the problems of imitation and expression, and the problem of fictionality of literature in East and West. It also deals with the methodological frame for comparing poetics, highlighting the usual misreadings of Western theorists, based on the projections of their own cultural categories on the rest of the world. Comparative poetics is therefore understood as a critique of cultural imperialism and an attempt at opening space for an authentic intercultural dialogue, with the full understanding of difficulties of such an endeavor.

  20. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland. PMID:27083456

  1. West Nile virus: should pediatricians care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer C; Mailman, Tim; MacDonald, Noni E

    2014-11-01

    Given the recurrent serious outbreaks of West Nile Virus (WNV) in the United States over the past decade, the spread to Canada and South America, the recurrent outbreaks in Europe, and the potential for serious neurological disease even in children under 18 years, paediatricians in affected areas must consider WNV in the differential diagnosis of all children presenting with aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and acute flaccid paralysis. Additionally, given that WNV encephalitis can occur after WNV infection, suspicion for neurological WNV disease must remain high even after otherwise benign febrile illnesses if the child lives in or has traveled to an affected region. Under-diagnosis in the pediatric population is likely a serious problem, necessitating further educational efforts. More follow-up studies of WNV neurological disease in children and youth are needed to better understand the potential long-term sequelae during vulnerable times of neurodevelopment and neural remodeling. Similarly, more research is need on short and long-term fetal outcomes of maternal WNV infection. PMID:25138381

  2. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  3. Contaminants in two West Greenland caribou populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberg, Mary; Cuyler, Christine; Wang, Xiaowa

    2016-06-01

    Two caribou populations in West Greenland were sampled and the kidneys, liver and muscle analyzed for contaminants, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc. Although close in proximity, the two populations are topographically separated by an ice cap, which creates different climates and vegetation types in each region. Contaminant levels reflected the differing diets of the two caribou populations. To the south in the wetter lichen-rich region, caribou had significantly more aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc, likely due to atmospheric deposition on lichens. To the north in the dry desert steppe where grasses predominate, caribou had higher levels of copper. Cows collected in late winter had significantly less hepatic copper, lead and mercury if pregnant, indicating placental transfer of these elements. Our results suggest that hepatic copper levels <200 μg g(-1) dry weight may result in copper depletion in pregnant cows and hepatic mercury concentrations above 0.5 μg g(-1) dry weight may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. Hepatic mercury levels were negatively correlated with cow body weight, suggesting an adverse effect on body condition. Element concentrations found in tissues from these caribou are not considered to be of a health concern for those consuming this traditional food. PMID:26956180

  4. ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognier, E.

    2001-12-01

    The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to "supporting increased scientific and mathematical literacy among our nation's youth through services and other support aimed at enhancing the efforts of those who provide K-12 science and mathematics education." WERC has been able to use its EdGateway online community network to offer these courses to environmental education and science teachers nationwide. Through partnerships with the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), the National Environmental Education Advancement Project (NEEAP), and other regional, state and local science and environmental education organizations, WERC has a broad reach in connecting with science educators nationwide. WERC manages several state and national listservs, which enable us to reach thousands of educators with information about the courses. EdGateway also provides a private online community in which we offer the courses. WERC partners with two Master Teachers from Utah, who facilitate the courses, and with the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at Weber State University, who provides low-cost graduate credit for the courses. Our students have included classroom teachers from upper elementary through high school, community college science teachers, and environmental science center staff who provide inservice for teachers. Educators from Hawaii to New Jersey have provided diverse personal experiences of Earth Systems Science events, and add richness to the online discussions. Two Earth Science Experts, Dr. Rick Ford from Weber State University, and Dr. Art Sussman from WestEd also contribute to the high caliber of learning the students experience in the courses. (Dr. Sussman's book, Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth, is used as one of

  5. Key West, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Key West, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model....

  6. Heavy mineral occurrence off Hazira, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.

    The occurrence of heavy mineral placers on the west coast of India are well known from Konkan and Malabar Coast. However, a geological and geophysical investigation (including echosounding and side scan sonar profiles and 7 samples) off Hazira...

  7. Construction of West-East Pipeline's Gansu Segment Kicked Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Commencement of full construction of the segment of the West-East gas transmission pipeline in Gansu Province was announced at an inception ceremony held in Jiayuguan City,Gansu Province on 28 March 2003.

  8. West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness...

  9. Cornel West on Heterosexism and Transformation: An Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Educational Review, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Cornel West presents a vision of a democratic struggle that is inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people. He places heterosexism within the context of capitalism and connects it to other forms of oppression. (SK)

  10. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  11. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  12. Time Zone Changes Give Edge to Athletes from West

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159440.html Time Zone Changes Give Edge to Athletes From West Professional teams traveling from later to earlier time zones win more, study finds To use the ...

  13. Characterizing freshwater and nutrient fluxes to West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present oceanographic and water-quality observations made at 4 locations in West Falmouth Harbor and 3 in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. While both...

  14. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Longshore sediment transport rates for the Indian west coast from Cochin to Porbandar are estimated from ship observed wave data (1968 to 1986). The sediment transport rate is relatively high during the southwest monsoon period from June...

  15. Chromosome Counts of Some Plants Collected from West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Hiroshi; オカダ, ヒロシ

    1989-01-01

    Chromosome numbers of some species belonging to Araceae, Balsaminaceae, Gesneriaceae and Orchidaceae distributed at West Sumatra were counted newly as a subsequent study of the previous reports (Okada, 1984, 1986).

  16. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  17. The West Perfecting Its Techniques To Hurt China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Spanish Website Rebellion published an article titled The West Perfecting Its Techniques to Hurt China by U.S. writer, filmmaker and journalist Andre Vltchek on November 12, 2010. Excerpts from the article follow:

  18. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement No. 21 contains responses to USNRC questions on quality assurance contained in USNRC letter to NFS dated January 22, 1976, revised pages for the safety analysis report, and Appendix IX ''Quality Assurance Manual--West Valley Construction Projects.''

  19. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  20. Spitbase of west coast of India: Potential appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Spectacular spits of different sizes and variety of shapes bordering west coast of India were mapped with remote sensing techniques. By gathering information on geomorphological and locational parameters of spits, "SPITBASE", a database of spits...

  1. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) West Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the West Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  2. Herbicide concentrations in wetlands in west central Minnesota, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semi-permanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992...

  3. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  4. Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hartog, J. C. Den; Jayasree, V.

    A small collection of five species of Actiniaria from the west coast of India, including three new species, is described and discussed. It concerns Anthopleura anjunae spec. nov., Bunodosoma goanensis spec. nov., Synantheopsis parulekari spec. nov...

  5. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  6. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  7. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material found in the West Lake Landfill. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Financial development and economic growth: evidence from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zaka Ratsimalahelo; Mamadou Diang Barry

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we employ the Geweke (1982) decomposition method to examine the Granger causality between finance and growth in West Africa. Our sample contains twelve ECOWAS member countries (Economic Community of West African States) and we distinguish two subsamples: seven WAEMU countries which constitute an economic and monetary union (with the CFA Franc as their common currency) and five non-WAEMU countries. Data are from the World Bank (2008) and cover the period 1962-2006. The results s...

  9. Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ASEP SUNJAYA ADHIKERANA; JITO SUGARDJITO

    2010-01-01

    Adhikerana AS, Sugardjito J (2010) Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 11: 46-54. We have characterized deforestation in the Ketapang district forests when we implemented the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) Conservation in Trans-boundary Landscape between Central and West Kalimantan provinces. For the purpose of evaluating the changes in land use and land cover in the study areas, a series of Landsat imageries have been analyzed. ...

  10. Community wildlife management in west africa : a regional overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba, S.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to be a West African contribution to a global study of IIED on community wildlife management issues. Its geographic focus is the 16 member countries of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), including 9 francophone countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, Ivory-Coast, Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea,Togo), 5 anglophone countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, The Gambia) and 2 lusophone countries (Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde). This region has mo...

  11. Road Density and Levels of Development in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Shamshad; Dr. Jabir Hasan Khan

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyse the spatial patterns of road density, variations in the level of development and casual relationship between road density (dependent variable) and selected variables of socio-economic development (independent variables) among the districts of the state of West Bengal. The entire research work is based on secondary sources of data, collected from Census of India publications (2001), New Delhi and Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, West Bengal...

  12. Searching West Virginia for a Democratic Response to Mountaintop Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Mountaintop removal is an aggressive form of strip mining practiced almost exclusively in Central Appalachia, and since 1977 has been regulated by state and federal laws. Beginning in the late 1990s, considerable controversy erupted in coal mining states like West Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee over the adverse social and environmental impacts of the practice. The analysis of mountaintop removal presented here is restricted to its effects in West Virginia during roughly the last decade. Rel...

  13. Characteristic of Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Gunarif Taib; Santosa Santosa; Masrul Djalal; Helmi Helmi

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of small-scale food industries have different characteristics with industrial cluster in general. These characteristics need to know to develop a plan for cluster development. This study was conducted to determine charasteristics clusters of small-scale food industry, especially in West Sumatra. For the analysis of the components of industrial and technological components that affect the development of small-scale food industry cluster in West Sumatra. All variables influence the lev...

  14. Modeling Spatial Invasion of Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    D'Silva, Jeremy P.; Marisa C Eisenberg

    2015-01-01

    The 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest ever recorded, representing a fundamental shift in Ebola epidemiology with unprecedented spatiotemporal complexity. We developed spatial transmission models using a gravity-model framework to explain spatiotemporal dynamics of EVD in West Africa at both the national and district-level scales, and to compare effectiveness of local interventions (e.g. local quarantine) and long-range interventions (e.g. border-closu...

  15. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-10-31

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals.

  16. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals

  17. The Future of Open Spaces on the Upper West Side

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Bosselmann; Kevin Gilson; Todd Bressi; Norman Davis; Carol Isen; Richard Sinkhoff; Matt Taecker; Greg Levesque; Rajeev Bhatia; Fred Bauman; Edward Arens; David Ernest; Gail McEachern; The Parks Council

    1990-01-01

    Parks and open spaces on Manhattan's Upper West Side are an important resource for people from all parts of New York City. Central Park and Riverside Park -- which are neighborhood amenities for Upper West Siders -- are two of the city's greatest treasures. These parks, both designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, provide a natural setting against the backdrop of the city; they are places where people can take refuge from high-density living conditions to relax or play. More and more peop...

  18. An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

    2014-01-01

    The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP progr...

  19. Karst and Pseudokarst of the West Kazakhstan (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    OpenAIRE

    Kazhmurat M. Akhmedenov; Dinmuhammed Zh. Iskaliev; Vladim P. Petrishev

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the formation of karst and karst-suffosion forms on the territory of the West Kazakhstan region is presented in this paper. Numerous literary sources were used as the information database for the analysis of the relief features of the West Kazakhstan region. Evaluation of the morphometric features of the collapsed new formations on the basis of materials of our own field research is presented here for the first time. According to the research objectives t...

  20. Informality, Trade Policies and Smuggling in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin, Nancy; Golub, Stephen; Mbaye, Ahmadou Aly

    2015-01-01

    In West Africa, recorded intra-regional trade is small but informal cross-border trade (ICBT) is pervasive, despite regional integration schemes intended to promote official trade. We argue that ICBT must be understood in light of two features of West African national boundaries: divergent economic policies between neighboring countries and the ease with which informal operators can ship goods across borders. We focus on two ICBT clusters: Senegal–The Gambia and Nigeria–Benin–Togo. Nigeria an...

  1. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.

  2. Imaging the West Bohemia Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Calo, M.; Bouchaala, F.; Vavrycuk, V.

    2013-12-01

    West Bohemia is located at the suture of three mantle lithosphere plates, the Eger Rift, the Cheb basin and is the site of Quaternary volcanism. This complex tectonic setting results in localized, periodic earthquake swarms throughout the region and many CO2 springs and gas exhalation sites. Nový Kostel, the most active swarm area, experiences frequent swarms of several hundreds to thousands of earthquakes over a period of weeks to several months. It is a unique study area, since the swarm region is surrounded by the West Bohemia Seismic Network (WEBNET), providing observations in all directions. Larger swarms, such as those in 1985/1986, 1997, 2000, 2007 and 2008, have been studied in terms of source mechanisms and swarm characteristics (Fischer and Michálek, 2003; Fischer et al., 2010; Vavryčuk, 2011). The seismicity is always located in the same area and depth range (6-15 km), however the active fault planes differ. This indicates changes to the local stress field, and may relate to the complicated tectonic situation and/or migrating fluids. Many studies have examined individual swarms and compared the earthquake episodes, however the mechanisms behind the phenomenon are still not understood. This has motivated many studies, including recent proposals for a reflection seismic profile directly over the swarm area and multidisciplinary monitoring through ICDP. In this study, we image the velocity structure within and around the swarm area using double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and Weighted Average Model (WAM) post-processing analysis (Calò et al., 2011). The WAM analysis averages together velocity models calculated with a variety of reasonable starting parameters. The velocities are weighted by the raypath proximity and density at an inversion node. This reduces starting model bias and artifacts, and yields a weighted standard deviation at each grid point. Earthquake locations and WEBNET P and S arrival times for the two most recent large

  3. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  4. Cooling water treatment with ozone. [WEST GERMANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellauer, R.; Oldani, M. (Asea Brown Boveri, Baden (Switzerland))

    Small scale tests on an open recirculating cooling system with a cooling water flow of 10 m{sup 3}/h conducted for a period of two years have shown that ozone could be a viable alternative to chlorine and other commonly used biocides. An average ozone dosage of 0.05 mg/L was applied continuously to the cooling water. Corrosion rates of copper alloy samples immersed in ozonized water were lower than the rates of samples in nonozonized water. No corrosion was detected for the Cr-Ni steel alloys DIN 1.4306 and DIN 1.4404 as well as for titanium either in the presence or absence of ozone in water. This is ascribed to the formation of a thin protective layer in both cases. A pilot plant has been set up at the EVS Heilbronn coal-fired power station in West Germany in order to confirm the results obtained on small scale. The open recirculating cooling system has a cooling water flow of 1,000 m{sup 3}/h and is fed by conditional Neckar river water. An air-fed ozone generator is used to ozonize a 10% side stream of the cooling water. A bubble diffuser contactor is used to introduce ozone into the water and an air heater is operated to decompose excess ozone leaving the contactor. The plant can be run to yield either a constant ozone residual concentration in the water or a constant ozone dosage to the water leaving the contactor. All relevant data are registered continuously and the plant presently is operated automatically with a constant ozone dosage in the side stream. Corrosion experiments are performed using laboratory heat exchangers, and all physical, chemical, and microbiological data of the cooling water are acquired.

  5. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.

  6. West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data - Annual West Coast time series groundfish trawl data collection survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Members of the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring Division Survey Team conduct an annual West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey from May - October each...

  7. Determination of antibiotic residues in the pasteurized milk produced in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shirin Forouzan; Amir Rahimirad; Roya Seyedkhoei; Jafar Asadzadeh; Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To monitor antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran. Methods: In this study, 848 pasteurized milk samples were collected from factories and tested for the presence of antibiotic residues using the Copan test kit based on the manufacturer’s instructions. Results: Results indicated that 30.14% of samples were contaminated with a variety of antibiotics based on the detection of associated residues and 3.19% of these samp...

  8. Up-to-date knowledge of West Nile virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus West Nile virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Epidemiology West Nile virus is maintained in the cycle involving culicine mosquitoes and birds .Humans typically acquire West Nile infection through a bite from infected adult mosquito. Person to person transmission can occur through organ transplantation, blood and blood product transfusions, transplacentally and via brest milk. Human cases of West Nile infections were recorded in Africa, Israel, Russia, India, Pakistan. In Romania in 1996 West Nile fever occurred with hundreds of neurologic cases and 17 fatalities. First human cases in the United States were in New York City where 59 persons were infected and had fever, meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Clinical manifestation Most human cases are asymptomatic. The majority of symptomatic patients have a self limited febrile illness. Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, eye pain, headache, myalgias, artralgias, lymphadenopathy and rash are common complaints. Less than 1% of all infected persons develop more severe neurologic illness including meningitis, encefalitis and flaccid paralysis. Laboratory diagnosis Diagnosis of West Nile virus infection is based on serologic testing, isolation of virus from patient samples and detection of viral antigen or viral genom. ELISA test and indirect immunofluorescenceassay are used for detecting IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment In vitro studies have suggested that ribavirin and interferon alfa -2b may be useful in the treatment of West Nile virus disease. Prevention The most important measures are mosquito control program and personal protective measures. .

  9. [Familial modernity and plurality in West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimard, P

    1993-01-01

    Changes in the family system of West Africa have accompanied the numerous economic, demographic, and social changes occurring after colonization and especially since independence. This work uses monographic data from Togo and the Ivory Coast to examine to what degree lineage structures have been supplanted by autonomy of domestic groups and the emergence of new forms of family organization, to what extent intrafamilial social relations and behavior have been affected by the market economy, and whether the spread of western culture has led to a plurality of family models. The integration of rural African societies into market economies has been achieved primarily through their progressive absorption into plantation economic systems. Appropriation of manpower by plantation economies has largely removed control over the reproduction and use of the labor force from the lineage to a smaller family group. Individual relationships are undergoing redefinition within the new structures of socially and economically autonomous domestic groups. Lineages have lost control over matrimonial alliances; marriage has ceased to represent an exchange between social groups and has become an alliance between individuals. The weakened integration of couples into traditional family structures has increased the instability of unions. The emergence of the domestic group as an autonomous institution has engendered a redefinition of roles and practices within families, and new forms of social relations between the husbands, wives, and their children. Economic and social roles today depend less on belonging to extended structures such as lineages or age classes and more on nonpredetermined factors susceptible to change that characterize the family and economic position, such as educational level, marital status, and occupation. Changes in power relations between spouses have led to greater independence but also greater precariousness in women;s positions. The status of children has undergone a

  10. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  11. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  12. SRP Meeting: North west regional conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SRP North West Regional Conference was held in the Education Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust in Manchester on the subject of Ionising Regulations 1999 (IRR99) two years on. The Chairman for the morning session was David Abbott from BNFL and for the afternoon was Anne Walker from Christie Hospital. Dr Joanne Nettleton, a HM Principal Specialist Inspector (Radiation) in the Field Operations Directorate, explained the view of the HSE. She outlined that the IRR99 have been in force since January 2000 after a comprehensive consultation exercise. The results that have been seen to date are, not surprisingly, no increase in exposure levels, an increased profile of radiation protection and an improved standing of RPAs. The SRP run a Continuing Professional Development scheme as a personal aid to maintain an adequate level of professionalism, demonstrate competence and as a guide to employers for them to maintain a professional Radiation Protection Service. There are currently over 300 people using the SRPs CPD scheme. They have also detailed a new mentoring system. In conclusion RPA 2000 is successfully meeting the needs of RPAs in the UK and the portfolios of evidence are improving. Overall, the SRP CPD scheme is effective and cheap. David Owen, Radiological Protection Manager responsible for policy and strategy issues in this field, gave a summary of the operation of the BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme, of which he is Secretary to the Management Board. The BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme is recognised by the HSE and has a number of subtle differences from the RPA 2000 scheme. RPAs advise on the restriction of exposure, designation of area, local rules, selection of the RPS, the training of the RPS and other staff, hazard identification, risk assessment, facility design, contingency planning, waste management and transport and any other matters relating to ionising radiation. Becoming an RPA within the medical sector is not easy. Firstly there is two years basic training

  13. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2014-01-01

    West Greenlandic. Institut for Eskimologi. København, Københavns Universitet. Swift, M. D. (2004). Time in Child Inuktitut. A Developmental Study of an Eskimo-Aleut Language. Berlin/New York, Mouton de Gruyter. Trondhjem, Naja (2007) Markering af tid med særlig fokus på fortid. Ph.D-thesis. Departement......-175. Kristoffersen, L. (1991). Verbal Derivation and Inflection in a Functional Grammar of West Greenlandic. Institut for Eskimologi. København, Københavns Universitet. Swift, M. D. (2004). Time in Child Inuktitut. A Developmental Study of an Eskimo-Aleut Language. Berlin/New York, Mouton de Gruyter. Trondhjem, Naja......), Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic) and is a polysynthetic language. The temporal system is based on future-non-future opposition as in Inuktitut (Canada), which means that all future time reference must be marked, the present time reference is unmarked and past time reference can be marked if...

  15. Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribeiro, Sofia Isabel; Moros, Matthias; Ellegaard, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    document late-Holocene climate variability in West Greenland as inferred from a marine sediment record from the outer Disko Bay. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and other palynomorphs were used to reconstruct environmental changes in the area through the last c. 1500 years at 30–40 years resolution....... Sea ice cover and primary productivity were identified as the two main factors driving dinoflagellate cyst community changes through time. Our data provide evidence for an opposite climate trend in West Greenland relative to the NE Atlantic region from c. AD 500 to 1050. For the same period, sea......Ribeiro, S., Moros, M., Ellegaard, M. & Kuijpers, A. 2012 (January): Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years: evidence from a high-resolution marine palynological record from Disko Bay. Boreas, Vol. 41, pp. 68–83. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00216.x. ISSN 0300-9483. Here we...

  16. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  17. Forest gradients in West Africa. A spatial gradient analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rompaey, van, R.S.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and ultimately to the Sahara desert.This Upper Guinea forest block used to cover most of Liberia and parts of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. Here, deforestation rates are among the fastest in the world. Humans h...

  18. Radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1988-06-01

    The West Lake Landfill is located near the city of St. Louis in Bridgeton, St. Louis County, Missouri. The site has been used since 1962 for disposing of municipal refuse, industrial solid and liquid wastes, and construction demolition debris. This report summarizes the circumstances of the radioactive material in the West Lake Landfill. The radioactive material resulted from the processing of uranium ores and the subsequent by the AEC of processing residues. Primary emphasis is on the radiological environmental aspects as they relate to potential disposition of the material. It is concluded that remedial action is called for. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Distribution and abundance of West Greenland humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Hammond, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae were conducted at West Greenland during 1988-93, the last 2 years of which were part of the internationally coordinated humpback whale research programme YoNAH, with the primary aim of estimating abundance for the West Greenland...... effort. A total of 670 groups of humpback whales was encountered leading to the identification of 348 individual animals. Three areas of concentration were identified: an area off Nuuk; an area at c. 63degrees30'N; and an area off Frederikshab. Sequential Petersen capture-recapture estimates of abundance...

  20. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  2. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  4. THE FORMALISATION OF ISLAMIC ATTIRE IN PADANG, WEST SUMATRA

    OpenAIRE

    Deny Hamdani

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the formalisation of Islamic attire among Minangkabau people – particularly among school students in Padang, West Sumatra – in the spirit of the regional autonomy of post-Soeharto Indonesia. It focuses on the conceptualisation and enforcement of the Mayor’s policy concerning Islamic attire for students in the Mayoral Decree (No. 451.422/2005) in line with the rampant Shari>`ah-influenced by-laws throughout West Sumatra. I argue that the formalisation of Islamic attire h...

  5. Coriolis effect as cause of East-West Earth's asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Scalera, G.; INGV (retired)

    2014-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on t...

  6. Hydrological modelling of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.

    Hydrological Modelling of the West Coast of India Suprit Kumar Thesis submitted to Goa University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics Goa University September 2010 to papa, mummy and Madhurima Statement As required under the University ordinance... of the west coast of India, sub- mitted by Suprit Kumar to Goa University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, is based on his original studies carried out under my supervision. The thesis or any part thereof has not been previously submitted for any other...

  7. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  8. West Mining Expanding Into Lead Zinc Smelting Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>West Mining,China’s 2nd largest lead zinc miner(only next to Yunnan Jinding Zinc with an annual lead and zinc output of approx. 180,000 tons in metal content),has been put- ting efforts on the control of resources for years.Additionally,it has recently increased its investment on smelting business by holding shares of Bayanzhuoer Zijin for more zinc smelting asset.West Mining has just com- pleted the construction of its 60,000-ton zinc

  9. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  12. Numbers and Cultures in China and West: A Contrastive Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛静娟

    2007-01-01

    This passage aims at finding how numbers are incorporated into east and west culture. Numbers have a long history both in the east and west, so it is reasonable to associate the numbers with the culture-specific characteristics. In this passage, we’ll first trace down the origin of the numbers, list some numbers that can reflect cultural features and search for the reasons why numbers are associated with culture over time. Finally, we draw a conclusion that numbers are understood differently in different cultures, which might cause misunderstanding in cross-cultural communication and thus they deserve our attention in be the cross-cultural studies.

  13. [Two imported cases of West Nile fever in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Wilcke, Jon Torgny R; Andersen, Ove

    2003-05-01

    In the light of the current American epidemic, and since West Nile fever (WNF) has never previously been reported in Denmark, we describe two cases imported from Israel and Canada, respectively. WNF was diagnosed in a 46-year-old Danish tourist returning from Israel and a visiting 73-year-old Canadian citizen with Danish ancestry. The former manifested itself clinically as a mild flu-like illness, the latter as serious infection of the central nervous system. Thus, in addition to representing a rare case of West Nile encephalitis, it also constitutes one of the first reported cases of human infection of Canadian origin. PMID:12795078

  14. West versus East: Early Globalization and the Great Divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael, Dobado-González; Alfredo, García-Hiernaux; David, Guerrero-Burbano

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends our previous work on grain market integration across Europe and the Americas in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Dobado, García-Hiernaux and Guerrero, 2012). By using the same econometric methodology, we now present: 1) a search for statistical evidence in the East of an “Early Globalization” comparable to the one ongoing in the West by mid eighteenth century; 2) a study on the integration of grain markets in China and Japan and its functioning in comparison to West...

  15. West versus East: Early globalization and thr great divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Dobado González; Alfredo García Hiernaux; David Guerrero Burbano

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends our previous work on grain market integration across Europe and the Americas in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Dobado, García-Hiernaux and Guerrero, 2012). By using the same econometric methodology, we now present: 1) a search for statistical evidence in the East of an “Early Globalization” comparable to the one ongoing in the West by mid eighteenth century; 2) a study on the integration of grain markets in China and Japan and its functioning in comparison to West...

  16. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  17. Relation of surface movements in West Bohemia to earthquake swarms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlina, Jan; Seidl, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2008), s. 549-566. ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012308 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : geodynamics * GPS displacements * precise levelling * surface kinematics * West Bohemia Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  18. Writers of the American West: Multicultural Learning Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, John

    This book focuses on the childhood and young adult experience of 10 of the American West's most intriguing writers. The book presents autobiographical and other primary sources, biographical sketches, teaching guidelines, and numerous curriculum-driven activities to engage young readers in the works of notable people whose lives were shaped by the…

  19. West Nile Virus Antibody Prevalence in Wild Mammals, Southern Wisconsin

    OpenAIRE

    Docherty, Douglas E.; Samuel, Michael D.; Nolden, Cherrie A.; Egstad, Kristina F.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty percent prevalence of West Nile virus antibody was found in free-ranging medium-sized Wisconsin mammals. No significant differences were noted in antibody prevalence with regard to sex, age, month of collection, or species. Our results suggest a similar route of infection in these mammals.

  20. Gender segregation and wage gap: an East-West comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    Praha: CERGE-EI, 2011 - (Dušek, L.; Lízal, L.), s. 269-279 ISBN 978-80-7344-238-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender segregation * wage differences * East-West comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/books/cerge-ei-tackles-transition.pdf

  1. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  2. Virtual Reference Service in Academic Libraries in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekyere, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    As technology continues to advance, libraries in Europe and America continue to improve upon their virtual reference services by employing new Web technologies and applying them to existing services. West African academic libraries have begun providing resources electronically to their users but still typically lag behind in the services they…

  3. District Composite Report: West Baton Rouge Parish. 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in Louisiana's District Composite Reports. This report is specific to West Baton Rouge Parish. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year's data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating…

  4. Education and Happiness: Perspectives of the East and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between education and happiness from the perspectives of the West and the East, especially Buddhism and Christianity as well as classical Greek and Chinese great thinkers. In order to examine this study systematically, three research questions are addressed as follows: First, what are…

  5. Information Technology and Information Training in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemna, A. Anaba

    1990-01-01

    Outlines current and past library and information education and training in West Africa, focusing on the impacts of technological advancement; suggests information technologies that training programs should be able to access; and discusses formulating new curricula, staffing requirements, and further implications for the countries in this region…

  6. A new genus of arboreal rat from West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musser, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Kadarsanomys nov. gen. is proposed for Rattus sodyi Bartels, 1937, and contrasted with Rattus and Lenothrix, two genera with which sodyi has been closely connected in the past. Kadarsanomys sodyi is an arboreal rat associated with bamboo on the forested volcanoes of West Java. Kadarsanomys has no cl

  7. Unionism and Productivity in West Virginia Coal Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, William M.

    1990-01-01

    This study presents econometric estimates of the effects of unionism on productivity in 83 West Virginia coal mines in the early 1920s. Results show that unionism significantly reduced productivity at small mines but not at large mines. The author ascribes this effect to systematic differences between small and large operations in the quality of…

  8. NATO in History and Civics Textbooks: The West German Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, K. Peter

    1990-01-01

    When analyzing the degree to which a balanced presentation of NATO is achieved in West German history and civics textbooks, two standards may be used: first, inclusion of information on NATO's formation, aims, strategies and achievements; and, second, inclusion of the criticisms that have been leveled at NATO from various points of view. This…

  9. 77 FR 47908 - West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 06/29/2012 through 07/08/2012. DATES: Effective Date:...

  10. Contraception and Induced Abortion in the West Indies: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.A.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Most islands in the West Indies do not have liberal laws on abortion, nor laws on pregnancy prevention programmes (contraception). We present results of a literature review about the attitude of healthcare providers and women toward (emergency) contraception and induced abortion

  11. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  12. 77 FR 60002 - West Virginia Disaster #WV-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster WV-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  13. Report on a Magnetotelluric Study in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Junge, A.; Löwer, A.; Matzka, Jürgen; Olsen, Nils

    Despite a well-mapped, interesting surface geology, deep sounding geophysical studies like seismics or magnetotellurics have been used very rarely in Greenland. The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric study performed in the area of Kangerlussuaq, West...

  14. Flower Visitors of 32 Plant Species in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Makoto; ICHINO, Takao; HOTTA, Mitsuru; Abbas, Idrus; Okada, Hiroshi; カトウ, マコト; イチノ, タカオ; ホッタ, ミツル; オカダ, ヒロシ

    1989-01-01

    We recorded flower visitors of 32 plant species belonging to 14 families: Annonaceae (1), Cruciferae (1), Leguminosae (1), Melastomataceae (1), Balsaminaceae (7), Verbenaceae (3), Gesneriaceae (3), Rubiaceae (2), Compositae (2), Musaceae (4), Zingiberaceae (4), Palmae (1), Pandanaceae (1) and Araceae (1) (number of species studied being in parenthesis) in West Sumatra.

  15. Dengue Outbreak in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Gregory, Christopher J.; Kintziger, Kristina W.; Sauber-Schatz, Erin K.; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Gallagher, Glen R.; Barber, Jean M.; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Stanek, Danielle R.; Tomashek, Kay M.; Blackmore, Carina G.M.

    2012-01-01

    After 3 dengue cases were acquired in Key West, Florida, we conducted a serosurvey to determine the scope of the outbreak. Thirteen residents showed recent infection (infection rate 5%; 90% CI 2%–8%), demonstrating the reemergence of dengue in Florida. Increased awareness of dengue among health care providers is needed.

  16. The "Phantom Universities" of the West Bank and Gaza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Mary W.

    1990-01-01

    The status of the minimally functioning elementary and secondary schools and universities of the Gaza Strip and West Bank in the midst of political and social turmoil is discussed; the daily life of a university teacher is described; and the potential role of American academics is examined briefly. (MSE)

  17. West India coastal current and Lakshadweep High/Low

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    The West India Coastal Current (WICC) flows northward during November-February and southward during April-September. At the time of formation of the northward (southward) phase of the current, a high (low) in sea level - the Lakshadweep High (Low...

  18. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  19. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste. PMID:17378212

  20. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  1. Polyglots, Vernaculars and Global Markets: Variable Trends in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2004-01-01

    Using a framework from cultural studies and focusing on theories put forward by Pierre Bourdieu, the goal in this paper is to consider how some West Africans interact with foreign languages and cultures in an era of global capital, especially when it comes to the activities of migrants venturing into overseas labour markets and to the production…

  2. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: COHORT STUDY OF WOMEN IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has a history of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contamination (dioxin, TCDD). The bulk of the dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the disposal of associated wa...

  3. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Gaydon, G. K.; Schwing, R.; Vogl, W.; Häbich, A.-C.; Thaller, D.; Weissenböck, H.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, February (2016), s. 135-139. ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT; European Commission(XE) 261391 - EUROWESTNILE Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Lineage 2 * Kea * Nestor notabilis * Psittaciformes * Persistent infection * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  4. Mixed farming : scope and constraints in West African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Since colonial times the crop livestock integration concept has been a leading development model in francophone West Africa. So far, it has failed in certain aspects, such as cultivation of fodder crops, intensification of cereal production through animal traction, and sedentarisation of mobile live

  5. Humanistic Traditions, East and West: Convergence and Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Morimichi

    2016-01-01

    The term "humanism" is Western in origin. It denotes the tradition that places special emphasis on cultivation of letters for education. In the West, this tradition was originated with sophists and Isocrates, established by Cicero, and was developed by Renaissance humanists. East Asia, however, also has its own humanistic traditions with…

  6. High temperature superconductivity research in selected laboratories in West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Donald H.; Clark, Alan

    1988-07-01

    The superconductivity work at eight West German laboratories is reviewed. The laboratories are (or located at): the University of Giessen; the Technical University at Darmstadt; Hoechst AG; Siemens AG; KFA Julich; KFK, Karlsruhe; the Walter Meissner Institute, Garching; and the Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart.

  7. University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment (UWIDITE). Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Gerald C.; Marrett, Christine

    Since March 1983, the University of the West Indies has been conducting a distance teaching experiment that links its three campuses and the Extra Mural Centres in Antigua, Dominica, and St. Lucia by telecommunications. The network is used for interactive distance teaching and other types of teleconferences. A variety of modern audio and video…

  8. Quin Franciscan Friary, west door jamb, arch and hood

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    West door jamb, arch and hood moulding. From intrados, moulding comprises: quadrant, hollow chamfer, right-angled rebate, hollow chamfer, quadrant. The hood comprises: hollow, free-standing fillet, hollow, chamfer. This door, with its pointed arch contained within a square moulded label, is very similar in design to that at Bishopsquarter. The moulding is identical.

  9. Clontuskert Augustinian Priory, west door, jamb and arch

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2001-01-01

    West door moulding, from soffit moulding comprises: roll-and-fillet, fillet, hollow, fillet, roll-and-fillet, fillet, hollow, fillet, roll-and-fillet, fillet, hollow, roll-and-fillet, fillet, pinnacle. This door, in its overall composition and the width of the fillets, is close to doors at Holycross, Kilcooly and other works related to them.

  10. Portumna Dominican Friary, west door, jamb, arch and hood

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2001-01-01

    West door jamb, arch and hood. Moulding from intrados comprises: hollow, fillet, roll-and-fillet, fillet, hollow. The hood, which is placed far from the jamb, comprises from outer to inner face: frontal fillet, hollow, right-angled rebate, hollow.

  11. Sustainable Forest Management Practices and West Malaysian Log Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Abdul Samad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The global demand for timber products will continue to grow in line with increasing population and economic development especially in many developing countries. Simultaneously, forest ecosystem plays important roles in the environmental services such as carbon sequestration, recreational, water catchments, wildlife reserve and soil protection. Therefore, Malaysia is committed in implementing Sustainable Forest Management (SFM. The forest are harvested in a sustainable manner by adopting the method of reduce impact logging practices. This resulted to diminishing supply of logs to downstream timber industry. The West Malaysian log supply is in deficit since 1995. This has significant impact on major timber products. They have moved from resources surplus to one of deficit in Malaysia. Therefore, it is interesting to know the behaviour of West Malaysian log market with the implementation of SFM policy. The results indicate that full adoption of SFM could lead to substantial reduction of supply. Furthermore, a sustained price increase in the long run does not seem to have significant impact on the demand side. In conclusion, the ongoing adaptation of West Malaysian forestry to the standards of the SFM certification programs could have substantial effects only on the log supply. This will probably influence the scheme of forest plantation establishment in sustaining the West Malaysian forest sector.

  12. West Side Story: over de herontwikkeling van een voormalig industriegebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melik, R.G. van; Aalst, I. van; Weesep, J. van

    2007-01-01

    Op Manhattan is nauwelijks nog ruimte voor de gestaag groeiende vraag naar woningen en kantoren. Uitzondering vormt de Far West Side, een voormalig industriegebied ten westen van Midtown. Projectontwikkelaars, lokale ondernemers, bewoners en adviseurs buitelen over elkaar heen met plannen voor de he

  13. Oral Prednisolone vs. IM Corticotropin and Hypsarrhythmia* in West Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; John J Millichap

    2014-01-01

    Investigators at University of Columbo, Sri Lanka, studied the efficacy of oral prednisolone (40-60 mg/day) and intramuscular adrenocorticotrophin hormone (40-60 IU synthetic ACTH every other day) for 14 days in improving hypsarrhythmia in children (age 2 mos-2 yrs) with previously untreated West syndrome.

  14. To importerede tilfaelde af "West Nile fever" i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Wilcke, Jon Torgny R; Andersen, Ove

    2003-01-01

    In the light of the current American epidemic, and since West Nile fever (WNF) has never previously been reported in Denmark, we describe two cases imported from Israel and Canada, respectively. WNF was diagnosed in a 46-year-old Danish tourist returning from Israel and a visiting 73-year...

  15. Natural resources endowment and economic growth: The West African Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jalloh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth in West Africa, more so in resource rich countries. In terms of relative effects, the results indicate that a 10% increase in natural resource export reduces growth in income per capita by approximately 0.4%. Part of the factors explaining this finding amongst others; include high corruption in the public sector as well as the frequency of civil conflicts in resource rich economies of West Africa. For the natural resources of the region to fully benefit its citizens, these countries require , urgently, to improve management of natural resource export revenues and to apply effective policy measures to eradicate/ mitigate incidences of rampant corruption in the public sector.

  16. Malignant lymphoma in a west Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Klausen, Bjarne; Knold, Steffen;

    2005-01-01

    We identified a malignant lymphoma infiltrating the lung, liver, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and eye as the cause of death in a male West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Diagnosis was based on gross histopathologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Tissue samples from ten organs were...

  17. Sensory diversity of fonio landraces from West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliedel, G.; Koreissi, Y.; Boré, F.; Dramé, D.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to establish if there is some sensory variability among fonio landraces. Fonio, the oldest indigenous and very tasty cereal growing in West Africa, is usually consumed as a couscous. Group interviews of consumers were conducted in Bamako, Mali to identify the main quality criteria of

  18. Antibody Prevalence of West Nile Virus in Birds, Illinois, 2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ringia, Adam M.; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Koo, Hyun-Young; Van de Wyngaerde, Marshall; Brawn, Jeff D.; Novak, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Antibodies to West Nile virus were detected in 94 of 1,784 Illinois birds during 2002. Captive and urban birds had higher seropositivity than did birds from natural areas, and northern and central Illinois birds’ seropositivity was greater than that from birds from the southern sites. Adult and hatch-year exposure rates did not differ significantly.

  19. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Wild Birds, Morocco, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi; Baouab, Riad E.; Soriguer, Ramón C; Fassi-Fihri, O.; Llorente, Francisco; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel A.

    2009-01-01

    To determine circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) during nonepidemic times, we serosurveyed wild birds of Morocco in 2008. We found antibodies against WNV in 12 (3.5%) birds, against Usutu virus in 1 (0.3%), and against both in 2 (0.6%). High WNV prevalence among juvenile birds suggests local virus circulation among resi- dent birds.

  20. West Carter Middle School: A Failure-Free Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    No student has been retained at West Carter Middle School in Olive Hill, Kentucky, in the last five years. Staff members proudly point to that fact as evidence that their decision to not permit zeros is working. That's a bit misleading, because coupled with the no-zero policy were a number of programmatic initiatives and supports that allowed all…

  1. Ethanol Production from Hydrothermally-Treated Biomass from West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem C.; Kádár, Zsófia; Mensah, Moses Y.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of diverse biomass resources in Africa, they have received little research and development focus. This study presents compositional analysis, sugar, and ethanol yields of hydrothermal pretreated (195 degrees C, 10 min) biomass from West Africa, including bamboo wood, rubber ...

  2. Intraplate earthquake swarms in West Bohemia/Vogtland (Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horálek, Josef; Fischer, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 67-87. ISSN 0449-0576 Grant ostatní: Norway Grants(NO) A/CZ0046/2/0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : earthquake swarm * West Bohemia/Vogtland * WEBNET seismic network Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.889, year: 2010

  3. The Buzz-z-z on West Nile Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-12

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about West Nile Virus and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 1/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/12/2012.

  4. Gender segregation and wage gap: an East-West comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-3 (2005), s. 598-607. ISSN 1542-4766 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender segregation * wage differences * East-West comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.jstor.org/stable/40005002

  5. Women's status and child survival in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayatun

    1991-03-01

    This study is introduced by a literature review of the concept of women's status, and related factors that determine infant and child mortality. Women's status is primarily defined by education, occupation and economic activity, which affect women's decision-making in the home and their independence in larger society. Cluster analysis was used to identify geographical patterns of standardized women's status variables among 20 regencies and 4 municipalities in West Java. Euclidian distances were computed between pairs of regencies across the 13 indicators. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression were used to compare associations between women's status variables and infant and child mortality, after controlling for economic development. Using data from the 1980 census, the study demonstrated large regional variations in women's status in West Java, with higher status in both the household and in society in the south and central highlands than in the north and west. Women's status is closely related to infant and child mortality, independent of the level of development. There was 1 notable exception, the municipality of Bogor, where infant and child mortality were higher than average rates for the cluster of areas with higher women's status. The results suggest that improved education, and increase in age at 1st marriage are key elements for improving the status of women in West Java. PMID:12343263

  6. Vaccination against pneumococcus in West Africa: perspectives and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkor ES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eric S Donkor,1 Nicholas TKD Dayie,1,2 Ebenezer V Badoe3 1Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Child Health, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana Background: Pneumococcal vaccination has become obligatory due to the enormous burden of pneumococcal diseases. Quite recently, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been developed, and have been shown to be superior to the previous polyvalent polysaccharide vaccine of the organism. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs are being introduced in many West African countries and it is important to understand the expected performance, relevance, and limitations of these vaccines in the subregion. Aim: The objective of the study presented here was to provide epidemiological insights into PCVs in West Africa based on the prevailing pneumococcal serotypes in the subregion. Methods: A systematic review was carried out on pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive and noninvasive diseases in West Africa. Studies included in the review were those that reported at least 20 serotyped pneumococcal isolates and which were conducted prior to the introduction of PCVs in the region in 2009. The proportion of pneumococcal disease associated with each serotype as well as the serotype coverage of various PCVs (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were calculated. Results: The data covered 718 serotyped pneumococcal isolates from six West African countries: Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, and The Gambia. The 718 isolates covered more than 20 serotypes. Serotype 1 was the most prevalent serotype (32%, followed by serotype 5 (15%, serotype 6 (7%, serotype 2 (6%, serotype 3 (6%, and serotype 12 (5%. The estimated serotype coverage of PCVs among the West African countries was 2%–36% for PCV7, 39%–80% for PCV10, and 65%–87% for PCV13

  7. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

  8. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  9. NWFSC Observer Fixed Gear Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Fixed Gear Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  10. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (the Disko West Area). (au)

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  12. 75 FR 6336 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Removal of NOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...; Removal of NOX SIP Call Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... West Virginia that removes West Virginia's nitrogen oxides (NOx) SIP Call rules. In the Final...

  13. NWFSC Observer Trawl Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Trawl Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  14. Update on the status of the West Valley demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1966 to 1972, under an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) license, Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) reprocessed 640 metric tons of spent fuel at its West Valley, New York, facility-, the only commercial spent fuel reprocessing plant in the U.S. The facility shut down in 1972, for modifications to increase its seismic stability and to expand its capacity. In 1976, without restarting the operation, NFS withdrew from the reprocessing business and returned control of the facilities to the site owner, the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The reprocessing activities resulted in about 2.3 million liters (600,000 gallons) of liquid high-level waste (HLW) stored below ground in tanks, other radioactive wastes, and residual radioactive contamination. The West Valley site was licensed by AEC, and then the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), until 1981, when the license was suspended to execute the 1980 West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Act. The WVDP Act outlines the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NRC, and NYSERDA at the site, including the NRC's responsibility to develop decommissioning criteria for the site. The Commission published the final policy statement on decommissioning criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site after considering comments from interested stakeholders. In that regard, the Commission prescribed the License Termination Rule (LTR) criteria for the WVDP at the West Valley site, reflecting the fact that the applicable decommissioning goal for the entire NRC-licensed site is compliance with the requirements of the LTR. This paper will describe the history of the site, provide an update of the status of the decommissioning of the site and an overview of the technical and policy issues facing Federal and State regulators and other stakeholders as they strive to complete the remediation of the site. (author)

  15. West Virginia Diesel Study, CRADA MC96-034, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gautam

    1998-08-05

    The global objective of the recently completed Phase 1 of the West Virginia Diesel Study, at West Virginia University, was to evaluate mass emission rates of exhaust emissions from diesel powered equipment specified by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission. The experimental data generated in this study has been utilized by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission to promulgate initial rules, requirements and standards governing the operation of diesel equipment in underground coal mines.

  16. Teaching the Arab World and the West … as an Arab in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Samer

    2015-01-01

    How do the subjective experiences of faculty and students shape the classroom and the study of global politics? Can our subjective experiences support the pedagogical goal of developing critical thinking skills? In this article, I draw on my experiences teaching an undergraduate course called "The Arab World and the West" with respect to…

  17. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  18. 78 FR 8512 - West Street Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Street Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2012, West Street Hydro, Inc., filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f... megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Kenneth A. Stewart, West Street Hydro, Inc., 20 Central...

  19. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a dive

  20. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  1. WRF/ARPEGE-CLIMAT simulated climate trends over West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigaud, N.; Roucou, P.; Fontaine, B. [UMR 5210 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, Centre de Recherches de Climatologie, Dijon (France); Sijikumar, S. [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum (India); Tyteca, S. [CNRM/GAME, URA 1357 CNRS/Meteo-France, Toulouse (France)

    2011-03-15

    The Weather Regional Forecast (WRF) model is used in this study to downscale low-resolution data over West Africa. First, the performance of the regional model is estimated through contemporary period experiments (1981-1990) forced by ARPEGE-CLIMAT GCM output (ARPEGE) and ERA-40 re-analyses. Key features of the West African monsoon circulation are reasonably well represented. WRF atmospheric dynamics and summer rainfall compare better to observations than ARPEGE forcing data. WRF simulated moisture transport over West Africa is also consistent in both structure and variability with re-analyses, emphasizing the substantial role played by the West African Monsoon (WAM) and African Easterly Jet (AEJ) flows. The statistical significance of potential climate changes for the A2 scenario between 2032 and 2041 is enhanced in the downscaling from ARPEGE by the regional experiments, with substantial rainfall increases over the Guinea Gulf and eastern Sahel. Future scenario WRF simulations are characterized by higher temperatures over the eastern Tropical Atlantic suggesting more evaporation available locally. This leads to increased moisture advection towards eastern regions of the Guinea Gulf where rainfall is enhanced through a strengthened WAM flow, supporting surface moisture convergence over West Africa. Warmer conditions over both the Mediterranean region and northeastern Sahel could also participate in enhancing moisture transport within the AEJ. The strengthening of the thermal gradient between the Sahara and Guinean regions, particularly pronounced north of 10 N, would support an intensification of the AEJ northwards, given the dependance of the jet to the position/intensity of the meridional gradient. In turn, mid-tropospheric moisture divergence tends to be favored within the AEJ region supporting southwards deflection of moist air and contributing to deep moist convection over the Sahel where late summer rainfall regimes are sustained in the context of the A2

  2. Welding technique studies on the "West-East" pipeline project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Yongli; Du Zeyu; Huang Fuxiang; Qi Lichun

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the work of welding process design for the "West-East" pipeline project, which is high pressure, large diameter and heavy wall thickness. According to the different geographical situation, climate, culture and the flexibility of the welding methods, this work recommended the semi-automatic process at the east and middle sections and automatic process at the west section of the pipeline project. The manual process is recommended on the tie-in joints and repairs. The double joint pipe and the 3 joint pipe are recommended at the water net place and some in-ditch welding place to reduce the welding volume. Also the special redesigned bevels are recommended for the automatic process and the semiautomatic process. Through all destructive tests, the results shows the welds are meet the requirements of related standards,specifications and design documents.

  3. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  4. Primary Care Fall Risk Assessment for Elderly West Virginians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkemeyer, Vivian M; Meriweather, Matt; Shuler, Franklin D; Mehta, Saurabh P; Qazi, Zain N

    2015-01-01

    West Virginia is ranked second nationally for the percent of its population 65 years of age. The elderly are especially susceptible to falls with fall risk increasing as age increases. Because falls are the number one cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the West Virginia elderly, evaluation of fall risk is a critical component of the patient evaluation in the primary care setting. We therefore highlight fall risk assessments that require no specialized equipment or training and can easily be completed at an established office visit. High quality clinical practice guidelines supported by the American Geriatric Society recommend yearly fall risk evaluation in the elderly. Those seniors at greatest risk of falls will benefit from the standardized therapy protocols outlined and referral to a balance treatment center. Patients with low-to-moderate fall risk attributed to muscle weakness or fatigue should be prescribed lower extremity strengthening exercises, such as kitchen counter exercises, to improve strength and balance. PMID:26665892

  5. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sejvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously. Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. More severe illness with WNV (West Nile neuroinvasive disease, WNND is manifested as meningitis, encephalitis or an acute anterior (polio myelitis. These manifestations are generally more prevalent in older persons or those with immunosuppression. In the future, a more thorough understanding of the long-term physical, cognitive and functional outcomes of persons recovering from WNV illness will be important in understanding the overall illness burden.

  6. The east-west effect for atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Lipari, P

    2000-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes observed by underground detectors are notsymmetric for rotations around the vertical axis. The flux is largest(smallest) for the nu's traveling toward east (west). This asymmetry is theresult of the effects of the geomagnetic field on the primary cosmic rays andon their showers. The size of the asymmetry is to a good approximationindependent from the existence of neutrino oscillations, and can in principlebe predicted without any ambiguity due to existence of unknown new physics. Weshow that there is an interesting hint of discrepancy between the experimentalmeasurement of the east-west asymmetry by Super-Kamiokande and the existingtheoretical predictions. We argue that the discrepancy is a real effect causedby the neglect, in the existing calculations, of the bending of the chargedsecondary particles (in particular of the muons) in the cosmic ray showers. Theinclusion of this effect in the calculation gives results in quantitativeagreeement with the data. We comment on the imp...

  7. Laboratory work in support of West Valley glass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past six years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted several studies in support of waste glass composition development and testing of glass compositions suitable for immobilizing the nuclear wastes stored at West Valley, New York. As a result of pilot-scale testing conducted by PNL, the glass composition was changed from that originally recommended in response to changes in the waste stream, and several processing-related problems were discovered. These problems were solved, or sufficiently addressed to determine their likely effect on the glass melting operations to be conducted at West Valley. This report describes the development of the waste glass composition, WV-205, and discusses solutions to processing problems such as foaming and insoluble sludges, as well as other issues such as effects of feed variations on processing of the resulting glass. An evaluation of the WV-205 glass from a repository perspective is included in the appendix to this report

  8. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  9. Evaluating Subcriticality during the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne T A Enanoria

    Full Text Available The 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak is the largest and most widespread to date. In order to estimate ongoing transmission in the affected countries, we estimated the weekly average number of secondary cases caused by one individual infected with Ebola throughout the infectious period for each affected West African country using a stochastic hidden Markov model fitted to case data from the World Health Organization. If the average number of infections caused by one Ebola infection is less than 1.0, the epidemic is subcritical and cannot sustain itself. The epidemics in Liberia and Sierra Leone have approached subcriticality at some point during the epidemic; the epidemic in Guinea is ongoing with no evidence that it is subcritical. Response efforts to control the epidemic should continue in order to eliminate Ebola cases in West Africa.

  10. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    OpenAIRE

    Mores Christopher N; Chisenhall Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector...

  12. Human Security and Developmental Crisis in the Contemporary West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodeji A. Aduloju; Omowunmi O. Pratt

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades were characterized by severe conflicts in the West Africa subregion. The era of conflict resolution, management and peace building thus came to define theregion. The destruction left by long years of protracted conflicts and the present state of devel opment is reason enough to warrant attention both from within and beyond. The study expounds, operationalizes and clarifies the concept of human security and development, and how human security issues lead to underdevelopmen...

  13. COST OF PROCESSING CARROT PRODUCTION IN WEST CENTRAL MICHIGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dartt, Barbara; Black, J. Roy; Breinling, Jim; Morrone, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin represents a tool that can help producers, consultants, educators, and agribusinesses working with producers estimate costs of production and expected profit based on "typical" carrot management strategies found in west central Michigan. The budget included in this bulletin will allow users to revise inputs based on their management strategies and calculate their expected cost and profit. This flexibility provides a decision aid to search for systems that generate higher net ret...

  14. Nonpublic Competition and Public School Performance: Evidence from West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Cebula; Joshua C. Hall; Maria Y. Tackett

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether nonpublic school enrollment affects the performance of public school districts. If homeschooling and private schools act as competition, public school districts test scores should be positively associated with nonpublic enrollment. Using data on West Virginia county school districts, and controlling for endogeneity with an instrumental variables approach, we find that a one standard deviation increase in relative nonpublic enrollment in a county is associ...

  15. Skills, Wages, and Employment in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Funke; Felix FitzRoy

    1995-01-01

    Disaggregated data from 30 two-digit manufacturing industries in the east and west parts of unified Germany are used to estimate employment for three skill categories of blue collar workers. Employment elasticities are uniformly higher in the east, and for unskilled labor. The former result contradicts union claims that wages had little relevance for east German job losses, while the latter confirms the capital-skill complementarity hypothesis.

  16. Micromorphological Characterization of Some Volcanic Soil In West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfud Arifin; Rina Devnita

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no4.20082Micromorphological characterization has been studied on six pedons of soils developing in volcanic materials in West Java. The pedons represent deposits of different volcanoes (Mount Tangkuban Perahu, Mount Patuha and Mount Papandayan) with different ages (Pleistocene, Holocene) within two types of volcanisms (andesitic, basaltic), and three agroclimatic zones (A, B1, B2). Undisturbed soil samples were taken from each identifiable horizon for thin ...

  17. Challenges in Transitioning to Organic Farming in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Brodt, Sonja; Schug, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a case study of small-scale rice and vegetable producers in West Bengal, India to argue that some of the same infrastructural and technical roots to problems that plague small farmers attempting to use chemically-intensive farming methods also hinder their ability to fully convert to global-style organic farming. In particular, problems in accessing knowledge and technical inputs are likely to translate into difficulties in adopting and maintaining organic production practices...

  18. Seasonal TEC Variability in West Africa Equatorial Anomaly Region

    OpenAIRE

    ZOUNDI, Christian; Ouattara, Fréderic; FLEURY, Rolland; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Lassudrie-Duchesne, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented the seasonal variability of TEC/ GPS data recorded at Ouagadougou a West Africa GPS station located near the magnetic equator. Seasonal data TEC time variations are compared to those of TEC derived from IGS GPS network maps. The present study showed that TEC map model predicts well data TEC during equinoctial months and fairly well during solstice months. The best prediction is obtained during spring and the worst during winter. The analysis of seasonal TEC profiles highl...

  19. Exploring climatic impacts on water resources in West Niger, Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vieux, R.E.; Looper, J.P.; Cappelaere, Bernard; Peugeot, Christophe; Maia, A.

    1998-01-01

    Drought persisting in the Sahel for more than 25 years, impacting both surface and subsurface water resources, raises the question whether the hydrological impacts are proportional, dampened, or amplified in response to the climatic change manifested by the drought experienced since 1970. A physically-based distributed model, r.water.fea, applied to a 2.48 km2 endoreic drainage basin, typical of the Niamey area of West Niger, is used to evaluate the sensitivity of the hydrological system to s...

  20. Extending west's analogy royce, mead, and american philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Marcelo Viale

    2008-01-01

    In The American Evasion of Philosophy Cornell West makes a comparison between the developments of European and classical American philosophies. Within West’s analogy, however, two important American figures are missing: Josiah Royce and George H. Mead. In the context of this framework, this article attempts to extend West’s analogy, speculating on the possible roles of Royce and Mead within it. The argumentation is developed in two parts: on the one hand, I show how secondary literature that ...

  1. Upper mantle compressional velocity structure beneath the West Mediterranean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Pino, N. Alessandro; Helmberger, Donald V.

    1997-01-01

    P waveforms of regional crustal earthquakes have been modeled to obtain an upper mantle compressional velocity model for the West Mediterranean Basin. Data come from long-period stations of the World-Wide Standardized Seismograph Network and broadband stations located in the Iberian Peninsula. Synthetic waveforms have first been computed for published velocity models corresponding to different tectonic provinces and obtained with analogous techniques. A model that strongly improves the fits t...

  2. MRI examination of West syndrome complicated by periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Akiko; Endo, Shoichi [National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentuji (Japan); Gouda, Tomoko

    2001-10-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 19 low-birth-weight infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy, 6 with West syndrome as a complication (group III) and 13 without it (group II), were compared with those of normal 13 low-birth-weight infants without PVL or cerebral palsy (group I) to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of West syndrome. All of the subjects were born between 1989 and 1997, and there were no significant differences between the three groups in birth weight or age at the time of the examination. Although the gestation period was significantly longer in the group III (infants with West syndrome) than in group I (control infants), there was no significant difference was seen between group I and group II (infants with PVL and cerebral palsy). PVL was diagnosed by MRI, and the diagnostic standards included periventricular high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, decreased cerebral white matter, and deformity or enlargement of the lateral ventricles. The area of periventricular high signal intensity was significantly larger in group II and group III than in group I, and the occipital lobe white matter was significantly thinner in the former than the latter. The lateral ventricles were significantly larger in group II than in the other two groups. The area of the corpus callosum and the thickness of the splenium and trunk of the corpus callosum were significantly smaller in group II and group III than in group I, but the corpus callosum was significantly shorter in group III than in the other two groups. Findings in the brain stem showed a significantly smaller pons and medulla oblongata in group III than in group I, but there were no significant differences between group II and group I. The results of this study indicate that lower brainstem lesions as well as cerebral lesions are associated with the development of West syndrome. (K.H.)

  3. Overview of the PACS procurement project within South West London

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Corkett

    2002-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) as the future of radiology is generally accepted, but the challenge is how to deliver this technology to meet the needs of the changing NHS and support evolving patient care packages. Within South West London there is also the challenge of affordability: PACS is not a cost-neutral solution and requires substantial funding support from both secondary and primary care. It is to overcome these issues that a new approach has been taken within So...

  4. Wohnungsmärkte im deutschen Ost-West-Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Rothenwallner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite equal conditions after World War II, housing markets in East and West Germany had, according to the political and economic systems, developed completely different. State controlled mass production of dwellings due to planned economy is faced with house building under control of market principles. Bringing together both housing mar-kets is one of the most urgent political tasks since reunification.

  5. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....... It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010...

  6. Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibe, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

  7. Síndrome de West: factores etiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Dehli, Ana Cristina; Pérez Solís, David; de Juan Frigola, Juan; Villanueva Gómez, Francisco; Garía López, Celia

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo recoge los resultados de un estudio retrospectivo de 20 niños diagnosticados con Síndrome de West entre 1993 y 2001. Se analizan las causas y se describen los métodos diagnósticos empleados, tratamiento y evolución. Se comparan los resultados con otro estudio realizado entre 1975 y 1986 en el mismo hospital.

  8. Propagation and Titration of West Nile Virus on Vero Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Alexander J; Beasley, David W C

    2016-01-01

    The propagation and titration of viruses are key virological techniques. Unlike other flaviviruses, such as the dengue viruses, West Nile virus (WNV) grows and plaques very efficiently on Vero cells, usually inducing strong cytopathic effect (CPE) and forming clear plaques. Here, we outline the steps for propagating WNV from culture supernatant stocks and homogenized organ/mosquito samples, as well as for determining virus titers in samples by serial-dilution plaque assay using neutral red or crystal violet stains. PMID:27188547

  9. Amniocentesis in the West Midlands: report on 1000 births

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Tessa; Edwards, J H; Cameron, A. H.; Crawley, J Margaret; Hulten, Maj; Rushton, D. I.; Thompson, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Two laboratories in the West Midlands have monitored 1000 `at risk' pregnancies. Of these 57% were referred for chromosomal indications and 43% for possible neural tube defects. The largest at risk groups (both 37%) were those mothers who had already had a pregnancy resulting in a baby with a neural tube defect (21% spina bifida and 16% anencephaly), and those who were referred because of the increased risk of Down's syndrome in pregnancies where the mother was over 35 years old. Six percent ...

  10. Economics of Malaria Prevention in US Travelers to West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S.; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S.; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R.; Regina C LaRocque; Sotir, Mark J.; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. Methods. The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspectiv...

  11. Economics of Malaria Prevention in US Travelers to West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S.; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S.; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R.; Regina C LaRocque; Sotir, Mark J.; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T.; Meltzer, Martin I.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Background.  Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. Methods.  The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspect...

  12. West Greenland caribou explosion: What happened? What about the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In West Greenland, the 1993 caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus population size estimate was 7000 to 9000 animals. Eight years later in 2001, the estimate was ca. 140 000. Relatively rapid rise and fall cycles of abundance in West Greenland caribou have been noted since the 1700s. Caribou have no natural predators in West Greenland. Combined with their high fertility and recruitment, this suggests that overabundance might be their greatest threat to stability. The 2005 population surveys indicate poor recruitment in two major populations and decreasing abundance in one. Given stocking densities are three to six-times the value considered sustainable, we expect strong competition between individuals for available food resources. Although the management goal is sustainable harvest of natural resources, if populations continue at their current size or increase further, there is a clear risk of range overgrazing and trampling. Unsustainable range use may result in density-dependent forage limitation with subsequent relatively rapid population decline over a series of years, e.g. a decade. As in the past, populations are expected to recover, and if true to the past, recovery will take the better part of a century. Furthermore, the role of catastrophic weather events may be of major importance. Abrupt collapse could be precipitated by a disastrous single year event, e.g. thaw-freeze icing or deep snow, because possibilities for dispersal to new ranges are limited. Regardless of management initiatives taken now, population declines or crashes may be inevitable for some West Greenland herds in the foreseeable future, but accurate predictions about herd trends are impossible. To understand the potential impact of future developments, Greenland caribou and their range must be studied within the wider context of climate change.

  13. EARTHQUAKE DAMAGE INTENSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR RESIDENTIAL HOUSES IN WEST SUMATRA

    OpenAIRE

    Febrin Anas Ismail; Abdul Hakam; Fauzan

    2012-01-01

    The Sumatra 30 September 2009 earthquake has damaged hundred thousand buildings in West Sumatra Province. The earthquake is located in 100 km offshore of Padang City, the Capital City of the province. Survey has been conducted to assess the damage of the building in few days after the earthquake. In this survey, the damage of buildings are categorised into 3 level that are heavily, moderate and slightly damages. This paper explores the level damage of building and then the intensity of the sh...

  14. Diversity of parasitoid Lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae in West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    FENI YUSMARIKA; YAHERWANDI; RUSDI RUSLI; NOVRI NELLY

    2010-01-01

    Nelly N, Rusli R, Yaherwandi, Yusmarika F (2010) Diversity of parasitoid Lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae. Biodiversitas 11: 93-96. Diversity of parasitoid lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae was conducted in several Brassicaceae areas in West Sumatra. The objective of the research was to study the diversity of parasitoid lepidopterans larvae on Brassicaceae. Sampling was conducted on Brassicaceae plants: cabbage, cauliflower, petsai and sawi. It was taken five samples in every plot, by ...

  15. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM GROUNDNUTS IN SOME LOCATIONS OF WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    O.s. DHARMAPUTRA; I. RETNOWATI

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and ninety eight groundnut samples were collected from freshly harvested groundnuts (FHG), farmer storage systems (FSS), middlemen warehouses (MW), wholesalers (WS) and retailer sample (RS) during the dry and wet seasons from Cidolog, Cianjur, Sukabumi and Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, in 1990/1991. The moisture content (m.c.), intactness of kernels, and the percentages of groundnut kernels infected by each species of fungi were analyzed. In genera), the m.c. of the s...

  16. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ogbu; E. Ajuluchukwu; Uneke, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestud...

  17. Mixed farming : scope and constraints in West African Savannah

    OpenAIRE

    Slingerland, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Since colonial times the crop livestock integration concept has been a leading development model in francophone West Africa. So far, it has failed in certain aspects, such as cultivation of fodder crops, intensification of cereal production through animal traction, and sedentarisation of mobile livestock keepers. Three major flaws in the concept have been identified, that are partly responsible for the reported failure: neglect of the farm (household) context, neglect of the financing role of...

  18. Organizational analysis of the Navy Primary Standards Laboratory-West.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Michael A.

    1986-01-01

    A formal analysis of the Navy Primary Standards Laboratory- West (NPSL-W) has been performed to assess two objectives: 1) the strengths and weaknesses of current job design and organizational support systems and 2) to determine the readiness for job design change. Evaluation of the current job and organizational characteristics have been performed using the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) , the Job Rating Form (JRF) , two feedback sessions and questionnaires. The result...

  19. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Mendes Pereira; Paulo Silva de Almeida; Adair Vieira de Sousa; Aécio Moraes de Paula; Ricardo Bomfim Machado; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic dist...

  20. The east-west effect for atmospheric neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lipari, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes observed by underground detectors are not symmetric for rotations around the vertical axis. The flux is largest (smallest) for the nu's traveling toward east (west). This asymmetry is the result of the effects of the geomagnetic field on the primary cosmic rays and on their showers. The size of the asymmetry is to a good approximation independent from the existence of neutrino oscillations, and can in principle be predicted without any ambiguity due to existenc...

  1. Catch tanks inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established

  2. A brief summary of the hydrogeology of the West Bank

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, A M

    2002-01-01

    This working document forms part of the SUSMAQ project (the sustainable management of aquifers). The project is concerned with the transboundary aquifer of the West Bank of the Jordan which underlies the occupied Palestinian territories and Israel. The SUSMAQ project is interdisciplinary. Economists and sociologists are working alongside groundwater modellers and hydrogeologists to help identify options for sustainable management of the groundwater resources. The project natura...

  3. CWRD: ICT in Education: Central and West Asia Executive

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents and analyzes the major conclusions of research conducted in Central and West Asia in 2006 through 2011 to ascertain the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) investments on education. It presents a critical overview of the effectiveness of ICT policies and strategies in basic education in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with shorter studies on Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, and Pakistan. Among its many impo...

  4. NRA North west salmonid microtagging programme 1987-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, M.A.; Apprahamian, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The microtagging programme began in 1987 using hatchery reared salmon originating from the rivers Caldew and Hodder and subsequently included the Lune (1988) and Ribble (1989). Microtagging of sea trout began in 1991 for the Lune and in 1993 for the Hodder. The report explores the NRA North west salmonid microtagging programme looking at methods, results and recommendations. The report provides salmon microtagging data and returns from 1987 to 1994.

  5. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, T.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, PO Box 600, Wellington 6012, New Zealand; Powell, R.; Department of Geology & Environmental Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA.; Levy, R.; ANDRILL Science Management Office, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, USA; Wilson, G.; University of Otago, Department of Geology, PO Box 56, Leith Street, Dunedin, Otago 9001, New Zealand; Scherer, R.; Department of Geology & Environmental Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA.; Talarico, F.; Universita` di Siena, Dipartimento di Scienze delle Terra, Via Laterina 8, I-53100 Siena, Italy; Krissek, L.; Ohio State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 275 Mendenhall Lab, 125 South Oval Mall, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Niessen, F.; Alfred Wegener Institute, Department of Geosciences, Postfach 12 01 6, Am Alten Hafen 26, D-27515 Bremerhaven, Germany; Pompilio, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Wilson, T.; Ohio State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 275 Mendenhall Lab, 125 South Oval Mall, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Carter, L.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, PO Box 600, Wellington 6012, New Zealand; DeConto, R.; Department of Geosciences, 233 Morrell Science Centre, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9297, USA; Huybers, P.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Massachusetts 02138, USA; McKay, R.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington - New Zealand; Pollard, D.; Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, 2217 Earth-Engineering Science Bldg, University Park, PA 16802, USA

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years after oxygen isotope records frommicrofossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth’s orbital geometry control the ice ages1, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles2. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) during the ‘warmer-than- present’ early-Pliocene epoch (̃5–3Myr ago) is needed to better constrain the possibl...

  6. Identification of West African estuarine shrimp and crab larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan, G.E.; Powell, C. B.; A.I. Hart

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with the decapod crustacean larvae likely to be found in fresh and brackish waters in tropical west Africa. It summarizes results from an ongoing program of describing larvae hatched directly from adults of known species, to provide the identification keys necessary for applied research on nursery grounds, plankton ecology and pollution effects. A preliminary key to stage - 1 larvae is given for approximately 40 species. In includes all the genera, and nearly all the species, ...

  7. Telesupport Experiment for Agricultural Information Management in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Rupak; Ghosh Roy, Jhumpa; Ghose, Jhulan

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the experimentation of Change Initiatives, an Indian NGO of sub-regional scope, with the application of ICT in agricultural information management under the EUsponsored TeleSupport Project at Nadia district of West Bengal, India. During the piloting phase, an innovative mechanism of information management was experimented for facilitating a twoway interaction between expert and client system with the involvement of local community. To sustain this two-way communication s...

  8. Import of West Nile virus infection in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Lukáčová, L.; Halouzka, Jiří; Širůček, P.; Januška, J.; Přecechtělová, J.; Procházka, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2006), s. 323-324. ISSN 0393-2990 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 Grant ostatní: 6th Framework Programme EC(XE) EDEN 010284 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : West Nile virus * CNS infection * Flavivirus Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2006

  9. An Empirical Analysis of Adult Obesity in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, J.; Gebremedhin, T.

    2010-01-01

    West Virginia reports the highest obesity level in the United States. Every 3 in 10 adults are obese, and the prevalence of obesity is nearly 8% higher than the national level. Obesity is linked with several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes II, hypertension, cancer, arthritis, asthma, and some psychological disorders. The reported economic burden associated with obesity is considerably high. This research study attempts to examine the use of exercise and cutting down of calorie intake...

  10. Sensory diversity of fonio landraces from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fliedel, G.; Koreissi, Y.; Boré, F.; Dramé, D.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to establish if there is some sensory variability among fonio landraces. Fonio, the oldest indigenous and very tasty cereal growing in West Africa, is usually consumed as a couscous. Group interviews of consumers were conducted in Bamako, Mali to identify the main quality criteria of a cooked grain. Fonio grain must be swollen, not sticky with a soft consistency, pale and containing low impurities. Sensory properties of 20 fonio landraces from Mali, Guinea and Burkina Faso wer...

  11. Applied behavior analysis at West Virginia University: A brief history

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Robert P.; Chase, Philip N.; Scotti, Joseph R.

    1993-01-01

    The development of an emphasis on applied behavior analysis in the Department of Psychology at West Virginia University is traced. The emphasis began primarily in the early 1970s, under the leadership of Roger Maley and Jon Krapfl, and has continued to expand and evolve with the participation of numerous behavior analysts and behavior therapists, both inside and outside the department. The development has been facilitated by several factors: establishment of a strong behavioral emphasis in th...

  12. Local solutions to challenges of West Indian Ocean fisheries development

    OpenAIRE

    van der Elst, R.

    2003-01-01

    The West Indian Ocean is rich in biodiversity and marine resources. This paper gives an overview of fisheries development and resource management in the region. There are many shared issues that must be addressed within countries and at the regional level. These are illustrated by examples from three countries. In Mozambique the issues of lack of information about artisanal fisheries, excessive harvesting of juveniles and conflicts between artisanal and commercial sectors are highlighted. Ele...

  13. MRI examination of West syndrome complicated by periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 19 low-birth-weight infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy, 6 with West syndrome as a complication (group III) and 13 without it (group II), were compared with those of normal 13 low-birth-weight infants without PVL or cerebral palsy (group I) to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of West syndrome. All of the subjects were born between 1989 and 1997, and there were no significant differences between the three groups in birth weight or age at the time of the examination. Although the gestation period was significantly longer in the group III (infants with West syndrome) than in group I (control infants), there was no significant difference was seen between group I and group II (infants with PVL and cerebral palsy). PVL was diagnosed by MRI, and the diagnostic standards included periventricular high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, decreased cerebral white matter, and deformity or enlargement of the lateral ventricles. The area of periventricular high signal intensity was significantly larger in group II and group III than in group I, and the occipital lobe white matter was significantly thinner in the former than the latter. The lateral ventricles were significantly larger in group II than in the other two groups. The area of the corpus callosum and the thickness of the splenium and trunk of the corpus callosum were significantly smaller in group II and group III than in group I, but the corpus callosum was significantly shorter in group III than in the other two groups. Findings in the brain stem showed a significantly smaller pons and medulla oblongata in group III than in group I, but there were no significant differences between group II and group I. The results of this study indicate that lower brainstem lesions as well as cerebral lesions are associated with the development of West syndrome. (K.H.)

  14. Gender Wage Differences in West Germany: A Cohort Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzenberger, Bernd; Wunderlich, Gaby

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive descriptive analysis of gender wage differences over a long time period is missing for West Germany. Using an empirical approach which takes into account explicitely changes of wage distributions for both males and females as well as life-cycle and birth cohort effects, we go beyond conventional decomposition techniques of the average gender wage gap. The paper provides some stylized facts of the level and dynamics of the gender wage gap from 1975 - 1995. The empirical analysi...

  15. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable

  16. Mental health needs and services in the West Bank, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2016-01-01

    Background Palestine is a low income country with scarce resources, which is seeking independence. This paper discusses the high levels of mental health need found amongst Palestinian people, and examines services, education and research in this area with particular attention paid to the West Bank. Methods CINAHL, PubMed, and Science Direct were used to search for materials. Results and conclusion Evidence from this review is that there is a necessity to increase the availability and quality ...

  17. Economic Valuation of a Wetland in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda

    2008-01-01

    In the Gangetic flood plain of West Bengal, wetlands are used for multiple purposes, and have significant role in the livelihoods of the local people. Over the years, these Multiple Use Systems (MUSs) are getting converted to single use systems due to economic and social pressure from dominant stakeholders, which are higher than that in single use systems. Economic and ecological functions of MUS changes over time and space. These dynamic aspects of MUS are often not fully appreciated. Att...

  18. Myth, (New) History and Modernization of the Wild West

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubomir Hristić

    2016-01-01

    The western frontier has been, and persist in being a means of constructing and ascribing meaning partly due to its association with maps and mapped areas, and partly because of its appearance in a number of folk tales, manuscripts and in formal, scientific scrutiny, as a paradigmatic discourse shaped in the American tradition and beyond. In the paper, frontier of the American Wild West is analyzed through the structure in which it was used in relation to its mythical and historical occurrenc...

  19. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany...

  20. Looking east, looking west: Penang as a knowledge hub

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Penang has always been a focal point, absorbing knowledge (and popular culture) from civilizations to the East and West. In modern Penang the pattern of cultural contacts has changed over time. Research institutes and universities in Penang cooperate with foreign partners to produce research papers and reports. Based on an analysis of joint research output, the changing international position of Penang as an emerging research hub will be analysed. The paper will show that international cooper...

  1. Foreign Aid: The Ideological Differences between China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanbing; Huang Ying

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the Chinese government published its first "White Paper on Foreign Aid"1 as a response to the international community's growing concern about China's increasing foreign aid. As a careful examination of the white paper will show, China's foreign aid possesses its own characteristics, and these differ greatly from those of the West at the ideological level.

  2. Contribution of "Women's Gold" to West African livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouliot, Mariéve

    2012-01-01

    Contribution of ``Women's Gold'' to West African Livelihoods: The Case of Shea ( Vitellaria paradoxa ) in Burkina Faso. This paper (i) quantifies the contribution that Vitellaria paradoxa makes to the total income of rural households belonging to different economic groups in two areas of Burkina ...... therefore not be considered as a remedy to poverty but instead as a way for households to diversify their livelihood strategy and decrease their vulnerability to food insecurity and climate variability....

  3. Territoriale culten in West-Congo: verdwijning of transformatie?

    OpenAIRE

    H. Vanhee

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the key issues in my current research on the history of the relationship between society, tradition and Christianity in the west of Congo-Kinshasa over the last century. My focus here is on the process ofprogressive transformation of the nineteenth-century territorial cults and the structural continuity which is apparent in the development of the Congolese Christian church in the area. In presenting some of my working hypotheses I am suggesting that after an initi...

  4. A Security Guard With West Nile Virus Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Letha

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old male working as a security supervisor in an office building was seen for return to work by the on-site occupational health nurse. He was observed to have slow gait as he entered the clinic waiting area, was pale, diaphoretic, and slow in responding to questions. His return to work note stated he was recovering from West Nile Virus (WNV). Implications for return to work are presented. PMID:26245464

  5. The makeshift settlement: colonial policy in British West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A M

    1982-01-01

    This thesis examines the evolution of colonial policy within British West Africa, and is based largely on unpublished correspondence between the Colonial office and colonial governors, held in the Public Record Office in London. It argues that the colonial states were unable to generate or implement a satisfactory strategy for capitalist development. In the first twenty years of colonial rule, various projects were outlined, which assumed the introduction of private property in land, the enco...

  6. Modelling West African Total Precipitation Depth: A Statistical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sovoe, S.

    2015-01-01

    Even though several reports over the past few decades indicate an increasing aridity over West Africa, attempts to establish the controlling factor(s) have not been successful. The traditional belief of the position of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) as the predominant factor over the region has been refuted by recent findings. Changes in major atmospheric circulations such as African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ) are being cited as major precipitation driving ...

  7. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

  8. Manufacturing and process research of the West ICRH antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important issue for the WEST (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project, which aims at modifying Tore Supra to an X-point divertor machine, is to provide a heat flux at 10MW/m2 during 1000 sec and 20MW/m2 during 20s. To obtain this level of flux, the operation of three Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) launchers at a level of 9MW during 30s or 3MW during 1000s is necessary. The WEST ICRH system has to deal with two challenging issues that no other ICRH system before ITER has faced simultaneously so far, i.e. ELMs resilience and Continuous Wave (CW) RF operation. This paper is mainly focused on the manufacturing of the WEST ICRH antenna components, currently under fabrication in collaboration with CAS/ASIPP. Based on the high accuracy required for the ICRH components, machining process is introduced, followed by assembly, welding, qualification tests, 3D scanning and metrological analysis

  9. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (-1) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L-1 were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (∼1400 ng L-1) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: → Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. → Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. → Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  10. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Bell, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village is the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff, and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. These measures include increased wall and attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. The report discusses how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10-month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  11. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Bell, C.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village, the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. The energy efficiency measures that are incorporated into these apartments include increased wall & attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. Results discuss how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10 month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  12. Role of inertial instability in the West African monsoon jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kerry H.

    2015-04-01

    The West African monsoon jump is a sudden shift in the latitude of the West African precipitation maximum from the Guinean coast near 4°N into Sahel near 12°N in late June or early July. An examination of reanalyses and observations indicates that the Sahel rainy season develops smoothly and the monsoon jump occurs because of an abrupt decrease in Guinean coast rainfall. We show that this abrupt end of the coastal rainy season occurs when inertial instability develops over the region, 1 month later than it develops in the vicinity of the marine Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone. The reason for this delay is the presence of the African easterly jet, which places strong negative meridional zonal wind gradients over the coast to preserve the inertially stable environment. When the African easterly jet moves farther north due to the seasonal solar forcing, these gradients weaken and then reverse to satisfy the threshold condition for inertial instability; the rapid end of the Guinean coast rainy season follows. The northward movement and intensity of the African easterly jet are controlled by the seasonal development of strong meridional land surface temperature gradients and are independent of the formation of the Atlantic cold tongue. This explanation for the West African monsoon jump relates the phenomenon to the shape and location of the African continent, including the low-latitude position of the Guinean coast and the large expanse of the continent to the north.

  13. Operation experience with consolidated road supports at the West mine; Betriebserfahrungen mit hoch verguetetem Streckenausbau auf dem Bergwerk West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmans, Karl-Heinz [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Bergwerk West Kamp-Lintfort; Hellwig, Rainer [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistikdienste

    2012-07-01

    The extraction depth at the West mine has increased continuously over the last 10 years. Rock control on the faces and roads is of crucial importance because of the greater depths and the associated higher rock pressure and due to the more extensive workings. Highly developed support sections are combined with innovative bolt technology on the roads to ensure the efficiency of the workings. These high rock mechanical loads can be anticipated in particular in working district 1 WN in the Girondelle 5 seam at the West mine. Panels 630 and 632 in the 1 WN district are at a depth of about 1300 m. Both panels worked at the same time are separated by a pillar approx. 220 m wide. Hence the gate roads in this working district are predestined for the use of highly consolidated road supports.

  14. Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta Mining District, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, L.H.; Kirk, Nordstrom D.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acid mine drainage has acidified large volumes of water and added high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals to West Squaw Creek, a California stream draining igneous rocks of low acid-neutralizing capacity. During mixing of the acid sulfate stream waters in the South Fork of West Squaw Creek with an almost equal volume of dilute uncontaminated water, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Al remained in solution rather than precipitating or adsorbing on solid phases. Changes in the concentration of these generally conservative metals could be used to determine relative flow volumes of acid tributaries and the main stream. An amorphous orange precipitate (probably ferric hydroxides or a mixture of ferric hydroxides and jarosite) was ubiquitous in the acid stream beds and was intimately associated with algae at the most acid sites. Relative sorption of cations decreased with decreasing water pH. However, arsenic was almost completely scavenged from solution within a short distance from the sulfide sources.

  15. Determination of antibiotic residues in the pasteurized milk produced in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirin Forouzan; Amir Rahimirad; Roya Seyedkhoei; Jafar Asadzadeh; Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To monitor antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran.Methods:In this study, 848 pasteurized milk samples were collected from factories and tested for the presence of antibiotic residues using the Copan test kit based on the manufacturer’s instructions.Results:Results indicated that 30.14% of samples were contaminated with a variety of antibiotics based on the detection of associated residues and 3.19% of these samples were suspected. Given the current rise of antimicrobial resistance among microbial pathogens, these findings amplify the need to ensure continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk that intended for human consumption.Conclusions:Continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk may improve human health but also limit the development and transmission of antibiotic resistant strains in the environment.

  16. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, D [National Science Foundation; Bromwich, DH [Ohio State University; Russell, LM [Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Verlinde, J [The Pennsylvania State University; Vogelmann, AM [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and this warming is closely connected with global sea level rise. The discovery of rapid climate change on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) has challenged previous explanations of Antarctic climate change that focused on strengthening of circumpolar westerlies in response to the positive polarity trend in the Southern Annular Mode. West Antarctic warming does not yet have a comprehensive explanation: dynamical mechanisms may vary from one season to the next, and these mechanisms very likely involve complex teleconnections with subtropical and tropical latitudes. The prime motivation for this proposal is that there has been no substantial atmospheric science or climatological field work on West Antarctica since the 1957 International Geophysical Year and that research continued for only a few years. Direct meteorological information on the WAIS has been limited to a few automatic weather stations for several decades, yet satellite imagery and meteorological reanalyses indicate that West Antarctica is highly susceptible to advection of warm and moist maritime air with related cloud cover, depending on the location and strength of low pressure cells in the Amundsen, Ross, and Bellingshausen Seas. There is a need to quantify the role of these changing air masses on the surface energy balance, including all surface energy components and cloud-radiative forcing. More generally, global climate model simulations are known to perform poorly over the Antarctic and Southern Oceans, and the marked scarcity of cloud information at southern high latitudes has so far inhibited significant progress. Fortunately, McMurdo Station, where the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility’s (ARM’s) most advanced cloud and aerosol instrumentation is situated, has a meteorological relationship with the WAIS via circulation patterns in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. We can therefore gather sophisticated data with cloud

  17. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilevand, Nahid; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P). In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births) were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05), whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts. PMID:26600829

  18. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P. In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05, whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts.

  19. Localization of West Nile Virus in monkey brain: double staining antigens immunohistochemically of neurons, neuroglia cells and West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xianli; Ren, Junping; Xu, Fangling; Ferguson, Monique R; Li, Guangyu

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause encephalitis or meningitis that affects brain tissue, which can also lead to permanent neurological damage that can be fatal. To our knowledge, no consistent double immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells, and WNV has yet been reported. To establish a method for performing double-label immunohistochemical detection of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV, examining the pathological characteristics of WNV-infected neurons, neuroglia cells, and inves...

  20. THE QUEST FOR A SUPRANATIONAL ENTITY IN WEST AFRICA: CAN THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES ATTAIN THE STATUS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadesola O Lokulo-Sodipe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To reflect the growing trends in the international scene and in furtherance of the objective of its Revised 1993 Treaty, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS summit in December 2006 revolutionised the structure of ECOWAS by re-designating the Executive Secretariat into a quasi-independent commission headed by a President with a Vice President and seven commissioners. The rationale behind the revision was to make ECOWAS a supranational entity. This article considers whether or not a supranational system is essential for the attainment of ECOWAS' objectives. It asks if the conditions for an effective supranational system are in place in the West African sub-region which could provide a solid foundation for its success and why the quest for a supranational system has not yielded any fruitful result in West Africa. It argues that a retreat from the quest for supranationalism and a return to an inter-governmental system would be a retreat rather than the way forward, and expresses the need for the course of action to be sustained courageously till the impact of integration begins to emerge, and the disguised, patriotic impulse of states to protect their national sovereignty gives way to the full manifestation of ECOWAS as a supranational entity.

  1. Petrology of the Plutonic Rocks of west-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    A series of plutons in west-central Alaska defines the Hogatza plutonic belt which extends for about 200 miles in an east-west direction from the northeastern Seward Peninsula to the Koyukuk River. The plutonic rocks have an aggregate area of about 1,200 square miles and their composition, distribution, and possible petrogenesis are discussed for the first time in this report. Field, petrographic and chemical data supported by K/Ar age dating indicate the plutonic rocks are divisible into two suites differing in age, location, and composition. The western plutons are mid-Cretaceous (~100 m.y.) in age and consist of a heterogeneous assemblage of monzonite, syenite, quartz monzonite. Associated with these granitic rocks is a group of alkaline sub-silicic rocks that forma belt of intrusive complexes extending for a distance of at least 180 miles from west-central Alaska to the Bering Sea. The complex at Granite Mountain shows a rare example of zoning from an alkaline rim to a quartz-bearing core. The occurrence of a similar complex at Cape Dezhnev on the easternmost tip of Siberia suggests the alkaline province may extend into Siberia. The easternmost plutons are Late Cretaceous (180 m.y.) in age and composed primarily of granodiorite and quartz monzonite similar to calc-alkaline plutons found throughout the North America Cordillera. The plutons are epizonal and intrude deformed but unmetamorphosed Lower Cretaceous andesitic volcanics and volcanic graywacke which constitute the highly mobile Yukon-Koyukuk volcanogenic province of west-central Alaska. No older rocks have been found within the confines of this vast tract; the occurrence of a bounding ophiolite sequence has lead to the suggestion that the province was formed by large-scale rifting and is underlain by oceanic crust. The possibility of no juvenile sialic crust over much of the area suggests that the potassium-rich magma now represented by the alkaline rocks originated in the mantle. The distribution of the

  2. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: → The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. → The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. → The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. → The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  3. Magnetotelluric array data analysis from north-west Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Jones, A. G.; Pedersen, L. B.; Becken, M.; Biolik, M.; Cherevatova, M.; Ebbing, J.; Gradmann, S.; Gurk, M.; Hübert, J.; Jones, A. G.; Junge, A.; Kamm, J.; Korja, T.; Lahti, I.; Löwer, A.; Nittinger, C.; Pedersen, L. B.; Savvaidis, A.; Smirnov, M.

    2015-06-01

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 synchronous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites was occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. We estimated MT transfer functions in the period range from 0.003 to 105 s. The Q-function multi-site multi-frequency analysis and the phase tensor were used to estimate strike and dimensionality of MT data. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 2-D behaviour of the data with 3-D effects at some sites and period bands. In this paper we present 2-D inversion of the data, 3-D inversion models are shown in the parallel paper. We choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Seven crustal-scale and four lithospheric-scale 2-D models are presented. The resistive regions are images of the Archaean and Proterozoic basement in the east and thin Caledonian nappes in the west. The middle and lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. The southern end of the Kittilä Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. The thickest lithosphere is in the Palaeoproterozioc Svecofennian Domain, not in the Archaean. The thickness of the lithosphere is around 200 km in the north and 300 km in the south-west.

  4. Chronic patient care at North West Province clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire van Deventer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic illnesses are a significant burden to the health services in South Africa. There is a specific national health plan whereby chronically ill patients who are acceptably controlled should be managed at clinic level. The perception has emerged that the management of primary care has not been optimal in the Southern District of the North West Province. This provided the motivation to initiate this research, namely consideration of chronic patient care at clinics in the North West Province of South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at four randomly selected clinics covering four sub-districts in the Southern District (North West Province. This was done using charts and registers at the clinics. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18, and presenting with the following chronic illnesses: asthma/chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD, hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy. The major focus areas were the regular assessment of the patients, the level of control of the illness and the use of the Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines (EDL/STG.Results: In the cases of all the chronic illnesses it was found that regular assessments were poorly done, with asthma (peak flow measurements being the most poorly done. Control was generally less than 50% for all the illnesses, although the EDL was followed fairly well by the personnel at the clinics.Conclusion: In the light of the burden of chronic illness the results give cause for great concern about the quality of care for chronically ill patients, and reasons were sought for some of the poor results. A subsequent decision was taken to carry out comprehensive quality improvement projects on each of the illnesses over the following five years.

  5. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  6. Laboratory Response to Ebola - West Africa and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Tara K; Erickson, Bobbie R; Taboy, Céline H; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Andrews, Sharon E; Rose, Laura E; Weirich, Elizabeth; Lowe, Luis; Klena, John D; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Rayfield, Mark A; Bird, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa highlighted the need to maintain organized laboratory systems or networks that can be effectively reorganized to implement new diagnostic strategies and laboratory services in response to large-scale events. Although previous Ebola outbreaks enabled establishment of critical laboratory practice safeguards and diagnostic procedures, this Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need for planning and preparedness activities that are better adapted to emerging pathogens or to pathogens that have attracted little commercial interest. The crisis underscored the need for better mechanisms to streamline development and evaluation of new diagnostic assays, transfer of material and specimens between countries and organizations, and improved processes for rapidly deploying health workers with specific laboratory expertise. The challenges and events of the outbreak forced laboratorians to examine not only the comprehensive capacities of existing national laboratory systems to recognize and respond to events, but also their sustainability over time and the mechanisms that need to be pre-established to ensure effective response. Critical to this assessment was the recognition of how response activities (i.e., infrastructure support, logistics, and workforce supplementation) can be used or repurposed to support the strengthening of national laboratory systems during the postevent transition to capacity building and recovery. This report compares CDC's domestic and international laboratory response engagements and lessons learned that can improve future responses in support of the International Health Regulations and Global Health Security Agenda initiatives.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389781

  7. Correlating east-west asymmetries in the Jovian magnetosphere and the Io sodium cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, William H.; Combi, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Three east-west intensity asymmetries in the Jupiter system that would appear to an earth observer in optical S+, extreme ultraviolet S++ and optical Na emissions are reviewed. The three asymmetries imply that some combination of the plasma torus number densities and electron temperature is, on the long-term average, larger west of Jupiter than east of Jupiter. A small east-to-west electric field, previously proposed to explain the ion intensity asymmetries, is also shown to provide a natural explanation for the sodium intensity asymmetry. A long-term average east-to-west electric field of about 3 mV/m and a corresponding west-to-east offset of about 0.16 Jupiter radii for the plasma torus at Io's orbital distance are implied. On a shorter time scale, the east-west electric field appears to be time variable and may be readily monitored from earth by observations of the sodium cloud.

  8. West Nile virus infection and diplopia: a case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahal U

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Udip Dahal,1 Neville Mobarakai,1 Dikshya Sharma,2 Bandana Pathak11Department of Medicine, Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Nepalgunj Medical College, Banke, NepalAbstract: West Nile virus is a neurotropic virus transmitted to humans via an infected mosquito bite. The increase in the incidences and fatalities of West Nile virus disease has made West Nile virus an important pathogen. Here we describe a case of a 65-year-old man with fever and diplopia presenting to the emergency department during a fall season and who was later diagnosed with West Nile virus infection. Diplopia is an uncommon manifestation of West Nile virus and recognition of the different modes of presentation, especially the uncommon ones like diplopia, will aid in the diagnosis of this emerging infectious disease.Keywords: West Nile virus, diplopia, ocular manifestations, infectious disease, Flaviviridae

  9. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a vetical projection with geometric seam correction.

  10. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305 (Polar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Unpaid overtime in Germany : differences between East and West

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Silke

    2003-01-01

    Although the standard work week is longer in East than in West Germany, there is a higher incidence and average amount of unpaid overtime worked in the new states. We try to explain the striking differences in unpaid overtime by analyzing the labor supply side. We focus on the investment character of overtime and examine whether workers use unpaid extra hours to signal higher productivity so as to reduce the risk of losing their job. Using panel data from the SOEP and approximating the risk o...

  12. Sex Segregation and Wage Gaps in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan Jurajda; Heike Harmgart

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we examine occupational and firm-level sex segregation and their relationship with wages in West Germany and in East Germany, where anti- discrimination policies were recently implemented. We employ a representative sample of social-security wage records from 1992 and 1995, including a matched employer-employee sub-sample. We find large differences in the size of the wage gap, but not in the degree of segregation across the two parts of Germany. In contrast to U.S. literature Ge...

  13. A digital controller for the Omega West Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new nuclear reactor control system for the Omega West Reactor (OWR) has been designed to replace the aging and hard to maintain controller presently installed. The controller uses single board computers, digital and analog input and output modules, and stepping motor indexers installed on a standard bus (VME bus). The eight poison control rod drive motors are replaced with stepping motors. The control algorithm for the OWR was not changed in order to expedite approval for installation. This report presents the results of the development of the new control system. Included in the report are copies of some of the software that drives the new controller

  14. Rapid dynamic thinning on Upernavik Icestream, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Csatho, Bea M; Joughin, Ian R; Bamber, Jonathan L; Hjortborg Timm, Lars; Wahr, John M

    2011-01-01

    Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI) in West Greenland) as a result of significant accelerations in flow speed. The situation across Greenland continues to evolve. Evidence from GRACE (Velicogna, 2009), GPS (Khan, 2010) and ICESat (Pritchard, 2009) suggest that there is an ongoing northward migration of increasing ice loss....... Here, we focus on Upernavik Icesteam, Northwest Greenland, and show that dynamic thinning on short timescales has been dominating the region at least twice between 1985 and 2010. We map changes on Upernavik Icesteram during 2003-2009 using high-resolution ICESat (Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite...

  15. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kenis, M.; Koné, N.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; E. Devic; G.K.D. Koko; V.A. Clottey; S. Nacambo; G.A. Mensah

    2014-01-01

    In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practi...

  16. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system

  17. Locus, equity, and the West Valley nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a case study in locational equity, the West Valley story, while still incomplete, illustrates some major dimensions of the radioactive waste problem. There are diverse interested parties in radioactive waste management, and their inter-relationships are complex. The gains and losses are complex, with some corporations, some governmental institutions, and some local residents benefiting, with others losing, and yet others with mixed balance sheets. Since the waste eventually ends up in someone's back yard, there is almost surely a mismatch between the diverse locational interests and those institutions that propose to represent them. The legal, social, and political complexities rival the significant technical problems. 17 references, 4 figures, 6 tables

  18. Lung function in West Sussex firemen: a four year study.

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfield, K; Guyatt, A R; Cooper, F. M.; Buckman, M P; Cumming, G

    1988-01-01

    Although firefighting is a hazardous occupation, published evidence of long-term lung damage in firemen is inconsistent. A group of 96 men from the West Sussex Fire Brigade, which covers a simi-rural, semi-urban area, were followed up for between one and four years. They included 31 non-smokers, 40 smokers, and 25 ex-smokers. After four years 12 firemen had been lost to the study. A control group of 69 volunteers, consisting of non-smoking men from various other occupations, were followed up ...

  19. Genetically delivered antibody protects against West Nile virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pereboev, Alexander; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Tsuladze, George; Shakhmatov, Mikhail; Hudman, Deborah; Kazachinskaia, Elena; Razumov, Ivan; Svyatchenko, Viktor; Loktev, Valery; Yamshchikov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Gene-based delivery of recombinant antibody genes is a promising therapeutic strategy offering numerous advantages including sustained antibody levels, better safety profile and lower production cost. Here we describe generation of a recombinant antibody Fc-9E2 comprising a fusion protein between human Fc of IgG1 and a single-chain Fv derived from a hybridoma 9E2 secreting a mAb neutralizing West Nile virus (WNV). Fc-9E2 was shown to retain parental mAb's specificity and WNV-neutralizing capa...

  20. Slip Distribution of the 2001 West India Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.; Sato, T.; Negishi, H.

    2001-12-01

    We used the orientation and size of the fault determined from our aftershock results to carry out an inversion of teleseismic data for the slip distribution of the 2001 West India earthquake. Previous inversions for this earthquake have been done by but these solutions did not use the constraints on the fault geometry that are now available. Choosing the correct fault plane from the two nodal planes of the focal mechanism and limiting the mainshock source area to the size of the aftershock region affects the slip distribution. We used 19 teleseismic P waveforms which were well distributed in azimuth in a finite-fault inversion on a grid of 80 subfaults. Since the observed waveforms look similar at all azimuths, we decided that there was not much time resolution and used only one time window. The results of the inversion for the various rupture velocities tested, did not show significant differences. We show the results for a rupture velocity of 2.9 km per sec. The results of the inversion show that the largest area of slip is close to hypocenter. This asperity is about 10 km x 20 km with a maximum slip of about 10 meters. The area of large slip in the region of the hypocenter corresponds closely to the area of most severe damage in the villages east of Bhuj. This area probably experienced very strong shaking from the rupture of the asperity. Bhuj, is located more than 30 km west from the closest portion of the fault and probably experience somewhat lower levels of ground motions, as seen in the intensity distribution. The character of the slip distribution appears different from other shallow earthquakes of equal size. The area of the fault is small for a Mw7.7 event. Comparing the slip distribution of the 2001 West India earthquake to the similarly sized (Mw7.7) 1999 Taiwan earthquake. The Taiwan earthquake is spread out over a larger area and shows a more complicated slip distribution. These difference can also be seen in the teleseismic waveforms. The India

  1. The alignment of the CERN west area neutrino facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the alignment (completed in the spring of 1995) of the rebuilt CERN West Area neutrino beam line which is directed to the two neutrino experiments CHORUS and NOMAD. The neutrino target (T9)and the magnetic horn were aligned with respect to the proton beam using the intensity of the secondary particles produced and the intensity and profile of the muons detected in the pits in the beam line shielding. The improved geometry provides a better-centred neutrino beam (within 5 cm of the nominal centre) and a significant increase in the neutrino flux of 8% at the experiments. (orig.)

  2. New Burns Centre in Parma Hospital, West Emilia Hub

    OpenAIRE

    Caleffi, E.; Bocchi, A.; Soncini, I.; Arena, A.

    2008-01-01

    Parma Hospital is the Trauma Centre for SIAT (Trauma Patients Integrated Assistance System) in the West Emilia District in the regional trauma patient project. SIAT's goal is to provide the quickest and most appropriate treatment in major trauma patients. Extensive burns are a multi-organ pathology, i.e. a major life-threatening trauma. Our burn patients are treated on the "Hub and Spoke" model: triage and immediate transfer from the Spoke (first- and second-level Centre) to the Hub (third-le...

  3. Statistical data on butane and kerosene in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives statistical, technical and economical informations on butane and kerosene used in West Africa in 1990. In a first part, informations on gas and gas using are given: market, energy efficiency, performance, safety, distribution, storage, transport and commercialization. Statistical data on petroleum and natural gas production or consumption are also described. Natural gas and petroleum reserves in Africa are also studied. In the second part, thirty country entries give an economic analysis of each african country. 21 figs., 19 tabs., 5 maps

  4. Argonne-West Waste Characterization Area for mixed TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory-West has developed characterize and repackage transuranic mixed waste, the Waste Characterization Area (WCA). This new facility is designed to current Department of Energy design criteria for radioactive waste handling facilities Characterization and repackaging of real waste within the WCA began in April 1994. Characterization operations include visual examination of solid waste and drum headspace and inner bag gas sample collection and analysis. Additions planned for the WCA in late 1994 include equipment for sludge waste core sample extraction, preparation, and analysis. This paper addresses general design strategy, facility features, and specialized equipment associated with the WCA

  5. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  6. Nepenthes diversity in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve - West Sumatra

    OpenAIRE

    DWI MURTI PUSPITANINGTYAS; HARY WAWANGNINGRUM

    2007-01-01

    Nepenthes is one of carnivorous plants which very popular as ornamental plant. Most of them grow in mountain forest habitat above 1.000 m a.s.l. Sumatra has the richest Nepenthes flora after Borneo, with 29 species. The observation was done in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve - West Sumatra. According to this inventory in Sulasih Talang Nature Reserve, there are 6 species can be found in this area, which 5 species are endemic to Sumatra, that are N. pectinata, N. inermis, N. bongso, N. spathu...

  7. ARkStorm: A West Coast Storm Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Ralph, F. M.; Dettinger, M. D.; Porter, K.; Perry, S. C.; Barnard, P. L.; Hoover, D.; Wills, C. J.; Stock, J. D.; Croyle, W.; Ferris, J. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Miller, M.; Wein, A.; Rose, A.; Done, J.; Topping, K.

    2009-12-01

    The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is preparing a new emergency-preparedness scenario, called ARkStorm, to address massive U.S. West Coast storms analogous to those that devastated California in 1861-62. Storms of this magnitude are projected to become more frequent and intense as a result of climate change. The MHDP has assembled experts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USGS, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, the State of California, California Geological Survey, the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and other organizations to design the large, but scientifically plausible, hypothetical scenario storm that would provide emergency responders, resource managers, and the public a realistic assessment of what is historically possible. The ARkStorm patterns the 1861 - 1862 historical events but uses modern modeling methods and data from large storms in 1969 and 1986. The ARkStorm draws heat and moisture from the tropical Pacific, forming Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) that grow in size, gain speed, and with a ferocity equal to hurricanes, slam into the U.S. West Coast for several weeks. Using sophisticated weather models and expert analysis, precipitation, snowlines, wind, and pressure data the modelers will characterize the resulting floods, landslides, and coastal erosion and inundation. These hazards will then be translated into the infrastructural, environmental, agricultural, social, and economic impacts. Consideration will be given to catastrophic disruptions to water supplies resulting from impacts on groundwater pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence. Possible climate-change forces that could exacerbate the problems will also be evaluated. In contrast to the recent U.S. East and Gulf Coast hurricanes, only recently have scientific and technological advances documented the ferocity and strength of possible future

  8. Out of (West) Africa—Who Lost in the End?

    OpenAIRE

    OLLIARO, PIERO; Lasry, Estrella; Tiffany, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    On October 29, 2014, 4 days before the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) to be held in New Orleans, LA, meeting registrants received an e-mail letter from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals stating "we have requested that any individuals that will be traveling to Louisiana following a trip to the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone or have had contact with an Ebola-infected individual remain in a self-quaranti...

  9. Accelerated sea-level rise from West Antarctica.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, R.; RIGNOT, E.; Casassa, G.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Acuña, C; Akins, T; Brecher, H; Frederick, E; Gogineni, P; Krabill, W.; Manizade, S; Ramamoorthy, H; Rivera, A; Russell, R.; Sonntag, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent aircraft and satellite laser altimeter surveys of the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica show that local glaciers are discharging about 250 cubic kilometers of ice per year to the ocean, almost 60% more than is accumulated within their catchment basins. This discharge is sufficient to raise sea level by more than 0.2 millimeters per year. Glacier thinning rates near the coast during 2002-2003 are much larger than those observed during the 1990s. Most of these glaciers flow into flo...

  10. Risk Maps of Lassa Fever in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet; David John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the peri...

  11. Yellowcake road leads west: uranium mining in Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is remarkable how much can change in a short period of time. Back in early September 2008 collective wisdom pointed to the Australian resources industry being shielded from the worst of the financial meltdown being experienced by other major economies worldwide, and all eyes were on South Australia and the Northern Territory as our uranium production centres. Fast forward six months and were are certainly feeling the pain of the global economic slowdown, and the policy banning uranium production in Western Australia (WA) has been lifted following a change of state government. Eyes are now turning west to focus on the numerous opportunities in WA.

  12. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -an overview. Bulletin Deccan College Research Institute, Pune 44:153-163 Kumar S, Rao GV (1982) Geographical and Quaternary history of the west coast of Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra. First National Seminar Quaternary Environmental Papers. Marh 58 (ed) Hin... dustan Publication Company, Delhi, pp 311-318 Pascoe EH (1964) A Manual of the geology of India and Bunna. Goverment of India Press, New Delhi, 1906-1907, P Russel RJ, McIntire WG (1965) Southern hemisphere beach rock. 115 Indian Ocean Studies Technical...

  13. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  14. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Belant Jerrold L; Minnis Richard B; Wang Guiming; Wax Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local econom...

  15. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-12-09

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system.

  16. Facility modeling of West Utility Straight Tunnel Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project Management Organization (PMO) and the Conventional Construction Division (CCD) of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) used the computer as a tool to build a repository for both physical and attribute information, in graphical and textual forms, related to vital technical and conventional components of the West Utility Straight Section of the SSC main tunnel. CCD and the PMO realized the benefits of computer intelligent modeling during conceptual design of the technical component configurations in this tunnel section. Benefits included interference resolutions, time savings, visual problem solving, underground space conceptualization, redefinition of multiple ''what-if'' concept scenarios, and the preparation of design requirements

  17. Facility modeling of west utility straight tunnel section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Project Management Organization (PMO) and the Conventional Construction Division (CCD) of the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) used the computer as a tool to build a repository for both physical and attribute information, in graphical and textual forms, related to vital technical and conventional components of the West Utility Straight Section of the SSC main tunnel. CCD and the PMO realized the benefits of computer intelligent modeling during conceptual design of the technical component configurations in this tunnel section. Benefits included interference resolutions, time savings, visual problem solving, underground space conceptualization, redefinition of multiple open-quotes what-ifclose quotes concept scenarios, and the preparation of design requirements

  18. Subsidence of the West Siberian Basin: Geophysical evidence for eclogitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina M.

    2013-04-01

    The West Siberian basin is the world's largest intracratonic sedimentary basin. The basin basement consists of complexes of island arcs, terranes, micro-continents, and relict ocean basins which amalgamated during late Proterozoic-Paleozoic orogenic events up to the formation of the Pangea super-continent. The basin was affected by rifting and flood basalt eruption in the Permian-early Triassic (ca 250 Ma), which was floowed by rapid late Triassic (190 Ma) subsidence, as observed in borehole data from the axial part of the Ob rift (Saunders, 2005). Widely distributed subsidence of the north and central parts of the basin took place in the Jurassic with accumulation of 1,5- 3 km sediments. Two other subsidence episodes in the early Cretaceous and in the Late Cretaceous to Cenozoic led to deposition of 2-3 km of sediment in the north-eastern and axial parts. (Rudkevich, 1976). Most of the present-day West Siberian basin lacks surface topography, whereas the reliefs of the Moho and the top of the basement have amplitudes of ca. 20 km and 15 km, respectively (Cherepanova et al., 2012). Modeling suggests that the thermal lithosphere is 130km thick in the West Siberian basin, up-to 260 km in the Siberian craton further east, and 90 km in the axial part of the basin under the Ob rift (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001). Assuming local isostatic equilibrium and no effect of dynamic topography (which probably is a valid approximation for most of the region, except for the southern margin and the Urals), we examine the relative contributions of the crust and the lithospheric mantle to maintaining the surface topography. Lithosphere buoyancy is controlled by thicknesses and densities of the crust and the lithospheric mantle, and therefore by composition, metamorphic state, and temperature. Crustal thickness and density are constrained by our new regional crustal model, which is based on a quality-controlled compilation of all seismic models published in international and Russian

  19. [The development of nursing schools in East and West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the various nursing schools in East and West Germany. In the 1980s and early 1990s the professionalization of nursing was still in its infancy there compared with Anglo-America. There were attempts to professionalize nursing that were meant to enhance the quality of nursing as well as lead to improved working conditions. As part of the political debates in the field after German reunification, the nursing schools in the former east were also affected by reform efforts. From the 1960s, diploma courses in nursing studies and in the teaching of medicine had been offered in the east and, up into the 1990s, these courses were repeatedly modified and adapted to educational requirements. The study also tries to establish the extent to which the academization of nursing in the reunified Germany was driven by the concurrence of the different training routes in West and East. It analyses above all the diverse study syllabi and lengths of training. What also emerged was that, despite all the positive impulses arising from the East German training models, the continuous changes in training in the GDR not only served to improve the nursing qualifications but also to promote identification with the socialist system and its political ideology. In addition, the teaching of theory was never prominent in East German nursing, while, in the west, theory was increasingly asked for and eventually also implemented. The possibility, in the former east, to study the teaching of medicine definitely made an impact on the nursing training in the west after the reunification and the subject is now offered at universities there, too. Despite all that, the concept of "professional nursing," which needs to be practised in a practical, patient-oriented way, and on a scientific basis, is again being discussed since the introduction of Bachelor and Master study courses. The process of professionalizing and academizing the nursing schools and further training courses clearly

  20. Traffic simulation of Beijing west railway station north area

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun Lu; Zhanping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years the problem of traffic congestion and its management has become increasingly prominent. It is a hot research about how to make full use of computer simulation technology to make transportation more rational and more organized. In this paper, we focus on traffic of Beijing West Railway Station north area, and try to find a way to reduce traffic congestion in this area. Approach: In this paper, we studied the traffic flow by survey. We also built a traffic simulation mo...

  1. Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...

  2. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 104 R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 107 R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells

  3. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  4. In vitro cytotoxic activity of Brazilian Middle West plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Talal Suleiman Mahmoud; Maria Rita Marques; Cláudia do Ó Pessoa; Leticia V. C. Lotufo; Hemerson I. F. Magalhães; Manoel O.de Moraes; Dênis P. de Lima; Aristeu G. Tininis; José Eduardo de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic activity of eight plant extracts, native from the Mid-West of Brazil comprising Cerrado, Pantanal and semideciduous forest, was evaluated for MDA-MB-435, SF-295, and HCT-8 cancer cell strains. A single 100 µg.mL-1 dose of each extract was employed with 72 h of incubation for all tests. Doxorubicin (1 µg.mL-1) was used as the positive control and the MTT method was used to detect the activity. Cytotoxicity of distinct polarities was observed in thirty extracts (46%), from different p...

  5. Evaluation of Potential Land Productivity in Wulushan, West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The general situation of the total land resources in Wulushan, West China was studied by field investigations with the aid of a GIS software, called Region Manager. The current status of land use in Wulushan is described. The potential land productivity was evaluated by a fuzzy comprehensive method. We take each plot as a basic unit of evaluation on the basis of an index system of land resources in Wulushan which was developed from the investigation data. Evaluation of potential land productivity is the key part of land management. A guideline is presented in this paper for a proper utilization of the land resources and to develop the productive capacity of the land.

  6. Political culture and the labour movement: a comparison between Poplar and West Ham, 1889-1914

    OpenAIRE

    Banks-Conney, Diana Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    This thesis compares two areas of East London, Poplar and West Ham,that ultimately became strongholds of the Labour Party. The thesis attemptsto answer the crucial question of why, prior to 1914, it seemed as if Labour had succeeded in South West Ham but had failed to achieve similar representation in Poplar. This thesis considers that although contemporaries had identified similar social and economic problems in both Poplar and West Ham in the early twentieth century, more detailed analysis ...

  7. The Double German Transformation: Changing Male Employment Patterns in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Simonson; Laura Romeu Gordo; Nadiya Kelle

    2011-01-01

    Before the 90s, men's employment careers in East and West Germany were quite similar, despite their widely differing institutional settings. Before reunification, employment biographies were mainly dominated by full-time employment in both East and West. After 1989 the GDR was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany and almost all East German institutions were supplanted by adapted West German institutions. In the present paper we use SOEP data to analyse whether the East German lab...

  8. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay; Indrani Bhattacharyya; Srima Adhikary; Saiantani Mondal; Jayashree Konar; Nidhi Dawar; Asit Biswas; Nemai Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or...

  9. A benchmark comparison of East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Sleifer, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a level comparison of the East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954. According to this estimate, which is based on the quantity approach, the East German industrial labour productivity in 1954 amounted from 61.6 to 64.7 percent of the West German level. For the manufacturing sector only the relative labour productivity amounted from 58 to 60 percent of the West German level. East German relative labour productivity based on value added is somewhat higher ...

  10. Latest Developments in Construction and Operation of West-East Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ West- East Gas Pipeline to considerably increase tax revenues for Xijiang Based on the information made available from CNPC, the 941-kilometer segment of the West-East gas pipeline in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, when put into operation, will add more than 1 billion yuan to the local revenues of taxes in the region per year.With an investment of more than 120 billion yuan,the West-East gas pipeline is one of China's major projects in this century.

  11. Research on Development Strategy of Industry of Edible Beans in West China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhou-ping; Xie, Song-feng; Li, Hai-ju; Zhou, Tao; Liu, Yun-hua; Zhang, Bao-jun

    2011-01-01

    The West China is main producing region and advantageous producing region of edible beans. Developing industry of edible beans in West China has prominent regional advantage, production advantage, quality advantage, market advantage, and price advantage. We analyze the problems existing in the process of development of industry of edible beans in West China as follows: the cognition is insufficient; fund for scientific research is short; the basic research is weak; the planting is sparse; the...

  12. West Virginia – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia state law provides no protection for public employees against job discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Recent legislative attempts to amend West Virginia’s Human Rights Act to prohibit such discrimination have failed. At the local level, two cities and two universities in West Virginia have included sexual orientation in their codes or policies related to employment discrimination.

  13. Research on Impact Mechanism and Power System of Urbanization in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the current situation of urbanization development in West China, this paper analyses main factors responsible for sluggish urbanization in West China as follows: impact of environment factor, impact of population quality and quantity, lagging of public product service, stagnancy of technological development, backwardness of slow growth, and rigidity of system building. And then this paper analyses the restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China: at the superficial level, the constraints of urbanization in West China arise from the shortage of capital; at the profound level, the backward culture contributes to the constraints of urbanization in West China. The thread of resolving restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China is put forward from system, economy and culture. On the basis of this thread, we construct the power system for the development of urbanization in West China. The power system for urbanization in West China should be propelled by "four forces", namely, pull of external forces, cohesive strength of regional market environment, expansion power inside countryside, traction of industrial structure adjustment. Innovation is the engine of impetus for urbanization in West China; spatial clustering and modernization of industry is the major driving force for urbanization; the government behaviour, driving of foreign investment, great projects and other forces are supplementary power. Via the main power, we should take the market as medium to achieve the role of power in promoting urbanization.

  14. Implementation of Location Base Service on Tourism Places in West Nusa Tenggara by using Smartphone

    OpenAIRE

    Karya Gunawan; Bambang Eka Purnama

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed to create an application that can assist users in finding information about tourism places in West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. West Nusa Tenggara is one of the provinces in Indonesia and one of the second tourists’ destinations after Bali. It is a small Sunda Island which consists of two large islands located in the west of Lombok and Sumbawa that located in the east to the capital of Mataram on the island of Lombok. The area of West Nusa Tenggara province is 19,708.79 km2. T...

  15. The West Dean Archaeological Project: research and teaching in the Sussex Downs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Sillar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005/2006 West Dean College and the associated West Dean Estate in West Sussex have provided the home for practical training of Institute of Archaeology students, for both the initiation ritual of the Experimental Archaeology Course (“Prim Tech” and for the field training courses undertaken at the end of the first year. It is also the location of a long-term research project, aimed at understanding human occupation and land use in this part of the South Downs from prehistory to the present day. In this article the authors describe the first two years of activity of the West Dean Archaeological Project.

  16. Renin angiotensinogen system gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension among people of West African descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, L M; Christensen, D L; Gjesing, A P

    This systematic review investigates the high level of hypertension found among urban dwellers in West Africa and in the West African Diaspora in the Americas in relation to variants within the genes encoding the renin angiotensinogen system. For comparison, the results from the Caucasian populati......This systematic review investigates the high level of hypertension found among urban dwellers in West Africa and in the West African Diaspora in the Americas in relation to variants within the genes encoding the renin angiotensinogen system. For comparison, the results from the Caucasian...

  17. Introducing Seawater China for Sustainablefrom Bohai Sea to WestDevelopment in the Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenChangli

    2004-01-01

    Sustained and profound aridization process in north-west China in Tertiary and Quaternary period and time of mankind history are discussed. The rain-creased function of 3 set high mountain condensation systems in north-west China is recognized once more. A sandstorm happened on 20th March 2002 in Alasan and Ejinaqi areas was very strong and arrived in Japan and Korea. For saving Alasan area from sandstorm a way of introducing sea water from Bohai to Alasan has been proposed. Four problems are replied in this paper. It is concluded that introducing sea water from Bohai to west China is the best way for sustainable development of west China.

  18. Spent fuel treatment and mineral waste form development at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. Both mineral and metal high-level waste forms will be produced. The mineral waste form will contain the active metal fission products and the transuranics. Cold small-scale waste form testing has been on-going at Argonne in Illinois. Large-scale testing is commencing at ANL-West

  19. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Environment, Safety and Health ''Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES ampersand H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; ''root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES ampersand H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas

  20. Characteristic of Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarif Taib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of small-scale food industries have different characteristics with industrial cluster in general. These characteristics need to know to develop a plan for cluster development. This study was conducted to determine charasteristics clusters of small-scale food industry, especially in West Sumatra. For the analysis of the components of industrial and technological components that affect the development of small-scale food industry cluster in West Sumatra. All variables influence the level of industrial components and technology components were analyzed using the program "Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS". The survey results revealed that the industrial component is influenced by the core industry (level of difficulty in capital gain and raw materials, the buyer (customer satisfaction, related industry (quality and continuity of supply of packaging and institutional support (coaching on marketing and capitalization as well as guidance on the production of sanitary and food safety. Component technology is influenced by organoware (production management and marketing management and humanware (innovation and trust among the members.

  1. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  2. Public opinion and nuclear power - a West Cumbrian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work investigates the factors which might influence public opinion regarding the nuclear power industry, and the accuracy of existing theories about that opinion. West Cumbrian opinion is of particular interest, because the area has the highest concentration of the nuclear power industry in the UK, and might thereby represent a potentially 'nuclear-friendly' area which would contrast with the increasing scepticism reported in the rest of the country, and indeed across much of the industrialised world. The factors which may influence public opinion are analyzed in three ways. Firstly, historical factors are presented in an account of the development of the nuclear power industry. Next, the socio-economic situation and traditions of West Cumbria are examined, in order to assess particular local influences on public opinion. Thirdly, the public relations methods of important local and national groups are examined in the light of public relations theories, in order to assess the ability of such groups to influence public opinion (a new avenue of research related to nuclear power). (Author)

  3. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  4. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  5. Data quality objectives for the initial K West fuel examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were established for the examinations of the first group of fuel samples shipped from the K West Basin to the Hanford 327 Building hot cells for examinations to support the Path Forward recommended to solve the safety and environmental concerns associated with the deteriorating fuel in the K Basins. A separate DQO will be prepared for each future shipment of samples to the hot cells. The material stored in the K West Basin must ultimately be removed from the basin and placed in a stable storage configuration until it can be disposed of in a repository. The condition of the fuel in the closed canisters is a major uncertainty for any of the proposed actions. The major question to answer is what are the conditions of the materials in the closed canisters? The data to be gathered during the canister opening, handling, transport, associated hot cell handling, and examinations will also support decisions related to the Path Forward primarily in areas of transportation and the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) design

  6. Climate change impacts on runoff in West Africa: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, P.; Ducharne, A.; Feyen, L.

    2014-07-01

    This review summarizes the impacts of climate change on runoff in West Africa, assesses the uncertainty in the projections and describes future research needs for the region. To do so, we constitute a meta-database made of 19 studies and 301 future runoff change values. The future tendency in streamflow developments is overall very uncertain (median of the 301 points is 0% and mean +5.2%), except for (i) the Gambia River, which exhibits a significant negative change (median = -4.5%), and (ii) the Sassandra and the Niger rivers, where the change is positive (+14.4% and +6.1%). A correlation analysis revealed that runoff changes are tightly linked to changes in rainfall (R = 0.49), and to a smaller extent also to changes in potential evapotranspiration. Other parameters than climate - such as the carbon effect on plant water efficiency, land use dynamics or water withdrawals - could also significantly impact on runoff, but they generally do not offset the effects of climate change. In view of the potential changes, the large uncertainty therein and the high vulnerability of the region to such changes, there is an urgent need for integrated studies that quantify the potential effects of these processes on water resources in West Africa and for more accuracy in climate models rainfall projections. We especially underline the lack of information concerning projections of future floods and droughts, and of interannual fluctuations in streamflow.

  7. Clinical Sentinel Surveillance of Equine West Nile Fever, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saegerman, C; Alba-Casals, A; García-Bocanegra, I;

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical...... is of importance to enhance awareness and better understanding and to optimize surveillance designs for clinical detection of WNF in horses in advance of epidemic activity affecting humans.......West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical...... data issued from a passive epidemiosurveillance network from September 2010 to December 2011 on horses in Spain were statistically compared and used to develop a predictive diagnostic decision tree, both with the aim to improve the early clinical detection of WNF in horses. Although clinical signs were...

  8. Epidemiological history and phylogeography of West Nile virus lineage 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Peletto, Simone; Cella, Eleonora; Giovanetti, Marta; Lai, Alessia; Gabanelli, Elena; Acutis, Pier Luigi; Modesto, Paola; Rezza, Giovanni; Platonov, Alexander E; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2013-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in Uganda. In Europe WNV was sporadically detected until 1996, since then the virus has been regularly isolated from birds and mosquitoes and caused several outbreaks in horses and humans. Phylogenetic analysis showed two main different WNV lineages. The lineage 1 is widespread and segregates into different subclades (1a-c). WNV-1a includes numerous strains from Africa, America, and Eurasia. The spatio-temporal history of WNV-1a in Europe was recently described, identifying two main routes of dispersion, one in Eastern and the second in Western Europe. The West Nile lineage 2 (WNV-2) is mainly present in sub-Saharan Africa but has been recently emerged in Eastern and Western European countries. In this study we reconstruct the phylogeny of WNV-2 on a spatio-temporal scale in order to estimate the time of origin and patterns of geographical dispersal of the different isolates, particularly in Europe. Phylogeography findings obtained from E and NS5 gene analyses suggest that there were at least two separate introductions of WNV-2 from the African continent dated back approximately to the year 1999 (Central Europe) and 2000 (Russia), respectively. The epidemiological implications and clinical consequences of lineage 1 and 2 cocirculation deserve further investigations. PMID:23542457

  9. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km2, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  10. The West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Chibueze, James; Lepo, Kelly; White, Heidi; Zhang, Jielai; Izuikedinachi Okoh, Daniel; Reid, Michael; Hunter, Lisa; EKEOMA Opara, Fidelis

    2015-08-01

    In October 2013 over 75 undergraduate science students and teachers from Nigeria and Ghana attended the week-long West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers. We expect an even broader audience for the second offering of the school (to be held July 2015), supported by a grant from the OAD (TF1). These schools are organized by a collaboration of astronomers from the University of Toronto, the University of Nigeria, and the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency. We design and lead activities that teach astronomy content, promote students' self-identity as scientists, and encourage students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. Equally important, we design intertwined evaluation strategies to assess the effectiveness of our programs. We will describe the broader context for developing astronomy in West Africa, the inquiry-based and active learning techniques used in the schools, and results from the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of student performance. We will also describe longer-term plans for future schools, supporting our alumni, and building a sustainable partnership between North American and Nigerian universities.

  11. A petrochemical investigation of the cyndas subsuite, west of Upington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cyndas batholith, a subsuite of the Keimoes Suite, occurs about 70km west of Upington over an area of 450 km2. The elongated north-west-trending body consists of ten different granitoid phases including a granodiorite, a charnockite, some normal biotite granites and several highly differentiated alkali granites. A detailed petrographic investigation was carried out on the cyndas batholith in which the mineralogical and textural variations were determined between the different phases and also within each phase. The change in mineralogy is reflected in the linear variation diagrams of both major and trace elements. The behaviour of Ba, Rb and Sr indicates that the differentiation process was dominated by fractional crystallization. Plagioclase fractionation played an important role throughout the crystallization history. Rb-Sr and Ba-Rb ratios reflected the degree of differentiation of each phase and correspond with the sequence of emplacement as determined by intrusive field relationships. The magnetite-series and I-type character of the cyndas batholith suggests a deepseated magma source and magma generation by partial melting of igneous material. The emplacement of this magma at the final stage of the Namaqua tectogenesis produced the cyndas batholith. 168 refs., 116 figs., 30 tabs

  12. Strategies for regional integration of electricity supply in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve peoples' living conditions in West African countries national governments have to considerably reinforce the electricity supply infrastructures. Rehabilitation of the existing installations and construction of new power generation facilities and transmission lines require substantial resources which are tremendously difficult to raise due to the region's specific economical and political conditions. This paper examines the long-term prospects for integrated development of the regional electricity industry and evaluates its advantages by using PLANELEC-Pro, a 'bottom-up' electricity system expansion planning optimisation model. The evolution of regional electricity market is analysed on the basis of two strategies. The 'autarkical' strategy consists in adequate expansion of national power generation systems and the exchanges of electricity between the countries in sub-zones. Another approach referred to as 'integration' strategy is recommended in this article. It leads to fast retirement of the obsolete power plants and the integration of new investment projects at the level of whole West African sub-region. The main finding is that the regional integration strategy is capable to bring about additional benefits in terms of reduced capital expenditures, lower electricity supply cost and the enhanced system's reliability compared to the autarkical strategy

  13. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2004-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re 1 μPa) @ 1 m.

  14. Redox forecasting in the West Valley vitrification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charter of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is to develop a reliable process to convert high-level radioactive waste into a borosilicate glass form to ensure safe, permanent disposal in a federal repository. The West Valley vitrification process combines the wastes with glass forming oxides and reducing agents, then melts the resulting slurry in a joule heated, Slurry Fed Ceramic Melter (SFCM) at 1150 degrees C. In preparation for safe and reliable radioactive operations, full-scale vitrification tests using simulated high-level radioactive waste were conducted at the WVDP from December 1984 to December 1989. The full-scale testing was supported by laboratory testing to provide data to validate process models and to qualify the glass product composition. Included in this program was a series of tests designed to develop a model, based on feed characteristics, to forecast the redox behavior during vitrification. In this study, feed characteristics (e.g., reductants and oxidizers) impacting the redox behavior were varied over a wide range. The redox data collected from the laboratory studies were analyzed and were used to forecast redox in the final, full-scale product based on the feed characteristics. Results indicate that redox is sensitive to the shifts in TC, NO3, and H2O concentrations in the feed. As expected, total carbon acts as a reducing agent while NO3 and H2O act as oxidizing agents

  15. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  16. Desertification, refugees and regional conflict in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, O

    1990-06-01

    This article documents the potential for inter-state conflict in the migration of hundreds of thousands of famine refugees across international borders in West Africa. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, have to deal not only with the effects of land degradation in their northern territories but also with the influx of famine victims from Mali, Niger, Chad and Burkino Faso. These migrations put an enormous extra burden on the fragile and already overstretched social and economic infrastructures of the host countries. The construction of dams for irrigation and electricity generation in international river basins, is another cause of inter-state conflict related to land degradation. The capacity of West African states to find peaceful solutions to these problems is being undermined by the increasing impoverishment and marginalisation of their populations. A self-serving neo-colonialist governing elite is caught in the economic stranglehold of the advanced capitalist nations. While there is thus no short term solution to the problem of land degradation, immediate steps should at least be taken to give legal protection to those who are forced to cross international borders because of drought and famine. PMID:20958699

  17. Technical safety appraisal of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of one in a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of DOE nuclear operations by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health Office of Safety Appraisals TSAs are one of the ititiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE environment, safety and health program. This report presents the results of a TSA of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The appraisal was conducted by a team of exerts assembled by the DOE Office of Safety Appraisal and was conducted during onsite visits of June 26-30 and July 10-21, 1989. West Valley, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, New York is the location of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility operated in the United States. Nuclear Fuels Services, Inc. (NFS) operated the plant from 1966 to 1972 and processed about 640 metric tons of spent reactor fuel. The reprocessing operation generated about 560,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste, which was transferred into underground tanks for storage. In 1972 NFS closed the plant and subsequently decided not to reopen it

  18. Quaternary forest associations in lowland tropical West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial fossil pollen records are frequently used to reveal the response of vegetation to changes in both regional and global climate. Here we present a fossil pollen record from sediment cores extracted from Lake Bosumtwi (West Africa). This record covers the last c. 520 thousand years (ka) and represents the longest terrestrial pollen record from Africa published to date. The fossil pollen assemblages reveal dynamic vegetation change which can be broadly characterized as indicative of shifts between savannah and forest. Savannah formations are heavily dominated by grass (Poaceae) pollen (>55%) typically associated with Cyperaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Forest formations are palynologically more diverse than the savannah, with the key taxa occurring in multiple forest zones being Moraceae, Celtis, Uapaca, Macaranga and Trema. The fossil pollen data indicate that over the last c. 520 ka the vegetation of lowland tropical West Africa has mainly been savannah; however six periods of forest expansion are evident which most likely correspond to global interglacial periods. A comparison of the forest assemblage composition within each interglacial suggests that the Holocene (11-0 ka) forest occurred under the wettest climate, while the forest which occurred at the time of Marine Isotope Stage 7 probably occurred under the driest climate.

  19. Aspects of uranium mineralization in the Beaufort West Karoo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution and controlling factors of uranium mineralization in the sedimentary rocks of the Lower Beaufort Group have been investigated in the Beaufort West area between 220O' and 240O'E longitude and 320O' and 32045'S latitude. The mineralization is classified as 'primary' or 'secondary', depending on the time of emplacement and not on the oxidation state of the uranium minerals present. Petrographic and geochemical aspects of primary uranium deposition point to a syngenetic origin. Reconstruction of the paleodepossitional environment suggests that the primary mineralization is restricted to paleo-pools or -meander cut-offs where stagnant reducing conditions existed. From geological mapping done to the south of Beaufort West it appears that this uranium mineralization is located in an 'intermediate' paleo-depositional zone between the true fluvial and delta front environments. The indications of secondary uranium distribution and epigenetic concentration in 'rolls' within the area were studied along with various other aspects of such mineralization. The permeability of the arenaceous rocks in the area seems to be too low to host large uranium deposits of this kind. Detail geochemical soil sampling suggests that Zn, P, Co and As could be used as pathfinder elements for uranium. Although regional anomalies were investigated no meaningful pattern could be developed

  20. Prognostic value of SPECT in newly diagnosed symptomatic west syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 19 cases with newly diagnosed symptomatic West syndrome, we assessed interictal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) before ACTH therapy with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Based on the SPECT findings, we divided these cases into 3 groups: normal rCBF (Group A, 7 cases), abnormal rCBF corresponding to cerebral lesions on MRI and CT (Group B, 6 cases), and abnormal rCBF in areas different from lesions on MRI and CT (Group C, 6 cases). We compared clinical features, response to initial treatment, and short-term outcome among these 3 groups. No significant differences were found in clinical characteristics (sex, age of onset, prior seizures before onset of spasms, EEG findings). Four cases in Group B (67%) and 5 in Group C (83%) showed complete cessation of spasms after initial treatment (high dose vitamin B6→zonisamide→ACTH therapy), while in Group A only 2 patients (29%, p>0.05; compared to Group B or Group C) responded. Although not statistically significant, short-term prognosis (both seizures and development) after a mean follow-up of 2 years and 8 months was also worst in Group A. Our results suggest that normal SPECT findings may be predictive of unfavorable prognosis in infants with symptomatic West syndrome. (author)