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Sample records for akashiwo ccmp452 west

  1. 有明海,八代海,及び鹿児島湾の海底泥中における有害赤潮ラフィド藻 Heterosigma akashiwo のシストの分布

    OpenAIRE

    今井, 一郎; 奥田, 亜友美; 板倉, 茂; 山口, 峰生

    2014-01-01

    The fish-killing flagellate Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) has a cyst stage in the life cycle. The cysts play an important role functioning as resistant cells to survive adverse environments. They also play a key role in initiating red tides in early summer in temperate coastal waters. Abundance and distribution of viable H. akashiwo cysts possessing germination ability in bottom sediments were investigated in Ariake Sea, Yatsushiro Sea, and Kagoshima Bay, west and south coast...

  2. The effect of UV-B radiation enhancement on the interspecific competition between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hui; TANG Xuexi; ZHANG Peiyu; CAI Hengjiang

    2005-01-01

    The responses of the interspecific competition between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo to UV-B radiation enhancement were studied by the co-culture method. The results showed that Heterosigma akashiwo exhibited inhibition on the growth of Skeletonema costatum, and with the increase of initial inoculation density of Heterosigma akashiwo, heavier inhibition on Skeletonema costatum appeared. Under different inoculation proportions, Heterosigma akashiwo could always be in predominance in competition with Skeletonema costatum. The UV-B radiation treatment could change the competition relationship between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, which could increase the competitive dominance of Skeletonema costatum and decrease the competitive dominance of Heterosigma akashiwo. When the inoculation proportions of Heterosigma akashiwo and Skeletonema costatum were H:S=1:4 and H:S=1:1, Skeletonema costatum was in predominance in this competition; however, Heterosigma akashiwo was in predominance when the inoculation proportion was H:S=4:1.

  3. Development of real-time PCR method for rapid detection and quantification of Heterosigma akashiwo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shan-ying; YU Zhi-gang; MI Tie-zhu

    2008-01-01

    To rapidly detect the harmful algae H. Akashiwo qualitatively and quantitatively, sequences of the 18S rDNA deduced from H. Akashiwo were used for designing species-specific primers, and a RFQ-PCR (Real-time Fluorescent Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) method was developed for quantitative detection of H.akashiwo. Primer H. Akashiwo and TaqMan probe were designed, and the specificity of primer was checked with PCR. A calibration curve was constructed with cycle threshold value against visual counted cell number. And the value of the curve was tested with other H. Akashiwo samples, which were assayed with both the RFQ-PCR method and visual count under microscope.

  4. Effect of CO2 enrichment on competition between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Da; Zhou, Bin; Wang, You; Ju, Qing; Yu, Qingyun; Tang, Xuexi

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the effect of CO2 enrichment and initial inoculum density on competition between Skeletonema costatum and Heterosigma akashiwo, two common algae seen in algal blooms. The initial inoculum density (0.2×104, 0.4×104, 0.8×104 cells/ml) had a significant effect on population growth and competition between H. akashiwo and S. costatum. The time required for population growth to reach the exponential growth phase and stationary phase decreased significantly as the initial density increased. When the two species were cultured together, S. costatum tended to outcompete H. akashiwo, especially when present at higher initial ratios. CO2 enrichment (5 000 μl/L CO2) increased the maximum population density and carrying capacity of H. akashiwo but decreased these measures for S. costatum. Thus, CO2 enrichment favored the growth of H. akashiwo over S. costatum.

  5. The effects of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo on cultures of Schmackeria inopinus (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Juan; Yang, Guipeng; Tian, Jiyuan

    2010-10-01

    Harmful effects of red tide dinoflagellates on copepods have gained particular attention in recent years. In this study, monocultures and mixed cultures of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo and the non-harmful alga Isochrysis galbana were utilized as diets to investigate the ingestion, reproduction and recruitment of the copepod Schmackeria inopinus. When compared with a monoculture of I. galbana, a sole diet H. akashiwo apparently inhibited ingestion rates, proportions of gravid female (PGFs), egg production rates (EPRs), gross growth efficiencies (GGEs) and recruitment of S. inopinus. We found that the harmful effects of H. akashiwo on the abundance of S. inopinus were concentration- and time-dependent. S. inopinus exhibited significantly reduced ingestion rates, EPRs and GGEs when they were fed on food mixtures of H. akashiwo (0-75% of I. galbana) in comparison with the control diet (100% of I. galbana). The data on ingestion rates and EPRs in the diet mixtures suggest that H. akashiwo is toxic to S. inopinus, which might be attributable to the glycocalyx structures in the H. akashiwo cell surface. The results in this study indicate that a bloom of H. akashiwo could cause significant stress to S. inopinus.

  6. [Effects of Ulva pertusa and Gracilaria lemaneiformis on growth of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in co-culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, You; Yu, Zhi-ming; Song, Xiu-xian; Zhang, Shan-dong

    2006-02-01

    We studied the effects of fresh tissue and culture medium filtrate of two species of macroalgae, Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) on growth of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) in co-culture. Both U. pertusa and G. lemaneiformis, and especially their fresh tissues, significantly impede the growth of H. akashiwo. Carbonate limitations and the presence of environment bacteria are not necessary for the negative effects of macroalgal on H. akashiwo. The simultaneous nutrient assays show that nitrate and phosphate are almost exhausted in the G. lemaneiformis co-culture system, but remain at acceptable levels in the U. pertusa system, when all cells of H. akashiwo are completely dead. When f/2 medium is supplied daily to G. lemaneiformis culture, the growth of H. akashiwo is greatly inhibited but not completely terminated. Furthermore, different amounts of fresh seaweed tissue, and culture medium filtrate prepared from different macroalgal concentrations are analyzed to determine their effects on the growth of H. akashiwo. The results show a positive correlation between the initial macroalgal concentration and the negative effects they exert on the co-cultured microalgae. Results suggest that the allelopathic effects of U. pertusa may be essential for negative effects on H. akashiwo; however, the combined roles of allelopathy and nutrient competition may be responsible for the negative effect of G. lemaneiformis the release of allelochemicals by U. pertusa.

  7. Effect of anthracene on the interaction between Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis and Heterosigma akashiwo in laboratory cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Rong; Wang, You; Wang, Renjun; Li, Wei; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-02-01

    Two species of marine phytoplankton, Platymonas helgolandica var. tsingtaoensis and Heterosigma akashiwo, were cultivated in bi-algal cultures to investigate the effect of anthracene (ANT) on the interaction between them. Without ANT, H. akashiwo out-competed P. helgolandica at low initial biomass ratios ( P. helgolandica ( P): H. akashiwo ( H) = 1:4 and 1:1), but not at the highest ( P: H = 4:1). This observation was consistent with the description in Lotka-Volterra two species competition model. It was found that P. helgolandica was excluded at low initial biomass ratios, while the unstable equilibrium between two species was predicted at the highest. For both species, carrying capacity and maximal specific growth rate decreased in bi-algal cultures compared to those in monocultures. H. akashiwo exhibited a higher sensitivity to ANT than P. helgolandica. This resulted markedly in a reduced cell density of H. akashiwo but an increased cell density of P. helgolandica. Carrying capacity of P. helgolandica was consistently higher in bi-algal cultures with ANT than those without ANT, suggesting that ANT, through the elimination of H. akashiwo, generated the dominance of P. helgolandica independently of initial biomass ratios. This study showed a density-dependent effect of harmful alga ( H. akashiwo) on dietary alga ( P. helgolandica), and indicated that ocean pollutant ANT could induce the succession of marine phytoplankton.

  8. Effect of Anthracene on the Interaction BetweenPlatymonas helgolandicavar. tsingtaoensis andHeterosigma akashiwo in Laboratory Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Rong; WANG You; WANG Renjun; LI Wei; TANG Xuexi

    2015-01-01

    Two species of marine phytoplankton,Platymonas helgolandicavar. tsingtaoensis andHeterosigma akashiwo, were cul-tivated in bi-algal cultures to investigate the effect of anthracene (ANT) on the interaction between them. Without ANT,H. akashiwo out-competedP. helgolandica at low initial biomass ratios (P. helgolandica (P): H. akashiwo (H)=1:4 and 1:1), but not at the highest (P:H=4:1). This observation was consistent with the description in Lotka-Volterra two species competition model. It was found that P. helgolandica was excluded at low initial biomass ratios, while the unstable equilibrium between two species was predicted at the highest. For both species, carrying capacity and maximal specific growth rate decreased in bi-algal cultures compared to those in monocultures.H. akashiwo exhibited a higher sensitivity to ANT thanP. helgolandica. This resulted markedly in a reduced cell den-sity ofH. akashiwo but an increased cell density ofP. helgolandica. Carrying capacity ofP. helgolandica was consistently higher in bi-algal cultures with ANT than those without ANT, suggesting that ANT, through the elimination ofH. akashiwo, generated the dominance ofP. helgolandica independently of initial biomass ratios. This study showed a density-dependent effect of harmful alga (H. akashiwo) on dietary alga (P. helgolandica), and indicated that ocean pollutant ANT could induce the succession of marine phytoplankton.

  9. Growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus and its possible use as a microbiological agent for red tide control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, K; Tarutani, K; Yamaguchi, M

    1999-03-01

    The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 x 10(2) lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H93616, Chattonella antiqua (a member of the family Raphidophyceae), Heterocapsa triquetra (a member of the family Dinophyceae), and Ditylum brightwellii (a member of the family Bacillariophyceae), resulted in selective growth inhibition of H. akashiwo. Inoculation of HaV01 and H. akashiwo H93616 into a natural seawater sample produced similar results. However, a natural H. akashiwo red tide sample did not exhibit any conspicuous sensitivity to HaV01, presumably because of the great diversity of the host species with respect to virus infection. The growth characteristics of the lytic virus infecting the noxious harmful algal bloom-causing alga were considered, and the possibility of using this virus as a microbiological agent against H. akashiwo red tides is discussed. PMID:10049839

  10. Growth Characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo Virus and Its Possible Use as a Microbiological Agent for Red Tide Control

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasaki, Keizo; Tarutani, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Mineo

    1999-01-01

    The growth characteristics of Heterosigma akashiwo virus clone 01 (HaV01) were examined by performing a one-step growth experiment. The virus had a latent period of 30 to 33 h and a burst size of 7.7 × 102 lysis-causing units in an infected cell. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the virus particles formed on the peripheries of viroplasms, as observed in a natural H. akashiwo cell. Inoculation of HaV01 into a mixed algal culture containing four phytoplankton species, H. akashiwo H9...

  11. Chloroplast His-to-Asp signal transduction: a potential mechanism for plastid gene regulation in Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs Michael A

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of homeostasis requires that an organism perceive selected physical and chemical signals within an informationally dense environment. Functionally, an organism uses a variety of signal transduction arrays to amplify and convert these perceived signals into appropriate gene transcriptional responses. These changes in gene expression serve to modify selective metabolic processes and thus optimize reproductive success. Here we analyze a chloroplast-encoded His-to-Asp signal transduction circuit in the stramenopile Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada Hada ex Y. Hara et Chihara [syn. H. carterae (Hulburt F.J.R. Taylor]. The presence, structure and putative function of this protein pair are discussed in the context of their evolutionary homologues. Results Bioinformatic analysis of the Heterosigma akashiwo chloroplast genome sequence revealed the presence of a single two-component His-to-Asp (designated Tsg1/Trg1 pair in this stramenopile (golden-brown alga. These data represent the first documentation of a His-to-Asp array in stramenopiles and counter previous reports suggesting that such regulatory proteins are lacking in this taxonomic cluster. Comparison of the 43 kDa H. akashiwo Tsg1 with bacterial sensor kinases showed that the algal protein exhibits a moderately maintained PAS motif in the sensor kinase domain as well as highly conserved H, N, G1 and F motifs within the histidine kinase ATP binding site. Molecular modelling of the 27 kDa H. akashiwo Trg1 regulator protein was consistent with a winged helix-turn-helix identity – a class of proteins that is known to impact gene expression at the level of transcription. The occurrence of Trg1 protein in actively growing H. akashiwo cells was verified by Western analysis. The presence of a PhoB-like RNA polymerase loop in Trg1 and its homologues in the red-algal lineage support the hypothesis that Trg1 and its homologues interact with a sigma 70 (σ70 subunit (encoded by

  12. Improvement of lipid production in the marine strains Alexandrium minutum and Heterosigma akashiwo by utilizing abiotic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Grünewald, C; Garcés, E; Alacid, E; Sampedro, N; Rossi, S; Camp, J

    2012-01-01

    Two different strains of microalgae, one raphidophyte and one dinoflagellate, were tested under different abiotic conditions with the goal of enhancing lipid production. Whereas aeration was crucial for biomass production, nitrogen deficiency and temperature were found to be the main abiotic parameters inducing the high-level cellular accumulation of neutral lipids. Net neutral lipid production and especially triacylglycerol (TAG) per cell were higher in microalgae (>200% in Alexandrium minutum, and 30% in Heterosigma akashiwo) under treatment conditions (25°C; 330 μM NaNO(3)) than under control conditions (20°C; 880 μM NaNO(3)). For both algal species, oil production (free fatty acids plus TAG fraction) was also higher under treatment conditions (57 mg L(-1) in A. minutum and 323 mg L(-1) in H. akashiwo). Despite the increased production and accumulation of lipids in microalgae, the different conditions did not significantly change the fatty acids profiles of the species analyzed. These profiles consisted of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in significant proportions. However, during the stationary phase, the concentrations per cell of some PUFAs, especially arachidonic acid (C20:4n6), were higher in treated than in control algae. These results suggest that the adjustment of abiotic parameters is a suitable and one of the cheapest alternatives to obtain sufficient quantities of microalgal biomass, with high oil content and minimal changes in the fatty acid profile of the strains under consideration. PMID:21766212

  13. Growth and physiological responses of a tropical toxic marine microgalga Heterosigma akashiwo (Heterokontophyta: Raphidophyceae) from Singapore waters to varying nitrogen sources and light conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jerome Wai Kit; Yeo, Darren Chong Jinn; Leong, Sandric Chee Yew

    2015-09-01

    Strains of Heterosigma akashiwo have been identified in Singapore waters, but there have been few studies detailing the biology of such tropical strains. Management of such species is important for the integrity of aquaculture industries, as well as for food safety and public health. Coastal modifications may, however, be altering the productivity of such species. This study investigated the effects of two anthropogenic factors—nitrogen (N)-pollution and light-shading—upon a single strain of H. akashiwo which was isolated from Singapore waters. The study observed that H. akashiwo strains grew well under the pulsed supply of three N-sources—ammonium, nitrate, and urea. Growth rate values suggest its ability to out-grow diatom species, which typically dominate coastal environments. The light absorption capacity highlighted potential response dissimilarity under the different N-regime conditions. Light experiments also demonstrated the ability of H. akashiwo to tolerate decreased light conditions, which allow it to thrive at depth. The ability to accumulate intracellular stores of N-nutrients was also demonstrated and can be important for sustaining cell productivity. This study therefore indicated how poor management of coastal environments may enhance the bloom potential of such toxic bloomforming species.

  14. Allelopathic effects of macroalga Corallina pilulifera on the red-tide forming alga Heterosigma akashiwo under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renjun; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-03-01

    Over the past few years, harmful algal blooms (HABs), such as red tides, have been frequently observed in coastal zones worldwide. The natural allelopathic interactions among macroalgae and red tide microalgae can alter the structure and succession of aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the influence of four environmental factors (temperature, salinity, light, and pH) on the allelopathic effects of the macroalgae Corallina pilulifera on red-tide forming Heterosigma akashiwo under laboratory conditions. Each of the factors had four levels: temperature (15, 20, 25, and 30°C), salinity (10, 20, 30, and 40), light (20, 100, 200 and 400 μmol/(m2•s)), and pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, and 10. Two-factor experiments were designed for each two environmental factors, with six combination treatments (temperature-salinity, temperature-light, temperature-pH, salinity-light, salinity-pH, and light-pH). Results showed that the allelopathic effect was significantly influenced by temperature, salinity, light, and pH. As single factors, the low temperature (15°C), low salinity (10), high-intensity light (400 μmol/(m2•s)), and high pH (10) treatments substantially enhanced the allelopathic effect. The strongest allelopathic effect of C. pilulifera on H. akashiwo was observed under the following treatments: 15°C and salinity of 40, 25°C and pH 10, 25°C with medium- to high-intensity light at 200-400 μmol/(m 2 •s), 400 μmol/(m2•s) and salinity of 10, 400 μmol/(m2•s) and pH 10, and pH 10 with a salinity of 40.

  15. The link between shrimp farm runoff and blooms of toxic Heterosigma akashiwo in Red Sea coastal waters

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    Zakaria A. Mohamed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In May 2010 a copious bloom of the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo was observed for the first time in Red Sea waters off the coasts of Saudi Arabia.This bloom was confined to an area where water and phytoplankton flow freely between the sea and a shrimp farm. The phytoplankton density and physico-chemical characteristics of the sea water were therefore investigated weekly at bloom and non-bloom sites in order to gain insightinto the environmental factors prevailing at the bloom site and their link with the shrimp farm runoff. The bloom site showed higher nutrient concentrations than the non-bloom site, indicating the possible role of the shrimp farm in flushing nutrients into this site. The bloom appeared on 27 May, coinciding with a decrease in salinity (19°C. The results of toxicological assays showed that both bloom samples and batch cultures of H. akashiwo were toxic toArtemia salina and exhibited haemolytic activity with respectto rabbit erythrocytes.Bloom samples showed a higher toxicity (LC50=8.9 ×10^4 cells ml-1 and haemolytic activity (EC50=3.64 × 104cells ml-1 than the batch cultures (LC50=11.6 × 104 cells ml-1, EC50=5.1 imes 104 cells ml-1. In the light ofthe results of this study, the link between H. akashiwoblooms and shrimp farm runoff should be considered during the monitoring of Red Sea coastal waters for the presence of harmful algal blooms.

  16. Behavioral and physiological changes during benthic-pelagic transition in the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo: potential for rapid bloom formation.

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    Elizabeth D Tobin

    Full Text Available Many species of harmful algae transition between a motile, vegetative stage in the water column and a non-motile, resting stage in the sediments. Physiological and behavioral traits expressed during benthic-pelagic transition potentially regulate the timing, location and persistence of blooms. The roles of key physiological and behavioral traits involved in resting cell emergence and bloom formation were examined in two geographically distinct strains of the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Physiological measures of cell viability, division and population growth, and cell fatty acid content were made using flow cytometry and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry techniques as cells transitioned between the benthic resting stage and the vegetative pelagic stage. Video-based tracking was used to quantify cell-level swimming behaviors. Data show increased temperature and light triggered rapid emergence from the resting stage and initiated cell swimming. Algal strains varied in important physiological and behavioral traits, including survivorship during life-stage transitions, population growth rates and swimming velocities. Collectively, these traits function as "population growth strategies" that can influence bloom formation. Many resting cells regained the up-swimming capacity necessary to cross an environmentally relevant halocline and the ability to aggregate in near-surface waters within hours after vegetative growth supporting conditions were restored. Using a heuristic model, we illustrate how strain-specific population growth strategies can govern the timescales over which H. akashiwo blooms form. Our findings highlight the need for identification and quantification of strain-specific physiological and behavioral traits to improve mechanistic understanding of bloom formation and successful bloom prediction.

  17. 赤潮异弯藻对孔石莼生长及其某些生理特性的影响%Effects of Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada on the growth and physiological characteristics of Ulva pertusa Kjellm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡恒江; 李博; 刘长发

    2012-01-01

    通过实验生态学和生物化学的方法,研究了赤潮异弯藻[ Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada]对孔石莼(Ulva pertusa Kjellman)生长及其叶绿素a(Chl-a)含量、丙二醛(MDA)含量、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活力、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力和谷胱甘肽过氧化酶(GPX)活力的影响.结果表明:孔石莼的克生作用会明显抑制赤潮异弯藻的生长,同时赤潮异弯藻也会抑制孔石莼的生长,且孔石莼生理生化特性对其有明显的响应.赤潮异弯藻会使孔石莼CAT活力和MDA含量呈现升高的趋势;GPX活力呈现下降的趋势;T-AOC和T-SOD活力呈现先下降后升高趋势;Chl-a含量并无明显变化.推测赤潮异弯藻克生作用诱导孔石莼产生活性氧自由基,是藻体受损伤的主要原因.%The effects of Heterosigma akashiwo ( Hada) Hada on the growth,physiological characteristics including Chl-a content,MDA content,T-AOC,CAT activity,SOD activity and GPX activity of Ulva pertusa Kjellman were studied by experimental ecology and biochemical methods.The results demonstrated that U.pertusa could inhibit the growth of H.akashiwo,and H.akashiwo could inhibit the growth of U.pertusa simultaneously.The effects of U.perlusa on physiological characteristics were obvious.The MDA content and,CAT activity showed increasing trend,but GPX activity showed decreasing trend while T-AOC and T-SOD showed decreasing trend from 3d to 6d and increasing trend from 9d to 12d under allelopathy from H.akashiwo.The change of Chl-a content was not obvious.Superfluous reactive oxygen species produced by allelopathy from H.akashiwo was main reasons for the damage of U.pertusa.

  18. Primary analysis on red tide of Akashiwo sanguinea in winter in Xiamen Sea%厦门海域一次冬季血红哈卡藻赤潮的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国斌

    2012-01-01

    According to the monitoring data of Akashiwo sanguinea red tide occurred in Xiamen Sea in January and February 2009,the characteristic of red tide,the relationships of environmental factors and the density of Akashiwo sanguinea were analyzed.The results showed that the red tide event was the earliest and the longest one in Xiamen Sea.Akashiwo sanguinea had more competitive advantages over Skeletonema costatum and had a strong adaptability to water temperature change during the red tide,and the reproduction could be simulated by higher salinity.Besides,Akashiwo sanguinea had more competitive advantages in inorganic phosphorus limited environment and was benefited by the high nitrogen.%本文根据2009年1—2月厦门海域一次冬季血红哈卡藻赤潮的调查数据,分析本次赤潮的变化特点,并对血红哈卡藻与环境因子的关系进行初步分析。结果表明:本次赤潮是厦门海域有记载的赤潮中,发生时间最早、持续时间最长的赤潮。赤潮中血红哈卡藻比中肋条藻更具竞争优势,对水温变化的适应性很强。盐度对血红哈卡藻的繁殖具有刺激作用。在无机磷限制环境中,血红哈卡藻更具竞争优势,而无机氮含量高有利于血红哈卡藻的生长。

  19. 赤潮异弯藻对有机氮的利用能力%Capacity of Heterosigma akashiwo to utilize organic nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝晖; 杨雪; 梁瑜

    2015-01-01

    在实验室条件下,研究了赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo)对不同溶解性有机氮(DON)的响应,以揭示赤潮异弯藻种群增殖和赤潮发生的环境背景.结果表明,赤潮异弯藻可以利用多种DON,不同N源下生长优劣程度分别为苏氨酸>尿素>丙氨酸>谷氨酸> NO3->甘氨酸.在苏氨酸、尿素、丙氨酸、谷氨酸组的最大细胞数量和最大比生长率甚至明显高于无机营养盐组(NO3-),最大细胞数量为无机营养盐组的125% ~253%,但赤潮异弯藻不能有效利用丝氨酸和尿酸两种N源.赤潮异弯藻不能耐受营养盐缺乏条件,在N或P缺乏以及N、P同时缺乏的条件下,无法生长.研究结果说明,赤潮异弯藻对DON具有较强的利用能力,可使之在激烈的种群竞争中占据优势,而近岸海域的富营养化及有机污染为其赤潮的发生提供了物质基础.

  20. Nuclear rDNA and chloroplast rbcL, rbcS and IGS sequence data, and their implications from the Japanese, Korean, and North American harmful algae, Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Han, Myung-Soo

    2007-03-01

    The toxic Heterosigma akashiwo has been found in coastal environments and its algal blooms have been associated with mass mortality in marine organisms and farmed fish. Over the last two decades, H. akashiwo has expanded its geographical range on a worldwide scale, though all populations are suspected to be a single species. To find strong molecular evidence, supporting this hypothesis we determined nuclear 18S, ITS and LSU rDNA, and chloroplast rbcL, rbcS and flanking IGS sequences from six isolates located in North America, Japan and Korea. We compared individual loci from molecular regions (e.g., 26.7kbp of DNA sequence) and found all the isolates to have an identical genotype. Further, the long sequences allow us to compare all the partial sequences that have been reported from samples obtained in ten countries. All these sequence are nearly identical. This suggests that they have dispersed recently from one location. The sequences revealed here can be used as an additional option for making molecular comparisons of sequences from the same isolate. PMID:17049343

  1. Amplification and Analysis of Partial Ribosomal RNA Large Subnunit Genes Sequences of Heterosigma akashiwo Hada and Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg%赤潮异弯藻和海洋原甲藻LSU Rdna扩增及序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云伟; 董双林

    2004-01-01

    利用引物D1R和D2C扩增并测定了赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo Hada)和海洋原甲藻(Prorocentrum micans Ehrenberg)的LSU rDNA D1与D2序列,并与GenBank中相关序列进行比较分析.结果表明:在种内水平,所测的H.akashiwo 6个株系之间共有5个变异位点,序列H.k与H.k-2,H.k-4均存在碱基替换;原甲藻属不同种内各株系之间的遗传距离为0.002~0.023之间,所测序列P.mi与P.micans其他株系之间均存在碱基替换.在种间水平上,原甲藻属不同种之间的遗传距离在0.045~0.139之间,大于种内遗传距离,每个种都具有特定的保守序列.根据序列间的遗传变异,可设计特异性的探针对不同株系和物种进行检测和计数.

  2. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in the dinoflagellateAkashiwo sanguinea by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Yunyan; HU Zhangxi; MA Zhaopeng; TANG Ying Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The accurate measurement of gene expression via quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) heavily relies on the choice of valid reference gene(s) for data normalization. Resting cyst is the dormant stage in the life cycle of dinoflagellate, which plays crucial roles in HAB-forming dinoflagellate ecology. However, only limited investigations have been conducted on the reference gene selection in dinoflagellates. Gap remained in our knowledge about appropriate HKGs for normalizing gene expression in different life stages, which laid obstacles for the application of qRT-PCR to the HAB-forming group. In this study, six candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH),α-tubulin (TUA),β-tubulin (TUB), actin (ACT) and cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COX1), were evaluated for their expression stability with qRT-PCR and three statistical algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) for the cosmopolitan, harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellateAkashiwo sanguinea. Expression patterns were observed across 18 biological samples, including cells at resting stages (resting cysts), different growth stages, in darkness, exposed to abscisic acid (ABA) and exposed to temperature stress. The results indicated thatTUA,18S andGAPDH were relatively stable across all tested scenarios. While the best-recommended reference genes differed across experimental groups, the pairs ofACT andTUA,18S andGAPDH were the most reliable for cells at different growth stages and darkness treatment. The combination ofTUA andTUB was the best choice for normalization in resting cysts and in ABA treatment, respectively. The pair ofACT andCOX1 was suitable for temperature treatments. This study was the first to investigate the stable internal reference genes in dinoflagellates at different stages of life cycle, particularly in resting cysts. Our results provided useful information for selection of reference genes in dinoflagellates

  3. An Improved Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assay for the Enumeration of Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae) Cysts Using a DNA Debris Removal Method and a Cyst-Based Standard Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Jin Ho; Wang, Pengbin; Park, Bum Soo; Han, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The identification and quantification of Heterosigma akashiwo cysts in sediments by light microscopy can be difficult due to the small size and morphology of the cysts, which are often indistinguishable from those of other types of algae. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based assays represent a potentially efficient method for quantifying the abundance of H. akashiwo cysts, although standard curves must be based on cyst DNA rather than on vegetative cell DNA due to differences in gene copy number and DNA extraction yield between these two cell types. Furthermore, qPCR on sediment samples can be complicated by the presence of extracellular DNA debris. To solve these problems, we constructed a cyst-based standard curve and developed a simple method for removing DNA debris from sediment samples. This cyst-based standard curve was compared with a standard curve based on vegetative cells, as vegetative cells may have twice the gene copy number of cysts. To remove DNA debris from the sediment, we developed a simple method involving dilution with distilled water and heating at 75°C. A total of 18 sediment samples were used to evaluate this method. Cyst abundance determined using the qPCR assay without DNA debris removal yielded results up to 51-fold greater than with direct counting. By contrast, a highly significant correlation was observed between cyst abundance determined by direct counting and the qPCR assay in conjunction with DNA debris removal (r2 = 0.72, slope = 1.07, p cysts in sediment samples.

  4. Oakland, West

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  5. Effect of colloidal substances in red-tide seawater on the growth of Heterosigma akashiwo and Skeletonema costatum%赤潮水体中胶体物质对赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo)和中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum)生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫红; 崔鑫; 王江涛; 季乃云; 苗辉

    2009-01-01

    2004年2月9~10日在胶州湾发生的柔弱几内亚藻(Guinardia delicatula)赤潮期间分别在3个典型赤潮站位采集表层水样,利用过滤(0.7μm)和切向超滤(1000 Daltons)分离赤潮暴发水体中的胶体物质,分析了不同滤液及截留液的有机碳含量,并将赤潮异弯藻 (Heterosigma akashiwo)和中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema costatum)在<1000 Daltons的超滤液及具有不同含量胶体物质(1000 Daltons~0.7μm)的截留液中进行培养.结果发现在发生柔弱几内亚藻赤潮期间水体中的溶解有机碳浓度会增加,特别是胶体有机碳浓度会成倍增长;在不同胶体含量海水中培养的赤潮异弯藻的最大生长率μmax和最大生物量Bf与对照组相比会随着胶体含量的增加而显著增大,而中肋骨条藻的最大生长率μmax和最大生物量Bf与对照组相比会随着胶体含量增加而显著降低,表明柔弱几内亚藻赤潮水体中的胶体物质对赤潮异弯藻的生长起促进作用,而对中肋骨条藻的生长起抑制作用.这说明柔弱几内亚藻在增殖过程中所产生的胶体物质具有他感作用,会影响其它微藻的生长,从而可能对柔弱几内亚藻赤潮的形成起重要作用.

  6. Isolation and identification of algicidal bacteria HSY-03 and its impact on Heterosigma akashiwo%抑藻细菌HSY-03的分离、鉴定及对赤潮异弯藻生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅丽君; 林天城; 余晓琪; 郑天凌

    2016-01-01

    从福建云霄红树林区分离筛选出一株对赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo)具有较强抑藻作用的细菌,命名为HSY-03。结合16S rDNA序列分析,该菌与芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus sp.)同源性高达99.0%。通过抑藻方式研究发现菌株是通过分泌胞外活性物质抑藻,属于间接杀藻;胞外活性物质为非多糖、非脂肪、非蛋白类化合物,具有较好的光、热和酸碱稳定性;对供试13株赤潮藻未表现出溶藻效果,表明该菌株抑藻具有一定的种属特异性。菌株 HSY-03抑藻效果具有浓度效应,初始终浓度高于5.0%抑藻效果较好。不同生长时期菌株 HSY-03对赤潮异弯藻均表现出较好的抑藻效果,但菌株处于稳定期和衰亡期时抑藻效果最好。%The bacterial strain HSY-03 is closely related to the genusBacillus sp. and capable of inhibiting the toxic dinoflagellateHeterosigma akashiwo. It was isolated from the mangrove area in Yunxiao, Fujian Province, China. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and morphological characteristics, the strain HSY-03 was determined to beBacillus sp. on the basis of 99.0% similarity with reference strain sequences from the NCBI. HSY-03 indirectly attackedHeterosigma akashiwo by secreting extracellular substances. The algicidal compounds could not be proteinaceous, nucleate and polysaccharide, which showed heat tolerant and being stable in UV as well as acidic and alkaline conditions. The bacterial strain was species-specific among the 13 algae tested. There was a close interaction between initial bacterial and algae cell densities. Bacterial HSY-03 showed strong algicidal activity when the initial concentration was above 5.0%. HSY-03 showed certain algicidal effects on Heterosigma akashiwoduring different growth periods, especially during its stable and decline phases. These findings provided a novel viewpoint on biological control of harmful algal blooms and the relationship between the bacteria and algae.

  7. 温度盐度和光照条件对赤潮异弯藻细胞稳定性的影响%Effects of temperature, salinity and irradiance on the cell stability of Heterosigma akashiwo Hada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成旭; 汪飞雄; 严小军

    2008-01-01

    研究了温度、盐度和光照的不同组合条件对赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo Hada)种群生长过程中细胞相对稳定性的影响.结果表明,在温度(10、20和27℃)、盐度(10~50)和光照(高:4500~5000lx;低:1500~2000 lx)的组合条件下,细胞稳定性表现出明显差异:10℃环境温度对细胞维持相对稳定性显著有利.该温度下的各盐度和光照组合中,细胞相对稳定性比值r(固定后破裂细胞/细胞总数)始终为0,并且在整个实验周期中维持好的稳定状态;在20和27℃条件下,种群生长初期,细胞能维持较好的稳定性,r 值低,种群迅速生长时,细胞的稳定性显著减弱.

  8. 厦门同安湾海域血红哈卡藻赤潮前的自动监测研究%Automatic monitoring of Akashiwo sanguinea HAB Tong'an Bay,Xiamen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国斌

    2012-01-01

    使用2008 -2010年厦门同安湾海域血红哈卡藻赤潮前的水质在线自动监测系统数据,共计2160组,同时以人工监测数据为辅助,对该海域血红哈卡藻赤潮的诱因进行分析.研究结果表明:在同安湾海域生物、化学条件已具备的情况下,pH、溶解氧、叶绿素、营养盐并非赤潮诱因,清淤及盐度明显上升应是该海域血红哈卡藻赤潮的诱因.%According to the automatic monitoring2 160 data of Akashiwo sanguined HAB in Tong'an Bay,Xiamen from 2008 to 2010, analyse the inducement of red tide. The results of obvious clean out that pHNDO and Chl-a aren't the inducement of this red tide, sul-lage and evidence move up of salinity are the inducement of this red tide.

  9. Influence of Different N, P Nutrient Levels on the Effectiveness of Allelopathic Effect of Ulva pertusa on Heterosigma akashiwo%不同N、P营养水平对孔石莼克制赤潮异弯藻效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金秋; 金则新; 奚立民

    2012-01-01

    研究了4个不同营养水平的(N、P营养充足、N限制、P限制和N、P双限制)大型海藻孔石莼(Ulva pertusa)对同样4个不同营养水平的海洋赤潮微藻赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo)的克制效果.不同的N、P营养状况能够显著影响孔石莼克制赤潮异弯藻的效果,N限制或P限制和N、P双限制下的孔石莼对赤潮异弯藻的克制作用减弱,N限制的赤潮异弯藻对孔石莼克生物质的耐受性增强,而P限制和N、P双限制的赤潮异弯藻对孔石莼的克生物质更加敏感.研究结果表明,不同营养状况下大型海藻对海洋微藻不同程度的克生作用可能是自然海洋生态系统中,N、P营养盐动态变化引起大型海藻和微藻种群动态变化的原因之一.%Allelopathic effectiveness of Viva pertusa of four different nutrient levels (N,P sufficient; N limitation; P limitation and N,P double limitation) on Heterosigma akashiwo of the same four different nutrient levels was investigated. Different N,P nutrient levels had significant influence on the effectiveness of allelopathic effect of Viva pertusa on Heterosigma akashiwo. The allelopathic effectiveness was decreased when Viva pertusa was under N or P limitation or N, P double limitation. Cells of Heterosigma akashiwo under N limitation were more tolerant to the macroalga, while mi-croalgal cells under P limitation or N, P double limitation were more sensitive to the macroalga. Different allelopathic effectiveness of macroalgae on microalgae under different nutrient levels may be one of the mechanisms that caused different population dynamics of macroalgae and microalgae during the change of N, P nutrient in coastal areas.

  10. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  11. The exploration of interactions approach between sea lettuce Ulva pertusa and Heterosigma akashiwo%孔石莼和赤潮异弯藻相互作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡恒江; 唐学玺

    2012-01-01

    选用大型海藻——孔石莼Ulva pertusa和赤潮微藻——赤潮异弯藻Heterosigma akashiwo为试验材料,在实验室条件下研究了藻体、培养液滤液和胞内物质对生长相互作用的影响.结果表明:孔石莼和赤潮异弯藻二者之间存在克生效应,孔石莼培养液滤液和胞内物质对赤潮异弯藻生长有显著的抑制作用(P<0.01),而赤潮异弯藻培养液滤液和胞内物质对孔石莼生长亦有显著的抑制作用(P<0.01).可以推测:孔石莼可能是通过分泌次生物质来抑制赤潮异弯藻的生长,而赤潮异弯藻可能是通过细胞的直接接触和分泌次生物质完成对孔石莼生长的抑制,其抑制物均存在于藻体和培养液中.%The interactive effects of sea lettuce Ulva pertusa, a red tide microalga Heterosigma akashiwo and their extracellular filtrate and intracellular products on the growth of the sea lettuce and microalga were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. An allelopathic effect between the sea lettuce and microalga was observed, and the extracellular filtrate and intracellular product of the sea lettuce led to inhibit the growth of the microalga. The extracellular filtrate and intracellular product of the microalga was found to show inhibition of the growth of sea lettuce simultaneously, indicating that the sea lettuce release extracellular products to inhibit the growth of the microalga, while direct cell-cell contact and releasing extracellular products were responsible for inhibitory effect of the microalga on sea lettuce. The sea lettuce and the microalga were both found to release intracellular products into the culture medium filtrates to affect the growth each other.

  12. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  13. The Effect of Initial Cell Density on the Population Competition Between Alexandrium tamarense Balech and Heterosigma akashiwo Hada%不同起始浓度对塔玛亚历山大藻和赤潮异弯藻种群竞争的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董云伟; 董双林; 刘相义

    2004-01-01

    初步分析了起始浓度对塔玛亚历山大藻(Alexandrium tamarense Balech)和赤潮异弯藻(Heterosigma akashiwo Hada)种群增长的影响.在单种培养的情况下,A.tamarense与H.akashiwo的生长曲线可用逻辑斯谛增长模型拟合.不同起始浓度(0.2×104,0.5×104,0.8×104cell/mL)对A.tamarense环境容纳量(K)有明显的影响,随起始浓度的增加K有减小的趋势.H.akashiwo种群瞬时增长率(r)随起始浓度增加而增加.按不同接种比例进行混合培养,不同起始浓度对2种藻竞争的结果具有明显影响.当接种比例为A.tamarense∶H.akashiwo(A∶H)=1∶4时,H.akashiwo在竞争中占优势,而当A∶H=1∶1及A∶H=4∶1时,A.tamarense在竞争中占优势.竞争结果不仅受营养盐限制,克生物质对竞争结果亦具有重要影响.

  14. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  15. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  16. West Nile electrification project

    OpenAIRE

    Prototype Carbon Fund of the World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Metadata only record In early 2004, the West Nile Rural Electrification Company Ltd. plans to start up their new efficient diesel generators in the West Nile towns of Arua and Nebbi, to provide reliable power to the population during the day and most of the night. This is the first carbon finance project that has been approved in Uganda, with an Emission Reductions Purchase Agreement signed in March 2003. The company must expand their customer base quickly, because not only their income fr...

  17. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  18. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  19. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  20. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  1. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  2. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  3. Effects of allelopathy of Ulva pertusa Kjellm on growth and antioxidant enzymatic activies of Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) Hada%孔石莼克生作用对赤潮异弯藻生长和抗氧化系统活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡恒江; 李博; 孙禾琳

    2010-01-01

    通过实验生态学和生物化学的方法,研究了孔石莼(Ulva pertusa Kjellman)克生作用对赤潮异弯藻[Heterosigma akashiwo(nada)Hada]生长及其叶绿素a(Chl-a)含量、可溶性蛋白含量、丙二醛(MDA)含量、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活力、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力和谷胱甘肽过氧化酶(GPX)活力的影响.结果表明:孔石莼的克生作用会明显抑制赤潮异弯藻的生长,且赤潮异弯藻抗氧化系统活性对其有明显的响应.克生作用会使T-AOC和SOD活力呈现降低的趋势;MDA含量和CAT活力呈现升高的趋势;GPX活力呈现先升高而后下降趋势;Chl-a含量和可溶性蛋白含量并无明显变化.推测孔石莼克生作用诱导赤潮异弯藻产生活性氧自由基,是藻体受损伤的主要原因.

  4. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  5. West Bank and Gaza : Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza is focusing on strengthening its education system: provision of schooling is relatively equitable and increased decentralization is planned. West Bank & Gaza (WB&G) spent 1.3 percent on public education as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This year, the Palestinian Authority (PA) published a report entitled Homestretch to Freedom, which outlines the obj...

  6. 不同pH对双胞旋沟藻和血红哈卡藻生长及光合特性的影响%The response of different pH on the growth and photosynthesis of Cochlodinium geminatum and Akashiwo sanguine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 董宏坡; 李霞; 吕颂辉

    2014-01-01

    双胞旋沟藻(Cochlodinium geminatum)和血红哈卡藻(Akashiwo sanguinea)是我国近海的两种赤潮藻种.研究了不同pH(8.30、7.80、6.80)值对上述两种甲藻的生长及光合作用特性的影响.研究结果表明:经过一段时间的培养,不同pH值下两种甲藻的细胞密度产生了差异,与对照组(8.30)相比,7.80组无显著性,6.80组则呈现显著性下降(p<0.05).在两种甲藻的三组实验培养结束时,经单因素方差分析结果表明,7.80组藻细胞的叶绿素a含量、最大光合效率(Fv/Fm)、最大相对电子传递速率(rETR)与对照组差异不明显,6.80组与对照组均表现出显著性降低(p<0.05),说明弱酸pH值条件对两种甲藻的光合特性具有抑制作用.

  7. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    to unite, mobilize and struggle. Members of anti-slavery movements with slave origins accessed power positions through peaceful electoral processes in Benin, mali, Niger and Mauritania. People of slave origins gained ground in local politics of a number of municipalities. In localities where anti-slavery......In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise...... the penal code of Mali. Anti-slavery activists not only address their claims to their national governments but also intend to initiate change at local level. In that respect the democratic decentralization reforms were significant because they allowed educated anti-slavery activists to appeal their brethren...

  8. Spectrophotometry of Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Hanisch, R. J.; Thurber, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Postperihelion observations of Comet West (1975n = 1976 VI) have been made with a Fourier transform spectrometer at heliocentric distances from 0.57 to 1.68 AU. Measurements were made of the emission bands of C2, CN, C3, CH, and NH2, as well as the emission lines of Na D and forbidden (O I), and the flux in the continuum in nine different bandpasses. Several ratios of the band strengths of CN have been used to determine the two free parameters in the fluorescence equilibrium model of CN of Danks and Arpigny (1973). From the values of the parameters it is inferred that the vibrational transition probability for the ground electronic state is between 0.025 and 0.075 per sec and that the ratio of oscillator strengths between the (0-0) bands of the violet and red systems is between 25 and 30. When corrected for field-of-view effects, NH2 shows no systematic variation in abundance relative to C2 while CH shows a small increase. The cometary continuum is found to be slightly redder than the solar continuum, consistent with results for other bright, dusty comets. The equivalent width of the Delta u = 0 sequence of C2 shows a marked decrease at r(H) = 1.2 AU.

  9. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first Chinese-hosted cultural dialogue between the East and the West was held in Nishan, Shandong Province The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on September 26 at Nishan Mountain, 25 km southeast

  10. GeoPowering the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  11. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005).

  12. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  13. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly underestimated. Our discussion...

  14. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  15. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular medi

  16. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night...

  17. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  18. West Nile Virus Cases, 2006-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains positive cases of West Nile virus found in humans by county of residence, 2006-present. Humans usually become infected with West Nile virus by...

  19. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  20. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  1. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  2. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  3. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Elks. 9.172 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.172 West Elks. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “West Elks.” (b) Approved...

  4. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  5. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  6. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat...

  7. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  8. Comments on Ode to the West Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 张冬妮

    2013-01-01

      Ode to the West Wind, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley, is considered as a masterpiece in the English literature, even in the whole culture. There is no denying that Ode to the West Wind is not simply to sing of the west wind, while there are many thoughts that Shel ey wants to express. This paper has comments on it from three aspects — the revolution, the new ideas and the writer himself.

  9. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act and...: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted for the Key...

  10. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  11. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It e

  12. Environmental History in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  13. West Nile virus: a growing concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, L. Hannah; Fikrig, Erol

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has subsequently spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean. This review describes the epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus in North America and the prospects for effective treatments and vaccines.

  14. Dynamics of bacterial community during the bloom caused by Skeletonema costatum and Akashiwo sanguinea in Xiamen sea area%厦门海域2011年中肋骨条藻和血红哈卡藻赤潮期间细菌群落结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祎; 杨彩云; 李东; 田蕴; 郑天凌

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究2011年8月厦门海域爆发的由中肋骨条藻和血红哈卡藻共同引发的赤潮生消过程中细菌群落结构变化.[方法]应用变性梯度凝胶电泳技术(Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis,DGGE)对两个赤潮站位和一个非赤潮站位的细菌群落结构进行研究.通过DGGE图谱分析确定赤潮生消过程中细菌群落中的关键菌群,借助Canoco软件分析细菌菌群与环境因子的相关性.[结果]在赤潮起始阶段细菌的群落结构与pH、N/P的相关性较大,在赤潮消亡阶段细菌的群落结构与盐度、温度呈明显的正相关.γ变形杆菌(Gammaproteobacteria) (47.7%)在赤潮期间处于主导位置,假交替单胞菌属(Pseudoalteromonas)、假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、交替单胞菌属(Alteromonas)、噬氢菌属(Hydrogenophaga)、Actibacter、Oleibacter等属均为优势菌群.香农-威列多样性指数表明,赤潮站位细菌多样性随着赤潮生消呈先升高后降低趋势,而非赤潮站位细菌多样性基本保持不变.通过Canoco对细菌菌群的主成分分析发现,在赤潮开始阶段Hydrogenophaga属为优势菌群,而在赤潮消退阶段则以Pseudomonas和Pseudoalteromonas属为主.赤潮站位藻际细菌和游离细菌群落多样性在藻密度较大时均达到最大值,然而两者与环境因子的相关性有较大差别.[结论]研究结果表明赤潮站位细菌群落多样性远高于非赤潮站位,细菌丰度随着赤潮藻密度的升高而增加,细菌与赤潮藻有着密切的关系.本文首次研究了多种优势藻引发的赤潮环境下细菌群落结构的变化,这对于多种藻引发的赤潮生消过程中细菌菌群结构有了深入的了解,为赤潮调控的研究提供了理论依据.%[Objective ] To investigate the dynamics of bacterial community in Xiamen sea during the bloom mainly caused by Skeletonema costatum and Akashiwo sanguine in August 2011. [Methods] Bacterial community structures of samples from

  15. Event tourism in south west Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism events in South West Serbia are numerous and diverse regarding their origin, structure, genesis and other characteristics. This paper examines basic determinants of tourism events in South West Serbia, which is in compliance with the tendencies that tourism events should be qualitatively transformed and made highly adaptable and competitive as a part of tourism industry. The events in South West Serbia contribute to the creation of versatile tourist attractions and provide tourists with the opportunity to become more familiar with local community. It is often the case that an event, primarily designed for local population, eventually becomes very attractive for tourists.

  16. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  17. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  18. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  19. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  20. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  1. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  2. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  3. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Regina T. Riphahn; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  4. Equality of opportunity: East vs. West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Peichl, Andreas; Ungerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The case of German reunification has been subject to extensive research on earnings inequality and labor market integration. however, little is known about the development of equality of opportunity (EOp) in East and West Germany after 1990.Using German micro data, we empirically analyze how circumstances beyond the sphere of individual control explain inequality in East and West Germany. Our results suggest that equal opportunities in Germany have grown since reunification. Interestingly, EO...

  5. Music and Dress in West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Skjold, Else

    2009-01-01

    Music and dress have played a significant role in the civilization process in West Europe. Both being aesthetic fields meant to be performed and put into play by human gesture, they have proved to be efficient tools for cultivating the movements, postures and gestures of the body. The material, cut and shape of the dress has manipulated the body to move in certain ways, as have rhythms and expressions in music. Significant for West Europe has been a duality between spirit and b...

  6. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  7. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  8. On Universal Telecommunication Service and West China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the relationship between universal telecommunication service and West China development. It, firstly, introduces our country's demands for universal telecommunication service; secondly, analyses the demand of West China development for the universal telecommunication service; thirdly, depicts the development status of telecommunication industry of the west region; fourthly, points out the significance of universal telecommunication service to the west area; and lastly, brings forward the connotation of universal telecommunication service of west area.

  9. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  10. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  11. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ..., Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 2916). We received no comments on...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach...

  12. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  13. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  14. Cohabiting unions in France and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the non-marital birth pattern in France and West Germany. Since the beginning of the eighties, France witnessed a steady increase in non-marital birth rates, while in West Germany non-marital birth rates have remained at a relatively low level. We attribute these differences to the institutional and legal constraints from both sides of the Rhine which hamper or foster childbearing in cohabiting unions. Using data from the French and German Family and Fertility Survey, we apply event history modeling to the transition to marriage and first birth. Our results indicate a polarization of family forms in both countries. In West Germany, we find a polarization in a "family sector" and a "non-family sector" while in France there is a polarization in a "marriage sector" and a "cohabiting sector".

  15. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques ...... Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa....

  16. Fast recession of a West Antarctic glacier

    OpenAIRE

    Rignot, EJ

    1998-01-01

    Satellite radar interferometry observations of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, reveal that the glacier hinge-line position retreated 1.2 ± 0.3 kilometers per year between 1992 and 1996, which in turn implies that the ice thinned by 3.5 ± 0.9 meters per year. The fast recession of Pine Island Glacier, predicted to be a possible trigger for the disintegration of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, is attributed to enhanced basal melting of the glacier floating tongue by warm ocean waters.

  17. West Bank and Gaza Student Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2013-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza has focused on increasingstudent learning outcomes by improving the quality ofeducation in the country. An effective student assessment system is an important component of efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes as itprovides the necessary information to meetstakeholders’ decision-making needs. In order to gain abetter understanding of the strength...

  18. Planning CCS Development in the West Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boavida, D.; Carneiro, J.; Martinez, R.; van den Broek, M.A.; Ramirez, Andrea; Rimi, A.; Tosato, G.; Gastine, M.

    2013-01-01

    Transport and storage of CO2 are the elements in the CCS chain with the lowest cost, but they may well prove to be the elements defining the timeline for CCS development. The EU FP7 COMET project aimed to pave the road towards CCS development in the West Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Morocco).

  19. Writing the New West: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  20. Why We Need West Nile Virus Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-27

    Dr. Rodrigo Hasbun, a professor of infectious diseases at McGovern Medical School at UT Health, discusses the need for West Nile virus testing in Texas.  Created: 9/27/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2016.

  1. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  2. Territorial fragmentation of the West Bank

    OpenAIRE

    David Shearer

    2006-01-01

    A combination of checkpoints, physical obstacles and a permit system has cut the West Bank into three distinct areas – in addition to East Jerusalem. Within these areas, sub-enclaves have been created,isolating many Palestinian communities, restricting their access to services and stifling commerce.

  3. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  4. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  5. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  6. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  7. Education and Koranic Literacy in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The note examines the practical, and literate skills that students acquire at different levels in West African Koranic schools. It is a long-standing parallel system of education, yet, relatively unknown to development planers, thus seldom taken into explicit account in their policies, and strategies. Islamic educational systems have been present since the seventh century, and by the tenth ...

  8. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its borders by... of approval of the West Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You... actual language of State regulatory programs and program amendments because each program is drafted...

  9. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  10. Hangzhou:EAST CITY,WEST LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ View over West Lake,Hangzhou is in Zhejiang Province,eastern coast area of China.It is one of the most important tourism cities here,famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritages,and the political,economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province as well.

  11. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  12. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  13. Large Acrobatic Play Pilgrimage to the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁

    2006-01-01

    Hosted by Ministry of Culture and Guangzhou Municipal People's Government,Guangzhou Bureau of Culture organized a list of first-class singing and dancing and acrobatic plays in Guangzhou in September 2006. Among these plays, large original acrobatic play Pilgrimage to the West of Guangzhou Acrobatic Troupe went on the stage during October 12th and November 5th.

  14. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  15. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  16. The crustal thickness of West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A.; Sun, X.; Lloyd, A.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Winberry, J. P.; Wilson, T.

    2014-01-01

    P-to-S receiver functions (PRFs) from the Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) GPS and seismic leg of POLENET spanning West Antarctica and the Transantarctic Mountains deployment of seismographic stations provide new estimates of crustal thickness across West Antarctica, including the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS), Marie Byrd Land (MBL) dome, and the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) margin. We show that complications arising from ice sheet multiples can be effectively managed and further information concerning low-velocity subglacial sediment thickness may be determined, via top-down utilization of synthetic receiver function models. We combine shallow structure constraints with the response of deeper layers using a regularized Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology to constrain bulk crustal properties. Crustal thickness estimates range from 17.0±4 km at Fishtail Point in the western WARS to 45±5 km at Lonewolf Nunataks in the TAM. Symmetric regions of crustal thinning observed in a transect deployment across the West Antarctic Ice Sheet correlate with deep subice basins, consistent with pure shear crustal necking under past localized extension. Subglacial sediment deposit thicknesses generally correlate with trough/dome expectations, with the thickest inferred subice low-velocity sediment estimated as ˜0.4 km within the Bentley Subglacial Trench. Inverted PRFs from this study and other published crustal estimates are combined with ambient noise surface wave constraints to generate a crustal thickness map for West Antarctica south of 75°S. Observations are consistent with isostatic crustal compensation across the central WARS but indicate significant mantle compensation across the TAM, Ellsworth Block, MBL dome, and eastern and western sectors of thinnest WARS crust, consistent with low density and likely dynamic, low-viscosity high-temperature mantle.

  17. Optimal for difficult roofs. East-west orientation; Optimal fuer schwierige Daecher. Ost-West-Ausrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouattour, Mohamed Ali [Solar Frontier Europe GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    With the help of CIS solar modules the unfavorable east-west roofs can be also use efficiently and profitably, since the good weak-light performance almost compensates the weak light components characterized irradiation conditions. [German] Mit Hilfe der CIS-Solarmodule lassen sich auch die unguenstige Ost-West-Daecher effizient und profitabel nutzen, da das gute Schwachlichtverhalten die hier von schwachen Lichtanteilen gepraegten Einstrahlungsverhaeltnisse nahezu kompensiert.

  18. West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcarczyk, Kelly; McKenney, Kathryn; Smaldone, Dave; Arborgast, Doug

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia University's Extension Service partnered with the Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program to improve guide performance in West Virginia's tourism industry. The result of this partnership is a West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training program aimed at providing low-cost, widely available training to guides…

  19. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July 26, 2013...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  20. 75 FR 18517 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated March 29... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  1. 75 FR 25873 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1903-DR), dated April 23... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  2. 75 FR 39560 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated June 24, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting...

  3. 77 FR 46103 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated July 23, 2012...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  4. 77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4093-DR), dated November 27... West Virginia resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 29 to November 8, 2012, is...

  5. 75 FR 11902 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1881-DR), dated March 2, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting from...

  6. Study of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia by MRI. Correlation between West syndrome and cerebral white matter lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, Shinichiro; Nara, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masaki; Arita, Jiro; Sakamoto, Masafumi; Eda, Naruyuki; Ogawara, Yoshikazu [Saitama Children`s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan); Maekawa, Kihei

    1995-09-01

    Clinical features of West syndrome manifesting periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) were studied by MRI. The subjects were 10 patients with West syndrome associated with PVL. Occipital spike on electroencephalograms was considered an important characteristic finding of West syndrome. Patients with West syndrome associated with PVL had a lower cerebral blood flow volume at the early phase than those with cryptogenic West syndrome, suggesting a difference of pathophysiology between West syndrome with PVL and cryptogenic West syndrome. Abnormal findings on electroencephalograms and MRI, which are considered to affect the disease course, suggest the presence of cerebral cortical abnormalities, therefore, it is proved to be difficult to study the pathophysiology of West syndrome solely focusing on the findings of the cerebral cortical basal ganglia and the related parts. (Y.S.).

  7. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  8. Evaporation of ices from Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, M. F.; Thurber, C. H.; Millis, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Postperihelion narrow-band filter photometry has been used to derive gas and dust production rates for Comet West. For heliocentric distances less than 1.25 AU, C2 and CN vary as the -2.8 power of distance, while C3 and OH (based on published measurements) vary as -2.1 power. C3 production closely parallels dust production. It is concluded that OH and C3 parents are produced at the nucleus, while CN and C2 parents are produced from the icy-grain halo. It is also found that Comet West is one of the dustiest and most productive of the recent comets, being exceeded only by Comet Bennett.

  9. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    traders, and where their differences lie. Finally, we show how a combined approach can make a significant contribution to the scholarly study of space in West Africa. We argue that continuing dialogue among fields can contribute to a reassessment of development policies.......Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted...... by historians and the ‘mobile space’ approach developed by geographers view exchange centres as nodes of transnational trade networks and places in production territories, and perceive spatial dynamics as highly dependent on shifts of trade flows and production activities. The objective of this article...

  10. Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

  11. West Nile viral infection of equids

    OpenAIRE

    Angenvoort, J.; Brault, A.C.; Bowen, R A; Groschup, M.H

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted between certain species of birds and mosquito vectors. Tangential infections of equids and subsequent equine epizootics have occurred historically. Although the attack rate has been estimated to be below 10%, mortality rates can approach 50% in horses that present clinical disease. Symptoms are most commonly presenting in the form of encephalitis with ataxia as well as limb weakness, recumbency and muscle fasciculation. The most effective stra...

  12. Collaborative work between the West and Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Bart, Gavin; Li, Li; Giang, Le Minh

    2013-01-01

    The “Collaborative Work between the West and Asia” session was chaired by Dr. Yih-Ing Hser and had three speakers. The speakers (and their topics) were: Dr. Gavin Bart (Collaborative Addiction Research in Asian Populations Home and Abroad), Dr. Li Li (Implementing Intervention Research Projects in Asia), and Dr. Le Minh Giang (Building Research Infrastructure for International Collaborative Studies on Substance Use Disorder and HIV: The Case of Hanoi Medical University/Vietnam).

  13. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk product...

  14. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  15. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  16. Developing Pipeline Transportation in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Chenghan; Wang Wei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Since the late 1980s, focus of exploration and development for oil & gas has been diverted to thewest of China, resulting in the discovery and development of Shaanbei gas field followed by large-scale exploration and development of Tarim,Turpan and Hami basins. Responding to this situation, pipeline construction focus has also been transferred to west China where large-scale development of pipeline transportation, an opportunity as well as a challenge, is expected.

  17. Health Perceptions - where the East meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M. Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

  18. Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented

  19. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, X., E-mail: xavier.courtois@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Aumeunier, M.H. [OPTIS, ZE de La Farlède, F-83078 Toulon Cedex 9 (France); Joanny, M.; Roche, H.; Micolon, F.; Salasca, S.; Balorin, C.; Jouve, M. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring.

  20. IR thermography diagnostics for the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The WEST project requires a set of three infrared diagnostics. • The tungsten divertor will be monitored by the existing diagnostic renewed. • The antennas monitoring require the development of an innovative diagnostic. • A fiber bundle will be used as image transport for the antennas monitoring. • A wide angle tangential view of the upper divertor and the first wall is studied. - Abstract: To operate long plasma discharge in tokamak equipped with actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC), infrared (IR) thermography is a key diagnostic. Indeed IR data are used for both PFC safety monitoring, to avoid material degradation and water leak, and various physics studies on plasma-wall interaction. The IR monitoring is becoming even more crucial with today metallic PFCs. This is the case for the WEST project (Tungsten (W) Environment for Steady State Tokamak), which aims at installing a W divertor in Tore Supra (TS), in order to operate the 1st tokamak with a full W actively cooled divertor in long plasma discharges. The IR thermography system for the WEST project described in this paper will consist of a set of 3 different diagnostics: (1) Six cameras located in upper ports viewing the full W divertor, which reuse a part of the existing diagnostic of TS. (2) Five novel views located behind the inner protection panels for the antennas monitoring, based on an innovative imaging fibers bundle technology. (3) A tangential wide angle view located in a median port, for the upper divertor and first wall monitoring

  1. Thorium residuals in West Chicago, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay and Company began operation of its west Chicago, Illinois, plant in 1931, processing thorium ores for thorium and rare earths. From that time until normal operations ceased in 1973, thorium residuals from the operation found their way offsite to Reed-Keppler City Park, the West Chicago Sewage Treatment Plant, and numerous other locations about the city and its environs. The present study located and identified such thorium residuals in the West Chicago area, a total of 75 epicenters having been found in addition to deposits at Reed-Keppler Park, the sewage-treatment plant, and down Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Deposits proved to be almost exclusively the dense, gray, insoluble particles of thorium-ore tailings from the process, which have been historically stored in two large piles in the site waste area. Epicenter locations and associated radiological parameters are given for the 75 locations, along with quantitative descriptions of the larger collections of material at the park, at the sewage-treatment plant, and on the banks of Kress Creek and the DuPage River. Not one of the areas of thorium residuals located outside security fences was found to violate the requirements of 10 CFR 20

  2. History and the West Indian nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birbalsingh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. STEWART BROWN (ed.. Bridgend, Wales: Seren/Poetry Wales Press, 1995. 275 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Atlantic Passages: History, Community, and Language in the Fiction of Sam Selvon. MARK LOOKER. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. x + 243 pp. (Cloth n.p. Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History. SUPRIYA NAIR. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. viii + 171 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.50 Phyllis Shand Allfrey: A Caribbean Life. LlZABETH PARAVISINI-GEBERT. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. xii + 335 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 18.95 Of the four books to be considered here, those on Brathwaite, Selvon, and Lamming fit snugly together into a natural category of literature that has to do with the emergence of a Creole or African-centered Caribbean culture, and related issues of race, color, class, history, and nationality. The fourth is a biography of Phyllis Shand Allfrey, a white West Indian, who is of an altogether different race, color, and class than from the other three. Yet the four books are linked together by nationality, for Allfrey and the others are all citizens of one region, the English-speaking West Indies, which, as the Federation of the West Indies between 1958 and 1962, formed a single nation.

  3. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  4. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  5. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  6. Barotropic instability in the West Spitsbergen Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teigen, S. H.; Nilsen, F.; Gjevik, B.

    2010-07-01

    Barotropic instability in the shoreward branch of the West Spitsbergen Current is investigated on the basis of data from an array of current meter moorings along 78.83°N, across the upper continental slope and shelf break west of Svalbard. The slowly varying background current profile is modeled as an along-slope, asymmetric jet anchored to the shelf break. Numerical linear stability analyses are performed on the idealized current profile and topography, revealing the characteristic period, wavelength, and growth rate of unstable vorticity waves. Detailed analysis of the ambient current profile in 2007-2008 shows that unstable conditions are present during ˜40% of the 10 month measurement record, depending on the localization, width, and amplitude of the current jet. The resulting vorticity waves are localized at the shelf break and are able to exchange water masses across the oceanic Arctic front. Typical wavelengths and periods are 20-40 km and 40-70 h, respectively. Wavelet, coherence, and complex demodulation analyses of the current meter data confirm that transient signals of similar periodicity as predicted by the stability analysis exist in the data record, prominently during the winter and spring months. Estimates of the heat loss contribution from isopycnal diffusion reach 1.4 TW during the time intervals when unstable vorticity waves are active at the shelf break, implying that the dynamics of the West Spitsbergen Current play a significant role in the cooling process of the Atlantic water on the way to the Arctic Ocean. This cooling corresponds to an along-shelf cooling rate of -0.08°C per 100 km.

  7. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sediments

  8. West Edmonton Mall : buying into energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K. [West Edmonton Mall, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    The West Edmonton Mall consists of 600 stores and services, as well as attractions including a marine life lagoon, a skating rink, the largest indoor wave pool in the world, and an amusement park. Lighting retrofits, power-factor correction equipment, and tenant energy-saving criteria all combine to make the West Edmonton Mall a model of energy efficiency. An energy consultant was hired in 2001 to develop an energy management plan in an attempt to find ways to save energy while providing a return on investment. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are a consequence of reduced energy consumption. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) were recently installed on heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) fans, with assistance from the Energy Innovators Initiative (EII) of Natural Resources Canada. In addition, the West Edmonton Mall is now signed up with Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. The retrofit involved the conversion of 42 constant speed, variable-pitch supply and return fans to a fixed pitch. The total cost of the retrofit was $970,000, and the energy savings are expected to reach $524,295 annually. A brief overview of energy savings measures implemented since 1985 was provided. Separate metering and billing for new tenants is a strategy to make sure that they are aware of their energy costs. This strategy makes them more active in reducing their energy consumption. An awareness and accountability system was put in place, and a variety of potential projects are being evaluated, such as a cogeneration system, updating fluid pumps, and adding new controls to hot water heaters. 1 tab.

  9. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  10. East-West cooperation at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    From left to right: H. Bokemeyer, in charge of physics for INTAS, J. Sinnaeve, INTAS' general secretary and R. Landua, ATHENA spokesman, visit the ATHENA experiment installations. Heads of INTAS (International Association for the promotion and cooperation of the new independent states of the former Soviet Union) visited CERN on 11 October. This association is in charge of preserving and promoting the scientific potential of the former Soviet Union countries through a cooperation between East and West. In recents years, a certain number of projects related to the LHC experiments have been co-financed by INTAS. The support for young researchers coming from these countries is also a big success.

  11. Skin manifestations of West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Giudice, P; Schuffenecker, I; Zeller, H; Grelier, M; Vandenbos, F; Dellamonica, P; Counillon, E

    2005-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection is a potentially lethal arbovirus infection. Many notable outbreaks have occurred during the last few years throughout the world, including Europe and the USA. The severity of the disease is mainly related to the neurological complications. A maculopapular exanthema is reported as a clinical sign of the disease. Recently an outbreak of WNV infection occurred in southern France. Three patients out of 6 had a similar skin roseola-like eruption. The cluster of 3 cases of similar febrile roseola of unexplained cause during the same week led to the diagnosis of the first WNV human outbreak in France for 40 years. PMID:16286745

  12. Fragrance and Perfume in West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Moeran, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Fragrance and perfume connect with our most basic and primitive window on the world – our sense of smell. Animals use their sense of smell to find food, sense danger and mate. So, too, do human beings. Mothers and their babies bond through smell. Smell triggers memories buried long in our unconscious, probably because our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the oldest part of the brain, which is the seat of emotion and memory. Throughout the ages in Weste...

  13. Niobium content of soils from West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Berger, I.A.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

  14. Regional trade and economic networks in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Walther, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on economic networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa, brought on by urbanization, liberalizati...

  15. 77 FR 65493 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation...; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Legislative Rule, 45 CSR 8- Ambient Air Quality Standards. The amendments change the effective date of...

  16. GeoPowering the West - The Bountiful, Clean Energy Source for the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    GeoPowering the West will contribute to the overall increased use of domestic renewable energy resources, as recommended in the National Energy Policy, by: - Doubling the number of states with geothermal electric power facilities from four to eight by 2010, and Supplying the heat or power needs of 5 million Western homes and businesses by 2015.Geothermal Energy Program Office of Energy.

  17. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  18. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach...

  19. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  20. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  1. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014:the present global threaten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  2. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014: the present global threaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  3. East and West in Modern Hungarian Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Rac

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than any other politician in current Hungarian politics, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán refers to “east” and “west” in his public addresses as symbols of antithetical political cultures and cultural value systems. Of course, he is by no means the first Hungarian statesman to do so. From the Middle Ages, references to the Asian origins of the nation were mobilized by chroniclers and statesmen to characterize the national character and Hungary’s place in the European Christian political community. During the Enlightenment, the embracing of a perceived cultural hierarchy between west and east entered the Hungarian public discourse, and from the Reform Era the two intellectual streams shaped modern Hungarian identity discourse equally. This paper describes the national identity discourse that emphasizes the Asian origins of the nation through the lens of what I call “self-Orientalism.” Whereas Orbán’s political addresses can be viewed as a continuation of the self-Orientalizing language, the examination of the ways in which he breaks from the tradition of self-Orientalism teaches even more important lessons about the viability of the reference to the east-west dichotomy in the global political arena.

  4. Compendium of NASA data base for the global tropospheric experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic/continental sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental and marine sulfur sources. The PEM West program encompassed two expeditions. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air was from mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) was modified by Asian outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum Asian outflow. Results from PEM West-A and B are public domain. PEM West-A data are summarized in NASA TM 109177 (published February 1995). Flight experiments were based at Guam, Hong Kong, and Japan. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The DAAC includes numerous other data such as meteorological and modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  5. Oceanographic and physiological parameters relating to Heterosigma akashiwo in Puget Sound - The Ecophysiology and Toxicity of Heterosigma akashiwo in Puget Sound: A Living Laboratory Ecosystem Approach

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Over one half of the worlds fish production for human consumption currently comes from aquaculture, while wild fisheries yields are either stable or declining....

  6. The German East-West Divide in Knowledge Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patuelli, Roberto; Vaona, Andrea; Grimpe, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , in particular between the East and the West. Based on analyses at the NUTS 3 regional level, we find different knowledge production functions for the East and the West. Moreover, we investigate how our results are affected by the adoption of alternative aggregation levels. Overall, our findings suggest...

  7. 77 FR 71667 - West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated 09/ 19/2012. Incident: Severe storms and straight-line...

  8. 77 FR 70204 - West Virginia; Disaster Number WV-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION West Virginia; Disaster Number WV-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated 09/ 19/2012. Incident: Severe Storms and Straight-line...

  9. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  10. Forest gradients in West Africa. A spatial gradient analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, van R.S.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and ulti

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: West Virginia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in West Virginia for 2010. West Virginia administered new assessments in 2009, so comparisons to earlier years could not be made for the sake of discerning trends in subgroup achievement and gaps. Data on student achievement from earlier years are presented. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  12. The Contrast between Festivals in China and In West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔烨辛; 乌日乐

    2013-01-01

    When we study a kind of language,it is important to know the phonetic culture background first.We are going to discuss the traditional festivals’origins,social background,and festival customs in China and in West.China has the festal likeness in representative tradition with west the place of the difference.

  13. Important Summer Concentrations of Seaducks in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    Aerial surveys for seaducks were conducted in West Greenland in July 1998 and 1999. Important concentrations of harlequin ducks, common eiders and red-breasted mergansers were located in central and southern West Greenland, while only few king eiders had yet arrived to the moulting grounds in cen...

  14. A Romantic Study of Shelly's "Ode to the West Wind"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯敏贤

    2007-01-01

    Ode to the West Wind is one of the marvelous poetry of Percy Bysshe Shelley. In order to study the Romanticism in Shelly's Ode to the West Wind, this thesis, by studying the features of Romanticism, shows the fascinating romantic beauty and glamour of this poetry.

  15. 77 FR 20044 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4059-DR), dated March 16... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  16. BP Announces Withdrawal from West-to-East Gas Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 31, 2001, BP announced that BP would not participate in the bidding launched by PetroChina for the West-to-East gas transmission project,China's landmark project for West Development that is valued billions of US dollars.

  17. 77 FR 20042 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4061-DR), dated March 22... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  18. Land Conflict, Migration, and Citizenship in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maze, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Land and property rights, migration, and citizenship are complex issues that cut across all social, economic, and political spheres of West Africa. This paper provides an overarching scoping of the most pressing contemporary issues related to land, migration, and citizenship, including how they intersect in various contexts and locations in West Africa. The way issues are analytically fram...

  19. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk production is noticeable. The economy shows evident difficulties mainly due to the so called mismanaged Amin's regime and the ensuing Liberation War. Comments are made on the Queen Elisabeth National Park and some prices are given.

  20. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham;

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from...... been conducted. No variation in P-T gradients between the three distinct crustal areas has been discerned. We find that the lithospheric mantle beneath this region extended to a depth of 215 km at the time of eruption, with a geotherm similar to those defined by peridotites from the Slave craton...... and the Kirkland Lake locality within the Superior craton. In supporting previous studies we find that the continental lithospheric mantle is layered and increases in fertility with depth. Twenty-five of 32 investigated samples are estimated to be derived from the diamond stability field that extends...

  1. ’The West Is Polluting China’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China is under increasingly severe criticism from the West for its environ- menial problems,but recently there are varying voices in the international community about the reasons surrounding this issue.According to Britain’s New Economics Foundation,Western countries rely heavily on Chinese commodities,meaning in the process of manufacturing they are transferring pollution to China.This London-based think tank also puts forward that the discussion should shift its focus from commodity producers to consumers. Writing in the Economic Observer,Professor Hou Dongmin from the Center for Population and Development Studies under the Renmin University of China says that the international community has to face up to the truth.He believes one of the reasons for environmental pollution in China is the country is undertaking a high proportion of global manufacturing activities,which naturally brings environmental pressure to China.Excerpts of Hou’s thoughts follow:

  2. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared......In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...... diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal...

  3. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals...... for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa...

  4. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  5. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  6. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. L.; Scott, A. D., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. The PEM- West program encompassed two expeditions to study contrasting meteorological regimes in the Pacific. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental versus marine sulfur sources. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air is from the mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) is modified/mixed with Asian continental outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum continental outflow. PEM-B data (not included) will become public domain during the Summer of 1995. PEM West-A flight experiments were based at Japan, Hong Kong, and Guam. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), which include numerous data such as meteorological observations, modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  7. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  8. Photographic as-builts for Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, E.K.; Wiegand, C.V.

    1995-04-19

    Located 35 miles West of Idaho Falls, Idaho, Argonne National Laboratory-West operates a number of nuclear facilities for the Department of Energy (DOE) through the University of Chicago. Part of the present mission of Argonne National Laboratory-West includes shutdown of the EBR-II Reactor. In order to accomplish this task the Engineering-Drafting Department is exploring cost effective methods of providing as-building services. A new technology of integrating photographic images and AUTOCAD drawing files is considered one of those methods that shows promise.

  9. The third child: a comparison between West Germany and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    David Alich

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights into third-birth dynamics in West Germany and Norway. Since the third-birth propensity between both countries differs remarkably, we seek to address the following questions in this paper: What are the characteristics of mothers with two and three children? What are the differences in third-birth dynamics between Norway and West Germany, and how can they be explained? Which factors have a similar influence on Norwegian and West German two-child moth...

  10. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  11. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland.

  12. Contaminants in two West Greenland caribou populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberg, Mary; Cuyler, Christine; Wang, Xiaowa

    2016-06-01

    Two caribou populations in West Greenland were sampled and the kidneys, liver and muscle analyzed for contaminants, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc. Although close in proximity, the two populations are topographically separated by an ice cap, which creates different climates and vegetation types in each region. Contaminant levels reflected the differing diets of the two caribou populations. To the south in the wetter lichen-rich region, caribou had significantly more aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc, likely due to atmospheric deposition on lichens. To the north in the dry desert steppe where grasses predominate, caribou had higher levels of copper. Cows collected in late winter had significantly less hepatic copper, lead and mercury if pregnant, indicating placental transfer of these elements. Our results suggest that hepatic copper levels <200 μg g(-1) dry weight may result in copper depletion in pregnant cows and hepatic mercury concentrations above 0.5 μg g(-1) dry weight may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. Hepatic mercury levels were negatively correlated with cow body weight, suggesting an adverse effect on body condition. Element concentrations found in tissues from these caribou are not considered to be of a health concern for those consuming this traditional food. PMID:26956180

  13. Bowhead whale springtime song off West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Kathleen M; Moore, Sue E; Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, M P

    2008-11-01

    Three songs were recorded from bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) in Disko Bay, West Greenland, during 59 h of recordings via sonobuoys deployed on seven days between 5 and 14 April 2007. Song elements were defined by units following the protocol of previous description of bowhead whale song. The two most prominent songs were loud, complex, and repeated in long bouts on multiple recording days while the third song was much simpler and recorded on only one day. Bowhead whale simple calls and faint song elements were also recorded using digital audio tape recorders and a dipping hydrophone deployed from the sea ice approximately 100-150 km southwest of Disko Bay on three separate days suggesting that song is also produced in the central portion of Baffin Bay in winter. Songs recorded in Disko Bay are from an area where approximately 85% of the whales have been determined to be adult females. Although it is not known which sex was singing, we speculate that, as in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), male bowhead whales may sing to mediate sexual competition or mate selection behaviors. This is the first detailed description of springtime songs for bowhead whales in the eastern Arctic. PMID:19045814

  14. Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ∼ 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m-2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m-2. Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m-2 for sulfate and 20 meq m-2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ∼ 5 meq m-2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

  15. [West Nile virus: a reality in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez, Ildefonso; Calderón, Oscar; Franco-Paredes, Carlos; del Río, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a RNA virus of the Flaviridae, genus flavivirus family. It is a neuropathogenic virus causing disease in birds, horses and humans. WNVis transmitted by the vector mosquito Culex sp. The virus life 's cycle includes mosquitoes as vectors and birds as natural hosts. Humans are accidental hosts. Since the introduction of the Epidemiological Surveillance Program at the Ministry ofHealth. we have documented 90 positive test results among birds out of 1,223 cases studied in Mexico as of September IS. 2005. The incubation period in humans after a mosquito bite ranges from 3 to 14 days. Disease is characterized by early onset fever, general malaise, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, headaches, myalgias, enlarged lymph nodes andrash. Neurological manifestations include encephalitis andflaccid paralysis, which are present in less than 1% of subjects infected with WNV. Older patients display more adverse outcomes including death. The diagnosis is made by the determination of specific IgM and JgG antibodies in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid. There is no antiviral treatment to date against WNV but interferon ?2b, and WNVspec4ic-immunoglobulin have been used Prevention is therefore the key to control the infection.

  16. COMPARATIVE POETICS: FROM WEST TO EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Стеван Б. Брадић

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative poetics was formed as a concept in the mid-twentieth century, in the context of the French comparative literature theory, and has since gone through the process of numerous transformations and appropriations. While the French theorists understood it mainly as a way to overcome the semiotic borders in an attempt to relate literature to other forms of artistic expression, this essay focuses mainly on the anglicist-orientalist approach that has developed mainly within the framework of postcolonial studies. The essay offers an overview of central topics of this approach, such as constitution of literature as an autonomous discourse, the presence or absence of particular genres in different national literatures, the problems of imitation and expression, and the problem of fictionality of literature in East and West. It also deals with the methodological frame for comparing poetics, highlighting the usual misreadings of Western theorists, based on the projections of their own cultural categories on the rest of the world. Comparative poetics is therefore understood as a critique of cultural imperialism and an attempt at opening space for an authentic intercultural dialogue, with the full understanding of difficulties of such an endeavor.

  17. William Wilde in the West of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, D

    2016-05-01

    It is widely believed that Sir William Wilde's forebears were in Ireland for just two or three generations. This belief stems from a number of short biographies of Wilde which were published during his lifetime. These biographies gave different versions of the origin of the Wilde family and appear to have been generated by the creative imagination of Lady Jane Wilde or, as she was better known by her nom de plume, Speranza. She was equally imaginative in creating narratives about her own family background and in one she claimed descent from the Italian poet Dante Alighieri. So it was not a great challenge for her to invent biographies of her husband which she deemed suitable for a knight living at the prestigious address of 1 Merrion Square, leading many to believe that William and his son Oscar were more English than Irish. It was also important for Speranza to distance Sir William from any connection which the Wilde family might have had with trade. In this paper published and unpublished material are used, together with a careful examination of family deeds in the Registry of Deeds office, to elucidate the real roots of the Wilde family in Dublin and in the West of Ireland. PMID:27083456

  18. GENDERED SPACE IN WEST SUMBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Asih NURDIAH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendell stated that gender representation underlined the production of space in architecture both symbolically and functionally in certain cultures (Rendell et al. 2000. Thus, an exploration on the spatial functionality of traditional houses could show how cultural gender rules and roles generate the spatial arrangements. This empirical research explored the traditional houses in two kampongs: Tarung and Ratenggaro of West Sumba, Indonesia, which spaces are divided into two distinct spaces: male’s space and female’s space, each with its own entrance. This firm division leads to the questions on its relation with the traditional gender roles are represented inside the house. Interestingly, the spatial arrangement is not intended to create separation between men and women inside the house or to pose that the status and roles of men are higher than those of women. The research found that the space separation actually is a manifestation of the dynamic roles of male and female members of the house and the circular arrangement of the space around the fireplace at the centre of the house follows the dynamic of gender duality in Sumba culture.

  19. ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognier, E.

    2001-12-01

    The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to "supporting increased scientific and mathematical literacy among our nation's youth through services and other support aimed at enhancing the efforts of those who provide K-12 science and mathematics education." WERC has been able to use its EdGateway online community network to offer these courses to environmental education and science teachers nationwide. Through partnerships with the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), the National Environmental Education Advancement Project (NEEAP), and other regional, state and local science and environmental education organizations, WERC has a broad reach in connecting with science educators nationwide. WERC manages several state and national listservs, which enable us to reach thousands of educators with information about the courses. EdGateway also provides a private online community in which we offer the courses. WERC partners with two Master Teachers from Utah, who facilitate the courses, and with the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at Weber State University, who provides low-cost graduate credit for the courses. Our students have included classroom teachers from upper elementary through high school, community college science teachers, and environmental science center staff who provide inservice for teachers. Educators from Hawaii to New Jersey have provided diverse personal experiences of Earth Systems Science events, and add richness to the online discussions. Two Earth Science Experts, Dr. Rick Ford from Weber State University, and Dr. Art Sussman from WestEd also contribute to the high caliber of learning the students experience in the courses. (Dr. Sussman's book, Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth, is used as one of

  20. Characterizing freshwater and nutrient fluxes to West Falmouth Harbor, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data present oceanographic and water-quality observations made at 4 locations in West Falmouth Harbor and 3 in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. While both...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals...

  2. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  3. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  4. Heavy mineral occurrence off Hazira, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A

    The occurrence of heavy mineral placers on the west coast of India are well known from Konkan and Malabar Coast. However, a geological and geophysical investigation (including echosounding and side scan sonar profiles and 7 samples) off Hazira...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., from individuals who have signs and symptoms consistent with viral meningitis/encephalitis. The detection aids in the clinical laboratory diagnosis of viral meningitis/encephalitis caused by West...

  6. West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the West Sister Island Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness...

  7. Markets, Climate Change and Food Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel

    2009-01-01

    West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.

  8. Unravelling institutional determinants affecting change in agriculture in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Hounkonnou, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares lessons learned from nine studies that explored institutional determinants of innovation towards sustainable intensification of West African agriculture. The studies investigated issues relating to crop, animal, and resources management in Benin, Ghana, and Mali. The constraints

  9. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) West Pacific Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the West Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  10. Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hartog, J. C. Den; Jayasree, V.

    A small collection of five species of Actiniaria from the west coast of India, including three new species, is described and discussed. It concerns Anthopleura anjunae spec. nov., Bunodosoma goanensis spec. nov., Synantheopsis parulekari spec. nov...

  11. Construction of West-East Pipeline's Gansu Segment Kicked Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Commencement of full construction of the segment of the West-East gas transmission pipeline in Gansu Province was announced at an inception ceremony held in Jiayuguan City,Gansu Province on 28 March 2003.

  12. Herbicide concentrations in wetlands in west central Minnesota, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semi-permanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992...

  13. Spitbase of west coast of India: Potential appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Spectacular spits of different sizes and variety of shapes bordering west coast of India were mapped with remote sensing techniques. By gathering information on geomorphological and locational parameters of spits, "SPITBASE", a database of spits...

  14. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement No. 21 contains responses to USNRC questions on quality assurance contained in USNRC letter to NFS dated January 22, 1976, revised pages for the safety analysis report, and Appendix IX ''Quality Assurance Manual--West Valley Construction Projects.''

  15. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  16. The West Perfecting Its Techniques To Hurt China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Spanish Website Rebellion published an article titled The West Perfecting Its Techniques to Hurt China by U.S. writer, filmmaker and journalist Andre Vltchek on November 12, 2010. Excerpts from the article follow:

  17. Distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, M.V.; Waldron, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, to evaluate the distribution of fluoride in ground water of West Virginia. Fluoride is a natural chemical constituent in domestic and public water supplies in West Virginia. Fluoride concentrations of about 1.0 milligram per liter in drinking water are beneficial to dental health. Concentrations greater than 2.0 milligrams per liter, however, could harm teeth and bones. Fluoride concentra- tions in ground water of West Virginia range from less than 0.1 to 12 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are found in wells drilled to all depths, wells drilled in all topographic settings, and wells drilled into most geologic units. Most fluoride concentrations that exceed 2.0 milligrams per liter are located at sites clustered in the northwestern part of the State.

  18. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-10-31

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals.

  19. K West basin isolation barrier leak rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K West basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals

  20. The Future of Open Spaces on the Upper West Side

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Bosselmann; Kevin Gilson; Todd Bressi; Norman Davis; Carol Isen; Richard Sinkhoff; Matt Taecker; Greg Levesque; Rajeev Bhatia; Fred Bauman; Edward Arens; David Ernest; Gail McEachern; The Parks Council

    1990-01-01

    Parks and open spaces on Manhattan's Upper West Side are an important resource for people from all parts of New York City. Central Park and Riverside Park -- which are neighborhood amenities for Upper West Siders -- are two of the city's greatest treasures. These parks, both designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, provide a natural setting against the backdrop of the city; they are places where people can take refuge from high-density living conditions to relax or play. More and more peop...

  1. Community wildlife management in west africa : a regional overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zeba, S.

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to be a West African contribution to a global study of IIED on community wildlife management issues. Its geographic focus is the 16 member countries of the Economic Community Of West African States (ECOWAS), including 9 francophone countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Mali, Ivory-Coast, Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea,Togo), 5 anglophone countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, The Gambia) and 2 lusophone countries (Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde). This region has mo...

  2. Characteristic of Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    Gunarif Taib; Santosa Santosa; Masrul Djalal; Helmi Helmi

    2014-01-01

    Clusters of small-scale food industries have different characteristics with industrial cluster in general. These characteristics need to know to develop a plan for cluster development. This study was conducted to determine charasteristics clusters of small-scale food industry, especially in West Sumatra. For the analysis of the components of industrial and technological components that affect the development of small-scale food industry cluster in West Sumatra. All variables influence the lev...

  3. Searching West Virginia for a Democratic Response to Mountaintop Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Darrow, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Mountaintop removal is an aggressive form of strip mining practiced almost exclusively in Central Appalachia, and since 1977 has been regulated by state and federal laws. Beginning in the late 1990s, considerable controversy erupted in coal mining states like West Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee over the adverse social and environmental impacts of the practice. The analysis of mountaintop removal presented here is restricted to its effects in West Virginia during roughly the last decade. Rel...

  4. An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

    2014-01-01

    The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP progr...

  5. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.

  6. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  7. Imaging the West Bohemia Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Calo, M.; Bouchaala, F.; Vavrycuk, V.

    2013-12-01

    West Bohemia is located at the suture of three mantle lithosphere plates, the Eger Rift, the Cheb basin and is the site of Quaternary volcanism. This complex tectonic setting results in localized, periodic earthquake swarms throughout the region and many CO2 springs and gas exhalation sites. Nový Kostel, the most active swarm area, experiences frequent swarms of several hundreds to thousands of earthquakes over a period of weeks to several months. It is a unique study area, since the swarm region is surrounded by the West Bohemia Seismic Network (WEBNET), providing observations in all directions. Larger swarms, such as those in 1985/1986, 1997, 2000, 2007 and 2008, have been studied in terms of source mechanisms and swarm characteristics (Fischer and Michálek, 2003; Fischer et al., 2010; Vavryčuk, 2011). The seismicity is always located in the same area and depth range (6-15 km), however the active fault planes differ. This indicates changes to the local stress field, and may relate to the complicated tectonic situation and/or migrating fluids. Many studies have examined individual swarms and compared the earthquake episodes, however the mechanisms behind the phenomenon are still not understood. This has motivated many studies, including recent proposals for a reflection seismic profile directly over the swarm area and multidisciplinary monitoring through ICDP. In this study, we image the velocity structure within and around the swarm area using double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and Weighted Average Model (WAM) post-processing analysis (Calò et al., 2011). The WAM analysis averages together velocity models calculated with a variety of reasonable starting parameters. The velocities are weighted by the raypath proximity and density at an inversion node. This reduces starting model bias and artifacts, and yields a weighted standard deviation at each grid point. Earthquake locations and WEBNET P and S arrival times for the two most recent large

  8. Analysis of K west basin canister gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trimble, D.J., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    Gas and Liquid samples have been collected from a selection of the approximately 3,820 spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin. The samples were taken to characterize the contents of the gas and water in the canisters providing source term information for two subprojects of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) (Fulton 1994): the K Basins Integrated Water Treatment System Subproject (Ball 1996) and the K Basins Fuel Retrieval System Subproject (Waymire 1996). The barrels of ten canisters were sampled for gas and liquid in 1995, and 50 canisters were sampled in a second campaign in 1996. The analysis results from the first campaign have been reported (Trimble 1995a, 1995b, 1996a, 1996b). The analysis results from the second campaign liquid samples have been documented (Trimble and Welsh 1997; Trimble 1997). This report documents the results for the gas samples from the second campaign and evaluates all gas data in terms of expected releases when opening the canisters for SNFP activities. The fuel storage canisters consist of two closed and sealed barrels, each with a gas trap. The barrels are attached at a trunion to make a canister, but are otherwise independent (Figure 1). Each barrel contains up to seven N Reactor fuel element assemblies. A gas space of nitrogen was established in the top 2.2 to 2.5 inches (5.6 to 6.4 cm) of each barrel. Many of the fuel elements were damaged allowing the metallic uranium fuel to be corroded by the canister water. The corrosion releases fission products and generates hydrogen gas. The released gas mixes with the gas-space gas and excess gas passes through the gas trap into the basin water. The canister design does not allow canister water to be exchanged with basin water.

  9. Cooling water treatment with ozone. [WEST GERMANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellauer, R.; Oldani, M. (Asea Brown Boveri, Baden (Switzerland))

    Small scale tests on an open recirculating cooling system with a cooling water flow of 10 m{sup 3}/h conducted for a period of two years have shown that ozone could be a viable alternative to chlorine and other commonly used biocides. An average ozone dosage of 0.05 mg/L was applied continuously to the cooling water. Corrosion rates of copper alloy samples immersed in ozonized water were lower than the rates of samples in nonozonized water. No corrosion was detected for the Cr-Ni steel alloys DIN 1.4306 and DIN 1.4404 as well as for titanium either in the presence or absence of ozone in water. This is ascribed to the formation of a thin protective layer in both cases. A pilot plant has been set up at the EVS Heilbronn coal-fired power station in West Germany in order to confirm the results obtained on small scale. The open recirculating cooling system has a cooling water flow of 1,000 m{sup 3}/h and is fed by conditional Neckar river water. An air-fed ozone generator is used to ozonize a 10% side stream of the cooling water. A bubble diffuser contactor is used to introduce ozone into the water and an air heater is operated to decompose excess ozone leaving the contactor. The plant can be run to yield either a constant ozone residual concentration in the water or a constant ozone dosage to the water leaving the contactor. All relevant data are registered continuously and the plant presently is operated automatically with a constant ozone dosage in the side stream. Corrosion experiments are performed using laboratory heat exchangers, and all physical, chemical, and microbiological data of the cooling water are acquired.

  10. West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data - Annual West Coast time series groundfish trawl data collection survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Members of the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring Division Survey Team conduct an annual West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey from May - October each...

  11. Up-to-date knowledge of West Nile virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Virus West Nile virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Epidemiology West Nile virus is maintained in the cycle involving culicine mosquitoes and birds .Humans typically acquire West Nile infection through a bite from infected adult mosquito. Person to person transmission can occur through organ transplantation, blood and blood product transfusions, transplacentally and via brest milk. Human cases of West Nile infections were recorded in Africa, Israel, Russia, India, Pakistan. In Romania in 1996 West Nile fever occurred with hundreds of neurologic cases and 17 fatalities. First human cases in the United States were in New York City where 59 persons were infected and had fever, meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Clinical manifestation Most human cases are asymptomatic. The majority of symptomatic patients have a self limited febrile illness. Fatigue, nausea, vomiting, eye pain, headache, myalgias, artralgias, lymphadenopathy and rash are common complaints. Less than 1% of all infected persons develop more severe neurologic illness including meningitis, encefalitis and flaccid paralysis. Laboratory diagnosis Diagnosis of West Nile virus infection is based on serologic testing, isolation of virus from patient samples and detection of viral antigen or viral genom. ELISA test and indirect immunofluorescenceassay are used for detecting IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment In vitro studies have suggested that ribavirin and interferon alfa -2b may be useful in the treatment of West Nile virus disease. Prevention The most important measures are mosquito control program and personal protective measures. .

  12. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschel, Philipp; Coad, Lauren; Burton, Cole; Chataigner, Beatrice; Dunn, Andrew; MacDonald, David; Saidu, Yohanna; Hunter, Luke T B

    2014-01-01

    The African lion has declined to lions from other extant African populations. Interventions to save West African lions are urgently required. However formulating effective conservation strategies has been hampered by a lack of data on the species' current distribution, status, and potential management deficiencies of protected areas (PAs) harboring lions. Our study synthesized available expert opinion and field data to close this knowledge gap, and formulate recommendations for the conservation of West African lions. We undertook lion surveys in 13 large (>500 km²) PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605) lions remain in West Africa, representing lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii) for populations with lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  13. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; de Medeiros, Larissa Campos; dos Reis, Vinícius Pinho; Chávez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; de Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; da Silva, Edson Elias; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country. PMID:24037110

  14. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  15. Completion of electrification between Aachen West and Montzen; Durchgehende Elektrifizierung Aachen West-Montzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzen, A. [DB Netz AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Internationale Infrastrukturangelegenheiten

    2007-05-15

    The railway line between Aachen West and Montzen (and from there on to Antwerp) is one of the most important long-distance freight lines in Europe and today carries all the rail freight moved directly between Germany and Belgium. Despite that, a part of it has still not been electrified. The line was built during the First World War, when the territory was under German occupation. The two railway infrastructure managers concerned, Infrabel (Belgium) and DB Netz (Germany), are working on plans to plug this gap in the electrification of the European freight network ready for the timetable change in December 2008. This article, penned by a specialist, describes the vicissitudes of the line's history as well as the studies and project planning for its electrification. (orig.)

  16. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  17. The lion in West Africa is critically endangered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Henschel

    Full Text Available The African lion has declined to 500 km² PAs and compiled evidence of lion presence/absence for a further eight PAs. All PAs were situated within Lion Conservation Units, geographical units designated as priority lion areas by wildlife experts at a regional lion conservation workshop in 2005. Lions were confirmed in only 4 PAs, and our results suggest that only 406 (273-605 lions remain in West Africa, representing <250 mature individuals. Confirmed lion range is estimated at 49,000 km², or 1.1% of historical range in West Africa. PAs retaining lions were larger than PAs without lions and had significantly higher management budgets. We encourage revision of lion taxonomy, to recognize the genetic distinctiveness of West African lions and highlight their potentially unique conservation value. Further, we call for listing of the lion as critically endangered in West Africa, under criterion C2a(ii for populations with <250 mature individuals. Finally, considering the relative poverty of lion range states in West Africa, we call for urgent mobilization of investment from the international community to assist range states to increase management effectiveness of PAs retaining lions.

  18. Rod consolidation at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rod consolidation demonstration with irradiated pressurized water reactor fuel was recently conducted by personnel from Nuclear Assurance Corporation and West Valley Nuclear Services Company at the West Valley Demonstration Project in West Valley, New York. The rod consolidation demonstration involved pulling all of the fuel rods from six fuel Assemblies. In general, the rod pulling proceeded smoothly. The highest compaction ratio attained was 1:8:1. Among the total of 1074 fuel rods were some known degraded rods (they had collapsed cladding, a result of in-reactor fuel densification), but no rods were broken or dropped during the demonstration. One aim was to gather information on the effect of rod consolidation operations on the integrity of the fuel rods during subsequent handling and storage. Another goal was to collect information on the condition and handling of intact, damaged, and failed fuel that has been in storage for an extended period. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  19. Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribeiro, Sofia Isabel; Moros, Matthias; Ellegaard, Marianne;

    2012-01-01

    document late-Holocene climate variability in West Greenland as inferred from a marine sediment record from the outer Disko Bay. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and other palynomorphs were used to reconstruct environmental changes in the area through the last c. 1500 years at 30–40 years resolution....... Sea ice cover and primary productivity were identified as the two main factors driving dinoflagellate cyst community changes through time. Our data provide evidence for an opposite climate trend in West Greenland relative to the NE Atlantic region from c. AD 500 to 1050. For the same period, sea......Ribeiro, S., Moros, M., Ellegaard, M. & Kuijpers, A. 2012 (January): Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years: evidence from a high-resolution marine palynological record from Disko Bay. Boreas, Vol. 41, pp. 68–83. 10.1111/j.1502-3885.2011.00216.x. ISSN 0300-9483. Here we...

  20. Forest gradients in West Africa. A spatial gradient analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rompaey, van, R.S.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and ultimately to the Sahara desert.This Upper Guinea forest block used to cover most of Liberia and parts of Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana. Here, deforestation rates are among the fastest in the world. Humans h...

  1. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    2000-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  2. Tourist events in the area of West Morava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current tourist offer, tourism of events presents a kind of tourism that could contribute to extending the tourist demand, especially towards natural and anthropogenic values of a tourist site or region. West Morava's area is the southernmost Panonian-subregion in Serbia, and is related to the valley of the West Morava River. This region is also one of the most visited tourist destinations in Serbia. The aim of this paper is to establish the correlation between the formal events and spa resorts, rural, cultural, and gastronomic tourism in the area which also presents a significant transitive tourist destination.

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  4. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1999 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  5. West versus East: Early Globalization and the Great Divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael, Dobado-González; Alfredo, García-Hiernaux; David, Guerrero-Burbano

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends our previous work on grain market integration across Europe and the Americas in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Dobado, García-Hiernaux and Guerrero, 2012). By using the same econometric methodology, we now present: 1) a search for statistical evidence in the East of an “Early Globalization” comparable to the one ongoing in the West by mid eighteenth century; 2) a study on the integration of grain markets in China and Japan and its functioning in comparison to West...

  6. West versus East: Early globalization and thr great divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Dobado González; Alfredo García Hiernaux; David Guerrero Burbano

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends our previous work on grain market integration across Europe and the Americas in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Dobado, García-Hiernaux and Guerrero, 2012). By using the same econometric methodology, we now present: 1) a search for statistical evidence in the East of an “Early Globalization” comparable to the one ongoing in the West by mid eighteenth century; 2) a study on the integration of grain markets in China and Japan and its functioning in comparison to West...

  7. Numbers and Cultures in China and West: A Contrastive Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛静娟

    2007-01-01

    This passage aims at finding how numbers are incorporated into east and west culture. Numbers have a long history both in the east and west, so it is reasonable to associate the numbers with the culture-specific characteristics. In this passage, we’ll first trace down the origin of the numbers, list some numbers that can reflect cultural features and search for the reasons why numbers are associated with culture over time. Finally, we draw a conclusion that numbers are understood differently in different cultures, which might cause misunderstanding in cross-cultural communication and thus they deserve our attention in be the cross-cultural studies.

  8. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP

  9. [Two imported cases of West Nile fever in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Wilcke, Jon Torgny R; Andersen, Ove

    2003-05-01

    In the light of the current American epidemic, and since West Nile fever (WNF) has never previously been reported in Denmark, we describe two cases imported from Israel and Canada, respectively. WNF was diagnosed in a 46-year-old Danish tourist returning from Israel and a visiting 73-year-old Canadian citizen with Danish ancestry. The former manifested itself clinically as a mild flu-like illness, the latter as serious infection of the central nervous system. Thus, in addition to representing a rare case of West Nile encephalitis, it also constitutes one of the first reported cases of human infection of Canadian origin. PMID:12795078

  10. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1998 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  11. West Valley Demonstration Project site environmental report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-06-01

    This report represents a single, comprehensive source of off-site and on-site environmental monitoring data collected during 1997 by environmental monitoring personnel for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The environmental monitoring program and results are discussed in the body of this report. The monitoring data are presented in the appendices. The data collected provide an historical record of radionuclide and radiation levels from natural and manmade sources in the survey area and document the quality of the groundwater on and around the WVDP and the quality of the air and water discharged by the WVDP.

  12. Vitrification facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a description of the West Valley Demonstration Project's vitrification facilities from the establishment of the West Valley, NY site as a federal and state cooperative project to the completion of all activities necessary to begin solidification of radioactive waste into glass by vitrification. Topics discussed in this report include the Project's background, high-level radioactive waste consolidation, vitrification process and component testing, facilities design and construction, waste/glass recipe development, integrated facility testing, and readiness activities for radioactive waste processing

  13. Distribution and abundance of West Greenland humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Hammond, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae were conducted at West Greenland during 1988-93, the last 2 years of which were part of the internationally coordinated humpback whale research programme YoNAH, with the primary aim of estimating abundance for the West Greenland...... effort. A total of 670 groups of humpback whales was encountered leading to the identification of 348 individual animals. Three areas of concentration were identified: an area off Nuuk; an area at c. 63degrees30'N; and an area off Frederikshab. Sequential Petersen capture-recapture estimates of abundance...

  14. Satellite Tracking of Humpback Whales in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Teilmann, J.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.-P.;

    In June 2000, 6 humpback whales (Megaptere novaeangliae) were tagged with satellite transmitters off West Greenland. Contact remained for up to 42 days. The tagging revealed that within the month of June, humpback whales off West Greenland moved between Fiskenæs Banke, Fyllas Banke, Tovqussaq Banke......, Sukkertop Banke and Lille Hellefiske Banke. The whales showed a preference for the continental slopes with depths less than 200 m, however, few dives were recorded down to 500 m. The whales had a preference for dives lasting 7-8 min. (15%) and no dives lasted longer than 15 min....

  15. West Mining Expanding Into Lead Zinc Smelting Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>West Mining,China’s 2nd largest lead zinc miner(only next to Yunnan Jinding Zinc with an annual lead and zinc output of approx. 180,000 tons in metal content),has been put- ting efforts on the control of resources for years.Additionally,it has recently increased its investment on smelting business by holding shares of Bayanzhuoer Zijin for more zinc smelting asset.West Mining has just com- pleted the construction of its 60,000-ton zinc

  16. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHOEA VIRUS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reshmi Ghosh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD is one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. The present study was undertaken to diagnose the persistently infected (PI animals by AntigenELISA and Reverse Transcriptase PCR using serum samples from organized farms as well as rural areas of West Bengal. The results showed that out of 964 serum samples tested 07 (0.73% was positive for BVDV by Antigen-ELISA. For further confirmation, RNA was extracted from the positive samples and RT-PCR was performed with 5' UTR specific primers which showed 294 bp amplicons. This finding showed circulation of BVDV in cattle in West Bengal, India.

  17. Brief communication: Historical glacier length changes in West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Leclercq

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Past glacier fluctuations provide insight into glacier dynamics, climate change, and the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise. Here, the length fluctuations since the 19th century of 18 local glaciers in West and South Greenland are presented, extending and updating the study by Weidick (1968. The studied glaciers all show an overall retreat with an average of 1.2 ± 0.2 km over the 20th century, indicating a general rise of the equilibrium line along the west coast of Greenland during the last century. The rate of retreat was largest in the first half of the 20th century.

  18. Brief communication "Historical glacier length changes in West Greenland"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. Leclercq

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Past glacier fluctuations provide insight into glacier dynamics, climate change, and the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise. Here, the length fluctuations since the 19th century of 18 local glaciers in West and South Greenland are presented, extending and updating the study by Weidick (1968. The studied glaciers all showed an overall retreat with an average of 1.2 ± 0.2 km over the 20th century, indicating a general rise of the equilibrium line along the west coast of Greenland during the last century. Furthermore, the average rate of retreat was largest in the first half of the 20th century.

  19. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; De Iongh, Hans H; Princée, Frank P; Ngantou, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    The lion has historically probably been widespread at low densities in West and Central Africa, nowadays they are largely restricted to small isolated populations inside protected areas. The total number is probably between 1200 and 2700, the best possible guesstimate would be 1700. Mankind is the main cause for the suspected decline of lion populations, both inside and outside protected areas. Very little research has been done on West and Central African lions a few examples are summarized here. The international community is slowly becoming aware of threats to lions in the region and some initiatives for lion conservation have started.

  20. Examples of Variable Star Photometry from the West Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joner, Michael D.; Laney, C. D.; Joner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    The West Mountain Observatory has three research telescopes with instrumentation that can be used to secure CCD images in various photometric systems. The telescopes include 0.3-meter, 0.5-meter, and 0.9-meter Ritchey-Chretien systems that are used primarily at visible wavelengths. This poster presents light curves for a variety of short period variable stars in a wide range of apparent magnitudes in order to highlight the capabilities of each system. The West Mountain Observatory is operated by the College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences at Brigham Young University and supported with funds from an NSF grant, AST-0618209.

  1. Sensory diversity of fonio landraces from West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliedel, G.; Koreissi, Y.; Boré, F.; Dramé, D.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to establish if there is some sensory variability among fonio landraces. Fonio, the oldest indigenous and very tasty cereal growing in West Africa, is usually consumed as a couscous. Group interviews of consumers were conducted in Bamako, Mali to identify the main quality criteria of

  2. On the origin of the West Indian Fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharff, R.F.

    1922-01-01

    Many zoologists have attempted to solve this problem which is a complicated one. In one respect the views of almost all agree. It is in the belief that the West Indian islands must have undergone profound alterations in configuration during the past. It is thought that at one time they must all have

  3. Mixed farming : scope and constraints in West African Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Since colonial times the crop livestock integration concept has been a leading development model in francophone West Africa. So far, it has failed in certain aspects, such as cultivation of fodder crops, intensification of cereal production through animal traction, and sedentarisation of mobile live

  4. NATO in History and Civics Textbooks: The West German Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, K. Peter

    1990-01-01

    When analyzing the degree to which a balanced presentation of NATO is achieved in West German history and civics textbooks, two standards may be used: first, inclusion of information on NATO's formation, aims, strategies and achievements; and, second, inclusion of the criticisms that have been leveled at NATO from various points of view. This…

  5. 77 FR 47908 - West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00028

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster Number WV-00028 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... Straight-line Winds. Incident Period: 06/29/2012 through 07/08/2012. DATES: Effective Date:...

  6. Writers of the American West: Multicultural Learning Encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, John

    This book focuses on the childhood and young adult experience of 10 of the American West's most intriguing writers. The book presents autobiographical and other primary sources, biographical sketches, teaching guidelines, and numerous curriculum-driven activities to engage young readers in the works of notable people whose lives were shaped by the…

  7. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  8. Volatile Investments and Unruly Youth in a West Bank Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hadas

    2010-01-01

    Building on fieldwork conducted in the West Bank settlement Beit-El, this article analyses the generational divide between first- and second-generation settlers in terms of their values and practices, against the backdrop of the new realities created by economic restructuring in Israel. It argues that the investments that settler parents made in…

  9. The extinction of the West African lion: whose responsibility?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Nollkaemper

    2014-01-01

    A recently published study showed that the lion in West Africa is now critically endangered and faces extinction. From one angle, this would be just one of the large (though unknown) number of species that has previously faced extinction or has even become extinct. But the risk of extinction of some

  10. Bridging East and West Educational Divides in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prem

    2013-01-01

    In Asia, we are witnessing an era where the pendulum of power is swaying towards the East with the rising economic strength of China and India. Singapore is at the "crossroads" between the East and West of these most populous nations on earth. Although Singapore may appear the most Westernised country in Asia, she is nevertheless a multicultural…

  11. 78 FR 15292 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; West Bay, Osterville, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; West Bay, Osterville, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  12. Malignant lymphoma in a west Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Klausen, Bjarne; Knold, Steffen;

    2005-01-01

    We identified a malignant lymphoma infiltrating the lung, liver, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and eye as the cause of death in a male West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus). Diagnosis was based on gross histopathologic, and immunohistochemical studies. Tissue samples from ten organs were...

  13. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  14. 77 FR 60002 - West Virginia Disaster #WV-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION West Virginia Disaster WV-00029 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  15. The Politics of Starvation Deaths in West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the local socio-political causes behind a sudden wave of starvation deaths that swept across the West Bengali village of Amlashol during the summer of 2004. Following the new paradigm of famine analysis where focus is placed on political failures, the article addresses three...... political dynamics in contemporary starvation analysis....

  16. Observations during the first K West fuel shipping campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Three fuel elements were shipped to the 300 Area hotcells during the first characterization shipping campaign from K West Basin. This document summarizes observations made during this campaign including the gas, liquid, and sludge content of the observed canisters. Included in an appendix is a detailed evaluation of fuel element condition for each canister opened

  17. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  18. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste. PMID:17378212

  19. High temperature superconductivity research in selected laboratories in West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Donald H.; Clark, Alan

    1988-07-01

    The superconductivity work at eight West German laboratories is reviewed. The laboratories are (or located at): the University of Giessen; the Technical University at Darmstadt; Hoechst AG; Siemens AG; KFA Julich; KFK, Karlsruhe; the Walter Meissner Institute, Garching; and the Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart.

  20. The Buzz-z-z on West Nile Virus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-12

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about West Nile Virus and how to protect yourself from it.  Created: 1/12/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 1/12/2012.

  1. Oral Prednisolone vs. IM Corticotropin and Hypsarrhythmia* in West Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; John J Millichap

    2014-01-01

    Investigators at University of Columbo, Sri Lanka, studied the efficacy of oral prednisolone (40-60 mg/day) and intramuscular adrenocorticotrophin hormone (40-60 IU synthetic ACTH every other day) for 14 days in improving hypsarrhythmia in children (age 2 mos-2 yrs) with previously untreated West syndrome.

  2. Acrobatic Drama Pilgrimage to the West Winning Wenhua Award

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉

    2007-01-01

    The 8th China Arts Festival was held in Wuhan from 5th to 20th of November.Guangzhou Acrobatic Troupe's acrobatic drama-"Pilgrimage to the West"competed for the Wenhua Award, which is the most prestigious prize for performance art given by the Chinese government.

  3. Organic complexation of iron in the West Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerringa, L.J.A.; Rijkenberg, M.J.; Schoemann, V.; Laan, P.; de Baar, H.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristics of the dissolved iron (DFe) binding organic ligands were determined during 3 Dutch GEOTRACES cruises covering the length of the West Atlantic Ocean. Adsorptive Differential Pulse Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (AdDPCSV) with TAC as competing ligand was used to measure Fe binding

  4. China Greatly Benefits from the West-East Gas Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Statistics of the relevant department of China show that the West-East Gas Pipeline has boosted the rate of natural gas in China's primary energy mix from 2.2% to 3%, thus improving the safety of China's energy supply.

  5. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  6. Polyglots, Vernaculars and Global Markets: Variable Trends in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2004-01-01

    Using a framework from cultural studies and focusing on theories put forward by Pierre Bourdieu, the goal in this paper is to consider how some West Africans interact with foreign languages and cultures in an era of global capital, especially when it comes to the activities of migrants venturing into overseas labour markets and to the production…

  7. Funding Impediments to Education Reform in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Prospects for financing educational reform in West Virginia are grim. Added to the state's high unemployment rate are the following problems: declining sales, income, and property tax revenues and erosion of federal support due to Gramm-Rudman-Hollings. Residents have set other priorities for public funding. Includes five references. (MLH)

  8. Economic Development in West Virginia. Information Series 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Frederick A.; Smith, Wil J.

    Excessive unemployment, serious deficiencies in education, housing, welfare, transportation, and government systems are major problems in West Virginia. A historical contributor to the present condition is the decline of the coal industry. Also a contributor is the general apathy of the citizens toward change and economic progress. The state's…

  9. Clinical sentinel surveillance of equine West Nile fever, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saegerman, C.; Alba-Casals, A.; García-Bocanegra, I.;

    2016-01-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) is a viral zoonotic infection caused by a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Flaviviridae family. According to a comparative study, the passive surveillance of horses by equine veterinarians appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the European context of WNF. Clinical...

  10. 'Fishing' for Alternatives to Mountaintop Mining in Southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountaintop removal mining (MTR) is a major industry in southern West Virginia with many detrimental effects for small to mid-sized streams, and interest in alternative, sustainable industries is on the rise. As a first step in a larger effort to assess the value of sport fisheri...

  11. West-to-East Pipeline Entirely Comes under Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhicheng

    2002-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West-to-East Pipleline Company announced at a press conference held in February that the Chinese Government has formally approved the feasibility study report of the nation-crossing pipeline, marking that the 4200-kilometer pipeline project was brought under construction.

  12. Rolls-Royce Becomes Provider for West-East Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Rolls-Royce, a leading provider of gas turbines for global energy markets, announced on February that it has won the contract to provide Rolls-Royce pipeline compression equipment for China's West-East Gas Pipeline Project (WEPP). The contract is valued at over US$150 million.

  13. West Carter Middle School: A Failure-Free Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principal Leadership, 2012

    2012-01-01

    No student has been retained at West Carter Middle School in Olive Hill, Kentucky, in the last five years. Staff members proudly point to that fact as evidence that their decision to not permit zeros is working. That's a bit misleading, because coupled with the no-zero policy were a number of programmatic initiatives and supports that allowed all…

  14. The Shallow-water Octocorallia of the West Indian Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Frederick M.

    1961-01-01

    The alcyonarian fauna of the West Indies is prolific and conspicuous and has been known for many years, with the natural result that a great many more species have been described than actually exist. The deep-water fauna, which received little attention prior to the work of VERRILL, was thoroughly r

  15. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: COHORT STUDY OF WOMEN IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has a history of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contamination (dioxin, TCDD). The bulk of the dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the disposal of associated wa...

  16. Cryptocoryne aura (Araceae), a new species from West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wongso, Suwidji; Ipor, Isa B.; Tawan, Cheksum S.;

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cryptocoryne aura Wongso & Ipor, from West Kalimantan, Indonesia, is described and illustrated. It differs from other Cryptocoryne species primarily by having a transparent, ciliate membrane along the leaf margin and a short spathe with a yellow, forward-twisted limb. It has...

  17. Education and Happiness: Perspectives of the East and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between education and happiness from the perspectives of the West and the East, especially Buddhism and Christianity as well as classical Greek and Chinese great thinkers. In order to examine this study systematically, three research questions are addressed as follows: First, what are…

  18. Virtual Reference Service in Academic Libraries in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekyere, Kwabena

    2011-01-01

    As technology continues to advance, libraries in Europe and America continue to improve upon their virtual reference services by employing new Web technologies and applying them to existing services. West African academic libraries have begun providing resources electronically to their users but still typically lag behind in the services they…

  19. West Valley transfer cart control system design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.C.; Crutcher, R.I.; Halliwell, J.W.; Hileman, M.S.; Moore, M.R.; Nodine, R.N.; Ruppel, F.R.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1993-01-01

    Detail design of the control system for the West Valley Nuclear Services Vitrification Facility transfer cart has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report documents the requirements and describes the detail design of that equipment and control software. Copies of significant design documents including analysis and testing reports and design drawings are included in the Appendixes.

  20. Forest climbing plants of West Africa: diversity, ecology and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Parren, M.P.E.; Traoré, D.

    2005-01-01

    Climbing plants, including lianas, represent a fascinating component of the ecology of tropical forests. This book focuses on the climbing plants of West African forests. Based on original research, it presents information on the flora (including a checklist), diversity (with overviews at several le

  1. West Virginia University's Health Sciences and Technology Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Ann; Dooley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Health Sciences and Technology Academy, an outreach and engagement program by West Virginia University to encourage higher education faculty members and administrators, public school teachers, and community leaders to assume the responsibility of mentoring high school students. The primary goal is to increase the college…

  2. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection.

  3. West Side Story: over de herontwikkeling van een voormalig industriegebied

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melik, R.G. van; Aalst, I. van; Weesep, J. van

    2007-01-01

    Op Manhattan is nauwelijks nog ruimte voor de gestaag groeiende vraag naar woningen en kantoren. Uitzondering vormt de Far West Side, een voormalig industriegebied ten westen van Midtown. Projectontwikkelaars, lokale ondernemers, bewoners en adviseurs buitelen over elkaar heen met plannen voor de he

  4. PetroChina Independently Operates East-West Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ On August 4, PetroChina announced termination of the "Framework Agreement on Joint Operation of West-East Natural Gas Pipeline" signed between PetroChina and the Shell-led foreign consortium in July 2000 after PetroChina sent "letters of termination" to Royal Dutch/Shell and ExxonMobil- two of the world's largest oil companies- and Russia's Gazprom.

  5. New Technology and Women's Employment. Case Studies from West Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huws, Ursula

    A study examined the impact of new technology upon women's employment in West Yorkshire in Great Britain. During the study, 2,000 copies of a questionnaire were distributed to past and present users of the Leeds Trade Union and Community Resource and Information Centre (TUCRIC) as well as to participants at a conference entitled Women and New…

  6. Future of West African Monsoon in A Warming Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Jerry; Kunhu Bangalath, Hamza; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    West Africa is the home of more than 300 million people whose agriculture based economy highly relies on West African Monsoon (WAM), which produces a mean annual rainfall of 150 - 2,500 mm and variability and change of which have devastating impact on the local population. The observed widespread drought in West Africa during the 1970s and 1980s was the most significant drought at regional scale during the twentieth century. In this study, a high resolution AGCM, High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), is used to study the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse warming on WAM. HiRAM is developed at GFDL based on AM2 and employs a cubed-sphere finite volume dynamical core and uses shallow convective scheme (for moist convection and stratiform cloudiness) instead of deep convective parameterization. Future projections are done using two representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 from 2007 to 2050 at C360 (~25 km) resolution. Both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios predict warming over West Africa during boreal summer, especially over Western Sahara. Also, both scenarios predict southward shift in WAM rainfall pattern and drying over Southern Sahara, while RCP 8.5 predicts enhanced rainfall over Gulf of Guinea. The intensification of rainfall over tropical latitudes is caused by increased low level winds due to warm SST over Gulf of Guinea.

  7. Contraception and Induced Abortion in the West Indies: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.A.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Most islands in the West Indies do not have liberal laws on abortion, nor laws on pregnancy prevention programmes (contraception). We present results of a literature review about the attitude of healthcare providers and women toward (emergency) contraception and induced abortion

  8. A new genus of arboreal rat from West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musser, G.G.

    1981-01-01

    Kadarsanomys nov. gen. is proposed for Rattus sodyi Bartels, 1937, and contrasted with Rattus and Lenothrix, two genera with which sodyi has been closely connected in the past. Kadarsanomys sodyi is an arboreal rat associated with bamboo on the forested volcanoes of West Java. Kadarsanomys has no cl

  9. The epidemiology and control of onchocerciasis in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.F. Remme

    1989-01-01

    textabstractThe present thesis deals with research which has been undertaken since 1983 with the aim of finding answers to the three main epidemiological questions which have been discussed above, i.e. I.-What are the epidemiological patterns of ocular onchocerciasis in West Africa and what is the g

  10. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  11. Vaccination against pneumococcus in West Africa: perspectives and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donkor ES

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Eric S Donkor,1 Nicholas TKD Dayie,1,2 Ebenezer V Badoe3 1Department of Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana; 2Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Child Health, University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana Background: Pneumococcal vaccination has become obligatory due to the enormous burden of pneumococcal diseases. Quite recently, pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been developed, and have been shown to be superior to the previous polyvalent polysaccharide vaccine of the organism. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs are being introduced in many West African countries and it is important to understand the expected performance, relevance, and limitations of these vaccines in the subregion. Aim: The objective of the study presented here was to provide epidemiological insights into PCVs in West Africa based on the prevailing pneumococcal serotypes in the subregion. Methods: A systematic review was carried out on pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive and noninvasive diseases in West Africa. Studies included in the review were those that reported at least 20 serotyped pneumococcal isolates and which were conducted prior to the introduction of PCVs in the region in 2009. The proportion of pneumococcal disease associated with each serotype as well as the serotype coverage of various PCVs (PCV7, PCV10, and PCV13 were calculated. Results: The data covered 718 serotyped pneumococcal isolates from six West African countries: Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Mali, Senegal, and The Gambia. The 718 isolates covered more than 20 serotypes. Serotype 1 was the most prevalent serotype (32%, followed by serotype 5 (15%, serotype 6 (7%, serotype 2 (6%, serotype 3 (6%, and serotype 12 (5%. The estimated serotype coverage of PCVs among the West African countries was 2%–36% for PCV7, 39%–80% for PCV10, and 65%–87% for PCV13

  12. 75 FR 6336 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Removal of NOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ...; Removal of NOX SIP Call Rules AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... West Virginia that removes West Virginia's nitrogen oxides (NOx) SIP Call rules. In the Final...

  13. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  14. NWFSC Observer Trawl Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Trawl Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004

  16. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (the Disko West Area). (au)

  17. NWFSC Observer Fixed Gear Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Fixed Gear Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project Annual Site Environmental Report Calendar Year 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West Valley Nuclear Services Company (WVNSCO) and URS Group, Inc.

    2005-09-30

    Annual Site Environmental Report for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) for Calendar Year 2004. The report summarizes the environmental protection program at the West Valley Demonstration Project for CY 2004.

  19. Potential Climate Effects of Dust Aerosols' over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    JI, Z.; Wang, G.; Pal, J. S.; Yu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate in West Africa is under the influence of the West African monsoon circulation and mineral dust emitted from the Sahara desert (which is the world's largest source of mineral dust emission). Dust aerosols alter the atmospheric radiative fluxes and act as cloud condensation nuclei in the process of emission, transportation and deposition. However, our understanding regarding how dust aerosols influence the present-day and future climate of West Africa is very limited. In this study, a regional climate model RegCM4.3.4-CLM4.5 is used to investigate the potential climatic effects of dust aerosols both in present (1981-2000) and future (2081-2100) periods over WA. First, the model performance and dust climatic effects are evaluated. The contribution of dust climatic effects under RCP8.5 scenario and their confounding effects with land use change are assessed. Our results indicate that the model can reproduce with reasonable accuracy the spatial and temporal distribution of climatology, aerosol optical depth and surface concentration over WA. The shortwave radiative forcing of dust is negative in the surface and positive in the atmosphere, with greater changes in JJA and MAM compared to those in SON and DJF. Over most of West Africa, cooling is the dominant effect on temperature. Their impact on precipitation features a dipole pattern, with decrease in the north and increase in the south of West Africa. Despite the dust-induced decrease of precipitation amount, dusts cause extreme precipitation to increase. To evaluate the uncertainties surrounding our modeling results, sensitivity experiments driven by ICBC from MIROC-ESM and CESM and their dynamic downscaling results are used for comparisons. Results from these sensitivity experiments indicate that the impact of dust aerosols on present and future climate is robust.

  20. West Virginia Diesel Study, CRADA MC96-034, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gautam

    1998-08-05

    The global objective of the recently completed Phase 1 of the West Virginia Diesel Study, at West Virginia University, was to evaluate mass emission rates of exhaust emissions from diesel powered equipment specified by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission. The experimental data generated in this study has been utilized by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission to promulgate initial rules, requirements and standards governing the operation of diesel equipment in underground coal mines.

  1. West African colonial civil servants in the nineteenth century : African participation in British colonial expansion in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arhin, K.

    1985-01-01

    From the 1850's to mid 1890's Africans were employed in top positions in the embryonic West African colonial services. This book contains the biographies of three of them: Ferguson on the Gold Coast, Lawson in Sierra Leone and Payne in Nigeria. All three had in common that they believed in British r

  2. 78 FR 8512 - West Street Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission West Street Hydro, Inc.; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted..., 2012, West Street Hydro, Inc., filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f... megawatt-hours. Applicant Contact: Mr. Kenneth A. Stewart, West Street Hydro, Inc., 20 Central...

  3. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  5. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  6. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a dive

  7. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  8. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  9. Testing Modeling Assumptions in the West Africa Ebola Outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Keith; Verzijl, Christopher; Huang, Junming; Ingram, Matthew; Song, Binyang; Hasne, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus in West Africa has infected almost 30,000 and killed over 11,000 people. Recent models of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have often made assumptions about how the disease spreads, such as uniform transmissibility and homogeneous mixing within a population. In this paper, we test whether these assumptions are necessarily correct, and offer simple solutions that may improve disease model accuracy. First, we use data and models of West African migration to show that EVD does not homogeneously mix, but spreads in a predictable manner. Next, we estimate the initial growth rate of EVD within country administrative divisions and find that it significantly decreases with population density. Finally, we test whether EVD strains have uniform transmissibility through a novel statistical test, and find that certain strains appear more often than expected by chance. PMID:27721505

  10. Case histories of West Valley spent fuel shipments: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983, NRC/FC initiated a study on institutional issues related to spent fuel shipments originating at the former spent fuel processing facility in West Valley, New York. FC staff viewed the shipment campaigns as a one-time opportunity to document the institutional issues that may arise with a substantial increase in spent fuel shipping activity. NRC subsequently contracted with the Aerospace Corporation for the West Valley Study. This report contains a detailed description of the events which took place prior to and during the spent fuel shipments. The report also contains a discussion of the shipment issues that arose, and presents general findings. Most of the institutional issues discussed in the report do not fall under NRC's transportation authority. The case histories provide a reference to agencies and other institutions that may be involved in future spent fuel shipping campaigns. 130 refs., 7 figs., 19 tabs

  11. Primary Care Fall Risk Assessment for Elderly West Virginians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkemeyer, Vivian M; Meriweather, Matt; Shuler, Franklin D; Mehta, Saurabh P; Qazi, Zain N

    2015-01-01

    West Virginia is ranked second nationally for the percent of its population 65 years of age. The elderly are especially susceptible to falls with fall risk increasing as age increases. Because falls are the number one cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the West Virginia elderly, evaluation of fall risk is a critical component of the patient evaluation in the primary care setting. We therefore highlight fall risk assessments that require no specialized equipment or training and can easily be completed at an established office visit. High quality clinical practice guidelines supported by the American Geriatric Society recommend yearly fall risk evaluation in the elderly. Those seniors at greatest risk of falls will benefit from the standardized therapy protocols outlined and referral to a balance treatment center. Patients with low-to-moderate fall risk attributed to muscle weakness or fatigue should be prescribed lower extremity strengthening exercises, such as kitchen counter exercises, to improve strength and balance. PMID:26665892

  12. Recent progress in West Nile virus diagnosis and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Filette Marina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract West Nile virus (WNV is a positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family, a large family with 3 main genera (flavivirus, hepacivirus and pestivirus. Among these viruses, there are several globally relevant human pathogens including the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV, yellow fever virus (YFV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV and West Nile virus (WNV, as well as tick-borne viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV. Since the mid-1990s, outbreaks of WN fever and encephalitis have occurred throughout the world and WNV is now endemic in Africa, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe and the Unites States. This review describes the molecular virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and highlights recent progress regarding diagnosis and vaccination against WNV infections.

  13. Welding technique studies on the "West-East" pipeline project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Yongli; Du Zeyu; Huang Fuxiang; Qi Lichun

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the work of welding process design for the "West-East" pipeline project, which is high pressure, large diameter and heavy wall thickness. According to the different geographical situation, climate, culture and the flexibility of the welding methods, this work recommended the semi-automatic process at the east and middle sections and automatic process at the west section of the pipeline project. The manual process is recommended on the tie-in joints and repairs. The double joint pipe and the 3 joint pipe are recommended at the water net place and some in-ditch welding place to reduce the welding volume. Also the special redesigned bevels are recommended for the automatic process and the semiautomatic process. Through all destructive tests, the results shows the welds are meet the requirements of related standards,specifications and design documents.

  14. Waste Assessment Baseline for the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, Samuel A [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Waste Management and Pollution Prevention

    2015-04-01

    Following a building-wide waste assessment in September, 2014, and subsequent presentation to Sandia leadership regarding the goal of Zero Waste by 2025, the occupants of the IPOC Second Floor, West Wing contacted the Materials Sustainability and Pollution Prevention (MSP2) team to guide them to Zero Waste in advance of the rest of the site. The occupants are from Center 3600, Public Relations and Communications , and Center 800, Independent Audit, Ethics and Business Conduct . To accomplish this, MSP2 conducted a new limited waste assessment from March 2-6, 2015 to compare the second floor, west wing to the building as a whole. The assessment also serves as a baseline with which to mark improvements in diversion in approximately 6 months.

  15. Clinical Manifestations and Outcomes of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Sejvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, understanding of the clinical features, spectrum of illness and eventual functional outcomes of human illness has increased tremendously. Most human infections with WNV remain clinically silent. Among those persons developing symptomatic illness, most develop a self-limited febrile illness. More severe illness with WNV (West Nile neuroinvasive disease, WNND is manifested as meningitis, encephalitis or an acute anterior (polio myelitis. These manifestations are generally more prevalent in older persons or those with immunosuppression. In the future, a more thorough understanding of the long-term physical, cognitive and functional outcomes of persons recovering from WNV illness will be important in understanding the overall illness burden.

  16. Territoriale culten in West-Congo: verdwijning of transformatie?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vanhee

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses some of the key issues in my current research on the history of the relationship between society, tradition and Christianity in the west of Congo-Kinshasa over the last century. My focus here is on the process ofprogressive transformation of the nineteenth-century territorial cults and the structural continuity which is apparent in the development of the Congolese Christian church in the area. In presenting some of my working hypotheses I am suggesting that after an initial period of open hostility towards the first missionaries, BaKongo became aware - 'empirically' as it were - of the fact that new ways were to be explored in order to compete with the challenges of Western colonialism and the forces of modernity and globalisation. In this regard, the history of religious life in West Congo can be described as a progressive attempt to regain control over the relations between human society and the supernatural world.

  17. Overview of West Nile Virus Transmission and Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Andrea; Colpitts, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause mild-to-severe disease in humans and horses. WNV was first documented in Uganda in 1937 and passed through the majority of Africa, West Asia, and Europe before arriving in the USA (with infections in New York City in 1999). After the spread of the virus on the US east coast, it traveled westward, northward, and southward through the USA and into Central and South America. WNV can cause fever, rashes, nausea, vomiting, and potentially neuroinvasive disease or death. The virus is sustained through a mosquito-bird-mosquito cycle and there are many species that are competent vectors. Unfortunately, there are no vaccines and the only treatment is supportive care. This chapter highlights the epidemiology and transmission of WNV and provides insight into some of the challenges of controlling WNV disease.

  18. Laboratory work in support of West Valley glass development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past six years, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted several studies in support of waste glass composition development and testing of glass compositions suitable for immobilizing the nuclear wastes stored at West Valley, New York. As a result of pilot-scale testing conducted by PNL, the glass composition was changed from that originally recommended in response to changes in the waste stream, and several processing-related problems were discovered. These problems were solved, or sufficiently addressed to determine their likely effect on the glass melting operations to be conducted at West Valley. This report describes the development of the waste glass composition, WV-205, and discusses solutions to processing problems such as foaming and insoluble sludges, as well as other issues such as effects of feed variations on processing of the resulting glass. An evaluation of the WV-205 glass from a repository perspective is included in the appendix to this report

  19. Sensory diversity of fonio landraces from West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fliedel, G.; Koreissi, Y.; Boré, F.; Dramé, D.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to establish if there is some sensory variability among fonio landraces. Fonio, the oldest indigenous and very tasty cereal growing in West Africa, is usually consumed as a couscous. Group interviews of consumers were conducted in Bamako, Mali to identify the main quality criteria of a cooked grain. Fonio grain must be swollen, not sticky with a soft consistency, pale and containing low impurities. Sensory properties of 20 fonio landraces from Mali, Guinea and Burkina Faso wer...

  20. Looking east, looking west: Penang as a knowledge hub

    OpenAIRE

    Gerke, Solvay; Evers, Hans-Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Penang has always been a focal point, absorbing knowledge (and popular culture) from civilizations to the East and West. In modern Penang the pattern of cultural contacts has changed over time. Research institutes and universities in Penang cooperate with foreign partners to produce research papers and reports. Based on an analysis of joint research output, the changing international position of Penang as an emerging research hub will be analysed. The paper will show that international cooper...

  1. Human Security and Developmental Crisis in the Contemporary West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ayodeji A. Aduloju; Omowunmi O. Pratt

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades were characterized by severe conflicts in the West Africa subregion. The era of conflict resolution, management and peace building thus came to define theregion. The destruction left by long years of protracted conflicts and the present state of devel opment is reason enough to warrant attention both from within and beyond. The study expounds, operationalizes and clarifies the concept of human security and development, and how human security issues lead to underdevelopmen...

  2. Intense convection over West Africa during AMMA SOP3 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenouo, André; Sall, Saïdou Moustapha; Badiane, Daouda; Gaye, Amadou Thierno; Kamga Mkankam, F.

    2016-11-01

    ERA-Interim product from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) assimilation of African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) resources, Meteosat satellite images, and synoptic observations were used to study local- and regional-scale environments associated with intense convective systems during the AMMA-SOP3 experiment over West Africa in the Northern Hemisphere of summer 2006. The convective system, from the 21st to 23rd of August 2006, was more active at 0000 and 1800 UTC showing diurnal cycle of deep convection over West Africa where the African easterly waves (AEWs) are developed downstream. Downstream barotropic and baroclinic energy conversions associated with strong AEWs are important for the maintenance of AEW activity in West Africa. Barotropic energy conversions dominate south of the African easterly jet (AEJ), while baroclinic energy conversions are most important north of the AEJ. From a dynamical viewpoint, the low-level vorticity presents strong positive values over the sea and Sahara zone, indicating that exists on the cyclonic shear side of the African easterly jet, which is consistent with baroclinic growth. The 925-hPa equivalent potential temperature structure show a maximum over the Sahara which corresponds to the depression observed in this region. A mosaic of three hourly infrared (IR) satellite images, depicts a very distinct signal from an initial region of convection, developing through several stages and moving off the African coast. These observations, along with those available from the World Weather Watch, provide an opportunity to carry out numerical weather prediction (NWP) studies over West Africa utilizing high resolution limited area models.

  3. Nonpublic Competition and Public School Performance: Evidence from West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Cebula; Joshua C. Hall; Maria Y. Tackett

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether nonpublic school enrollment affects the performance of public school districts. If homeschooling and private schools act as competition, public school districts test scores should be positively associated with nonpublic enrollment. Using data on West Virginia county school districts, and controlling for endogeneity with an instrumental variables approach, we find that a one standard deviation increase in relative nonpublic enrollment in a county is associ...

  4. Micromorphological Characterization of Some Volcanic Soil In West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfud Arifin; Rina Devnita

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no4.20082Micromorphological characterization has been studied on six pedons of soils developing in volcanic materials in West Java. The pedons represent deposits of different volcanoes (Mount Tangkuban Perahu, Mount Patuha and Mount Papandayan) with different ages (Pleistocene, Holocene) within two types of volcanisms (andesitic, basaltic), and three agroclimatic zones (A, B1, B2). Undisturbed soil samples were taken from each identifiable horizon for thin ...

  5. Challenges in Transitioning to Organic Farming in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Brodt, Sonja; Schug, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a case study of small-scale rice and vegetable producers in West Bengal, India to argue that some of the same infrastructural and technical roots to problems that plague small farmers attempting to use chemically-intensive farming methods also hinder their ability to fully convert to global-style organic farming. In particular, problems in accessing knowledge and technical inputs are likely to translate into difficulties in adopting and maintaining organic production practices...

  6. Seasonal TEC Variability in West Africa Equatorial Anomaly Region

    OpenAIRE

    ZOUNDI, Christian; Ouattara, Fréderic; FLEURY, Rolland; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Lassudrie-Duchesne, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This paper presented the seasonal variability of TEC/ GPS data recorded at Ouagadougou a West Africa GPS station located near the magnetic equator. Seasonal data TEC time variations are compared to those of TEC derived from IGS GPS network maps. The present study showed that TEC map model predicts well data TEC during equinoctial months and fairly well during solstice months. The best prediction is obtained during spring and the worst during winter. The analysis of seasonal TEC profiles highl...

  7. Síndrome de West: factores etiológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Dehli, Ana Cristina; Pérez Solís, David; de Juan Frigola, Juan; Villanueva Gómez, Francisco; Garía López, Celia

    2003-01-01

    Este artículo recoge los resultados de un estudio retrospectivo de 20 niños diagnosticados con Síndrome de West entre 1993 y 2001. Se analizan las causas y se describen los métodos diagnósticos empleados, tratamiento y evolución. Se comparan los resultados con otro estudio realizado entre 1975 y 1986 en el mismo hospital.

  8. West Greenland caribou explosion: What happened? What about the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In West Greenland, the 1993 caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus population size estimate was 7000 to 9000 animals. Eight years later in 2001, the estimate was ca. 140 000. Relatively rapid rise and fall cycles of abundance in West Greenland caribou have been noted since the 1700s. Caribou have no natural predators in West Greenland. Combined with their high fertility and recruitment, this suggests that overabundance might be their greatest threat to stability. The 2005 population surveys indicate poor recruitment in two major populations and decreasing abundance in one. Given stocking densities are three to six-times the value considered sustainable, we expect strong competition between individuals for available food resources. Although the management goal is sustainable harvest of natural resources, if populations continue at their current size or increase further, there is a clear risk of range overgrazing and trampling. Unsustainable range use may result in density-dependent forage limitation with subsequent relatively rapid population decline over a series of years, e.g. a decade. As in the past, populations are expected to recover, and if true to the past, recovery will take the better part of a century. Furthermore, the role of catastrophic weather events may be of major importance. Abrupt collapse could be precipitated by a disastrous single year event, e.g. thaw-freeze icing or deep snow, because possibilities for dispersal to new ranges are limited. Regardless of management initiatives taken now, population declines or crashes may be inevitable for some West Greenland herds in the foreseeable future, but accurate predictions about herd trends are impossible. To understand the potential impact of future developments, Greenland caribou and their range must be studied within the wider context of climate change.

  9. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM GROUNDNUTS IN SOME LOCATIONS OF WEST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    O.s. DHARMAPUTRA; I. RETNOWATI

    1996-01-01

    One hundred and ninety eight groundnut samples were collected from freshly harvested groundnuts (FHG), farmer storage systems (FSS), middlemen warehouses (MW), wholesalers (WS) and retailer sample (RS) during the dry and wet seasons from Cidolog, Cianjur, Sukabumi and Bogor, West Java, Indonesia, in 1990/1991. The moisture content (m.c.), intactness of kernels, and the percentages of groundnut kernels infected by each species of fungi were analyzed. In genera), the m.c. of the s...

  10. Local Sustainable Energy Assessment of Uttarakhand and West Bengal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    The publication reports a sustainable energy assessment at the local project site of the HighARCS project in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Buxa, West Bengal, India. The assessment has been made as a contribution to the elaboration of biodiversity conservation and livelihoods improvement action plans....... It proposes an energy assessment methodology and planning procedure. An assessment is made for each of the two local areas on the basis of data collected during a field visit in Sept 2010...

  11. Economic Valuation of a Wetland in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Sacchidananda

    2008-01-01

    In the Gangetic flood plain of West Bengal, wetlands are used for multiple purposes, and have significant role in the livelihoods of the local people. Over the years, these Multiple Use Systems (MUSs) are getting converted to single use systems due to economic and social pressure from dominant stakeholders, which are higher than that in single use systems. Economic and ecological functions of MUS changes over time and space. These dynamic aspects of MUS are often not fully appreciated. Att...

  12. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    O. Ogbu; E. Ajuluchukwu; Uneke, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestud...

  13. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Mendes Pereira; Paulo Silva de Almeida; Adair Vieira de Sousa; Aécio Moraes de Paula; Ricardo Bomfim Machado; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic dist...

  14. Catch tanks inhibitor addition 200-East and 200-West Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reported is the study of 11 catch tanks in the 200-East Area and the 7 catch tanks in the 200-West Area listed as active. The location, capacity, material of construction, annual total accumulation, annual rain intrusion, waste transfer rate, and access for chemical injection in these tanks are documented. The present and future utilization and isolation plans for the catch tanks are established

  15. Exploring climatic impacts on water resources in West Niger, Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vieux, R.E.; Looper, J.P.; Cappelaere, Bernard; Peugeot, Christophe; Maia, A.

    1998-01-01

    Drought persisting in the Sahel for more than 25 years, impacting both surface and subsurface water resources, raises the question whether the hydrological impacts are proportional, dampened, or amplified in response to the climatic change manifested by the drought experienced since 1970. A physically-based distributed model, r.water.fea, applied to a 2.48 km2 endoreic drainage basin, typical of the Niamey area of West Niger, is used to evaluate the sensitivity of the hydrological system to s...

  16. Extending west's analogy royce, mead, and american philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Marcelo Viale

    2008-01-01

    In The American Evasion of Philosophy Cornell West makes a comparison between the developments of European and classical American philosophies. Within West’s analogy, however, two important American figures are missing: Josiah Royce and George H. Mead. In the context of this framework, this article attempts to extend West’s analogy, speculating on the possible roles of Royce and Mead within it. The argumentation is developed in two parts: on the one hand, I show how secondary literature that ...

  17. Telesupport Experiment for Agricultural Information Management in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Rupak; Ghosh Roy, Jhumpa; Ghose, Jhulan

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the experimentation of Change Initiatives, an Indian NGO of sub-regional scope, with the application of ICT in agricultural information management under the EUsponsored TeleSupport Project at Nadia district of West Bengal, India. During the piloting phase, an innovative mechanism of information management was experimented for facilitating a twoway interaction between expert and client system with the involvement of local community. To sustain this two-way communication s...

  18. MRI examination of West syndrome complicated by periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 19 low-birth-weight infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy, 6 with West syndrome as a complication (group III) and 13 without it (group II), were compared with those of normal 13 low-birth-weight infants without PVL or cerebral palsy (group I) to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of West syndrome. All of the subjects were born between 1989 and 1997, and there were no significant differences between the three groups in birth weight or age at the time of the examination. Although the gestation period was significantly longer in the group III (infants with West syndrome) than in group I (control infants), there was no significant difference was seen between group I and group II (infants with PVL and cerebral palsy). PVL was diagnosed by MRI, and the diagnostic standards included periventricular high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, decreased cerebral white matter, and deformity or enlargement of the lateral ventricles. The area of periventricular high signal intensity was significantly larger in group II and group III than in group I, and the occipital lobe white matter was significantly thinner in the former than the latter. The lateral ventricles were significantly larger in group II than in the other two groups. The area of the corpus callosum and the thickness of the splenium and trunk of the corpus callosum were significantly smaller in group II and group III than in group I, but the corpus callosum was significantly shorter in group III than in the other two groups. Findings in the brain stem showed a significantly smaller pons and medulla oblongata in group III than in group I, but there were no significant differences between group II and group I. The results of this study indicate that lower brainstem lesions as well as cerebral lesions are associated with the development of West syndrome. (K.H.)

  19. Radiation safety at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the Radiation Safety Program at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This Program covers a number of activities that support high-level waste solidification, stabilization of facilities, and decontamination and decommissioning activities at the Project. The conduct of the Program provides confidence that all occupational radiation exposures received during operational tasks at the Project are within limits, standards, and program requirements, and are as low as reasonably achievable

  20. Mental health needs and services in the West Bank, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Marie, Mohammad; Hannigan, Ben; Jones, Aled

    2016-01-01

    Background Palestine is a low income country with scarce resources, which is seeking independence. This paper discusses the high levels of mental health need found amongst Palestinian people, and examines services, education and research in this area with particular attention paid to the West Bank. Methods CINAHL, PubMed, and Science Direct were used to search for materials. Results and conclusion Evidence from this review is that there is a necessity to increase the availability and quality ...

  1. Economics of Malaria Prevention in US Travelers to West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S.; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S.; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R.; Regina C LaRocque; Sotir, Mark J.; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. Methods. The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspectiv...

  2. Economics of Malaria Prevention in US Travelers to West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Kenji; Coleman, Margaret S.; Khan, Nomana; Jentes, Emily S.; Arguin, Paul; Rao, Sowmya R.; Regina C LaRocque; Sotir, Mark J.; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T.; Meltzer, Martin I.; ,

    2013-01-01

    Background.  Pretravel health consultations help international travelers manage travel-related illness risks through education, vaccination, and medication. This study evaluated costs and benefits of that portion of the health consultation associated with malaria prevention provided to US travelers bound for West Africa. Methods.  The estimated change in disease risk and associated costs and benefits resulting from traveler adherence to malaria chemoprophylaxis were calculated from 2 perspect...

  3. MRI examination of West syndrome complicated by periventricular leukomalacia (PVL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Yamashita, Akiko; Endo, Shoichi [National Kagawa Children' s Hospital, Zentuji (Japan); Gouda, Tomoko

    2001-10-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of 19 low-birth-weight infants with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and cerebral palsy, 6 with West syndrome as a complication (group III) and 13 without it (group II), were compared with those of normal 13 low-birth-weight infants without PVL or cerebral palsy (group I) to investigate the pathogenetic mechanism of West syndrome. All of the subjects were born between 1989 and 1997, and there were no significant differences between the three groups in birth weight or age at the time of the examination. Although the gestation period was significantly longer in the group III (infants with West syndrome) than in group I (control infants), there was no significant difference was seen between group I and group II (infants with PVL and cerebral palsy). PVL was diagnosed by MRI, and the diagnostic standards included periventricular high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, decreased cerebral white matter, and deformity or enlargement of the lateral ventricles. The area of periventricular high signal intensity was significantly larger in group II and group III than in group I, and the occipital lobe white matter was significantly thinner in the former than the latter. The lateral ventricles were significantly larger in group II than in the other two groups. The area of the corpus callosum and the thickness of the splenium and trunk of the corpus callosum were significantly smaller in group II and group III than in group I, but the corpus callosum was significantly shorter in group III than in the other two groups. Findings in the brain stem showed a significantly smaller pons and medulla oblongata in group III than in group I, but there were no significant differences between group II and group I. The results of this study indicate that lower brainstem lesions as well as cerebral lesions are associated with the development of West syndrome. (K.H.)

  4. Wohnungsmärkte im deutschen Ost-West-Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Rothenwallner

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite equal conditions after World War II, housing markets in East and West Germany had, according to the political and economic systems, developed completely different. State controlled mass production of dwellings due to planned economy is faced with house building under control of market principles. Bringing together both housing mar-kets is one of the most urgent political tasks since reunification.

  5. Foreign Aid: The Ideological Differences between China and the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanbing; Huang Ying

    2012-01-01

    In April 2011, the Chinese government published its first "White Paper on Foreign Aid"1 as a response to the international community's growing concern about China's increasing foreign aid. As a careful examination of the white paper will show, China's foreign aid possesses its own characteristics, and these differ greatly from those of the West at the ideological level.

  6. Skills, Wages, and Employment in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Funke; Felix FitzRoy

    1995-01-01

    Disaggregated data from 30 two-digit manufacturing industries in the east and west parts of unified Germany are used to estimate employment for three skill categories of blue collar workers. Employment elasticities are uniformly higher in the east, and for unskilled labor. The former result contradicts union claims that wages had little relevance for east German job losses, while the latter confirms the capital-skill complementarity hypothesis.

  7. An Empirical Analysis of Adult Obesity in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Herath, J.; Gebremedhin, T.

    2010-01-01

    West Virginia reports the highest obesity level in the United States. Every 3 in 10 adults are obese, and the prevalence of obesity is nearly 8% higher than the national level. Obesity is linked with several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes II, hypertension, cancer, arthritis, asthma, and some psychological disorders. The reported economic burden associated with obesity is considerably high. This research study attempts to examine the use of exercise and cutting down of calorie intake...

  8. West-East Gas Pipeline Starts Trial Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ The eastern section of the West-East gas pipeline, which is from Jingbian County in Shaanxi Province to Shanghai, started trial operation on October 1, warming up for the commercial operation of the pipeline slated on January 1, 2004. PetroChina held a grand ceremony to celebrate the trial operation in Jingbian, a major gas production base of PetroChina Changqing Oil Field Company.

  9. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on the value chains in which algae production was positioned within these initiatives. The questionnaire was used by EnAlgae project partners to collect information in Great Britain, Ireland, Germany...

  10. CWRD: ICT in Education: Central and West Asia Executive

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents and analyzes the major conclusions of research conducted in Central and West Asia in 2006 through 2011 to ascertain the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) investments on education. It presents a critical overview of the effectiveness of ICT policies and strategies in basic education in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with shorter studies on Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, and Pakistan. Among its many impo...

  11. NRA North west salmonid microtagging programme 1987-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Farooqui, M.A.; Apprahamian, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The microtagging programme began in 1987 using hatchery reared salmon originating from the rivers Caldew and Hodder and subsequently included the Lune (1988) and Ribble (1989). Microtagging of sea trout began in 1991 for the Lune and in 1993 for the Hodder. The report explores the NRA North west salmonid microtagging programme looking at methods, results and recommendations. The report provides salmon microtagging data and returns from 1987 to 1994.

  12. Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, T.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, PO Box 600, Wellington 6012, New Zealand; Powell, R.; Department of Geology & Environmental Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA.; Levy, R.; ANDRILL Science Management Office, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, USA; Wilson, G.; University of Otago, Department of Geology, PO Box 56, Leith Street, Dunedin, Otago 9001, New Zealand; Scherer, R.; Department of Geology & Environmental Geosciences, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, Illinois 60115, USA.; Talarico, F.; Universita` di Siena, Dipartimento di Scienze delle Terra, Via Laterina 8, I-53100 Siena, Italy; Krissek, L.; Ohio State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 275 Mendenhall Lab, 125 South Oval Mall, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Niessen, F.; Alfred Wegener Institute, Department of Geosciences, Postfach 12 01 6, Am Alten Hafen 26, D-27515 Bremerhaven, Germany; Pompilio, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Pisa, Pisa, Italia; Wilson, T.; Ohio State University, Department of Geological Sciences, 275 Mendenhall Lab, 125 South Oval Mall, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Carter, L.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade, PO Box 600, Wellington 6012, New Zealand; DeConto, R.; Department of Geosciences, 233 Morrell Science Centre, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003-9297, USA; Huybers, P.; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Massachusetts 02138, USA; McKay, R.; Antarctic Research Centre, Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington - New Zealand; Pollard, D.; Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, 2217 Earth-Engineering Science Bldg, University Park, PA 16802, USA

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years after oxygen isotope records frommicrofossils deposited in ocean sediments confirmed the hypothesis that variations in the Earth’s orbital geometry control the ice ages1, fundamental questions remain over the response of the Antarctic ice sheets to orbital cycles2. Furthermore, an understanding of the behaviour of the marine-based West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) during the ‘warmer-than- present’ early-Pliocene epoch (̃5–3Myr ago) is needed to better constrain the possibl...

  13. Myth, (New) History and Modernization of the Wild West

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubomir Hristić

    2016-01-01

    The western frontier has been, and persist in being a means of constructing and ascribing meaning partly due to its association with maps and mapped areas, and partly because of its appearance in a number of folk tales, manuscripts and in formal, scientific scrutiny, as a paradigmatic discourse shaped in the American tradition and beyond. In the paper, frontier of the American Wild West is analyzed through the structure in which it was used in relation to its mythical and historical occurrenc...

  14. Territoriale culten in West-Congo: verdwijning of transformatie?

    OpenAIRE

    H. Vanhee

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the key issues in my current research on the history of the relationship between society, tradition and Christianity in the west of Congo-Kinshasa over the last century. My focus here is on the process ofprogressive transformation of the nineteenth-century territorial cults and the structural continuity which is apparent in the development of the Congolese Christian church in the area. In presenting some of my working hypotheses I am suggesting that after an initi...

  15. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

  16. Manufacturing and process research of the West ICRH antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important issue for the WEST (Tungsten (W) Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project, which aims at modifying Tore Supra to an X-point divertor machine, is to provide a heat flux at 10MW/m2 during 1000 sec and 20MW/m2 during 20s. To obtain this level of flux, the operation of three Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) launchers at a level of 9MW during 30s or 3MW during 1000s is necessary. The WEST ICRH system has to deal with two challenging issues that no other ICRH system before ITER has faced simultaneously so far, i.e. ELMs resilience and Continuous Wave (CW) RF operation. This paper is mainly focused on the manufacturing of the WEST ICRH antenna components, currently under fabrication in collaboration with CAS/ASIPP. Based on the high accuracy required for the ICRH components, machining process is introduced, followed by assembly, welding, qualification tests, 3D scanning and metrological analysis

  17. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A.; Bell, C.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis (UC Davis) and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village, the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. The energy efficiency measures that are incorporated into these apartments include increased wall & attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. Results discuss how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10 month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  18. West Village Student Housing Phase I: Apartment Monitoring and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Bell, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) worked with the University of California, Davis and the developer partner West Village Community Partnership (WVCP) to evaluate performance on 192 student apartments completed in September, 2011 as part of Phase I of the multi-purpose West Village project. West Village is the largest planned zero net energy community in the United States. The campus neighborhood is designed to enable faculty, staff, and students to affordably live near campus, take advantage of environmentally friendly transportation options, and participate fully in campus life. The aggressive energy efficiency measures that are incorporated in the design contribute to source energy reductions of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. These measures include increased wall and attic insulation, high performance windows, high efficiency heat pumps for heating and cooling, central heat pump water heaters (HPWHs), 100% high efficacy lighting, and ENERGY STAR major appliances. The report discusses how measured energy use compares to modeling estimates over a 10-month monitoring period and includes a cost effective evaluation.

  19. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  20. Frontal structures in the West Spitsbergen Current margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Walczowski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the hydrographic fronts separating the Atlantic origin waters from ambient waters in the northern Nordic Seas are discussed. Flows of the western and eastern branches of the West Spitsbergen Current create the Atlantic domain borders and maintain these fronts. The work is based on previous research and on investigations in the project DAMOCLES (Developing Arctic Modeling and Observational Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies. Most of the observational data were collected during the R/V Oceania cruises. The main focus of the paper is put on the western border of the Atlantic domain – the Arctic Front, along- and transfrontal transports, the front instability and variability. The baroclinic instability and advection of baroclinic eddies which occurs due to this instability were found as the main transfrontal transport processes. Most of the Atlantic Water transported by the western branch recirculates west and southward. The eastern branch of the West Spitsbergen Current provides most of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean. Both processes are very important for the Arctic and global Thermohaline Circulation.

  1. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (-1) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L-1 were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (∼1400 ng L-1) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: → Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. → Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. → Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  2. Lead poisoning in a West Bank Arab Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Abrahamov, A; Moreb, J; Hersh, M; Shiffman, R; Shahin, A; Richter, E D; Konijn, A M; Weissenberg, E; Graver, F

    1984-10-01

    Eleven patients from the West Bank village of Es-Sawiyeh were admitted with lead poisoning to two Jerusalem hospitals between November 1982 and January 1983. They all belonged to several households of a single large family. Colicky abdominal pains were present in five patients, weakness in four, behavioral changes ranging from irritability to frank psychosis in four, and paralysis in one. Anemia of various degrees was seen in all patients. Basophilic stippling and reticulocytosis were encountered in all patients with moderate to severe anemia. Therapy with edetate disodium calcium and penicillamine resulted in clinical improvement in all patients. A preliminary survey of 270 subjects in the same village disclosed 84 subjects with abnormally elevated blood lead levels, 17 of whom had grade IV lead burden according to the Centers for Disease Control risk classification. Contamination of homemade flour by lead used for stabilizing the metal parts of stone mills was the source of poisoning. As the method of milling in many West Bank villages is similar, these findings may have important implications to the well being of a large section of the rural West Bank population.

  3. Operation experience with consolidated road supports at the West mine; Betriebserfahrungen mit hoch verguetetem Streckenausbau auf dem Bergwerk West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmans, Karl-Heinz [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Bergwerk West Kamp-Lintfort; Hellwig, Rainer [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistikdienste

    2012-07-01

    The extraction depth at the West mine has increased continuously over the last 10 years. Rock control on the faces and roads is of crucial importance because of the greater depths and the associated higher rock pressure and due to the more extensive workings. Highly developed support sections are combined with innovative bolt technology on the roads to ensure the efficiency of the workings. These high rock mechanical loads can be anticipated in particular in working district 1 WN in the Girondelle 5 seam at the West mine. Panels 630 and 632 in the 1 WN district are at a depth of about 1300 m. Both panels worked at the same time are separated by a pillar approx. 220 m wide. Hence the gate roads in this working district are predestined for the use of highly consolidated road supports.

  4. Determination of antibiotic residues in the pasteurized milk produced in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirin Forouzan; Amir Rahimirad; Roya Seyedkhoei; Jafar Asadzadeh; Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To monitor antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran.Methods:In this study, 848 pasteurized milk samples were collected from factories and tested for the presence of antibiotic residues using the Copan test kit based on the manufacturer’s instructions.Results:Results indicated that 30.14% of samples were contaminated with a variety of antibiotics based on the detection of associated residues and 3.19% of these samples were suspected. Given the current rise of antimicrobial resistance among microbial pathogens, these findings amplify the need to ensure continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk that intended for human consumption.Conclusions:Continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk may improve human health but also limit the development and transmission of antibiotic resistant strains in the environment.

  5. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, D [National Science Foundation; Bromwich, DH [Ohio State University; Russell, LM [Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Verlinde, J [The Pennsylvania State University; Vogelmann, AM [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and this warming is closely connected with global sea level rise. The discovery of rapid climate change on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) has challenged previous explanations of Antarctic climate change that focused on strengthening of circumpolar westerlies in response to the positive polarity trend in the Southern Annular Mode. West Antarctic warming does not yet have a comprehensive explanation: dynamical mechanisms may vary from one season to the next, and these mechanisms very likely involve complex teleconnections with subtropical and tropical latitudes. The prime motivation for this proposal is that there has been no substantial atmospheric science or climatological field work on West Antarctica since the 1957 International Geophysical Year and that research continued for only a few years. Direct meteorological information on the WAIS has been limited to a few automatic weather stations for several decades, yet satellite imagery and meteorological reanalyses indicate that West Antarctica is highly susceptible to advection of warm and moist maritime air with related cloud cover, depending on the location and strength of low pressure cells in the Amundsen, Ross, and Bellingshausen Seas. There is a need to quantify the role of these changing air masses on the surface energy balance, including all surface energy components and cloud-radiative forcing. More generally, global climate model simulations are known to perform poorly over the Antarctic and Southern Oceans, and the marked scarcity of cloud information at southern high latitudes has so far inhibited significant progress. Fortunately, McMurdo Station, where the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility’s (ARM’s) most advanced cloud and aerosol instrumentation is situated, has a meteorological relationship with the WAIS via circulation patterns in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. We can therefore gather sophisticated data with cloud

  6. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilevand, Nahid; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P). In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births) were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05), whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts. PMID:26600829

  7. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P. In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05, whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts.

  8. Localization of West Nile Virus in monkey brain: double staining antigens immunohistochemically of neurons, neuroglia cells and West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    He, Xianli; Ren, Junping; Xu, Fangling; Ferguson, Monique R; Li, Guangyu

    2009-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause encephalitis or meningitis that affects brain tissue, which can also lead to permanent neurological damage that can be fatal. To our knowledge, no consistent double immunohistochemical staining of neurons, neuroglia cells, and WNV has yet been reported. To establish a method for performing double-label immunohistochemical detection of neurons, neuroglia cells and WNV, examining the pathological characteristics of WNV-infected neurons, neuroglia cells, and inves...

  9. THE QUEST FOR A SUPRANATIONAL ENTITY IN WEST AFRICA: CAN THE ECONOMIC COMMUNITY OF WEST AFRICAN STATES ATTAIN THE STATUS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadesola O Lokulo-Sodipe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available To reflect the growing trends in the international scene and in furtherance of the objective of its Revised 1993 Treaty, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS summit in December 2006 revolutionised the structure of ECOWAS by re-designating the Executive Secretariat into a quasi-independent commission headed by a President with a Vice President and seven commissioners. The rationale behind the revision was to make ECOWAS a supranational entity. This article considers whether or not a supranational system is essential for the attainment of ECOWAS' objectives. It asks if the conditions for an effective supranational system are in place in the West African sub-region which could provide a solid foundation for its success and why the quest for a supranational system has not yielded any fruitful result in West Africa. It argues that a retreat from the quest for supranationalism and a return to an inter-governmental system would be a retreat rather than the way forward, and expresses the need for the course of action to be sustained courageously till the impact of integration begins to emerge, and the disguised, patriotic impulse of states to protect their national sovereignty gives way to the full manifestation of ECOWAS as a supranational entity.

  10. Ice stream retreat following the LGM and onset of the west Greenland current in Uummannaq Trough, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John T.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The deglacial history and oceanography of Uummannaq Trough, central West Greenland continental shelf, was investigated using foraminiferal, sedimentological, and bathymetric records together with a radiocarbon chronology, providing a timeline for the retreat of glacial ice after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To map ice stream retreat, data were collected from cores from the outer (JR175-VC45 and JR175-VC43) and inner (JR175-VC42) Uummannaq Trough. A large ice stream, fed by confluent glaciers draining the interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet, extended across the outer shelf during the LGM and was in retreat by 15.0 cal kyr BP. Foraminiferal data indicate that the 'warm' West Greenland Current (WGC) was established prior to 14.0 cal kyr BP, which is the hitherto earliest record of Atlantic Water found on the West Greenland shelf. For each of the cores, foraminifera indicate that ice sheet retreat was followed quickly by incursion of the WGC, suggesting that the warm water may have enhanced ice retreat. Prior to the Younger Dryas cold event, the radiocarbon chronology indicates that the ice sheet retreated to the mid-shelf, where it subsequently stabilised and formed a large grounding-zone wedge (GZW). After the Younger Dryas, around 11.5 cal kyr BP, the ice retreated rapidly from the GZW and into the fjords.

  11. Groundwater quality in West Virginia, 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; White, Jeremy S.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 42 percent of all West Virginians rely on groundwater for their domestic water supply. However, prior to 2008, the quality of the West Virginia’s groundwater resource was largely unknown. The need for a statewide assessment of groundwater quality prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), Division of Water and Waste Management, to develop an ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program. The USGS West Virginia Water Science Center sampled 300 wells, of which 80 percent were public-supply wells, over a 10-year period, 1999–2008. Sites for this statewide ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program were selected to provide wide areal coverage and to represent a variety of environmental settings. The resulting 300 samples were supplemented with data from a related monitoring network of 24 wells and springs. All samples were analyzed for field measurements (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), major ions, trace elements, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, fecal indicator bacteria, and radon-222. Sub-sets of samples were analyzed for pesticides or semi-volatile organic compounds; site selection was based on local land use. Samples were grouped for comparison by geologic age of the aquifer, Groups included Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Quaternary aquifers. A comparison of samples indicated that geologic age of the aquifer was the largest contributor to variability in groundwater quality. This study did not attempt to characterize drinking water provided through public water systems. All samples were of raw, untreated groundwater. Drinking-water criteria apply to water that is served to the public, not to raw water. However, drinking water criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL), non-enforceable secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL

  12. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  13. Magnetotelluric array data analysis from north-west Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Jones, A. G.; Pedersen, L. B.; Becken, M.; Biolik, M.; Cherevatova, M.; Ebbing, J.; Gradmann, S.; Gurk, M.; Hübert, J.; Jones, A. G.; Junge, A.; Kamm, J.; Korja, T.; Lahti, I.; Löwer, A.; Nittinger, C.; Pedersen, L. B.; Savvaidis, A.; Smirnov, M.

    2015-06-01

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 synchronous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites was occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. We estimated MT transfer functions in the period range from 0.003 to 105 s. The Q-function multi-site multi-frequency analysis and the phase tensor were used to estimate strike and dimensionality of MT data. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 2-D behaviour of the data with 3-D effects at some sites and period bands. In this paper we present 2-D inversion of the data, 3-D inversion models are shown in the parallel paper. We choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Seven crustal-scale and four lithospheric-scale 2-D models are presented. The resistive regions are images of the Archaean and Proterozoic basement in the east and thin Caledonian nappes in the west. The middle and lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. The southern end of the Kittilä Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. The thickest lithosphere is in the Palaeoproterozioc Svecofennian Domain, not in the Archaean. The thickness of the lithosphere is around 200 km in the north and 300 km in the south-west.

  14. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: → The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. → The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. → The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. → The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  15. Chronic patient care at North West Province clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire van Deventer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic illnesses are a significant burden to the health services in South Africa. There is a specific national health plan whereby chronically ill patients who are acceptably controlled should be managed at clinic level. The perception has emerged that the management of primary care has not been optimal in the Southern District of the North West Province. This provided the motivation to initiate this research, namely consideration of chronic patient care at clinics in the North West Province of South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at four randomly selected clinics covering four sub-districts in the Southern District (North West Province. This was done using charts and registers at the clinics. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18, and presenting with the following chronic illnesses: asthma/chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD, hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy. The major focus areas were the regular assessment of the patients, the level of control of the illness and the use of the Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines (EDL/STG.Results: In the cases of all the chronic illnesses it was found that regular assessments were poorly done, with asthma (peak flow measurements being the most poorly done. Control was generally less than 50% for all the illnesses, although the EDL was followed fairly well by the personnel at the clinics.Conclusion: In the light of the burden of chronic illness the results give cause for great concern about the quality of care for chronically ill patients, and reasons were sought for some of the poor results. A subsequent decision was taken to carry out comprehensive quality improvement projects on each of the illnesses over the following five years.

  16. Laboratory Response to Ebola - West Africa and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy, Tara K; Erickson, Bobbie R; Taboy, Céline H; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Andrews, Sharon E; Rose, Laura E; Weirich, Elizabeth; Lowe, Luis; Klena, John D; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Rayfield, Mark A; Bird, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    The 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa highlighted the need to maintain organized laboratory systems or networks that can be effectively reorganized to implement new diagnostic strategies and laboratory services in response to large-scale events. Although previous Ebola outbreaks enabled establishment of critical laboratory practice safeguards and diagnostic procedures, this Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need for planning and preparedness activities that are better adapted to emerging pathogens or to pathogens that have attracted little commercial interest. The crisis underscored the need for better mechanisms to streamline development and evaluation of new diagnostic assays, transfer of material and specimens between countries and organizations, and improved processes for rapidly deploying health workers with specific laboratory expertise. The challenges and events of the outbreak forced laboratorians to examine not only the comprehensive capacities of existing national laboratory systems to recognize and respond to events, but also their sustainability over time and the mechanisms that need to be pre-established to ensure effective response. Critical to this assessment was the recognition of how response activities (i.e., infrastructure support, logistics, and workforce supplementation) can be used or repurposed to support the strengthening of national laboratory systems during the postevent transition to capacity building and recovery. This report compares CDC's domestic and international laboratory response engagements and lessons learned that can improve future responses in support of the International Health Regulations and Global Health Security Agenda initiatives.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389781

  17. Microbial Community Structure of Subglacial Lake Whillans, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achberger, Amanda M.; Christner, Brent C.; Michaud, Alexander B.; Priscu, John C.; Skidmore, Mark L.; Vick-Majors, Trista J.; Adkins, W.

    2016-01-01

    Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) is located beneath ∼800 m of ice on the Whillans Ice Stream in West Antarctica and was sampled in January of 2013, providing the first opportunity to directly examine water and sediments from an Antarctic subglacial lake. To minimize the introduction of surface contaminants to SLW during its exploration, an access borehole was created using a microbiologically clean hot water drill designed to reduce the number and viability of microorganisms in the drilling water. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes (rDNA) amplified from samples of the drilling and borehole water allowed an evaluation of the efficacy of this approach and enabled a confident assessment of the SLW ecosystem inhabitants. Based on an analysis of 16S rDNA and rRNA (i.e., reverse-transcribed rRNA molecules) data, the SLW community was found to be bacterially dominated and compositionally distinct from the assemblages identified in the drill system. The abundance of bacteria (e.g., Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, Thiobacillus, and Albidiferax) and archaea (Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum) related to chemolithoautotrophs was consistent with the oxidation of reduced iron, sulfur, and nitrogen compounds having important roles as pathways for primary production in this permanently dark ecosystem. Further, the prevalence of Methylobacter in surficial lake sediments combined with the detection of methanogenic taxa in the deepest sediment horizons analyzed (34–36 cm) supported the hypothesis that methane cycling occurs beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Large ratios of rRNA to rDNA were observed for several operational taxonomic units abundant in the water column and sediments (e.g., Albidiferax, Methylobacter, Candidatus Nitrotoga, Sideroxydans, and Smithella), suggesting a potentially active role for these taxa in the SLW ecosystem. Our findings are consistent with chemosynthetic microorganisms serving as the ecological foundation in this dark subsurface environment, providing new

  18. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    in these regions (Sarker, 1966; Xie et al., 2006). The high rainfall is matched by high freshwater discharge from rivers, making the river discharge crucial for determining the near-surface salinity and temperature (Han et al., 2001; Howden and Murtugudde, 2001...–April. The small area and mountainous terrain of the west coast make it difficult to impound water, leading to a large fraction of the heavy summer-monsoon rainfall flowing into the eastern Arabian sea. The large number of rivers and their small scale has ensured...

  19. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    in the Indian Ocean, Journal of Earth System Sciences, 116(3)(2007) 261-274. 12 Admiralty Tide Tables, (Published by the Hydrographer of the Navy, U.K.) 1996, Vol. 2. 13 Clarke, A.J. & Battisti, D.S., The effect of continental shelves on tides, Deep Sea... Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 39(4), December 2010, pp. 485-488 Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India A S Unnikrishnan National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India [E-mail: unni@nio.org] Received...

  20. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kenis, M.; Koné, N.; Chrysostome, C. A. A. M.; E. Devic; G.K.D. Koko; V.A. Clottey; S. Nacambo; G.A. Mensah

    2014-01-01

    In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practi...

  1. Experimental Infection of Cats and Dogs with West Nile Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Austgen, Laura E.; Bowen, Richard A.; Bunning, Michel L.; Davis, Brent S.; Mitchell, Carl J.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.

    2004-01-01

    Domestic dogs and cats were infected by mosquito bite and evaluated as hosts for West Nile virus (WNV). Viremia of low magnitude and short duration developed in four dogs but they did not display signs of disease. Four cats became viremic, with peak titers ranging from 103.0 to 104.0 PFU/mL. Three of the cats showed mild, non-neurologic signs of disease. WNV was not isolated from saliva of either dogs or cats during the period of viremia. An additional group of four cats were exposed to WNV o...

  2. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  3. Out of (West) Africa—Who Lost in the End?

    OpenAIRE

    OLLIARO, PIERO; Lasry, Estrella; Tiffany, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    On October 29, 2014, 4 days before the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH) to be held in New Orleans, LA, meeting registrants received an e-mail letter from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals stating "we have requested that any individuals that will be traveling to Louisiana following a trip to the West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone or have had contact with an Ebola-infected individual remain in a self-quaranti...

  4. Accelerated sea-level rise from West Antarctica.

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, R.; RIGNOT, E.; Casassa, G.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Acuña, C; Akins, T; Brecher, H; Frederick, E; Gogineni, P; Krabill, W.; Manizade, S; Ramamoorthy, H; Rivera, A; Russell, R.; Sonntag, J

    2004-01-01

    Recent aircraft and satellite laser altimeter surveys of the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica show that local glaciers are discharging about 250 cubic kilometers of ice per year to the ocean, almost 60% more than is accumulated within their catchment basins. This discharge is sufficient to raise sea level by more than 0.2 millimeters per year. Glacier thinning rates near the coast during 2002-2003 are much larger than those observed during the 1990s. Most of these glaciers flow into flo...

  5. Risk Maps of Lassa Fever in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet; David John Rogers

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is caused by a viral haemorrhagic arenavirus that affects two to three million people in West Africa, causing a mortality of between 5,000 and 10,000 each year. The natural reservoir of Lassa virus is the multi-mammate rat Mastomys natalensis, which lives in houses and surrounding fields. With the aim of gaining more information to control this disease, we here carry out a spatial analysis of Lassa fever data from human cases and infected rodent hosts covering the peri...

  6. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  7. Slip Distribution of the 2001 West India Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, J.; Sato, T.; Negishi, H.

    2001-12-01

    We used the orientation and size of the fault determined from our aftershock results to carry out an inversion of teleseismic data for the slip distribution of the 2001 West India earthquake. Previous inversions for this earthquake have been done by but these solutions did not use the constraints on the fault geometry that are now available. Choosing the correct fault plane from the two nodal planes of the focal mechanism and limiting the mainshock source area to the size of the aftershock region affects the slip distribution. We used 19 teleseismic P waveforms which were well distributed in azimuth in a finite-fault inversion on a grid of 80 subfaults. Since the observed waveforms look similar at all azimuths, we decided that there was not much time resolution and used only one time window. The results of the inversion for the various rupture velocities tested, did not show significant differences. We show the results for a rupture velocity of 2.9 km per sec. The results of the inversion show that the largest area of slip is close to hypocenter. This asperity is about 10 km x 20 km with a maximum slip of about 10 meters. The area of large slip in the region of the hypocenter corresponds closely to the area of most severe damage in the villages east of Bhuj. This area probably experienced very strong shaking from the rupture of the asperity. Bhuj, is located more than 30 km west from the closest portion of the fault and probably experience somewhat lower levels of ground motions, as seen in the intensity distribution. The character of the slip distribution appears different from other shallow earthquakes of equal size. The area of the fault is small for a Mw7.7 event. Comparing the slip distribution of the 2001 West India earthquake to the similarly sized (Mw7.7) 1999 Taiwan earthquake. The Taiwan earthquake is spread out over a larger area and shows a more complicated slip distribution. These difference can also be seen in the teleseismic waveforms. The India

  8. New Burns Centre in Parma Hospital, West Emilia Hub

    OpenAIRE

    Caleffi, E.; Bocchi, A.; Soncini, I.; Arena, A.

    2008-01-01

    Parma Hospital is the Trauma Centre for SIAT (Trauma Patients Integrated Assistance System) in the West Emilia District in the regional trauma patient project. SIAT's goal is to provide the quickest and most appropriate treatment in major trauma patients. Extensive burns are a multi-organ pathology, i.e. a major life-threatening trauma. Our burn patients are treated on the "Hub and Spoke" model: triage and immediate transfer from the Spoke (first- and second-level Centre) to the Hub (third-le...

  9. Unpaid overtime in Germany : differences between East and West

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Silke

    2003-01-01

    Although the standard work week is longer in East than in West Germany, there is a higher incidence and average amount of unpaid overtime worked in the new states. We try to explain the striking differences in unpaid overtime by analyzing the labor supply side. We focus on the investment character of overtime and examine whether workers use unpaid extra hours to signal higher productivity so as to reduce the risk of losing their job. Using panel data from the SOEP and approximating the risk o...

  10. Sex Segregation and Wage Gaps in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan Jurajda; Heike Harmgart

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we examine occupational and firm-level sex segregation and their relationship with wages in West Germany and in East Germany, where anti- discrimination policies were recently implemented. We employ a representative sample of social-security wage records from 1992 and 1995, including a matched employer-employee sub-sample. We find large differences in the size of the wage gap, but not in the degree of segregation across the two parts of Germany. In contrast to U.S. literature Ge...

  11. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Rasmussen, T.

    2006-01-01

       Two lightning impacts are described from an area near the Inland Ice in West Greenland. The first lightning blasted an outcrop of metacherts. It subsequently split into two branches, which traversed rock outcrops and boulders, leaving behind two white almost straight lines, 30 m and 14 m long...... that a strong electric current indeed traversed the boulder. A few years later a second lightning impacted on a mountaintop close to the first impact. The second lightning left a trail on the rock surface covered by a thin layer of glass. The glass displays spectacular colours ranging from metallic blue, to red...

  12. Offshore Seabird Distributions during Summer and Autumn at West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    This report presents the phenological and distributional results of seabird surveys carried out by ship in West Greenland waters. In 1977 observations were carried out from stationary platforms (oil exploration supply ships) and in the period 1992 to 2000 observations were carried out from sailing...... ships. The results from 1977 are presented as observations per 5-day periods and give an impression of the species temporal occurrence. The 1992-2000 results are presented as distribution maps. These show densities for more numerous and widespread species, and actual observations for the less numerous...

  13. Lung function in West Sussex firemen: a four year study.

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfield, K; Guyatt, A R; Cooper, F. M.; Buckman, M P; Cumming, G

    1988-01-01

    Although firefighting is a hazardous occupation, published evidence of long-term lung damage in firemen is inconsistent. A group of 96 men from the West Sussex Fire Brigade, which covers a simi-rural, semi-urban area, were followed up for between one and four years. They included 31 non-smokers, 40 smokers, and 25 ex-smokers. After four years 12 firemen had been lost to the study. A control group of 69 volunteers, consisting of non-smoking men from various other occupations, were followed up ...

  14. Genetically delivered antibody protects against West Nile virus

    OpenAIRE

    Pereboev, Alexander; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Tsuladze, George; Shakhmatov, Mikhail; Hudman, Deborah; Kazachinskaia, Elena; Razumov, Ivan; Svyatchenko, Viktor; Loktev, Valery; Yamshchikov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Gene-based delivery of recombinant antibody genes is a promising therapeutic strategy offering numerous advantages including sustained antibody levels, better safety profile and lower production cost. Here we describe generation of a recombinant antibody Fc-9E2 comprising a fusion protein between human Fc of IgG1 and a single-chain Fv derived from a hybridoma 9E2 secreting a mAb neutralizing West Nile virus (WNV). Fc-9E2 was shown to retain parental mAb's specificity and WNV-neutralizing capa...

  15. Dynamics and seismotectonics of the West-Alpine arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglia, G.; Capponi, G.; Crispini, L.; Piazza, M.

    1996-12-01

    In this paper we present a comparative review of structural, seismic and focal mechanism data from the West-Alpine arc. In the Western Alps, seismic activity is concentrated along an external belt, corresponding to the Penninic front, and an internal belt, corresponding to the Austro-Alpine front and its southern extension. These seismic belts are connected in the NE by a seismic lineament, corresponding to the Simplon and Centovalli Line and in the south by the E-W-trending seismic Stura "couloir", located between the Argentera and Dora Maira massifs. The SimplondashCentovalli-Tonale system and the Stura "couloir" are dextral and sinistral strike-slip systems respectively; this implies a westward translation of the West-Alpine arc and the Po Plain. Based on these observations, a seismotectonic model is proposed in which the frontal Penninic thrust and the basal surface of the accretionary wedge corresponding to the Penninic sole thrust are reactivated. Activity along the frontal thrust increases the arcuate shape of the Western Alps and disengages them from the Central and the Ligurian Alps along the tear faults of the SimplondashCentovalli-Tonale system and the Stura "couloir" respectively. In the wider framework of northern Italy, the sector of the eastern Alps north of the Gailtal Line, is moving in an orogendashparallel direction towards the east. Areas with lateral escape in opposite directions, towards the west for the Po Plain and towards the east for the Eastern Alps, north of the Gailtal Line, are separated by the South Alpine Atesine indenter. A model postulating a double lateral escape and a central indenter matches most of the features of the models of "poinçonnement". The seismic features of northern Italy agree with the seismicity of the stable sector of northern Europe up to the North Sea. This area is fragmented into blocks bounded by seismic bands, some of which probably reactivate pre-existing structures. The overall stress field of Cratonic

  16. An rf communications system for the West Valley transfer cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype radio frequency communications system for digital data was designed and built by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in controlling the vitrification facility transfer cart at the West Valley Nuclear Services facility in New York. The communications system provides bidirectional wireless data transfer between the operator control station and the material transfer cart. The system was designed to operate in radiation fields of 104 R/h while withstanding a total integrated dose of 107 R of gamma radiation. Implementation of antenna spatial diversity, automatic gain control, and spectral processing improves operation in the reflective environment of the metal-lined reprocessing cells

  17. Evaluation of Potential Land Productivity in Wulushan, West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The general situation of the total land resources in Wulushan, West China was studied by field investigations with the aid of a GIS software, called Region Manager. The current status of land use in Wulushan is described. The potential land productivity was evaluated by a fuzzy comprehensive method. We take each plot as a basic unit of evaluation on the basis of an index system of land resources in Wulushan which was developed from the investigation data. Evaluation of potential land productivity is the key part of land management. A guideline is presented in this paper for a proper utilization of the land resources and to develop the productive capacity of the land.

  18. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  19. Debris Removal Project K West Canister Cleaning System Performance Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FARWICK, C.C.

    1999-12-09

    Approximately 2,300 metric tons Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) are currently stored within two water filled pools, the 105 K East (KE) fuel storage basin and the 105 K West (KW) fuel storage basin, at the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The SNF Project is responsible for operation of the K Basins and for the materials within them. A subproject to the SNF Project is the Debris Removal Subproject, which is responsible for removal of empty canisters and lids from the basins. Design criteria for a Canister Cleaning System to be installed in the KW Basin. This documents the requirements for design and installation of the system.

  20. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Gajdon, Gyula K; Schwing, Raoul; Vogl, Wolfgang; Häbich, Annett-Carolin; Thaller, Denise; Weissenböck, Herbert; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdenek; Nowotny, Norbert

    2016-02-01

    Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds' brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds.

  1. Report on a Magnetotelluric Study in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kother, Livia Kathleen; Junge, A.; Löwer, A.;

    2011-01-01

    Despite a well-mapped, interesting surface geology, deep sounding geophysical studies like seismics or magnetotellurics have been used very rarely in Greenland. The aim of this article is to present the preliminary results of a magnetotelluric study performed in the area of Kangerlussuaq, West...... Greenland. The estimated transfer functions will be used in the future for 2-D and 3-D modelling of subsurface resistivity structures, the inuence of the electrically conductive ocean, as well as the source geometry in the auroral oval....

  2. [The development of nursing schools in East and West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the various nursing schools in East and West Germany. In the 1980s and early 1990s the professionalization of nursing was still in its infancy there compared with Anglo-America. There were attempts to professionalize nursing that were meant to enhance the quality of nursing as well as lead to improved working conditions. As part of the political debates in the field after German reunification, the nursing schools in the former east were also affected by reform efforts. From the 1960s, diploma courses in nursing studies and in the teaching of medicine had been offered in the east and, up into the 1990s, these courses were repeatedly modified and adapted to educational requirements. The study also tries to establish the extent to which the academization of nursing in the reunified Germany was driven by the concurrence of the different training routes in West and East. It analyses above all the diverse study syllabi and lengths of training. What also emerged was that, despite all the positive impulses arising from the East German training models, the continuous changes in training in the GDR not only served to improve the nursing qualifications but also to promote identification with the socialist system and its political ideology. In addition, the teaching of theory was never prominent in East German nursing, while, in the west, theory was increasingly asked for and eventually also implemented. The possibility, in the former east, to study the teaching of medicine definitely made an impact on the nursing training in the west after the reunification and the subject is now offered at universities there, too. Despite all that, the concept of "professional nursing," which needs to be practised in a practical, patient-oriented way, and on a scientific basis, is again being discussed since the introduction of Bachelor and Master study courses. The process of professionalizing and academizing the nursing schools and further training courses clearly

  3. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition...... and food type. Fatty acid compositions were investigated for lipid biomarkers to establish trophic relationships between larval shrimp and potential prey. Phospholipids were the dominant lipid class in all six pelagic development stages of larval P. borealis and P. montagui, accounting for 80 to 92...

  4. Traffic simulation of Beijing west railway station north area

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochun Lu; Zhanping Liu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In recent years the problem of traffic congestion and its management has become increasingly prominent. It is a hot research about how to make full use of computer simulation technology to make transportation more rational and more organized. In this paper, we focus on traffic of Beijing West Railway Station north area, and try to find a way to reduce traffic congestion in this area. Approach: In this paper, we studied the traffic flow by survey. We also built a traffic simulation mo...

  5. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay; Indrani Bhattacharyya; Srima Adhikary; Saiantani Mondal; Jayashree Konar; Nidhi Dawar; Asit Biswas; Nemai Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or...

  6. A benchmark comparison of East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954

    OpenAIRE

    Sleifer, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a level comparison of the East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954. According to this estimate, which is based on the quantity approach, the East German industrial labour productivity in 1954 amounted from 61.6 to 64.7 percent of the West German level. For the manufacturing sector only the relative labour productivity amounted from 58 to 60 percent of the West German level. East German relative labour productivity based on value added is somewhat higher ...

  7. Latest Developments in Construction and Operation of West-East Pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ West- East Gas Pipeline to considerably increase tax revenues for Xijiang Based on the information made available from CNPC, the 941-kilometer segment of the West-East gas pipeline in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, when put into operation, will add more than 1 billion yuan to the local revenues of taxes in the region per year.With an investment of more than 120 billion yuan,the West-East gas pipeline is one of China's major projects in this century.

  8. West Virginia – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    West Virginia state law provides no protection for public employees against job discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Recent legislative attempts to amend West Virginia’s Human Rights Act to prohibit such discrimination have failed. At the local level, two cities and two universities in West Virginia have included sexual orientation in their codes or policies related to employment discrimination.

  9. The Double German Transformation: Changing Male Employment Patterns in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Simonson; Laura Romeu Gordo; Nadiya Kelle

    2011-01-01

    Before the 90s, men's employment careers in East and West Germany were quite similar, despite their widely differing institutional settings. Before reunification, employment biographies were mainly dominated by full-time employment in both East and West. After 1989 the GDR was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany and almost all East German institutions were supplanted by adapted West German institutions. In the present paper we use SOEP data to analyse whether the East German lab...

  10. Renin angiotensinogen system gene polymorphisms and essential hypertension among people of West African descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiter, L M; Christensen, D L; Gjesing, A P

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review investigates the high level of hypertension found among urban dwellers in West Africa and in the West African Diaspora in the Americas in relation to variants within the genes encoding the renin angiotensinogen system. For comparison, the results from the Caucasian populati......This systematic review investigates the high level of hypertension found among urban dwellers in West Africa and in the West African Diaspora in the Americas in relation to variants within the genes encoding the renin angiotensinogen system. For comparison, the results from the Caucasian...

  11. Research on Impact Mechanism and Power System of Urbanization in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the current situation of urbanization development in West China, this paper analyses main factors responsible for sluggish urbanization in West China as follows: impact of environment factor, impact of population quality and quantity, lagging of public product service, stagnancy of technological development, backwardness of slow growth, and rigidity of system building. And then this paper analyses the restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China: at the superficial level, the constraints of urbanization in West China arise from the shortage of capital; at the profound level, the backward culture contributes to the constraints of urbanization in West China. The thread of resolving restriction mechanism of urbanization in West China is put forward from system, economy and culture. On the basis of this thread, we construct the power system for the development of urbanization in West China. The power system for urbanization in West China should be propelled by "four forces", namely, pull of external forces, cohesive strength of regional market environment, expansion power inside countryside, traction of industrial structure adjustment. Innovation is the engine of impetus for urbanization in West China; spatial clustering and modernization of industry is the major driving force for urbanization; the government behaviour, driving of foreign investment, great projects and other forces are supplementary power. Via the main power, we should take the market as medium to achieve the role of power in promoting urbanization.

  12. Introducing Seawater China for Sustainablefrom Bohai Sea to WestDevelopment in the Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenChangli

    2004-01-01

    Sustained and profound aridization process in north-west China in Tertiary and Quaternary period and time of mankind history are discussed. The rain-creased function of 3 set high mountain condensation systems in north-west China is recognized once more. A sandstorm happened on 20th March 2002 in Alasan and Ejinaqi areas was very strong and arrived in Japan and Korea. For saving Alasan area from sandstorm a way of introducing sea water from Bohai to Alasan has been proposed. Four problems are replied in this paper. It is concluded that introducing sea water from Bohai to west China is the best way for sustainable development of west China.

  13. Environment, safety and health, management and organization compliance assessment, West Valley Demonstration Program, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Environment, Safety and Health ''Tiger Team'' Assessment was conducted at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The Tiger Team was chartered to conduct an onsite, independent assessment of WVDP's environment, safety and health (ES ampersand H) programs to assure compliance with applicable Federal and State laws, regulations, and standards, and Department of Energy Orders. The objective is to provide to the Secretary of Energy the following information: current ES ampersand H compliance status of each facility; specific noncompliance items; ''root causes'' for noncompliance items; evaluation of the adequacy of ES ampersand H organization and resources (DOE and contractor) and needed modifications; and where warranted, recommendations for addressing identified problem areas

  14. Prognostic value of SPECT in newly diagnosed symptomatic west syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 19 cases with newly diagnosed symptomatic West syndrome, we assessed interictal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) before ACTH therapy with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Based on the SPECT findings, we divided these cases into 3 groups: normal rCBF (Group A, 7 cases), abnormal rCBF corresponding to cerebral lesions on MRI and CT (Group B, 6 cases), and abnormal rCBF in areas different from lesions on MRI and CT (Group C, 6 cases). We compared clinical features, response to initial treatment, and short-term outcome among these 3 groups. No significant differences were found in clinical characteristics (sex, age of onset, prior seizures before onset of spasms, EEG findings). Four cases in Group B (67%) and 5 in Group C (83%) showed complete cessation of spasms after initial treatment (high dose vitamin B6→zonisamide→ACTH therapy), while in Group A only 2 patients (29%, p>0.05; compared to Group B or Group C) responded. Although not statistically significant, short-term prognosis (both seizures and development) after a mean follow-up of 2 years and 8 months was also worst in Group A. Our results suggest that normal SPECT findings may be predictive of unfavorable prognosis in infants with symptomatic West syndrome. (author)

  15. Prognostic value of SPECT in newly diagnosed symptomatic west syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Megumi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kato, Tomomi; Futagi, Yasuyuki [Osaka Medical Center and Research Inst. for Maternal and Child Health, Izumi (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In 19 cases with newly diagnosed symptomatic West syndrome, we assessed interictal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) before ACTH therapy with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Based on the SPECT findings, we divided these cases into 3 groups: normal rCBF (Group A, 7 cases), abnormal rCBF corresponding to cerebral lesions on MRI and CT (Group B, 6 cases), and abnormal rCBF in areas different from lesions on MRI and CT (Group C, 6 cases). We compared clinical features, response to initial treatment, and short-term outcome among these 3 groups. No significant differences were found in clinical characteristics (sex, age of onset, prior seizures before onset of spasms, EEG findings). Four cases in Group B (67%) and 5 in Group C (83%) showed complete cessation of spasms after initial treatment (high dose vitamin B{sub 6}{yields}zonisamide{yields}ACTH therapy), while in Group A only 2 patients (29%, p>0.05; compared to Group B or Group C) responded. Although not statistically significant, short-term prognosis (both seizures and development) after a mean follow-up of 2 years and 8 months was also worst in Group A. Our results suggest that normal SPECT findings may be predictive of unfavorable prognosis in infants with symptomatic West syndrome. (author)

  16. Data quality objectives for the initial K West fuel examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, L.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Thornton, T.A.; Abrefah, J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were established for the examinations of the first group of fuel samples shipped from the K West Basin to the Hanford 327 Building hot cells for examinations to support the Path Forward recommended to solve the safety and environmental concerns associated with the deteriorating fuel in the K Basins. A separate DQO will be prepared for each future shipment of samples to the hot cells. The material stored in the K West Basin must ultimately be removed from the basin and placed in a stable storage configuration until it can be disposed of in a repository. The condition of the fuel in the closed canisters is a major uncertainty for any of the proposed actions. The major question to answer is what are the conditions of the materials in the closed canisters? The data to be gathered during the canister opening, handling, transport, associated hot cell handling, and examinations will also support decisions related to the Path Forward primarily in areas of transportation and the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) design.

  17. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  18. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  19. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  20. The Younger Dryas in the West Pacific marginal seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪品先; 卞云华; 李保华; 黄奇瑜

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence and nature of the Younger Dryas (YD) abrupt climatic event in the West Pacific marginal seas are discussed on the basis of 15 sediment cores. This event has been found in all these cores studied with a high-resolution stratigraphy and proved to be common to the West Pacific region. As shown by the isotopic and micropaleontologic analyses, the YD, dated by C-14 at about 11000 to 10000 a B.P., is a brief event of sea surface cooling in winter season following a fresh-water pulse about 12000 a B.P. The "apparent regression" of the YD recorded in the Changjiang River delta and the Sea of Japan agrees with the interpretation that the YD is a period of slowed sea level rising between two phases of rapid rising. Both the winter surface water cooling and the increasing salinity in the YD imply a strengthening of the winter, but not summer monsoon circulation. This major climatic event in the marginal seas must have had profound impact on the adjacent continent.

  1. The electrical power market in West and East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing energy demand in Africa has promoted countries such as Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Kenya and Tanzania to use the services of independent power producers (IPP) to add power generating capacity to meet the growing power needs. Several countries in Africa are also promoting market competition, foreign investment and co-operation between countries. Ghana and Uganda are working on developing the hydroelectric potential in the country. One of the priorities for the national governments in Africa is to expand the power supply infrastructure. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and other West African countries are consolidating their electricity systems to integrate and interconnect their power transmission lines. In an effort to stimulate economic growth, there has been a concerted effort to shift from expensive hydro-electric power projects to natural gas projects including infrastructure developments such as the West African Natural Gas Pipeline that will provide opportunities for Canadian investment. In addition, Canadian companies could supply equipment and services to the renewable energy sector, particularly medium-scale hydro projects. Other opportunities lie in supply equipment, new generation-capacity projects, infrastructure in terms of power transmission and distribution, and rural electrification programs. Foreign partners are also being sought for consultation and engineering services to set up national power grids and to improve the efficiency of the existing power grid system. It was noted that joint-ventures are preferred for the transfer technologies or for setting up local manufacturing presence by foreign investment. refs

  2. Strategies for regional integration of electricity supply in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve peoples' living conditions in West African countries national governments have to considerably reinforce the electricity supply infrastructures. Rehabilitation of the existing installations and construction of new power generation facilities and transmission lines require substantial resources which are tremendously difficult to raise due to the region's specific economical and political conditions. This paper examines the long-term prospects for integrated development of the regional electricity industry and evaluates its advantages by using PLANELEC-Pro, a 'bottom-up' electricity system expansion planning optimisation model. The evolution of regional electricity market is analysed on the basis of two strategies. The 'autarkical' strategy consists in adequate expansion of national power generation systems and the exchanges of electricity between the countries in sub-zones. Another approach referred to as 'integration' strategy is recommended in this article. It leads to fast retirement of the obsolete power plants and the integration of new investment projects at the level of whole West African sub-region. The main finding is that the regional integration strategy is capable to bring about additional benefits in terms of reduced capital expenditures, lower electricity supply cost and the enhanced system's reliability compared to the autarkical strategy

  3. Technical safety appraisal of the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of one in a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of DOE nuclear operations by the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health Office of Safety Appraisals TSAs are one of the ititiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE environment, safety and health program. This report presents the results of a TSA of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). The appraisal was conducted by a team of exerts assembled by the DOE Office of Safety Appraisal and was conducted during onsite visits of June 26-30 and July 10-21, 1989. West Valley, about 30 miles south of Buffalo, New York is the location of the only commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing facility operated in the United States. Nuclear Fuels Services, Inc. (NFS) operated the plant from 1966 to 1972 and processed about 640 metric tons of spent reactor fuel. The reprocessing operation generated about 560,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste, which was transferred into underground tanks for storage. In 1972 NFS closed the plant and subsequently decided not to reopen it

  4. Desertification, refugees and regional conflict in west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnoli, O

    1990-06-01

    This article documents the potential for inter-state conflict in the migration of hundreds of thousands of famine refugees across international borders in West Africa. Nigeria and Ghana, for example, have to deal not only with the effects of land degradation in their northern territories but also with the influx of famine victims from Mali, Niger, Chad and Burkino Faso. These migrations put an enormous extra burden on the fragile and already overstretched social and economic infrastructures of the host countries. The construction of dams for irrigation and electricity generation in international river basins, is another cause of inter-state conflict related to land degradation. The capacity of West African states to find peaceful solutions to these problems is being undermined by the increasing impoverishment and marginalisation of their populations. A self-serving neo-colonialist governing elite is caught in the economic stranglehold of the advanced capitalist nations. While there is thus no short term solution to the problem of land degradation, immediate steps should at least be taken to give legal protection to those who are forced to cross international borders because of drought and famine. PMID:20958699

  5. Quaternary forest associations in lowland tropical West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Charlotte S.; Gosling, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial fossil pollen records are frequently used to reveal the response of vegetation to changes in both regional and global climate. Here we present a fossil pollen record from sediment cores extracted from Lake Bosumtwi (West Africa). This record covers the last c. 520 thousand years (ka) and represents the longest terrestrial pollen record from Africa published to date. The fossil pollen assemblages reveal dynamic vegetation change which can be broadly characterized as indicative of shifts between savannah and forest. Savannah formations are heavily dominated by grass (Poaceae) pollen (>55%) typically associated with Cyperaceae, Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Forest formations are palynologically more diverse than the savannah, with the key taxa occurring in multiple forest zones being Moraceae, Celtis, Uapaca, Macaranga and Trema. The fossil pollen data indicate that over the last c. 520 ka the vegetation of lowland tropical West Africa has mainly been savannah; however six periods of forest expansion are evident which most likely correspond to global interglacial periods. A comparison of the forest assemblage composition within each interglacial suggests that the Holocene (11-0 ka) forest occurred under the wettest climate, while the forest which occurred at the time of Marine Isotope Stage 7 probably occurred under the driest climate.

  6. An interventional model to develop health professionals in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanou, Anselme Simeon; Awoyale, Florence Adeola; Diallo, Abdoulaye

    2014-01-01

    The health sector is characterized by a human resource base lacking in numbers, specialized skills, and management skills. West African Health Organization (WAHO) recognizes the need within the West Africa sub-region for bilingual professionals who are skilled in public health, management, leadership, and information technology to build human capacity in public health and developed the Young Professionals Internship Program (YPIP). Our study explores the evolution of the programme. YPIP program has successfully carried out its original aims and objectives to equip young professionals with basic principles of public health, management, and leadership, acquire competence in a second official language (French, English, and Portuguese), information and communication technology. Contributing factors towards this successful evaluation included positive ratings and commentary from previous interns about the relevance, usefulness, and quality of the programme, encouraging feedback from WAHO management, trainers, administrators, and intern employers on the impact of the YPIP program on young professionals, supporting evidence that demonstrates increased knowledge in professional skills and language competency.

  7. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2004-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re 1 μPa) @ 1 m.

  8. Do West African thunderstorms predict the intensity of Atlantic hurricanes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Colin; Reicher, Naama; Yair, Yoav

    2015-04-01

    Since 85% of all major Atlantic hurricanes originate as thunderstorm clusters in equatorial Africa, we have investigated the connection between these African thunderstorms and the consequent development of these disturbances into tropical storms. We have analyzed Meteosat infrared cloud top temperature data to determine the areal coverage of cold cloud tops over a 6 year period from 2005 to 2010. In addition, hurricane statistics from the same period (intensity, date of generation, location, and maximum winds) were obtained from the National Hurricane Center database. We first show that the areal coverage of cold clouds (with brightness temperatures Tb tropical Africa is a good indicator of the monthly number of African Easterly Waves (AEWs) leaving the west coast of tropical Africa. Furthermore, the AEWs that develop into tropical storms have a significantly larger area covered by cold cloud tops compared with nondeveloping waves. Finally, we show that on a storm-by-storm basis, the cold cloud coverage in West Africa is positively correlated (r = 0.57) with the accumulated cyclone energy of the future tropical cyclones that develop out of these waves.

  9. The West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Chibueze, James; Lepo, Kelly; White, Heidi; Zhang, Jielai; Izuikedinachi Okoh, Daniel; Reid, Michael; Hunter, Lisa; EKEOMA Opara, Fidelis

    2015-08-01

    In October 2013 over 75 undergraduate science students and teachers from Nigeria and Ghana attended the week-long West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers. We expect an even broader audience for the second offering of the school (to be held July 2015), supported by a grant from the OAD (TF1). These schools are organized by a collaboration of astronomers from the University of Toronto, the University of Nigeria, and the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency. We design and lead activities that teach astronomy content, promote students' self-identity as scientists, and encourage students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. Equally important, we design intertwined evaluation strategies to assess the effectiveness of our programs. We will describe the broader context for developing astronomy in West Africa, the inquiry-based and active learning techniques used in the schools, and results from the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of student performance. We will also describe longer-term plans for future schools, supporting our alumni, and building a sustainable partnership between North American and Nigerian universities.

  10. Characteristic of Small Scale Food Industry Cluster in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunarif Taib

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clusters of small-scale food industries have different characteristics with industrial cluster in general. These characteristics need to know to develop a plan for cluster development. This study was conducted to determine charasteristics clusters of small-scale food industry, especially in West Sumatra. For the analysis of the components of industrial and technological components that affect the development of small-scale food industry cluster in West Sumatra. All variables influence the level of industrial components and technology components were analyzed using the program "Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS". The survey results revealed that the industrial component is influenced by the core industry (level of difficulty in capital gain and raw materials, the buyer (customer satisfaction, related industry (quality and continuity of supply of packaging and institutional support (coaching on marketing and capitalization as well as guidance on the production of sanitary and food safety. Component technology is influenced by organoware (production management and marketing management and humanware (innovation and trust among the members.

  11. Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyukarev, E A; Pologova, N N; Golovatskaya, E A; Dyukarev, A G, E-mail: egor@imces.ru [Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS, Akademicheskii Prospekt 10/3 (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-15

    Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km{sup 2}, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

  12. Black hole in the West Nucleus of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, D

    2007-01-01

    We present new observations with the IRAM Interferometer, in its longest-baseline configuration, of the CO(2-1) line and the 1.3mm dust radiation from the Arp 220 nuclear region. The dust source in the West nucleus has a size of 0.19 x 0.13 arcsec and a 1.3mm brightness temperature of 90K. This implies that the dust ring in the West nucleus has a high opacity, with tau = 1 at 1.1mm. Not only is the dust ring itself optically thick in the submm and far-IR, but it is surrounded by the previously-known, rapidly rotating molecular disk of size 0.5 arcsec that is also optically thick in the mid-IR. The molecular ring is cooler than the hot dust disk because the CO(2-1) line is seen in absorption against the dust disk. The dust ring is massive (1E9 solar masses), compact (radius 35pc), and hot (true dust temperature 170K). It resembles rather strikingly the dust ring detected around the quasar APM 08279+52, and is most unlike the warm, extended dust sources in starburst galaxies. Because there is a strong temperatu...

  13. Noma: experiences with a microvascular approach under West African conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessler, Goetz A; Schmidt, Andreas B

    2003-09-15

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a serious ulcerating disease that generally begins in the gingival sulcus of children. One of the main areas of prevalence today is West Africa. If noma is survived, it results in disfiguring midfacial defects and intense scarring. Oral incompetence is often combined with trismus resulting from scar formation or bony fusion between the maxilla and the mandible. Reconstructive approaches with pedicled flaps from the head or shoulder area for closure of the outer defects have been prone to donor-site complications or have not properly addressed the trismus, leading to high recurrence rates. During three West African Interplast missions, a single-stage procedure was developed for reconstruction of the inner and outer linings of the oral, nasal, and paranasal cavities, with restoration of jaw function. The procedure consists of radical scar excision, placement of an external distractor for mouth opening, and primary closure of the defect with a folded free parascapular flap for full-thickness coverage. Twenty-three patients with various noma-related defects were treated with this procedure; two cases are described in detail. This combined treatment can be a safe successful procedure for patients with noma, especially those with severe soft-tissue destruction and profound trismus, even under demanding surgical conditions.

  14. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

    2011-01-13

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  15. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  16. 77 FR 74265 - In the Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Matter of the Designation of Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Movement for Oneness and Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as Unity Movement for Jihad in West Africa; Also Known as... Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa, also known as Movement ] for Oneness and Jihad in West...

  17. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI Akabar ASADI-POOYA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Asadi-Pooya AA, Sharifzade M. West Syndrome in South Iran: Electro-Clinical Manifestations. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Summer; 7(3: 40-44.ObjectiveWe aimed to determine the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG characteristics of the patients with West syndrome (WS in south Iran.Materials & MethodsIn this retrospective study, all patients with a clinical diagnosis of WS were recruited in the outpatient epilepsy clinic at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences between September 2008 and May 2012. Age, gender, age at seizure onset, seizure type(s, epilepsy risk factors, EEG and imaging studies of all patients were registered routinely.ResultsDuring the study period, 2500 patients with epilepsy were registered at our epilepsy clinic. Thirty-two patients (1.3% were diagnosed to have WS. Age of onset (mean ± standard deviation was 4.99 ± 3.06 months. Sixteen patients were male and 16 were female. Nine (28.1% were reported to have two or more seizure types and 23 (71.8% had one seizure type (epileptic spasms. At referral, no developmental delay was detected in two patients and in the rest, a mild to severe delay was noted.Electroencephalography showed typical hypsarrhythmia in 59.4% of our patients and modified hypsarrhythmia or atypical presentations were seen in 40.6%. Two patients had pyridoxine (B6-dependent seizures, confirmed by oral B6 trial.ConclusionVariants of the classical triad of WS including other seizure types, atypical EEG findings, and normal psychomotor function at the beginning could be observed in some patients. Rarely, treatable genetic disorders (e.g., pyridoxine-dependent seizures should be considered in those in whom no other diagnosis is evident. References1. Blume WT, Lüders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, van Emde Boas W, Engel J Jr. Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia. 2001 Sep;42(9:1212-8.2. Carmant L

  18. Genetic structure in four West African population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guanjie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa contains the most genetically divergent group of continental populations and several studies have reported that African populations show a high degree of population stratification. In this regard, it is important to investigate the potential for population genetic structure or stratification in genetic epidemiology studies involving multiple African populations. The presences of genetic sub-structure, if not properly accounted for, have been reported to lead to spurious association between a putative risk allele and a disease. Within the context of the Africa America Diabetes Mellitus (AADM Study (a genetic epidemiologic study of type 2 diabetes mellitus in West Africa, we have investigated population structure or stratification in four ethnic groups in two countries (Akan and Gaa-Adangbe from Ghana, Yoruba and Igbo from Nigeria using data from 372 autosomal microsatellite loci typed in 493 unrelated persons (986 chromosomes. Results There was no significant population genetic structure in the overall sample. The smallest probability is associated with an inferred cluster of 1 and little of the posterior probability is associated with a higher number of inferred clusters. The distribution of members of the sample to inferred clusters is consistent with this finding; roughly the same proportion of individuals from each group is assigned to each cluster with little variation between the ethnic groups. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed that the between-population component of genetic variance is less than 0.1% in contrast to 99.91% for the within population component. Pair-wise genetic distances between the four ethnic groups were also very similar. Nonetheless, the small between-population genetic variance was sufficient to distinguish the two Ghanaian groups from the two Nigerian groups. Conclusion There was little evidence for significant population substructure in the four major West African ethnic groups

  19. Holocene mangrove swamps of West Africa sedimentology and soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius, C.; Lucas, J.

    The mangrove swamps of West African Coast belong to the Atlantic type which is characterized by a small number of species. They colonize tidal environments which are dissected by numerous meandering tidal channels and are presently subject to a low rate of sediment accumulation. The mangrove vegetation exhibits a characteristic zonation pattern that basically reflects the adaptation of the various species to saline conditions. The typical zonation sequence is: Rhizophora racemosa (or Rh. mangle), Rh. mangle + Avicennia africana, Avicennia, flooded tanne, barren tanne, herbaceous tanne. The tannes are generated by aridic climatic conditions, heavy soil and water salt content, and are, in a way a peculiar feature of mangrove swamps in West Africa. The sediment colonized by the mangroves is relatively homogenous. Mineralogically, they are dominated by quartz and clay to which are associated halite, pyrite and jarosite. The clay suite is mainly composed of smectite and kaolinite. Smectite is predominant in the inlet areas and is replaced inland by kaolinite. Chemically, the sediments contain very low amounts of Ca, bases and trace elements. The mangrove swamp floodwaters have a chemical composition similar to that of seawater. It is dominated by sodium and chloride. Morphologically, the ripening of the soils appears with a chestnut mash colour horizon and buttery consistency in relation with the decomposition of fibrous roots of Rhizophora and also with pale yellow jarosite mottles in the top horizons of the tanne profiles due to the oxidation of pyrine. The two main properties of the mangrove soils of West Africa are acidity and salinity; the first is related to the high content of sulphur and the second to the sea influence. The acidity has to be connected mainly to the Rhizophora vegetation whose the root system is a real trap for catching the pyrites resulting from the reduction of the sulphates of sea water by the sulphate reducing bacteria, in a reduced

  20. Modelling the impacts of deforestation on monsoon rainfall in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study found that deforestation causes more monsoon moisture to be retained in the mid-troposphere, thereby reducing the northward transport of moisture needed for rainfall over West Africa. Hence, deforestation has dynamical impacts on the West African monsoon and rainfall.

  1. Revision of the genus Placospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, hadromerida, Placospongiidae) in the Indo-West Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becking, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    Species of the genus Placospongia are common within the tropical Indo-West Pacific, demonstrating a wide variety of colors and either branching or encrusting growth forms. A revision of Indo-West Pacific Placospongia was undertaken based on a redescription of the holotypes of species of Placospongia

  2. Aid and trade for livestock development and food security in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van der J.; Schiere, J.B.; Bosma, R.H.; Olde, de E.; Bol, S.; Cornelissen, J.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Veehouderij is in West Afrika van oudsher erg belangrijk. Het kent vele vormen en dient veel doelen, die vooral verschuiven van noord naar zuid. Deze analyse van de West Afrikaanse veehouderij is een quickscan geschreven door Wageningen UR Livestock Research en La Ventana consulting. Zij dient met n

  3. Retention, Attrition, and Mobility among Teachers and Administrators in West Virginia. REL 2016-161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, Chad R.; Adachi, Eishi; Chesnut, Colleen E.; Johnson, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Members of the West Virginia School Leadership Research Alliance partnered with Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia to study the average retention, attrition, and mobility rates among teachers and administrators in the West Virginia public school system. There is increasing evidence nationwide that low teacher and administrator retention…

  4. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ...: Comments. The comment period for the proposed rule and draft EIS published May 21, 2013 (78 FR 29687), is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation... designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS,...

  5. Risk assessment on severe hazards to China caused by West Nile virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiming; SUN Yingxue; WANG Zhiliang; SHEN Chaojian; XIE Zhonglun; WANG Ximing

    2004-01-01

    Recent West Nile virus epidemics in USA draw worldwide concerns. Here the basic biological and epidemiologicai features of the virus are analyzed along with the special immunity of humans and animals, the immigration of birds and the natural environments in China. The risk of severe hazards to China caused by West Nile virus is assessed not high thereafter.

  6. 75 FR 6305 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Removal of NOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... NO X SIP Call rules, approved into the West Virginia SIP on May 10, 2002 (67 FR 31733) and September 28, 2006 (71 FR 56881), established West Virginia's NO X Budget Trading Program and set forth...) that were ] included in 45CSR1 into 45CSR40. On August 4, 2009 (74 FR 38536), EPA approved...

  7. A new Agelas (Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) from the Thousands Islands, West-Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, de N.J.; Parra-Velandia, F.J.; Soest, van R.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    Agelas linnaei spec.nov. (Porifera: Demospongiae: Agelasida: Agelasidae) is described from the Thousands Islands reef complex, West- Java, Indonesia. The new species is compared with all other Agelas species occurring in the Indo-West Pacific region. The new species differs from these other species

  8. Drinking, Everyday Life Situations and Cultural Norms in Denmark, Finland and West Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simpura, J.; Fahrenkrug, H.; Hyttinen, M.;

    1990-01-01

    A method called nonactive role-playing, originally developed in social psychology, is applied to illustrate cultural differences with respect to drinking between Denmark, Finland and West Germany. West Germany and Denmark have clearly higher levels of alcohol consumption than Finland, whereas...

  9. Complete genome sequence of two genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports on complete gene based phylogenetic analysis of JEV isolates from the State of West Bengal. It was evident from the results that JEV was still under circulation in both vaccine covered and not covered districts of West Bengal.

  10. Does a ruderal strategy dominate the endemic flora of the West African forests?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Poorter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To understand the distribution pattern of endemic plant species in West African rain forests, one of the global priority areas for biodiversity conservation. Location Upper Guinean forests, West Africa (Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Togo). Method

  11. West Nile Virus: What You Need to Know Now - August 2012

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-21

    This podcast lists the states where most of the 2012 West Nile viruses have been reported and explains how people can protect themselves from West Nile virus.  Created: 8/21/2012 by .   Date Released: 8/21/2012.

  12. Declining incidence of malaria imported into the UK from West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Valerie

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two thirds of all falciparum malaria cases reported in the United Kingdom (UK are acquired in West Africa (WA. To ensure recommendations and guidelines for malaria prophylaxis in travellers to West Africa correlate to the risk of infection, a study was undertaken to examine recent trends and predict future patterns of imported malaria acquired by UK residents visiting West Africa and West African visitors to the UK between 1993 and 2006. Methods and Results Using passenger numbers and malaria surveillance reports, the data revealed a 2.3-fold increase in travel to West Africa with a five-fold increase in travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR. Malaria incidence fell through the study period, the greatest decline noted in VFR with a fall from 196 cases/1,000 person-years to 52 cases/1,000 person-years, 9.8% per year p Discussion The reduction in incidence among all three groups of travellers may be explained by several factors; changing chemoprophylaxis usage and/or increased travel in urban areas where malaria risk has declined over the past decade, or widespread reduction in malaria transmission in West Africa. Conclusion With the reduction in malaria incidence seen in both visitors to and from West Africa, the most rational explanation for these findings is a fall in malaria transmission in West Africa, which may require a change in chemoprophylaxis policy for UK travelers over the next 5–10 years.

  13. 78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast... River in Parker, Arizona for the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals. This temporary...

  14. A benchmark comparison of East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleifer, Jaap

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a level comparison of the East and West German industrial labour productivity in 1954. According to this estimate, which is based on the quantity approach, the East German industrial labour productivity in 1954 amounted from 61.6 to 64.7 percent of the West German level. For the

  15. GLOBAL SELECTED AS PARTNER TO SUPERVISE WEST-TO-EAST GAS PROJECT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 3, PetroChina West-to-East Gas Pipeline Company and US-based Global Engineering Service Company signed ìAdvisory Service Contract for Engineering Supervision of West-to-East Gas Pipeline(1) in Beijing.Signature of this contract marks the start of engineering supervision business for thepipeline project.

  16. Using "The West Wing" for Problem-Based Learning in Public Relations Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smudde, Peter M.; Luecke, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Integrating "The West Wing" in public relations courses can effectively dramatize the concrete and abstract dimensions of public relations. In turn, students see public relations in action (albeit fictionally so) and learn much about it through structured lessons. From individual writing assignments about situations in "The West Wing," to the…

  17. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  18. Cultural Adaptations to Environmental Variability: An Evolutionary Account of East-West Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Mak, Miranda C. K.; Li, Tong; Wu, Bao Pei; Chen, Bin Bin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been conducted to document and sometimes to provide proximate explanations (e.g., Confucianism vs. Western philosophy) for East-West cultural differences. The ultimate evolutionary mechanisms underlying these cross-cultural differences have not been addressed. We propose in this review that East-West cultural differences (e.g.,…

  19. 77 FR 73560 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ..., West Virginia currently has an approved NSR program, codified in 45 CSR 19. See 71 FR 64468 (November 2... request to change the legal definition of the West Virginia portion of the Area from nonattainment to attainment for the 1997 annual PM 2.5 NAAQS. This action does not impact the legal definition of the...

  20. Democratic Education in West Germany: The Effects of the New Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Arlette C.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the plight of children of foreign "guest workers" in West German schools. Discusses public nonrecognition of West Germany's immigrant-nation status, state-based governance of education, linguistic and cultural isolation of young minority children, failure of German immersion and pullout language programs, inadequate provision of…

  1. 78 FR 48466 - Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California; Notice of Negative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... workers of Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California (subject firm). The Department's Notice was published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2013 (78 FR 11226). The subject... Employment and Training Administration Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill,...

  2. Clinical West Nile virus infection in 2 horses in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutarbush, Sameeh M; O'Connor, Brendan P; Clark, Chris; Sampieri, Francesca; Naylor, Jonathan M

    2004-04-01

    Two horses had a history of ataxia and weakness or recumbency. One recovered and was diagnosed with West Nile virus (WNV) infection by serologic testing. The other was euthanized; it had meningoencephalomyelitis, WNV was detected by polymerase chain reaction. West Nile virus infection is an emerging disease. Year 2002 is the first year in which cases have been seen in Saskatchewan.

  3. The Influence of Social Analysis on a Solid Waste Management Project : West Bank and Gaza

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza suffer from severe environmental degradation, including deterioration of groundwater and uncontrolled dumping of solid waste. These problems have been addressed in Gaza with the assistance of bilateral donors, but until the design of the Solid Waste and Environment Management Project (SWEMP) in 2000, they were largely neglected in the West Bank. Solid waste managemen...

  4. REGULATION OF THE ASYMMETRY IN SPATIAL SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEST KAZAKHSTAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Imashev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research results, the scientific work indicates economic trends and issues in the territorial organization of the economy and population of West Kazakhstan region. Analysis of the spatial development in the economic sphere has shown that there is a territorial localization of the productive forces in the north of West Kazakhstan region. The typology of the West Kazakhstan administrative districts was formed according to their level and pace of socioeconomic and environmental development, from 1997 to 2011, on the basis of rank-scoring methodology. The results of this work demonstrate that the Northern administrative districts of West Kazakhstan region have a relatively high or an average level of social and economic development.  A low level of social and economic development characterizes the administrative districts located to the south, west, southwest and southeast of West Kazakhstan region. These spatial differences reveal the current asymmetry in the level of social and economic development of the administrative districts, which determined the need for detecting major priorities in regulation of spatial social and economic development of the region.  Thus, we propose the basic priorities for the spatial regulation of social and economic development of West Kazakhstan region within the framework of an effective intra-regional policy.  The research results can be used by local government agencies to develop a regional management program for spatial social and economic development of West Kazakhstan region.

  5. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  6. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United... the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered...

  7. Western and Eastern Culture Comparison-Compare the First Photogra-phers between West and East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-wei

    2016-01-01

    The nineteenth century was a period when the visual arts, growing in both the West and the East, flourished. It wit-nessed the beginning of photography, the great innovation which posed questions of the blurred distinctions between art and sci-ence. The nineteenth century was also the era of collisions of numerous technology and cultures between the West and the East.

  8. 78 FR 25177 - Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... April 29, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8963--Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West... April 24, 2013 Honoring the Victims of the Explosion in West, Texas By the President of the...

  9. 77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during the...

  10. Disease patterns and causes of death of hospitalized HIV-positive adults in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewden, Charlotte; Drabo, Youssoufou J; Zannou, Djimon M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe the morbidity and mortality patterns in HIV-positive adults hospitalized in West Africa. METHOD: We conducted a six-month prospective multicentre survey within the IeDEA West Africa collaboration in six adult medical wards of teaching hospitals in Abidjan, Ouagadou...

  11. Increasing Local Procurement By the Mining Industry in West Africa : Road-test version

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Regional organizations and national governments are increasingly focusing on enhancing the benefits from mining sector investment. The Africa Union's African Mining Vision 2050 outlines a new resource-based industrialization and development strategy for Africa, based on downstream, upstream, and side stream linkages, and both Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and West Afri...

  12. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon Coach... company controlled by Sherman, Transportation Management Services, Inc. (TMS), obtained the right...

  13. The Legacy of Christianity in West Africa, with Special Reference to Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    In the following paper, I am going to discuss education and religion and consider the legacy of Christianity in education in West Africa with particular reference to the Evangelical churches in Burkina Faso. The paper will start with a general introduction to West Africa and the place of missionaries' activities in the region. I will then attempt…

  14. Remote sensing needs and capabilities in West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward M.Osei,Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The greatest advantage of remote sensing over conventional measurements lies in the opportunity to carry out detailed spatio-temporal analysis of land and ocean features on a very frequent basis. This paper analyses the contribution of satellite imagery to atmospheric, geophysical and ocean studies and management in West Africa since the early 1980s.The detailed application of data from optical sensors (e.g. Meteosat,NOAA/AVHRR, SPOT,L andsat TM, etc.) for weather prediction, hydrogeological, landuse/cover and cartographic studies has been acknowledged. However, the use of microwave (e.g. SAR) and optical data for ocean monitoring and studies in the sub-region is still very limited. Even though sufficient remote sensing expertise and infrastructure is perceived in the region, no clearly defined networking or database exists.

  15. East articulated maintenance arm for East and West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to upgrade the Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) into a fully operational robot EAMA (EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm) has been set between IRFM and ASIPP in an associated laboratory. EAMA consists of an articulated serial arm with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) and a 3-DOF gripper. The total length is 8.867 meters. As planned, it will work in Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak (EAST) and W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak (WEST) vacuum vessel (VV) to perform a remote inspection and maintenance tasks after plasma shutting down. The EAMA system will be demonstrated under EAST conditioning, namely ultra-high vacuum and temperature conditions. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the EAMA system and present the obtained results of the test campaign

  16. Ethanol Production from Hydrothermally-Treated Biomass from West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem C.; Kádár, Zsófia; Mensah, Moses Y.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of diverse biomass resources in Africa, they have received little research and development focus. This study presents compositional analysis, sugar, and ethanol yields of hydrothermal pretreated (195 degrees C, 10 min) biomass from West Africa, including bamboo wood, rubber...... wood, elephant grass, Siam weed, and coconut husk, benchmarked against those of wheat straw. The elephant grass exhibited the highest glucose and ethanol yields at 57.8% and 65.1% of the theoretical maximums, respectively. The results show that the glucose yield of pretreated elephant grass was 3.......5 times that of the untreated material, while the ethanol yield was nearly 2 times higher. Moreover, the sugar released by the elephant grass (30.8 g/100 g TS) was only slightly lower than by the wheat straw (33.1 g/100 g TS), while the ethanol yield (16.1 g/100 g TS) was higher than that of the straw (15...

  17. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N; Murray, Kristy O; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June-October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988

  18. Micromorphological Characterization of Some Volcanic Soil In West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfud Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no4.20082Micromorphological characterization has been studied on six pedons of soils developing in volcanic materials in West Java. The pedons represent deposits of different volcanoes (Mount Tangkuban Perahu, Mount Patuha and Mount Papandayan with different ages (Pleistocene, Holocene within two types of volcanisms (andesitic, basaltic, and three agroclimatic zones (A, B1, B2. Undisturbed soil samples were taken from each identifiable horizon for thin section preparations. Observations were carried out by means of a magnifying lens, binocular stereomicroscope, polarization microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The result demonstrates that micromorphological characteristics of volcanic soils developing from different ages, types of parent material, and climate were different through their c/f related distribution 2µ patterns, c/f ratios, sorting, infillings and coatings of voids, and microstructure.  

  19. Mitigation of floor heave in West Kentucky Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Kyle; Bradley Joel; Unrug Kot; Klimek Mark

    2016-01-01

    A West Kentucky mine operation in No. 11 seam encountered floor heave, due to the localized increase in the thickness of the fireclay mine floor. Floor heave has overridden seals installed in two mined out pan-els. The third seal’s location was planned for isolating that area from the Mains. A plan of support has been developed to prevent repetition of the floor heave and related problems outby the seals. The applied ground control measures were successful. An attempt of a 3D numerical modeling was made; thus, it would match the observed behavior of the mine floor and could be used as a design tool in similar con-ditions. The paper describes sequence of events, an applied mitigation ground control system, and the first stage of numerical modeling.

  20. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H.; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June–October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988