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Sample records for aiv plasma concentrations

  1. Apolipoprotein AIF gene variant S347 is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and lower apolipoprotein AIV plasma concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Wai-man R.; Hawe, Emma; Li, Lai K.; Miller, George J.; Nicaud, Viviane; Pennacchio, Len A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Talmud, Philippa J.

    2003-01-30

    The impact of common variants in the apolipoprotein gene cluster (APOC3-A4-A5) on prospective CHD risk was examined in healthy UK men. Of the 2808 men followed over nine years, 187 had a clinically defined CHD event. Examination of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this group revealed that homozygotes for APOA4 S347 had significantly increased risk of CHD [Hazard ratio (HR) of 2.07 (95%CI 1.04-4.12)] while men homozygous for APOC3 1100T were protected (HR 0.28 (95%CI 0.09-0.87)). In stepwise multiple regression analysis, after entering all the variants and adjusting for established risk factors APOA4 T347S alone remained in the model. Using nine-SNP haplotype analysis, highest risk-estimate haplotypes carried APOA4 S347 and rare alleles of the two flanking intergenic markers. The protective effect of APOC31100T could be explained by negative linkage disequilibrium with these alleles. To determine the association of APOA4 T347S with apoAIVlevels, the relationship was examined in over 1600 healthy young European men and women. S347 homozygotes had significantly lower apoAIV plasma levels (13.48 + 0.6mg/dl) compared to carriers of the T347 allele (14.85 + 0.12 mg/dl) (p=0.025). These results demonstrate that genetic variation in and around APOA4, independent of effects of TG, is associated with risk of CHD and apoAIV levels, supporting an anti-atherogenic role for apoAIV.

  2. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m2 were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 μg/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m2, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m2. (orig.)

  3. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde;

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg....../l) was found in the obese subjects when compared with concentrations in the controls (median 348 mg/l, range 164-536 mg/l). Plasma fibronectin concentrations of the obese patients correlated significantly to their degree of overweight (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05) as well as to the degree of fatty change...... found in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin...

  4. Plasma concentrations of voriconazole in falcons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, V; Demiraj, F; Di Somma, A; Bailey, T; Ungemach, F R; Krautwald-Junghanns, M-E

    2007-08-25

    Doses of 12.5 mg voriconazole/kg bodyweight administered every 12 hours by crop gavage to six falcons for 14 days provided peak plasma concentrations of more than 1 microg/ml, but the trough concentrations were lower and sometimes undetectable. Administering the same doses incorporated into meat that was fed to one falcon for seven days and to three falcons for up to 91 days provided similar plasma concentrations. PMID:17720963

  5. High plasma urea concentrations in collodion babies

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    We describe two infants born with a collodion membrane; both were treated with a product containing 10% urea and 5% lactic acid and as a consequence were found to have a raised plasma urea concentration.

  6. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A; Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... with the degree of hepatic fatty change, declined (p less than 0.01), but the individual change was unrelated with the change in plasma fibronectin. In conclusion, the elevated plasma fibronectin levels in morbidly obese subjects seem to normalize during weight loss. We suggest the normalization to be...

  7. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Helling

    Full Text Available Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations.Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40, acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20, acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20, and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20. Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion.All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100, severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong.Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure.

  8. CSF and plasma vasopressin concentrations in dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, P S; Hammer, M.; Vorstrup, S; Gjerris, F.

    1983-01-01

    In 16 patients with primary degenerative dementia mean CSF vasopressin concentration was lower (0.9 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (mean +/- SEM)) than in 28 control patients (1.3 +/- 0.1 (mean +/- SEM)) (p less than 0.01). In 18 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and potentially reversible dementia mean CSF vasopressin concentration (1.2 pg/ml +/- 0.1 (mean +/- SEM)) was not different from that found in controls. Several of the demented patients had inappropriate plasma vasopressin concentrations su...

  9. The role of apolipoprotein A-IV in regulating glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yang, Qing; Huesman, Sarah; Xu, Min; Li, Xiaoming; Lou, Danwen; Woods, Stephen C; Marziano, Corina; Tso, Patrick

    2015-10-15

    Both glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) are produced from the gut and enhance postprandial insulin secretion. This study investigated whether apoA-IV regulates nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion and whether apoA-IV knockout causes compensatory GLP-1 release. Using lymph-fistula-mice, we first determined lymphatic GLP-1 secretion by administering apoA-IV before an intraduodenal Ensure infusion. apoA-IV changed neither basal nor Ensure-induced GLP-1 secretion relative to saline administration. We then assessed GLP-1 in apoA-IV-/- and wild-type (WT) mice administered intraduodenal Ensure. apoA-IV-/- mice had comparable lymph flow, lymphatic triglyceride, glucose, and protein outputs as WT mice. Intriguingly, apoA-IV-/- mice had higher lymphatic GLP-1 concentration and output than WT mice 30 min after Ensure administration. Increased GLP-1 was also observed in plasma of apoA-IV-/- mice at 30 min. apoA-IV-/- mice had comparable total gut GLP-1 content relative to WT mice under fasting, but a lower GLP-1 content 30 min after Ensure administration, suggesting that more GLP-1 was secreted. Moreover, an injection of apoA-IV protein did not reverse the increased GLP-1 secretion in apoA-IV-/- mice. Finally, we assessed gene expression of GLUT-2 and the lipid receptors, including G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 40, GPR119, and GPR120 in intestinal segments. GLUT-2, GPR40 and GPR120 mRNAs were unaltered by apoA-IV knockout. However, ileal GPR119 mRNA was significantly increased in apoA-IV-/- mice. GPR119 colocalizes with GLP-1 in ileum and stimulates GLP-1 secretion by sensing OEA, lysophosphatidylcholine, and 2-monoacylglycerols. We suggest that increased ileal GPR119 is a potential mechanism by which GLP-1 secretion is enhanced in apoA-IV-/- mice. PMID:26294669

  10. SEASONAL VARIATION IN PLASMA SEX STEROID CONCENTRATION IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation in plasma sex steroid concentrations is common in mature vertebrates, and is occasionally seen in juvenile animals. In this study, we examine the seasonal pattern of sex hormone concentration in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) and make...

  11. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O;

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulcer...... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the...

  12. Doxycycline plasma concentrations in macaws fed a medicate corn diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, S E; Clubb, S L; Flammer, K

    1992-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the doxycycline plasma concentrations attained by feeding a medicated corn diet to large psittacine birds. Doxycycline is the preferred drug for the treatment of chlamydiosis in psittacine birds. Healthy macaws were fed a 0.1% doxycycline-medicated corn diet for 45 days, and plasma doxycycline concentrations were determined by microbiological assay on treatment days 3, 15, 30, and 45. Plasma doxycycline concentrations exceeded 1 microgram/ml in 87% of the samples assayed. As blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, a doxycycline-medicated corn diet may be efficacious in the treatment of chlamydiosis in large psittacine birds. PMID:1627120

  13. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  14. Vitamin E plasma concentration in osteoporotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimahmoodi M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of osteoporosis is multifactorial and many dietary factors are important in the prevention of this disease. Antioxidants as free radical scavengers may influence osteoporosis by reducing the effects of oxidative stress that may be associated with bone loss. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in cell membranes from oxidation. There are only two studies regarding vitamin E plasma levels in subjects suffering from osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between plasma vitamin E levels and bone mineral density (BMD in Iranian patients. Methods: Subjects were consecutively recruited between May and September 2005 from among a total of approximately 1000 people referred for instrumental screening for osteoporosis to the Jami Clinic in Tehran. Inclusion criteria for the study group were: a femoral neck T-score of -1 or less, osteopenia, severe osteopenia and osteoporosis. A total of 137 subjects were enrolled. According to their femoral and spinal BMD scores, 54 persons were selected as a control group. The control group consisted of subjects with a femoral neck T-score and spine T-score of -1 or more. In selecting the case group, only the femoral BMD score was used. Plasma vitamin E was measured, after extraction with methanol, by HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm. Methanol, deionized water and butanol (90:4:6 was used as a mobile phase with a C8 column. The flow rate was 1.0 ml. min-1 and the acetate ester of vitamin E was used as an internal standard. Results: The results show no significant difference in plasma vitamin E between the control and case groups, however linear regression analysis does reveal a significant difference between the T-score and plasma vitamin E. Conclusion: Deceleration Femoral bone Density during osteoporosis will be Accelerated with Decrease of Vitamin E Antioxidant level.

  15. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M;

    1999-01-01

    to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically...

  16. A mobile killing- and mincing unit represents a possible alternative in mass destruction of AIV infected poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, Anne Ahlmann; Handberg, Kurt;

    according to standards. As this mobile unit minimises the risk of spreading pathogens, it represents an attractive approach in case of AIV outbreak in poultry flocks. This requires, however, that the acidification step is sufficient to inactivate infectious AIV. Therefore, low pathogenic AIV subtype H5N2...

  17. Toroidal equilibrium of plasma with concentrated relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified model has been given for toroidal equilibrium of a tokamak-type plasma with high-current concentrated electron beam. The plasma has a thermal pressure, and the electron beam has effective inertial pressure. Strong deformations of tokamak equilibria have been simulated by numerical calculations. Toroidal equilibria with relatively large vertical field are obtained when we consider high-energy intense electron beam. The beam orbit, which is shifted outward from the magnetic axis of the plasma, is closed by the sum of the externally applied relatively large vertical field and the poloidal magnetic field of the plasma. (author)

  18. Ethosuximide plasma concentrations: influence of age and associated concomitant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, D; Cusi, C; Franceschetti, S; Moise, A; Spina, S; Avanzini, G

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between oral dose and plasma concentration of ethosuximide was evaluated retrospectively in 198 epileptic patients aged 2.5 to 34 years. Age appears to be a major factor in determining the ethosuximide plasma level/dose (L/D) ratio. Children younger than 10 years had men L/D ratios significantly lower (p less than 0.0003) than adolescents (10 to 15 years of age) and adults (16 to 34 years of age). Associated antiepileptic therapy reduced the ethosuximide L/D ratio: mean ethosuximide L/D ratios were significantly lower in patients also taking primidone (p less than 0.0005) or valproic acid (p less than 0.02). The correlation between the dose of ethosuximide administered and the plasma concentration was significant in the 3 age groups considered (p less than 0.0004), but the wide scattering of individual plasma concentrations makes it impossible to predict what plasma concentration of ethosuximide will be obtained after a given dose. For this reason, routine monitoring of ethosuximide plasma concentrations still appears to be necessary, especially in children and patients on polytherapy. PMID:6802548

  19. Treatment with beta-adrenoceptor blockers reduces plasma melatonin concentration.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowen, P J; Bevan, J. S.; Gosden, B; Elliott, S A

    1985-01-01

    In treated hypertensive patients plasma melatonin levels were lower in subjects receiving beta-adrenoceptor blockers than those treated with diuretics. Melatonin concentrations in middle-aged and young control subjects were similar to each other and to those of the diuretic-treated patients. The results suggest that treatment with beta-adrenoceptor blockers causes a persistent reduction in plasma melatonin but it is unclear if this finding has clinical implications.

  20. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M;

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically...... insignificant. Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  1. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  2. Effect of Breed on Plasma Endothelin-1 Concentration, Plasma Renin Activity, and Serum Cortisol Concentration in Healthy Dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K; Lequarré, A-S; Ljungvall, I;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined at...... 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). METHODS: Prospective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including...... blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. RESULTS: Median ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall...

  3. Plasma drug concentrations and physiological measures in 'dance party' participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Rodney J; Keane, Michael; Felgate, Peter; McCann, Una D; Callaghan, Paul D; White, Jason M

    2006-02-01

    The increasing use of (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the setting of large dance parties ('raves') and clubs has been the source of some concern, because of potential acute adverse events, and because animal studies suggest that MDMA has the potential to damage brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons. However, it is not yet known whether MDMA, as used in the setting of dance parties, leads to plasma levels of MDMA that are associated with toxicity to 5-HT neurons in animals. The present study sought to address this question. Plasma MDMA concentrations, vital signs, and a variety of blood and urine measures were obtained prior to, and hours after, individuals attended a dance party. After the dance party, subjects were without clinical complaints, had measurable amounts of residual MDMA in plasma, and nearly half of the subjects also tested positive for methamphetamine, another amphetamine analog that has been shown to have 5-HT neurotoxic potential in animals. Plasma concentrations of MDMA did not correlate with self-reported use of 'ecstasy' and, in some subjects, overlapped with those that have been associated with 5-HT neurotoxicity in non-human primates. Additional subjects were likely to have had similar concentrations while at the dance party, when one considers the reported time of drug ingestion and the plasma half-life of MDMA in humans. Hematological and biochemical analyses were generally unremarkable. Moderate increases in blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature were observed in the subjects with the highest MDMA plasma concentrations. These findings are consistent with epidemiological findings that most people who use MDMA at dance parties do not develop serious clinical complications, and suggest that some of these individuals may be at risk for developing MDMA-induced toxicity to brain serotonin neurons. PMID:16192986

  4. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, B F; Thomson, D B; O'Neill, S

    1985-05-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations were significantly (P less than 0.001) below the reference range in dogs with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) secondary to nonlymphomatous neoplasia, acute necrotizing pancreatitis, sepsis, chronic active hepatitis, and heat stroke. There was no statistical evidence of a group effect. Decrease in fibronectin concentration was associated with severe DIC, although no attempt was made to correlate fibronectin concentration with prognosis. These findings parallel those reported for severely ill human beings with diseases associated with DIC. They exemplify the potential of spontaneous diseases in animals as models for the study of human disease. PMID:4003893

  5. Daily concentrations of air pollution and plasma fibrinogen in London

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkanen, J.; Brunner, E; Anderson, H.; Tiittanen, P; Atkinson, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The reason for the association between air pollution and risk of cardiovascular diseases is unknown. The hypothesis was examined that daily concentrations of air pollution are associated with daily concentrations of fibrinogen, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
METHODS—Data on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen for 4982 male and 2223 female office workers, collected in a cross sectional survey in London between September 1991 and May 1993, were combined with data on concen...

  6. Engineering within the assembly, verification, and integration (AIV) process in ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; McMullin, Joseph P.; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Duvall, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an interferometer in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength range. It will be located at an altitude above 5000m in the Chilean Atacama desert. As part of the ALMA construction phase the Assembly, Verification and Integration (AIV) team receives antennas and instrumentation from Integrated Product Teams (IPTs), verifies that the sub-systems perform as expected, performs the assembly and integration of the scientific instrumentation and verifies that functional and performance requirements are met. This paper aims to describe those aspects related to the AIV Engineering team, its role within the 4-station AIV process, the different phases the group underwent, lessons learned and potential space for improvement. AIV Engineering initially focused on the preparation of the necessary site infrastructure for AIV activities, on the purchase of tools and equipment and on the first ALMA system installations. With the first antennas arriving on site the team started to gather experience with AIV Station 1 beacon holography measurements for the assessment of the overall antenna surface quality, and with optical pointing to confirm the antenna pointing and tracking capabilities. With the arrival of the first receiver AIV Station 2 was developed which focuses on the installation of electrical and cryogenic systems and incrementally establishes the full connectivity of the antenna as an observing platform. Further antenna deliveries then allowed to refine the related procedures, develop staff expertise and to transition towards a more routine production process. Stations 3 and 4 deal with verification of the antenna with integrated electronics by the AIV Science Team and is not covered

  7. Plasma homocysteine concentration changes after renal transplantation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, Aicha; Delvin, Edgar E; Genest, Jacques; Rozen, Rima; Lambert, Marie

    2002-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is found in children as well as in 80% of adult patients with end-stage renal disease. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in plasma homocysteine concentrations after renal transplantation (RT). Plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate concentrations were prospectively measured in six patients at three points, before and post transplantation (6 months, 4 years), and compared with controls using standardized scores (Z score) for each of these parameters. Folic acid supplementation was introduced after the evaluation at 6 months. Patients had elevated median plasma homocysteine Z scores during dialysis (4.12). When assessed at 6 months and 4 years, median plasma homocysteine Z scores were, respectively, 2.35 and 0.29. Median folate Z scores were 1.89 during dialysis, -0.26 at 6 months, and 3.26 at 4 years post RT. Median vitamin B(12) Z score was 2.12 during dialysis, 0.58 at 6 months, and -0.07 at 4 years post RT. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) improved after RT, with median GFR of 84.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at 6 months. This stabilized to a value of 70.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at 4 years. When comparing values before and after RT at 6 months, changes were observed only for GFR ( P<0.03) and vitamin B(12) ( P<0.05). There were no changes in plasma homocysteine, folate, and serum albumin. At 4 years, a significant decrease in plasma homocysteine was observed ( P<0.05) with increased GFR ( P<0.03). No significant changes were observed in plasma albumin, folate, and vitamin B(12) concentrations. In conclusion, elevated plasma homocysteine in children during dialysis persists after RT despite a significant improvement in renal function. However, normalization was attained when patients were supplemented with folic acid. Further controlled studies are required to evaluate the determinants and treatment of elevated plasma homocysteine in pediatric transplant patients. PMID:12172766

  8. Etravirine concentrations in seminal plasma in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tiraboschi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Good penetration of antiretroviral drugs to the seminal plasma may be associated with a decrease in viral replication and play an important role in the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. We present data from a series of HIV-infected ARV-experienced patients receiving etravirine-containing regimens, in whom etravirine concentrations and viral loads were determined in blood plasma and seminal plasma. The objective was to determine etravirine concentrations and HIV-1 viral load (VL in blood plasma (BP and seminal plasma (SP of HIV-infected patients. Methods: Ten HIV-1 adult antiretroviral-experienced patients receiving an etravirine-containing regimen for at least 1 month were enrolled. Semen and blood samples were both collected around 12–24 h after the last etravirine dose, depending on once-daily or twice-daily dosing, respectively. HPLC/MS/MS was used to determine etravirine concentrations, and HIV-1 VL was determined by real-time PCR (limit of detection, VL 40 copies/mL. Results: Ten blood and twenty semen samples were collected. Median (range CD4 count was 502 cells/mm3 (252–817 and median (range BP VL was<40 copies/mL (40–362. Median (range time on etravirine was 52 weeks (12–124. Median (range BP etravirine concentration was 452.5 ng/mL (258–751. Median (range SP etravirine concentration was 62.9 ng/mL (31.2–166, and values were above the protein-free IC50 range (0.39–2.4 ng/mL in all cases. Median (range etravirine SP:BP ratio was 0.16 (0.07–0.26. SP VL was<40 copies/mL in all patients, whereas BP VL was detectable in one patient with poor adherence to treatment. Conclusions: Total etravirine concentrations in male genital secretion are modest, reaching only 16% of the BP concentration, but nevertheless, more than 10 times above the wild type IC50 range.

  9. Plasma homocysteine concentration in children with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merouani, A; Lambert, M; Delvin, E E; Genest, J; Robitaille, P; Rozen, R

    2001-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for vascular disease, is commonly found in adult patients with end-stage renal disease. Major determinants of elevated plasma homocysteine levels in these patients include deficiencies in folate and vitamin B12, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype and renal function. Little information is available for children with chronic renal failure (CRF). The prevalence and the factors that affect plasma homocysteine concentration were determined in children. Twenty-nine children with various degrees of CRF (15 were dialyzed, 14 were not dialyzed) were compared with 57 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Homocysteine concentrations were higher in patients than controls (17.3 micromol/l vs 6.8 micromol/l, P95th percentile for controls: 14.0 micromol/l) was seen in 62.0% of patients and 5.2% of controls. Folate concentrations were lower in patients (9.9 nmol/l) than controls (13.5 nmol/l), P<0.01. Vitamin B12 was similar in patients (322 pmol/l) and controls (284 pmol/l). Dialyzed patients have a higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia than nondialyzed patients (87% vs 35%). Dialyzed patients with MTHFR mutation have higher plasma homocysteine (28.5 micromol/l) than nondialyzed patients with the mutation (10.7 micromol/l), P<0.002. In our study, differences between controls and patients in plasma homocysteine concentrations are observed when age is greater then 92 months, folate less than 21.6 nmol/l and vitamin B12 less than 522 pmol/l. Our study shows that hyperhomocysteinemia is common in children with CRF and is associated with low folate and normal vitamin B12 status, compared to normal children. Among the patients, the dialyzed patients with the MTHFR mutation are particularly at risk for hyperhomocysteinemia. Further studies are needed to investigate therapeutic interventions and the potential link with vascular complications in these patients. PMID:11605787

  10. Plasma phylloquinone concentrations increase following acupoint injection for primary dysmenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Maria T.; Wade, Christine M.; Sarah L. Booth

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic benefits of acupoint injection of vitamin K in Spleen-6 for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea have been observed in limited clinical settings. However, menadione, the form of vitamin K most studied for treating dysmenorrhea, is not routinely used in clinical practice in North America. As part of a larger clinical trial among women with primary dysmenorrhea aged 18 to 25 years old, we conducted a sub-study to test the plasma concentration of phylloquinone (vitamin K1). We colle...

  11. Plasma concentrations of clonazepam after single rectal administration.

    OpenAIRE

    Rylance, G W; Poulton, J; Cherry, R C; Cullen, R E

    1986-01-01

    Clonazepam was administered rectally to six children aged 1.4 to 4.7 years in a dose of 0.05 mg/kg and to five children aged 1.4 to 4.1 years in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg. Plasma concentrations indicate that it is rapidly absorbed, and it may therefore be an alternative to rectal administration of diazepam in continuing convulsions.

  12. Plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshito Nishi; Hajime Isomoto; Hiroaki Ueno; Ken Ohnita; Chun Yang Wen; Fuminao Takeshima; Ryosuke Mishima; Masamitsu Nakazato; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the concentrations of leptin and ghrelin, which have opposite effects on appetite,energy expenditure, and weight control, in the plasma of patients with Crohn's disease (CD), which is often associated with weight loss and malnutrition.METHODS: Plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations were determined in 28 outpatients with CD by radioimmunoassay. Age- and sex-matched controls with and without Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection (28for each) were enrolled in the study. Circulating levels of these hormones were assessed with respect to CD activity, disease localization and medical treatment.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ghrelin levels between CD patients and H pylorinegative controls. However, circulating ghrelin levels were significantly lower in H pylori-infected subjects than in CD patients and uninfected controls. Plasma leptin levels were comparable among the groups. Localization and medication profile had no significant impact on circulating ghrelin and leptin levels.CONCLUSION: Apart from H pyloriinfection, CD itself has no significant influence on circulating ghrelin and leptin levels in the outpatients who were mostly in inactive state.

  13. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  14. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  15. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1993-01-01

    As endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstricting peptide, may play a role in the circulatory derangement and renal impairment in cirrhosis, the aim of the present study was to investigate plasma concentrations of ET-1 in different vascular beds in relation to clinical and biochemical parameters of.......70, P < 0.0001) and aspartate aminotransferase (r = 0.44, P < 0.03) and negatively correlated to serum sodium (r = -0.58, P < 0.003). In patients who underwent liver vein catheterization (n = 8), no significant differences were found in ET-1 plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...... liver function. Median brachial venous ET-1 concentrations were substantially higher in patients with cirrhosis (3.40 pg/ml, range: 1.25-7.84, n = 24) than in controls (1.53 pg/ml, range: 0.78-2.12, n = 11) (P < 0.00005). In patients with cirrhosis ET-1 was directly correlated to serum creatinine (r = 0...

  16. [A compilation of therapeutic and toxic plasma drug concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Schmoldt, A

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the significance of drug levels measured in clinical and forensic toxicology as well as for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), it is essential that good collections of data are readily available. For more than 400 frequently used drugs therapeutic and, if data were available, toxic and fatal plasma concentrations as well as elimination half-lives were compiled in a table including, e.g., hypnotics like barbiturates and benzodiazepines, neuroleptics, antidepressants, sedatives, analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, antihistamines, anti-epileptics, beta-adrenergic antagonists, antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, gyrase inhibitors), diuretics, calcium-channel blockers, cardiac glycosides, anti-arrhythmics, anti-asthmatics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, opioid agonists, and local anaesthetics. Data have been abstracted from published information, both compilations and primary sources, and supplemented with data collected in our own forensic and clinical toxicology laboratories. Wherever possible, ranges for therapeutic plasma concentrations are expressed as trough concentration at steady-state. The range of (or single) half-life values given for each drug are chosen to represent the terminal log-linear phase at most. In addition to the assessment of significance of drug levels for the therapeutic monitoring of patients, this list can assist the diagnostic assessment in cases of intoxication. PMID:7717522

  17. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were si

  18. Assembly, integration, and verification (AIV) in ALMA: series processing of array elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Bernhard; Jager, Rieks; Whyborn, Nicholas D.; Knee, Lewis B. G.; McMullin, Joseph P.

    2012-09-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint project between astronomical organizations in Europe, North America, and East Asia, in collaboration with the Republic of Chile. ALMA will consist of at least 54 twelve-meter antennas and 12 seven-meter antennas operating as an aperture synthesis array in the (sub)millimeter wavelength range. It is the responsibility of ALMA AIV to deliver the fully assembled, integrated, and verified antennas (array elements) to the telescope array. After an initial phase of infrastructure setup AIV activities began when the first ALMA antenna and subsystems became available in mid 2008. During the second semester of 2009 a project-wide effort was made to put in operation a first 3- antenna interferometer at the Array Operations Site (AOS). In 2010 the AIV focus was the transition from event-driven activities towards routine series production. Also, due to the ramp-up of operations activities, AIV underwent an organizational change from an autonomous department into a project within a strong matrix management structure. When the subsystem deliveries stabilized in early 2011, steady-state series processing could be achieved in an efficient and reliable manner. The challenge today is to maintain this production pace until completion towards the end of 2013. This paper describes the way ALMA AIV evolved successfully from the initial phase to the present steady-state of array element series processing. It elaborates on the different project phases and their relationships, presents processing statistics, illustrates the lessons learned and relevant best practices, and concludes with an outlook of the path towards completion.

  19. Approaches to modeling of plasmas containing impurity at arbitrary concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Mikhail Z.

    2016-02-01

    A new approximate method to modeling of two-ion-species plasmas with arbitrary concentration of impurity is developed. It based on the usage of equations for the electron density and the ratio of the ion species densities as new dependent variables. In contrast to motion equations for the ion mass velocities used normally, those for the new variables have a singularity at the Debye sheath only, as in the case of a one species plasma. Computations for the most critical situations of weak and intermediate friction between species due to Coulomb collisions reproduce nearly perfectly the results got by solving the original equations, however within a calculation time reduced by a factor of 102-103. In the case of strong friction, where ions’ velocities are very close each other, the normal procedure does not converge at all, but the new one, being precise in this limit, operates very reliably. Calculations are done for conditions typical in the linear device PSI-2, with deuterium plasmas seeded by neon impurity. For fixed electron and ion temperatures a critical density of impurity atoms is found, at which the electron density grows without limits. Such a catastrophic behavior does not occur if the electron and ion heat balances are taken into account to calculate the temperature profiles self-consistently.

  20. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs

    OpenAIRE

    Jungbluth, P; Grassmann, JP; Thelen, S; Wild, M.; Sager, M; Windolf, J.; M Hakimi

    2014-01-01

    In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of a...

  1. Plasma Concentrations of Hepcidin in Anemic Zimbabwean Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda G Mupfudze

    Full Text Available Anemia in infancy is a global public health problem. We evaluated the relative contributions of iron deficiency and inflammation to infant anemia.We measured plasma hepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein (CRP by ELISA on archived plasma from 289 HIV-unexposed anemic or non-anemic Zimbabwean infants at ages 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo. Among anemic infants, we determined the proportion with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA and anemia of inflammation (AI. We undertook regression analyses of plasma hepcidin and anemia status, adjusting for sex, age and birthweight.Anemic infants at 3 mo were more stunted and had higher CRP (median 0.45 vs 0.21 mg/L; P = 0.037 and hepcidin (median 14.7 vs 9.7 ng/mL; P = 0.022 than non-anemic infants, but similar levels of ferritin and sTfR; 11% infants had IDA and 15% had AI. Anemic infants at 6 mo had higher hepcidin (median 7.9 vs 4.5 ng/mL; P = 0.016 and CRP (median 2.33 vs 0.32 mg/L; P<0.001, but lower ferritin (median 13.2 vs 25.1 μg/L; P<0.001 than non-anemic infants; 56% infants had IDA and 12% had AI. Anemic infants at 12 mo had lower ferritin (median 3.2 vs 22.2 μg/L; P<0.001 and hepcidin (median 0.9 vs 1.9 ng/mL; P = 0.019, but similar CRP levels; 48% infants had IDA and 8% had AI. Comparing anemic with non-anemic infants, plasma hepcidin was 568% higher, 405% higher and 64% lower at 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo, respectively, after adjusting for sex and birthweight (all p<0.01. Plasma hepcidin declined significantly with age among anemic but not non-anemic infants. Girls had 61% higher hepcidin than boys, after adjusting for age, anemia and birthweight (p<0.001.Anemia is driven partly by inflammation early in infancy, and by iron deficiency later in infancy, with plasma hepcidin concentrations reflecting the relative contribution of each. However, there is need to better characterize the drivers of hepcidin during infancy in developing countries.

  2. Relationship between Trough Plasma and Epithelial Lining Fluid Concentrations of Voriconazole in Lung Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Siow-Chin; Snell, Gregory I; Levvey, Bronwyn; Keating, Dominic; Westall, Glen P.; Williams, Trevor J.; Whitford, Helen; Nation, Roger L; Slavin, Monica A.; Morrissey, Orla; Kong, David C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Trough (predose) voriconazole concentrations in plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of lung transplant recipients receiving oral voriconazole preemptive treatment were determined. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) ELF/plasma ratio was 12.5 ± 6.3. A strong positive linear relationship was noted between trough plasma and ELF voriconazole concentrations (r2 = 0.87), suggesting the feasibility of using trough plasma voriconazole concentration as a surrogate to estimate the corre...

  3. Plasma fluoride and bromide concentrations during occupational exposure to enflurane or halothane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, P.; Ekstrand, J.; Hallen, B.

    1985-10-01

    The plasma fluoride and bromide concentrations were studied in operating theatre personnel. When enflurane was used, the increase in plasma fluoride concentration could not be distinguished from normal individual variations, but the plasma bromide concentration increased significantly when halothane was used. Seven patients were exposed to enflurane in a concentration of 200 parts per million for 4 h. A significant increase in the plasma concentration of fluoride was observed. The peak concentrations of fluoride occurred during exposure and the increase lasted less than 12 h. The increase in fluoride concentration was larger at this trace concentration than reported after anesthetic concentrations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fluoride concentration was also studied; a smaller and delayed increase was found in CSF compared to plasma.

  4. Plasma morphine-3-glucuronide, morphine-6-glucuronide and morphine concentrations in patients receiving long-term epidural morphine.

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, J J; Ravenscroft, P J; Cavenagh, J D; Brown, A. M.; Bradley, J P

    1992-01-01

    Plasma morphine concentrations were measured in five cancer patients receiving long-term epidural morphine administration. Peak concentrations were observed within 1 h of dosage and concentrations then declined biexponentially. Plasma morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) concentrations were measured in two patients and plasma M3G concentrations were observed to be much higher than plasma M6G and morphine concentrations. Peak plasma M6G concentrations occurred within 1...

  5. Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljevic Dragan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the concentration of serum homocysteine (Hcy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA compared with the control group and the connection between homocysteine and parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Sixty RA patients and 20 healthy controls were included in the study, and clinical examination and investigation were performed during which disease activity was assessed. Peripheral blood samples were used for all of the assays. Levels of Hcy were 33% higher in the RA patients than in the control subjects (mean +/− SD 11.79±3.72 μmol/L versus 8.90±1.38 μmol/L; p< 0.01. A significant correlation was found between parameters of inflammation (C-reactive protein and homocysteine in patients (r=0.322, p=0.012. Patients with high disease activity had a significantly greater increase in homocysteine (p<0.05. An increase in plasma homocysteine in RA patients is related to the parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Elevated Hcy levels occur commonly in patients with RA and may explain some of the increased cardiovascular mortality seen in RA patients.

  6. Randomised controlled trial evaluating effects of morphine on plasma adrenaline/noradrenaline concentrations in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, S.; Van Dijk, M.; Lingen, R.A. van; ROOFTHOOFT, D; Boomsma, F; van den Anker, J. N.; Tibboel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of continuous morphine infusion in ventilated newborns on plasma concentrations of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and their relation to clinical outcome.

  7. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru;

    2002-01-01

    -induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin...... concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity...... (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, hyperinsulinemic clamp), and glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) were measured in 55 Pima Indians (47 men and 8 women, aged 31 +/- 8 years, body fat 29 +/- 8% [mean +/- SD]; 50 with normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 2...

  8. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    Full Text Available Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  9. Plasma concentrations of osteoprotegerin during normo- and hyperglycaemic clamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, S T; Jeppesen, Peter; Poulsen, P L;

    2007-01-01

    of the present study was to examine the effect of acute hyperglycaemia on plasma levels of OPG in non-diabetic subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nine healthy, lean, male subjects were examined in a randomized, blinded, cross-over study design during hyperglycaemic (plasma glucose = 15 mmol/L, study H...

  10. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P < 0.001) was lower in hemolyzed...... samples but plasma propionate, caproate, isovalerate (P < 0.001), and isobutyrate (P < 0.05) were higher in hemolyzed samples. Plasma glucose and lactate were the only metabolites that were not affected by hemolysis. Interactions with hemolysis and other fixed effects were not found (P > 0.05). In Exp. 2...

  11. Variability of plasma phenobarbitone concentration in Asian children in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H S

    1984-01-01

    In a study with 113 Asian children in which phenobarbitone was used as the sole antiepileptic drug in 75 children, including Chinese, Malays, and Indians, the mean phenobarbitone dosage required to produce a plasma level of 15 micrograms/ml was 5.2 mg/kg/day. While the mean plasma level/dose ratio varied, the differences between the three ethnic groups were not statistically significant. Also of little difference were the ratios between the male and female groups. For those patients with poor seizure control, however, the mean plasma level/dose ratio was significantly lower than in those whose seizures were controlled. Using additional anticonvulsant drugs concurrently with phenobarbitone in 40 children raised the mean plasma level/dose ratios significantly in each ethnic group. Further, the greater age level in those given additional antiepileptic drugs might have contributed slightly to a higher mean plasma level/dose ratio. PMID:6740737

  12. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K;

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p < 0.000001, < 0.000002 and p < 0.001, respectively). In predialysis uremic patients the plasma leptin concentration was slightly elevated as compared with controls 10...

  13. Clinical decision support of therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin: measured versus adjusted phenytoin plasma concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasowski Matthew D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin by measurement of plasma concentrations is often employed to optimize clinical efficacy while avoiding adverse effects. This is most commonly accomplished by measurement of total phenytoin plasma concentrations. However, total phenytoin levels can be misleading in patients with factors such as low plasma albumin that alter the free (unbound concentrations of phenytoin. Direct measurement of free phenytoin concentrations in plasma is more costly and time-consuming than determination of total phenytoin concentrations. An alternative to direct measurement of free phenytoin concentrations is use of the Sheiner-Tozer equation to calculate an adjusted phenytoin that corrects for the plasma albumin concentration. Innovative medical informatics tools to identify patients who would benefit from adjusted phenytoin calculations or from laboratory measurement of free phenytoin are needed to improve safety and efficacy of phenytoin pharmacotherapy. The electronic medical record for an academic medical center was searched for the time period from August 1, 1996 to November 30, 2010 for patients who had total phenytoin and free phenytoin determined on the same blood draw, and also a plasma albumin measurement within 7 days of the phenytoin measurements. The measured free phenytoin plasma concentration was used as the gold standard. Results In this study, the standard Sheiner-Tozer formula for calculating an estimated (adjusted phenytoin level more frequently underestimates than overestimates the measured free phenytoin relative to the respective therapeutic ranges. Adjusted phenytoin concentrations provided superior classification of patients than total phenytoin measurements, particularly at low albumin concentrations. Albumin plasma concentrations up to 7 days prior to total phenytoin measurements can be used for adjusted phenytoin concentrations. Conclusions The results suggest that a measured

  14. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations. PMID:26435060

  15. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  16. Correlation between behavioural and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer type dementia and plasma homocysteine concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhanjie; Wang, Jindong; Yi, Lei; Yu, Hui; Kong, Lingli; Cui, Weizhen; Chen, Hong; Wang, Chunxia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy) among 40 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD. PMID:24995291

  17. Viral elution and concentration method for detection of influenza A viruses in mud by real-time RT-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Deboosere, Nathalie; Horm, Srey Viseth; Delobel, Alexandre; Gachet, Jessica; Buchy, Philippe; Vialette, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    The role of environmental reservoirs in avian influenza virus (AIV) transmission has been investigated during AIV-associated outbreaks. To date, no method has been defined for detection of AIV from mud samples. A procedure using elution and polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration steps was designed to detect AIV by RT-PCR from 42g of raw mud, corresponding to 30g of the solid fraction of mud. RNA was recovered with MagMAX AI/ND Viral RNA Isolation kit (Ambion, Austin, TX). Three elution buffe...

  18. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6...... patients. Therapy failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations...

  19. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Francis, Sunday M.; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ‘ecstasy’) is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its prosocial effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy...

  20. Plasma concentrations after high-dose (45 mg.kg-1) rectal acetaminophen in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C J; McCormack, J P; Reichert, C C; Marsland, C P

    1995-11-01

    Although the recommended dose of rectal acetaminophen (25-30 mg.kg-1) is twice that for oral administration (10-15 mg.kg-1), the literature justifies the use of a higher dose when acetaminophen is administered via the rectal route. We measured venous plasma acetaminophen concentrations resulting from 45 mg.kg-1 of rectal acetaminophen in ten ASA 1, 15 kg paediatric patients undergoing minor surgery with a standardized anaesthetic. After induction of anaesthesia, a single 650 mg suppository (Abenol, SmithKline Beecham Pharma Inc.) was administered rectally. Plasma was sampled at t = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 min in the first five patients and at t = 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 420 min in the subsequent five. Acetaminophen plasma concentrations were determined using a TDxFLx fluorescence polarization immunoassay (Abbott Laboratories, Toronto, Ontario). The maximum plasma concentration was 88 +/- 39 mumol.L-1 (13 +/- 6 micrograms.ml-1) and the time of peak plasma concentration was 198 +/- 70 min (mean +/- SD). At 420 min, the mean plasma concentration was 46 +/- 18 mumol.L-1 (7.0 +/- 0.9 micrograms.ml-1). No plasma concentrations associated with toxicity (> 800 mumol.L-1) were identified. A 45 mg.kg-1 rectal dose of acetaminophen resulted in peak plasma concentrations comparable with those resulting from 10-15 mg.kg-1 of oral acetaminophen at three hours after suppository insertion. It is concluded that the delayed and erratic absorption of acetaminophen after rectal administration leads to unpredictable plasma concentrations. Rectal acetaminophen will not be consistently effective for providing rapid onset of analgesia in children. PMID:8590508

  1. Correlation between the Plasma Insulin and Glucose Concentration in Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Kyu; Sung, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jin Eui [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The correlation between the plasma insulin, and glucose concentration was studied in healthy Korean adults consisting of 20 males and 22 females of 16 to 38 years of age. The blood samples of above subjects were obtained through cubital vein at arbitrary times during their usual working hours. Plasma insulin was assayed by means of double antibody system of radioimmunoassay technics, and blood glucose was determined by means of Van Slyke-Folch method. Results were as follows : 1. There were no differences in the blood sugar levels in relation to the plasma insulin concentration either by sex or age. 2. In the case, when the plasma insulin concentration was within 50 mmuU/ml, the correlation between the insulin, and glucose concentration existed, the ratio of which was expressed as; Plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl)=91.9 + 0.08 X Insulin concentration r=0.62. 3. Insulinogenic index was 12.4%, which was somewhat higher than other reports. 4. It is suggested that the correlation between plasma insulin and glucose concentration could be determined at arbitrary times instead of fasting times.

  2. Correlation between the Plasma Insulin and Glucose Concentration in Normal Korean Adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation between the plasma insulin, and glucose concentration was studied in healthy Korean adults consisting of 20 males and 22 females of 16 to 38 years of age. The blood samples of above subjects were obtained through cubital vein at arbitrary times during their usual working hours. Plasma insulin was assayed by means of double antibody system of radioimmunoassay technics, and blood glucose was determined by means of Van Slyke-Folch method. Results were as follows : 1. There were no differences in the blood sugar levels in relation to the plasma insulin concentration either by sex or age. 2. In the case, when the plasma insulin concentration was within 50 mμU/ml, the correlation between the insulin, and glucose concentration existed, the ratio of which was expressed as; Plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl)=91.9 + 0.08 X Insulin concentration r=0.62. 3. Insulinogenic index was 12.4%, which was somewhat higher than other reports. 4. It is suggested that the correlation between plasma insulin and glucose concentration could be determined at arbitrary times instead of fasting times.

  3. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  4. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Voriconazole Plasma Concentration Data from Pediatric Studies▿

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Mats O.; Lutsar, Irja; Milligan, Peter A

    2008-01-01

    Voriconazole is a potent triazole with broad-spectrum antifungal activity against clinically significant and emerging pathogens. The present population pharmacokinetic analysis evaluated voriconazole plasma concentration-time data from three studies of pediatric patients of 2 to

  5. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a...

  6. A long-term prospective population pharmacokinetic study on imatinib plasma concentrations in GIST patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Eechoute (Karel); M.N. Fransson (Martin); A.K.L. Reyners; F.A. de Jong (Floris); A. Sparreboom (Alex); W.T.A. van der Graaf (Winette); L.E. Friberg (Lena); G. Schiavon (Gaia); E.A.C. Wiemer (Erik); J. Verweij (Jaap); W.J. Loos (Walter); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); U. de Giorgi (U.)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Imatinib minimal (trough) plasma concentrations after one month of treatment have shown a significant association with clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Considering that a retrospective pharmacokinetic analysis has also suggested that imat

  7. A Long-term Prospective Population Pharmacokinetic Study on Imatinib Plasma Concentrations in GIST Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eechoute, K.; Fransson, M.N.; Reyners, A.K.; Jong, F.A. de; Sparreboom, A.; Graaf, W.T. van der; Friberg, L.E.; Schiavon, G.; Wiemer, E.A.; Verweij, J.; Loos, W.J.; Mathijssen, R.H.; Giorgi, U. de

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Imatinib minimal (trough) plasma concentrations after one month of treatment have shown a significant association with clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Considering that a retrospective pharmacokinetic analysis has also suggested that imatinib clearan

  8. A Long-term Prospective Population Pharmacokinetic Study on Imatinib Plasma Concentrations in GIST Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eechoute, Karel; Fransson, Martin N.; Reyners, An K.; de Jong, Floris A.; Sparreboom, Alex; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Friberg, Lena E.; Schiavon, Gaia; Wiemer, Erik A. C.; Verweij, Jaap; Loos, Walter J.; Mathijssen, Ron H. J.; De Giorgi, Ugo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Imatinib minimal (trough) plasma concentrations after one month of treatment have shown a significant association with clinical benefit in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Considering that a retrospective pharmacokinetic analysis has also suggested that imatinib clearan

  9. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role of...... hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... nondiabetic Pima Indians (112 M/107 F, age 31 +/- 9 years, body weight 96 +/- 20 kg [mean +/- SD]) in whom body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated at baseline and follow-up. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively associated with body weight (r = -0.28, P = 0...

  10. Decreased Plasma Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Concentrations during Military Training

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Go; Tokuno, Shinichi; Nibuya, Masashi; Ishida, Toru; Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Mukai, Yasuo; Mitani, Keiji; Tsumatori, Gentaro; Scott, Daniel; Shimizu, Kunio

    2014-01-01

    Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to...

  11. Micafungin Concentrations in the Plasma and Burn Eschar of Severely Burned Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Junichi; Yamanouchi, Satoshi; Kudo, Daisuke; Endo, Tomoyuki; Nomura, Ryosuke; Takuma, Kiyotsugu; Kushimoto, Shigeki; Shinozawa, Yotaro; Kishino, Satoshi; Hori, Shingo; Aikawa, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Micafungin concentrations in plasma and burn eschar after daily intravenous infusion (1 h) of micafungin (200 to 300 mg) were investigated for six patients with severe burns. Micafungin treatment was initiated more than 72 h after the burn injuries. The peak and trough levels in the plasma after the initial administration and repeated administrations for more than 4 days were comparable with or slightly lower than the reported values for healthy volunteers. Micafungin concentrations in the pl...

  12. Stability of plasma concentrations of N and C terminal atrial natriuretic peptides at room temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Cleland, J G; Ward, S; Dutka, D.; Habib, F; Impallomeni, M; Morton, I J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are increased in patients with ventricular dysfunction and could have a diagnostic role in heart failure. ANP may be unstable after collection, however, limiting any practical diagnostic role. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 18 patients with various conditions. Aliquots were either processed optimally or kept as blood or plasma at room temperature for 6-72 h before processing. RESULTS: Concentrations of C-terminal...

  13. Increased prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV, and haptoglobin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chu Huang

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The need for biomarkers of onset and progression in HD is imperative, since currently reliable outcome measures are lacking. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to analyze the proteome profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 6 pairs of HD patients and controls. Prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo A-IV and haptoglobin were elevated in CSF of the HD patients in comparison with the controls. We used western blot as a semi-quantified measurement for prothrombin and Apo A-IV, as well as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measurement of haptoglobin, in 9 HD patients and 9 controls. The albumin quotient (Qalb, a marker of blood-brain barrier (BBB function, was not different between the HD patients and the controls. The ratios of CSF prothrombin/albumin (prothrombin/Alb and Apo A-IV/albumin (Apo A-IV/Alb, and haptoglobin level were significantly elevated in HD. The ratio of CSF prothrombin/Alb significantly correlated with the disease severity assessed by Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The results implicate that increased CSF prothrombin, Apo A-IV, and haptoglobin may be involved in pathogenesis of HD and may serve as potential biomarkers for HD.

  14. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  15. Plasma clozapine concentration coefficients of variation in a long-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Francisco J; de Leon, Jose; Josiassen, Richard C; Cooper, Thomas B; Simpson, George M

    2005-01-01

    Kurz et al. conducted the first study of the intra-individual variability of clozapine plasma concentrations but did not take into account the effect of smoking and co-medication. As patients were receiving varying doses, Kurz et al. standardized plasma levels by using a plasma level/dose/kg ratio. In 15 patients, the mean coefficient of variation (CV) was 53% (S.D. = 21). In this new study, plasma clozapine and norclozapine concentrations were measured every 2 weeks in 47 patients randomized to 100, 300, or 600 mg/day for 16-week double-blind clozapine trials under controlled conditions (stable smoking, limited co-medication and absence of caffeinated beverages). For 100, 300 and 600 mg/day, the respective mean CVs for plasma clozapine concentrations were 23% (S.D. = 14), 19% (S.D.= 11) and 18% (S.D. = 8). For the combined concentrations of clozapine and norclozapine, the respective mean CVs were 20% (S.D. = 13), 16% (S.D. = 9) and 15% (S.D. = 7). Under 100 mg/day, the mean CV for clozapine concentrations was significantly higher for heavy smokers than non-heavy smokers (32%, S.D. = 3 vs. 19%, S.D. = 8) (p = 0.03). Studies of CVs in other environments are needed. Clozapine CVs may be important in order to understand the importance of variations around the therapeutic range and to interpret drug interactions above the usual noise of measuring plasma concentrations. PMID:15560958

  16. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  17. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungbluth, Pascal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of all growth factors tested was observed in the PRP in comparison to the corresponding plasma or serum. Five of the plasma samples examined contained detectable levels of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2 whereas eleven of the plasma or serum samples contained minimal amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb respectively. On the other hand variable concentrations of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7 and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 were measured in all plasma samples. In contrast, all PRP samples contained significantly increased amounts of growth factors. The level of BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-β1, VEGF and PDGF-bb increased by 17.6, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 103.3 fold, in comparison to the corresponding non-enriched preparations. Moreover significant positive correlations were found between platelet count and the concentrations of BMP-2 (r=0.62, p<0.001, TGF-β1 (r=0.85, p<0.001, VEGF (r=0.46, p<0.01 and PDGF-bb (r=0.9, p<0.001. Our results demonstrate that selected growth factors are present in the platelet-rich plasma of minipigs which might thus serve as a source of autologous growth factors.

  18. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Pascal; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Thelen, Simon; Wild, Michael; Sager, Martin; Windolf, Joachim; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2014-01-01

    In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of all growth factors tested was observed in the PRP in comparison to the corresponding plasma or serum. Five of the plasma samples examined contained detectable levels of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) whereas eleven of the plasma or serum samples contained minimal amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) respectively. On the other hand variable concentrations of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in all plasma samples. In contrast, all PRP samples contained significantly increased amounts of growth factors. The level of BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-β1, VEGF and PDGF-bb increased by 17.6, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 103.3 fold, in comparison to the corresponding non-enriched preparations. Moreover significant positive correlations were found between platelet count and the concentrations of BMP-2 (r=0.62, pVEGF (r=0.46, pplatelet-rich plasma of minipigs which might thus serve as a source of autologous growth factors. PMID:26504722

  19. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kawasumi; M. Yamamoto; KOIDE, M; Okada, Y; Mori, N; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified ...

  20. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kawasumi; M. Yamamoto; KOIDE, M; Okada, Y; Mori, N; Yamamoto, I.; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified ...

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of the plasma production of ferroniobium from a loparite concentrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A. A.; Kirpichev, D. E.; Nikolaev, A. V.; Tsvetkov, Yu. V.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of pyrometallurgical processing of a loparite concentrate at a temperature of 2000-4000 K and a pressure of 0.1 MPa is thermodynamically studied using the TERRA software package. It is found that the niobium concentration in the concentrate almost doubles during plasma heating as a result of thermal decomposition and the precipitation of rare-earth metals into a gas phase. Crude niobium can be extracted from the thermally decomposed concentrate by carbothermic or aluminothermic reduction. After plasma-arc vacuum refining, crude niobium can be used for making commercial ferroniobium. The calculated energy consumed for the plasma production of ferroniobium from the loparite concentrate by carbothermic or aluminothermic reduction under adiabatic conditions is 46.6 or 79.0 GJ/(t ferroniobium), respectively. The energy consumption can even be increased severalfold, and the implementation of the process remains economically efficient at the existing market price of ferroniobium.

  2. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  3. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ADM concentrations in hyperthyroid patients complicated with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) concentrations in hyperthyroid patients with or without pulmonary hypertension. Methods: Plasma ADM levels were measured with RIA in: (1) 30 hyperthyroid patients without pulmonary hypertension, (2) 27 hyperthyroid patients with pulmonary, hypertension, and (3) 32 controls. Results: (1) In this study, 27 of the 57 hyperthyroid patients were complicated with pulmonary hypertension (47.37%), (2) Plasma ADM concentrations in the patients with pulmonary hypertension were significantly higher than those in patients without pulmonary hypertension and controls (P3, T4 (thyroid hormones) were positively correlated with those of ADM while there were no correlations in controls. Conclusion: Plasma ADM concentrations increased in hyperthyroid patients, especially in those complicated with pulmonary hypertension. The clinicians should look for pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroid patients with substantially elevated levels of ADM. (authors)

  4. Identifying plasma glycerol concentration associated with urinary glycerol excretion in trained humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jeff L; Harmon, Molly E; Robergs, Robert A

    2011-11-01

    Glycerol has been used as a means to legitimately hyperhydrate the body in an attempt to offset the deleterious effects of dehydration. It has the potential to mask blood doping practices and as a result has been added to the WADA prohibited substance list. The purpose of this study was to identify the plasma glycerol concentration coinciding with urinary glycerol excretion. Twelve healthy, trained male subjects completed five separate trials under resting conditions. For each trial, subjects consumed a different glycerol dose (0.025, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, or 0.20 g glycerol/kg LBM) of a 5% glycerol solution in order to determine at what plasma glycerol concentration an increase in urine glycerol concentration becomes apparent. Based on regression analysis, plasma glycerol concentrations > 0.327 ± 0.190 mmol/L and a glycerol dose > 0.032 ± 0.010 g glycerol/kg LBM would be associated with urinary glycerol excretion. There were significant linear relationships between peak plasma glycerol concentration and time to reach peak plasma glycerol concentration to the ingested glycerol doses. Our findings illustrate the importance of considering the effect of urinary glycerol excretion on legitimate hyperhydration regimens as well as suggesting that it is possible to detect surreptitious use of glycerol as a masking agent through urinary analysis. PMID:22080901

  5. Amiodarone concentrations in plasma and fat tissue during chronic treatment and related toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente-Lafuente, Carmelo; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Leenhardt, Antoine; Mouly, Stéphane; Extramiana, Fabrice; Caulin, Charles; Funck-Brentano, Christian; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To determine if amiodarone, highly lipophilic, accumulates in excess with respect to dose in fat tissue during long-term administration, and study if plasma and fat tissue concentrations are correlated with adverse effects. METHODS Trough concentrations of amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone were measured simultaneously in plasma and fat tissue, in 30 consecutive patients treated with amiodarone for 3 months to 12 years. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was obtained by needle aspiration from lumbar and abdominal areas. Concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS Plasma levels of amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone were significantly correlated with daily maintenance doses (R = 0.52, P = 0.003). Amiodarone concentrations in fat tissue were four to 226 times (mean 55) higher than in plasma, and well correlated with plasma levels (R = 0.68, P < 0.001). Concentrations of amiodarone and N-desethyl-amiodarone in adipose tissue did not significantly increase with higher total cumulated doses or longer treatment duration. Nine of 12 patients who had received amiodarone for ≥2 years developed clinically important adverse effects, predominantly hypothyroidism (n = 6), compared with two of 18 patients treated for less time (relative risk 6.75; 95% confidence interval 1.8, 26). The incidence of those adverse effects was not significantly associated with amiodarone concentrations, whether in plasma or in adipose tissue. CONCLUSIONS We found no evidence of excessive or unexpected accumulation of amiodarone in fat tissue on long-term administration. Late amiodarone adverse effects, particularly hypothyroidism, are associated with longer exposure times, but do not seem to be explained by higher concentrations in plasma or in fat tissue. PMID:19552745

  6. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, Alemseged; Wiesner, Lubbe; McIlleron, Helen;

    2014-01-01

    be implemented in resource-limited settings. This study evaluated a commercially available immunoassay for measurement of plasma efavirenz. METHODS: The immunoassay-based method was applied to measure efavirenz using a readily available Humastar 80 chemistry analyzer. We compared plasma efavirenz...... concentrations measured by the immunoassay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (reference method) in 315 plasma samples collected from HIV patients on treatment. Concentrations were categorized as suboptimal<1 µg/ml, normal 1-4 µg/ml or high>4 µg/ml. Agreement between results of the...... agreement assessed by Bland-Altman plots were -2.54; 1.70 µg/ml. Although immunoassay underestimated high concentrations, it had good agreement for classification into low, normal or high concentrations (K=0.74). CONCLUSIONS: The immunoassay is a feasible alternative to determine efavirenz in areas with...

  7. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of fibronectin, free insulin, C-peptide and plasma glucose were determined in 40 morbidly obese subjects and in 51 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. All plasma concentrations were significantly elevated (p less than 0.01) among the obese subjects. A significant...... correlation (r = 0.34, p less than 0.05) between plasma fibronectin and plasma free insulin was found among the obese patients, but not among the controls (r = -0.02, p greater than 0.05). No significant correlation was found between plasma fibronectin and plasma C-peptide, neither in the obese patients nor...... in the controls (obese r = 0.06, controls r = 0.02; p greater than 0.05). Plasma fibronectin was insignificantly correlated with body weight (obese r = 0.21, controls r = 0.15; p greater than 0.05) and percentage overweight (obese r = 0.27, controls r = 0.04; p greater than 0.05). The raised level of...

  8. Late Gestational Undernutrition Alters Plasma IGF-1 Concentration During Subsequent Lactation in Ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kiani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of undernutrition during late gestation on plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1, leptin, insulin and glucose in pregnant and lactating ewes. Ten twin-bearing shropshire ewes were fed either adequately (AN; 100% energy and protein requirements or restrictedly (RN; about 60% of energy and protein requirements fed during the last six weeks of gestation. Ewe’s blood samples were taken at 50, 28 and 10 days pre-partum as well as at lambing and 7, 17 and 35 days post-partum. At lambing plasma glucose concentrations sharply increased in both groups and it was significantly lower in RN ewes in comparison with AN ewes. Plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin were not affected by late gestational undernutrition. Plasma IGF1 concentrations in RN ewes (78 ±8 ng/ml was significantly lower (P<0.05 than that in AN ewes (110 ±8 ng/ml. Plasma IGF1 decreased in RN ewes during late gestation and then increased sharply at lambing and during first month of lactation. In contrast IGF1 concentration was relatively constant both pre and postnataly in AN ewes. IGF1 values in restricted fed ewes were significantly lower than values in adequately fed ewes during gestation. Surprisingly IGF1 plasma in RN ewes was significantly lower at 35 days (110 vs. 164 ng/ml post-partum in comparison with those in AN ewes. In conclusion, results showed late gestational undernutrion causes a decrease in plasma glucose and IGF1 at parturition as well as during late gestation. In addition, late gestational undernutrition seems to have longer term effect on plasma IGF1 even when ewes are adequately fed during lactation.

  9. Late Gestational Undernutrition Alters Plasma IGF-1 Concentration During Subsequent Lactation in Ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kiani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of undernutrition during late gestation on plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1, leptin, insulin and glucose in pregnant and lactating ewes. Ten twin-bearing shropshire ewes were fed either adequately (AN; 100% energy and protein requirements or restrictedly (RN; about 60% of energy and protein requirements fed during the last six weeks of gestation. Ewe’s blood samples were taken at 50, 28 and 10 days pre-partum as well as at lambing and 7, 17 and 35 days post-partum. At lambing plasma glucose concentrations sharply increased in both groups and it was significantly lower in RN ewes in comparison with AN ewes. Plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin were not affected by late gestational undernutrition. Plasma IGF1 concentrations in RN ewes (78 ±8 ng/ml was significantly lower (P<0.05 than that in AN ewes (110 ±8 ng/ml. Plasma IGF1 decreased in RN ewes during late gestation and then increased sharply at lambing and during first month of lactation. In contrast IGF1 concentration was relatively constant both pre and postnataly in AN ewes. IGF1 values in restricted fed ewes were significantly lower than values in adequately fed ewes during gestation. Surprisingly IGF1 plasma in RN ewes was significantly lower at 35 days (110 vs. 164 ng/ml post-partum in comparison with those in AN ewes. In conclusion, results showed late gestational undernutrion causes a decrease in plasma glucose and IGF1 at parturition as well as during late gestation. In addition, late gestational undernutrition seems to have longer term effect on plasma IGF1 even when ewes are adequately fed during lactation.

  10. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hideyuki; Takebayashi, Minoru; Tani, Masayuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Yamagata, Bun; Kurosawa, Kenzo; Yamada, Hiroki; Hachisu, Mitsugu; Hisaoka-Nakashima, Kazue; Okada-Tsuchioka, Mami; Mimura, Masaru; Iwanami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD) and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations. Methods The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D), were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western blots were performed using a specific antibody that acts against the sigma-1 receptor, and the net densities of each band were quantified. Results All participants showed improvement in depressive symptoms, which was indicated by a significant decrease in the HAM-D scores. The mean plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration also increased significantly following antidepressant treatment. However, no significant correlations were found between changes in plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration and changes in HAM-D scores. Conclusion In this preliminary study, we demonstrated that the sigma-1 receptor concentration in

  11. Plasma and Erythrocyte Glutathione Peroxidase Activity, Serum Selenium Concentration, and Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity in Cats with IRIS Stages I–IV Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Krofič Žel, M.; Tozon, N.; Nemec Svete, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Hypothesis Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrati...

  12. Pharmacokinetics and plasma concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid after intravenous, rectal, and intragastric administration to horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Ted A; Brown, Murray P; Gronwall, Ronald R; Casey, Matthew F; Meritt, Kelly A

    2003-10-01

    Six healthy adult horses (5 mares and 1 stallion) were given a single dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), 20 mg/kg of body weight, by intravenous (IV), rectal, and intragastric (IG) routes. Serial blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture over a 36-h period, and plasma ASA and salicylic acid (SA) concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. After IV administration, the mean elimination rate constant of ASA (+/- the standard error of the mean) was 1.32 +/- 0.09 h(-1), the mean elimination half-life was 0.53 +/- 0.04 h, the area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) was 2555 +/- 98 microg x min/mL, the plasma clearance was 472 +/- 18.9 mL/h/kg, and the volume of distribution at steady state was 0.22 +/- 0.01 L/kg. After rectal administration, the plasma concentration of ASA peaked at 5.05 +/- 0.80 microg/mL at 0.33 h, then decreased to undetectable levels by 4 h; the plasma concentration of SA peaked at 17.39 +/- 5.46 microg/mL at 2 h, then decreased to 1.92 +/- 0.25 microg/mL by 36 h. After rectal administration, the AUC for ASA was 439.4 +/- 94.55 microg x min/mL and the bioavailability was 0.17 +/- 0.037. After IG administration, the plasma concentration of ASA peaked at 1.26 +/- 0.10 microg/mL at 0.67 h, then declined to 0.37 +/- 0.37 microg/mL by 36 h; the plasma concentration of SA peaked at 23.90 +/- 4.94 microg/mL at 4 h and decreased to 0.85 +/- 0.31 microg/mL by 36 h. After IG administration, the AUC for ASA was 146.70 +/- 24.90 microg x min/mL and the bioavailability was 0.059 +/- 0.013. Administration of a single rectal dose of ASA of 20 mg/kg to horses results in higher peak plasma ASA concentrations and greater bioavailability than the same dose given IG. Plasma ASA concentrations after rectal administration should be sufficient to inhibit platelet thromboxane production, and doses lower than those suggested for IG administration may be adequate. PMID:14620867

  13. Plasma urate concentration and risk of coronary heart disease:a Mendelian randomisation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    White, Jon; Sofat, Reecha; Hemani, Gibran; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Dale, Caroline; Shah, Sonia; Kruger, Felix A.; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Palmer, Tom; McLachlan, Stela; Langenberg, Claudia; Zabaneh, Delilah; Lovering, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Increased circulating plasma urate concentration is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, but the extent of any causative effect of urate on risk of coronary heart disease is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify any causal role of urate on coronary heart disease risk using Mendelian randomisation analysis. Methods We first did a fixed-effects meta-analysis of the observational association of plasma urate and risk of coronary heart disease...

  14. Plasma BDNF Concentration, Val66Met Genetic Variant, and Depression-Related Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Terracciano, Antonio; Martin, Bronwen; Ansari, David; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maudsley, Stuart; Mattson, Mark P; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and BDNF plasma and serum levels have been associated with depression, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In a relatively large community sample, drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we examine whether BDNF plasma concentration is associated with the Val66Met functional polymorphism of the BDNF gene (n = 335) and with depression-related pers...

  15. The plasma carnitine concentration regulates renal OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, R; Todesco, L.; Novakova, K.; Mevissen, M.; Stieger, B; Krähenbühl, S

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings in rats and in human vegetarians suggest that the plasma carnitine concentration and/or carnitine ingestion may influence the renal reabsorption of carnitine. We tested this hypothesis in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency following treatment with N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP) for 2 weeks and rats treated with excess L-carnitine for 2 weeks. Compared to untreated control rats, treatment with THP was associated with an approximately 70% decrease in plasma car...

  16. Growth arrest-specific protein 6 plasma concentrations during septic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Gibot, Sébastien; Massin, Frédéric; Cravoisy, Aurélie; Dupays, Rachel; Barraud, Damien; Nace, Lionel; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The product of growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) is a vitamin K dependent protein that is secreted by leucocytes and endothelial cells in response to injury and participates in cell survival, proliferation, migration and adhesion. Our purpose was to investigate plasma Gas6 concentration and its relation to organ dysfunction in patients with septic shock. Methods Forty-five patients with septic shock admitted to a medical adult intensive care unit were enrolled. Plasma Gas6 con...

  17. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hammer, S.; Snel, M.; Meer, R.W. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Mattijssen, F.; Mudde, K.; Jazet, I.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Roos, A. de; Romijn, J.A.; Kersten, S.; Rensen, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations afte

  18. The roles of various plasma species in the plasma and plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration formaldehyde in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Roles of various plasma species in plasma and plasma-catalytic removal of formaldehyde (HCHO) in air were studied. ► Both short- and long-living plasma species contribute to HCHO removal in gas phase. ► O3 does not initiate HCHO removal in gas phase but does over MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst. ► O3 initiated catalytic reactions are mainly responsible for the enhanced HCHO removal by plasma-catalysis. ► The presence of downstream MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst greatly reduces the emission of discharge byproducts (O3) and organic intermediates (HCOOH). - Abstract: The contributions of various plasma species to the removal of low-concentration formaldehyde (HCHO) in air by DC corona discharge plasma in the presence and absence of downstream MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst were systematically investigated in this study. Experimental results show that HCHO can be removed not only by short-living active species in the discharge zone, but also by long-living species except O3 downstream the plasma reactor. O3 on its own is incapable of removing HCHO in the gas phase but when combined with the MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst, considerable HCHO conversion is seen, well explaining the greatly enhanced HCHO removal by combining plasma with catalysis. The plasma-catalysis hybrid process where HCHO is introduced through the discharge zone and then the catalyst bed exhibits the highest energy efficiency concerning HCHO conversion, due to the best use of plasma-generated active species in a two-stage HCHO destruction process. Moreover, the presence of downstream MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst significantly reduced the emission of discharge byproducts (O3) and organic intermediates (HCOOH).

  19. Subspecies differences in early fetal development and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, P M; Waters, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; Elzo, M A; Johnson, S E; Rae, D O; Yelich, J V; Ealy, A D

    2013-08-01

    Inclusion of Bos indicus genetics improves production traits of cattle maintained in hot climates. Limited information exists detailing pregnancy-specific events as influenced by variable amounts of Bos indicus genetics. Three experiments were completed to examine the effect of Bos taurus and Bos indicus genotypes on fetal size and plasma pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentrations. In all experiments, cows were bred by AI after synchronization of ovulation. Fetal measurements were completed by transrectal ultrasonography and plasma PAG concentrations were quantified from plasma harvested the day of each fetal measurement. In Exp. 1, fetal size and plasma PAG concentrations were measured at d 53 of pregnancy in cows composed of various fractions of Angus and Brahman (n = 9 to 21 cows/group). Fetus size was greater in cows containing >80% Angus genetics compared with cows containing 80% Angus genetics when compared with their contemporaries (6.0 ± 1.5 ng/mL vs. 9.4 ± 1.5 ng/mL). In Exp. 2, fetal measurements and plasma PAG concentrations were determined at d 35 and 62 of pregnancy in Angus and Brangus cows. Breed did not affect fetus size at d 35, but Angus cows contained larger fetuses than Brangus cows at d 62 [3.0 ± 0.03 vs. 2.8 ± 0.03 cm crown-nose length (CNL; P > 0.01)]. Plasma PAG concentrations were not different between breed at d 35 and 62 (P > 0.1). In Exp. 3, fetal measurements and plasma samples were collected at d 33/34, 40/41, 47/48, and 54/55 post-AI in Angus and Brangus cows. Fetus size was not different (P > 0.05) between genotypes on d 33/34, 40/41, and 47/48. Angus fetuses were larger than Brangus fetuses at d 54/55 (2.1 ± 0.03 vs. 1.9 ± 0.03 cm CNL; P = 0.001). Plasma PAG concentrations were less in Angus than Brangus cows at each time point (average 4.9 ± 0.9 vs. 8.2 ± 0.9 ng/mL; P = 0.005). In conclusion, these studies determined that the Bos taurus × Bos indicus genotype impacts fetal size and rate of fetal development by

  20. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg-1). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL-1 and its elimination half life (Tβ1/2) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. Tβ1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  1. EDI Kemira Oyj:n AIV-tilausten käsittelyn edistäjänä

    OpenAIRE

    Holappa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvailla Kemira Oyj:n AIV-tilauksissa käytettävä EDI- eli sähköinen tilausjärjestelmä ja sen tuoma lisäarvo tilaustenkäsittelyyn. EDI tulee sanoista Electronic Data Interchange, jonka suomenkielinen käännös on OVT – Organisaatioiden välinen tiedonsiirto. Yksinkertaisesti määriteltynä EDI on sähköistä tiedonsiirtoa. EDI-tilausmahdollisuus otettiin käyttöön Kemirassa vuoden 2010 syksyllä ja toistaiseksi se on käytössä vain AIV-tilausten kohdalla kahden suur...

  2. Marked increase in etravirine and saquinavir plasma concentrations during atovaquone/proguanil prophylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Jelena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The case of a 32-year-old Caucasian female with multi-drug resistant HIV-1 subtype B infection treated with a salvage regimen including maraviroc, raltegravir, etravirine and unboosted saquinavir who started atovaquone/proguanil prophylaxis, is reported. The potential interactions between atovaquone/proguanil and these anti-retroviral drugs are investigated. Pharmacokinetic analyses documented a marked increase in etravirine and saquinavir plasma concentrations (+55% and +274%, respectively, but not in raltegravir and maraviroc plasma concentrations. The evidence that atovaquone/proguanil significantly interacts with etravirine and saquinavir, but not with raltegravir and maraviroc, suggests that the mechanism of interaction is related to cytochrome P450.

  3. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  4. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting Apo

  5. Association between plasma zinc concentration and zinc kinetic parameters in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Egger, Norman G; Ramanujam, V M Sadagopa; Alcock, Nancy W; Dayal, Hari H; Penland, James G; Sandstead, Harold H

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to measure relationships between plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations and Zn kinetic parameters and to measure relationships of Zn status with taste acuity, food frequency, and hair Zn in humans. The subjects were 33 premenopausal women not taking oral contraceptives and dietary supplements containing iron and Zn. Main outcomes were plasma Zn concentrations, Zn kinetic parameters based on the three-compartment mammillary model using 67Zn as a tracer, electrical taste detection thresholds, and food frequencies. Lower plasma Zn was significantly (P rate constants from the lesser peripheral pool to the central pool and from the central pool to the greater peripheral pool. The break points in the plasma Zn-Zn kinetics relationship were found between 9.94 and 11.5 micromol/l plasma Zn. Smaller size of the lesser peripheral pool was associated with lower frequency of beef consumption and higher frequency of bran breakfast cereal consumption. Hypozincemic women with plasma Zn low Zn status. PMID:12865259

  6. Refractory cachexia is associated with increased plasma concentrations of fentanyl in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suno M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Manabu Suno,1,* Yuriko Endo,1,* Hiroyuki Nishie,2 Makoto Kajizono,3 Toshiaki Sendo,3 Junji Matsuoka4 1Department of Oncology Pharmaceutical Care and Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 3Department of Pharmacy, Okayama University Hospital, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: An appropriate plasma concentration of fentanyl is the key to achieving good pain control in cancer patients. Cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome, is known to affect drug-metabolizing enzymes. However, the fentanyl concentrations in the blood of patients with cachexia have not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cancer cachexia on dose-adjusted plasma fentanyl concentrations in cancer patients.Methods: Blood was collected from 21 Japanese cancer patients treated with a 24-hour transdermal fentanyl patch during the steady state of fentanyl plasma concentration. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, and the levels were adjusted with the dose of fentanyl. Laboratory data were collected, and the cachexia stage was determined, based on study by Fearon et al. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that affected fentanyl plasma concentrations.Results: Eight patients were classified as precachexia, nine as cachexia, and four as refractory cachexia, and the median dose-adjusted fentanyl concentrations (ng/mL per mg/kg/day were 27.5, 34.4, and 44.5, respectively. The dose-adjusted fentanyl concentration in patients with refractory cachexia was higher than that in patients with precachexia (Kruskal–Wallis test and post hoc Mann–Whitney U-test, P<0.01. The factors that

  7. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  8. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide plasma concentrations in patients on hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anders; Rix, M.; Olgaard, K.;

    2014-01-01

    90 patients and in 15 healthy subjects. Plasma PTH was determined in order to examine the possible relationship between the two peptides. RESULTS: In hemodialysis patients mean plasma PTHrP, 4.2 +/- 2.1, was significantly lower than that of healthy subjects, 8.3 +/- 1.1 pmol/L, p <0.0001. No...... the same receptor, the PTH1R, and it has been shown experimentally that PTHrP enhances the PTH secretory response to hypocalcemia, indicating a link between the two hormones. METHODS: Together with a number of parameters involved in mineral homeostasis plasma PTHrP was measured before hemodialysis in...... relationship was found between plasma PTHrP and PTH in hemodialysis patients. Gender, PTX, specific treatments and diagnoses had no impact on PTHrP concentrations. CONCLUSION: Thus PTHrP is measurable in hemodialysis patients, but its secretion might not be part of a regulated mineral homeostatic process and...

  9. The proton concentration in the vicinity of the Io plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, R. L.; Gurnett, D. A.; Bagenal, F.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of lightning-generated whistlers conducted with the aid of the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument during the March, 1979 encounter of Jupiter have been employed in numerous studies involving Jupiters's inner magnetosphere. In an investigation carried out by Tokar et al. (1982), the Voyager whistler observations were combined with heavy ion charged particle measurements in the Io torus to determine the light ion charge concentration along the whistler propagation paths. In the investigation, simple models were used for the plasma distribution along the propagation paths. In the present study, an improved model is used for the plasma distribution in the inner magnetosphere. The adopted model treats a plasma in diffusive equilibrium under the action of gravitational, centrifugal, and ambipolar electric field forces.

  10. Large inter-individual variation in isoflavone plasma concentration limits use of isoflavone intake data for risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velpen, V; Hollman, P.C.; Nielen, M; Schouten, E.G.; M. Mensink; van't Veer, P; Geelen, A

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Isoflavones are present in soy foods and soy-based supplements. Despite low plasma isoflavone concentrations in the general Western population, concentrations in supplement users exceed those suggested to be beneficial for health in Asian populations, raising concerns for adverse effects. To aid risk assessment, quantification of the relation between isoflavone intake and plasma concentrations is essential. Subjects/methods: Plasma samples were collected from postmenopa...

  11. Malaria prevalence, severity and treatment outcome in relation to day 7 lumefantrine plasma concentration in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Mutagonda, Ritah F.; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary A. R.; Minzi, Omary M. S.; Massawe, Siriel N; Maganda, Betty A; Aklillu, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    Background Day 7 plasma concentrations of lumefantrine (LF) can serve as a marker to predict malaria treatment outcome in different study populations. Two main cut-off points (175 and 280 ng/ml) are used to indicate plasma concentrations of LF, below which treatment failure is anticipated. However, there is limited data on the cumulative risk of recurrent parasitaemia (RP) in relation to day 7 LF plasma concentrations in pregnant women. This study describes the prevalence, severity, factors i...

  12. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  13. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood sampl

  14. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...

  15. Plasma Concentration of the Novel Peptide Apelin is Regularly Changed in Patients With Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yanju; Li Tianchang; Yan Jun; Bian Hong; Yao Daokuo; Xu Shiying; Zheng Jianyong

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, has been observed in many animals and humans studies. It is concluded that it has inotropic effects,hypotension and diuretic properties. The change of apelin in relation to heart failure is still controversial.Our goal was to observe the change of apelin-12 in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods From 2005 to 2006, 81 consecutive patients (46 male and 35 female, mean age 68.5±12.1 years) with heart failure resulting from variable etiologies and 15 healthy controls were included in this study. Plasma concentration of apelin-12 was measured through ELISA on admission. All patients received conventional therapy and recorded detailed the clinical conditions. Results (1) Plasma concentration of apelin of the controls is lower than the ones of heart failure patients. (2) Plasma concentration of apelin is increased in the early stage and decreased in the advanced period. (3) Apelin is related with variable indexes in the Pearson's association analysis. Apelin is also changed with the atrium and ventricular's diameter. Conclusions Plasma concentration of apelin is increased in early stage and decreased in advanced period. The apelin-APJ system might be important in the pathophysiological process of heart failure. And it might be valuable in diagnosis and therapeutic implications in heart failure.

  16. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic fibr

  17. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  18. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O;

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or Ig...

  19. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S;

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  20. Plasma amino acid concentrations in 36 dogs with histologically confirmed superficial necrolytic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outerbridge, Catherine A; Marks, Stanley L; Rogers, Quinton R

    2002-08-01

    Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured in 36 dogs diagnosed with superficial necrolytic dermatitis (SND) via skin biopsy. The median age of the dogs was 10 years, and 27 out of 36 (75%) were male. Twenty-two out of 36 (61%) of the dogs were accounted for by six breeds; West Highland white terriers (six), Shetland sheepdogs (five), cocker spaniels (four), Scottish terriers (three), Lhasa apsos (two) and Border collies (two). The mean concentration (+/- standard deviation) was calculated for each measured plasma amino acid and compared to previously documented concentrations of plasma amino acids measured in dogs with acute and chronic hepatitis. The ratio of branched chain amino acids to aromatic amino acids in the dogs with SND was 2.6, slightly lower than that in normal dogs. The mean plasma amino acid concentrations for dogs with SND were significantly lower than for dogs with acute and chronic hepatitis. A metabolic hepatopathy in which there is increased hepatic catabolism of amino acids is hypothesized to explain the hypoaminoacidaemia seen in SND. PMID:12174180

  1. Persistent increase of plasma butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine concentrations as marker of SCAD defect and ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merinero, B; Perez-Cerda, C; Ruiz Sala, P;

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine (C(4)-carnitine) in plasma with increase of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in urine point to different genetic entities, and further investigations are required to differentiate the possible underlying defect. Here we report three unrelated cases, two n...

  2. Alkaline phosphatase activity and some minerals concentration in canine blood plasma with radiation combined injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkaline phosphatase activity, Ca, P and Mg concentration were investigated in the blood plasma of dogs with a bone fracture as well as in those ones with a bone fracture combined with irradiation (2Gy). Obtained results show that none of the investigated parameters were significantly changed during the experiment. (author) 6 refs.; 1 tab

  3. Low Plasma alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espe, Katharina M.; Raila, Jens; Henze, Andrea; Blouin, Katja; Schneider, Andreas; Schmiedeke, Daniel; Krane, Vera; Pilz, Stefan; Schweigert, Florian J.; Hocher, Berthold; Wanner, Christoph; Drechsler, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Trials with the antioxidant vitamin E have failed to show benefit in the general population. Considering the different causes of death in ESRD, this study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and specific clinical outcomes in diabet

  4. Analysis of Plasma Concentrations of Theophylline in Smoking and Nonsmoking Patients with Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Goseva

    2015-11-01

    CONCLUSION: Because in smokers we have increased clearance and the decreased half- life of theophylline, and in order to prevent the night time life-threatening attacks, it is necessary to recommend maximal doses of theophylline, especially in the evening. According to the study, dosage should be individualized in order to optimize the treatment based on the measurement of theophylline concentration in plasma.

  5. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  6. Increases in plasma motilin follow each episode of gallbladder emptying during the interdigestive period, and changes in serum bile acid concentration correlate to plasma motilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A; Rasmussen, L; Hovendal, C; Holst, J J

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between each single period of gallbladder emptying during the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle and changes in concentration of plasma motilin and serum bile acids is unknown. METHODS: The variations in the concentration of plasma motilin and serum bile acids in...... increase in plasma motilin started at the beginning of gallbladder emptying, but the peak value was not reached until a median of 20 min (10-45 min) later. Low plasma motilin concentrations were found between the emptying periods in cases with two or more emptying during the MMC cycle. The serum...

  7. Real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitor measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pereda, Diego; Romero-Vivo, Sergio; Ricarte, Beatriz; Rossetti, Paolo; Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco Javier; Bondia, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Continuous glucose monitors can measure interstitial glucose concentration in real time for closed-loop glucose control systems, known as artificial pancreas. These control systems use an insulin feedback to maintain plasma glucose concentration within a narrow and safe range, and thus to avoid health complications. As it is not possible to measure plasma insulin concentration in real time, insulin models have been used in literature to estimate them. Nevertheless, the significant inter- and intra-patient variability of insulin absorption jeopardizes the accuracy of these estimations. In order to reduce these limitations, our objective is to perform a real-time estimation of plasma insulin concentration from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Hovorka's glucose-insulin model has been incorporated in an extended Kalman filter in which different selected time-variant model parameters have been considered as extended states. The observability of the original Hovorka's model and of several extended models has been evaluated by their Lie derivatives. We have evaluated this methodology with an in-silico study with 100 patients with Type 1 diabetes during 25 h. Furthermore, it has been also validated using clinical data from 12 insulin pump patients with Type 1 diabetes who underwent four mixed meal studies. Real-time insulin estimations have been compared to plasma insulin measurements to assess performance showing the validity of the methodology here used in comparison with that formerly used for insulin models. Hence, real-time estimations for plasma insulin concentration based on subcutaneous glucose monitoring can be beneficial for increasing the efficiency of control algorithms for the artificial pancreas. PMID:26343364

  8. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  9. Influence of pesticide physicochemical properties on the association between plasma and hair concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chata, Caroline; M Hardy, Emilie; Grova, Nathalie; Appenzeller, Brice M R

    2016-05-01

    Although the relationship between chemical intake and resulting concentration in hair remains incompletely elucidated, the transfer from blood to hair bulb living cells is generally considered the main route of incorporation. The present work investigated the correlation between blood and hair concentration of 23 pesticides/metabolites from different chemical classes in rats submitted to chronic controlled exposure. Long-Evans rats were administered pesticides by gavage three times per week over a 90-day period. After hair sample decontamination, pulverization, and extraction, compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Blood was collected at sacrifice, immediately turned into plasma, and analyzed after extraction for the same compounds by GC-MS/MS. The data obtained for all the investigated compounds demonstrated significant association between plasma and hair concentrations (P value of 2.97E-45 and R Pearson of 0.875), with the exception of three outliers. For all the target compounds, water solubility, lipophilicity, molecular weight, and charge were therefore investigated in order to understand the role of these parameters in outliers' specific behavior. Although a possible change in the charge through the transfer from blood to hair might be suspected for two outliers, on the whole the physicochemical parameters investigated here did not seem to influence incorporation of chemicals into hair. Our results support that the concentration of chemicals in hair mainly depends on the respective concentration in plasma and suggest that for most compounds, the transfer from blood to hair would not represent a limiting step in the incorporation. Graphical Abstract Pesticide concentration in plasma vs hair. PMID:26968562

  10. Removal of low-concentration formaldehyde in indoor air by DC corona discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Wan, Y.; Zhu, T. [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Chemistry and Environment

    2010-07-01

    Low-concentration formaldehyde (HCHO) is a major indoor air pollutant in China and is the subject of public concern because of its adverse health effects. Non-thermal plasma is a promising method to remove indoor HCHO. NTP is known to remove various pollutants such as particulate matter, bacteria and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) simultaneously under ambient conditions. In recent years, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactors have been developed for HCHO removal, mainly at much higher concentration levels than those found in indoor environments. This study examined the effects of discharge polarity, discharge electrode configuration and combined catalyst on the removal of low-concentration HCHO in air using a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor energized by a DC power. The study showed that the positive DC corona discharge is much more effective in removing HCHO compared to the negative DC corona discharge. The discharge electrode configuration has little influence on the HCHO conversion for a given specific input energy, but it significantly affects the energy input in the plasma reactor. Combining NTP with a MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst after the discharge zone significantly promoted HCHO conversion and reduced ozone emissions. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  11. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation. PMID:27377748

  12. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemseged Abdissa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM may improve antiretroviral efficacy through adjustment of individual drug administration. This could result in reduced toxicity, prevent drug resistance, and aid management of drug–drug interactions. However, most measurement methods are too costly to be implemented in resource-limited settings. This study evaluated a commercially available immunoassay for measurement of plasma efavirenz. Methods: The immunoassay-based method was applied to measure efavirenz using a readily available Humastar 80 chemistry analyzer. We compared plasma efavirenz concentrations measured by the immunoassay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (reference method in 315 plasma samples collected from HIV patients on treatment. Concentrations were categorized as suboptimal4 µg/ml. Agreement between results of the methods was assessed via Bland-Altman plot and κ statistic values. Results: The median Interquartile range (IQR efavirenz concentration was 2.8 (1.9; 4.5 µg/ml measured by the LC–MS/MS method and 2.5 (1.8; 3.9 µg/ml by the immunoassay and the results were well correlated (ρ=0.94. The limits of agreement assessed by Bland–Altman plots were −2.54; 1.70 µg/ml. Although immunoassay underestimated high concentrations, it had good agreement for classification into low, normal or high concentrations (K=0.74. Conclusions: The immunoassay is a feasible alternative to determine efavirenz in areas with limited resources. The assay provides a reasonable approximation of efavirenz concentration in the majority of samples with a tendency to underestimate high concentrations. Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of low, normal and high efavirenz concentrations.

  13. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  14. Clinical significance of changes of plasma concentrations of activators of platelet origin in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the relationship between plasma concentrations of thromboxane (TXB2 ), platelet α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) and progression of the disease process in patients with primary nephrotic syndrome. Methods: Plasma TXB2 (with RIA) and GMP-140 (with IRMA) concentrations were determined in 31 patients with PNS both before and after prednisone treatment as well as in 31 controls. Results: Plasma contents of TXB2 in patients with PNS were significantly higher than those in the controls (P2 concentrations dropped markedly to near normal levels. However, those who were prednisone-dependent or non-responsive had little changes in TXB2 levels (P>0.05). Plasma GMP-140 concentrations were significantly positively correlated with plasma TXB2 concentrations (r=0.6945, t=3.6134, P2 and GMP-140 concentrations after prednisone therapy is an indicator of treatment success with good prognosis. (authors)

  15. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P < 0.05). Plasma concentration of adipic acid was significantly higher by 101.6% one year after total gastrectomy procedure in the patients when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.01). Plasma concentration of silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid

  16. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Niek C. A.; Woutersen, Ruud A.; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M. C. M.; de Graaf, Albert A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was directly adapted from a PBK model for mice by incorporation of the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol ester transfer protein and contained 21 biochemical reactions and eight different cholesterol pools. The model was calibrated using published data for humans and validated by comparing model predictions on plasma cholesterol levels of subjects with 10 different genetic mutations (including familial hypercholesterolemia and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome) with experimental data. Average model predictions on total cholesterol were accurate within 36% of the experimental data, which was within the experimental margin. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration was mainly dependent on hepatic transport of cholesterol to HDL, cholesterol ester transfer from HDL to non-HDL, and hepatic uptake of cholesterol from non-HDL-C. Thus, the presented PBK model is a valid tool to predict the effect of genetic mutations on cholesterol concentrations, opening the way for future studies on the effect of different drugs on cholesterol levels in various subpopulations in silico. PMID:23024287

  17. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Woutersen, Ruud A; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was directly adapted from a PBK model for mice by incorporation of the reaction catalyzed by cholesterol ester transfer protein and contained 21 biochemical reactions and eight different cholesterol pools. The model was calibrated using published data for humans and validated by comparing model predictions on plasma cholesterol levels of subjects with 10 different genetic mutations (including familial hypercholesterolemia and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome) with experimental data. Average model predictions on total cholesterol were accurate within 36% of the experimental data, which was within the experimental margin. Sensitivity analysis of the model indicated that the HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration was mainly dependent on hepatic transport of cholesterol to HDL, cholesterol ester transfer from HDL to non-HDL, and hepatic uptake of cholesterol from non-HDL-C. Thus, the presented PBK model is a valid tool to predict the effect of genetic mutations on cholesterol concentrations, opening the way for future studies on the effect of different drugs on cholesterol levels in various subpopulations in silico. PMID:23024287

  18. Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus with plasma organochlorine compound concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, Paul R; Meek, Edward C; Wills, Robert W; Olsen, Eric V; Crow, J Allen; Chambers, Janice E

    2016-03-01

    The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with obesity, age, and sedentary lifestyle, but exposure to some organochlorine (OC) compounds has also been recently implicated. The hypothesis tested is that higher concentrations of bioaccumulative OC compounds are associated with T2DM. Plasma samples were obtained from a cross-section of adult male and female Caucasians and African Americans, either with or without T2DM from two US Air Force medical facilities. A method of extracting OC compounds from human plasma using solid phase extraction was developed, and three OC compounds [p,p'-DDE (DDE), trans-nonachlor, and oxychlordane] were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression modeling indicated that increasing body mass index (BMI) was associated with T2DM in Caucasians but not in African Americans, and African Americans were more likely to have T2DM than Caucasians with decreasing odds ratios as BMI increased. An association between T2DM and increasing plasma DDE (adjusted for age, base, race, and BMI) was observed. Increasing DDE concentrations were associated with T2DM in older individuals and those with lower BMIs. Thus, in this study sample there was a higher risk of T2DM with increasing DDE concentrations in older people of normal weight and relatively lower risk associated with increasing DDE concentrations in those who are overweight or obese. PMID:25335866

  19. Therapeutic control of plasma concentrations and long-term effect of nortriptyline in recurrent affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh-Sørensen; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-07-01

    Based on the evidence that therapeutic plasma concentration range in fact exists for the tricyclic antidepressant drug, Nortriptyline (range 50-150 ng/ml), three different investigations were under taken in order to clarify some clinical pharmacological problems during long-term treatment with this drug. The possible prophlactic effect of the drug in recurrent affective disorders was specially examined in a group of patients with a high risk of episodes in their unipolar manic-depressive disease. The results highly demonstrate the value of monitoring plasma levels in achieving therapeutic control. Depressive relapses during treatment, for months and years, were only related to therapeutic insufficient plasma levels of the drug. PMID:981330

  20. Determination of neutral carbon concentration in electron cyclotron resonance generated plasma discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, A B; Lindner, P; Stirn, R; Schumacher, U

    2007-12-01

    Carbon containing plasmas play an important role not only in plasma technology but also in thermonuclear fusion research. In order to understand and control the processes taking place in the plasma, the knowledge of the carbon ground state density is of major importance. It can be determined by absorption and emission spectroscopy. Detailed measurements were performed in the past to determine the silicon ground state density by means of spectroscopy of the self-absorbed spectral lines of the silicon ground state multiplet at 251 nm. The same procedure was applied for the determination of the carbon concentration, for which the carbon multiplet at 165 nm was analyzed and compared to a simulated spectrum. The ground state density was determined by two independent methods. PMID:18163723

  1. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim;

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  2. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda; Reiss, Peter; Di Perri, Giovanni; Peytavin, Gilles; Molto, José; Karlson, Anders; Castagna, Antonella; Beniowski, Marek; Lundgren, Jens; Burger, David M

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group) and...

  3. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  4. Activation of ENaC by AVP contributes to the urinary concentrating mechanism and dilution of plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Mironova, Elena; Chen, Yu; Pao, Alan C.; Roos, Karl P.; Kohan, Donald E.; Bugaj, Vladislav; Stockand, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) activates the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC). The physiological significance of this activation is unknown. The present study tested if activation of ENaC contributes to AVP-sensitive urinary concentration. Consumption of a 3% NaCl solution induced hypernatremia and plasma hypertonicity in mice. Plasma AVP concentration and urine osmolality increased in hypernatremic mice in an attempt to compensate for increases in plasma tonicity. ENaC activity was elevated in mice...

  5. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  6. Plasma concentrations of transsulfuration pathway products during nasoenteral and intravenous hyperalimentation of malnourished patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, R K; Berry, C J; Kutner, M H; Rudman, D

    1985-10-01

    We have monitored the plasma concentrations of products of the transsulfuration pathway in 11 undernourished noncirrhotic patients, and in 10 cachectic cirrhotic subjects, before and during nasoenteral nutrition with Vivonex (Norwich-Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Norwich, NY) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with FreAmine III (American McGaw, Irvine, CA). In the cirrhotic cases eating a mixed diet, levels of taurine, cysteine, plasma glutathione, and free choline were subnormal. During nasoenteral hyperalimentation, methionine was elevated while cysteine, glutathione, and free choline levels remained depressed. During TPN, levels of taurine, cysteine, protein-bound cysteine, glutathione, free choline, and phosphatidyl choline were depressed and methionine was elevated. In the noncirrhotic cases eating a mixed diet, only the free choline concentration was low. During nasoenteral hyperalimentation, the plasma levels of both free choline and total carnitine were depressed. During TPN, plasma levels of cystine, protein-bound cysteine, total carnitine, free choline, and phosphatidyl choline were subnormal. These data suggest that biosynthesis of several products of the transsulfuration pathway may be inadequate in both cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients during TPN with FreAmine III. PMID:3931450

  7. Decreased plasma albumin concentration results in increased volume of distribution and decreased elimination of midazolam in intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vree, T B; Shimoda, M; Driessen, J J; Guelen, P J; Janssen, T J; Termond, E F; van Dalen, R; Hafkenscheid, J C; Dirksen, M S

    1989-11-01

    The pharmacokinetic parameters of 16 patients in the intensive care unit, sedated with midazolam, were evaluated. A large variation was observed in the plasma concentration of midazolam and between the plasma concentration of midazolam and its metabolite 1-hydroxymethylmidazolam glucuronide. The plasma albumin concentration governs the volume of distribution of midazolam. Decreased plasma albumin concentration (25 gm/L) results in an increased volume of distribution and a decreased elimination rate of midazolam. The observed plasma concentration ratio between the parent drug and its metabolite 1-hydroxymethylmidazolam glucuronide is governed by the variables of protein binding, the metabolic rate of midazolam, and the renal clearance of the glucuronide metabolite itself (which can be considered as a measure of the kidney function of the patient). PMID:2582710

  8. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone and buprenorphine in rats subjected to jugular vein catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the postoperative plasma concentrations of corticosterone and buprenorphine in male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats, treated with buprenorphine administered either through subcutaneous (SC) injection or through voluntary ingestion (VI). The animals were treated with...... buprenorphine for pre-emptive analgesia prior to surgical placement of a jugular catheter, followed by automated blood sampling during 96 h. Buprenorphine was administered on a regular basis throughout the experiment, and blood was collected on selected time points. Body weight was measured before and 96 h......-treated animals than in the VI-treated animals during the first 18 h of the study, while plasma buprenorphine concentration was at least as high and more even over time after VI treatment. The present study shows that buprenorphine administration through VI is suitable for both Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats...

  9. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    was diluted at 3 different levels giving 57 data sets. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations were compared using correlation coefficient (r(2)), regression line, and Bland-Altman bias and limits of agreement. RESULTS: Albumin levels covered the clinically interesting range from 8.8 to 53.3 g....../L. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations compared well with r(2) = 0.9, a regression line of albumin-calculated = 1.05 × albumin-measured - 2.25, a small average bias between measured and calculated values of 0.7 g/L, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 10 g/L. CONCLUSIONS: This new method...

  10. Plasma osmotic and electrolyte concentrations of largemouth bass from some acidic Florida lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canfield, D.E. Jr.; Maceina, M.J.; Nordlie, F.G.; Shireman, J.V.

    1985-05-01

    Five acidic clear (pH 3.7-4.9), three acidic colored (pH 4.1-4.6), and three neutral (pH 6.9-7.3) north-central Florida lakes were surveyed in 1983 to determine plasma osmotic and electrolyte concentrations, growth, and coefficients of condition for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides floridanus. Plasma osmotic concentrations averaged greater than 273 milliosmoles/kg in fish from acidic colored and circumneutral lakes, but averaged less than 269 milliosmoles/kg in four of the acidic clear lakes. Growth and coefficients of condition of largemouth bass > 305 mm total length in the acidic lakes were significantly lower than in the neutral lakes. Reductions in fish growth and condition, however, could be related to either acidic conditions or lake trophic status. 29 references, 3 tables.

  11. Time-dependent effects of dexamethasone plasma concentrations on glucocorticoid receptor challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Andreas; Arloth, Janine; Best, Johanna; Namendorf, Christian; Gerlach, Tamara; Czamara, Darina; Lucae, Susanne; Dunlop, Boadie W; Crowe, Tanja Mletzko; Garlow, Steven J; Nemeroff, Charles B; Ritchie, James C; Craighead, W Edward; Mayberg, Helen S; Rex-Haffner, Monika; Binder, Elisabeth B; Uhr, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoid challenge tests such as the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and the combined dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (dex-CRH) test are considered to be able to sensitively measure hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in stress-related psychiatric and endocrine disorders. We used mass-spectrometry to assess the relationship of plasma dexamethasone concentrations and the outcome of these tests in two independent cohorts. Dexamethasone concentrations were measured after oral ingestion of 1.5mg dexamethasone in two cohorts that underwent a standard (dexamethasone at 23:00h) as well as modified (18:00h) DST and dex-CRH test. The first study population was a case/control cohort of 105 depressed patients and 133 controls in which peripheral blood mRNA expression was also measured. The second was a cohort of 261 depressed patients that underwent a standard dex-CRH test at baseline and after 12 weeks' treatment with cognitive-behavioral therapy or antidepressants. Dexamethasone concentrations explained significant proportions of the variance in the DST in both the first (24.6%) and the second (5.2%) cohort. Dexamethasone concentrations explained a higher proportion of the variance in the dex-CRH test readouts, with 41.9% of the cortisol area under the curve (AUC) in the first sample and 24.7% in the second sample. In contrast to these strong effects at later time points, dexamethasone concentrations did not impact cortisol or ACTH concentrations or mRNA expression 3hours after ingestion. In the second sample, dexamethasone concentrations at baseline and week 12 were highly correlated, independent of treatment type and response status. Importantly, a case/control effect in the Dex-CRH test was only apparent when controlling for dexamethasone concentrations. Our results suggest that the incorporation of plasma dexamethasone concentration or measures of earlier endocrine read-outs may help to improve the assessment of endocrine

  12. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen Katja; Niemi Anneli; Raekallio Marja; Heinonen Mari; Peltoniemi Olli AT; Palviainen Mari; Siven Mia; Peltoniemi Marikki; Vainio Outi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO) and intra muscular (IM) routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers betwee...

  13. Platelet Concentration in Platelet-Rich Plasma Affects Tenocyte Behavior In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaria Giusti; Sandra D’Ascenzo; Annalisa Mancò; Gabriella Di Stefano; Marianna Di Francesco; Anna Rughetti; Antonella Dal Mas; Gianfranco Properzi; Vittorio Calvisi; Vincenza Dolo

    2014-01-01

    Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon...

  14. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases. PMID:25867662

  15. Plasma Procalcitonin Concentration in Healthy Horses and Horses Affected by Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Bonelli, F.; Meucci, V.; Divers, T.J.; Jose‐Cunilleras, E.; Corazza, M; Tognetti, R; Guidi, G.; Intorre, L.; Sgorbini, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The diseases most frequent associated with SIRS in adult horses are those involving the gastrointestinal tract. An early diagnosis should be the goal in the management of horses with SIRS. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the plasma procalcitonin (PCT) concentration in healthy and SIRS horses to assess differences between the two groups. Animals Seventy‐eight horses (30 healthy and 48 SIRS). Methods Prospective in vivo multicentric study. Horses were classified...

  16. Concentration of Some Minerals and Activity of Alkaline Phosphate in Blood Plasma of Irradiated Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of our previous papers have shown the changes on hematological parameters, some enzymes activity and mineral metabolism in blood plasma of chickens after internal contamination with a lethal amount of radioactive isotope 32P. So, this time an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of whole body irradiation by semilethal dose (8 Gy) of gamma-rays on some mineral concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood plasma of chickens for early detecting of acute radiation syndrome. Experiments were carried out on fifty-days-old hybrid chickens of the 'Jata' breed of male sex with 2 to 2.3 kg of body mass. The animals were divided into two groups with five chickens in each group. The experimental group was whole body irradiated by gamma-rays (60Co) with single dose of 8 Gy. Blood samples for biochemical analysis were drawn from wing vein on day before irradiation and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 15th days after irradiation. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase, were determined in blood plasma. The statistical analysis was performed and the results obtained are shown as a mean value. The significance of the changes was checked according to the Student and Fisher t-test. Obtained results have shown that activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma of whole body gamma-rays irradiated chickens significantly changes only on the first day after irradiation. In the same time the calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentration were not significantly changed during the whole experiment. Therefore, we can conclude that the concentration of this mineral would not be an acceptable parameter for early detecting of acute radiation syndrome in 50 day-old chickens after irradiation by semilethal dose of gamma-radiation. (author)

  17. Concentrations of Methadone in Breast Milk and Plasma in the Immediate Perinatal Period

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Lauren M.; Choo, Robin E.; Harrow, Cheryl; Velez, Martha; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Lowe, Ross; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates concentrations of methadone in breast milk and plasma among a sample of methadone-maintained women in the immediate perinatal period. Twelve methadone-maintained, lactating women provided blood and breast milk specimens 1, 2, 3, and 4 days after delivery. Specimens were collected at the time of trough (just before methadone dose) and peak (3 hours after dosing) maternal methadone levels. Paired specimens of foremilk (prefeed) and hindmilk (postfeed) were obtained at each ...

  18. THE EFFECT OF 8-WEEK LOW IMPACT AEROBIC EXERCISE ON PLASMA FIBRINOGEN CONCENTRATION IN OLDER WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Faramarzi; Shahla Dehghan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of 8-week low impact rhythmic aerobic(LIA) exercise on plasma fibrinogen concentration in older women. subjects were 23 healthyand enable to do physical activity old women of one of retirement homes. Subjects divided totwo groups including experimental (n=14) and control (n=11) and after 8 hours nightly fastingfor assessment fibrinogen 5cc blood sampling was derived from anterior vein. Afterwardexperimental groups were participated in LIA...

  19. Plasma protein-binding and CSF concentrations of valproic acid in man following acute oral dosing.

    OpenAIRE

    Rapeport, W. G.; Mendelow, A D; French, G; MacPherson, P.; Teasdale, E; Agnew, E; Thompson, G G; Brodie, M J

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), total and free plasma valproic acid (VPA) concentrations were measured in 17 patients receiving two weight-adjusted VPA doses as seizure prophylaxis prior to diagnostic myelography or cisternography. Free drug concentrations were similar when measured by equilibrium dialysis (ED) at 37 degrees C for 24 h (Dianorm) or by a novel ultrafiltration (UF) method (EMIT freelevel system 1, SYVA) (ED:2.3-35.5 mg-1; UF:1.3-33.6 mg-1; r = 0.78, P less than 0.002). ...

  20. Organophosphorus insecticide induced decrease in plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in white-footed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Michael, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Oral intubation of 50 and 100 mg/kg acephate inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 45% and 56%, and reduced basal luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration by 29% and 25% after 4 h in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis). Dietary exposure to 25, 100, and 400 ppm acephate for 5 days substantially inhibited brain AChE activity, but did not affect plasma LH concentration. These preliminary findings suggest that acute exposure to organophosphorus insecticides may affect LH secretion and possibly reproductive function.

  1. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats

  2. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  3. Suppressive Effect of Insulin on the Gene Expression and Plasma Concentrations of Mediators of Asthmatic Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Ghanim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Hypothesis. Following our recent demonstration that the chronic inflammatory and insulin resistant state of obesity is associated with an increase in the expression of mediators known to contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma and that weight loss after gastric bypass surgery results in the reduction of these genes, we have now hypothesized that insulin suppresses the cellular expression and plasma concentrations of these mediators. Methods. The expression of IL-4, LIGHT, LTBR, ADAM-33, and TSLP in MNC and plasma concentrations of LIGHT, TGF-β1, MMP-9, MCP-1, TSLP, and NOM in obese patients with T2DM were measured before, during, and after the infusion of a low dose (2 U/h infusion of insulin for 4 hours. The patients were also infused with dextrose or saline for 4 hours on two separate visits and served as controls. Results. Following insulin infusion, the mRNA expression of IL-4, ADAM-33, LIGHT, and LTBR mRNA expression fell significantly (P<0.05 for all. There was also a concomitant reduction in plasma NOM, LIGHT, TGF-β1, MCP-1, and MMP-9 concentrations. Conclusions. Insulin suppresses the expression of these genes and mediators related to asthma and may, therefore, have a potential role in the treatment of asthma.

  4. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasumi, K; Yamamoto, M; Koide, M; Okada, Y; Mori, N; Yamamoto, I; Arai, T

    2015-01-01

    Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years) and aged (11-18 years). They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN) concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 µg mL(-1) vs, 10.9±1.7 µg mL(-1), Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233). Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L) ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses. PMID:26623382

  5. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  6. Plasma concentration-dependent suppression of endogenous hydrocortisone in the horse after intramuscular administration of dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, C; Bondesson, U; Gabrielsson, J; Hedeland, M; Kallings, P; Olsén, L; Ingvast-Larsson, C

    2015-06-01

    Detection times and screening limits (SL) are methods used to ensure that the performance of horses in equestrian sports is not altered by drugs. Drug concentration-response relationship and knowledge of concentration-time profiles in both plasma and urine are required. In this study, dexamethasone plasma and urine concentration-time profiles were investigated. Endogenous hydrocortisone plasma concentrations and their relationship to dexamethasone plasma concentrations were also explored. A single dose of dexamethasone-21-isonicotinate suspension (0.03 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly to six horses. Plasma was analysed for dexamethasone and hydrocortisone and urine for dexamethasone, using UPLC-MS/MS. Dexamethasone was quantifiable in plasma for 8.3 ± 2.9 days (LLOQ: 0.025 μg/L) and in urine for 9.8 ± 3.1 days (LLOQ: 0.15 μg/L). Maximum observed dexamethasone concentration in plasma was 0.61 ± 0.12 μg/L and in urine 4.2 ± 0.9 μg/L. Terminal plasma half-life was 38.7 ± 19 h. Hydrocortisone was significantly suppressed for 140 h. The plasma half-life of hydrocortisone was 2.7 ± 1.3 h. Dexamethasone potency, efficacy and sigmoidicity factor for hydrocortisone suppression were 0.06 ± 0.04 μg/L, 0.95 ± 0.04 and 6.2 ± 4.6, respectively. Hydrocortisone suppression relates to the plasma concentration of dexamethasone. Thus, determination of irrelevant plasma concentrations and SL is possible. Future research will determine whether hydrocortisone suppression can be used as a biomarker of the clinical effect of dexamethasone. PMID:25366540

  7. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  8. Nitric oxide metabolite concentrations in maternal plasma decrease during parturition: possible transient down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanno, H; Sagawa, N; Itoh, H; Matsumoto, T; Terakawa, K; Mori, T; Itoh, H; Nakao, K

    1998-06-01

    To elucidate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in parturition, we measured the maternal plasma concentrations of the NO metabolites, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic phosphate (cGMP) in pregnant women at various gestational ages including those at vaginal and elective Caesarean deliveries. The plasma cGMP and NO metabolite concentrations at vaginal delivery were significantly lower than those of the pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. These concentrations remained low until 4 h after delivery but returned 24 h after delivery to values similar to those of the non-pregnant women. Such suppressions of plasma cGMP and NO metabolite concentrations were not observed in the women who underwent elective Caesarean section before the onset of labour. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in the plasma ANP and BNP concentrations at the time of vaginal and Caesarean deliveries, except that a slight but significant elevation of the plasma ANP concentration was observed 1 h after Caesarean delivery. In conclusion, the plasma concentrations of cGMP and NO metabolites significantly decreased at vaginal delivery but not at Caesarean delivery. These changes were independent of the plasma ANP and BNP concentrations, suggesting the possible down-regulation of maternal NO synthesis during parturition. PMID:9665345

  9. Positive correlations of age and parity with plasma concentration of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in Japanese black cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOIZUMI, Motoya; NAHAR, Asrafun; YAMABE, Ryusei; KADOKAWA, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    Plasma Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) concentration correlates positively with age, and negatively with self-rated health in women, and optimal MIF concentration may promote proper reproductive function. This study was conducted to evaluate the hypotheses that plasma MIF concentration changes with parturition or postpartum first ovulation, and that age in months and parity correlate with plasma MIF concentration in Japanese black cows. Western blotting utilizing an anti-MIF mouse monoclonal antibody of various tissues and plasma from females indicated that MIF expression was stronger in the anterior pituitary than in other tissues. We developed a competitive EIA utilizing the same anti-MIF mouse monoclonal antibody with sufficient sensitivity and reliable performance for measuring bovine plasma samples. We then measured MIF concentrations in bovine plasma collected from 4 weeks before parturition to 4 weeks after postpartum first ovulation. There was no significant difference in plasma MIF concentration pre- and post-parturition, or before and after the postpartum first ovulation. Plasma MIF concentrations were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with parity (r = 0.703), age in months on the day of parturition (r = 0.647), and age in months on the day of the postpartum first ovulation (r = 0.553) when we used almost all data, except for that from a third-parity cow with an abnormally high plasma MIF concentration. We therefore concluded that plasma MIF concentrations may increase with age in months and parity, but do not change either before and after parturition or before and after postpartum first ovulation in Japanese black cows. PMID:26853787

  10. Plasma catecholamine concentrations in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) at rest and after anesthesia and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Drottar, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of surgery and anesthesia on concentrations of plasma epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) were investigated in rainbow trout fitted with dorsal aorta cannulae. Baseline catecholamines (CA) concentrations, established in resting rainbow trout, were 1.55 ± 0.90 ϱmol/ml (X ± SD) for E, 2.07 ± 1.26 for NE, and 1.33 ± 0.87 for DA. These values were based on the pooled analyses of five individual fish taken over seven different sampling periods. The E:NE ratio in resting fish was always less than 1.0. In a second experiment, fish were subjected to dorsal aorta cannulation and sequential blood samples were taken immediately after surgery, and 6, 24, and 48 hr later. Plasma E concentrations were 36 times greater than baseline values in the first sample; NE was 15 times greater and DA was 41 times greater. After surgery, plasma concentrations of all CAs fell rapidly but values were still higher than baseline 6 hr after surgery, then were near baseline at 24 and 48 hr after surgery. The E:NE ratio was about 3.0 immediately after surgery, dropped to 1.8 at 6 hr, and was about 1.0 at 24 and 48 hr. In a third experiment, plasma CAs were determined in a group of five animals anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate (100 mg/ml) to advanced anesthesia, and then allowed to recover in flowing well water over a 12-hr observation period. Plasma E and NE concentrations in the fish during early anes-thesia (1.14 ± 0.14 min) were not significantly different from preanesthesia values. During advanced anesthesia (2.31 ± 0.21 min), values for E and NE were significantly greater and continued to be elevated during the 12-hr recovery period. The E:NE ratio exceeded 1.0 during advanced anesthesia and for the rest of the experiment.

  11. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  12. Application of NMR-based metabonomics suggests a relationship between betaine absorption and elevated creatine plasma concentrations in catheterised sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christian Clement; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.;

    2012-01-01

    these metabolites from the small intestine. The LF diet resulted in a higher betaine concentration in the blood than the two high-fibre diets (P¼0·008). This leads to higher plasma concentrations of methionine (P¼0·0028) and creatine (P¼0·020) of endogenous origin. In conclusion, the use of NMR...... spectroscopy for measuring nutrient uptake in the present study elucidated the relationship between betaine uptake and elevated creatine plasma concentrations....

  13. Exposure to glyceryl trinitrate during gun powder production: plasma glyceryl trinitrate concentration, elimination kinetics, and discomfort among production workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Gjesdal, K; Bille, S; Bredesen, J E; Bjørge, E; Halvorsen, B.; Langseth, K; Lunde, P K; Silvertssen, E

    1985-01-01

    Plasma glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) concentration was studied in 12 volunteers producing gun powder. Serial blood samples were obtained from the cubital vein before and during work at two sites of production; high concentrations of GTN were detected in the plasma. Control specimens from a femoral vein contained much less GTN, indicating that blood in the cubital vein was enriched by dermally absorbed GTN. In the roll mill area concentrations of GTN in the cubital vein were higher than in the pre...

  14. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, M R; Verhoef, P

    2005-02-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in homocysteine remethylation, but effects on homocysteine have been less thoroughly investigated. Betaine in high doses (6 g/d and higher) is used as homocysteine-lowering therapy for people with hyperhomocysteinemia due to inborn errors in the homocysteine metabolism. Betaine intake from foods is estimated at 0.5-2 g/d. Betaine can also be synthesized endogenously from its precursor choline. Studies in healthy volunteers with plasma homocysteine concentrations in the normal range show that betaine supplementation lowers plasma fasting homocysteine dose-dependently to up to 20% for a dose of 6 g/d of betaine. Moreover, betaine acutely reduces the increase in homocysteine after methionine loading by up to 50%, whereas folic acid has no effect. Betaine doses in the range of dietary intake also lower homocysteine. This implies that betaine can be an important food component that attenuates homocysteine rises after meals. If homocysteine plays a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease, a diet rich in betaine or choline might benefit cardiovascular health through its homocysteine-lowering effects. However betaine and choline may adversely affect serum lipid concentrations, which can of course increase risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether the potential beneficial health effects of betaine and choline outweigh the possible adverse effects on serum lipids is as yet unclear. PMID:15720203

  15. Predicting individual responses to pravastatin using a physiologically based kinetic model for plasma cholesterol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Rullmann, Johan A C; Woutersen, Ruud A; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

    2014-08-01

    We used a previously developed physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model to analyze the effect of individual variations in metabolism and transport of cholesterol on pravastatin response. The PBK model is based on kinetic expressions for 21 reactions that interconnect eight different body cholesterol pools including plasma HDL and non-HDL cholesterol. A pravastatin pharmacokinetic model was constructed and the simulated hepatic pravastatin concentration was used to modulate the reaction rate constant of hepatic free cholesterol synthesis in the PBK model. The integrated model was then used to predict plasma cholesterol concentrations as a function of pravastatin dose. Predicted versus observed values at 40 mg/d pravastatin were 15 versus 22 % reduction of total plasma cholesterol, and 10 versus 5.6 % increase of HDL cholesterol. A population of 7,609 virtual subjects was generated using a Monte Carlo approach, and the response to a 40 mg/d pravastatin dose was simulated for each subject. Linear regression analysis of the pravastatin response in this virtual population showed that hepatic and peripheral cholesterol synthesis had the largest regression coefficients for the non-HDL-C response. However, the modeling also showed that these processes alone did not suffice to predict non-HDL-C response to pravastatin, contradicting the hypothesis that people with high cholesterol synthesis rates are good statin responders. In conclusion, we have developed a PBK model that is able to accurately describe the effect of pravastatin treatment on plasma cholesterol concentrations and can be used to provide insight in the mechanisms behind individual variation in statin response. PMID:25106950

  16. A physiologically-based kinetic model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Pas, Niek C A; Woutersen, Ruud A; van Ommen, Ben; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; de Graaf, Albert A

    2011-05-01

    The LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations are determined by the activity of a complex network of reactions in several organs. Physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) computational models can be used to describe these different reactions in an integrated, quantitative manner. A PBK model to predict plasma cholesterol levels in the mouse was developed, validated, and analyzed. Kinetic parameters required for defining the model were obtained using data from published experiments. To construct the model, a set of appropriate submodels was selected from a set of 65,536 submodels differing in the kinetic expressions of the reactions. A submodel was considered appropriate if it had the ability to correctly predict an increased or decreased plasma cholesterol level for a training set of 5 knockout mouse strains. The model thus defined consisted of 8 appropriate submodels and was validated using data from an independent set of 9 knockout mouse strains. The model prediction is the average prediction of 8 appropriate submodels. Remarkably, these submodels had in common that the rate of cholesterol transport from the liver to HDL was not dependent on hepatic cholesterol concentrations. The model appeared able to accurately predict in a quantitative way the plasma cholesterol concentrations of all 14 knockout strains considered, including the frequently used Ldlr-/- and Apoe-/- mouse strains. The model presented is a useful tool to predict the effect of knocking out genes that act in important steps in cholesterol metabolism on total plasma cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C in the mouse. PMID:21320632

  17. Plasma concentration of interleukin 6 (IL-6), and its relationship with circulating concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, Alicja; Brzoza, Zenon; Rogala, Barbara

    2007-08-01

    Decline in circulating DHEA-S concentration may be a phenomenon accompanying chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU). IL-6 is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine which exerts a wide range of biological effects. A functional link between DHEA-S and IL-6 has been described. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate circulating concentration of IL-6 in patients with CIU and to study its relationship with DHEA-S and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. IL-6 plasma concentration was determined in 18 female non-atopic patients with CIU who had negative response to autologous serum skin test and 20 non-atopic healthy controls. Plasma concentration of IL-6 was statistically higher in CIU patients than in the control group, although all the values were found within the range of the normal subjects. CIU patients showed significantly lower DHEA-S concentration in serum than the controls. CRP concentration remained within the normal range and did not differ between the two groups. We did not find a significant correlation between concentration of IL-6 and DHEA-S, or CRP. It seems that the processes associated with CIU may be accompanied by slightly elevated plasma concentration of IL-6 and substantially decreased serum concentration of DHEA-S as compared with the healthy subjects. However, no association between IL-6 and DHEA-S concentration in the peripheral circulation of CIU patients was proved, suggesting that both phenomena may not be related to each other. PMID:17827029

  18. Effects of local plasma formation with energy concentration in magnetically insulated transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments on compression of a light liner in the module A5-1 facility energy is transmitted from the generator with an internal impedance of ρ = 0.04 Ω to the load using a three-dimensional concentrator with a total inductance of L ∼ 1 nH consisting of parallel magnetically insulated vacuum lines connected at the midpoint. Current was transported to the inductive load with an efficiency greater than 70%, while the measured electron leakage current was less than 0.5 MA. The measurements showed that the main losses occur in the region where the lines are joined. The losses in the concentrator could not be explained using the theory of magnetic self-insulation. In model experiments carried in the MSM device (U = 100-200 kV, ρg = 2 Ω, τ = 90 ns) to study the efficiency of energy transport along slab transmission lines to an inductive load with parameters close to those of the concentrator lines, it was found that for I > Imin the losses are associated with local plasma flows representing a fast plasma component (V > 107 cm/s), which are able to close the interelectrode gap. Optimization of the concentrator geometry yielded a current of I = 4.6 MA in the inductive load, close to the calculated value, for a potential in the incident wave of the generator forming line equal to U = 1.2 MV. 18 refs., 8 figs

  19. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  20. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m......Osm/kg), increased urinary AVP excretion (5.52 ± 1.62 ng/24 hr versus 2.19 ± 1.20 ng/hr and increased plasma AVP (2.55 ± 0.45 pg/ml versus 1.95 ± 0.25 pg/ml). There was no difference between the groups in plasma osmolality. The triene/tetraene ration was 0.78 + 0.15 (n = 12) in total kidney lipids of the FF...

  1. Methimazole increases the plasma concentrations of the albendazole metabolites of netobimin in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanusse, C E; Prichard, R K

    1992-03-01

    The influence of methimazole (MTZ) on the pharmacokinetics of netobimin (NTB) and its metabolites was investigated in adult sheep. NTB zwitterion suspension was administered at 20 mg kg-1 by intraruminal injection either alone or with simultaneous administration of MTZ intramuscularly at 1.5 mg kg-1. Blood samples were taken serially over a 120-h period and plasma was analysed by HPLC for NTB, albendazole (ABZ), albendazole sulphoxide (ABZSO), and albendazole sulphone (ABZSO2). NTB parent drug showed fast absorption, low area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and was rapidly removed from plasma after both treatments. The presence of MTZ did increase significantly the ABZ AUC (138 per cent) and mean residence time (MRT) (86 per cent). Concomitant treatment with MTZ resulted in a notably higher ABZSO plasma profile with significantly longer elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) (390 per cent) and MRT (252 per cent) and with significantly higher AUC (95 per cent). Also, MTZ induced significant increases in ABZSO2 t1/2 beta, AUC, and MRT. We have demonstrated a pharmacokinetic interaction between MTZ and NTB metabolites. MTZ may alter the liver biotransformation of ABZ metabolites which results in pronounced changes in the disposition kinetics of anthelmintically active metabolites. PMID:1550912

  2. Plasma cytokine concentration changes induced by the antitumor agents dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP) and related calcium pterins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheno, Phillip; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of plasma cytokine concentration changes determined that oral dosing with the antitumor agent (1:4 mol:mol) calcium pterin (CaPterin) increased plasma IL-10, decreased plasma IL-6, and decreased plasma IFN-gamma concentrations in nude mice with MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition of MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors in nude mice. Int. J. Pharm. 355, 238-248]. A further analysis, reported here, of plasma cytokine concentration changes in nude mice with the same tumor xenographs treated with dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP), (1:2 mol:mol) calcium pterin, and CaCl(2).2H(2)O has been carried out. The measured cytokines included: IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. The major preliminary findings from the analyses of these data are that (1) the overall relative tumor volumes for the treatments correlated significantly with a full study antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (fsAPCP), a composite measure consisting of decreased plasma IL-6 and increased IL-4 concentrations, and (2) DCP induces a significant threshold antitumor response strongly correlated to a derived DCP antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (DCP/APCP) consisting of plasma IL-12, IL-6, and IL-4 concentration changes. This DCP/APCP composite measure identifies plasma IL-12 concentration increases, plasma IL-6 concentration decreases, and plasma IL-4 concentration increases correlated to relative tumor volume decreases caused by DCP dosing. The finding that the novel calcium pterins and CaCl(2).2H(2)O treatments decrease plasma IL-6 concentrations corroborates the previous finding that CaPterin dosing decreases plasma IL-6 concentrations in this mouse/tumor system [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition

  3. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening. RESULTS: Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  4. Plasma aropine concentrations determined by radioimmunoassay after single-dose I.V. and I.M. administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma concentrations of atropine following i.v. or i.m. administration to surgical patients were determined by radioimmunoassay. When atropine sulphate(1 mg) was given i.v. there was a rapid initial removal of the drug from the circulation in the first 10 min; thereafter the plasma concentration decreased more slowly. Atropine i.m. was rapidly absorbed with peak concentrations occurring at 30 min following injection. The plasma atropine concentration then decreased slowly, probably because of uptake of atropine by muscarinic cholinergic receptors. The chronotropic effect of atropine appeared to correspond to the concentration in plasma following i.m. administration. It was concluded that i.m. atropine, as a premedication, should be given not later than 30 min before induction of anaesthesia. (author)

  5. Maternal Plasma Procalcitonin Concentrations in Pregnancy Complicated by Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Torbé

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Our objective is to compare maternal plasma procalcitonin concentrations in preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM and premature rupture of membranes (PROM at term with their levels in uncomplicated pregnancy, and to determine whether these concentrations are useful in the diagnosis of pPROM cases suspected of infection and in the prediction of pPROM-to-delivery interval. Study design. Forty eight patients with pPROM, 30 with PROM at term, 31 healthy women at preterm gestation, and 33 healthy women at term were included. In pPROM group, analysis of procalcitonin concentrations with reference to leucocytosis, serum C-reactive protein, vaginal fluid culture, neonatal infection, histological chorioamnionitis and pPROM-to-delivery interval was carried out. Results. Procalcitonin concentrations in pPROM and PROM at term cases were comparable. However, in both groups procalcitonin values were significantly higher than in healthy controls in approximate gestational age. In pPROM group, procalcitonin concentrations between the patients with and without laboratory indices of infection were comparable, as well as between patients who gave birth to newborns with and without congenital infection, and between patients with and without histological chorioamnionitis. The predictive values of procalcitonin determinations were poor. Conclusion. The value of maternal plasma procalcitonin determinations in the diagnostics of pPROM cases suspected of intraamniotic infection, as well as for the prediction of pPROM-to-delivery interval, newborn's infection or histological chorioamnionitis is unsatisfactory. However, procalcitonin concentrations are elevated, both in patients with preterm and term PROMs in comparison to healthy pregnants, and therefore further evaluations are necessary to establish the role of procalcitonin in the pathophysiology of pregnancy.

  6. Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Predict Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Bartels, Michael; Becker, Susen; Scholz, Markus; Thiery, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background The liver plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. In former studies, a ratio between branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (Fischer’s ratio) revealed associations with hepatic encephalopathy. Furthermore, low concentrations of branched-chain amino acids were linked to sarcopenia in literature. Encephalopathy and sarcopenia are known to dramatically worsen the prognosis. Aim of this study was to investigate a complex panel of plasma amino acids in the context of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. Methods 166 patients evaluated for orthotopic liver transplantation were included. 19 amino acids were measured from citrated plasma samples using mass spectrometry. We performed survival analysis for plasma amino acid constellations and examined the relationship to established mortality predictors. Results 33/166 (19.9%) patients died during follow-up. Lower values of valine (p<0.001), Fischer’s ratio (p<0.001) and valine to phenylalanine ratio (p<0.001) and higher values of phenylalanine (p<0.05) and tyrosine (p<0.05) were significantly associated with mortality. When divided in three groups, the tertiles discriminated cumulative survival for valine (p = 0.016), phenylalanine (p = 0.024) and in particular for valine to phenylalanine ratio (p = 0.003) and Fischer’s ratio (p = 0.005). Parameters were also significantly correlated with MELD and MELD-Na score. Conclusions Amino acids in plasma are valuable biomarkers to determine increased risk of mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease. In particular, valine concentrations and constellations composed of branched-chain and aromatic amino acids were strongly associated with prognosis. Due to their pathophysiological importance, the identified amino acids could be used to examine individual dietary recommendations to serve as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27410482

  7. Effect of Dietary Inulin Source on Piglet Performance, Immunoglobulin Concentration, and Plasma Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Eugeniusz R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an inulin source (aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extract, dried chicory root, or dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers on piglet performance, plasma lipid profile, and immunoglobulin concentration. The study was conducted on 534 piglets (44 litters allocated to five nutritional groups: group I (control - fed basal diet, groups II and III receiving basal diet supplemented with 2% of inulin (aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extract respectively, and groups IV and V -4% additive of dried artichoke or dried chicory respectively. During the trial, piglets’ body weight, feed intake, diarrhoea incidence, and mortality were controlled. Blood samples were collected twice from six animals of each group. In blood plasma, indices of lipid profile and concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured. The addition of inulin, regardless of its form (extracts or dried plants, significantly improved the rearing indices. In piglets of groups III, IV and V a significant improvement of daily weight gains and feed efficiency was noted. Inulin showed hypolipidemic activity (lowered total cholesterol level and stimulated piglet immune system manifested by elevated IgA and IgG concentrations. Irrespective of the inulin source, a lower mortality rate resulting from the improvement of animal health was noted in all experimental groups.

  8. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K;

    2010-01-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design was a randomi......Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design...... was a randomized block design with repeated measurements. Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g of glucose/d into the abomasum from the day of parturition to 29 d in milk. Cows were sampled 12 ± 6 d prepartum and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk. Concentrations of glucose......-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide, and oxyntomodulin were measured in pooled samples within cow and sampling day, whereas active ghrelin was measured in samples obtained 30 min before and after feeding at 0800 h. Postpartum, dry matter intake increased at a lower rate with infusion...

  9. Generation of avian influenza virus (AIV) contaminated fecal fine particulate matter (PM2.5): genome and infectivity detection and calculation of immission

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlmaier, N.; Hoppenheidt, K.; Krist, H.; Lehmann, S.; Lang, H.; Büttner, M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract As a model for aerosol transmission, chicken feces was spiked with avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H10N7 and used to generate a fine particulate matter aerosol. For this an innovative aerosol chamber was developed, that collected PM2.5 on quartz microfiber filters. With AIV contaminated PM2.5-dust coated filters different incubation times ranging from 0 to 4 days and storage mainly at +4 and +20?C and at different relative humidity (RH) were performed. Embryonic death ...

  10. Late Gestational Undernutrition Alters Plasma IGF-1 Concentration During Subsequent Lactation in Ewe

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kiani; Mette Olaf Nielsen; Andre Chwalibog

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of undernutrition during late gestation on plasma concentration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF1), leptin, insulin and glucose in pregnant and lactating ewes. Ten twin-bearing shropshire ewes were fed either adequately (AN; 100% energy and protein requirements) or restrictedly (RN; about 60% of energy and protein requirements) fed during the last six weeks of gestation. Ewe’s blood samples were taken at 50, 28 and 10 days pre-partu...

  11. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Katja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO and intra muscular (IM routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers between those routes of administration in growing pigs. Methods Eleven pigs received racemic ketoprofen at dose rates of 4 mg/kg PO and 3 mg/kg IM in a randomized, crossover design with a 6-day washout period. Enantiomers were separated on a chiral column and their concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and relative bioavailability (Frel was determined for S and R –ketoprofen. Results S-ketoprofen was the predominant enantiomer in pig plasma after administration of the racemic mixture via both routes. The mean (± SD maximum S-ketoprofen concentration in plasma (7.42 mg/L ± 2.35 in PO and 7.32 mg/L ± 0.75 in IM was more than twice as high as that of R-ketoprofen (2.55 mg/L ± 0.99 in PO and 3.23 mg/L ± 0.70 in IM, and the terminal half-life was three times longer for S-ketoprofen (3.40 h ± 0.91 in PO and 2.89 h ± 0.85 in IM than R-ketoprofen (1.1 h ± 0.90 in PO and 0.75 h ± 0.48 in IM. The mean (± SD relative bioavailability (PO compared to IM was 83 ± 20% and 63 ± 23% for S-ketoprofen and R-ketoprofen, respectively. Conclusions Although some minor differences were detected in the ketoprofen enantiomer concentrations in plasma after PO and IM administration, they are probably not relevant in clinical use. Thus, the pharmacological effects of racemic ketoprofen should be comparable after intramuscular and oral routes of

  12. Circadian rhythm in plasma concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoes, M J; Vree, T B; Guelen, P J

    1981-08-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) was orally administered to six alcoholics at 09.00 and 23.00 h. The plasma concentrations of GHB show a clear circadian pattern, the area under the curve in the daytime experiments being 61% of that in the night experiments. The significance of alcohol dehydrogenase, the catabolic enzyme of GHB, for the difference is discussed. It is concluded that, although the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in alcoholics is quantitatively disturbed, it remains subject to physiologic circadian activation. PMID:7341501

  13. Concentrations of Th and U in human tissues determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In about 20 specimens of untreated human soft tissues, Th and U, were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentration values obtained, particularly in the case of U, tended to be lower than reported ones. In order to investigate the source of the discrepancy, human tissue samples (treated for preservation), which had been analyzed for U in the previous study by fission tracks, were analyzed again by ICP-MS. This demonstrated the difference may be a reflection of the variance between treated and untreated samples. The problems involved in the analysis and the sample treatment are discussed. (author)

  14. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O; Hansen, SH; Dalhoff, K; Petersen, E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or Ig......A-antibodies on 3 mm blood spots collected from phenylketonuria [PKU cards (Guthrie cards)]. Toxoplasma-infected children received 3 months continuous treatment with 50–100 mg/kg per day sulfadiazine in two separate administrations and 1 mg/kg per day pyrimethamine after a 1-day loading dose of 2 mg/kg, and...

  15. Endogenous plasma endothelin concentrations and coronary circulation in patients with mild dilated cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mundhenke, M; Schwartzkopff, B; Kostering, M; Deska, U; Klein, R.; Strauer, B.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine whether increased plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and big endothelin (BET) play a role in the regulation of coronary circulation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM).
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre for cardiac diseases. 
PATIENTS—Fourteen patients (eight male/six female; mean (SD) age 59 (9) years) with IDCM (ejection fraction 36 (9)%) and five normotensive subjects (two male/three female; age 52 (7) years) serving as controls were st...

  16. Predictability of 1-h postload plasma glucose concentration: A 10-year retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang, Lifen; Huang, Zhimin; Hong, Zhenzhen; Chen, Ailing; Li, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose concentration (1hPG) during oral glucose tolerance test has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and a poorer cardiometabolic risk profile. The present study analyzed the predictability and cut-off point of 1hPG in predicting type 2 diabetes in normal glucose regulation (NGR) subjects, and evaluated the long-term prognosis of NGR subjects with elevated 1hPG in glucose metabolism, kidney function, metabolic states and athero...

  17. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D; Tesfaye, M; Girma, T; Christiansen, M; Hagen, C M; Wiesner, L; Castel, S; Aseffa, A; McIlleron, H; Pedersen, C; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, A B

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...

  18. The effect of midazolam at two plasma concentrations on hemodynamics and sufentanil requirement in coronary artery surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderMaaten, JMAA; Epema, AH; Huet, RCGG; Hennis, PJ

    1996-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, the hemodynamics and sufentanil requirement were compared at two midazolam target plasma concentrations in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Design: Prospective, randomized study. Setting: University hospital, single institution. Participants: Pat

  19. Cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations during the first 72 hours of life in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Christoffersen, Christina; Nørgaard, Linn Maiken;

    2013-01-01

    Plasma measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides constitutes promising markers of congenital heart disease. However, concentrations change rapidly and dramatically during the first days after delivery even in healthy neonates, which complicates clinical interpretation. It is unknown whether the......, resembling the transition from fetal to neonate circulation. However, the cardiac gene expression does not explain plasma concentrations....... 72 hours of life (from 2 litters, n = 44). Chamber-specific ANP and BNP mRNA levels reflected hemodynamic neonate changes at birth but did not correlate with circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations. However, plasma pro-ANP and creatinine concentrations were closely correlated (P < .0001; r = 0.......73). Plasma pro-ANP levels were highest on the day of delivery (5580 pmol/L [4320-6786] decreasing to 2484 pmol/L [1602-2898] after 72 hours, P < .0001). During the 72 hours, gel chromatography suggested that the translational products in circulation and in atrial tissue were immature, ie, unprocessed pro...

  20. Plasma cortisol and beta-endorphin concentrations in trained and over-trained standardbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golland, L C; Evans, D L; Stone, G M; Tyler-McGowan, C M; Hodgson, D R; Rose, R J

    1999-12-01

    The effects of training and over-training on plasma cortisol and beta-endorphin (betaEP) concentrations at rest and after standardised exercise tests and the cortisol responses to adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) administration were investigated in standardbred horses. Twelve horses were divided randomly into control and over-trained (OT) groups after 17 weeks slow- and moderate-intensity treadmill training. The standardised treadmill exercise test consisted of 2 min at velocities corresponding to 30, 50, 70 and 100% of maximum O2 consumption. Over-training, defined as a significant decrease in body weight and treadmill run-time-to-fatigue in an incremental velocity test, occurred in the OT group after 32 weeks of training exercise. Peak cortisol concentrations after exercise decreased significantly in the OT group from 320+/-15.6 at week 8 to 245+/-17.0 nmol l(-1) at week 32, and mean cortisol concentrations over a 120-min period after exercise decreased from 258+/-11.7 to 192+/-16.6 nmol l(-1) (P<0.05). Mean and total cortisol and betaEP concentrations in resting horses were not significantly different after over-training. Peak cortisol concentrations after adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) administration were not significantly different in the over-trained group. Dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis occurs in over-trained horses, but this adaptation is not associated with a change in the adrenocortical responsiveness to ACTH. PMID:10650995

  1. Platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma affects tenocyte behavior in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Ilaria; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Mancò, Annalisa; Di Stefano, Gabriella; Di Francesco, Marianna; Rughetti, Anna; Dal Mas, Antonella; Properzi, Gianfranco; Calvisi, Vittorio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 10(6) plt/µL) stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6) plt/µL) strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production) if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing. PMID:25147809

  2. Platelet Concentration in Platelet-Rich Plasma Affects Tenocyte Behavior In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Giusti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 106 plt/µL stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 106, 1 × 106 plt/µL strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  3. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O3 production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards COx formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L-1 in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnOx/Al2O3 catalyst after 150-h reactions.

  4. Plasma catecholamine concentrations at onset of myocardial ischemia during supine bicycle exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) concentrations at onset of exercise induced myocardial ischemia the authors studied 10 male patients (PTS), age = 56 +/- 8, with angiographically proven coronary disease during multistage supine bicycle exercise (BEX). All drugs were stopped 7 days before study. Data were obtained at rest and each BEX stage. End points were angina or fatigue. Plasma NE and E were measured by radioenzymatic assay and hemodynamic responses and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured by quantitative cardiac blood pool scintigraphy. Ischemia was defined by 1 mm ST depression ( ) and/or less than 5% increase of LVEF. Seven had ST, 9 abnormal LVEF response and 6 angina. Changes from rest to onset of ischemia for individual PTS ranged from 18 to 122% for NE, 10 to 118% for E. Conclusion: Plasma NE and E levels at onset of exercise induced ischemia were, 1) mildly elevated thus can be reached with mild to moderate stress in daily activity, 2) varied widely from patient to patient, and 3) reflected cardiac workload more than contractability

  5. Plasma mitomycin C concentrations determined by HPLC coupled to solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroni, R; Arcelloni, C; De Vecchi, E; Fermo, I; Mauri, D; Colombo, R

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to set up a method for quantification of plasma mitomycin C (MMC) concentrations during intravesical chemotherapy delivered in the presence of local bladder hyperthermia (HT). In comparison with existing methods, this assay, characterized by relative simplicity and efficiency, resulted in the facilitation of performance with nondedicated instrumentation or nonspecialized staff. Purification from plasma matrix was carried out by solid-phase extraction under vaccuum. The purified drug was then collected directly into the vials of the HPLC autosampler. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with water:acetonitrile (85:15 by vol) as the mobile phase and the UV detector set at 365 nm. The use of porfiromycin as internal standard provided a method with good within-day precision (CV 6.0% at 5 micrograms/L, n = 6), linearity (0.5-50 micrograms/L), and specificity. The lower limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microgram/L) proved to be suitable for plasma pharmacokinetics monitoring in two tested patients treated with MMC + HT for superficial bladder cancer. PMID:9105262

  6. Plasma catecholamine concentrations at onset of myocardial ischemia during supine bicycle exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, B.H.; Robinson, C.; Thadani, U.; Lee, R.; Wilson, M.F.

    1986-03-01

    To assess plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) concentrations at onset of exercise induced myocardial ischemia the authors studied 10 male patients (PTS), age = 56 +/- 8, with angiographically proven coronary disease during multistage supine bicycle exercise (BEX). All drugs were stopped 7 days before study. Data were obtained at rest and each BEX stage. End points were angina or fatigue. Plasma NE and E were measured by radioenzymatic assay and hemodynamic responses and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were measured by quantitative cardiac blood pool scintigraphy. Ischemia was defined by 1 mm ST depression ( ) and/or less than 5% increase of LVEF. Seven had ST, 9 abnormal LVEF response and 6 angina. Changes from rest to onset of ischemia for individual PTS ranged from 18 to 122% for NE, 10 to 118% for E. Conclusion: Plasma NE and E levels at onset of exercise induced ischemia were, 1) mildly elevated thus can be reached with mild to moderate stress in daily activity, 2) varied widely from patient to patient, and 3) reflected cardiac workload more than contractability.

  7. Raised plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide are independent of left atrial dimensions in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation.

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, H; Boukter, S; Theodorsson, E; Vallin, H; Edhag, O

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether left atrial size--a likely indicator of atrial stretching--correlates with the plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide and whether this relation is different in patients in sinus rhythm and in those with atrial fibrillation. Arterial plasma concentrations of immunoreactive atrial natriuretic peptide (ir-ANP), adrenaline, noradrenaline, aldosterone, and vasopressin were measured in 13 patients in sinus rhythm without apparent hea...

  8. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Assessment of irrelevant drug concentrations in horse plasma or urine for a selection of drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Lassourd, V

    2002-01-01

    The lower limits of detection of the analytical techniques currently used for drug testing in horses result in the dilemma of whether or not to report trace levels of drugs legitimately used for therapeutic medication. A non-experimental pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic approach for the determination of irrelevant drug plasma concentrations (IPC) and irrelevant urine concentrations (IUC) has been put forward by Toutain and Lassourd (2002). The published plasma clearance is used to transfor...

  9. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and s...

  10. Oral administration and younger age decrease plasma concentrations of voriconazole in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Karin; Nagao, Miki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Takakura, Shunji; Fukuda, Kazuhiko; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole is used for treating or preventing invasive aspergillosis and other invasive fungal infections. To minimize adverse reactions and to maximize treatment effects, therapeutic drug monitoring should be performed. However, it is challenging to optimize daily voriconazole dosing because limited data have been published so far on pediatric patients. We retrospectively analyzed voriconazole concentrations in patients aged 0-18 years. In addition, a literature review was conducted. In our study cohort, younger age and oral administration were significantly associated with lower plasma voriconazole concentrations (P voriconazole (P = 0.01). Reports of voriconazole administration in pediatric patients show that higher doses are required in younger children and in patients receiving oral administration. Hence, the current data suggest that we should escalate both initial and maintenance doses of voriconazole in pediatric patients, particularly in patients of younger age receiving an oral administration of voriconazole. PMID:26538245

  11. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... higher in the VEG diet than in the FM diet (93 versus 92%; t-test, Pb0.05), supporting that protease inhibitors from plant protein ingredients were not the cause of the delay. The apparent digestibility coefficient of carbohydrates (calculated as nitrogen-free extract (NFE)) was much lower in the VEG...... two dietary treatment groups correlated largely with the amino acid content of the two diets except for methionine, lysine and arginine, where the differences were more extreme than what would be expected from differences in dietary concentrations. The apparent protein digestibility coefficient was...

  12. Plasma Fetuin-A concentration, genetic variation in the AHSG gene and risk of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner;

    2015-01-01

    women, 1.13 (1.00-1.27) for colon cancer and 1.12 (0.94-1.32) for rectal cancer. To improve causal inference in a Mendelian Randomization approach, five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms of the AHSG gene were genotyped in a subset of 456 case-control pairs. The AHSG allele-score explained 21% of...... the interindividual variation in plasma fetuin-A concentrations. In instrumental variable analysis, genetically raised fetuin-A was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (relative risk per 40 µg/mL genetically determined higher fetuin-A was 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.33). The findings...... of our study indicate a modest linear association between fetuin-A concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer but suggest that fetuin-A may not be causally related to colorectal cancer development....

  13. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. However, studies that prospectively examined circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH] D in relation to diabetes risk are limited. Our objective is to determine the association between maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted among a prospective cohort of 953 pregnant women. Among them, 57 incident GDM cases were ascertained and 114 women who were not diagnosed with GDM were selected as controls. Controls were frequency matched to cases for the estimated season of conception of the index pregnancy. RESULTS: Among women who developed GDM, maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations at an average of 16 weeks of gestation were significantly lower than controls (24.2 vs. 30.1 ng/ml, P<0.001. This difference remained significant (3.62 ng/ml lower on average in GDM cases than controls (P value = 0.018 after the adjustment for maternal age, race, family history of diabetes, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Approximately 33% of GDM cases, compared with 14% of controls (P<0.001, had maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations consistent with a pre-specified diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml. After adjustment for the aforementioned covariates including BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 2.66-fold (OR (95% CI: 2.66 (1.01-7.02 increased GDM risk. Moreover, each 5 ng/ml decrease in 25-[OH] D concentrations was related to a 1.29-fold increase in GDM risk (OR (95% CI: 1.29 (1.05-1.60. Additional adjustment for season and physical activity did not change findings substantially. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is significantly associated with an elevated risk for GDM.

  14. Acute phase IL-10 plasma concentration associates with the high risk sources of cardiogenic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otso Arponen

    Full Text Available Etiological assessment of stroke is essential for accurate treatment decisions and for secondary prevention of recurrence. There is evidence that interleukin-10 (IL-10 associates with ischemic stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the levels of IL-10 in ischemic stroke with unknown or suspected cardiogenic etiology, and evaluate the correlation between IL-10 plasma concentration and the number of diagnosed high risk sources for cardioembolism.A total of 141 patients (97 males; mean age 61±11 years with acute ischemic stroke with unknown etiology or suspected cardiogenic etiology other than known atrial fibrillation (AF underwent imaging investigations to assess high risk sources for cardioembolic stroke established by the European Association of Echocardiography (EAE. IL-10 was measured on admission to the hospital and on a three month follow-up visit.Acute phase IL-10 concentration was higher in patients with EAE high risk sources, and correlated with their number (p<0.01. In patients with no risk sources (n = 104, the mean IL-10 concentration was 2.7±3.1 ng/L (range 0.3-16.3 ng/L, with one risk source (n = 26 3.7±5.5 ng/L (0.3-23.6 ng/L, with two risk sources (n = 10 7.0±10.0 ng/L (1.29-34.8 ng/L and with three risk sources (n = 1 37.2 ng/L. IL-10 level was not significantly associated with cerebral infarct volume, presence of previous or recent myocardial infarction, carotid/vertebral artery atherosclerosis, paroxysmal AF registered on 24-hour ECG Holter monitoring or given intravenous thrombolytic treatment.IL-10 plasma concentration correlates independently with the number of EAE cardioembolic risk sources in patients with acute stroke. IL-10 may have potential to improve differential diagnostics of stroke with unknown etiology.

  15. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  16. Study on the correlation between the concentration of plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 and coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ming Cen; Jie Cheng; Qing-Yuan Xiong; Bai-Qiang Mei; Wei-Biao Cai; Xi-Li Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the correlation between plasma lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and coronary heart disease (CHD) by comparing the level of plasma Lp-PLA2 in the plasma of patients with different types of CHD. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 56 patients diagnosed with CHD by the Department of Cardiology of the First People's Hospital of Foshan and 34 healthy subjects from February 2013 to January 2014. We measured the concentration of plasma Lp-PLA2 and determined the levels of total cholesterol (Tch), triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1), apolipoprotein B (Apo-B), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c), lipoprotein a (Lp(a)), glucose (Glu), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The concentration of plasma Lp-PLA2 in the healthy control group and each subgroup of CHD patients were compared and analyzed for correlations of plasma Lp-PLA2 between the patients in different CHD subgroups and several laboratory indicators. Results: The concentration of plasma Lp-PLA2 in each subgroup of CHD was significantly higher than in the control group (P Conclusions: The concentration of plasma Lp-PLA2 in patients with CHD was higher than that in the control group. The concentration of plasma Lp-PLA2 in the subgroups of CHD patients varied greatly from each other. The inflammatory response of atherosclerosis might be resulted from the synergy of plasma Lp-PLA2 and hs-CRP. Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Com-munications Co., Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  17. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in...... after omitting the data from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, with mean values of 113 U/ml for FVII:Ag and 110 U/ml for FVII:Am (p < 0.01). In a linear regression analysis, the intercept (alpha=-21.50) was different from zero (p < 0.0001) and the slope (beta=1.16) was different from 1.0 (p < 0...

  18. [Optimization and application of method to determine plasma concentration of brucine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Yue; Chen, Jun; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2013-04-01

    The HPLC method for determining plasma concentration of brucine was optimized during the study on the effect of the extraction reagent, the extraction frequency and the volume of extraction solvent on the extraction recovery of brucine. The optimum sample treatment method was obtained in the study. Specifically, ammonia water was added, 4 mL extraction solvent (N-hexane-methylene chloride-isopropyl alcohol 65:30:5) were adopted to extract brucine for twice. The method to determine plasma concentration of brucine was applied in pharmacokinetic study to compare pharmacokinetic properties of intravenous injection (5 mg x kg(-1)) and transdermal administration (40 mg x kg(-1)) of brucine aqueous alkali. The results showed that both pharmacokinetic parameters of brucine after intravenous injection and transdermal administration were in conformity with the two-compartment model. After transdermal administration, the absolute bioavailability was calculated to be 18.72%. The optimized HPLC method can satisfy the demands of the pharmacokinetic study on brucine. PMID:23847961

  19. Early effects of spaying on plasma and liver phospholipid concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, L R; Ambadkar, P M

    1996-03-01

    Effect of spaying on liver and plasma phospholipid components was studied in 4-day cyclic rats (Haffkin Institute Strain). Rats were ovariectomized during diestrous stage of estrous cycle. Ovariectomy (OVX) was shown to increase the total phospholipid content in both the liver lobes after 24 hr interval, it remained higher in spigelian lobe up to 72 hr but it was lowered in the right lobe at 48 hr interval. Concentration of sphingomyelin (SHP) in total phospholipids, as assessed by TLC, was slightly increased in both lobes after 48 hr of spaying. It declined significantly by 72 hr only in the spigelian lobe. Phosphotidylcholin, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine concentrations showed fluctuating pattern up to 48 hr of spaying, but most of these changes were seen to be restored to the normal level by 72 hr interval. Results indicate that the relative lack of ovarian hormones due to ovariectomy have obvious influence on hepatic lipid metabolism particularly that of phospholipid components. There appears to be an inverse relationship between hepatic lipid components and blood plasma. Spigelian lobe exhibits distinctly different responses to ovariectomy as compared to those of the right lobe. Maximal alterations are observable by 48 hr post-OVX interval. PMID:8781029

  20. Combined dietary folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 intake influences plasma docosahexaenoic acid concentration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wijk Nick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Folate, vitamin B-12, and vitamin B-6 are essential nutritional components in one-carbon metabolism and are required for methylation capacity. The availability of these vitamins may therefore modify methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE to phosphatidylcholine (PC by PE-N-methyltransferase (PEMT in the liver. It has been suggested that PC synthesis by PEMT plays an important role in the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs like docosahexaenoic acid (DHA from the liver to plasma and possibly other tissues. We hypothesized that if B-vitamin supplementation enhances PEMT activity, then supplementation could also increase the concentration of plasma levels of PUFAs such as DHA. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of varying the combined dietary intake of these three B-vitamins on plasma DHA concentration in rats. Methods In a first experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats that had consumed a B-vitamin-poor diet for 4 weeks after which they were either continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet or switched to a B-vitamin-enriched diet for another 4 weeks. In a second experiment, plasma DHA and plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured in rats after feeding them one of four diets with varying levels of B-vitamins for 4 weeks. The diets provided 0% (poor, 100% (normal, 400% (enriched, and 1600% (high of the laboratory rodent requirements for each of the three B-vitamins. Results Plasma DHA concentration was higher in rats fed the B-vitamin-enriched diet than in rats that were continued on the B-vitamin-poor diet (P = 0.005; experiment A. Varying dietary B-vitamin intake from deficient to supra-physiologic resulted in a non-linear dose-dependent trend for increasing plasma DHA (P = 0.027; experiment B. Plasma DHA was lowest in rats consuming the B-vitamin-poor diet (P > 0.05 vs. normal, P . enriched and high and highest in rats consuming the

  1. Study on Plasma Concentration and Bioavailability of Wogonin in Beagle's Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-chun; CHEN Fei-hu; DONG Hai-jun; GAO Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an LC-MS/MS method for determining the concentration of wogonin in dog plasma and investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability by different administrations of wogonin in Beagle's dogs. Methods LC-MS/MS was employed in determining the concentration of wogonin with the selected ion monitoring model after liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate of dog plasma samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.105 μg/L. Target ions were at m/z 285.0→270.0 for wogonin and 373.3→305.3 for finasteride. In a randomized, self-control, and cross-over study, six male Beagle's dogs were treated with different administration methods in three test periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS software (Ver. 2.0). Results The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.105-107.36 μg/L for wogonin in dog plasma samples. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of ig administration (native drug of 15 mg/kg and solution preparation of 5 mg/kg) and iv route were as follows: Cmax (2.5 ± 1.1), (7.9 ± 3.3), and (6838.7 ± 1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7 ± 0.3) and (0.3 ± 0.2) h for the both former, AUC0-1 (7.1 ± 2.0), (21.0 ± 3.2), and (629.7 ±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native and solution of wogonin were (0.59 ± 0.35)% and (3.65 ± 2.00)%, respectively. Conclusion The validated method is convenient, sensitive, and specific, and the improvement of wogonin solubility could remarkably increase the absolute bioavailability.

  2. Susceptibility of Mice to Trypanosoma evansi Treated with Human Plasma Containing Different Concentrations of Apolipoprotein L-1

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandro S. Da Silva; Fanfa, Vinicius R.; Otto, Mateus A.; Gressler, Lucas T.; Tavares, Kaio C.S.; Lazzarotto, Cícera R.; Alexandre A Tonin; Miletti, Luiz C.; Duarte, Marta M. M. F.; Silvia G. Monteiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of mice to Trypanosoma evansi treated with human plasma containing different concentrations of apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1). For this experiment, a strain of T. evansi and human plasma (plasmas 1, 2, and 3) from 3 adult males clinically healthy were used. In vivo test used 50 mice divided in 5 groups (A to E) with 10 animals in each group. Animals of groups B to E were infected, and then treated with 0.2 ml of human plasma in the following ou...

  3. Morphine and morphine-glucuronide concentrations in plasma and CSF during long-term administration of oral morphine.

    OpenAIRE

    Dongen, R.T. van; Crul, B J; Koopman-Kimenai, P.M.; Vree, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were measured by h.p.l.c. in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 16 patients with cancer receiving oral (controlled-release) morphine. There was a close correlation between plasma and CSF morphine concentrations (r = 0.94, P = 0.0001) and both correlated with drug dosage (r = 0.61, P = 0.013 and r = 0.74, P = 0.0001, respectively). M3G and M6G in plasma and CSF were correlated (r = 0.81 and...

  4. Increased plasma noradrenaline concentration in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: relation to haemodynamics and blood gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Kok-Jensen, A;

    1980-01-01

    . Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration averaged 0.51 ng/ml and was inversely correlated to arterial oxygen saturation and mixed venous oxygen saturation, and positively correlated to arterial carbon dioxide tension and mean pulmonary arterial pressure. Oxygen inhalation did not change plasma NA...... present. Plasma adrenaline concentration was normal. The results point to enhanced sympathetic nervous activity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, probably caused by the deranged blood gases. The pulmonary haemodynamic changes and increased pulse rate may, at least partly, be due to...

  5. Factors influencing plasma concentrations of carbamazepine and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide in epileptic children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchote, V L; Bonato, P S; Campos, G M; Rodrigues, I

    1995-02-01

    Plasma carbamazepine (CBZ) and carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) concentrations were measured in 160 epileptic patients in order to determine the effect of factors such as age, daily dosing schedule, formulation, and combination with other antiepileptic drugs on these concentrations in relation to the daily dose. The results showed that the CBZ plasma level/dose ratio was affected by all factors studied, whereas the CBZ-E plasma level/dose ratio was affected only by formulation and age. The ratio of CBZ-E to CBZ plasma levels (CBZ-E/CBZ) was affected by daily dosing schedule, age, and combination with other antiepileptic drugs. The present study demonstrated that many factors affect plasma CBZ/dose ratios, explaining the discrepancies observed in the literature. PMID:7725376

  6. Validation of ELISA kits for determination of Inhibin-A and Estradiol-17-beta concentrations in Buffalo plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malfatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the suitability of two commercial ELISA kits for human serum or plasma, to measure Inhibin-A (In-A and Estradiol-17-beta (E2 concentrations in buffalo plasma. Blood samples were obtained by jugular venipuncture from buffalo heifers and cows, and plasma samples were stored at – 20°C until assays. Precision of the methods was evaluated by the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CVs of buffalo plasma sample replicates, at different concentrations. Accuracy was evaluated calculating the recovery rates of different proportions of the highest standard added to a buffalo plasma sample at low concentration (observed/expected values x 100. Linearity was evaluated by serially diluting one buffalo plasma sample at high concentration with the assay buffer and calculating by regression analysis the parallelism of the resulting line with the standard line. Intra-assay CVs were 11% and 15.1% for In-A and 1.8% and 3.3% for E2. Inter-assay CVs were 13.9% and 7.4% for In-A and E2, respectively. Mean recovery rate was 97.9% and 98.5% for In-A and E2, respectively. Dilution tests gave good parallelism between the lines obtained and the standard lines. It is concluded that the kits tested are suitable and reliable for buffalo plasma samples.

  7. The relationship between high density lipoprotein subclass profile and plasma lipids concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HDL particles posses multiple antiatherogenic activities and the identification and differentiation of individual HDL subclasses may be useful in documentation and understanding of metabolic changes of different HDL subclasses. The major plasma lipids exist and are transported in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Hence, alterations in plasma lipids levels can interfere with the composition, content, and distribution of plasma lipoprotein subclasses that affect atherosclerosis risk. The research review major discussed the relationship between plasma lipids levels and HDL subclasses distribution. The general shift toward smaller size of HDL particle size in HTG, HCL and MHL subjects, and the changes were more prominent with the elevation of TG and TC levels which imply that HDL maturation might be abnormal and RCT pathway might be weaken, and these changes were more seriously in MHL subjects. Plasma contents of small sized HDL particles significantly higher, whereas those of large sized HDL particles were significantly lower with elevation of TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios. Increased in the TC/HDL-C ratio alone did not influence the distributions of HDL subclasses significantly when the TG/HDL-C ratio was low (TG/HDL-C ≤ 2.5. Hence, the TG/HDL-C ratio might be more sensitive to reflect the alteration of HDL subclass distribution than the TC/HDL-C ratio. In LDL-C/HDL-C ≤ 2.3 group, the pattern of distribution in HDL subclass was in agreement with the normolipidemic subjects. Moreover, considering the relative ease of measuring TC/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios, as opposed to measuring HDL subclasses, these 3 ratios together may be a good indicator of HDL subclass distribution. The protective effect of increased apoA-I levels against the reduction of HDL2b caused by elevated TG concentration. On one hand, plasma HDL-C and apoA-I appear to play a coordinated role in the assembly of HDL particles and the determination of their

  8. Calculated plasma medial effective concentration of propofol with and without magnesium sulfate at loss of consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong-liang; YE Tie-hu; SUN Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Perioperative disorder of magnesium,an important cation in the human body,may affect clinical anesthesia. The pharmacological data of propofol use,which is popularly used in the anesthesiology department and intensive care unit,is incomplete in Chinese patients. This study aimed to assess the effect of magnesium sulfate on the calculated plasma medial effective concentration (Cp50cal) of propofol at loss of response to command in Chinese females.Methods Fifty patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into the control group and the magnesium group. Before induction,magnesium sulfate (30 mg/kg) or placebo (equal volume of 0.9% saline)was given to patients in the magnesium group or the control group,respectively. Propofol was infused using a target-controlled infusion system,with a target concentration for each patient decided by up-and-down sequential allocation. After the equilibration between target plasma concentration and effective-site concentration,the state of consciousness was assessed. For determination of serum magnesium and calcium concentration,blood samples were taken before induction,after induction and at the end of surgery.Results The Cp50cal was 2.52 μg/ml (2.47-2.57 μg/ml) for patients in the control group,and 2.46 μg/ml (2.41-2.51μg/ml) for those in the magnesium group. A significant reduction of Cp50cal was observed (P=0.021). There was a significant difference between the serum magnesium concentrations after induction and at the end of the surgery (P <0.05). In the magnesium group,there was a trend toward decreasing after surgery,while in the control group,Cp50cal decreased significantly (P <0.01).Conclusions Cp50cal of propofol at loss of response to command was 2.52 μg/ml (2.47-2.57 μg/ml) for Chinese female adults in this study. Infusion of 30 mg/kg magnesium sulfate may reduce the Cp50cal of propofol at loss of consciousness,which implies that magnesium may enhance the pharmacological

  9. Gastric emptying of glucose solution and associated plasma concentrations of GLP-1, GIP, and PYY before and after fundoplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miholic, J; Hoffmann, M; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to assess the relationship between gastric emptying of glucose solution and the ensuing plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in patients having undergone fundoplication...... with the integrated plasma glucose during the third hour after ingestion (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: After fundoplication, gastric emptying may, if accelerated in its initial phases, give rise to greater and earlier increases in plasma glucose, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations and thus to reactive hypoglycemia....... for gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 10 male patients the emptying of 50% glucose solution was determined scintigraphically and its relationship with plasma glucose, GLP-1, PYY, and GIP concentrations was studied before and 3 months after fundoplication. RESULTS: In the first 30 min after...

  10. Increasing in activity and plasma concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 30 March, 2009 ; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Matrix metalloproteinase are a family of proteolytic enzymes that have specific functions in digestion of cells cohesive extra cellular matrix and also, increasing metastasis behavior of acute human tumors. It has been reported that MMPs in two forms, namely proenzyme and active enzyme in biological samples. It is distinguished that among this family, (MMP-9 Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 has function in both initiation and invasion steps of breast cancer. In our previous study, we reported a correlation between C/T polymorphism at promoter region of this gene and metastasis step of breast cancer.Considering few findings regarding the relationship between the active form of this enzyme and occurrence of cancer, and also the correlation between active form and allelic genotype of persons, in this study we decided to do a parallel study on measurement of active plasma MMP-9 and its relationship with allelic genotype of breast cancer patients.Materials and methods: After analysis of data, we found that concentration of active MMP-9 has a significant difference in breast cancer patients in comparison with control group, as the concentration of active form of this enzyme was less in control group than the breast cancer patients group (0.7 ng and 1.7 ng respectively. Thus, the level of active MMP-9 showed a significant increase in persons with CT and TT genotypes in comparison with CC genotype (1.5 folds.Results: The present data suggest the concentration of active MMP-9 in breast cancer patients has significantly increased in comparison with the control group and the increased in plasma level of this enzyme is related with the existence of T allele at this gene promoter and also in progression of breast cancer in these patients. We can use the active plasma level of this enzyme or the existence of T allele as a diagnostic tool for discriminating subgroups of breast cancer

  11. Effect of fasting and parathyroid hormone injection on plasma 45Ca concentrations in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young male rats were administered 45Ca 5 days to 2 weeks prior to use. All rats were either parathyroidectomized (PTX) or thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) and given several days to recover from surgery. The first group of rats were maintained on a 12 h dark-fed and 12 h light-fasted daily cycle. The remainder of the rats were used for parathyroid hormone (PTH) studies (0.1-0.6 U/g body weight) following which blood samples were obtained from the tail for 1 to 6 h. Two groups of these rats were bilaterally nephrectomized 18 h before PTH injection. Two contrasting results were obtained: in PTX (or TPTX) rats maintained on the closely regulated food and light regime, plasma 45Ca concentrations rose markedly each day at the start of the fasting period and then fell slowly. Total plasma calcium values fell throughout the fasting period. A similar rise and fall was also observed in 45Ca values of rats experimentally fasted after being maintained with food continuously available. In contrast, in all PTX or TPTX rats, PTH injection was followed by an equal rise in both plasma calcium and 45Ca values so that for the first few hours plasma 45Ca specific activity was unchanged. These data are consistent with the concept of a bone fluid compartment (BFC) separated by a cellular interface from the primary extracellular fluid space (ECF). It is postulated that through this cellular interface calcium is actively 'pumped' from the BFC to the ECF. The rise in plama 45Ca values at the start of fasting is explained on the basis of decreased entry of stable calcium from the gastrointestinal tract and a continued movement of calcium and 45Ca from the BFC to the ECF. The concomitant increase in plasma calcium and 45Ca during the first few hours after PTH injection is explained by a rapid action of PTH to increase the rate of calcium movement from BFC to ECF by its action at the cellular interface, without altering 45Ca specific activity until such time as dissolution of bone crystals is

  12. The impact of plasma triglyceride and apolipoproteins concentrations on high-density lipoprotein subclasses distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yinghui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of triglyceride (TG integrates with plasma major components of apolipoproteins in HDL subclasses distribution and further elicited the TG-apolipoproteins (apos interaction in the processes of high density lipoprotein (HDL mature metabolic and atherosclerosis related diseases. Methods Contents of plasma HDL subclasses were quantities by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated with immunodetection in 500 Chinese subjects. Results Contents of preβ1-HDL, HDL3a, and apoB-100 level along with apoB-100/A-I ratio were significantly increased, whereas there was a significant reduction in the contents of HDL2, apoA-I level as well as apoC-III/C-II ratio with increased TG concentration. Moreover, preβ1-HDL contents is elevated about 9 mg/L and HDL2b contents can be reduced 21 mg/L for 0.5 mmol/L increment in TG concentration. Moreover, with increase of apoA-I levels, HDL2b contents were marginally elevated in any TG concentration group. Furthermore, despite of in the apoB-100/A-I 1-HDL increased, and those of HDL2b decreased significantly for subjects in both high and very high TG levels compared to that in normal TG levels. Similarly, in the apoB-100/A-I ≥ 0.9 group, the distribution of HDL subclasses also showed abnormality for subjects with normal TG levels. Conclusions The particle size of HDL subclasses tend to small with TG levels increased which indicated that HDL maturation might be impeded and efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport(RCT might be weakened. These data suggest that TG levels were not only significantly associated with but liner with the contents of preβ1-HDL and HDL2b. They also raise the possibility that the TG levels effect on HDL maturation metabolism are subjected to plasma apolipoproteins and apolipoproteins ratios.

  13. Effect of vacuum conditions and plasma concentration on the chemical composition and adhesion of vacuum-plasma coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, D. P.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Slabodchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper reports on the chemical composition of titanium nitride (TiN) and silicon (Si) coatings deposited with a new technological vacuum plasma setup which comprises magnetron sputtering systems, arc evaporators, and an efficient plasma generator. It is shown that due to highly clean vacuum conditions and highly clean surface treatment in the gas discharge plasma, both the coating-substrate interface and the coatings as such are almost free from oxygen and carbon. It is found that the coating-substrate interface represents a layer of thickness ≥ 60 nm formed through vacuum plasma mixing of the coating and substrate materials. The TiN coatings obtained on the new equipment display a higher adhesion compared to brass coatings deposited by industrial technologies via intermediate titanium oxide layers. It is concluded that the designed vacuum plasma equipment allows efficient surface modification of materials and articles by vacuum plasma immersion processes.

  14. The Concentrations of Circulating Plasma Oxytocin and the Pattern of Oxytocin Release in Mare during Oestrus and after Ovulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung Eun

    Mares susceptible to persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) accumulate intrauterine fluid after mating. One of the factors causing delayed uterine clearance is thought to be impaired uterine contractility. Oxytocin is central in controlling myometrial contractility. The objective of the present study was to describe peripheral oxytocin release during estrus and in the early postovulatory period in reproductively-normal mares and to compare the baseline circulating oxytocin concentrations in reproductively-normal mares and mares with PMIE. Blood samples were collected from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) from day -5 of estrus to day 2 postovulation and every 5 min for 30 min from reproductively-normal mares (n=5) and mares with PMIE (n=5) on day 3 of estrus. Pulsatile secretion of oxytocin was observed in all mares. Mean plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05) in estrus (day -5 to day -2) than on the day of ovulation (day 0). After ovulation, plasma oxytocin concentrations tended to increase. On day 3 of estrus, plasma oxytocin concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in reproductively-normal mares than in mares with PMIE. The results showed there is a significant difference in plasma oxytocin concentrations between mares to PMIE. The low plasma oxytocin concentrations in mares with PMIE may contribute to predisposing factors in their poor uterine clearance in these mares.

  15. Large inter-individual variation in isoflavone plasma concentration limits use of isoflavone intake data for risk assessement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velpen, van der V.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Nielen, van M.; Schouten, E.G.; Mensink, M.R.; Veer, van 't P.; Geelen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Isoflavones are present in soy foods and soy-based supplements. Despite low plasma isoflavone concentrations in the general Western population, concentrations in supplement users exceed those suggested to be beneficial for health in Asian populations, raising concerns for adve

  16. Plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate and budesonide following inhalation from dry powder inhalers by healthy and asthmatic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, T; Tattersfield, A

    2003-01-01

    Methods: The area under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC) and the maximum concentration (Cmax) of fluticasone propionate and budesonide after a single inhaled dose of each drug were compared in 12 healthy control subjects and 12 subjects with moderately severe asthma.

  17. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B; Fenger, M; Knudsen, P J

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... theophylline concentration....

  18. Association of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Michelle W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Ram, Pavani K; LaMonte, Michael J.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Genco, Robert J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Millen, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous findings of an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and periodontal disease, may be partially explained by vitamin D’s antimicrobial properties. To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association between 25(OH)D and pathogenic oral bacteria, a putative cause of periodontal disease. Methods We examined the association between plasma 25(OH)D concentrations and pathogenic oral bacteria among postmenopausal women in the Buffalo Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease Study (1997–2000), an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Subgingival plaque samples were assessed using immunofluorescence for the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prevalent bacteria by quintile (Q) of 25(OH)D concentrations adjusting for age and body mass index. Results Of the 855 participants, 288 (34%) had deficient/inadequate (<50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D concentrations and 497 (58%) had at least one species of pathogenic bacteria. No significant association was found between 25(OH)D and presence of any of these bacteria (adjusted OR for high (Q5) compared to low (Q1) 25(OH)D=0.96; 95% CI: 0.61–1.50, p for trend=0.50). Inverse, although not statistically significant, associations were found between 25(OH)D and more than one species of pathogenic bacteria (adjusted OR for adequate compared to deficient/inadequate 25(OH)D=0.85; 95% CI: 0.60–1.19). Conclusions No association was observed between pathogenic oral bacteria and 25(OH)D concentrations in postmenopausal women. This may be due to the species of bacteria assessed, small effect size or a true absence of an association. PMID:24261910

  19. Plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of calcium pentosan polysulphate achieved in the horse following intramuscular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C J; Ghosh, P; Barr, A R S

    2002-01-01

    Results from in vitro studies have indicated that calcium pentosan polysulphate (CaPPS) may be of therapeutic value in osteoarthritis (OA) in the horse. However, no controlled clinical trials using this drug in equine OA have yet been reported. If CaPPS is to be developed for such use, the relationship between the proposed i.m. dose of CaPPS to be used and the concentrations of drug attained in plasma and synovial fluid of the target joint should first be established. An investigation was undertaken to determine these concentrations after a single 2 mg/kg i.m. injection of CaPPS. Blood and synovial fluid samples were taken from 6 healthy, sound horses following i.m. CaPPS administration. Concentrations of CaPPS measured in the synovial fluid were, on the basis of published studies, sufficient to elicit a potential therapeutic effect on synoviocyte metabolism, and possibly also to stimulate proteoglycan synthesis and reduce matrix metalloproteinase activities in articular cartilage. It would therefore seem justified to investigate further the therapeutic effect of CaPPS in OA in the horse. PMID:11822373

  20. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  1. Brief Report: High Peak Level of Plasma Raltegravir Concentration in Patients With ABCB1 and ABCG2 Genetic Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kiyoto; Hayashida, Tsunefusa; Hamada, Akinobu; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Raltegravir was recently identified to be a substrate of ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1) and G2 (ABCG2), which are efflux transporters and expressed in the intestines. We analyzed the relations between plasma raltegravir concentrations and single nucleotide polymorphism of ABCB1 and ABCG2 genes. The peak plasma concentration of raltegravir was significantly higher in the patients with ABCB1 4036 AG/GG and ABCG2 421 CA/AA than in other genotype holders (P = 0.0052), though no difference was identified in trough raltegravir concentrations, which may be explained by reduced expression of efflux transporters in intestine by these genetic variants. PMID:27097364

  2. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.; Tholstrup, T.; Tetens, Inge

    2006-01-01

    ) completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Women consumed daily a low-fat muffin, with or without a lignan complex, for 6 wk, separated by a 6-wk washout period. Serum ENL concentration, urinary ENL excretion, plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol.......001) and ENL urinary excretion (P <0.001) were significantly higher after the lignan complex intervention period compared with placebo. Plasma concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TAG, lipoprotein oxidation lag time, TEAC and FRAP were not affected. Daily consumption for 6 wk of a low-fat muffin enriched...

  3. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration is increased and predicts mortality in patients on the liver-transplant waiting list.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Prié

    Full Text Available High plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23 concentration predicts the risk of death and poor outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease or chronic heart failure. We checked if FGF23 concentration could be modified in patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD and predict mortality. We measured plasma FGF23 in 200 patients with ESLD registered on a liver transplant waiting list between January 2005 and October 2008. We found that median plasma FGF23 concentration was above normal values in 63% of the patients. Increased FGF23 concentration was not explained by its classical determinants: hyperphosphataemia, increased calcitriol concentration or decreased renal function. FGF23 concentration correlated with the MELD score, serum sodium concentration, and GFR. Forty-six patients died before being transplanted and 135 underwent liver transplantation. We analyzed the prognostic value of FGF23 levels. Mortality was significantly associated with FGF23 levels, the MELD score, serum sodium concentration and glomerular filtration rate. On multivariate analyses only FGF23 concentration was associated with mortality. FGF23 levels were independent of the cause of the liver disease. To determine if the damaged liver can produce FGF23 we measured plasma FGF23 concentration and liver FGF23 mRNA expression in control and diethyl-nitrosamine (DEN-treated mice. FGF23 plasma levels increased with the apparition of liver lesions in DEN-treated mice and that FGF23 mRNA expression, which was undetectable in the liver of control mice, markedly increased with the development of liver lesions. The correlation between FGF23 plasma concentration and FGF23 mRNA expression in DEN-treated mice suggests that FGF23 production by the liver accounts for the increased plasma FGF23 concentration. In conclusion chronic liver lesions can induce expression of FGF23 mRNA leading to increased FGF23 concentration, which is associated with a higher mortality in patients on a

  4. Physiologically relevant plasma d,l-homocysteine concentrations mobilize Cd from human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagmeister, Peter; Gibson, Matthew A; McDade, Kyle H; Gailer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Although low-level chronic exposure of humans to cadmium (Cd(2+)) can result in a variety of adverse health effects, little is known about the role that its interactions with plasma proteins and small molecular weight (SMW) ligands in the bloodstream may play in delivering this metal to its target organs. To gain insight, a Cd-human serum albumin (HSA) 1:1 (molar ratio) complex was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). Using a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer mobile phase, the stability of the Cd-HSA complex was investigated in the presence of 2.0mM of SMW ligands, including taurine, acetaminophen, l-methionine, l-cysteine (Cys), d,l-homocysteine (hCys) or l-cysteine methyl-ester (Cys-Me). While taurine, acetaminophen and l-methionine did not affect its integrity, Cys, hCys and Cys-Me completely abstracted Cd from HSA. Subsequent investigations into the effect of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5mM Cys and hCys on the integrity of the Cd-HSA complex revealed clear differences with regard to the nature of the eluting SMW-Cd species between these structurally related endogenous thiols. Interestingly, the Cd-specific chromatograms that were obtained for 0.5mM hCys revealed the elution of an apparent mixture of the parent Cd-HSA complex with a significant contribution of a structurally uncharacterized CdxhCysy species. Since this hCys concentration is encountered in blood plasma of hyperhomocysteinemia patients and since previous studies by others have revealed that a SH-containing carrier mediates the uptake of Cd into hepatocytes, our results suggest that plasma hCys may play a role in the toxicologically relevant translocation of Cd from the bloodstream to mammalian target organs. PMID:27294530

  5. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. During the reporting period the alkali measuring device has been tested under pressurized conditions at VTT Energy, DMT, Foster-Wheeler Energia and ABB Carbon. Measurements in Delft will be performed during 1996 after installation of the hot gas filter. The original plan for measurements in Delft has been postponed due to schedule delays in Delft. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. This will be the first test of the plasma assisted measurement method in a gasification process. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  6. The T1405N carbamoyl phosphate synthetase polymorphism does not affect plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M J Moonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A C-to-A nucleotide transversion (T1405N in the gene that encodes carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1 has been associated with changes in plasma concentrations of L-arginine in term and near term infants but not in adults. In preterm infants homozygosity for the CPS1 Thr1405 variant (CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of having necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Plasma L-arginine concentrations are decreased in preterm infants with NEC. AIM: To examine the putative association between the CPS1 T1405N polymorphism and plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort study. Plasma and DNA samples were collected from 128 preterm infants (<30 weeks between 6 and 12 hours after birth. Plasma amino acid and CPS1 T1405N polymorphism analysis were performed. RESULTS: Distribution of genotypes did not differ between the preterm (CC:CA:AA = 55.5%:33.6%:10.9%, n = 128 and term infants (CC:CA:AA = 54.2%:35.4%:10.4%, n = 96. There was no association between the CPS1 genotype and plasma L-arginine or L-citrulline concentration, or the ornithine to citrulline ratio, which varies inversely with CPS1 activity. Also the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine were not significantly different among the three genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study in preterm infants did not confirm the earlier reported association between CPS1 genotype and L-arginine levels in term infants.

  7. EVALUATION OF PLASMA LACTATE CONCENTRATION IN UNEXPLAINED MYOPATHIES WITH MULTI-ORGAN INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myopathies are disorders of muscle with structural c hanges or functional impairment. Mitochondrial myopathies are caused by g enetic mutations that directly influence the functioning of the electron transport chain. The ubiquitous distribution of the mitochondria in the human body explains the multiple organ involv ement. Diagnosis often requires a multifaceted approach with measurements of serum lact ate, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, muscle histology and ultrastructure, enzymology, ge netic analysis, and exercise testing. The present study was conducted to find out the reason b ehind unexplained myopathies with multi- organ involvement by measuring plasma lactate concen tration in patients who were suspected to be suffering from mitochondrial disorders. Muscl e biopsy samples of those patients were also subjected for histopathological assessment. Out of t wenty suspected patients, nine patients showed high lactate concentration and their muscle biopsy sample also revealed some changes suggestive of mitochondrial disorders.

  8. Plasma etching antireflection nanostructures on optical elements in concentrator photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo Ruiz, Efrain Eduardo; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Tamaki, Ryo; Hoshii, Takuya; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Okada, Yoshitaka; Miyano, Kenjiro; Cvetkovic, Aleksandra; Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel

    2015-01-01

    Transmission-type concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems are a potential candidate to achieve high efficiency and low cost solar energy. The use of optical elements in these systems creates reflection losses of incoming solar energy that account for about 8% to 12% depending on the optical design. In order to reduce these losses, we have nanostructured the air/optical-elements' interfaces by using plasma etching methods on the Fresnel lens made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the homogenizer made of glass. On flat PMMA and glass substrates, transmittance enhancement measurements are in agreement with relative Jsc gains. The field test results using a CPV module with all textured optical-elements' interfaces achieved 8.0% and 4.3% relative Jsc and efficiency gains, respectively, demonstrating the potential of this approach to tackle the reflection losses.

  9. Performance and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows supplemented with vitamin E and fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rohollah Amirifard; Mohammad Khorvash; Masiholla Forouzmand; Hamid-Reza Rahmani; Ahmad Riasi; Mohammad Malekkhahi; Mojtaba Yari; Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE; 1500 or 3000 international units (IU) d–1) and fat (2% of dry matter calcium salt of soybean oil) supplementation during the transition period on feed intake, milk yield and composition and blood metabolites of dairy cows. 48 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned into one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of vitamin E and supplemental dietary fat during the transition period. Treatments were: 1) 1500 IU d–1 vitamin E without fat supplementation (1500VE–F); 2) 1500 IU d–1 vitamin E with fat supplement (1500VE+F); 3) 3000 IU d–1 vitamin E without fat supplementation (3000VE–F); and 4) 3000 IU d–1 vitamin E with fat supplement (3000VE+F). Dietary treatments were initiated at approximately 28 d before expected calving dates and con-tinued through 28 d postpartum. Dry matter intake (DMI) was unaffected (P>0.05) by prepartum treatment. Regardless of vitamin E supplementation, DMI was greater (P0.05) by treatments. Postpartum diets had no signiifcant effect on milk yield or milk composition. Plasma concentra-tions of non-esteriifed fatty acids, glucose, and insulin were not affected (P>0.05) by treatments. Regardless of vitamin E supplementation, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was greater (P<0.05) in fat-supplemented cows compared with un-supplemented cows during the postpartum period. These results showed no indication of positive effects on lactation performance associated with vitamin E and dietary fat supplement in transition cows.

  10. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  11. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers.Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells.Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05. Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups.Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed.

  12. Plasma urate concentration and risk of coronary heart disease: a Mendelian randomisation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jon; Sofat, Reecha; Hemani, Gibran; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Dale, Caroline; Shah, Sonia; Kruger, Felix A; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Palmer, Tom; McLachlan, Stela; Langenberg, Claudia; Zabaneh, Delilah; Lovering, Ruth; Cavadino, Alana; Jefferis, Barbara; Finan, Chris; Wong, Andrew; Amuzu, Antoinette; Ong, Ken; Gaunt, Tom R; Warren, Helen; Davies, Teri-Louise; Drenos, Fotios; Cooper, Jackie; Ebrahim, Shah; Lawlor, Debbie A; Talmud, Philippa J; Humphries, Steve E; Power, Christine; Hypponen, Elina; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Wareham, Nicholas; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Day, Ian N; Whincup, Peter; Morris, Richard; Strachan, Mark W J; Price, Jacqueline; Kumari, Meena; Kivimaki, Mika; Plagnol, Vincent; Whittaker, John C; Smith, George Davey; Dudbridge, Frank; Casas, Juan P; Holmes, Michael V; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Increased circulating plasma urate concentration is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease, but the extent of any causative effect of urate on risk of coronary heart disease is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify any causal role of urate on coronary heart disease risk using Mendelian randomisation analysis. Methods We first did a fixed-effects meta-analysis of the observational association of plasma urate and risk of coronary heart disease. We then used a conventional Mendelian randomisation approach to investigate the causal relevance using a genetic instrument based on 31 urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To account for potential pleiotropic associations of certain SNPs with risk factors other than urate, we additionally did both a multivariable Mendelian randomisation analysis, in which the genetic associations of SNPs with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were included as covariates, and an Egger Mendelian randomisation (MR-Egger) analysis to estimate a causal effect accounting for unmeasured pleiotropy. Findings In the meta-analysis of 17 prospective observational studies (166 486 individuals; 9784 coronary heart disease events) a 1 SD higher urate concentration was associated with an odds ratio (OR) for coronary heart disease of 1·07 (95% CI 1·04–1·10). The corresponding OR estimates from the conventional, multivariable adjusted, and Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis (58 studies; 198 598 individuals; 65 877 events) were 1·18 (95% CI 1·08–1·29), 1·10 (1·00–1·22), and 1·05 (0·92–1·20), respectively, per 1 SD increment in plasma urate. Interpretation Conventional and multivariate Mendelian randomisation analysis implicates a causal role for urate in the development of coronary heart disease, but these estimates might be inflated by hidden pleiotropy. Egger Mendelian randomisation analysis, which accounts for

  13. Plasma concentrations of extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 are related to cardiovascular risk markers in chronic kidney disease and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Sidelmann, Johannes J;

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fibulin-1 is one of a few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1 was determined in subjects with chronic ...... the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease observed in chronic kidney disease and diabetes.......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fibulin-1 is one of a few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1 was determined in subjects with chronic...... kidney disease (n = 32; median age 62.5, inter-quartile range 51 -- 73 years) and 60 age-matched control subjects. Among kidney disease patients serological biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease (fibrinogen, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein) were measured. Arterial applanation tonometry was used...

  14. CHANGES OF PLASMA ENDOTHELIN CONCENTRATIONS BEFORE AND AFTER PERCUTANEOUS BALLOON MITRAL VALVULOPLASTY IN PATIENTS WITH MITRAL STENOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹瑞兴; 赵定菁; 朱树雄; 陶新智; 曾知恒; 夏树楹

    1996-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of endothalln in blood from the femoral vein and the antecnbital vein were measured in 35 patients with mitral stenosis and heart failure before and after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty(PBMV). The basal plasma concentrations of endothelin in blood from the antecubital vein inthe patients were significantly higher than those in 32 control subjects (15.40±3. 32 vs. 9.59±2.66 pg/ml, P<0. 001). Plasma endothefin concentrations in patients in New York Heart Asscclation functional classes Ⅱ and Ⅰ were significantly higher than thee in control subjects, spectiveiy. The concentrationsof endotheiin in patients with atrial fibrillation were also significantly higher than those in patients withnormal sinus rhythm. Ten to fifteen minutes after PBMV, plasma endothelin concentrations in blood (ramthe femoral vein significantly decreased from 16. 14±3.34 to 13. 74±3.78 pg/ml (P<0. 01). Seventy-two hours after the procedure, the concentrations of endothelin in blood from the antecnbital vein had fallen to 12. 31+2. 55 pg/ml (P<0. 001 vs. before PBMV and control subjects). Plasma endothelin concentrations still tended to be higher in patients with atrial fibrillation than those in normal sinus rhythm,but the difference did not reach statistlaal significance. There were ,Weak bnt signlficamly correlations of plasma endotbelin concentrations with the mean left atrial pressure (r= 0. 424, P<0. 001 ), mean right atrial pressure (r=0. 323, P<0. 01), mean transmittal pressure gradient (r=0. 397, P<0. 001), heart rate (r=0. 350,P<0. 005) and mitral valve area (r=-0. 454, P<0. 001) in the patients before and after PBMV.

  15. Ion acoustic wave velocity measurement of the concentration of two ion species in a multi-dipole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of two species in a multi-dipole plasma was determined by measuring the ion acoustic wave group velocity and the electron temperature. The wave was launched from a grid immersed in the plasma and was detected by a Langmuir probe. Electron temperature was found separately from an I--V characteristic trace. The measurements were performed in helium/xenon and argon/xenon plasmas. Typical parameters of the plasma were Te∼0.5--3eV, density 1010cm-3, plasma potential of 3--5 V, and pressure range from 1 to 20 mTorr. The accuracy of the measurement was from 2% to 4% depending on the mass difference between the two species and how accurately the group velocity and electron temperature are measured

  16. Serotonin concentrations in platelets, plasma, mitral valve leaflet, and left ventricular myocardial tissue in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cremer, Signe Emilie; Singletary, G.E.; Olsen, Lisbeth Høier; Wallace, K.; Häggström, J.; Ljungvall, I.; Höglund, K.; Reynolds, C.A.; Pizzinat, N.; Oyama, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    [5HT] in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-poor plasma (PPP), mitral valve leaflets (MV), and left ventricular myocardium (LV). ANIMALS: Forty-five dogs comprised 4 plasma groups of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) or non-CKCS, either healthy (CON) or MMVD affected: CKCS CON (n = 12); non......-CKCS CON (n = 8); CKCS MMVD (n = 14); non-CKCS MMVD (n = 11). Twenty-four dogs comprised 3 tissue groups: MMVD (n = 8); other-HD (heart disease) (n = 7); non-HD, extracardiac disease (n = 9). METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography measured PRP, PPP, MV, and LV [5HT]. RESULTS: Platelet-rich plasma......HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Altered serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) signaling is postulated in development and progression of canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Little is known regarding platelet, plasma, valvular, or myocardial 5HT concentration ([5HT]) in affected dogs. We quantified...

  17. Temocillin efficacy in experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis after infusion into rabbit plasma to simulate antibiotic concentrations in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodnutt, G.; Catherall, E J; Kernutt, I; Mizen, L

    1988-01-01

    An infusion system was developed to simulate in the plasma of rabbits the concentrations of temocillin in human serum measured after administration of a 2-g intravenous bolus dose. The efficacy of therapy with this infusion against experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis was compared with that of a conventional bolus dose to the animals. The marked difference between the elimination half-life (t1/2) of temocillin in rabbit plasma and human serum (0.3 and 5 h, respectively) was reflected...

  18. Comparison of tests for glycated haemoglobin and fasting and two hour plasma glucose concentrations as diagnostic methods for diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    McCance, D.R.; Hanson, R.L.; Charles, M. A.; Jacobsson, L. T.; Pettitt, D. J.; Bennett, P H; Knowler, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the ability of tests measuring two hour plasma glucose, fasting plasma glucose, and glycated haemoglobin concentrations in predicting the specific microvascular complications of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. DESIGN--Cross sectional and longitudinal analysis of the relation between complications and concomitant results of the three tests. SETTING--Gila River Indian Community, Arizona. SUBJECTS--Pima Indians (cross sectional, n = 960), aged 25 years or above who...

  19. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  20. Barley and wheat foods: influence on plasma cholesterol concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, G H; Whyte, J; McArthur, R; Nestel, P J

    1991-05-01

    Twenty-one mildly hypercholesterolemic men aged 30-59 y were provided with comparable barley and wheat foods for each of 4 wk in a crossover-designed experiment. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of two sources of dietary fiber (nonstarch polysaccharides, NSP) on blood lipids and glucose concentrations. Barley contains beta-glucan as a source of soluble dietary fiber (DF) whereas wheat contains the largely insoluble cellulose and hemicellulose fiber. Total dietary fiber increased from a previous intake of 21-38 g/d during the period of study for the two groups. Consumption of barley relative to wheat foods was associated with a significant fall in both plasma total cholesterol (6%, P less than 0.05) and in low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (7%, P less than 0.02) whereas triglyceride and glucose concentrations did not change significantly. It is concluded that barley dietary fiber is more effective than wheat dietary fiber at lowering blood cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men. PMID:1850576

  1. Effect of topical silver sulfadiazine on plasma copper, zinc and silver concentrations in a burn rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, R.; Boosalis, M.; McClain, C.; Becker, W.; Watiwat, S. (Army Inst. of Surgery Research, Ft. Sam Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-15

    One percent silver sulfadiazine cream (AgSD) is routinely used as a topical agent to prevent wound infection in burned patients. This report describes the effect of such topical therapy on plasma copper, silver and zinc concentrations in burned rats. Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats received full thickness burns of 30% of the total body surface and were maintained for seven days on Purina Rat Chow and deionized water ad libitum. Twelve sham burned animals were similarly maintained. The wounds in six burned and a similar area in six sham burned animals were treated daily with 3 gms of AgSD, beginning on the day of injury. Blood was drawn on the seventh postburn day and analyzed for plasma copper, silver and zinc, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Silver absorption was associated with decreased plasma copper concentration in both burned and sham burned animals. Zinc concentrations did not differ significantly.

  2. Intrapatient variation in antiepileptic drug plasma concentration after generic substitution vs stable brand-name drug regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Manuela; Alberghini, Lucia; Candela, Carmina; Benini, Giulia; Riva, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is still a matter of controversy and concern among clinicians and patients. We aimed to assess intrasubject variation in plasma concentrations of lamotrigine (LTG), levetiracetam (LEV) and topiramate (TPM) after generic substitution compared with a stable brand-name drug regimen in a population of patients with epilepsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on prospectively collected and stored data from our therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database for the years 2009-2014. The main outcome variable was the proportion of patients who, after switching from branded to generic formulations, showed a greater than ±20% change in AED plasma concentrations compared to the proportion of control patients showing a change in AED plasma concentrations of the same extent while receiving stable branded formulations over repeated TDM tests. Fifty patients on LTG, 27 on LEV and 16 on TPM showing at least one TDM test while receiving generic products fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria for the analysis and were compared with 200 control patients for LTG, 120 for LEV and 80 for TPM. The proportion of patients showing an intrasubject change greater than ±20% in AED plasma concentrations was similar in the brand name vs generic group compared with the control one for LTG (22% vs 33%) and LEV (44% vs 38%), while it was higher in the control group for TPM (41% vs 6%, pTPM plasma concentrations can be observed even in patients stabilized with the same brand name product over time. This suggests that any change in plasma AED concentration and possible related clinical effects after generic substitution may be not necessarily related to the switch. Our results should be confirmed by large, prospective, blinded, randomized controlled studies in people with epilepsy. PMID:26987080

  3. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.;

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... antioxidant capacity, The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a lignan complex, providing 500 mg/d of SDG, on serum concentration and urinary excretion of ENL, plasma lipids, serum lipoprotein oxidation resistance, and markers of antioxidant capacity. Healthy postmenopausal women (n=22...

  4. Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, N; Shiojima, S; Hasegawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA ...

  5. Influence of food intake on the 24-hr variations of plasma iron concentration in the rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Schümann, K; Haen, Ekkehard

    1988-01-01

    Circadian variations in plasma iron levels were first reported in humans in 1937. Influences of the sleeping pattern and of plasma cortisol and adrenaline levels on these variations as well as the reproducibility of the phenomenon itself are discussed controversially in the literature. The influence of food intake, however, was not considered in most of the studies and is therefore subject of this investigation. Circadian plasma iron and plasma transferrin variations were determined in rabbit...

  6. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanjie Zheng; Jindong Wang; Lei Yi; Hui Yu; Lingli Kong; Weizhen Cui; Hong Chen; Chunxia Wang

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy) among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine co...

  7. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon the Concentration of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper it has been showed that the irradiation of chickens eggs before incubation by low dose gamma irradiation effects upon growth of the chickens hatched from irradiated eggs as well as upon activity of ALT and AST, and on the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of those chickens. Therefore in this paper an attempt was made to determine the effects of irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the 19th day of incubation upon the concentration of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Gent, line COBB 500) were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the chickens, which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of Ca was determined calorimetrically using Randox optimized kits, while the concentration of P was determined by Herbos dijagnostika Sisak (Croatia) optimized kits. The concentration of Ca in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly increased on the first day, while it was decreased on the day 42. The concentration of P was decreased on the first day in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The fact that the concentration of both minerals in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly changed on the first day proves that the irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the nineteenth day of incubation had an effect on metabolism of both minerals in those chickens. (author)

  8. The role of plasma-derived factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrates in the treatment of hemophilia A patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerswald, Günter; Spranger, Torsten; Brackmann, Hans-Hermann

    2003-06-01

    Besides preventing bleeding episodes, common goals of the treatment of hemophilia include integrating of patients into a normal social life and optimizing their quality of life. Sufficient amounts of factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates, whether recombinant or plasma-derived, are continuously needed. Guidelines for quality assurance of treatment will be a cornerstone to maintain optimal clinical management of patients especially considering financial aspects. Advances in manufacturing technologies have made possible general availability of modern concentrates for the management of hemophilia A patients. Safety, cost and continuous supply of concentrates must be considered when deciding on a product for replacement therapy. As todays' products have reached an excellent margin of safety with regard to virus transmission, the development and treatment of inhibitors is currently the main concern for physicians and patients. The incidence of inhibitors is influenced by various patient-related factors such as mutation type or severity of the disease. Plasma-derived FVIII concentrates containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) may have clinical advantages over pure FVIII concentrates with regard to inhibitor development and inhibitor eradication. Clinical trials comparing FVIII/VWF concentrates with pure FVIII concentrates are lacking, thus a lower inhibitor incidence has not yet been proven. Data from Germany on immune tolerance induction with FVIII/VWF concentrates indicate higher success rates with these than with pure FVIII concentrates. In addition FVIII/VWF concentrates are the therapy of choice when immune tolerance therapy with pure FVIII products is not successful. PMID:12826531

  9. Effects of short-term niacin treatment on plasma lipoprotein concentrations in African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops)

    KAUST Repository

    Chauke, Chesa G.

    2014-01-22

    Niacin is the most effective drug available for raising levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. To evaluate its effects on plasma lipid concentrations, the authors administered a low dose of niacin to healthy, adult, female African green monkeys for 3 months. In the treated monkeys, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations decreased by 43% from baseline, whereas concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I increased by 49% and 34%, respectively. The results suggest that in this primate model, a low dose of niacin can effectively increase concentrations of HDL cholesterol.©2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Validated assay for the simultaneous quantification of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human EDTA plasma and of vincristine concentrations in human plasma ultrafiltrate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.W.N. Damen; T. Israëls; H.N. Caron; J.H.M. Schellens; H. Rosing; J.H. Beijnen

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay for the simultaneous determination of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human plasma and an assay for the determination of unbound vincristine are presented. Ele

  11. Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the β-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker (β-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590 ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4 mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEChatchability and LOECfemaleGSI values of 0.1 mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOECmale wet weight value of 1.0 mg/L, and the LOECreproduction value was 1.0 mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00 mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84 mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were greater than the human therapeutic plasma concentration and

  12. Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the {beta}-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giltrow, Emma [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Eccles, Paul D. [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J.; McCormack, Paul J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Rand-Weaver, Mariann [Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Natural Environmental Research Council, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Sumpter, John P., E-mail: john.sumpter@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-27

    The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker ({beta}-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590 ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4 mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEC{sup hatchability} and LOEC{sup female} {sup GSI} values of 0.1 mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOEC{sup m}ale wet weight value of 1.0 mg/L, and the LOEC{sup r}eproduction value was 1.0 mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00 mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84 mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were greater than the human

  13. Numerical Study on the Acetylene Concentration in the Hydrogen-Carbon System in a Hydrogen Plasma Torch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Longwei; SHEN Jie; SHU Xingsheng; FANG Shidong; ZHANG Lipeng; MENG Yuedong

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the hydrogen/carbon mole ratio and pyrolysis gas pressure on the acetylene concentration in the hydrogen-carbon system in a plasma torch were numerically calculated by using the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium method of Gibbs free energy. The calculated results indicate that the hydrogen concentration and the pyrolysis gas pressure play crucial roles in acetylene formation. Appropriately abundant hydrogen, with a mole ratio of hydrogen to carbon about 1 or 2, and a relatively high pyrolysis gas pressure can enhance the acetylene concentration. In the experiment, a compromised project consisting of an appropriate hydrogen flow rate and a feasible high pyrolysis gas pressure needs to be carried out to increase the acetylene concentration from coal pyrolysis in the hydrogen plasma torch.

  14. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  15. Comparison of Nitric Oxide Concentrations in μs- and ns-Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas by UV Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.; Hirschberg, J.; Mertens, N.; Wieneke, S.; Viöl, W.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an absorption spectroscopy measurement method was applied on two atmospheric pressure plasma sources to determine their production of nitric oxide. The concentrations are essential for evaluating the plasma sources based on the principle of the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) for applications in plasma medicine. The described method is based on a setup with an electrodeless discharge lamp filled with a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. One of the emitted wavelengths is an important resonance wavelength of nitric oxide (λ = 226.2 nm). By comparing the absorption behaviour at the minimum and maximum of the spectral absorption cross section of nitric oxide around that wavelength, and measuring the change in intensity by the absorbing plasma, the concentration of nitric oxide inside the plasma can be calculated. The produced nitric oxide concentrations depend on the pulse duration and are in the range of 180 ppm to 1400 ppm, so that a distance of about 10cm to the respiratory tract is enough to conform to the VDI Guideline 2310.

  16. Correlation between lamivudine plasma concentrations and patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment in experienced HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi OM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OM Minzi1, V Mugoyela2, LL Gustafsson31Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART is important to achieve treatment success in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. Most HIV clinics apply the patient self-report (PSR method. However, the reliability of this method in experienced HIV patients remains questionable.Purpose: To validate the PSR method for measuring adherence to ART using lamivudine (3TC plasma concentrations in experienced HIV patients.Methods: The study was conducted in Dar Es Salaam and involved 220 patients who were receiving ART services at HIV clinics for more than 12 months. Self-reported adherence information to ART was obtained on the day of HIV clinic visit. The patients were asked to mention the number of doses missed within the past 7 days. In addition, blood samples (2 mL were collected from each patient on the same day. The blood samples were determined for 3TC plasma concentrations. The target 3TC plasma concentration as indicator concentration for adherent patients was determined in 20 patients who took their evening dose of antiretrovirals under supervision. The blood from these patients was drawn 3 hours after drug administration.Results: Complete drug levels of 3TC and self-reported adherence data was obtained in 200 treatment-experienced HIV patients. Lamivudine plasma concentrations obtained in these patients ranged between 0.02–17.36 µg/mL. The mean time from dose administration to blood drawing was 3.1 ± 1.2 hours with coefficient of variation >39%. The mean 3TC plasma concentration obtained in 20 patients who took their antiretroviral dose under supervision was

  17. Effect of over-the-counter dosages of naproxen sodium and acetaminophen on plasma lithium concentrations in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, G M; Grum, C; Eisele, G

    1998-06-01

    Prescription doses of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown to decrease clearance and increase plasma concentrations of lithium. This study was designed to evaluate whether over-the-counter (OTC) doses of naproxen sodium or acetaminophen have the same potential to affect lithium concentration. This was a prospective, crossover, 3-phase study conducted at the Clinical Pharmacology Studies Unit of the Albany Medical Center Hospital during July and August of 1995. The 3-phase study comprised the following: phase 1, lithium carbonate (300 mg every 12 hours) alone for 7 days; phase 2, lithium and either naproxen sodium (220 mg every 8 hours) or acetaminophen (650 mg every 6 hours) for 5 days; and phase 3, a 2-day washout period followed by a crossover to lithium with the alternate drug (acetaminophen or naproxen sodium) for 5 days. Twelve healthy male volunteers were recruited, nine of whom completed the study and were included in the statistical analysis. Mean (+/-SD) plasma lithium concentrations for subjects in treatment group 1 (lithium in phase 1, lithium and naproxen sodium in phase 2, lithium and acetaminophen in phase 3) were 0.38 (+/-0.11), 0.40 (+/-0.07), and 0.36 (+/-0.11) mEq/L, respectively. Mean plasma lithium concentrations for subjects in treatment group 2 (lithium in phase 1, lithium and acetaminophen in phase 2, lithium and naproxen sodium in phase 3) were 0.43 (+/-0.05), 0.48 (+/-0.10), and 0.48 (+/-0.05) mEq/L, respectively. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-test showed no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in plasma lithium concentrations during any phase of the study. The results of this study demonstrated that OTC doses of naproxen sodium and acetaminophen did not increase plasma lithium concentrations in these volunteers when taken for short periods of time. PMID:9617983

  18. Values of Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium Concentrations in Blood Plasma of Cows in Dependence on the Reproductive Cycle and Season

    OpenAIRE

    HADŽIMUSIĆ, Nejra; KRNIĆ, Josip

    2011-01-01

    The research was conducted on 240 clinically healthy Holstein-Friesian cows in various stages of the reproductive cycle (lactation, dry period, and up to 15 days from calving). Sampling was taken during the summer and winter periods. Concentrations of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium in blood plasma were determined by using the appropriate method with the “Beckmann DU-64 UV/VIS” spectrophotometer. Significant differences were determined in the values of concentrations of the exam...

  19. Low availability of carnitine precursors as a possible reason for the diminished plasma carnitine concentrations in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Seliger Gregor; Hanisch Nicole; Ringseis Robert; Eder Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been shown that plasma carnitine concentrations decrease markedly during gestation. A recent study performed with a low number of subjects suggested that this effect could be due to a low iron status which leads to an impairment of carnitine synthesis. The present study aimed to confirm this finding in a greater number of subjects. It was moreover intended to find out whether low carnitine concentrations during pregnancy could be due to a reduced availability of pre...

  20. Effects of Acute Supramaximal Cycle Exercise on Plasma FFA Concentration in Obese Adolescent Boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Jabbour

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study are 1 to evaluate the free fatty acid (FFA profile and 2 to determine the relative anaerobic and aerobic contributions to total energy consumption during repeated supramaximal cycling bouts (SCE in adolescent boys with different body weight statuses.Normal-weight (NW, overweight (OW, and obese (OB adolescent boys (n =15 per group completed a SCE sessions consisted of 6 x 6s maximal sprints with 2 min of passive rest between each repetition. Plasma FFA levels were determined at rest, immediately after a 10 min warm-up, and immediately at the end of SCE. The anaerobic and aerobic contributions (% were measured via repeated SCE bouts. Insulin resistance was calculated using the homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR index.The FFA concentrations measured immediately after SCE were higher in the OB group than in the OW and NW (p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively groups. Moreover, the anaerobic contributions to SCE were significantly lower in obese adolescents (p<0.01 and decreased significantly during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th repetitions. The FFA levels were significantly associated with the HOMA-IR index and aerobic contribution among adolescent boys (r=0.83 and r=0.91, respectively, p<0.01.In contrast to the NW and OW groups, there is an increase in lipid mobilization and sift to aerobic energy metabolism during SCE in the OB group.

  1. Pituitary progesterone receptor expression and plasma gonadotrophin concentrations in the reproductively dysfunctional mutant restricted ovulator chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocón-Grove, Olga M; Maddineni, Sreenivasa; Hendricks, Gilbert L; Elkin, Robert G; Proudman, John A; Ramachandran, Ramesh

    2007-04-01

    Female mutant restricted ovulator (RO) chickens of the White Leghorn strain carry a naturally occurring single nucleotide mutation in the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) gene. Due to this mutation, RO hens fail to express a functional VLDLR protein on the oocyte membrane, which results in an impaired uptake of circulating yolk precursor macromolecules. Mutant RO hens subsequently develop hyperlipidemia and generally fail to lay eggs due to follicular atresia. Since RO hens also reportedly have three-fold higher basal plasma estrogen concentrations, combined with four-fold lower levels of circulating progesterone as compared to wild-type (WT) hens, we hypothesized that RO hens would have an increased abundance of pituitary progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and PR isoforms A and B as well as alterations in circulating gonadotrophin levels. Quantitative PCR assays revealed significantly greater (Pestradiol, but lower circulating progesterone levels. Collectively, elevated circulating estrogen and/or decreased progesterone levels may have contributed to the upregulation of PR mRNA and PR isoforms A and B in the RO hen pituitary gland. Lastly, in order to gain a more complete understanding of why RO hens are reproductively dysfunctional, a model is proposed that links humoral and ovarian factors to observed and putative changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. PMID:16677794

  2. Erstellen einer LabVIEW-Applikation zur Kanalisierung von Messdaten und Verifizierung der Messgenauigkeit des optischen AIV Testaufbaus für BELA

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Die vorliegende Bachelorarbeit thematisiert die Erstellung einer Anwendung auf Basis des LabVIEW-Programmiersystems, mit der die Messdaten des BELA AIV Testaufbaus erfasst und kanalisiert und die Messgenauigkeit hinsichtlich der Anforderungen verifiziert werden sollen. Zunächst werden die Grundlagen und Rahmenbedingungen der BepiColombo-Mission sowie der Laseraltimetrie dargelegt. Dabei erfolgt eine Analyse des technologischen Stands anhand diverser in der Raumfahrt bereits eingesetzter La...

  3. Endothelin-1 and -3 plasma concentrations in patients with cirrhosis: role of splanchnic and renal passage and liver function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbes, A L; Møller, S; Gülberg, V;

    1995-01-01

    splanchnic and renal passage and of liver function on plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-3 (ET-3) in patients with cirrhosis compared with controls. Eighteen patients with cirrhosis and 8 normotensive controls of similar age were investigated. Arterial and venous plasma samples were...... obtained simultaneously, and ET-1 and ET-3 concentrations were determined in extracted plasma by two separate radioimmunoassays. Arterial as well as hepatic and renal venous concentrations of ET-1 in cirrhosis (17.8 +/- 0.8 pg/mL, 19.1 +/- 0.9 pg/mL, and 16.8 +/- 0.8 pg/mL) were significantly (P < .001......) higher than in controls (9.2 +/- 1.7 pg/mL, 9.0 +/- 2.0 pg/mL, and 8.4 +/- 1.9 pg/mL, respectively). The same held true for the corresponding ET-3 plasma concentrations in cirrhosis (19.3 +/- 1.6 pg/mL, 20.5 +/- 1.5 pg/mL, and 18.4 +/- 1.5 pg/mL, respectively) compared with controls (11.1 +/- 1.8 pg...

  4. Higher Plasma Concentration of Food-Specific Antibodies in Persons with Autistic Disorder in Comparison to Their Siblings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajkovski, Vladimir; Petlichkovski, Aleksandar; Efinska-Mladenovska, Olivija; Trajkov, Dejan; Arsov, Todor; Strezova, Ana; Ajdinski, Ljubomir; Spiroski, Mirko

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgA, IgG, and IgE antibodies to food antigens in 35 participants with autistic disorder and 21 of their siblings in the Republic of Macedonia were examined. Statistically significant higher plasma concentration of IgA antibodies against alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, casein, and gliadin were found in the children with autistic…

  5. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    2000-01-01

    Elevated urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a predictor of cardiovascular disease, and one possible explanation is that elevated UAE reflects a generalized vascular dysfunction. The present study tests whether the plasma concentrations of the two main endothelial vasoactive substances (nitric oxide...

  6. Plasma concentrations of pituitary and peripheral hormones during ranitidine treatment for two years in men with duodenal ulcer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Thuesen, B; Dejgaard, A;

    1989-01-01

    The effects of treatment for 2 years with the histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine (100 or 200 mg b.d. for 6 weeks followed by 100 or 200 mg daily) on plasma concentrations of pituitary and peripheral hormones in ten men with duodenal ulcer have been investigated. Stimulation tests with TRH...

  7. The effect of heparin on pregnancy associated plasma protein-A concentration in healthy, non-pregnant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Camilla H B; Vestergaard, Kirstine R; Schou, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine the differences in pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) concentrations in heparin naive and heparin treated healthy men and non-pregnant women, to find a possible difference in different age groups, and to determine the response in...

  8. Acute fasting in heifers as a model for assessing the relationship between plasma and follicular fluid NEFA concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, R.; Groot, de M.W.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Kruip, T.A.M.; Wensing, T.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from epidemiological studies that negative energy balance in early lactating dairy cows is related to a depression in reproductive performance. Elevated plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are a typical metabolic characteristic of these animals and are proposed as

  9. Phytanic acid: measurement of plasma concentrations by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and associations with diet and other plasma fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Naomi E; Grace, Philip B; Ginn, Annette; Travis, Ruth C; Roddam, Andrew W; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy

    2008-03-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that a diet rich in animal foods may be associated with an increased risk of several cancers, including cancers of the prostate, colorectum and breast, but the possible mechanism is unclear. It is hypothesised that phytanic acid, a C20 branched-chain fatty acid found predominantly in foods from ruminant animals, may be involved in early cancer development because it has been shown to up regulate activity of alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase, an enzyme commonly found to be over-expressed in tumour cells compared with normal tissue. However, little is known about the distribution of plasma phytanic acid concentrations or its dietary determinants in the general population. The primary aim of the present cross-sectional study was to determine circulating phytanic acid concentrations among ninety-six meat-eating, lacto-ovo-vegetarian and vegan women, aged 20-69 years, recruited into the Oxford component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Meat-eaters had, on average, a 6.7-fold higher geometric mean plasma phytanic acid concentration than the vegans (5.77 v. 0.86 micromol/l; P vegetarians (5.77 v. 3.93 micromol/l; P = 0.016). The strongest determinant of plasma phytanic acid concentration appeared to be dairy fat intake (r 0.68; P cancer development. PMID:17868488

  10. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O;

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph......Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine...... monophosphate concentrations decreased by 29% on average when theophylline was administered. The change in cyclic guanosine monophosphate was not correlated to the plasma concentration of theophylline in the range studied....

  11. Effect of gut active carbohydrates on plasma IgG concentrations in piglets and calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevic, M; Spring, P; Shabanovic, M; Tokic, V; Tucker, L A

    2010-06-01

    Improving immune status in neonates is crucial to health and production. Gut active carbohydrates (GAC) have been associated with increasing immunoglobin levels and immonucompetence development in mammals. The objective of the following studies was to evaluate whether GAC (mannan-oligosaccharides) applied orally to progeny immediately following parturition, improved blood plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) type G concentrations in piglets and calves. Three trials were conducted comparing control groups with those receiving GAC orally. The first two trials used piglets that were monitored for blood IgG at 2 days of age and for changes in body weight (BW), and the third trial monitored calf IgG from birth to 21 days of age. Piglets in the experimental group received 0.75 g GAC in 10 ml saline at birth and 24 h of age. The calf trial compared the control group against calves that received 22.5 g GAC mixed into 4.5 l of colostrum (to give 5 g/l) in the first 24 h after parturition. Blood serum samples were taken at 2 days post partum in piglets, and at several time points from 6 h to 21 days of age in calves, and were analysed for IgG levels by radial immunodiffusion. In the first piglet trial, significantly higher levels (32%) of IgG were observed for piglets fed GAC (P < 0.001), and in the second, IgG concentration was elevated by 23% (P < 0.01) and BW increased by 9% (P = 0.023) with GAC supplementation. Significant improvements for calves were recorded at all time points in those fed GAC (P < 0.05), with an increase in serum IgG observed after the first day, which was maintained throughout the sampling period, resulting in a difference of 39% at the end of the trial (21 d). These findings form a basis for further studies, which are required to investigate possible modes of action involved in enhancing blood immunoglobulin concentrations in young animals, and the longer-term effects this may have on the development of the immune response. PMID:22444266

  12. Effect of urea in the diet on ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma progesterone concentration in Alpine goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Gomes Alves

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of using urea in the diet on ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma urea and progesterone concentration, an experiment was carried out with 29 Alpine goats randomly distributed into four diets, each one containing 0%; 0.73%; 1.46% or 2.24% of urea on total dry matter. The follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasonography. The estrous cycles were characterized by occurrence of two, three, four or five follicular waves. The emergence day of the first follicular wave in cycles with two waves, the length of the third wave and the maximum diameter of the largest follicle of the third wave in cycles with three waves presented a quadratic behavior according to the percentage of urea in the diets. In cycles with four waves, the urea intake did not influence the follicular dynamics. The interestrus and interovulatory periods and the luteal and follicular phases length did not differ among treatments. The plasma urea concentration did not differ among diets neither among collection weeks. Plasma progesterone concentration on the estrus day and on the 11th day after estrus presented quadratic behavior, and on the 15th day after estrus, it linearly reduced acording to the percentage of urea in the diets. The supply of urea in diets at levels up to 2.24% in dietary dry matter did not influence the dry matter intake and the urea plasma concentration. For goats, the emergence day and the length of the waves, the follicular diameter and the plasma progesterone concentration on the estrus day and in the latter stages of diestrus were altered when there was supply of urea in the diet.

  13. IS THERE ANY RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LITHIUM-INDUCED QT PROLONGATION AND PLASMA OR ERYTHROCYTE CONCENTRATION OF LITHIUM?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMIN DASHTI-KHAVIDAKI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find possible relationship between QTc prolongation and erythrocyte or plasma lithium concentrations. Fifty-six patients with bipolar disorder entered this case- control study. Subjects were between 17 to 63 years of age and were receiving lithium alone, or lithium plus haloperidol or lithium plus thioridazine. The exclusion criteria were past history of cardiovascular, hepatic, renal or metabolic disorders or using other medications known to cause rhythm disturbances. The case group included males with QTc 450ms and females with QTc470ms while the control group included males and females with QTc<450 and QTc< 470ms, respectively. Serum sodium and potassium levels, erythrocyte and plasma lithium concentrations as well as lithium ratio were determined for all subjects and compared between the case and control groups by independent sample t-test. The mean of these levels were not different between the case and control groups. Additionally, no correlations were found between QTc and erythrocyte or plasma lithium concentration, lithium ratio, serum sodium or potassium levels. Analyzing the data for patients treated with lithium alone showed no significant correlations between QTc prolongation and erythrocyte or plasma lithium concentration, lithium ratio or serum potassium level. However, a significant correlation was found between serum sodium concentration and QTc prolongation. It should be noted that QTc prolongation occurred six times more in patients who were taking thioridazine and lithium concomitantly. This study noted no influence of sex or co-administration of haloperidol with lithium on QTc prolongation. It is concluded that plasma or erythrocyte lithium levels may not be able to predict QTc prolongation and its consequences.

  14. Effect of an Acute Incremental Exercise on Plasma Peptide YY, Neuropeptide Y and IGF-1 Concentrations in Young Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Faraji

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of a single exhausting exercise on plasma PYY, NPY and IGF-1 in young athletes. Thirty-one young athletes (aged 19.52±2.75 years, body mass 79.24±16.13 kg, height 173±6.49 cm, and body fat 16.37±5.92% volunteered to participate in this study. The participations, in randomized crossover manner, performed a single exercise bout on a cycle ergometer at 50 watts (W for five-minute, and the power output was increased by 30 W every 3 minute until voluntary exhaustion. Venous blood samples were collected before (Pre, immediately after (Post and 1h after (1h Post exercise to assess plasma PYY, NPY and IGF-1concentrations. Plasma PYY (p=0.042 and IGF-1 (p=0.001 significantly increased at Post exercise. Also, NPY was increased Post (p=0.001 and for 1h Post (p=0.021 exercise. The exhausting exercise increase plasma PYY concentration and this increase may relate to IGF-1 signals in young athletes. However, increased plasma NPY may not be related to stimulation food intake because it does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

  15. Alterations in amino acid concentrations in the plasma and muscle in human subjects during 24 h of simulated adventure racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgenvik, Marcus; Nordin, Marie; Mikael Mattsson, C; Enqvist, Jonas K; Blomstrand, Eva; Ekblom, Björn

    2012-10-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate changes in plasma and muscle levels of free amino acids during an ultra-endurance exercise and following recovery. Nine male ultra-endurance trained athletes participated in a 24-h standardized endurance trial with controlled energy intake. The participants performed 12 sessions of running, kayaking and cycling (4 × each discipline). Blood samples were collected before, during and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. Muscle biopsies were taken before the test and after exercise, as well as after 28 h of recovery. During the 24-h exercise, plasma levels of branched-chain (BCAA), essential amino acids (EAA) and glutamine fell 13, 14 and 19% (P exercise, plasma levels of BCAA were positively correlated with muscle levels of glycogen (r (2) = 0.73, P exercise caused significant changes elevations in plasma and muscle levels of tyrosine and phenylalanine, which suggest an increase in net muscle protein breakdown during exercise. There was a reduction in plasma concentrations of EAA and glutamine during exercise, whereas no changes were detected in their muscle concentration after exercise. PMID:22350359

  16. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm−1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing

  17. Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, C A; Brown-Brandl, T M; Rohrer, G A; Oliver, W T; Freking, B A

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of sex, sire line, and litter size on concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and total ghrelin in plasma of grow-finish pigs and to understand the relationship of plasma concentrations of ghrelin with feeding behavior, average daily gain (ADG), and back fat in grow-finish swine. Yorkshire-Landrace crossbred dams were inseminated with semen from Yorkshire, Landrace, or Duroc sires. Within 24 h of birth, pigs were cross-fostered into litter sizes of normal (N; >12 pigs/litter) or small (S; ≤ 9 pigs/litter). At 8 wk of age, pigs (n = 240) were blocked by sire breed, sex, and litter size and assigned to pens (n = 6) containing commercial feeders modified with a system to monitor feeding behavior. Total time eating, number of daily meals, and duration of meals were recorded for each individual pig. Body weight was recorded every 4 wk. Back fat and loin eye area were recorded at the conclusion of the 12-wk feeding study. A blood sample was collected at week 7 of the study to quantify concentrations of acyl- and total ghrelin in plasma. Pigs from small litters weighed more (P sires had lesser (P sires, but plasma concentrations of total ghrelin were not affected by sire breed. Concentrations of acyl-ghrelin were positively correlated with the number of meals and negatively correlated with meal length and ADG (P < 0.05). A larger number of short-duration meals may indicate that pigs with greater concentrations of acyl-ghrelin consumed less total feed, which likely explains why they were leaner and grew more slowly. Acyl-ghrelin is involved in regulating feeding behavior in pigs, and measuring acyl-ghrelin is important when trying to understand the role of this hormone in swine physiology. PMID:26808977

  18. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and periodontal disease in postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Amy E.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; LaMonte, Michael J.; Swanson, Mya; Andrews, Christopher A.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Genco, Robert J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties that, together with its influence on bone health, may confer periodontal benefit. Methods We investigated cross-sectional associations (1997–2000) between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] and periodontal measure among 920 postmenopausal women. Chronic measures of disease were defined based on: 1) alveolar crestal height (ACH) measures from intraoral radiographs and tooth loss, and the 2) Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) criteria using measures of clinical attachment level (CAL) and probing pocket depth (PD). Acute oral inflammation was assessed by the % of gingival sites that bled upon assessment with a probe. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for periodontal disease among participants with adequate ([25(OH)D]≥50 nmol/L) compared to deficient/inadequate ([25(OH)D]<50 nmol/L) vitamin D status adjusted for age, dental visit frequency, and body mass index. Results No association was observed between vitamin D status and periodontal disease defined by ACH and tooth loss (adjusted OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.68–1.35). In contrast, women with adequate compared to deficient/inadequate vitamin D status had a 33% lower odds (95% CI: 5%–53%) of periodontal disease defined using the CDC/AAP definition and a 42% lower odds (95% CI: 21%-58%) of having ≥50% of gingival sites that bled. Conclusion Vitamin D status was inversely associated with gingival bleeding, an acute measure of oral health and inflammation and inversely associated with clinical categories of chronic periodontal disease that incorporated PD, an indicator of oral inflammation. However, vitamin D was not associated with chronic periodontal disease based on measures of ACH in combination with tooth loss. PMID:23259413

  19. Plasma Cytokine Concentrations Indicate In-vivo Hormonal Regulation of Immunity is Altered During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crician, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Mehta, Satish; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aspects of immune system dysregulation associated with long-duration spaceflight have yet to be fully characterized, and may represent a clinical risk to crewmembers during deep space missions. Plasma cytokine concentration may serve as an indicator of in vivo physiological changes or immune system mobilization. Methods: The plasma concentrations of 22 cytokines were monitored in 28 astronauts during long-duration spaceflight onboard the International Space Station. Blood samples were collected three times before flight, 3-5 times during flight (depending on mission duration), at landing and 30 days post-landing. Analysis was performed by bead array immunoassay. Results: With few exceptions, minimal detectable mean plasma levels (plasma concentration IL-8, IL-1ra, Tpo, CCL4, CXCL5, TNF(alpha), GM-CSF and VEGF was observed associated with spaceflight. Significant post-flight increases were observed for IL-6 and CCL2. No significant alterations were observed during or following spaceflight for adaptive/T-regulatory cytokines (IL-2, IFN(gamma), IL-17, IL4, IL-5, IL-10). Conclusions: This pattern of cytokine dysregulation suggests multiple physiological adaptations persist during flight, including inflammation, leukocyte recruitment, angiogenesis and thrombocyte regulation.

  20. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  1. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  2. Comparison between the effects of platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow concentrate on defect consolidation in the rabbit tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Batista

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To perform a comparative analysis of the effects of platelet-rich plasma and centrifuged bone marrow aspirate on the induction of bone healing in rabbits. METHOD: Twenty adult, male New Zealand rabbits were randomly separated into two equal groups, and surgery was performed to create a bone defect (a cortical orifice 3.3 mm in diameter in the proximal metaphysis of each rabbit's right tibia. In the first group, platelet-rich plasma was implanted in combination with β-tricalcium phosphate (platelet-rich plasma group, and in the second group, centrifuged bone marrow in combination with β-tricalcium phosphate (centrifuged bone marrow group was implanted. After a period of four weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the tibias were evaluated using digital radiography, computed tomography, and histomorphometry. RESULTS: Seven samples from each group were evaluated. The radiographic evaluation confirmed the absence of fractures in the postoperative limb and identified whether bone consolidation had occurred. The tomographic evaluation revealed a greater amount of consolidation and the formation of a greater cortical bone thickness in the platelet-rich plasma group. The histomorphometry revealed a greater bone density in the platelet-rich plasma group compared with the centrifuged bone marrow group. CONCLUSION: After four weeks, the platelet-rich plasma promoted a greater amount of bone consolidation than the bone marrow aspirate concentrate.

  3. Is a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 fragment recombined in PB1 the key for the epidemic of the novel AIV H7N9 in China, 2013?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The novel AIV H7N9 might have reassorted its PB1 segment from H9N2 circulating in China, and this H9N2 PB1 might have been recombined into a highly pathogenic fragment from HPAIV H5N1, which could be the reason for the high fatality rate among patients with AIV H7N9 influenza.

  4. Dynamic changes in calcium and phosphate plasma concentrations in the patients on peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The disturbances of active forms of vitamin D synthesis and disturbances in calcium and posphate metabolism develop early in chronic renal failure, when creatinine clearance is about 30 ml/min. Chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis only partially correct the biochemical environment of patients on chronic renal replacement therapy because of end-stage renal disease. These dialysis modalities can’t significantly affect the endocrine disturbances of chronic renal failure and they have minimal modulatory effect. The management of disturbed calcium (Ca and phosphate (P metabolism and the maintainance of Ca × P product below 4.4 mmol/l thanks to the use of dialysate solutions with the appropriate calcium concentration and the careful dosage of phosphate binders, calcium and active vitamin D metabolits, are extremely important for the prevention of renal osteodystrophy, secondary hyperparathyroidism as well as low-bone turnover disease. The aim of the study was to analyze the plasma levels of calcium, phosphate, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and parathormon (PTH in 58 patients who were treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD from March to August 2003. The use of phosphate binders and the substitution with active vitamin D metabolits were also analyzed. Methods. We examined 58 patients, 30 males and 28 female, mean-age 52 years (range, 26-78 years, affected by end-stage renal disease of the different leading cause. The average time on peritoneal dialysis program was 20 months (2-66 months. Most of the patients were treated by CAPD, while only few of them performed automatic, cyclic or intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Most of the patients used a dialysate with 1.75 mmol/l calcium concentration. Results. The study showed that our patients on chronic CAPD program during several months had normal calcemia, phosphatemia and the level of alkaline phosphatase, and that they had Ca × P product in the recommended

  5. Marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A; Coats, Bonnie S; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E; Bain, James R; Shankar, Meena N; Newgard, Christopher B; Stacpoole, Peter W; Gregory, Jesse F

    2012-10-01

    Previous animal studies showed that severe vitamin B-6 deficiency altered fatty acid profiles of tissue lipids, often with an increase of linoleic acid and a decrease of arachidonic acid. However, little is known about the extent to which vitamin B-6 deficiency affects human fatty acid profiles. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency on fatty acid profiles in plasma, erythrocytes, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy adults fed a 28-d, low-vitamin B-6 diet. Healthy participants (n = 23) received a 2-d, controlled, vitamin B-6-adequate diet followed by a 28-d, vitamin B-6-restricted diet to induce a marginal deficiency. Plasma HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations, FFA concentrations, and erythrocyte and PBMC membrane fatty acid compositions did not significantly change from baseline after the 28-d restriction. Plasma total arachidonic acid, EPA, and DHA concentrations decreased from (mean ± SD) 548 ± 96 to 490 ± 94 μmol/L, 37 ± 13 to 32 ± 13 μmol/L, and 121 ± 28 to 109 ± 28 μmol/L [positive false discovery rate (pFDR) adjusted P pFDR adjusted P < 0.05). These data indicate that short-term vitamin B-6 restriction decreases plasma (n-3) and (n-6) PUFA concentrations and tends to increase the plasma (n-6):(n-3) PUFA ratio. Such changes in blood lipids may be associated with the elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in vitamin B-6 insufficiency. PMID:22955512

  6. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Knudsen, P J

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph...

  7. Studies on the Radioimmunoassay of Human Growth Hormone - 2. The plasma HGH concentrations in the various febrile diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma HGH concentrations were assayed in total 138 cases by the radioimmunoassay. The groups of control, typhoid fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, tuberculous meningitis and other febrile diseases were studied, also were the groups of hyperthyroidism, acromegaly and hypopituitarism. Insulin stimulation test was performed in control, typhoid fever and hypopituitarism. In the control group, the plasma HGH concentration in fasting (early morning) was 2.06±1.183 mμg/ml and its upper limit was 4.5 mμg/ml. No sexual difference was observed. By the insulin stimulation, plasma HGH concentration had rised to the peak level of 24.1±15.71 mμg/ml, 60 min. after the intravenous insulin injection, then decreased to the normal level progressively. In typhoid fever, fasting HGH concentrations in febrile state and in defeverence were 2.5±1.35 mμg/ml and 2.2±3.32 mμg/ml respectively, showing no significant difference with the control group. However, the levels of individual cases ranged widely, compared with the control group. The response to the insulin stimulation test was similar to the control group. In epidemic hemorrhagic fever. the HGH concentrations in oliguric phase, in diuretic phase and in convalescence were 4.2±3.71 mμg/ml, 2.2±l.30 mμg/ml and 3.4±3.01 mμg/ml respectively. No significant differences were observe when compared to the control, but they showed wide range of plasma HGH levels. In tuberculous meningitis, the fasting HGH concentration was 2.9±51.42 mμg/ml. In the other febrile diseases, the value was 2.5±2.23 mμg/ml. In 4 cases of hypopituitarism, the fasting HGH concentration was 2.3±0.42 mμg/ml and ranged normally. However, the response to the insulin stimulation test was not observed. Very high plasma HGH concentrations were observed in acromegalic patients.

  8. Studies on the Radioimmunoassay of Human Growth Hormone - 2. The plasma HGH concentrations in the various febrile diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Woo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-03-15

    The plasma HGH concentrations were assayed in total 138 cases by the radioimmunoassay. The groups of control, typhoid fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, tuberculous meningitis and other febrile diseases were studied, also were the groups of hyperthyroidism, acromegaly and hypopituitarism. Insulin stimulation test was performed in control, typhoid fever and hypopituitarism. In the control group, the plasma HGH concentration in fasting (early morning) was 2.06+-1.183 m{mu}g/ml and its upper limit was 4.5 m{mu}g/ml. No sexual difference was observed. By the insulin stimulation, plasma HGH concentration had rised to the peak level of 24.1+-15.71 m{mu}g/ml, 60 min. after the intravenous insulin injection, then decreased to the normal level progressively. In typhoid fever, fasting HGH concentrations in febrile state and in defeverence were 2.5+-1.35 m{mu}g/ml and 2.2+-3.32 m{mu}g/ml respectively, showing no significant difference with the control group. However, the levels of individual cases ranged widely, compared with the control group. The response to the insulin stimulation test was similar to the control group. In epidemic hemorrhagic fever. the HGH concentrations in oliguric phase, in diuretic phase and in convalescence were 4.2+-3.71 m{mu}g/ml, 2.2+-l.30 m{mu}g/ml and 3.4+-3.01 m{mu}g/ml respectively. No significant differences were observe when compared to the control, but they showed wide range of plasma HGH levels. In tuberculous meningitis, the fasting HGH concentration was 2.9+-51.42 m{mu}g/ml. In the other febrile diseases, the value was 2.5+-2.23 m{mu}g/ml. In 4 cases of hypopituitarism, the fasting HGH concentration was 2.3+-0.42 m{mu}g/ml and ranged normally. However, the response to the insulin stimulation test was not observed. Very high plasma HGH concentrations were observed in acromegalic patients.

  9. Changes in plasma gonadotropin concentrations and urethral closure pressure in the bitch during the 12 months following ovariectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichler, Iris Margaret; Pfeiffer, Esther; Piché, Claude A; Jöchle, Wolfgang; Roos, Malgorzata; Hubler, Madeleine; Arnold, Susi

    2004-11-01

    Urinary incontinence due to acquired urethral sphincter incompetence is a common side effect of spaying, for which the underlying cause remains unknown. Spaying not only results in a significant reduction in the urethral closure pressure within 1 year but also in an increase in the plasma gonadotropin concentrations. To investigate the possible link between the post-ovariectomy changes in plasma gonadotropins and in urethral closure pressure, gonadotropin and urodynamic measurements were performed in 10 Beagle bitches before and for a period of 1 year after spaying. Plasma gonadotropin concentrations rose quickly after ovariectomy and peak levels were seen within 3-5 weeks, followed by a sharp drop until week 10. A steady increase was observed subsequently until week 42, when a plateau was reached. One year after spaying, the mean FSH concentration was 75.3 +/- 32.1 ng/ml, a 17-fold increase, and the LH was 8.3 +/- 3.8 ng/ml, an eightfold increase over the pre-spaying values. Ten months after spaying, the mean urethral closure pressure (9.7 cm H2O) was significantly reduced when compared to the mean pre-operative value of 15.4 cm H2O. However, there was no clear relationship between the gonadotropin concentrations and the urethral closure pressure. From these results it seems unlikely that chronically elevated gonadotropins are the underlying cause for reduced urethral closure pressure after spaying resulting in urinary incontinence. PMID:15451248

  10. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in free-ranging platypuses (Ornithorhynchus anatinus): response to capture and patterns in relation to reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handasyde, K A; McDonald, I R; Evans, B K

    2003-12-01

    Energy demands in the platypus are likely to increase in the breeding season, which occurs from winter to early spring. Glucocorticoids, which play a major role in energy mobilisation, were measured in consecutive blood samples from free-ranging adults at approximately monthly intervals throughout the year. Glucose and free fatty acids were also measured in some samples. Plasma concentrations of glucocorticoids rose significantly during the first 30 min after capture, accompanied by a rise in free fatty acids, but no corresponding increase in glucose concentrations. We observed a strong pattern in plasma glucocorticoids in samples collected within 15 min of capture (indicative of pre-disturbance concentrations) in different phases of the annual reproductive cycle, with significantly higher levels in both males and females in the breeding season compared to the non-breeding season. These data, and the decline in tail fat stores that occur towards the end of the mating period (around October), suggest that platypus experience high-energy demands during this phase of reproduction. Plasma glucocorticoid concentrations in females sampled during the lactation period (October-February) were relatively low, and similar to those in females sampled in the non-breeding, non-lactation period (March-June). The latter requires further investigation as results may have been influenced by sampling limitations. PMID:14667852

  11. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  12. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik; Fernstrom, John D

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  13. Setting-up and validation of two radioimmunoassay methods for determination of plasma progesterone concentration in mares, cows and rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two reliable radioimmunoassay (RIA) methods which permits the measurement of progesterone (P4) in plasma of equine, bovine and rats are described. After extraction of plasma with diethylic ether the RIA methods were performed. The first one utilizes 125 I progesterone (double antibody method) and the other 1,2,6,7,16, 17 3 H progesterone (adsorption in charcoal/dextran). Both two methods were suitable in the valuation of plasma P4 concentration in different physiological reproductive conditions. The method of the double antibody showed higher sensibility beyond to be less expensive than the other method. Despite it, the two RIA methods were much less expensive than available commercial Kits in the market. (author)

  14. Platelet and growth factor concentrations in activated platelet-rich plasma: a comparison of seven commercial separation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Satoshi; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Hara, Tomoya; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mitsui, Toshihito; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma that has been enriched with platelets. It holds promise for clinical use in areas such as wound healing and regenerative medicine, including bone regeneration. This study characterized the composition of PRP produced by seven commercially available separation systems (JP200, GLO PRP, Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System, KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, SELPHYL, MyCells, and Dr. Shin's System THROMBO KIT) to evaluate the platelet, white blood cell, red blood cell, and growth factor concentrations, as well as platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations. PRP prepared using the Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System and the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit contained the highest platelet concentrations. The mean PDGF-AB concentration of activated PRP was the highest from JP200, followed by the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System, MyCells, and GLO PRP. TGF-β1 and VEGF concentrations varied greatly among individual samples, and there was almost no significant difference among the different systems, unlike for PDGF. The SELPHYL system produced PRP with low concentrations of both platelets and growth factors. Commercial PRP separation systems vary widely, and familiarity with their individual advantages is important to extend their clinical application to a wide variety of conditions. PMID:24748436

  15. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied whethe

  16. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  17. Spatial distribution of the electrical potential and ion concentration in the downstream area of atmospheric pressure remote plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Mishin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results from an experimental study of the ion flux characteristics behind the remote plasma zone in a vertical tube reaction chamber for atmospheric pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma was generated in pure He and gas mixtures: He–Ar, He–O2, He–TEOS. We previously used the reaction system He–TEOS for the synthesis of self-assembled structures of silicon dioxide nanoparticles. It is likely that the electrical parameters of the area, where nanoparticles have been transported from the synthesis zone to the substrate, play a significant role in the self-organization processes both in the vapor phase and on the substrate surface. The results from the spatial distribution of the electrical potential and ion concentration in the discharge downstream area measured by means of the external probe of original design and the special data processing method are demonstrated in this work. Positive and negatives ions with maximum concentrations of 106–107 cm−3 have been found at 10–80 mm distance behind the plasma zone. On the basis of the revealed distributions for different gas mixtures, the physical model of the observed phenomena is proposed. The model illustrates the capability of the virtual ion emitter formation behind the discharge gap and the presence of an extremum of the electrical potential at the distance of approximately 10−2–10−1 mm from the grounded electrode.

  18. Predictability of 1-h postload plasma glucose concentration: A 10-year retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Lifen; Huang, Zhimin; Hong, Zhenzhen; Chen, Ailing; Li, Yanbing

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose concentration (1hPG) during oral glucose tolerance test has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and a poorer cardiometabolic risk profile. The present study analyzed the predictability and cut-off point of 1hPG in predicting type 2 diabetes in normal glucose regulation (NGR) subjects, and evaluated the long-term prognosis of NGR subjects with elevated 1hPG in glucose metabolism, kidney function, metabolic states and atherosclerosis. Materials and Methods A total of 116 Han Chinese classified as NGR in 2002 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, were investigated. Follow-up was carried out in 2012 to evaluate the progression of glucose metabolism, kidney function, metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis. Results The areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were higher for 1hPG than FPG or 2hPG (0.858 vs 0.806 vs 0.746). The cut-off value of 1hPG with the maximal sum of sensitivity and specificity in predicting type 2 diabetes in NGR subjects was 8.85 mmol/L. The accumulative incidence of type 2 diabetes in subjects with 1hPG ≥8.85 mmol/L was higher than those <8.85 mmol/L (46.2% vs 3.3%, P = 0.000; relative risk 13.846, 95% confidence interval 4.223–45.400). On follow up, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abnormal carotid intima-media thickness in the subjects with 1hPG ≥8.85 mmol/L tended to be higher compared with those <8.85 mmol/L. Conclusions 1hPG is a good predictor of type 2 diabetes in NGR subjects, and the best cut-off point is 8.85 mmol/L. Some tendency indicates that NGR subjects with 1hPG ≥8.85 mmol/L are more prone to metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:26543538

  19. Influence of storage conditions on in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide and of anesthesia on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma samples under various storage conditions and the influence of anesthesia on plasma ANP concentration in cats. ANIMALS 1 cat with congestive heart failure and 5 healthy adult mixed-breed cats. PROCEDURES A plasma sample from the cat with heart failure was serially diluted, and dilutional parallelism of ANP concentration was evaluated. Plasma samples containing aprotinin or serum samples from the 5 healthy cats were kept at room temperature (27°C) for ≤ 12 hours. Plasma samples from the same healthy cats were stored at -70°, -20°, or 4°C for ≤ 14 days. Plasma samples were obtained from the healthy cats before and during isoflurane anesthesia. Plasma ANP concentrations were measured at a commercial laboratory by use of a human ANP chemiluminescence assay. RESULTS Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively, and dilutional parallelism was established. Although ANP concentration decreased by 82.4 ± 13.6% (mean ± SD) after sample storage for 12 hours at room temperature, this decrease was prevented by aprotinin. Plasma ANP concentrations were stable for 7 days at -20°C and for 14 days at -70°C. However, concentrations decreased markedly to 57.6 ± 6.9% at -20°C and to 18.0 ± 3.0% at 4°C after 14 days. Plasma ANP concentration decreased significantly in cats during anesthesia and was correlated with blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that aprotinin should be added routinely in preparation of plasma samples from cats for measurement of ANP concentration, and those samples, if stored, should be frozen immediately at ≤ -20°C. General anesthesia or systemic blood pressure may affect plasma ANP concentration in cats. PMID:27463548

  20. Plasma concentrations of amino acid and nicotinamide metabolites in rheumatoid arthritis - potential biomarkers of disease activity and drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolenska, Zaneta; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in plasma amino acid and nicotinamide metabolites concentrations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a search for potential biomarkers of the disease activity and the effect treatment. Analysis of plasma metabolite patterns with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry revealed specific changes in RA as well as correlations with clinical parameters. Combined concentration parameter calculated as [aspartic acid] + [threonine] + [tryptophan] - [histidine] - [phenylalanine] offered the strongest correlation (p < 0.001) with pain joint count, swollen joint count and DAS 28. Such analysis of amino acid and related metabolite pattern offers potential for diagnosis as well as for monitoring disease progression and therapy in RA. PMID:26811910

  1. The Association between Plasma 25OHD3 Concentrations, C-Reactive Protein Levels, and Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Postmenopausal Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnatz, Peter F.; Vila-Wright, Sharon; Jiang, Xuezhi; Register, Thomas C.; Kaplan, Jay R.; Clarkson, Thomas B.; Appt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify potential relationships between plasma 25OHD, C-reactive protein (CRP), coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA), and coronary artery remodeling in monkeys consuming atherogenic diets. Methods Female cynomolgus monkeys (n=74) were fed a casein-lactalbumin (C/L) based, moderately atherogenic diet for 12 months. They then consumed either a soy (n=35) or C/L (n=39) based diet for 32 months. CRP concentrations were then determined and monkeys underwent surgical menopause. Each diet group was then re-randomized to receive soy (n=36) or C/L (n=38). After 32 post-menopausal months, 25OHD, CRP, CAA, and coronary artery remodeling were determined. All monkeys received a women’s equivalent of 1,000 IU/day of 25OHD3 and 1,200 mg/day of calcium, throughout the study. Results The pre and post-menopausal dietary protein sources had no effect on post-menopausal 25OHD3 concentrations (p=0.6). Across treatment groups, there was a statistically significant inverse relationship between 25OHD3 concentrations and CRP at necropsy (r=-0.35, p=0.003). A significant inverse correlation between 25OHD3 concentration and the change in CRP, from pre-menopause to post-menopause, was observed (r=-0.32, p=0.007). The significant associations identified between plasma 25OHD3 and CRP remained after controlling for postmenopausal diet. Those monkeys with a greater increase in CRP also had significantly more CAA and less ability to maintain normal lumens by remodeling. Conclusions Higher plasma concentrations of 25OHD3 were associated with lower CRP. Lower CRP was associated with less coronary atherosclerosis and improved coronary artery remodeling. These findings suggest that 25OHD3 concentrations are associated with an anti-inflammatory state and may support an association between oral 25OHD3 and cardioprotection. PMID:22713861

  2. Comparative evaluation of aqueous and plasma concentration of topical moxifloxacin alone and with flurbiprofen in patients of cataract surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sujash Halder; Kanchan Kumar Mondal; Supreeti Biswas; Tapan Kumar Mandal; Bakul Kumar Dutta; Mithilesh Haldar

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the aqueous and plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin administered topically alone and with flurbiprofen in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects scheduled for routine cataract surgery were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 25 each). Group-1 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin alone: One drop 6 times/day for 3 days before surgery and one drop 4 times on the day of surgery: Group-2 patients were treated ...

  3. Polymorphism of CD36 gene, carbohydrate metabolism and plasma CD36 concentration in obese children. A preliminary study 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika E. Rać

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:CD36 may play an important role in removal of oxidized LDLs from plasma, protein glycation, the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and diabetic micro- and macroangiopathy. Some reports have pointed to decreased expression of macrophages in association with mutations of the CD36 gene in hyperglycemic and obese subjects. The aim of the study was to search for an association between CD36 gene polymorphism and carbohydrate metabolism disturbances or variability of plasma soluble CD36 concentrations in obese children.Material/Methods:The study included 60 children aged 10 to 15 years: 30 with (study group and 30 without (control group obesity. Each patient’s glycated hemoglobin, weight, height, waist and hip circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, BMI, WHR and MAP were calculated, and oral glucose tolerance test was performed with glucose and insulin concentration measurements. Amplicons of exons 4–6 of CD36 were studied using DHPLC technique. The PCR products with alterations were bidirectionally sequenced. Plasma concentrations of human antigen CD36 was measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.Results:We found two intronic alterations: IVS3-6 T/C (rs3173798 and IVS4-10 G/A (rs3211892, one nonsynonymous substitution: G367A (Glu123Lys, rs183461468 in exon 5 and two synonymous transitions in exon 6: G573A (Pro191Pro, rs5956 and A591T (Thr197Thr, rs141680676. There were no significant differences in any biochemical or morphometric parameters between genotype groups.Discussion:The polymorphisms of the studied fragment of CD36 are not associated with carbohydrate metabolism disturbances or the variability of plasma soluble CD36 concentrations in obese children, but further research is necessary to assess their functional implications. 

  4. Plasma Concentration of Ascorbic Acid and Some Hematological Parameters in Tobacco Snuffers Among the Igbos of Southeastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ureme, SO; Njoku, OU; Ejezie, FE; Ibeh, BO; Ikekpazu, E; Mba, MJ

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco snuffing, like cigarette smoking, is known to be a common habit among the adults of Igbo communities in Nigeria. In view of the various pharmacological actions of nicotine and other additive constituents of tobacco snuff, there is growing concern that ascorbic acid, which is a vital antioxidant, and blood cell production or morphology may be affected. Objective: To investigate the possible effects of prolonged use of tobacco snuff on plasma ascorbic acid concentrations and...

  5. Pre-concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe and Co of water sea and analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy - DCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of separation and pre-concentration methods of chromium, manganese, iron and cobalt from seawater, that allow use control methods of 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 55,59 Fe, 58,59 Co with a better sensibility and the determination of this elements by atomic absorption spectroscopy or plasma emission spectroscopy are described. This methods of seawater analysis will use near the region of Angra I reactor. (author)

  6. Tissue and plasma concentrations of amidated and glycine-extended glucagon-like peptide I in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, C; Rabenhøj, L; Wettergren, A; Kofod, Hans; Holst, J J

    1994-01-01

    Using specific radioimmunoassays, we studied the occurrence of amidated and glycine-extended glucagon-like peptide I (GLP-I) molecules in the human small intestine and pancreas and in the circulation system in response to a breakfast meal. Through gel permeation chromatography of extracts of the...... plasma were 7 +/- 1 and 6 +/- 1 pM, respectively (n = 6). In response to a breakfast meal, the concentration of amidated GLP-I rose significantly amounting to 41 +/- 5 pM 90 min after the meal ingestion, whereas the concentration of glycine-extended GLP-I only rose slightly to a maximum of 10 +/- 1 p...

  7. Plasma haemoglobin concentrations and other influx variables in blood in connection with transurethral resection of the prostate using distilled water as an irrigating fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlén, H; Allgén, L G; Vinnars, E; Wiklund, A

    1987-01-01

    Eight patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) using sterile distilled water as an irrigating fluid were studied. The concentrations of plasma haemoglobin, serum sodium, serum prostatic acid phosphatase protein (PAP) and plasma osmolality were determined as possible indicators of absorption of irrigating fluid. In 3 patients there was a marked increase in plasma haemoglobin immediately postoperatively with a maximum of 3.3 g haemoglobin/l plasma. In the remaining 5 patients the plasma haemoglobin level did not exceed 0.7 g/l immediately postoperatively. In all cases there was a fairly rapid return of the elevated plasma haemoglobin level to preoperative values. There was also a postoperative increase in the serum PAP level which was not correlated with the simultaneous increase in plasma haemoglobin concentration. There was no significant change in the sodium, potassium or albumin concentration in serum nor in plasma osmolality postoperatively. There was some decrease in the postoperative serum creatinine and uric acid levels. The preoperative serum creatinine concentration was within reference limits in 7 patients and borderline high in 1 patient. The haemoglobin binding plasma protein haptoglobin showed a slight non-significant increase immediately postoperatively and a significant decrease in concentration 2 hours postoperatively. The mean plasma haemoglobin concentration immediately postoperatively did not exceed the mean preoperative haemoglobin binding capacity of serum. The mean preoperative haemoglobin binding capacity was 1.2 g/l and the mean plasma haemoglobin level was 1.2 g/l immediately postoperatively. Two hours later the mean plasma haemoglobin level was 0.8 g/l. The mean serum haptoglobin concentration was 2.4 g/l preoperatively, 2.6 g/l immediately postoperatively and 2.0 g/l 2 hours later.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2448868

  8. Comparative evaluation of aqueous and plasma concentration of topical moxifloxacin alone and with flurbiprofen in patients of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujash Halder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the aqueous and plasma concentrations of moxifloxacin administered topically alone and with flurbiprofen in patients undergoing cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects scheduled for routine cataract surgery were randomly allocated to two groups (n = 25 each. Group-1 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin alone: One drop 6 times/day for 3 days before surgery and one drop 4 times on the day of surgery: Group-2 patients were treated with topical moxifloxacin as in Group-1 and with topical flurbiprofen: One drop 4 times/day for 3 days before and on the day of surgery. The interval between two drugs was 30 min for last 3 days and 15 min on the day of surgery. Last dose was administered 1 h before aqueous humor and blood sampling for both the groups. The antibiotic concentration in aqueous humor and plasma were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The mean concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor was 1.71 ± 0.82 mg/ml in Group-1 and 2.39 ± 1.34 mg/ml in Group-2. Concentrations of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor were significantly higher in Group-2 than that of Group-1. Conclusion: Flurbiprofen may increase the concentration of moxifloxacin in aqueous humor.

  9. Development of a population pharmacokinetic model to describe azithromycin whole-blood and plasma concentrations over time in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Anic-Milic, T; Oreskovic, K; Padovan, J; Brouwer, K L R; Zuo, P; Schmith, V D

    2013-07-01

    Azithromycin (AZI), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, accumulates in polymorphonuclear cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The distribution of AZI in proinflammatory cells may be important to the anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies have described plasma AZI pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics of AZI in whole blood (concentration in whole blood [Cb]) and plasma (concentration in plasma [Cp]) of healthy subjects. In this study, 12 subjects received AZI (500 mg once a day for 3 days). AZI Cb and Cp were quantified in serial samples collected up to 3 weeks after the last dose and analyzed using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. After the last dose, Cb was greater than Cp. Importantly, Cb, but not Cp, was quantifiable in all but one subject at 3 weeks. The blood area under the curve during a 24-h dosing interval (AUC24) was ∼2-fold greater than the plasma AUC24, but simulations suggested that Cb was not at steady state by day 3. Upon exploration of numerous models, an empirical 3-compartment model adequately described Cp and Cb, but Cp was somewhat underestimated. Intercompartmental clearance (CL; likely representing cells) was lower than apparent oral CL (18 versus 118 liters/h). Plasma, peripheral, and cell compartmental volumes were 439 liters, 2,980 liters, and 3,084 liters, respectively. Interindividual variability in CL was low (26.2%), while the volume of distribution variability was high (107%). This is the first report to describe AZI Cb in healthy subjects, the distribution parameters between Cp and Cb, and AZI retention in blood for up to 3 weeks following 3 daily doses. The model can be used to predict Cb from Cp for AZI under various dosing regimens. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01026064.). PMID:23629714

  10. Dietary predictors of plasma total homocysteine concentration in the Hordaland Homocysteine Study

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinova, Svetlana V.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Berstad, Paula; Ueland, Per Magne; Drevon, Christian A.; Refsum, Helga; Tell, Grethe Seppola

    2007-01-01

    Established dietary predictors of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) include folate, riboflavin, and vitamins B6 and B12, while information is scarce regarding other dietary components. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between a variety of food groups, food items and nutrients, and plasma tHcy in a large population-based study. The study population included 5812 men and women aged 47–49 and 71–74 years who completed a 169-item FFQ. tHcy was examined across quartiles of dietary ...

  11. Estimation of plasma tacrine concentrations using an in vitro cholinesterase inhibition assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THA (9-amino, 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroacridine; tacrine) is currently under study as a cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor in Alzheimer disease. In this study, a sensitive radiometric assay for THA inhibition of human plasma ChE, suitable for detection of effects of orally administered drug, is described. The assay is sensitive in a range of 4-50 ng/ml plasma. Reversibility of the inhibition permits distinguishing of drug effects on ChE from changes in amount of enzyme synthesized during treatment

  12. WHEY PROTEIN SUPPRESSES PLASMA GHRELIN CONCENTRATIONS IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE MEN AND WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most satiating macronutrient appears to be dietary protein; however, it is unclear if different dietary protein sources have differing effects on satiety. Few studies that have investigated the effects of whey protein on satiety hormones, such as plasma ghrelin, in overweight and obese men and w...

  13. Estimation of plasma concentrations of hepatocyte growth factor in acute leukemia in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that high plasma HGF may play a significant role in the leukemia process and contribute to the leukemic cell dissemination. The clinical significance of the increased level of HGF in acute leukemia needs further investigation and may suggest a novel therapeutic approach in this disease.

  14. Time effect and aliquot concentration in Streptococcus mutans elimination by plasma needle

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alcantara, E.; López-Callejas, R.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Lagunas-Bernabé, S.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Barocio, S. R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; de la Piedad-Beneitez, A.

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric plasma needle systems are being intensively studied with a view to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study is the improved elimination of Streptococcus Mutants (S. mutans) bacteria. A 5 ml volume of Luria-Bertani culture medium has been inoculated with a test bacterial population and incubated during 24 hours, followed by ten dilutions producing aliquots at 20, 50 and 100 micro l per dilution. Each aliquot is deposited on a paper filter and then exposed to a 2 W RF room pressure helium plasma needle discharge at a 1.5 l.p.m. rate for 1, 3, 5 or 7 minutes. Each sample paper is placed in a test tube, again containing Luria-Bertani fluid, in order to develop a new bacterium colony after a 24h incubation period. The plasma needle lethality has been evaluated from absorbance studies by means of a 6305 Jeway spectrophotometer at a 600 nm wavelength, indicating a clear correlation with exposure time. These studies validate the high disinfection efficacy of the plasma needle.

  15. Time effect and aliquot concentration in Streptococcus mutans elimination by plasma needle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric plasma needle systems are being intensively studied with a view to potential applications in medicine. The aim of this in vitro study is the improved elimination of Streptococcus Mutants (S. mutans) bacteria. A 5 ml volume of Luria-Bertani culture medium has been inoculated with a test bacterial population and incubated during 24 hours, followed by ten dilutions producing aliquots at 20, 50 and 100 micro l per dilution. Each aliquot is deposited on a paper filter and then exposed to a 2 W RF room pressure helium plasma needle discharge at a 1.5 l.p.m. rate for 1, 3, 5 or 7 minutes. Each sample paper is placed in a test tube, again containing Luria-Bertani fluid, in order to develop a new bacterium colony after a 24h incubation period. The plasma needle lethality has been evaluated from absorbance studies by means of a 6305 Jeway spectrophotometer at a 600 nm wavelength, indicating a clear correlation with exposure time. These studies validate the high disinfection efficacy of the plasma needle.

  16. Plasma concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α and its relationship with zincemia in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Cristina Porto Feitosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In obesity, the excessive adipose tissue increases the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, which appear to alter the metabolism of minerals, such as zinc. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. This study investigated whether the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in plasma can to influence biochemical parameters of zinc in obese women. METHODS: Seventy-six pre-menopausal women, aged between 20 and 50 years, were divided into two groups: the case group, composed of obese women (n = 37 and the control group, composed of non-obese women (n = 39. Analysis of the plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc, and plasmatic cytokines were conducted by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: The plasmatic zinc and concentrations of IL-6 in plasma did not show significant differences between obese women and controls (p > 0.05. The erythrocytary zinc was 36.4±15.0µg/gHb in the case group, and 45.4±14.3µg/gHb (p = 0.025 in the control group. The concentrations of TNF-α in plasma were 42.0±11.9 pg/mL and 19.0±1.0 pg/mL in obese women and in controls, respectively (p < 0.001. The plasmatic zinc had a significant negative correlation with the values of TNF-α (r =-0.44, p = 0.015. CONCLUSION: Obese women presented lower concentrations of erythrocytary zinc than the control group. The study demonstrated a probable influence of the inflammatory process on metabolism of zinc in obese patients.

  17. Lupin seeds lower plasma lipid concentrations and normalize antioxidant parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants. The supplementation of a hypercholesterolemia-induced diet with bitter and sweet lupin seeds significantly lowered the plasma levels of TL, TC, TG and LDL-C. ALT, AST and LDH activities slightly decreased in treated groups compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC. Furthermore, the content of GSH significantly increased while MDA significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the HC group. In addition, the bitter lupin seed group improved enzymic antioxidants compared with the HC group. In general, the results indicated that the bitter lupin seed supplements are better than those containing sweet lupin seeds. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of bitter and sweet lupin seed supplements might be due to their abilities to lower the plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar semillas de altramuces dulces y amargas como agentes que bajan los lípidos y estudiar su efecto en la actividad antioxidante en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. El nivel de lípidos en plasma, malondialdehido (MDA y glutatión reducido (GSH, así como la actividad transaminasa (ALT y AST

  18. Comparison of Plasma Copper Concentrations in Patients with Brucellosis and Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    A.R. Mobaien; S. Jafari; M. Haji Abdolbaghi; A. Aliporan; A.A. Saiedi; P Eini

    2008-01-01

    Introduction & Objective : There are some reports about influence of the rare nutrients such as copper and zinc on immune system. Serum concentrations of copper alter in patients with brucellosis. Brucellosis is a common and endemic disease and a health problem in Iran. We compared serum concentrations of copper in patients with brucellosis and healthy individuals.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study, serum concentrations of copper was measured in patients with brucellosis and cont...

  19. On the validity of setting breakpoint minimum inhibition concentrations at one quarter of the plasma concentration achieved following oral administration of oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Bergh, Ø.;

    2004-01-01

    that the therapy was probably beneficial. Thus, the data obtained in this work suggest that the application of the 4:1 ratio is not a valid method of generating meaningful breakpoint MIC values. Published values for the MIC of OTC against A. salmonicida and the plasma concentrations achieved after oral...... administration of OTC medicated feed were applied to investigate the validity of the application of the 4:1 ratio. Breakpoints generated by the application of this ratio to these data would suggest that OTC could never have had any value in combating A. salmonicida infections. As this conclusion is contrary...... to experience, it is argued that examination of the published data reinforces the conclusion that the 4:1 ratio has little value in the oral therapy of fish disease....

  20. Erlotinib-induced acute interstitial lung disease associated with extreme elevation of the plasma concentration in an elderly non-small-cell lung cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Tsubata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe a case of drug-induced interstitial lung disease (ILD following treatment with erlotinib. The plasma trough concentration of erlotinib at the time of the ILD diagnosis was extremely elevated compared with the plasma maximum concentration on day 1. We hypothesized that this phenomenon was associated with the pharmacodynamic interaction with a concomitant drug. The present case indicates that erlotinib-induced ILD was associated with a high plasma concentration of erlotinib. Oncologists should be aware of the possibility of ILD induced by erlotinib, especially for patients with co-morbidities.

  1. Gastric emptying in rats following administration of a range of different fats measured as acetaminophen concentration in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Trine; Straarup, Ellen Marie; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the gastric emptying upon administration of ten different fats in order to determine whether major differences in fatty acid profiles resulted in differences in gastric emptying. Methods: Gastric emptying was measured as the appearance of acetaminophen in plasma which represents...... an indirect measure of gastric emptying. Emulsified fats with added acetaminophen were fed by gavage to rats, and the plasma concentration of acetaminophen was followed for 3 h by repeated blood sampling from the carotid artery. The fats administered included rapeseed, corn, and fish oils, lard, and cocoa...... in gastric emptying between the groups fed the different fats, except for the emptying of tridecanoin (tri-10:0) that was statistically significantly slower than that of randomized oil, cocoa butter, and rapeseed oil (p emptying of tri-10:0 could be caused by a lower caloric intake...

  2. Plasma Oxytocin Concentration during Pregnancy is associated with Development of Postpartum Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Skrundz, Marta; Bolten, Margarete; Nast, Irina; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects up to 19% of all women after parturition. The non-apeptide oxytocin (OXT) is involved in adjustment to pregnancy, maternal behavior, and bonding. Our aim was to examine the possible association between plasma OXT during pregnancy and the development of PPD symptoms. A total of 74 healthy, pregnant women were included in this prospective study. During the third trimester of pregnancy and within 2 weeks after parturition, PPD symptoms were assessed using the ...

  3. Common genetic loci influencing plasma homocysteine concentrations and their effect on risk of coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strong observational association between total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the null associations in the homocysteine-lowering trials have prompted the need to identify genetic variants associated with homocysteine concentrations and risk of CA...

  4. Implication of steady state concentrations of nitrite and nitrate metabolites of nitric oxide in plasma and whole blood in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Mariko; Ishibashi, Takaharu; Nakano, Shigeru; Furuya, Keisuke; Yoshida, Junko; Kigoshi, Toshikazu; Uchida, Kenzo; Nishio, Matomo

    2004-09-01

    1. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the steady state NOx concentration reflects NOx formation in vivo. 2. A NO3- load study was performed after achieving NOx steady state. Chronological changes in NOx concentrations in plasma and whole blood samples from nine healthy subjects were determined by the HPLC-Griess system and NOx concentrations in erythrocytes were estimated as a possible NOx compartment influential in regulating plasma NOx concentrations. 3. Analysis was performed using the first-order one-compartment open model and the NOx formation rate was subsequently calculated. 4. The mean (+/-SEM) steady state NOx concentration of plasma (15.5 +/- 1.6 micromol/L), whole blood (12.8 +/- 1.2 micromol/L) and erythrocytes (11.9 +/- 0.7 micromol/L) did not correlate with the NOx formation rate in the compartments (0.50 +/- 0.05, 0.61 +/- 0.04 and 0.91 +/- 0.17 micromol/kg per h, respectively), whereas a significant correlation was found between the steady state NOx concentration and NOx elimination rate (Kel) in plasma (r=-0.69; P=0.04) and whole blood (r=-0.79; P=0.01). 5. Although there was no direct correlation between steady state NOx concentrations and serum creatinine levels, the correlation between half-life and serum creatinine levels was significant (plasma: r=0.60, P=0.02; whole blood: r=0.49, P=0.04). 6. Plasma NOx concentrations correlated significantly with erythrocyte NOx concentrations (r=0.92, P plasma NOx). 7. The results of the present study indicate that NOx does not accumulate excessively into erythrocytes at steady state and during a NO3- load and that the steady state NOx concentration in whole blood and plasma preferentially implies NOx elimination (mainly depending on renal function) rather than NOx formation. PMID:15479165

  5. Plasma concentrations of retinol in obese children and adolescents: relationship to metabolic syndrome components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Teske

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate obese children and adolescents' retinol plasma levels and to correlate them with metabolic syndrome components. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 61 obese children and adolescents (body mass index Z score - ZBMI>+2. Pubertal development, arterial blood pressure, body weight and height for nutritional classification and waist circumference were obtained. A 15mL blood sample was collected (after a 12-hour fasting in a low luminosity room for retinol determination (cut-off inadequate if <30µg/dL, lipid profile (HDL-c, LDL-c, and triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance test (fasting and 120 minutes and for high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. Results: Mean age was 10.7±2.7 years. There was a predominance of male gender 38/61 (62% and pre-pubertal 35/61 (57% subjects. The average plasmatic retinol was 48.5±18.6ug/dL. Retinol deficiency and severe obesity were observed in 6/61 (10% and 36/61 (59%, respectively. Glucose level at 120 minutes was the independent and predictive variable of plasma retinol levels [β=-0.286 (95%CI -0.013 - -0.001]. Conclusions: An independent and inverse association between plasma retinol levels and glucose tolerance was observed, suggesting an important contribution of this vitamin in the morbidities associated to obesity in children and adolescents.

  6. The Predictive Value of Plasma Fibronectin Concentration on Fetal Growth Retardation at Earlier Stage of the Third Trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zehua; XIONG; Guirong; ZHU; Ying

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the predictive value of maternal plasma fibronectin (FN) concentration at 24-34 weeks on fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a prospective double-blinded study was performed. The maternal plasma FN concentrations were measured by using a rate nephelometric procedure in the 130 initial normal nulliparous pregnant woman at 24-34 gestational weeks.The outcome of pregnancies and birth weight of their infants were followed up. IUGR was defined as that the birth weight was less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. The receiver operating characteristic curves and predictive values of FN predicting on outcome of pregnancy with IUGR were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) In a cohort of 130 initially normal nulliparous pregnant women, IUGR occurred in 14 cases during the follow-up; (2) The plasma FN levels in the women with IUGR (467.58± 104.43 mg/L) were significantly higher than in the normal control group (299. 44±105.55 mg/L, P<0. 01). However, there was no significant difference in the mean maternal age,gravidity, sampling gestational ages, delivering gestational ages between the two groups (P>0. 05);(3) The areas under ROC curve for predicting the outcome of pregnancy in IUGR was 0. 893; (4)At the cut point of 475 mg/L FN level, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index for predicting the outcomes of pregnancy in IUGR were 57. 14 %,95. 69 %, 61.54 %, 94.87 %, 0. 5455 respectively. It was concluded that the maternal plasma FN might be used as an earlier predictor for screening of IUGR.

  7. Plasma PGFM and progesterone concentrations, luteolysis moment and estrous cycle length in Nelore cows submitted to uterine biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn this study, endometrial samples were collected in 14 Nelore cows on days zero (ovulation, five, nine, thirteen and nineteen of the estrous cycle (biopsy group, and in 15 females these collections weren't performed (control group. Biopsies were done on the uterine horn endometrium contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. Blood samples were taken at -24, -16, -8, 0 +8, +16 and +24 hours in relation to progesterone drop (<1ng/mL, zero moment and evaluated for 13, 14-dihydro-15-keto prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGFM by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Plasma progesterone concentration was determined by RIA every 24 hours. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the PROC GLM and MIXED of the SAS. The mean value for PGFM during the entire period evaluated was greater in the biopsy group. The mean concentration of PGFM at moment zero was not different between the groups; the mean concentration of PGFM was higher in the biopsy group before and after the drop in progesterone level. The maximum mean concentration observed was not different between the groups; however, the mean minimum concentration was different with high values in the biopsy group. Although the PGFM concentrations were higher in the biopsy group, the biopsy and control groups had similar length of estrous cycle showing that repeated endometrial biopsy on the side contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum does not affect luteolysis and the length of the estrous cycle.

  8. Postprandial plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations after consumption of plant sterol or stanol enriched mixed meals in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Konings, Maurice; Schött, Hans-F; Friedrichs, Silvia; Husche, Constanze; Lütjohann, Dieter; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent results on the relationship between increased plant sterol concentrations with cardiovascular risk, which might be related to the formation of oxyphytosterols (plant sterol oxidation products) from plant sterols. However, determinants of oxyphytosterol formation and metabolism are largely unknown. It is known, however, that serum plant sterol concentrations increase after daily consumption of plant sterol enriched products, while concentrations decrease after plant stanol consumption. Still, we have earlier reported that fasting oxyphytosterol concentrations did not increase after consuming a plant sterol- or a plant stanol enriched margarine (3.0g/d of plant sterols or stanols) for 4weeks. Since humans are in a non-fasting state for most part of the day, we have now investigated effects on oxyphytosterol concentrations during the postprandial state. For this, subjects consumed a shake (50g of fat, 12g of protein, 67g of carbohydrates), containing no, or 3.0g of plant sterols or plant stanols. Blood samples were taken up to 8h and after 4h subjects received a second shake (without plant sterols or plant stanols). Serum oxyphytosterol concentrations were determined in BHT-enriched EDTA plasma via GC-MS/MS. 7β-OH-campesterol and 7β-OH-sitosterol concentrations were significantly higher after consumption of a mixed meal enriched with plant sterol esters compared to the control and plant stanol ester meal. These increases were seen only after consumption of the second shake, illustrative for a second meal effect. Non-oxidized campesterol and sitosterol concentrations also increased after plant sterol consumption, in parallel with 7β-OH concentrations and again only after the second meal. Apparently, plant sterols and oxyphytosterols follow the same second meal effect as described for dietary cholesterol. However, the question remains whether the increase in oxyphytosterols in the postprandial phase is due to

  9. Plasma protein(s) yields met-enkephalin-related peptides in near-micromolar concentrations when treated with pepsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, E A; Mitra, S P; Carraway, R E

    1986-10-01

    Treatment of animal and human plasmas with pepsin yielded large quantities of immunoreactive methionine5-enkephalin (i-met-ENK). The concentrations measured after pepsin treatment were 0.1-0.5 microM, about 1000 times the normal circulating level of i-met-ENK (0.03-0.3 nM). The reaction was shown to be time and pH dependent and to involve the action of pepsin on a protein(s) of about 65,000 mol wt. Pepsin-generated i-met-ENK from rat plasma gave three major peaks during reverse phase HPLC, one of which (approximately 25% of the total) coeluted with methionine5-enkephalin sulfoxide and also completed in a radioreceptor assay for opiate-related substances. In addition, this material produced met-ENK-like effects on vascular permeability in rat skin and inhibited electrically induced contractions of the isolated guinea pig ileum in a naloxone-sensitive manner. The plasma substrate(s) that yielded i-met-ENK was distinguished from adrenal proenkephalins, since partially purified plasma substrate(s) did not liberate i-met-ENK upon digestion with trypsin and carboxypeptidase B. Although it is possible that these peptides differ from met-ENK in amino acid sequence, the results presented here suggest that met-ENK-related substances might be formed physiologically by the action of a pepsin-related processing enzyme(s) on plasma substrate(s). Such a mechanism would be analogous to that used in the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:3093194

  10. Low ambient temperature elevates plasma triiodothyronine concentrations while reducing digesta mean retention time and methane yield in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, M C; McFarlane, J R; Hegarty, R S

    2015-06-01

    Ruminant methane yield (MY) is positively correlated with mean retention time (MRT) of digesta. The hormone triiodothyronine (T3 ), which is negatively correlated with ambient temperature, is known to influence MRT. It was hypothesised that exposing sheep to low ambient temperatures would increase plasma T3 concentration and decrease MRT of digesta within the rumen of sheep, resulting in a reduction of MY. To test this hypothesis, six Merino sheep were exposed to two different ambient temperatures (cold treatment, 9 ± 1 °C; warm control 26 ± 1 °C). The effects on MY, digesta MRT, plasma T3 concentration, CO2 production, DM intake, DM digestibility, change in body weight (BW), rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, estimated microbial protein output, protozoa abundance, wool growth, water intake, urine output and rectal temperature were studied. Cold treatment resulted in a reduction in MY (p growth increased (p sheep to cold ambient temperatures reduces digesta retention time in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to a reduction in enteric methane yield. Further research is warranted to determine whether T3 could be used as an indirect selection tool for genetic selection of low enteric methane-producing ruminants. PMID:25271888

  11. Changes of Plasma Concentration of 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in climacteric women with hot flushes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ya-qiong; Wu Wei-guang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the changes of serotonin metabolism and the hot flushes in climacteric women.Methods.Ninety eight climacteric women, aged 40-60, were enrolled and divided into 4 groups: Group A: 20 cases of early menopausal transition.Group B: 26 cases of late menopausal transition, with skip of periods 3-12 months.Group C: 28 cases of early postmenopause (1-3 yrs).Group D: 24 cases of late postmenopause(>3-6 yrs).Twelve normal women of reproductive age (24±3yrs) were served as young controls.Fifty two postmenopausal women were subdivided into 3 groups according to the presence or the absence of hot flushes: (1) postmenopausal controls without hot flushz 17 cases, (2) mild hot flushes group: 20 eases,fewer≤5 times/d, (3) severe hot flushes group: 15 cases, more than 5 times/d.Plasma concentrations of tryptophan (TP), 5-hydroxytryptophane (5-HTP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT or serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in all participants by high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence spectrophotometer (HPLC-FS).The relationship between serotonin metabolic parameters and menopause, hot flushes were analysed.Results: (1) Mean 5-HT and 5-HIAA concentrations in plasma were significantly higher in climacteric women than those in young controls, especially in Group B.Mean 5-HTP and 5-HT levels were higher and 5-HIAA lower in Group D as compared with those of young controls.(2) Plasma 5-HT levels was positively correlated to luteinizing hormone concentration in postmenopansal women (P<0.01).(3) In the mild hot flushes group, only plasma 5-HTP levels were significantly higher than that in the non-hot flushes group.In severe hot flushes group,plasma 5-HT and 5-HTP contents were significantly higher and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio lower than those in the non-hotflushes groups.Conclusion: The results suggest that the catabolic disorder of serotonin maybe involve in the underling mechanism of

  12. Nocturnal asthma. Beta 2-adrenoceptors on peripheral mononuclear leukocytes, cAMP- and cortisol-plasma concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Haen, Ekkehard; Hauck, R; Emslander, H P; Langenmayer, I.; Liebl, B.; Schopohl, J; Remien, J.; Fruhmann, G

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate pathophysiologic mechanisms of the predominantly nocturnal complaints in atopic bronchial asthma, the expression and function of beta 2-adrenoceptors on peripheral mononuclear leukocytes (pMNL), the cAMP--as well as the cortisol--plasma concentrations were studied in eight healthy men and ten so far untreated male asthmatic patients at 4-h intervals for 24 h. No difference was seen in the beta 2-adrenoceptor density (Bmax) on pMNL between healthy and asthmatic men (24-h means +/- ...

  13. Intrathecal morphine plus general anesthesia in cardiac surgery: effects on pulmonary function, postoperative analgesia, and plasma morphine concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Moraes dos Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of intrathecal morphine on pulmonary function, analgesia, and morphine plasma concentrations after cardiac surgery. INTRODUCTION: Lung dysfunction increases morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Regional analgesia may improve pulmonary outcomes by reducing pain, but the occurrence of this benefit remains controversial. METHODS: Forty-two patients were randomized for general anesthesia (control group n=22 or 400 µg of intrathecal morphine followed by general anesthesia (morphine group n=20. Postoperative analgesia was accomplished with an intravenous, patient-controlled morphine pump. Blood gas measurements, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume (FEV, and FVC/FEV ratio were obtained preoperatively, as well as on the first and second postoperative days. Pain at rest, profound inspiration, amount of coughing, morphine solicitation, consumption, and plasma morphine concentration were evaluated for 36 hours postoperatively. Statistical analyses were performed using the repeated measures ANOVA or Mann-Whiney tests (*p<0.05. RESULTS: Both groups experienced reduced FVC postoperatively (3.24 L to 1.38 L in control group; 2.72 L to 1.18 L in morphine group, with no significant decreases observed between groups. The two groups also exhibited similar results for FEV1 (p=0.085, FEV1/FVC (p=0.68 and PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p=0.08. The morphine group reported less pain intensity (evaluated using a visual numeric scale, especially when coughing (18 hours postoperatively: control group= 4.73 and morphine group= 1.80, p=0.001. Cumulative morphine consumption was reduced after 18 hours in the morphine group (control group= 20.14 and morphine group= 14.20 mg, p=0.037. The plasma morphine concentration was also reduced in the morphine group 24 hours after surgery (control group= 15.87 ng.mL-1 and morphine group= 4.08 ng.mL-1, p=0.029. CONCLUSIONS: Intrathecal morphine administration did not significantly alter

  14. Influence of chloride ion concentration on immersion corrosion behaviour of plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; Balasubramanian, V

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion attack of aluminium and magnesium based alloys is a major issue worldwide. The corrosion degradation of an uncoated and atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina (APS) coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy was investigated using immersion corrosion test in NaCl solutions of different chloride ion concentrations viz., 0.01 M, 0.2 M, 0.6 M and 1 M. The corroded surface was characterized by an optical microscope and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the corrosion deterioration of uncoate...

  15. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors administered in combination with metformin result in an additive increase in the plasma concentration of active GLP-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migoya, E M; Bergeron, R; Miller, J L;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, of metformin, and of the combination of the two agents, on incretin hormone concentrations. Active and inactive (or total) incretin plasma concentrations, plasma DPP-4 activity, and preproglucagon......-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (9-36) and glucagon. In healthy subjects, a DPP-4 inhibitor elevated both active GLP-1 and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), metformin increased total GLP-1 (but not GIP), and the combination resulted in additive increases in active GLP-1 plasma concentrations....... Metformin did not inhibit plasma DPP-4 activity either in vitro or in vivo. The study results show that metformin is not a DPP-4 inhibitor but rather enhances precursor GCG expression in the large intestine, resulting in increased total GLP-1 concentrations. DPP-4 inhibitors and metformin have complementary...

  16. The concentration of plasma metabolites varies throughout reproduction and affects offspring number in wild brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthey, Zoé; Freychet, Marine; Manicki, Aurélie; Herman, Alexandre; Lepais, Olivier; Panserat, Stéphane; Elosegi, Arturo; Tentelier, Cédric; Labonne, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In wild populations, measuring energy invested in the reproduction and disentangling investment in gametes versus investment in reproductive behavior (such as intrasexual competition or intersexual preference) remain challenging. In this study, we investigated the energy expenditure in brown trout reproductive behavior by using two proxies: variation in weight and variation of plasma metabolites involved in energy production, over the course of reproductive season in a semi natural experimental river. We estimated overall reproductive success using genetic assignment at the end of the reproductive season. Results show that triglycerides and free fatty acid concentrations vary negatively during reproduction, while amino-acids and glucose concentrations remain stable. Decrease in triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations during reproduction is not related to initial concentration levels or to weight variation. Both metabolite concentration variations and weight variations are correlated to the number of offspring produced, which could indicate that gametic and behavioral reproductive investments substantially contribute to reproductive success in wild brown trout. This study opens a path to further investigate variations in reproductive investment in wild populations. PMID:25666363

  17. High plasma coenzyme Q10 concentration is correlated with good left ventricular performance after primary angioplasty in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Hui; Kuo, Chen-Ling; Huang, Ching-Shan; Tseng, Wan-Min; Lian, Ie Bin; Chang, Chia-Chu; Liu, Chin-San

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Exogenous administration of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been shown in experimental models to have a protective effect against ischemia–reperfusion injury. However, it is unclear whether follow-up plasma CoQ10 concentration is prognostic of left ventricular (LV) performance after primary balloon angioplasty in patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We prospectively recruited 55 patients with STEMI who were treated with primary coronary balloon angioplasty. Plasma CoQ10 concentrations were measured before primary angioplasty (baseline) and 3 days, 7 days, and 1 month after STEMI using high-performance liquid chromatography. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. The control group comprised 54 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. Serial circulating CoQ10 concentrations significantly decreased with time in the STEMI group. The LV ejection fraction at 6-month follow-up positively correlated with the 1-month plasma CoQ10 tertile. Higher plasma CoQ10 concentrations at 1 month were associated with favorable LV remodeling and systolic function 6 months after STEMI. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that changes in CoQ10 concentrations at 1-month follow-up were predictive of LV systolic function 6 months after STEMI. Changes in CoQ10 concentrations correlated negatively with baseline oxidized low-density lipoprotein and fibrinogen concentrations and correlated positively with leukocyte mitochondrial copy number at baseline. Patients with STEMI who had higher plasma CoQ10 concentrations 1 month after primary angioplasty had better LV performance at 6-month follow-up. In addition, higher plasma CoQ10 concentration was associated with lower grade inflammatory and oxidative stress status. Therefore, plasma CoQ10 concentration may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker of LV systolic function after revascularization therapy for acute myocardial infarction. PMID:27495100

  18. Measurement of seed concentration profile in MHD plasma by laser technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to measure three dimensional spatial density profiles of potassium seed in channels of MHD power generators, a laser induced fluorescence (LIF) method is proposed. In this method, a given and small quantity of sodium compound such as sodium chloride is uniformly mixed in a given quantity of potassium seed such as potassium carbonate and a relative spatial density profile of potassium atoms in a MHD channel is derived from the absolute density profile of sodium atom measured by using a LIF method under an assumption that a ratio of the density of Na atoms to that of K atoms is almost constant in gas plasma. Experiments to examine applicability of this LIF method are done in a seeded air- acetylen flame. From results of these experiments and calculation of mole, fraction of combustion products by using thermal equilibrium constants, it verified that the density ratio between Na and K atoms in flame plasma is constant within the limits of about 40 % errors over the wide temperature range, 1400-3000 K. The absolute density derived by using this method together with calculation of mole fraction of combustion products for the acetylen flame is also compared with that obtained by using the spectral absorption method. Agreement between them is fairly good. (author)

  19. Analysis of Soluble Molecular Fibronectin-Fibrin Complexes and EDA-Fibronectin Concentration in Plasma of Patients with Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemańska-Perek, Anna; Krzyżanowska-Gołąb, Dorota; Pupek, Małgorzata; Klimeczek, Piotr; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2016-06-01

    Atherosclerosis, a chronic vascular disease, leads to molecular events bound with interplaying processes of inflammation and coagulation. In the present study, fibronectin (FN), FN containing extra domain A (EDA-FN), frequency of occurrence, and relative amounts of soluble plasma FN-fibrin complexes were analyzed in 80 plasma samples of patients suspected of coronary artery disease based on clinical evaluation and changes in arteries found by computed tomographic coronary angiography. The study showed that in the plasma of the patients' group with high risk of coronary artery disease EDA-FN concentration was significantly higher (3.5 ± 2.5 mg/L; P < 0.025) and the molecular FN-fibrin complexes of 1000 kDa and higher occurred more often than in the groups of patients with mild risk of coronary artery disease and the normal age-matched. The increased level of EDA-FN and occurrence of FN-fibrin complexes could have a potential diagnostic value in the diagnosis and management of patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:27022744

  20. The influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the association between the plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Tomita

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD can differ depending on the patient's serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR genotype, and the effects of varying plasma concentrations of drugs can also vary. We investigated the association between the paroxetine plasma concentration and clinical response in patients with different 5-HTTLPR genotypes. METHODS: Fifty-one patients were enrolled in this study. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS was used to evaluate patients at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The patients' paroxetine plasma concentrations at week 6 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, their 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (alleles S and L were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. We divided the participants into two groups based on their L haplotype: the SS group and the SL and LL group. We performed single and multiple regression analyses to investigate the associations between MADRS improvement and paroxetine plasma concentrations or other covariates for each group. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to demographic or clinical data. In the SS group, the paroxetine plasma concentration was significantly negatively correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6. In the SL and LL group, the paroxetine plasma concentration was significantly positively correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6 according to the results of the single regression analysis; however, it was not significantly correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6 according to the results of the multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Among patients with MDD who do not respond to paroxetine, a lower plasma concentration or a lower oral dose of paroxetine might be more effective in those with the SS genotype, and a higher plasma concentration might

  1. One-carbon metabolism nutrient status and plasma S-adenosylmethionine concentrations in middle-aged and older Chinese in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Nelson, Heather H.; Robien, Kim; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Koh, Woon-Puay; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2012-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) is a primary methyl donor for the methylation of many molecules including DNA. DNA methylation is believed to play an important role in functions of cells and genes. Dietary, genetic and metabolic factors that influence systematic SAM levels are not fully understood. We conducted cross-sectional analysis to evaluate associations between plasma concentrations of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and metabolites and plasma SAM concentrations using healthy individuals wi...

  2. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E; Priebe, Marion G; Heimweg, Janneke A J;

    2006-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and GIP is implicated in the regulation of energy storage. The capacity of carbohydrates to induce secretion of these incretin hormones could be one of the...... factors determining the metabolic quality of different types of carbohydrates. We analyzed the correlation between the rate of intestinal absorption of (starch-derived) glucose and plasma concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP after ingestion of glucose and starchy foods with a different content of rapidly and...... slowly available glucose. In a crossover study, glucose, insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were monitored for 6 h after consumption of glucose, uncooked cornstarch (UCCS) or corn pasta in 7 healthy men. All test meals were naturally labeled with 13C. Using a primed, continuous D-[6,6-2H2]glucose...

  3. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  4. Oviposition and the plasma concentrations of LH, progesterone, and corticosterone in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) fed parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Sileo, L.; Scanes, C.G.

    1982-01-01

    Bobwhite quail were fed concentrations of parathion (0,50, 100, 200 or 400 p.p.m.) for 10 days. Food intake, body weight change, brain acetylcholinesterase activity, egg production, and ovary weight were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. In a second experiment, birds were fed 0, 25 or 100 p.p.m. parathion or pair-fed control food to equate consumption in the 100 p.p.m. group. Egg production was not affected in birds fed 25 p.p.m. or in the pair-fed group, but the daily time of oviposition was more variable than in the control group. Cessation of egg production, inhibition of follicular development, and reduced plasma LH concentration were observed in birds fed 100 p.p.m. parathion. These findings indicate that exposure to parathion can impair reproduction, possibly by altering gonadotrophin secretion.

  5. Forty-three loci associated with plasma lipoprotein size, concentration, and cholesterol content in genome-wide analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I Chasman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available While conventional LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride measurements reflect aggregate properties of plasma lipoprotein fractions, NMR-based measurements more accurately reflect lipoprotein particle concentrations according to class (LDL, HDL, and VLDL and particle size (small, medium, and large. The concentrations of these lipoprotein sub-fractions may be related to risk of cardiovascular disease and related metabolic disorders. We performed a genome-wide association study of 17 lipoprotein measures determined by NMR together with LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, ApoA1, and ApoB in 17,296 women from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS. Among 36 loci with genome-wide significance (P<5x10(-8 in primary and secondary analysis, ten (PCCB/STAG1 (3q22.3, GMPR/MYLIP (6p22.3, BTNL2 (6p21.32, KLF14 (7q32.2, 8p23.1, JMJD1C (10q21.3, SBF2 (11p15.4, 12q23.2, CCDC92/DNAH10/ZNF664 (12q24.31.B, and WIPI1 (17q24.2 have not been reported in prior genome-wide association studies for plasma lipid concentration. Associations with mean lipoprotein particle size but not cholesterol content were found for LDL at four loci (7q11.23, LPL (8p21.3, 12q24.31.B, and LIPG (18q21.1 and for HDL at one locus (GCKR (2p23.3. In addition, genetic determinants of total IDL and total VLDL concentration were found at many loci, most strongly at LIPC (15q22.1 and APOC-APOE complex (19q13.32, respectively. Associations at seven more loci previously known for effects on conventional plasma lipid measures reveal additional genetic influences on lipoprotein profiles and bring the total number of loci to 43. Thus, genome-wide associations identified novel loci involved with lipoprotein metabolism-including loci that affect the NMR-based measures of concentration or size of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles-all characteristics of lipoprotein profiles that may impact disease risk but are not available by conventional assay.

  6. Forty-three loci associated with plasma lipoprotein size, concentration, and cholesterol content in genome-wide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasman, Daniel I; Paré, Guillaume; Mora, Samia; Hopewell, Jemma C; Peloso, Gina; Clarke, Robert; Cupples, L Adrienne; Hamsten, Anders; Kathiresan, Sekar; Mälarstig, Anders; Ordovas, José M; Ripatti, Samuli; Parker, Alex N; Miletich, Joseph P; Ridker, Paul M

    2009-11-01

    While conventional LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride measurements reflect aggregate properties of plasma lipoprotein fractions, NMR-based measurements more accurately reflect lipoprotein particle concentrations according to class (LDL, HDL, and VLDL) and particle size (small, medium, and large). The concentrations of these lipoprotein sub-fractions may be related to risk of cardiovascular disease and related metabolic disorders. We performed a genome-wide association study of 17 lipoprotein measures determined by NMR together with LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, ApoA1, and ApoB in 17,296 women from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS). Among 36 loci with genome-wide significance (PKLF14 (7q32.2), 8p23.1, JMJD1C (10q21.3), SBF2 (11p15.4), 12q23.2, CCDC92/DNAH10/ZNF664 (12q24.31.B), and WIPI1 (17q24.2)) have not been reported in prior genome-wide association studies for plasma lipid concentration. Associations with mean lipoprotein particle size but not cholesterol content were found for LDL at four loci (7q11.23, LPL (8p21.3), 12q24.31.B, and LIPG (18q21.1)) and for HDL at one locus (GCKR (2p23.3)). In addition, genetic determinants of total IDL and total VLDL concentration were found at many loci, most strongly at LIPC (15q22.1) and APOC-APOE complex (19q13.32), respectively. Associations at seven more loci previously known for effects on conventional plasma lipid measures reveal additional genetic influences on lipoprotein profiles and bring the total number of loci to 43. Thus, genome-wide associations identified novel loci involved with lipoprotein metabolism-including loci that affect the NMR-based measures of concentration or size of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles-all characteristics of lipoprotein profiles that may impact disease risk but are not available by conventional assay. PMID:19936222

  7. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  8. Effects of 12-week high-intensity interval training on plasma visfatin concentration and insulin resistance in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Matinhomaee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on visfatin and insulin resistance (IR in overweight adult men during a weight-loss program. Eighteen overweight men (age = 31.8 ± 9.2 years; body mass index = 28.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2 were randomly recruited into one of the two groups, namely, HIIT (3 days/week, 20 minutes/day; 85–95% peak oxygen uptake and diet-induced weight-loss combined (DHIIT; n = 10 and diet-induced weight loss only (DIO; n = 8. The DHIIT and DIO groups undertook a 12-week weight-loss intervention using a moderate isocaloric energy-deficit diet. Both DHIIT and DIO groups demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight (p < 0.01. Total fat mass (p < 0.05 and lean body mass (p < 0.05 were decreased in the DIO group with no significant changes in abdominal fat mass, plasma insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (HOMA-IR, blood glucose level, and plasma visfatin. In the DHIIT group, total fat mass (p < 0.01, abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05, plasma insulin concentration (p < 0.05, plasma visfatin (p < 0.01, and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05 were reduced and lean body mass remained unchanged. In conclusion, adding a low-volume 20-minute HIIT (three times/week to an energy-deficit diet not only can improve the efficiency of weight-loss program in the reduction of body fat, plasma visfatin levels, and HOMA-IR, but also has a reservation effect on lean body mass.

  9. Doxorubicin-Loaded QuadraSphere Microspheres: Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Intratumoral Drug Concentration in an Animal Model of Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  10. Terpenes increase the lipid dynamics in the Leishmania plasma membrane at concentrations similar to their IC50 values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Silva Camargos

    Full Text Available Although many terpenes have shown antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the mechanism of action is not well established. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of the spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid revealed remarkable fluidity increases in the plasma membrane of terpene-treated Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. For an antiproliferative activity assay using 5×10(6 parasites/mL, the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpenes (+-limonene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole inhibited the growth of the parasites with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.549, 0.678 and 4.697 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of these terpenes increased as the parasite concentration used in the cytotoxicity assay increased, and this behavior was examined using a theoretical treatment of the experimental data. Cytotoxicity tests with the same parasite concentration as in the EPR experiments revealed a correlation between the IC50 values of the terpenes and the concentrations at which they altered the membrane fluidity. In addition, the terpenes induced small amounts of cell lysis (4-9% at their respective IC50 values. For assays with high cell concentrations (2×10(9 parasites/mL, the incorporation of terpene into the cell membrane was very fast, and the IC50 values observed for 24 h and 5 min-incubation periods were not significantly different. Taken together, these results suggest that terpene cytotoxicity is associated with the attack on the plasma membrane of the parasite. The in vitro cytotoxicity of nerolidol was similar to that of miltefosine, and nerolidol has high hydrophobicity; thus, nerolidol might be used in drug delivery systems, such as lipid nanoparticles to treat leishmaniasis.

  11. Effects of concomitant fluvoxamine on the plasma concentration of etizolam in Japanese psychiatric patients: wide interindividual variation in the drug interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yutaro; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Shioiri, Toshiki; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2004-12-01

    Administration of fluvoxamine with concomitant benzodiazepines is common in clinical situations. This study investigated the effects of the coadministration of fluvoxamine on plasma concentrations of etizolam and evaluated the effects of various fluvoxamine doses on drug interactions with etizolam. Subjects were 18 Japanese outpatients concomitantly treated with fluvoxamine before or after monotherapy with etizolam. Plasma concentrations of etizolam were measured using a column-switching high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. In 17 subjects treated concomitantly with fluvoxamine at 25 mg or 50 mg, the ranges of plasma concentrations of etizolam corrected for the dose increased from 2.0-13.3 (mean 6.3 +/- 3.6, n = 17) in monotherapy to 2.7-18.2 (mean 9.6 +/- 5.1, n = 17) ng/mL/mg in concomitant doses. Wide variations were observed in the drug interactions; however, coadministration with fluvoxamine produced significant changes in the plasma concentrations of etizolam (P etizolam-monotherapy and the fluvoxamine-concomitant states. Of the 12 subjects treated concomitantly with fluvoxamine at 25 mg, 2 subjects received fluvoxamine at a dose increased up to 150 mg, and another received fluvoxamine at a dose increased up to 200 mg. They showed an increase in the plasma concentrations of etizolam in a fluvoxamine dose-dependent manner; more particularly, the increased dose of fluvoxamine (150 mg and 200 mg) resulted in about a twofold variation in plasma concentrations of etizolam. PMID:15570188

  12. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood. PMID:27347826

  13. Evidence of melatonin secretion in cetaceans: plasma concentration and extrapineal HIOMT-like presence in the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Mattìa; Gabai, Gianfranco; Ballarin, Cristina; Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    The pineal gland is generally believed to be absent in cetaceans, although few and subsequently unconfirmed reports described the organ in some species. The recent description of a complete and photographed pineal body in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) prompted us to examine a series of 29 brains of the same species, but no gland was found. We then decided to investigate if the main product of the gland, melatonin, was nevertheless produced and present in the plasma of this species. We collected plasma and serum samples from a series of captive bottlenose dolphins for a period of 7 months spanning from winter to summer and we determined the indoleamine concentration by radio-immunoassay (RIA). The results demonstrated for the first time a quantitative assessment of melatonin production in the blood of a cetacean. Melatonin levels were comparable to those of terrestrial mammals (5.15-27.74 pg/ml daylight concentration), with indications of both seasonal and daily variation although the presence of a circadian rhythm remains uncertain. Immunohistochemical analyses using as a marker hydroxyindole-O-methyl-transferase (HIOMT, the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the hormone), suggested extrapineal melatonin production by the retina, the Harderian gland and the gut. The enzyme was unequivocally localized in all the three tissues, and, specifically, ganglion cells in the retina showed a very strong HIOMT-immunoreactivity. Our results suggest that further research might reveal unexplored aspects of melatonin production in cetaceans and deserves special attention and further efforts. PMID:22554922

  14. Intravenous lipid and amino acids briskly increase plasma glucose concentrations in small premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savich, R D; Finley, S L; Ogata, E S

    1988-07-01

    We determined the glycemic response to intravenous lipid infusion alone, lipid with amino acids, or amino acids alone in 15 very small premature infants receiving constant glucose infusion during early life. Infants who received lipid or lipid and amino acids demonstrated significant increases in glucose compared with infants who received amino acids. The combination of lipid and amino acids resulted in an earlier increase than lipid alone. Although plasma insulin did not change in all three groups, infants who received amino acids alone demonstrated an appropriate increase in glucagon. These data suggest that lipid infusion, a commonly used means of providing nutrition to premature infants, may cause significant disturbances in glucoregulation, particularly when administered with amino acids. PMID:3132930

  15. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurised combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    In this project the continuous alkali measurement method plasma excited alkali resonance line spectroscopy (PEARLS) was developed, tested and demonstrated in pressurised combustion facilities. The PEARLS method has been developed at Tampere University of Technology (TUT). During 1994-1996 the PEARLS method was developed from the laboratory level to an industrial prototype. The alkali measuring instrument has been tested and used for regular measurements in four different pressurised combustion installations ranging up to industrial pilot scale. The installations are: (1) a pressurised entrained flow reactor (PEFR) at VTT Energy in Jyvaeskylae, Finland (2) a pressurised fluidised bed combustion facility, called FRED, at DMT in Essen, Germany. (3) a 10 MW pressurised circulating fluidised bed combustion pilot plant at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy in Karhula, Finland (4) PFBC Research Facility at ABB Carbon in Finspaang, Sweden

  16. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Reeves, Mathew S; Farmer, Mildred; Griinari, Mikko; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Hubacher, Rachel; Rains, Tia M

    2009-09-01

    Antarctic krill, also known as Euphausia superba, is a marine crustacean rich in both eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that krill oil would increase plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA without adversely affecting indicators of safety, tolerability, or selected metabolic parameters. In this randomized, double-blind parallel arm trial, overweight and obese men and women (N = 76) were randomly assigned to receive double-blind capsules containing 2 g/d of krill oil, menhaden oil, or control (olive) oil for 4 weeks. Results showed that plasma EPA and DHA concentrations increased significantly more (P krill oil (178.4 +/- 38.7 and 90.2 +/- 40.3 micromol/L, respectively) and menhaden oil (131.8 +/- 28.0 and 149.9 +/- 30.4 micromol/L, respectively) groups than in the control group (2.9 +/- 13.8 and -1.1 +/- 32.4 micromol/L, respectively). Systolic blood pressure declined significantly more (P oil (-2.2 +/- 2.0 mm Hg) group than in the control group (3.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg), and the response in the krill oil group (-0.8 +/- 1.4 mm Hg) did not differ from the other 2 treatments. Blood urea nitrogen declined in the krill oil group as compared with the menhaden oil group (P krill oil supplementation increased plasma EPA and DHA and was well tolerated, with no indication of adverse effects on safety parameters. PMID:19854375

  17. Inhibition of Efavirenz Metabolism by Sertraline and Nortriptyline and Their Effect on Efavirenz Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Virginia; Usach, Iris; Gandía, Patricia; Peris, José-Esteban

    2016-02-01

    Between 22 and 45% of HIV-positive subjects are likely to report symptoms of depression. Considering this background, a potential pharmacokinetic interaction between the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz (EFV) and two antidepressants, sertraline (SRT) and nortriptyline (NT), was studied. Rats were administered EFV alone or together with the antidepressants, and changes in the plasma levels and pharmacokinetic parameters of EFV were analyzed. Additional in vitro experiments with rat and human hepatic microsomes were carried out to evaluate the inhibitory effect of SRT and NT on EFV metabolism by determining the formation rate of the major EFV metabolite (8-OH-EFV). In vivo studies showed similar increases in the plasma levels of EFV when it was coadministered with SRT or NT. However, the studies using rat hepatic microsomes showed a more potent inhibitory effect of NT than of SRT on the metabolism of EFV, with values for the 50% inhibition constant (IC50) and inhibitory constant (Ki) for NT about 9-fold lower than those for SRT. An equation was deduced that explains the similar in vivo effects of SRT and NT in spite of the different in vitro performance data. Using human hepatic microsomes, the strongest inhibitory effect was observed with SRT. In summary, pharmacokinetic interactions between EFV, SRT, and NT, associated with the inhibition of hepatic metabolism of EFV, have been detected in rats. Both antidepressants also inhibit EFV metabolism in human hepatic microsomes, but additional in vivo studies in humans are required to evaluate the clinical implication of this interaction. PMID:26643342

  18. The tissue and plasma concentration of polyols and sugars in sheep intrauterine growth retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.R.H. Regnault (Timothy); C. Teng (Cecilia); B. de Vrijer (Barbra); H.L. Galan (Henry); R.B. Wilkening (Randall); F.C. Battaglia (Frederick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn an ovine model of placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth retardation (PI-IUGR), characterized by hypoxia, hypoglycemia and a significant reduction in fetal weight, we assessed alterations in fetal and placental polyols. Arterial maternal-fetal concentration differences of

  19. Altered plasma concentrations of sex hormones in cats infected by feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo, G; Doménech, A; Illera, J-C; Silván, G; Gómez-Lucía, E

    2012-02-01

    Gender differences may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and may be related to fluctuations in sex hormone concentration. The different percentage of male and female cats observed to be infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been traditionally explained through the transmission mechanisms of both viruses. However, sexual hormones may also play a role in this different distribution. To study this possibility, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were analyzed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay in the plasma of 258 cats naturally infected by FIV (FIV(+)), FeLV (FeLV(+)), or FeLV and FIV (F(-)F(+)) or negative for both viruses, including both sick and clinically healthy animals. Results indicated that the concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were significantly higher in animals infected with FIV or FeLV (P FIV(+) females had higher DHEA concentrations than the corresponding males (P FIV and FeLV infections are associated with an important deregulation of steroids, possibly from early in the infection process, which might have decisive consequences for disease progression. PMID:22177694

  20. Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D binding protein in women using hormonal contraceptives: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn; Mosekilde, Leif; Schoenmakers, Inez; Nigdikar, Shailja; Rejnmark, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) may influence total plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. A likely cause is an increased synthesis of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Discrepant results are reported on whether the use of HC affects free concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. Aim......: In a cross-sectional study, plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, VDBP, and the calculated free vitamin D index in users and non-users of HC were compared and markers of calcium and bone metabolism investigated. Results: 75 Caucasian women aged 25-35 years were included during winter season....../creatinine ratio) between groups. In conclusion: Use of HC is associated with 13%-25% higher concentrations of total vitamin D metabolites and VDBP. This however is not reflected in indices of calcium or bone metabolism. Use of HC should be considered in the interpretation of plasma concentrations vitamin D...

  1. Effects of local plasma production accompanying energy concentration in lines with magnetic self-insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments on the light liner compression at the Modul A5-1 facility energy transfer from the generator with the internal resistance ρ=0.04 Ohm to the load is realized using a three-dimensional concentrator with complete inductivity L∼1 nHn, comprising magneto-isolated vacuum lines joint in parallel in the central node. Measurements show that the main losses take place in the region of line junction. Optimization of the concentrator geometry allows one to obtain current in the inductive load I=4.6 MA close to the estimated value, under the voltage in the incident wave of the generator formin line U=1.2 MV

  2. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (<3 ng/mL) in adult females during the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (<0.48 ng/mL) and VTG (<0.001 mg/mL) were low in males throughout the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points

  3. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Masoomeh Kazemi; Hedayat Sahraei; Mahnaz Azarnia; Leila Dehghani; Hossein Bahadoran; Elaheh Tekieh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers. Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap ...

  4. Effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following reduced fat, high fibre diet.

    OpenAIRE

    Edington, J.; Geekie, M; Carter, R.; Benfield, L; Fisher, K; Ball, M.; J. Mann

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and sixty eight subjects participated in a randomised crossover study to determine whether halving or doubling the present dietary cholesterol intake from eggs had any influence on blood cholesterol concentration in people following current dietary recommendations. During the first eight weeks all participants were advised to follow a reduced fat diet (26% total energy for hyperlipidaemic patients, 35% total energy for normolipidaemic volunteers) with an increased ratio of polyuns...

  5. Dietary Predictors and Plasma Concentrations of Perfluorinated Compounds in a Coastal Population from Northern Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary intake, age, gender, and body mass index were investigated as possible predictors of perfluorinated compounds in a study population from northern Norway (44 women and 16 men). In addition to donating a blood sample, the participants answered a detailed questionnaire about diet and lifestyle. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (29 ng/mL), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) (3.9 ng/mL), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) (0.5 ng/mL), perfluoro nonanoate (Pna) (0.8 ng/ml), and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (Phps) (1.1 ng/ml) were detected in more than 95% of all samples. Of the dietary items investigated, fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the concentrations of Pos and Phps, whereas fatty fish to a smaller extent significantly increased the levels of the same compounds. Men had significantly higher concentrations of Pos, Poa, PFHxS, and PFHpS than women. There were significant differences in PFOS isomer pattern between genders, with women having the largest proportion of linear PFOS. PFOS, PFHxS, and PFHpS concentrations also increased with age.

  6. Dietary Predictors and Plasma Concentrations of Perfluorinated Compounds in a Coastal Population from Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotta Rylander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake, age, gender, and body mass index were investigated as possible predictors of perfluorinated compounds in a study population from northern Norway (44 women and 16 men. In addition to donating a blood sample, the participants answered a detailed questionnaire about diet and lifestyle. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS (29 ng/mL, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA (3.9 ng/mL, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS (0.5 ng/mL, perfluorononanoate (PFNA (0.8 ng/mL, and perfluoroheptane sulfonate (PFHpS (1.1 ng/mL were detected in more than 95% of all samples. Of the dietary items investigated, fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the concentrations of PFOS and PFHpS, whereas fatty fish to a smaller extent significantly increased the levels of the same compounds. Men had significantly higher concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS, and PFHpS than women. There were significant differences in PFOS isomer pattern between genders, with women having the largest proportion of linear PFOS. PFOS, PFHxS, and PFHpS concentrations also increased with age.

  7. Evaluation of number concentration quantification by single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: microsecond vs. millisecond dwell times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Álvaro, Isabel; Peña-Vázquez, Elena; Bolea, Eduardo; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Castillo, Juan R; Laborda, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the quantitative information in single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SP-ICP-MS) depends directly on the number concentration of the nanoparticles in the sample analyzed, which is proportional to the flux of nanoparticles through the plasma. Particle number concentrations must be selected in accordance with the data acquisition frequency, to control the precision from counting statistics and the bias, which is produced by the occurrence of multiple-particle events recorded as single-particle events. With quadrupole mass spectrometers, the frequency of data acquisition is directly controlled by the dwell time. The effect of dwell times from milli- to microseconds (10 ms, 5 ms, 100 μs, and 50 μs) on the quality of the quantitative data has been studied. Working with dwell times in the millisecond range, precision figures about 5 % were achieved, whereas using microsecond dwell times, the suitable fluxes of nanoparticles are higher and precision was reduced down to 1 %; this was independent of the dwell time selected. Moreover, due to the lower occurrence of multiple-nanoparticle events, linear ranges are wider when dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs are used. A calculation tool is provided to determine the optimal concentration for any instrument or experimental conditions selected. On the other hand, the use of dwell times in the microsecond range reduces significantly the contribution of the background and/or the presence of dissolved species, in comparison with the use of millisecond dwell times. Although the use of dwell times equal to or shorter than 100 μs offers improved performance working in single-particle mode, the use of conventional dwell times (3-10 ms) should not be discarded, once their limitations are known. PMID:27086011

  8. Genetic and environmental influences on the plasma interleukin-6 concentration in patients with a recent myocardial infarction: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennermo, Marie; Nordin, Margareta; Lundman, Pia; Boqvist, Susanna; Held, Claes; Samnegård, Ann; Ericsson, Carl-Göran; Silveira, Angela; Hamsten, Anders; Nastase, Maria Mannila; Tornvall, Per

    2011-02-01

    The aim was to study the stimuli responsible for triggering and sustaining the plasma concentration of the inflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6) in patients with a first myocardial infarction before the age of 60 and healthy control subjects matched for age and sex. The plasma IL-6 concentration, antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Helicobacter pylori, herpes simplex type 1 and 2, and genotype for the IL6-174 G>C single-nucleotide polymorphism were determined 3 months after the acute event. The results showed that patients had higher IL-6 levels than control subjects, whereas there were no differences regarding individual or total number (pathogen burden) of positive antibody tests against the different pathogens or IL6 genotype distribution. The plasma IL-6 concentration was associated with the number of positive antibody tests in patients and control subjects, whereas patients irrespective of IL6 genotype had increased IL-6. Multivariate analysis, including traditional coronary heart disease risk factors, antibodies against pathogens, and IL6 genotype, explained 17% of the variation of the plasma IL-6 concentration. Neither pathogen burden nor IL6 genotype did contribute to the variation of plasma IL-6 levels, whereas smoking, body-mass index, hypertension, case-control status, and age were determinants of the plasma IL-6 concentration. PMID:21087078

  9. High plasma concentration of beta-D-glucan after administration of sizofiran for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Tokuyasu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirokazu Tokuyasu1, Kenichi Takeda1, Yuji Kawasaki1, Yasuto Sakaguchi2, Noritaka Isowa2, Eiji Shimizu3, Yasuto Ueda31Divisions of Respiratory Medicine, 2Thoracic Surgery, Matsue Red Cross Hospital, 200 Horomachi, Matsue, Shimane; 3Division of Medical Oncology and Molecular Respirology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, JapanAbstract: A 69-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer was admitted to our hospital for further investigation of abnormal shadows on her chest roentgenogram. Histologic examination of transbronchial lung biopsy specimens revealed epithelioid cell granuloma, and Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the bronchial lavage fluid. The plasma level of (1→3-beta-D-glucan was very high, and this elevated level was attributed to administration of sizofiran for treatment of cervical cancer 18 years previously. Therefore, in patients with cervical cancer, it is important to confirm whether or not sizofiran has been administered before measuring (1→3-beta-D-glucan levels.Keywords: (1→3-beta-D-glucan, cervical cancer, Mycobacterium intracellulare, sizofiran

  10. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakritz J

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  11. Is zinc concentration in toxic phase plasma related to dengue severity and level of transaminases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamolwish Laoprasopwattana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between plasma zinc values and the severity of dengue viral infection (DVI and DVI-caused hepatitis. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted during 2008-2010 in hospitalized children aged <15 years confirmed with DVI. Complete blood count, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and zinc values (mcg/dL were determined twice: first during the toxic phase (Zn1 and secondly two weeks after recovery (Zn2. RESULTS: 39 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 9.7 ± 3.7 years, and 15/39 diagnosed with dengue shock syndrome (DSS. Zn1 values were lower than Zn2 values [median (IQR: 46.0 (37.0, 58.0 vs 65.0 (58.0, 81.0 mcg/dL, respectively, p <0.01]. Zn1 but not Zn2 values had a negative correlation with AST and ALT (rs = -0.33, p = 0.04 and rs = -0.31, p = 0.05, respectively. Patients with DSS had lower Zn1 but not Zn2 values compared with non-DSS patients [median (IQR Zn1, 38.0 (30.0, 48.0 vs 52.5 (41.2, 58.7, p = 0.02; Zn2, 61.0 (56.0, 88.0 vs 65.0 (59.5, 77.5, respectively, p = 0.76]. Zn1 values showed a decreasing trend across increasing dengue severity groups (p = 0.02. Age <5 years and DVI-associated diarrhea were associated with low Zn1. CONCLUSION: Children who had a higher grade of dengue disease severity and liver cell injury had lower Zn1 values. Low Zn1 values were probably caused by loss from diarrhea and from zinc translocating to liver cells.

  12. Relationship between Visceral Adiposity and Plasma Adiponectin Concentration: Effect of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nasseri

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic protein that has a protective effect against athero­sclero­sis and diabetes. It is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with pa­rame­ters of overall adiposity including body mass index (BMI, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 76 women we sought to evaluate if adiponectin is associated primarily with central adi­pos­ity rather than overall adiposity. We also assessed adiponectin changes after weight loss in a subgroup of 42 obese sub­jects.Results: Waist to hip ratio (WHR, an index of central obesity, was the only variable independently associated to adi­ponectin (Beta= 0.25, P< 0.05. A mean increase of 8.2±24.2% in adiponectin concentration was observed in response to the dietary restriction and weight loss (P= 0.03. Our findings provide evidence for association of serum adiponectin level with visceral fat, represented by waist to hip ratio index.Conclusion: Moderate weight loss result in significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and provide another bio­logi­cal explanation for the beneficial effect of body weight loss on reducing cardiovascular and diabetes risks in obese pa­tients.

  13. Influence of reproductive status sex hormones and temperature on plasma IGF-I concentrations in sunshine bass (Morone Chrysops X Morone Saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations in male and female sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X Morone saxatilis) were determined in March, early April, and late April in outdoor ponds at a commercial farm. Female fish were always larger than male fish, however plasma IGF-I concentrations w...

  14. Dynamic measurement of the helium concentration of evolving tungsten nanostructures using Elastic Recoil Detection during plasma exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woller, K.B., E-mail: kbwoller@mit.edu; Whyte, D.G.; Wright, G.M.

    2015-08-15

    Helium (He) concentration depth profiles of evolving tungsten (W) nanostructures have been measured for the first time using in situ Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) throughout plasma irradiation. Exposures resulting in fuzzy and non-fuzzy surfaces were analyzed in order to illuminate the role of He during the development of these surface morphologies. ERD was performed on samples with surface temperatures from T{sub s} = 530–1100 K and irradiated by He flux densities of Γ{sub He} ∼ 10{sup 20}–10{sup 22} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}. He concentration profiles in samples that developed either non-fuzzy or fuzzy surfaces are uniformly shaped with concentrations of 1.5–7 at.%, which is presumed to be too low for pressure driven growth models. Therefore, surface morphology changes are not perpetuated by continuous bubble bursting deformation. Also, a threshold in He flux density above 10{sup 20} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} is suggested by using in situ ERD to monitor the depth profile evolution of the He-rich layer while changing the flux during exposure.

  15. Indomethacin and cromolyn sodium alter ozone-induced changes in lung function and plasma eicosanoid concentrations in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.D.; Ainsworth, D.; Lam, H.F.; Amdur, M.O.

    1988-04-01

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were given either indomethacin (IN), cromolyn sodium (CS), or no drug (ND) and then exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm ozone (O3) for 1 hr. At 2 or 24 hr postexposure, ventilation, respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, carbon monoxide-diffusing capacity (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA) were measured, and in separate groups of animals, plasma eicosanoids (EC) were measured. Both drugs blocked the increase in flow resistance noted at 2 hr after O3 and prevented O3-induced increases in the wet lung weight to body weight ratio seen at 2 and 24 hr in the ND group. In the ND animals O3 also decreased total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and residual volume (RV). IN as well as CS blocked reductions in FRC and RV at both 2 and 24 hr after O3. TLC was reduced by both drug treatments in air- and O3-exposed animals. CS treatment also decreased VC in all groups. IN blocked reductions in VA after O3 but did not prevent decreases in DLCO. CS blocked reductions in both VA and DLCO after O3, but the drug decreased DLCO in air-exposed animals. The prostaglandins PGF2 alpha and 6-keto PGF1 alpha were largely unaffected by O3 exposure or drug treatment. Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) was not affected by O3, but both drugs significantly increased PGE1 in all exposure groups. Effects on plasma thromboxane B2 (TxB2) were variable although in most groups TxB2 was lower than in the O3-exposed ND groups. Although our findings suggest that both drugs block some effects of O3 exposure on the lungs and on plasma EC concentrations, the degree to which EC contribute to O3-induced pulmonary effects is not clearly apparent.

  16. Early involvement in friendships predicts later plasma concentrations of oxytocin and vasopressin in juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Aliza Rachel Weinstein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT and vasopressin (AVP are involved in social bonding in attachment relationships, but their role in friendship is poorly understood. We investigated whether rhesus macaques’ (Macaca mulatta friendships at age one predicted plasma OT and AVP at two later time points. Subjects were 54 rhesus macaques at the California National Primate Research Center. Blood was drawn during a brief capture-and-release in the home cage, and plasma assayed for OT and AVP using an enzyme immunoassay. Separate linear mixed models for each sex tested the effects of dominance rank, age, sampling time point, housing condition, parturition status, two blood draw timing measures, and five friendship types: proximity friendships, play friendships, reciprocal friendships (a preference for a peer that also preferred the subject, multiplex friendships (friendships displayed in more than one behavioral domain, and total number of friendships. Females’ number of reciprocal and play friendships at age one significantly predicted later OT; additionally, these two friendship types interacted with rank, such that high-ranking females with the fewest friendships had the highest OT concentrations. Friendship did not predict later OT levels in males, however proximity, play, reciprocal, and total number of friendships predicted males’ plasma AVP. Play and total number of friendships also tended to predict AVP in females. Our results show that peripheral measures of neuroendocrine functioning in juvenile rhesus monkeys are influenced by early involvement in friendships. Friendships have an especially strong impact on an individual’s psychosocial development, and our data suggest OT and AVP as potential underlying mechanisms. Moreover, sex differences in the functioning of the OT and AVP systems, and their relation to friendship, may have important clinical implications for the use of OT as a therapeutic, as well as informing the social context in

  17. The relationship between renal function and plasma concentration of the cachectic factor zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG in adult patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline C Pelletier

    Full Text Available Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG, a potent cachectic factor, is increased in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. However, there is no data for patients before initiation of renal replacement therapy. The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between plasma ZAG concentration and renal function in patients with a large range of glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Plasma ZAG concentration and its relationship to GFR were investigated in 71 patients with a chronic kidney disease (CKD stage 1 to 5, 17 chronic hemodialysis (HD, 8 peritoneal dialysis (PD and 18 non-CKD patients. Plasma ZAG concentration was 2.3-fold higher in CKD stage 5 patients and 3-fold higher in HD and PD patients compared to non-CKD controls (P<0.01. The hemodialysis session further increased plasma ZAG concentration (+39%, P<0.01. An inverse relationship was found between ZAG levels and plasma protein (rs = -0.284; P<0.01, albumin (rs = -0.282, P<0.05, hemoglobin (rs = -0.267, P<0.05 and HDL-cholesterol (rs = -0.264, P<0.05 and a positive correlation were seen with plasma urea (rs = 0.283; P<0.01. In multiple regression analyses, plasma urea and HDL-cholesterol were the only variables associated with plasma ZAG (r2 = 0.406, P<0.001. In CKD-5 patients, plasma accumulation of ZAG was not correlated with protein energy wasting. Further prospective studies are however needed to better elucidate the potential role of ZAG in end-stage renal disease.

  18. PLASMA OXYTOCIN CONCENTRATION AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS: A REVIEW OF CURRENT EVIDENCE AND DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Suena H; Backes, Katherine A; Schuette, Stephanie A

    2016-04-01

    There is substantial recent interest in the role of oxytocin in social and affiliative behaviors-animal models of depression have suggested a link between oxytocin and mood. We reviewed literature to date for evidence of a potential relationship between peripheral oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms in humans. Pubmed(®) and PsychINFO(®) were searched for biomedical and social sciences literature from 1960 to May 19, 2015 for empirical articles in English involving human subjects focused on the relationship between peripheral oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms, excluding articles on the oxytocin receptor gene, or involving exogenous (i.e. intranasal) administration of oxytocin. Eight studies meeting criteria were identified and formally reviewed. Studies of pregnant women suggested an inverse relationship between oxytocin level and depressive symptom severity. Findings in nonpregnant women were broadly consistent with the role of oxytocin release in response to stress supported by animal studies. The relationship between oxytocin and depression in men appeared to be in the opposite direction, possibly reflecting the influence of gonadal hormones on oxytocinergic functioning found in other mammalian species. Overall, small sample sizes, heterogeneity in study designs, and other methodological limitations may account for inconsistent findings. Future research utilizing reliable oxytocin measurement protocols including measurements across time, larger sample sizes, and sample homogeneity with respect to multiple possible confounders (age, gender, race and ethnicity, ovarian status among women, and psychosocial context) are needed to elucidate the role of oxytocin in the pathogenesis of depression, and could guide the design of novel pharmacologic agents. PMID:26756305

  19. Wafer-scale high-resolution patterning of reduced graphene oxide films for detection of low concentration biomarkers in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsik; Chae, Myung-Sic; Lee, Sung Min; Jeong, Dahye; Lee, Byung Chul; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Youngsoo; Chang, Suk Tai; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-08-01

    Given that reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based biosensors allow disposable and repeatable biomarker detection at the point of care, we developed a wafer-scale rGO patterning method with mass productivity, uniformity, and high resolution by conventional micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques. Various rGO patterns were demonstrated with dimensions ranging from 5 μm up to several hundred μm. Manufacture of these patterns was accomplished through the optimization of dry etching conditions. The axis-homogeneity and uniformity were also measured to verify the uniform patternability in 4-inch wafer with dry etching. Over 66.2% of uniform rGO patterns, which have deviation of resistance within range of ±10%, formed the entire wafer. We selected amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in the plasma of APP/PS1 transgenic mice as a study model and measured the peptide level by resistance changes of highly uniform rGO biosensor arrays. Aβ is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease and its plasma concentration is in the pg mL‑1 range. The sensor detected the Aβ peptides with ultra-high sensitivity; the LOD was at levels as low as 100 fg mL‑1. Our results provide biological evidences that this wafer-scale high-resolution patterning method can be used in rGO-based electrical diagnostic devices for detection of low-level protein biomarkers in biofluids.

  20. Population pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in the early phase of septic shock – does standard dosing result in therapeutic plasma concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina Margareta; Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Storgaard, Merete; Thomsen, Marianne Kragh; Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Brock, Birgitte; Kreilgaard, Mads; Gjedsted, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic dosing in septic shock patients poses a challenge for clinicians due to the pharmacokinetic variability seen in this patient population. Piperacillin/tazobactam is often used for empirical treatment, and initial appropriate dosing is crucial for reducing mortality. Accordingly, we...... determined the pharmacokinetic profile of piperacillin (4 g) every 8 hours, during the third consecutive dosing interval, in 15 patients treated empirically for septic shock. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model to assess empirical dosing and to simulate alternative dosing regimens and modes of...... bolus dosing as well as dosing by extended and continuous infusion increases the probability of attaining therapeutic plasma concentrations. For septic shock patients with preserved or augmented renal function, dose increment or prolonged infusion of the drug need to be considered....

  1. Obese Hypertensive Men Have Plasma Concentrations of C-Reactive Protein Similar to That of Obese Normotensive Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Andersen, Ulrik B; Linneberg, Allan; Møller, Daniel V; Hedley, Paula L; Christiansen, Michael; Jeppesen, Jørgen L

    2014-01-01

    )); 63 of these men had 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) ≥ 130/80 mm Hg and comprised the obese hypertensive (OHT) group. The 40 remaining obese men had 24-hour ABP < 130/80 mm Hg and comprised the obese normotensive (ONT) group. Our control group comprised 27 lean normotensive (LNT) men. All...... between OHT and ONT groups (P = 1.00). In the obese men, CRP was not correlated with either 24-hour systolic (r = 0.04; P = 0.71) or 24-hour diastolic ABP (r = -0.03; P = 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Obese hypertensive men, matched for anthropometric measurements, have plasma CRP concentrations similar to those of...

  2. The adrenergic α2 antagonist atipamezole alters the behavioural effects of pramipexole and increases pramipexole concentration in blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, P N; Fletcher, P J; Wilson, V S; Remington, G J

    2016-04-15

    Pramipexole is a dopaminergic agonist used in Parkinson's disease treatment. It is thought to exert its therapeutic and side effects through actions on dopamine D3 receptors. In a recent study, we found that at doses occupying D3 but not D2 receptors pramipexole reduced locomotion and operant responding for primary and conditioned reinforcement. These effects, however, were not blocked by a D3 receptor antagonist and were present in D3 knockout mice, suggesting non-D3 receptor mechanisms. Among the next highest affinity binding sites of pramipexole are adrenergic α2 receptors. Here we explored α2 receptor involvement in the behavioural effects of pramipexole. We found that the α2 antagonist atipamezole, which was itself behaviourally silent, counteracted pramipexole's reduction of locomotion, but not operant responding for water or a conditioned reinforcer. The resulting behavioural profile was similar to that of a higher dose of pramipexole, leading to the hypothesize that atipamezole mediates its behavioural effects by increasing pramipexole effective dose. In support of this hypothesis, we found that atipamezole increased pramipexole concentration in blood plasma. This is not likely due to an effect on drug metabolism since pramipexole is not known to undergo metabolic transformation. Future work should examine two alternative hypotheses; that pramipexole plasma concentration is elevated as the result of 1) competition with atipamezole for renal excretion, or 2) atipamezole blockade of peripheral α2 binding sites, thereby preventing pramipexole distribution to α2-rich tissues. The suggestion of adrenergic effects of pramipexole is important in light of recent interest in adrenergic pathophysiology in Parkinson's disease. PMID:26976325

  3. High-efficiency tooth bleaching using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma with low concentration of hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seoul Hee NAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Light-activated tooth bleaching with a high hydrogen peroxide (HP; H2O2 concentration has risks and the actual role of the light source is doubtful. The use of conventional light might result in an increase in the temperature and cause thermal damage to the health of the tooth tissue. Objective This study investigated the efficacy of tooth bleaching using non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NAPP with 15% carbamide peroxide (CP; CH6N2O3 including 5.4% HP, as compared with conventional light sources. Material and Methods Forty human teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Group I (CP+NAPP, Group II (CP+plasma arc lamp; PAC, Group III (CP+diode laser, and Group IV (CP alone. Color changes (∆E of the tooth and tooth surface temperatures were measured. Data were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's tests. Results Group I showed the highest bleaching efficacy, with a ∆E value of 1.92-, 2.61 and 2.97-fold greater than those of Groups II, III and IV, respectively (P<0.05. The tooth surface temperature was maintained around 37°C in Group I, but it reached 43°C in Groups II and III. Conclusions The NAPP has a greater capability for effective tooth bleaching than conventional light sources with a low concentration of HP without causing thermal damage. Tooth bleaching using NAPP can become a major technique for in-office bleaching in the near future.

  4. The Research Process of the Molecular Basis and Virulence Variation about AIV%禽流感病毒致病分子基础及变异研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东彦新; 张伟红; 韩秀兰; 马连营; 李景峰; 胡宗福

    2014-01-01

    本文对禽流感病毒毒力分子基础及禽流感病毒毒力的变异进行了综述,其中HA、NA、PB2、PB1-F2、NS1是决定AIV毒力、致病性等的主要因素,其变异后毒力将发生很大变化。探究毒力变异机理,进一步了解疾病发生机制,为禽流感的治疗提供依据。%The paper discussed the molecular basis and the variation of Avian influenza virus(AIV), and HA,NA,PB2, PB1-F2,NS1 were the main factors of AIV virulence and pathogenicity, and AIV virulence would change after its vari-ation. Inquiry of virulence variation could provide evidence for the treatment of AIV.

  5. The Correlation between endothelin-1 antibody plasma concentrations in patients with scleroderma and different manifestations of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghaei M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Systemic scleroderma (SSc is a generalized connective tissue disorder of unknown origin which most notably is characterized by skin thickening and organ damage. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 antibody plays a role in skin fibrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlation of different manifestations of SSc with ET-1 plasma levels."n"nMethods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted on 95 patients (91 women and four men with scleroderma in 2006. The patients had been referred to the Rheumatology Clinic of Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The demographic data and signs and symptoms were entered in a questionnaire and endothelin-1 concentrations were measured. "n"nResults: The mean age of the patients was 38±12.29 years. Diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc was diagnosed in 52 and limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc in 43 patients. Raynaud's phenomenon (91% was the most common manifestation in the patients. The relationship between the resorption of terminal phalanges due to fibrosis with the plasma concentration of Endothelin-1 was statistically significant (p=0.001. Pitting ulcers had significant relationships with endothelin-1 concentrations too (p<0

  6. Method for the determination of a new indicator proportional to the plasma concentration of free thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for the estimation of free thyroxine (T4) in serum is described. Partially heat-denatured serum is mixed with 125I-labelled T4 bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) on a Sephadex column. After a period of equilibration, the column is eluted with buffer and the residual radioactivity on the column measured. This represents the fraction of 125I-labelled T4 freed from TBG and can be related to the concentration of free T4 in the serum, being expressed as ''proportional free thyroxine'' (PFT4) in μg per 100 ml. In studies of the method, a coefficient of variation of 4.52% in the results was found. The mean PFT4 value in 124 normal subjects was 7.26 +- 1.25 μg per 100 ml. Values below 4.8 μg per 100 ml were considered indicative of hypothyroidism and those above 9.8 μg per 100 ml indicative of hyperthyroidism, in good agreement with clinical findings. The coefficient of correlation between the results and results obtained by the AMES ''Tetralute'' method was 0.911. The mean PFT4 value in 37 pregnant subjects was 12.2 +- 2.1 μg per 100 ml

  7. CYP2B6*6 genotype and high efavirenz plasma concentration but not nevirapine are associated with low lumefantrine plasma exposure and poor treatment response in HIV-malaria-coinfected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganda, B A; Minzi, O M S; Ngaimisi, E; Kamuhabwa, A A R; Aklillu, E

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the influence of efavirenz (EFV)- or nevirapine (NVP)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) on lumefantrine plasma exposure in HIV-malaria-coinfected patients and implication of pharmacogenetic variations. A total of 269 HIV patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria on NVP-based ART (NVP-arm), EFV-based ART (EFV-arm) or not receiving ART (control-arm) were enrolled and treated with artemether-lumefantrine. Day-7 lumefantrine, baseline EFV and NVP plasma concentrations, and CYP2B6*6,*18, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3,*6,*7, ABCB1 c.3435C>T and ABCB1 c.4036A>G genotypes were determined. The median day-7 lumefantrine plasma concentration was significantly lower in the EFV-arm compared with that in NVP- and control-arm. High EFV plasma concentrations and CYP2B6*6/*6 genotype significantly correlated with low lumefantrine plasma concentrations and high rate of recurrent parasitemia. No significant effect of NVP-based ART on lumefantrine exposure was observed. In conclusion, owing to long-term CYP3A induction, EFV-based ART cotreatment significantly reduces lumefantrine plasma exposure leading to poor malaria treatment response, which is more pronounced in CYP2B6 slow metabolizers. PMID:25963334

  8. Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Gina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported for people previously employed in the mining and milling operations at Wittenoom (Western Australia, and people who lived in the nearby town, where they were environmentally exposed to crocidolite. Methods Annual measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and plasma concentrations of retinol, carotene and vitamin E have been made since 1992. Mixed effects models were used to examine the associations between lung function and the plasma vitamin levels of retinol, carotene and vitamin E. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher plasma retinol and carotene concentrations were significantly associated with higher levels of lung function at entry into the study, while vitamin E concentrations were associated with lower entry lung function. Retinol was associated with a less steep decline of lung function over time, while carotene concentrations were associated with an increased decline of lung function over time and vitamin E levels were not associated with changes of lung function over time. Conclusion These results support a beneficial relationship between plasma concentrations of retinol on the levels and rates of change of lung function, while showing no such consistent beneficial effect for plasma levels of beta-carotene or vitamin E.

  9. Sequence variation does not confound the measurement of plasma PfHRP2 concentration in African children presenting with severe malaria

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    Ramutton Thiranut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein PFHRP2 measurement is used widely for diagnosis, and more recently for severity assessment in falciparum malaria. The Pfhrp2 gene is highly polymorphic, with deletion of the entire gene reported in both laboratory and field isolates. These issues potentially confound the interpretation of PFHRP2 measurements. Methods Studies designed to detect deletion of Pfhrp2 and its paralog Pfhrp3 were undertaken with samples from patients in seven countries contributing to the largest hospital-based severe malaria trial (AQUAMAT. The quantitative relationship between sequence polymorphism and PFHRP2 plasma concentration was examined in samples from selected sites in Mozambique and Tanzania. Results There was no evidence for deletion of either Pfhrp2 or Pfhrp3 in the 77 samples with lowest PFHRP2 plasma concentrations across the seven countries. Pfhrp2 sequence diversity was very high with no haplotypes shared among 66 samples sequenced. There was no correlation between Pfhrp2 sequence length or repeat type and PFHRP2 plasma concentration. Conclusions These findings indicate that sequence polymorphism is not a significant cause of variation in PFHRP2 concentration in plasma samples from African children. This justifies the further development of plasma PFHRP2 concentration as a method for assessing African children who may have severe falciparum malaria. The data also add to the existing evidence base supporting the use of rapid diagnostic tests based on PFHRP2 detection.

  10. Lactation and appetite-regulating hormones: increased maternal plasma peptide YY concentrations 3-6 months postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Greisa; Hopfgartner, Judith; Grimm, Gabriele; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Clodi, Martin; Luger, Anton

    2015-10-28

    Breast-feeding is associated with maternal hormonal and metabolic changes ensuring adequate milk production. In this study, we investigate the impact of breast-feeding on the profile of changes in maternal appetite-regulating hormones 3-6 months postpartum. Study participants were age- and BMI-matched lactating mothers (n 10), non-lactating mothers (n 9) and women without any history of pregnancy or breast-feeding in the previous 12 months (control group, n 10). During study sessions, young mothers breast-fed or bottle-fed their babies, and maternal blood samples were collected at five time points during 90 min: before, during and after feeding the babies. Outcome parameters were plasma concentrations of ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), leptin, adiponectin, prolactin, cortisol, insulin, glucose and lipid values. At baseline, circulating PYY concentrations were significantly increased in lactating mothers (100·3 (se 6·7) pg/ml) v. non-lactating mothers (73·6 (se 4·9) pg/ml, P=0·008) and v. the control group (70·2 (se 9) pg/ml, P=0·021). We found no differences in ghrelin, leptin and adiponectin values. Baseline prolactin concentrations were over 4-fold higher in lactating mothers (P<0·001). Lactating women had reduced TAG levels and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, but increased waist circumference, when compared with non-lactating women. Breast-feeding sessions further elevated circulating prolactin (P<0·001), but induced no acute effects on appetite-regulating hormones. In summary, one single breast-feeding session did not acutely modulate circulating appetite-regulating hormones, but increased baseline PYY concentrations are associated with prolonged lactation. PYY might play a role in the coordination of energy balance during lactation, increasing fat mobilisation from maternal depots and ensuring adequate milk production for the demands of the growing infant. PMID:26299586

  11. [Plasma homocysteine concentration and its relationship with the development of preeclampsia. Effect of prenatal administration of folic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Marisol; Fernández, Gerardo; Diez-Ewald, Maria; Torres, Enrique; Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Fernández, Nelson; Narváez, Janeth; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis

    2005-06-01

    The increase of plasmatic homocysteine (Hc) in pregnant women, who later develop preeclampsia/eclampsia, the cause of this increment and its pathogenic role in toxemia of pregnancy, are still controversial. The objectives of the present research were to determine the plasmatic He concentrations during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy and the effect of folic acid administration on these values, and in the prevention of preeclampsia. Ninety six pregnant women of low economic background were studied on the first prenatal consultation: 27 women in the first trimester of pregnancy and 59 in the second. After 8 hours of fasting, venous blood was extracted and each patient was provided with 1 mg folic acid tablets and instructed to ingest one tablet daily, and to come back to the laboratory after three months. Plasma homocysteine and serum folic acid were determined for each patient before and after the folic acid treatment, by using the IMX system (Abbott Lab) and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Basal homocysteine concentrations were 4.0 +/- 2.1 micromol/L and 4.8 +/- 2.1 micromol/L in the first and second trimesters respectively, with no significant modifications after three months of folic acid. Although the degree of desertion from the study was high, it was possible to determine the evolution of 65 pregnancies. Ten of them developed preeclampsia (15.4%). No significant differences were found in Hc concentrations, or the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia in the different stages of pregnancy, between women with normal gestation and those who developed preeclampsia. The small sample size of these groups, preclude any valid conclusion, however the results do not suggest that Hc concentration or folic acid administration influence the development of toxemia of pregnancy. PMID:16001750

  12. Orally administered betaine has an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine and plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Ursula; Törrönen, Anneli; Meririnne, Esa; Saarinen, Markku; Alfthan, Georg; Aro, Antti; Uusitupa, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Betaine, i.e., trimethylglycine, is linked to homocysteine metabolism. A 3-mo daily betaine supplementation decreased even normal plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in humans. The pharmacokinetic characteristics and metabolism of betaine in humans have not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of orally administered betaine and its acute effect on plasma tHcy concentrations. Healthy volunteers (n = 10; 3 men, 7 women) with normal body weight (mean +/- SD, 69.5 +/- 17.0 kg), 40.8 +/- 12.4 y old, participated in the study. The betaine doses were 1, 3, and 6 g. The doses were mixed with 150 mL of orange juice and ingested after a 12-h overnight fast by each volunteer according to a randomized double-blind crossover design. Blood samples were drawn for 24 h and a 24-h urine collection was performed. Orally administered betaine had an immediate and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine concentration. Single doses of 3 and 6 g lowered plasma tHcy concentrations (P = 0.019 and P < 0.001, respectively), unlike the 1-g dose. After the highest dose, the concentrations remained low during the 24 h of monitoring. The change in plasma tHcy concentration was linearly associated with betaine dose (P = 0.006) and serum betaine concentration (R2 = 0.17, P = 0.025). The absorption and elimination of betaine were dose dependent. The urinary excretion of betaine seemed to increase with an increasing betaine dose, although a very small proportion of ingested betaine was excreted via urine. In conclusion, a single dose of orally administered betaine had an acute and dose-dependent effect on serum betaine concentration and resulted in lowered plasma tHcy concentrations within 2 h in healthy subjects. PMID:16365055

  13. An ultrasound-assisted digestion method for the determination of toxic element concentrations in ash samples by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ilander, Aki; Väisänen, Ari

    2007-01-01

    method of ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) used for the determination of toxic element concentrations (arsenic, barium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, strontium, vanadium and zinc) in ash samples was developed. All the measurements were performed in robust plasma conditions which were tested by measuring the Mg(II) 280.270 nm/Mg(I) 285.213 nm line intensity ratios. The highest line intensity ratios were observed when a...

  14. New method for GC/FID and GC-C-IRMS Analysis of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Kangani, Cyrous O.; Kelley, David E.; DeLany, James P.

    2008-01-01

    A simple, direct and accurate method for the determination of concentration and enrichment of free fatty acids in human plasma was developed. The validation and comparison to a conventional method are reported. Three amide derivatives, dimethyl, diethyl and pyrrolidide, were investigated in order to achieve optimal resolution of the individual fatty acids. This method involves the use of dimethylamine/Deoxo-Fluor to derivatize plasma free fatty acids to their dimethylamides. This derivatizati...

  15. Concomitant Intake of Quercetin with a Grain-Based Diet Acutely Lowers Postprandial Plasma Glucose and Lipid Concentrations in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Wein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment goals of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2 include glycemic control and reduction of nonglycemic risk factors, for example, dyslipidemia. Quercetin, a plant-derived polyphenol, often discussed for possible antidiabetic effects, was investigated for acute postprandial glucose- and lipid-lowering effects in healthy growing pigs. Male pigs (n = 16, body weight = BW 25–30 kg were fed flavonoid-poor grain-based meals without (GBM or with quercetin (GBMQ. In a first experiment, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, and triacylglycerols were analyzed in 8 pigs receiving 500 g of either GBM or GBMQ (10 mg/kg BW in a cross-over design. Blood samples were collected before, and up to 5 h every 30 min, as well as 6 and 8 h after the feeding. In the second experiment, 2 h after ingestions of 1000 g of either GBM or GBMQ (50 mg/kg BW animals were sacrificed; gastric content was collected and analyzed for dry matter content. Quercetin ingestion reduced postprandial glucose, NEFA, and TG concentration, but two hours after ingestion of the meal no effect on gastric emptying was observed. Our results point to inhibitory effects of quercetin on nutrient absorption, which appear not to be attributable to delayed gastric emptying.

  16. Technical note: Validation of a handheld meter for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in plasma and serum from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    The use of handheld meters for cow-side tests for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in whole blood has become common. The aim of this study was to compare serum BHB (sBHB) and plasma BHB (pBHB) concentrations analyzed using either a "gold standard" enzymatic laboratory method (LM; Randox Laboratories Ltd., Antrim, UK; cat. no. RB1007) or a handheld meter (PX; Precision Xtra, Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., Alameda, CA). Results from 374 (187 serum and 187 plasma) samples taken from Holstein cows from 11 d before (52 samples) to 5 d after parturition (137 samples) were used for the analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using the MIXED, REG, and LOGISTIC procedures of SAS (v9.4; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). A linear mixed model with repeated measures was fitted for LM and PX. Regression and correlation analyses were completed to estimate the relationship and agreement between the 2 methods. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate agreement between LM and PX. Cross-validation by randomly splitting the data in model-building and validation sets was performed to estimate and validate the equation that predicted the LM results using PX. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to estimate the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of PX at different threshold levels. The CCC was 0.74 for pBHB and 0.68 for sBHB. The 95% confidence interval of agreement of the Bland-Altman plot encompassed 96% of the difference between LM and PX for pBHB and 95% for sBHB. The mean difference for pBHB was -0.50±0.25mmol, and that for sBHB was -0.63±0.41mmol. The highest Se and Sp for PX were achieved when the threshold for ketosis was set to 1.8mmol/L for pBHB and 2.1mmol/L for sBHB. The area under the ROC curve was 0.97 for pBHB and 0.96 for sBHB. The negative bias shown by the Bland-Altman plots suggested that PX yielded higher pBHB and sBHB concentrations than the LM. However, the excellent test

  17. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D among Jordanians: Effect of biological and habitual factors on vitamin D status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Tawfiq A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D is cutaneously synthesized following sun exposure (vitamin D3 as well as it is derived from dietary intake (vitamin D3 and D2. Vitamin D2 and D3 are metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD. This metabolite is considered the functional indicator of vitamin D stores in humans. Since Jordan latitude is 31°N, cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D3 should be sufficient all year round. However, many indications reveal that it is not the case. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the 25(OHD status among Jordanians. Methods Three hundred healthy volunteers were enrolled in a cross sectional study; 201 females and 99 males. 25(OHD and calcium concentrations were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and spectroscopy techniques, respectively. All participants filled a study questionnaire that covered age, sex, height, weight, diet, and dress style for females. Females were divided according to their dress style: Western style, Hijab (all body parts are covered except the face and hands, and Niqab (all body parts are covered including face and hands. Results The average plasma 25(OHD levels in males and females were 44.5 ± 10.0 nmol/l and 31.1 ± 12.0 nmol/l, respectively. However, when female 25(OHD levels were categorized according to dress styles, the averages became 40.3, 31.3 and 28.5 nmol/l for the Western style, Hijab and Niqab groups, respectively. These 25(OHD levels were significantly less than those of males (p Conclusions Very low plasma 25(OHD levels in females wearing Hijab or Niqab are highly attributed to low sunlight or UVB exposure. In addition, most of males (76% and Western style dressed females (90% have 25(OHD concentrations below the international recommended values (50 nmol/l, suggesting that although sun exposure should be enough, other factors do play a role in these low concentrations. These findings emphasize the importance of vitamin D supplementation especially among

  18. Plasma and urinary concentrations of trimetoquinol by LC-MS-MS following intravenous and intra-tracheal administration to horses with heaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, F C; Robinson, N E; Dirikolu, L; Berney, C; Eberhart, S; Derksen, F J; Lehner, A F; May, J; Hughes, C; Tobin, T

    2008-12-01

    Trimetoquinol (TMQ) is a very potent and fast acting bronchodilator in horses with heaves. This study assessed the plasma and urinary concentrations of TMQ in horses with heaves following administration via the intravenous (IV, 0.2 microg/kg) and intra-tracheal (IT, 2 microg/kg) routes. TMQ was administered to six horses affected with heaves (RAO - Recurrent Airway Obstruction, used interchangeably) by the above routes and plasma and urine samples collected and stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) of TMQ was followed by highly sensitive ESI(+)-LC-MS-MS (ElectroSpray Ionization, positive mode - Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry - Mass Spectrometry); with a Limit of Detection (LOD) estimated at 1 pg/mL. Following IV administration, TMQ plasma levels peaked at 1 min at 707 pg/mL, and at 9 min at 306 pg/mL following IT administration. Our results show that TMQ plasma concentrations decline rapidly following IV administration, which is consistent with the fast onset and short duration of TMQ effect that was observed in our previous studies. On the other hand, IT administration showed a very unique plasma concentration pattern. From a regulatory standpoint, the current available TMQ ELISA kit was also used in an attempt to detect TMQ from the plasma and urine samples. We report that the ELISA kit was unable to detect TMQ from any of the samples generated in these studies. PMID:19000271

  19. Effect of prepartal and postpartal dietary fat level on performance and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, M; Khorvash, M; Forouzmand, M A; Alikhani, M; Rahmani, H R; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of 2 levels of dietary fat (low and high) offered during the prepartal and postpartal periods on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma concentration of metabolites, and milk yield and composition. Twenty-four Holstein dry cows were assigned on d 21 relative to expected parturition date to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of 2 levels of fat fed during the prepartal period and 2 levels of fat fed during the postpartal period: prepartal low fat and postpartal low fat (LF-LF), prepartal low fat and postpartal high fat (LF-HF), prepartal high fat and postpartal low fat (HF-LF), or prepartal high fat and postpartal high fat (HF-HF). Prepartal and postpartal LF diets contained no fat supplement. Prepartal HF diets contained 1.60% calcium salts of soybean oil. The proportion of calcium salts of soybean oil was increased to 1.70% of DM for the first 21 d of lactation and to 2.27% of DM from d 21 to 56 of lactation in the HF diet. Diets were fed for ad libitum intake from d 21 before calving until d 56 of gestation. Prepartal DMI was lower for cows fed the HF diet compared with those fed the LF diet (12.6 vs. 16.2kg/d). Postpartum, cows fed the HF-HF and HF-LF diets had, respectively, the lowest and highest DMI, although no significant differences existed between HF-LF and LF-LF. Net energy intake was higher for cows fed the postpartal HF diets compared with those fed the LF diets. Prepartal fat level had no effect on net energy intake. Cows offered the prepartal HF diet had higher milk yield when offered the postpartal LF diet compared with those offered the postpartal HF diet and no effect of the postpartal fat level was detected when cows were fed the prepartal LF diet. Milk composition was similar among treatments. Plasma cholesterol concentration postpartum was higher for cows fed the prepartal LF diet than for those fed the prepartal HF diet (5.16 vs. 3.74mmol/L) and postpartal fat level had no effect

  20. The Effect of an Eight-Week Period of Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Concentration of Ghrelin and Growth Hormone in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidlamir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ghrelin is a peptide which is secreted from human stomach. It has an important role in the secretion of growth hormone, energy balance, obesity, food intake behavior, and some cardiovascular functions. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an eight-week of aerobic exercise on plasma concentration of ghrelin and GH in non-athletic young women. Methods: Twenty young non-athletic women with mean age of 22±2/1 years and mean BMI of 21±1/07 Kg/m2 voluntarily entered the study and they were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Experimental group conducted an aerobic exercise program three sessions each week and 60 minutes in each session with 70-80% of maximum heart rate for 8 weeks. Control group didn’t exercise. Blood samples were taken 48 hours before the first and after the last session of exercise. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin and growth hormone were measured by ELISA and radioimmunoassay methods, respectively. Data was analyzed by independent samples T test and Pearson correlation test by SPSS(version16. Results: The eight-week period of aerobic exercise caused a significant increase in plasma concentration of ghrelin and a significant decrease in plasma concentration of GH. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that exercise-induced increase in plasma ghrelin in response to negative energy balance didn’t stimulate GH secretion, so other mechanisms may be effective in this regard.

  1. The Change of Plasma very Low Density Lipoprotein Concentration Pre—or Post—Feeding and in Conrrelation with body Fatness Traits in Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiHui; YuHe; 等

    1999-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from birds,from a commercial line of broiler chicken,being in a fully fed state and in fasting state for 2,4,6 hours respectively at 49d of age and plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentration was measured with turbidimetric assay.The experiment results showed that the variation coefficients of plasma VLDL concentration mersured at four different times were 58.11%,74.39%,69.70%,47.83%,respectively for male broilers,and 41.82%,60.87%,59.26%,50.0% for female broilers respectively.Plasma VLDL concentration decreased with the fasting time.There was a significant positive phenotypic correlation between abdominal fat weight,percentage of abdominal fat and plasma VLDL concentration for the birds being in fully feeding state,and the correlation decreased or no longer existed for the bired being in fasting state.The conclusion was that for practically application of plasma VLDL content selected in broiler chicken breeding,blood samples should be collected from birds being in feeding state.

  2. Association between plasma BPDE‐Alb adduct concentrations and DNA damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes among coke oven workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Chen, Weihong; Zheng, Hongyan; Guo, Liang; Liang, Huashan; Yang, Xiaobo; Bai, Yun; Sun, Jianya; Su, Yougong; Chen, Yongwen; Yuan, Jing; Bi, Yongyi; Wei, Qingyi; Wu, Tangchun

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Coke oven emissions (COE) containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can induce both benzo[a]pyrene‐r‐7, t‐8, t‐9,c‐10‐tetrahydotetrol‐albumin (BPDE‐Alb) adducts and DNA damage. However, the relation between these biomarkers for early biological effects is not well documented in coke oven workers. Methods In this study, the authors recruited 207 male workers exposed to COE and 102 controls not exposed to COE in the same steel plant in northern China. They measured BPDE‐Alb adduct concentrations in plasma with reverse‐phase high performance liquid chromatography and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes with alkaline comet assay. Results The results showed that the median concentration of BPDE‐Alb adducts in the exposed group (34.36 fmol/mg albumin) was significantly higher than that in the control group (21.90 fmol/mg albumin, p = 0.012). The mean Olive tail moment (Olive TM) of DNA damage in the exposed and control groups were 1.20 and 0.63, respectively (p = 0.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for BPDE‐Alb adduct and Olive TM associated with the exposure were 1.72 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.81) and 1.96 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.19), respectively. These results show significant correlations between the concentrations of BPDE‐Alb adduct and Olive TM levels in exposed group (r = 0.235, p = 0.001) but not in control group (r = 0.093, p = 0.353). Conclusion The results suggest that occupational exposure to COE may induce both BPDE–Alb adducts and DNA damage in the lymphocytes of coke oven workers and that these two markers are useful for monitoring exposure to COE in the workplace. PMID:17449561

  3. Time course of hepatic gene expression and plasma vitellogenin protein concentrations in estrone-exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osachoff, Heather L; Brown, Lorraine L Y; Tirrul, Leena; van Aggelen, Graham C; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Estrone (E1), a natural estrogen hormone found in sewage effluents and surface waters, has known endocrine disrupting effects in fish, thus, it is a contaminant of emerging concern. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to an environmentally-relevant concentration of E1 (24ng/L E1 [0.1nM]) for 7d and then placed in clean water for a 9d recovery period. RNA sequencing showed transcripts from numerous affected biological processes (e.g. immune, metabolic, apoptosis, clotting, and endocrine) were altered by E1 after 4d of treatment. The time course of E1-inducible responses relating to vitellogenesis was examined daily during the two phases of exposure. Hepatic gene expression alterations evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) were found during the treatment period for vitellogenin (VTG), vitelline envelope proteins (VEPs) α, β and γ, and estrogen receptor α1 (ERα1) transcripts. ERα1 was the only transcript induced each day during the treatment phase, thus it was a good indicator of E1 exposure. Gradual increases occurred in VEPβ and VEPγ transcripts, peaking at d7. VTG transcript was only elevated at d4, making it less sensitive than VEPs to this low-level E1 treatment. Inductions of ERα1, VEPα, VEPβ and VEPγ transcripts ceased 1d into the recovery phase. Plasma VTG protein concentrations were not immediately elevated but peaked 7d into the recovery phase. Thus, elevated vitellogenesis-related gene expression and protein production occurred slowly but steadily at this concentration of E1, confirming the sequence of events for transcripts and VTG protein responses to xenoestrogen exposure. PMID:26996967

  4. High plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count unfavorably impact survival in non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Fei Zhu; Ling Cai; Xue-Wen Zhang; Yin-Sheng Wen; Xiao-Dong Su; Tie-Hua Rong; Lan-Jun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    High expression of fibrinogen and platelets are often observed in non-smal celllung cancer (NSCLC) patients with local regional or distant metastasis. However, the role of these factors remains unclear. The aims of this study were to evaluate the prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count, as wel as to determine the overal survival of NSCLC patients with brain metastases. A total of 275 NSCLC patients with brain metastasis were enrolled into this study. Univariate analysis showed that high plasma fibrinogen concentration was associated with age≥65 years (P = 0.011), smoking status (P = 0.009), intracranial symptoms (P = 0.022), clinical T category (P = 0.010), clinical N category (P = 0.003), increased partial thromboplastin time (P < 0.001), and platelet count (P < 0.001). Patients with low plasma fibrinogen concentration demonstrated longer overall survival compared with those with high plasma fibrinogen concentration (median, 17.3 months versus 11.1 months;P≤0.001). A similar result was observed for platelet counts (median, 16.3 months versus 11.4 months;P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that both plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count were independent prognostic factors for NSCLC with brain metastases (R2 = 1.698,P < 0.001 andR2 = 1.699,P < 0.001, respectively). Our results suggest that high plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count indicate poor prognosis for NSCLC patients with brain metastases. Thus, these two biomarkers might be independent prognostic predictors for this subgroup of NSCLC patients.

  5. The effects of an eight-week aerobic training program on plasma adipokine concentrations in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidlamir A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Obesity is currently a worldwide health epidemic which has incited major interest among researchers to look for the underlying mechanisms that regulate body weight. In fact, adiponectin and leptin concentrations that are called adipokines are altered in obesity with a decreased production of adiponectin and an increased production of leptin. Adiponectin has anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-insulin resistance properties, but increased levels of leptin are observed in patients with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week aerobic training program on the plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in healthy middle-aged men. "n"nMethods : Thirty healthy middle-aged men were selected based on their body fat percentage and were assigned to two equal groups. The experimental group took the 8-week training, four days a week on alternate days with an intensity of 60-80% of their heart rate reserve but the control group lived their sedentary life. Blood samples were collected before and after the training program from all subjects and plasma adipokine levels were measured."n"nResults : Plasma adiponectin concentration increased while

  6. Temporal responses of cutaneous blood flow and plasma catecholamine concentrations to histamine H1- or H2-receptor stimulation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Alsbjørn, B; Thuesen, B;

    1988-01-01

    continuously with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn every 15 min. The infusion of histamine caused an immediate and sustained vasodilatation. The Concomitant infusion of mepyramine prevented the immediate vasodilatation, but had no...... noradrenaline, while the increase during concomitant H1-receptor blockade was delayed but achieved the level observed during the histamine infusion. The response to histamine during H2-receptor blockade was small and transient. The rise in plasma adrenaline was not significant. These findings suggest that...... histamine infusion, while the plasma noradrenaline concentration was still elevated....

  7. Seasonal variation in plasma testosterone, luteinizing hormone concentrations and LH-RH responsiveness in mature, male rusa deer (Cervus rusa timorensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, S; Stelmasiak, T; Outch, K H

    1986-01-01

    Plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in immobilized or yarded rusa stags (Cervus rusa timorensis) were investigated over a two-year period. Testosterone concentrations showed a minor elevation in autumn (May) and reached maximal levels in late winter-early spring (August) coinciding with the rut. Luteinizing hormone in plasma was only detectable from January to May. Maximal responsiveness of the pituitary-gonadal axis to LH-RH stimulation was recorded in August. The combination of Fentaz (fentanylcitrate and azaperone) and Rompun (xylazine hydrochloride) for immobilizing deer influences hypothalamic function. PMID:2869876

  8. Increased plasma concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with atopic dermatitis and its relation to disease severity and platelet activation

    OpenAIRE

    Koczy-Baron, E.; Jochem, J; Kasperska-Zajac, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Overproduction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions has previously been observed. It is also known that platelet is an important source of VEGF and platelet factor 4 (PF-4), a potential marker of AD severity. Aim To evaluate concentrations of VEGF and its soluble receptors (sVEGF-R1 and sVEGF-R2) in the plasma of AD patients and to examine its possible correlation with disease severity and plasma concentrations of PF-4, a platelet activatio...

  9. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  10. Evaluation of plasma and milk haptoglobin concentrations in the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gultiken Nilgun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma and milk haptoglobin (Hp concentrations could be an alternative method for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of subclinical mastitis (SM in dairy cows. In the study, 14 cows with subclinical mastitis (SM in more than one udder quarter and 5 healthy control cows were used. Cows in the non-treated group (GNT; n=6 did not receive any treatment while cows in the treated group (GT; n=8 were treated with intramammary cefquinom sulphate on the second week. Healthy cows were evaulated as Control group (GC. Plasma Hp concentrations did not differ within groups and between groups (p>0.05. When compared milk Hp concentrations within groups, there was a slight increase in GT on the third week (p<0.05 and the concentrations in GNT and GC did not reveal any difference (p>0.05. A relationship between CMT scores, SCC values, plasma Hp and milk Hp concentrations was not established. It was concluded that plasma Hp and milk Hp are not useful parameters to diagnose and monitor the treatment efficacy of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.

  11. Short communication: Test for nonpregnancy in dairy cows based on plasma progesterone concentrations before and after timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsdorf, L J; Keisler, D H; Poock, S E; Lamberson, W R; Escalante, R C; Lucy, M C

    2016-07-01

    Timed artificial insemination (AI) programs have increased reproductive efficiency in dairy herds. A low timed AI pregnancy per AI is partially explained by cows that fail to respond optimally to the series of treatments that are designed to synchronize ovulation for AI. We hypothesized that testing cows for plasma progesterone concentrations during a timed AI protocol could be used as an early diagnostic test for nonpregnancy. Lactating Holstein cows (n=160) in 2 confinement-style dairies were used. Cows were treated with Presynch Ovsynch 56 for timed AI. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma were measured at -3, 0, 7, and 25 d relative to timed AI. Progesterone data were analyzed and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated by using logistic regression. The area under the receiver operating curves for a progesterone test for nonpregnancy on d -3 (PGF2α), 0 (AI), 7, and 25 d relative to timed AI were 0.68, 0.52, 0.55, and 0.89, respectively. The cutpoints and sensitivity (respectively) for the progesterone test were 0.51ng/mL (lower=nonpregnant) and 28.2% for the day of PGF2α, 0.43ng/mL (greater=nonpregnant) and 17.9% for the day of AI, 1.82ng/mL (lower=nonpregnant) and 23.1% for 7 d after AI, and 2.67ng/mL (lower=nonpregnant) and 76.0% for 25 d after AI. The false positive rate was less than 5% for all tests. Analysis of a second data set from a published study gave approximately the same cutpoints and sensitivity. When both studies were combined, approximately 20% of nonpregnant cows could be identified with a single test that was done before or shortly after AI with a false positive rate of less than 5%. When 2 and 3 tests were applied sequentially, the sensitivity for identifying nonpregnant cows increased from 38.4 to 50.5%. The pregnancy per AI for those cows that met the established progesterone criteria was approximately 3 to 4 times greater than those that failed to meet the criteria. The conclusions were that cows destined to be

  12. Self-inhibiting action of nortriptylin's antidepressive effect at high plasma levels: a randomized double-blind study controlled by plasma concentrations in patients with endogenous depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh-Sorensen, P; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-02-01

    Below the toxic plasma level of nortriptyline (NT) an upper therapeutic limit has been postulated in patients with endogenous depression. If so the clinical significance is obvious and a double-blind, randomized study was performed in order to solve this problem. Two groups of patients were controlled at different plasma levels (less than 150 ng/ml and less than 180 ng/ml). The degree of depression was rated weekly. Only about one third (n equals 24) of the patients originally included, were carried through the full protocol, the most prominent reason for drop out beeing spontaneous remission during an initial placebo period. After 4 weeks of NT treatment the majority in the high level group was still depressed, but the difference barely significant (P equals 5.5%). However, a randomized reduction of the plasma level among the patients at the high level resulted in a significant correlation to remission. Evaluation of the total material after 6 weeks of NT treatment demonstrated a strong correlation of high plasma level to poor antidepressive effect of NT. No correlation could be obtained between side-effects, which were few, and plasma level. The non-proteinbound fraction in plasma was found to 7% (SD 1.83) by simultaneous determinations of NT in plasma and CSF in 13 patients. The variation in the proteinbinding was not likely to invalidate the over all results based on total NT determination. A therapeutic plasma range of 50-150 ng/ml is recommended. PMID:766041

  13. Validation of Reported Whole-Grain Intake from a Web-Based Dietary Record against Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations in 8- to 11-Year-Olds Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Ygil, Karin Hess;

    2016-01-01

    plasma alkylresorcinol (AR) concentrations, and to investigate the 3-mo reproducibility of AR concentrations and reported WG intake. METHODS: AR concentrations were analyzed in fasting blood plasma samples, and WG intake was estimated in a 7-d web-based diary by 750 participants aged 8-11 y in a 2 school...

  14. Altered sodium intake affects plasma concentrations of BNP but not proBNP in healthy individuals and patients with compensated heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Goetze, Jens Peter; Norsk, Peter; Gadsbøll, Niels

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and proBNP are promising markers for treatment of heart failure (HF), but the intra-individual biological variation is high. We investigated whether changes in sodium intake and posture contribute to this variation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 12...... healthy individuals and 12 patients with medically treated compensated HF were examined after 1 week of low (70 mmol [1.61 g] per day) and 1 week of high (250 mmol [5.75 g] per day) sodium intake. Plasma volume and plasma concentrations of BNP and proBNP were determined after 1 h in seated and 1 h in...... supine position. In healthy individuals, the plasma BNP concentration increased significantly on high sodium intake with a ratio (high sodium/low sodium) of 2.00 (1.32-3.03, P = 0.004). The corresponding values for HF patients were 1.69 (1.25-2.29, P = 0.003). The plasma BNP concentration changed...

  15. The Change of Plasma very Low Density Lipoprotein Concentration Pre-orPost-Feeding and in Conrrelation with Body Fatness Traits in Broiler Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from birds,from a commercial line of broiler chicken,being in a fully fed state and in fasting state for 2,4, 6 hours respectively at 49 d of age and plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) concentration was measured with turbidimetric assay. The experiment results showed that the varia- tion coefficients of plasma VLDL concentration mersured at four different times were 58.11%, 74.39%, 69. 70% ,47. 83% ,respectively for male broilers,and 41.82%,60.87%. 59.26%,50. 0%for female broilers re- spectively. Plasma VLDL concentration decreased with the fasting time. There was a significant positive phe- notypic correlation between abdominal fat weight,percentage of abdominal fat and plasma VLDL concentra- tion for the birds being in fully feeding state,and the correlation decreased or no longer existed for the bired being in fasting state. The conclusion was that for practically application of plasma VLDL content selected in broiler chicken breeding,blood samples should be collected from birds being in feeding state.

  16. Efficacy of concentration of egg yolk in Tris extender with and without seminal plasma on frozen semen quality of Saanen bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Natal Tambing

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Bucks semen is easily damaged compared to bull semen during cryopreservation process. Consequently, frozen semen quality decrease especially motility, live sperm, intact plasma membrane, and intact acrosomal cap after thawing. Objectives of this research was to evaluate the effect of egg yolk concentration in Tris extender with and without seminal plasma in maintaing frozen semen quality of Saanen buck. Four heads of Saanen buck of 2-4 years old were used in this experiment. Semen was collected once a week using artificial vagina. Experimental design applied was factorial complete random desing 2x2, viz. A factor was seminal plasma (A1 = with seminal plasma and A2 = without seminal plasma, and B factor was concentration of egg yolk (B1 = 10% and B2 = 20%. Duncan test were applied to identity differences between treatment. Result of these study indicated that the mean percentage of motility (M, live sperm (LS, sperm with intact plasma membrane (IPM and intact acrosomal cap (IAC after dilution and equilibration were not significantly different (P>0.05 in all treatment. After thawing, the mean percentage of M, LS sperm with IPM and IAC in A1 treatment (41.43, 51.52, 56.63 and 50.35% respectively were significantly higher (P<0.05 than A2 treatment (37.14; 48.67; 52.31 and 45.09% respectively. Likewise, the mean percentage of M, LS, sperm with IPM and IAC in B2 treatment (41.79; 51.32; 55.78 and 49.50% respectively were significantly higher (P<0.05 than B1 treatment (36.79, 48.86; 53.16 and 45.94% respectively. There were a significant interaction between factors of seminal plasma and concentration egg yolk in Tris extender, where the increase of egg yolk concentration from 10% to 20% in unwashed seminal plasma treatment caused increase in percentages of M, LS, sperm with IPM and IAC. On the other hand in washed seminal plasma treatment there were a trend of decreasing frozen semen quality. It is concluded that the combination of 20% egg yolk in Tris

  17. Natural gas pyrolysis in double-walled reactor tubes using thermal plasma or concentrated solar radiation as external heating source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stèphane Abanades; Stefania Tescari; Sylvain Rodat; Gilles Flamant

    2009-01-01

    The thermal pyrolysis of natural gas as a clean hydrogen production route is examined.The concept of a double-walled reactor tube is proposed and implemented.Preliminary experiments using an external plasma heating source are carded out to validate this concept.The results point out the efficient CH4 dissociation above 1850 K (CH4 conversion over 90%) and the key influence of the gas residence time.Simulations are performed to predict the conversion rate of CH4 at the reactor outlet,and are consistent with experimental tendencies.A solar reactor prototype featuring four independent double-walled tubes is then developed.The heat in high temperature process required for the endothermic reaction of natural gas pyrolysis is supplied by concentrated solar energy.The tubes are heated uniformly by radiation using the blackbody effect of a cavity-receiver absorbing the concentrated solar irradiation through a quartz window.The gas composition at the reactor outlet,the chemical conversion of CH4,and the yield to H2 are determined with respect to reaction temperature,inlet gas flow-rates,and feed gas composition.The longer the gas residence time,the higher the CH4 conversion and H2 yield,whereas the lower the amount of acetylene.A CH4 conversion of 99% and H2 yield of about 85% are measured at 1880 K with 30% CH4 in the feed gas (6 L/min injected and residence time of 18 ms).A temperature increase from 1870 K to 1970 K does not improve the H2 yield.

  18. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina di Giuseppe

    Full Text Available Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population.We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items.Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function.In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.

  19. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spek, J W; Dijkstra, J; Bannink, A

    2016-05-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed to obtain insight in urea transfer characteristics within the mammary gland and from the mammary gland to blood plasma in dairy cows at various concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; mg of N/dL) and MUN. Urea transfer from milk to blood plasma and urea transfer within the mammary gland itself was evaluated in a 4×4 Latin square design using 4 lactating multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (milk production of 39.8±4.70kg/d and 90±3.9 d in milk). Treatments consisted of 4 primed continuous intravenous urea infusions of 0, 5, 10, and 15g of urea/h. Boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea were injected in cistern milk at 20, 60, and 100 min before the 1700h milking. Milk was collected in portions of approximately 2 L at the 1700h milking. Milk samples were analyzed for urea and enrichment of (15)N-urea. Results from one cow were discarded because of leakage of milk from the teats after injection of boluses of [(15)N(15)N]urea. Increasing urea infusion rate linearly increased PUN from 11.4 (0g of urea/h) to 25.9mg/dL (15g of urea/h) and MUN from 10.3 (0g of urea/h) to 23.5 (15g of urea/h) mg of N/dL. The percentage of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea recovered from milk at the time of injection was not affected by urea infusion rate and varied between 65.1 and 73.0%, indicating that a substantial portion of injected [(15)N(15)N]urea was not accounted for by collected milk. The estimated fractional disappearance rate of (15)N-urea from milk to blood (Kurea; per hour) linearly increased from 0.429 (0g of urea/h) to 0.641 per hour (15g of urea/h). Cistern injected [(15)N(15)N]urea diffused within 20 min after injection toward alveoli milk. Calculations with the average Kurea estimated in this

  20. Implications of Plasma Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, 11-Hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-Carboxy-THC Concentrations in Chronic Cannabis Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Karschner, Erin L.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Lowe, Ross H; Darwin, W. David; Herning, Ronald I.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is commonly found in toxicological specimens from driving under the influence and accident investigations. Plasma cannabinoid concentrations were determined in 18 long-term heavy cannabis smokers residing on an in-patient research unit for seven days of monitored abstinence. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) were quantified by two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with cryofocusing. THC concentrations were > 1 ng/mL in nine (5...

  1. Frugivory is associated with low measures of plasma oxidative stress and high antioxidant concentration in free-ranging bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative stress—an imbalance between reactive pro- and neutralising antioxidants—damages cell structures and impairs fitness-relevant traits such as longevity and reproduction. Theory predicts that feeding on diets with high antioxidant content such as fruits should reduce oxidative stress; however, there is no support of this idea in free-ranging mammals. Bats cover a large variety of ecological niches, and therefore, we asked if measures of oxidative stress are lower in species with fruit diets. We measured reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) representing total pro-oxidants produced and antioxidants in the plasma of 33 Neotropical bat species. Species with a fruit diet showed the lowest level of ROM and the highest concentration of antioxidants, followed by omnivorous and animalivorous species. Potentially, frugivorous species ingest more antioxidants with food and thus are able to neutralise more pro-oxidants than species not feeding on fruits, resulting in an overall lower level of oxidative stress. We therefore showed for the first time that measures of oxidative stress vary according to diets in free-ranging mammals.

  2. Novel rapid liquid chromatography tandem masspectrometry method for vemurafenib and metabolites in human plasma, including metabolite concentrations at steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikingsson, Svante; Strömqvist, Malin; Svedberg, Anna; Hansson, Johan; Höiom, Veronica; Gréen, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method for quantification of vemurafenib in human plasma, that also for the first time allows for metabolite semi-quantification, was developed and validated to support clinical trials and therapeutic drug monitoring. Vemurafenib was analysed by precipitation with methanol followed by a 1.9 min isocratic liquid chromatography tandem masspectrometry analysis using an Acquity BEH C18 column with methanol and formic acid using isotope labelled internal standards. Analytes were detected in multireaction monitoring mode on a Xevo TQ. Semi-quantification of vemurafenib metabolites was performed using the same analytical system and sample preparation with gradient elution. The vemurafenib method was successfully validated in the range 0.5-100 μg/mL according to international guidelines. The metabolite method was partially validated owing to the lack of commercially available reference materials. For the first time concentration levels at steady state for melanoma patients treated with vemurafenib is presented. The low abundance of vemurafenib metabolites suggests that they lack clinical significance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26683023

  3. Plasma drug concentrations and virologic evaluations after stopping treatment with nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors in HIV type 1-infected children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cressey, T.R.; Green, H.; Khoo, S.; Treluyer, J.M.; Compagnucci, A.; Saidi, Y.; Lallemant, M.; Gibb, D.M.; Burger, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimum strategy for stopping treatment with drugs that have different half-lives in a combination regimen to minimize the risk of selecting drug-resistant viruses remains unknown. We evaluated drug concentrations in plasma, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) load, and development of

  4. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS/MS for the measurement of flunixin plasma concentrations in beef cattle after intravenous and subcutaneous administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using an enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) with only simple preparation steps to determine flunixin plasma concentrations in healthy beef cattle was explored. Eight cattle (288 ± 22 kg) were treated with 2.2 mg/kg bw flunixin free acid in a cross-over design by subcutaneo...

  5. A Common Missense Variant in the Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Gene (GCKR) Is Associated with Increased Plasma Triglyceride and C-Reactive Protein but Lower Fasting Glucose Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE-Using the genome-wide-association approach, we recently identified the glucokinase regulatory protein gene (GCKR, rs780094) region as a novel quantitative trait locus for plasma triglyceride concentration in Europeans. Here, we sought to study the association of GCKR variants with metaboli...

  6. Effect of recombinant bovine somatotropin on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I, insulin and membrane integrity of bull spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, M B; Bianchi, I; Madeira, E M; Roll, V F B; Oliveira, C A; Viau, P; Pivato, I; Severo, N C; Del Pino, F A B; Schneider, A; Corrêa, M N

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the exogenous recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin and semen quality of bulls. Twenty bulls (Aberdeen Angus and Brangus) were divided by breed into two groups. Placebo group was injected with NaCl 0.9% (s.c.) and treatment group with rbST (s.c., 500 mg) at days 0 and 14 of the experiment. Immediately after semen collection, blood samples were taken on days 0, 14, 28, 42 and 56 of the experiment. Semen was also collected on day 70 of the experiment. Evaluation of sperm motility was performed at pre-freezing and post-thawing stage, whereas assessment of sperm membrane integrity was performed after freezing and thawing. Analysis of data revealed that the effect of treatment and treatment-by-collection day on plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin was not significant. However, mean plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin were affected (p  0.05) at pre-freezing and post-thawing stage. Intactness of plasmalemma and tail membrane of spermatozoa at post-thawing stage was higher (p < 0.05) in rbST-treated group than in control. In conclusion, rbST did not affect plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin, however, it did improve post-thaw sperm membrane integrity. PMID:19663813

  7. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, Anneke M. J.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.;

    2008-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) are atherogenic. However, factors that determine RLP-C are not fully understood. This study evaluates which factors affect RLP-C in the fasting and postprandial state, using multiple regression analyses in a large cohort of...

  8. The interaction between the PARP10 protein and the NS1 protein of H5N1 AIV and its effect on virus replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mengbin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the process that AIV infect hosts, the NS1 protein can act on hosts, change corresponding signal pathways, promote the translation of virus proteins and result in virus replication. Results In our study, we found that PARP domain and Glu-rich region of PARP10 interacted with NS1, and the presence of NS1 could induce PARP10 migrate from cytoplasm to nucleus. NS1 high expression could reduce the endogenous PARP10 expression. Cell cycle analysis showed that with inhibited PARP10 expression, NS1 could induce cell arrest in G2-M stage, and the percentage of cells in G2-M stage rise from the previous 10%-45%, consistent with the cell proliferation result. Plague forming unit measurement showed that inhibited PARP10 expression could help virus replication. Conclusions In a word, our results showed that NS1 acts on host cells and PARP10 plays a regulating role in virus replication.

  9. The 4G/4G Genotype of PAI-1 Polymorphism Is Associated with Higher Plasma PAI-1 Concentrations and Mortality in Patients with Severe Sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Lorente

    Full Text Available Two studies have reported that patients with the 4G/4G genotype of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 genetic polymorphism had higher plasma PAI-1 concentrations and higher risk of death than those with the 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotypes; one study involved 175 children with meningococcal disease, and the other included 88 adult patients with septic shock. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between carriage of the 4G/4G genotype, plasma PAI-1 concentrations and mortality in a large series of adult septic patients.An observational, prospective, multicenter study was carried out in six Spanish Intensive Care Units including severe septic patients. We determined the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism and plasma PAI-1 concentrations in all patients. The end-points of the study were 30-day and 6-month mortality.We included a total of 260 patients, 82 (31.5% with 4G/4G, 126 (48.5% with 4G/5G and 52 (20.0% with 5G/5G genotype. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the 4G/4G genotype was associated with higher mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 1.95; 95% CI = 1.063-3.561; p = 0.03 and at 6 months (Odds Ratio = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.221-3.934; p = 0.01, and that higher plasma PAI-1 concentrations were associated with higher mortality at 30 days (Odds Ratio = 1.01; 95% CI = 1.002-1.022; p = 0.02 at 6 months (Odds Ratio = 1.01; 95% CI = 1.003-1.023; p = 0.01. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that increased plasma PAI-1 concentrations were associated with the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype (regression coefficient = 4.82; 95% CI = 3.227 to 6.406; p<0.001.The major findings of our study, to our knowledge the largest series reporting data about 4G/5G polymorphism of the PAI-1 gene, plasma PAI-1 concentrations and mortality in septic patients, were that septic patients with the 4G/4G genotype had higher plasma PAI-1 concentrations and higher risk of death than those with 4G/5G or 5G/5G genotypes.

  10. ASOCIACIÓN ENTRE LA PÉRDIDA DEL CROMOSOMA X EN MUJERES DE EDAD AVANZADA Y EL POLIMORFISMO DE LA APOLIPOPROTEÍNA A-IV: 360 GLN/HIS ASSOCIATION OF CHROMOSOME X LOSS IN ELDERLY WOMEN WITH APOLIPOPROTEIN A-IV: 360 POLYMORPHISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Flank Ejchel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La pérdida del cromosoma X en mujeres, asociada a la edad avanzada, es un fenómeno ya reconocido hace décadas. Los factores genéticos que llevan a esta pérdida o a la no-disyunción cromosómica, son poco conocidos. Polimorfismos de apolipoproteínas fueron asociados a la ocurrencia de síndromes cromosómicos como las trisomías del 18 y 21 y fue sugerida su participación en la segregación cromosómica. Polimorfismos de la apolipoproteína AIV:360 fueron asociados a molestias cardiovasculares en la población brasileña.Veinticuatro mujeres entre 72 a 87 años, fueron seleccionadas para estudiar la presencia o ausencia del alelo 2 (HIS y analizar la pérdida del cromosoma X. El análisis citogenético fue realizado en núcleos interfásicos de cultivos de linfocitos por técnica de hibridación in situ con sonda fluorescente centromérica del cromosoma X. El análisis genotípico fue realizado a partir de ADN extraído de la sangre, amplificado por PCR y digerido por la enzima de restricción Fnu4HI. Se observó una proporción significantemente mayor de células con la pérdida del cromosoma X, en mujeres con alelo 2 (HIS. Estos resultados indican la participación del gen de la ApoA-IV en la no-disyunción cromosómica. Los mecanismos de su actuación pueden estar relacionados a daños oxidativos producto de alteraciones en la microcirculación e inducción de muerte celular. La comprensión de este mecanismo todavía necesita de mayor investigaciónChromosome X loss associated with advancing age in women is well stablished in cytogenetics. However, genetic factors involved in this chromosome loss or no disjunction are poorly understood. Apolipoproteins have been associated with chromosome syndromes, such as Trisomy 21 and 18 and their participation in chromosome segregation have been suggested. Apolipoprotein A-IV:360 polymorphism has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, in our population. Twenty four old women, aged 72 to 87

  11. Effects of Different Administration Protocols on the Plasma Concentration of Donepezil Hydrochloride in Dementia Patients with Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Amano

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD as well as Alzheimer's disease (AD increases with age. With the aging of the population in Japan, there is an increasing likelihood that patients with CKD will receive donepezil hydrochloride (DPZ, an antidementia drug, in the near future. Nevertheless, there have been few reports on how to use DPZ in patients with severe CKD. We report on 2 CKD stage 5 patients who received DPZ under different prescriptions. In case 1, 3 mg/day of DPZ was initially administered for 4 months, after which the dose was increased to 5 mg/day. In case 2, 5 mg was administered twice a week. The plasma concentration of DPZ was measured and the effectiveness was assessed using the Mini-Mental Health State Examination and the Hasegawa Dementia Rating Scale. We found that (1 only a slight increase in the plasma concentration of DPZ was observed with a dose of 3 mg daily, (2 there was a significant increase in the plasma concentration with a dose of 5 mg daily, and (3 when 5 mg of DPZ was administered twice a week, the plasma concentration did not differ significantly from healthy controls who had received 5 mg daily. Although cognitive function was improved best when the 5-mg dose was administered daily with no apparent side effects, the plasma concentration came close to reaching a toxic level at this dose. Careful follow-up may be essential when DPZ is used at 5 mg/day or greater in severe CKD patients.

  12. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  13. How to determine the relative ion concentrations of multiple-ion-species plasmas generated in the multi-dipole filament source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces how to determine concentrations of ion species in a mixed gas plasma that are not linearly proportional to their neutral partial pressures. A particle balance model was developed to predict the relative ion concentrations in multiple-ion-species plasmas, considering their ionization rates and loss fluxes to the wall. Analysis is carried out especially with Ar/Xe and Ar/He multi-dipole plasmas in which the neutral gases are directly ionized by the mono-energetic primary electrons. The experimental data of ion concentrations were obtained using the ion acoustic wave measurement method of the concentration of two ion species. The comparison reveals that the ion concentration ratio is linearly proportional to the ratio of the ionization cross sections and the ion loss velocity between two gas species. Especially, the model prediction is improved with using the two-ion-species sheath model (recently reported by Baalrud and Hegna) for obtaining the ion loss velocity at the sheath boundary. (paper)

  14. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF{sub 2} radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Röpcke, J.; Helden, J. H. van, E-mail: jean-pierre.vanhelden@inp-greifswald.de [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electronic Nano Systems, Technologie-Campus 3, 09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Buchholtz, W. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden Module One LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, 01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-01-19

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF{sub 2} radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF{sub 2} radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm{sup −1}. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν{sub 3} fundamental band of CF{sub 2} with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF{sub 2} radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  15. Classification of platelet concentrates: from pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) to leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Rasmusson, Lars; Albrektsson, Tomas

    2009-03-01

    The topical use of platelet concentrates is recent and its efficiency remains controversial. Several techniques for platelet concentrates are available; however, their applications have been confusing because each method leads to a different product with different biology and potential uses. Here, we present classification of the different platelet concentrates into four categories, depending on their leucocyte and fibrin content: pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP), such as cell separator PRP, Vivostat PRF or Anitua's PRGF; leucocyte- and platelet-rich plasma (L-PRP), such as Curasan, Regen, Plateltex, SmartPReP, PCCS, Magellan or GPS PRP; pure plaletet-rich fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet; and leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF), such as Choukroun's PRF. This classification should help to elucidate successes and failures that have occurred so far, as well as providing an objective approach for the further development of these techniques. PMID:19187989

  16. Evaluation of Web-based Dietary Assessment Software for Children: comparing reported fruit, juice and vegetable intakes with plasma carotenoid concentration and school lunch observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Bysted, Anette; Trolle, Ellen;

    2013-01-01

    by comparing intake with plasma carotenoid concentration, and by comparing the reported FJV intake to actually eaten FJV, as observed by a photographic method. A total of eighty-one children, assisted by parents, reported their diet for seven consecutive days. For the same five schooldays as they reported...... their diet, the children's school lunch was photographed and weighed before and after eating. In the week after the diet reporting, fasting blood samples were taken. Self-reported intake of FJV and estimated intake of carotenoids were compared with plasma carotenoid concentration. Accuracy of self......-reported food and FJV consumption at school lunch was measured in terms of matches, intrusion, omission and faults, when compared with images and weights of lunch intake. Self-reported intake of FJV was significantly correlated with the total carotenoid concentration (0·58) (P

  17. Effects of glucagon and insulin on plasma glucose, triglyceride, and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein concentrations in laying hens fed diets containing different types of fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, L; Grossmann, R; Dublecz, K; Husvéth, F; Wagner, L; Bartos, A; Kovács, G

    2002-11-01

    The influence of dietary fat supplementations differing in the ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the effects of glucagon and insulin on plasma glucose, triglyceride (TG), and TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations was investigated in laying hens. Birds were fed either a low-fat control diet (LF) or diets supplemented with 4% pumpkin seed oil (PO; rich in n-6 PUFA) or 4% cod liver oil (CO; rich in n-3 PUFA). After 4 wk feeding of the experimental diets, hens were implanted with wing vein catheters and injected with porcine glucagon (20 microg/kg BW) and porcine insulin (0.5 IU/kg BW), 2 to 5 h after oviposition. Plasma glucose, TG, and TG-rich lipoprotein concentrations were determined from 10 min pre-injection to 60 min post-injection. PO diet resulted in a prolonged plasma glucose response to glucagon administration and altered hypoglycemic response to insulin. However, CO diet did not influence plasma glucose response to either glucagon or insulin administration compared to LF diet. The effects of glucagon and insulin on plasma TG and TG-rich lipoproteins were similar for all diets regardless of the amount or type of fat. The results suggest that feeding dietary fats with high n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio alters the glucagon and insulin sensitivity of plasma glucose in laying hens. Fats rich in n-3 PUFA seem to have no influence on the plasma glucose response to glucagon and insulin. PMID:12455597

  18. Plasma concentrations of remoxipride and the gastrointestinal transit of 111In-marked extended-release coated spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the oral absorption of remoxipride, spheres of remoxipride were labeled with indium-111 colloid before coating with a release-controlling ethylcellulose membrane. Since the labeling remained inside the coating, it was suitable as a marker. Eight healthy volunteers were given a single dose of 100 mg remoxipride in 111In-marked spheres as a multiple-unit capsule. The radioactivity and the position of the spheres (microcapsules) were followed externally for 30 hr by gamma scintigraphy. Parallel to this, plasma concentrations were drawn for 48 hr to confirm the extended dissolution and absorption of remoxipride. The hard gelatin, multiple-unit capsule released the microcapsules within the stomach. These were then rapidly emptied into the small intestine, within 0.5-1 hr. There was then an immediate distribution in the upper small intestine before collection in the lower portion, within 2-5 hr. After passing into the large intestine, there was again extended distribution of the microcapsules. A mean Cmax of 2.7 microM remoxipride was achieved 4 hr after drug administration and a mean AUC of 26.1 mumol.L-1.hr was achieved. Judging from the absorption versus time profile, calculated according to the Wagner-Nelson method, and the scintigraphic images, it is concluded that the main absorption occurs from the small intestine. Data from four volunteers, however, indicated a comparatively good absorption also from the large intestine. Due to the good absorption properties, it is reasonable to expect a low variation in the extent of bioavailability of remoxipride after administration in an extended-release, multiple-unit capsule formulation

  19. Interactions between genetic variants of folate metabolism genes and lifestyle affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of studies investigating relationships between lifestyle factors and elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma Hcy c...

  20. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  1. Plasma and ear tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in dogs with chronic end-stage otitis externa after intravenous administration of enrofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Lynette K; Papich, Mark G; Kwochka, Kenneth W; Hillier, Andrew; Smeak, Daniel D; Lehman, Amy M

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the concentrations of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin following intravenous administration of enrofloxacin in the plasma and ear tissue of dogs with chronic end-stage otitis undergoing a total ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy. The goals were to determine the relationship between the dose of enrofloxacin and the concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, and determine appropriate doses of enrofloxacin for treatment of chronic otitis externa and media. Thirty dogs were randomized to an enrofloxacin-treatment group (5, 10, 15 or 20 mg kg(-1)) or control group (no enrofloxacin). After surgical removal, ear tissue samples (skin, vertical ear canal, horizontal ear canal, middle ear) and a blood sample were collected. Concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in the plasma and ear tissue were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Repeated measures models were applied to log-transformed data to assess dosing trends and Pearson correlations were calculated to assess concentration associations. Ear tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were significantly (P ciprofloxacin concentrations, respectively. For bacteria with an minimal inhibitory concentration of 0.12-0.15 or less, 0.19-0.24, 0.31-0.39 and 0.51-0.64 microg mL(-1), enrofloxacin should be dosed at 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg kg(-1), respectively. Treatment with enrofloxacin would not be recommended for a bacterial organism intermediate or resistant in susceptibility to enrofloxacin since appropriate levels of enrofloxacin would not be attained. PMID:19152587

  2. Determination of the radioimmunologic concentration of 5-androstene-3β-17β-diole in the blood plasma of patients suffering from common psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radioimmunologic method for the determination of ADIOL in the blood plasma was developed. The author produced the antiserum herself and she examined it on cross-reactions. This method resulted to be very sensitive and in the standard curve a linear range of 0.04 ng to 1.5 ng was obtained. Moreover, the ADIOL concentration was determined in the blood plasma of 16 control subjects and of 35 patients suffering from psoriasis. The result was a far-reaching correlation with the results described in literature, although they were obtained by means of differing determination procedures. (orig./MG)

  3. A Correlation Study of DHA Dietary Intake and Plasma, Erythrocyte and Breast Milk DHA Concentrations in Lactating Women from Coastland, Lakeland, and Inland Areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jiao; Li, Hong-Tian; Yu, Li-Xia; Xu, Gao-Sheng; Ge, Hua; Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhou, Yu-Bo; Li, You; Bai, Man-Xi; Liu, Jian-Meng

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the correlation between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) dietary intake and the plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk DHA concentrations in lactating women residing in the coastland, lakeland and inland areas of China. A total of 408 healthy lactating women (42 ± 7 days postpartum) were recruited from four hospitals located in Weihai (coastland), Yueyang (lakeland) and Baotou (inland) city. The categories of food containing DHA, the average amount consumed per time and the frequency of consumption in the past month were assessed by a tailored DHA food frequency questionnaire, the DHA Intake Evaluation Tool (DIET). DHA dietary intake (mg/day) was calculated according to the Chinese Food Composition Table (Version 2009). In addition, fasting venous blood (5 mL) and breast milk (10 mL) were collected from lactating women. DHA concentrations in plasma, erythrocyte and breast milk were measured using capillary gas chromatography, and were reported as absolute concentration (μg/mL) and relative concentration (weight percent of total fatty acids, wt. %). Spearman correlation coefficients were used to assess the correlation between intakes of DHA and its concentrations in biological specimens. The study showed that the breast milk, plasma and erythrocyte DHA concentrations were positively correlated with DHA dietary intake; corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 for relative concentration and 0.33, 0.32, and 0.18 for absolute concentration (p food frequency questionnaire, DIET, is a valid tool for the assessment of DHA dietary intake. PMID:27213448

  4. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  5. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS analysis of the plasma concentrations of a cocktail of 5 cytochrome P450 substrate drugs and their metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shimako; Uchida, Shinya; Inui, Naoki; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    A "cocktail" approach, which involves simultaneous administration of multiple CYP-specific probes, concurrently detects the activity of multiple CYP enzymes. We developed and validated a rapid and selective LC-MS/MS method for determining the plasma concentrations of 5 CYP probe drugs and metabolites (caffeine/paraxanthine, CYP1A2 substrate; losartan/losartan carboxylic acid (E3174), CYP2C9 substrate; omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole, CYP2C19 substrate; dextromethorphan/dextrorphan, CYP2D6 substrate; and midazolam/1'-hydroxymidazolam, CYP3A4 substrate) by single-step extraction, followed by a single LC-MS/MS run. An Ostro™ 96-well plate was used for extraction of CYP substrates and metabolites from human plasma and urine. Following optimization of the chromatographic conditions, all the peaks were well separated, and retention times ranged between 4.4 and 11.7 min. The total run time for a single injection was within 13 min. The accuracy and precision values suggested that the assay had high accuracy and reliability in plasma and urine samples. No significant matrix interference was observed. To demonstrate the efficacy of this method, plasma and urine concentrations of 5 CYP probe substrates and their metabolites were determined after simultaneous oral administration of 5 drugs to 4 healthy volunteers. All the substrates and metabolites were detected over an 8 h period, and the plasma concentrations of each substrate at 8 h after administration were above the lower limit of quantification. Urine concentrations of drugs and their metabolic ratio were evaluated after the administration. In conclusion, the advantage of our cocktail approach is that it enables in vivo assessment of the activity of various drug-metabolizing enzymes in a single assay. PMID:24389476

  6. Effects of An Eight-Week Resistance Training on Plasma Vaspin Concentrations, Metabolic Parameters Levels and Physical Fitness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajedeh Fadaei Reyhan Abadei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaspin as a novel adipokine has insulin-sensitizing effects, which may be associated with decreased blood glucose concentration. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of resistance exercise training on plasma vaspin concentrations and its relation to plasma levels of insulin and glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D. In a quasi-experimental study, 18 male patients with T2D (mean age, 48.50 ± 7.73 years, mean weight, 79.41 ± 12.60 kg were divided into 2 groups as follows: control (n=9, and resistance training (RT; n=9 groups. Resistance training was performed 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Anthropometric, metabolic parameters and plasma vaspin levels were measured at baseline and at the end of study. Within-group data were analyzed with the paired t test, and between-group effects were analyzed with the independent t test. Waist-hip ratio (WHR, glucose, insulin of plasma and insulin resistance [homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR score] were all significantly decreased, whereas levels of vaspin and plasma lipids [cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL] showed no significant changes in RT group as compared with the related values of control groups. Serum vaspin levels did not correlate with anthropometric and metabolic parameters at the assigned times. Our findings suggest that 8-week of resistance training significantly improved insulin resistance index; however, this form of exercise failed to result in significant changes in serum vaspin concentration and lipid profiles. Further research is needed to investigate the role of vaspin in human physiology and to elucidate the effect(s of exercise intervention on serum vaspin concentrations (Registration Number: IRCT2013060911772N1.

  7. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  8. Radioimmunoassay for serotin - methodology, basal and stimulated hormone concentration in plasma of rats, dogs, rabbits and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay for measurement of secretin in the plasma of experimental animals and man has been developed by means of the so-called stripping procedure (pre-treatment of plasma with Quso). The detection limit is about 7 pg/ml at a final dilution of 1:630 000 and an equilibrium constant of 2.1x10-11 L/M. By means of this system plasma secretin in the species examined can be measured reliably. The coefficients of variation are (percent): The within assay precision (intra-assay) 12, the between assay precision (inter-assay) 23. The median of basal venous plasma secretin are (pg/ml) dog 16, rabbit 0, rat (aorta) 0, rat (porta) 31, man 0. From these studies it is concluded that a) as a consequence of unspecific interference of plasma particles with the secretin RIA-system only a previous removal of these interfering factors leads to reliable test results; should this pre-requisite be neglected falsely too high results are to be expected; b) plasma secretin rises if there is either hydrochloric acid present in the duodenum or if gastric together with food particles reaches the duodenum; c) at least in the dog there may be different molecular species of secretin circulating in the peripherical plasma, however the biological role of these is unknown at present. (orig./TRV)

  9. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  10. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (pbody weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; phumans and the HMB concentrations were positively correlated with appendicular lean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group. PMID:27108182

  11. Development of a Rat Plasma and Brain Extracellular Fluid Pharmacokinetic Model for Bupropion and Hydroxybupropion Based on Microdialysis Sampling, and Application to Predict Human Brain Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, Thomas I F H; Flik, Gunnar; Folgering, Joost H A; Rollema, Hans; Stratford, Robert E

    2016-05-01

    Administration of bupropion [(±)-2-(tert-butylamino)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)propan-1-one] and its preformed active metabolite, hydroxybupropion [(±)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-[(1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-propanyl)amino]-1-propanone], to rats with measurement of unbound concentrations by quantitative microdialysis sampling of plasma and brain extracellular fluid was used to develop a compartmental pharmacokinetics model to describe the blood-brain barrier transport of both substances. The population model revealed rapid equilibration of both entities across the blood-brain barrier, with resultant steady-state brain extracellular fluid/plasma unbound concentration ratio estimates of 1.9 and 1.7 for bupropion and hydroxybupropion, respectively, which is thus indicative of a net uptake asymmetry. An overshoot of the brain extracellular fluid/plasma unbound concentration ratio at early time points was observed with bupropion; this was modeled as a time-dependent uptake clearance of the drug across the blood-brain barrier. Translation of the model was used to predict bupropion and hydroxybupropion exposure in human brain extracellular fluid after twice-daily administration of 150 mg bupropion. Predicted concentrations indicate that preferential inhibition of the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters by the metabolite, with little to no contribution by bupropion, would be expected at this therapeutic dose. Therefore, these results extend nuclear imaging studies on dopamine transporter occupancy and suggest that inhibition of both transporters contributes significantly to bupropion's therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26916207

  12. New method for GC/FID and GC-C-IRMS analysis of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangani, Cyrous O; Kelley, David E; Delany, James P

    2008-09-15

    A simple, direct and accurate method for the determination of concentration and enrichment of free fatty acids (FFAs) in human plasma was developed. The validation and comparison to a conventional method are reported. Three amide derivatives, dimethyl, diethyl and pyrrolidide, were investigated in order to achieve optimal resolution of the individual fatty acids. This method involves the use of dimethylamine/Deoxo-Fluor to derivatize plasma free fatty acids to their dimethylamides. This derivatization method is very mild and efficient, and is selective only towards FFAs so that no separation from a total lipid extract is required. The direct method gave lower concentrations for palmitic acid and stearic acid and increased concentrations for oleic acid and linoleic acid in plasma as compared to methyl ester derivative after thin-layer chromatography. The [(13)C]palmitate isotope enrichment measured using direct method was significantly higher than that observed with the BF(3)/MeOH-TLC method. The present method provided accurate and precise measures of concentration as well as enrichment when analyzed with gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry. PMID:18757250

  13. Altered plasma and pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentrations in male rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TCDD induced hirsutism, alopecia and chloracne suggest that adverse effects of TCDD may be mediated through alterations in endocrine function. Anorexia, progressive weight loss, hypoglycemia, and accumulation of 14C-labeled TCDD in the adrenal gland suggest that this toxicant alters adrenal function. Previous studies in this laboratory have shown that exposure of rats to a single oral dose of TCDD results in increased adrenal microsomal lipid peroxidation, decreased adrenal microsomal cytochrome P-450 and 21-hydroxylation accompanied by depressed serum corticosterone levels. Adrenocortical function is regulated by the polypeptide ACTH which is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Thus, it is important to determine whether TCDD alters circulating ACTH and pituitary concentration of ACTH. Sprague Dawley rats (200-220g) were given a single oral dose of TCDD (50 μg/kg). Plasma and pituitary ACTH concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on day 2 at 9:00a.m. following TCDD treatment. Rat plasma and pituitary ACTH concentrations were increased 1.5 and 4.7 fold, respectively. These results indicate that TCDD causes an early increase in plasma and pituitary ACTH concentrations which may be related to the subsequent impairment of adrenocortical function seen in the rat after exposure to TCDD

  14. Plasma concentrations of estradiol and testosterone, gonadal aromatase activity and ultrastructure of the testis in Xenopus laevis exposed to estradiol or atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultrastructure of testicular cells of adult male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) exposed to either estradiol (0.1 μg/L) or 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropyl-amino-s-triazine (atrazine; 10 or 100 μg/L) was examined by electron microscopy and compared to plasma concentrations of the steroid hormones, testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), testicular aromatase activity and gonad growth expressed as the gonado-somatic index (GSI). Exposure to E2 caused significant changes both at the sub-cellular and biochemical levels. Exposure to E2 resulted in significantly fewer sperm cells, inhibition of meiotic division of germ cells, more lipid droplets that are storage compartments for the sex steroid hormone precursor cholesterol, and lesser plasma T concentrations. Although not statistically significant, frogs exposed to E2 had slightly smaller GSI values. These results may be indicative of an inhibition of gonad growth and disrupted germ cell development by E2. Concentrations of E2 in plasma were greater in frogs exposed to E2 in water. Exposure to neither concentration of atrazine caused effects on germ cell development, testicular aromatase activity or plasma hormone concentrations. These results suggest that atrazine does not affect testicular function. In contrast, exposure of male X. laevis to E2 led to sub-cellular events that are indicative of disruption of testicular development, and demasculinization processes (decrease of androgen hormone titers). These results indicate that atrazine does not cause responses that are similar to those caused by exposure to E2

  15. Abnormal concentrations of B vitamins and amino acids in plasma, bile, and liver of chicks with aflatoxicosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, M N; Wyatt, R. D.; Ayres, J. C.; Koehler, P. E.

    1980-01-01

    Graded levels of aflatoxin fed to broiler chickens for 3 weeks decreased the levels of most B vitamins in plasma, bile, and liver and decreased all free and hydrolyzed amino acids from peptides in plasma. The levels of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, and choline decreased by more than 60% in bile; vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, and choline decreased by more than 49% in plasma; thiamine, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, choline, folate, and niacin decreased by more than 19% in ...

  16. Effect of various concentrations of Ti in hydrocarbon plasma polymer films on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrovcova, Marta; Grinevich, Andrey; Drabik, Martin; Kylian, Ondrej; Hanus, Jan; Stankova, Lubica; Lisa, Vera; Choukourov, Andrei; Slavinska, Danka; Biederman, Hynek; Bacakova, Lucie

    2015-12-01

    Hydrocarbon polymer films (ppCH) enriched with various concentrations of titanium were deposited on microscopic glass slides by magnetron sputtering from a Ti target. The maximum concentration of Ti (about 20 at.%) was achieved in a pure argon atmosphere. The concentration of Ti decreased rapidly after n-hexane vapors were introduced into the plasma discharge, and reached zero values at n-hexane flow of 0.66 sccm. The decrease in Ti concentration was associated with decreasing oxygen and titanium carbide concentration in the films, decreasing wettability (the water drop contact angle increased from 20° to 91°) and decreasing root-mean-square roughness (from 3.3 nm to 1.0 nm). The human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells cultured on pure ppCH films and on films with 20 at.% of Ti showed relatively high concentrations of ICAM-1, a marker of cell immune activation. Lower concentrations of Ti (mainly 5 at.%) improved cell adhesion and osteogenic differentiation, as revealed by higher concentrations of talin, vinculin and osteocalcin. Higher Ti concentrations (15 at.%) supported cell growth, as indicated by the highest final cell population densities on day 7 after seeding. Thus, enrichment of ppCH films with appropriate concentrations of Ti makes these films more suitable for potential coatings of bone implants.

  17. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA B-CORTICOSTERONE, ESTRADIOL-17B AND TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS COLLECTED FROM THREE SITES WITHIN THE KISSIMMEE-EVERGLADES DRAINAGE BASIN IN FLORIDA (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of acute stress on plasma b-corticosterone (B), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17b (E2), concentrations in juvenile alligators collected from sites with varying sediment contaminants was examined in this study. Dramatic increases in plasma B concentrations were observe...

  18. Effect of 12 Weeks of Periodized Resistance Training Upon Total Plasma Adiponectin Concentration in Healthy Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Greggory R; Stephens, Jacqueline M; Nelson, Arnold G

    2015-11-01

    The effects of resistance training on adiponectin have thus far yielded equivocal results. However, the effect of periodized resistance training on plasma adiponectin in offspring of type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic (ND) parents (first-degree family history) has yet to be determined. Untrained healthy young men with and without a first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes were assigned to an exercise intervention group (E) or an active control group (C). The E group performed a 12-week periodized resistance training program, whereas the C group did not participate in any structured exercise program. Fasting plasma samples were obtained pre- and posttraining. Total plasma adiponectin changed significantly in the E group (33.7 ± 14.7%, p = 0.025) but not in the C group (10.8 ± 19.2%). Offspring of type 2 diabetic parents subjects had significantly greater improvements in plasma adiponectin (69.3 ± 34.8%) compared with ND subjects (-3.2 ± 29.9%, p = 0.046). Regular aerobic exercise was significantly correlated with average plasma adiponectin (r = 0.32), whereas first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes (r = -0.58) and decreases in body fat percentage (r = -0.77) were inversely correlated with average plasma adiponectin. Periodized high-intensity resistance training seems to increase plasma adiponectin, particularly in individuals with a first-degree family history of type 2 diabetes or those who experience a significant loss of fat mass. The direct correlation between regular aerobic exercise and adiponectin further suggests that a combination of aerobic and resistance training yields greater improvements in plasma adiponectin compared with resistance training alone. PMID:26274372

  19. The Use of Plasma-Derived Complement C1-Esterase Inhibitor Concentrate (Berinert®) in the Treatment of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Related Angioedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanrud, Thorbjørn; Duus, Nicolaj; Bygum, Anette; Rasmussen, Eva Rye

    2016-01-01

    Angioedema of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to pharmaceuticals influencing the generation or degradation of the vasoactive molecule bradykinin. Plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor concentrate is a well-established treatment option of hereditary and acquired complement C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency, which are also mediated by an increased level of bradykinin resulting in recurrent angioedema. We here present a case of severe angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor related angioedema (ACEi-AE) of the hypopharynx that completely resolved rapidly after the infusion of plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate adding to the sparse reports in the existing literature. PMID:27123347

  20. The Use of Plasma-Derived Complement C1-Esterase Inhibitor Concentrate (Berinert®) in the Treatment of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Related Angioedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanrud, Thorbjørn; Duus, Nicolaj; Bygum, Anette; Rasmussen, Eva Rye

    2016-01-01

    Angioedema of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to pharmaceuticals influencing the generation or degradation of the vasoactive molecule bradykinin. Plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor concentrate is a well-established treatment option of hereditary and acquired complement C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency, which are also mediated by an increased level of bradykinin resulting in recurrent angioedema. We here present a case of severe angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor related angioedema (ACEi-AE) of the hypopharynx that completely resolved rapidly after the infusion of plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate adding to the sparse reports in the existing literature. PMID:27123347

  1. Short communication: Effect of estrogen supplemented at dry-off on temporal changes in concentrations of lactose in blood plasma of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulay, M S; Hayen, M J; Head, H H; Bachman, K C

    2009-08-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of supplemental estrogen (estradiol cypionate, ECP) at dry-off on temporal changes in concentrations of lactose in blood plasma of Holstein cows as an indicator of rate of mammary involution. Thirty-two Holstein cows (8/group) were assigned randomly to 4 treatment groups: 30-d dry, 30-d dry + ECP, 60-d dry, and 60-d dry + ECP. A single injection (7.5 mL) of cottonseed oil (30- and 60-d dry) or ECP (15 mg) in oil (30- and 60-d dry + ECP) was administered intramuscularly at dry-off. Blood samples were collected from the coccygeal vein of all cows 24 h before dry-off and at dry-off, and then 8 samples were collected throughout the subsequent 48 h to monitor concentrations of lactose in blood plasma. No significant effects of ECP on the overall mean concentrations of lactose were detected. Concentrations of lactose increased and were greatest in blood collected 20 h (520.4 +/- 54.1, 268.1 +/- 48.2, 345.0 +/- 52.3, 418.4 +/- 49.8 microM, for the 4 treatment groups respective to the order listed above) after supplemental ECP and final milk removal. At 40 h, concentrations approached those observed 24 h before dry-off (140.5 +/- 52.1, 57.6 +/- 47.1, 90.1 +/- 51.4, 61.2 +/- 48.4 microM, respectively). Concentrations of lactose at 20 h were positively correlated with milk yield of cows at dry-off. Similar temporal profiles of lactose in blood plasma of cows supplemented or not with ECP indicated that ECP at dry-off did not markedly alter the course of tight junction leakage that typically occurs in mammary epithelial tissue during progressive early involution when milk removal is discontinued. PMID:19620664

  2. Effects of prepartum fat supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, adropin, insulin, and leptin in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Rizaldy C; Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fat supplementation during the periparturient period is one strategy to increase energy intake and attenuate the degree of negative energy balance during early lactation; however, little is known of the underlying hormonal and metabolic adaptations. We evaluated the effects of prepartum fat supplementation on energy-balance parameters and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), adropin, insulin, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows. Twenty-four pregnant dairy cows were randomized to diets containing either rolled canola or sunflower seed at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed supplementation, during the last 5 wk of gestation and then assigned to a common lactation diet postpartum. Blood samples were collected at -2, +2, and +14 h relative to feeding, at 2 wk after the initiation of the diets, and at 2 wk postpartum. Dietary canola and sunflower supplementation alone did not affect energy balance, body weight, and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, insulin, leptin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid; however, canola decreased and sunflower tended to decrease dry matter intake. We also observed that the physiological stage had a significant, but divergent, effect on circulating hormones and metabolite concentrations. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were greater postpartum than prepartum, whereas glucose, insulin, leptin, body weight, and energy balance were greater prepartum than postpartum. Furthermore, the interaction of treatment and stage was significant for leptin and adropin, and tended toward significance for PYY and insulin; only insulin exhibited an apparent postprandial increase. Postpartum PYY concentrations exhibited a strong negative correlation with body weight, suggesting that PYY may be associated with body weight regulation during

  3. Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchins Heather L; Hallowell Edward M; Sorgi Paul J; Sears Barry

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurological condition in children. This pilot study evaluated the effects of high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on the isolated plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with ADHD (primarily inattentive subtype and combined subtype). Methods Nine children were initially supplemented with 16.2 g EPA/DHA concentrates per day. The dosage was adjusted depen...

  4. Pharmacodynamic Activity of Amphotericin B Deoxycholate Is Associated with Peak Plasma Concentrations in a Neutropenic Murine Model of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Tam, Vincent H.; Chi, Jingduan; Prince, Randall A.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Lewis, Russell E.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a dose fractionation study of neutropenic, corticosteroid-immunosuppressed mice to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) parameter most closely associated with amphotericin B (AMB) efficacy in the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were determined by a nonparametric population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma drug concentrations following single intraperitoneal doses (0.25, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg of body weight) of ...

  5. Effects of Minocycline and Valproic Acid Coadministration on Atazanavir Plasma Concentrations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults Receiving Atazanavir-Ritonavir▿

    OpenAIRE

    DiCenzo, Robert; Peterson, Derick R; Cruttenden, Kim; Mariuz, Peter; Rezk, Naser L.; Hochreiter, Jill; Gelbard, Harris; Schifitto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Minocycline and valproic acid are potential adjuvant therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether minocycline alone or in combination with valproic acid affected atazanavir plasma concentrations. Twelve adult HIV-infected subjects whose regimen included atazanavir (300 mg)-ritonavir (100 mg) daily for at least 4 weeks were enrolled. Each subject received atazanavir-ritonavir on day 1, ataz...

  6. Automation of a flow injection system for the determination of dissolved silver at picomolar concentrations in seawater with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Achterberg, Eric P.; Truscott, Jason B.; Barriada, Jose L.

    2003-01-01

    An automated flow injection system for the determination of dissolved silver at ultratrace concentrations in seawater, and controlled under LabVIEW™, is described. The flow injection system allows online processing of seawater samples before their analysis using a magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MS-ICP-MS) instrument. Samples were analysed with a minimum amount of manipulation, thereby reducing the risk of contamination. In addition, the flow injection approach w...

  7. The effect of eight week low impact rhythmic aerobic training on total plasma homocysteine concentration in older non-athlete women

    OpenAIRE

    Shahla Dehghan; Gholamreza Sharifi; Mohammad Faramarzi

    2009-01-01

    (Received 27 October, 2009 ; Accepted 23 December , 2009)AbstractBackground and purpose: Homocysteine is a new cardiovascular risk factor that its enhancement can cause increase in cardiovascular diseases. Because of physical activity importance in cardiovascular diseases prevention (specially in older people) this study intend to investigate the effect of 8-week low impact rhythmic aerobic (LIA) exercise on total plasma homocysteine concentration in non athlete Iranian older women for first ...

  8. Effects of Na-butyrate supplementation in milk formula on plasma concentrations of GH and insulin, and on rumen papilla development in calves

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Shin-ichi; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Chida, Haruka; Roh., Sang-gun; Ohwada, Shyuichi; SATO, Shusuke; Guilloteau, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Although the growth-promoting action of sodium-butyrate (Na-butyrate) used as a feed additive has been observed in calves and pigs, the precise mechanisms involved remain to be clarified. In this study, pre-weaning calves were given milk formula (MF) supplemented with butyrate for 6 weeks to investigate its effects on postprandial changes in the plasma concentrations of metabolic hormones, and, simultaneously, on growth performance, the weight of the digestive organs and rumen papilla develop...

  9. Palaeolithic diet decreases fasting plasma leptin concentrations more than a diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised cross-over trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes-Villalba, Maelán; Lindeberg, Staffan; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Knop, Filip K.; Memon, Ashfaque A.; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Picazo, Óscar; Chanrai, Madhvi; Sunquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Jönsson, Tommy

    2016-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study. Methods In a r...

  10. Evaluation of plasma and milk haptoglobin concentrations in the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Gultiken Nilgun; Serhat Ay S.; Gul Fatma Yarim; Elvan Anadol; Findik M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether plasma and milk haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations could be an alternative method for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of subclinical mastitis (SM) in dairy cows. In the study, 14 cows with subclinical mastitis (SM) in more than one udder quarter and 5 healthy control cows were used. Cows in the non-treated group (GNT; n=6) did not receive any treatment while cows in the treated group (GT; n=8) were treated...

  11. Prenatal cigarette smoke exposure: Pregnancy outcome and gestational changes in plasma nicotine concentration, hematocrit, and carboxyhemoglobin in a newly standardized rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies support an association between perinatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and a number of severe pre- and postnatal complications. However, the mechanisms through which CS enhances such risks largely remain unknown. One of the reasons for our inability to discover such mechanisms has been the unavailability of a clinically relevant and physiologically concordant animal model. A number of studies have previously used nicotine (Nic) as surrogate for CS. We sought to (1) establish the amount of CS exposure to achieve plasma Nic concentrations observed among moderate to heavy smokers (20-60 ng/ml) (2) investigate the temporal changes in plasma Nic concentrations, carboxyhemoglobin, and hematocrit with advancing pregnancy, and (3) elucidate the effects of CS exposure on pregnancy outcome. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to various doses of CS or room air (Sham) from days 6 to 21 of gestation. Exposure to 6000 ml/day of CS led to very high plasma Nic concentrations and increased maternal and fetal mortality (P < 0.001). The plasma Nic concentrations remained higher than those observed in moderate smokers until the CS dose was reduced to 1000 ml/day and showed dose-dependent temporal changes with advancing gestational age. Significant increases in carboxyhemoglobin and hematocrit were observed in the CS group as compared with the Sham group (P < 0.001). In addition, prenatally CS exposed fetuses had lower birth weight as compared with the Sham group (P = 0.04). Our current study establishes a newly standardized and physiologically relevant model to investigate the mechanisms of CS-mediated adverse effects during the critical period of fetal development

  12. [Plasma- and tissue concentrations following intramuscular administration of etofenamat. Pharmacokinetics of etofenamat and flufenamic acid in plasma, synovium, and tissues of patients with chronic polyarthritis after administration of an oily solution of etofenamat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, G; Tressel, W; Dell, H D; Doersing, M; Fischer, W; Kamp, R; Langer, M; Richter, B; Wirzbach, E

    1992-12-01

    Studies on Plasma and Tissue Concentrations of Etofenamate following Intramuscular Application/Pharmacokinetics of etofenamate and flutenamic acid in plasma, synovia and tissues of patients with chronic polyarthritis after application of oily etofenamat solution Pharmacokinetics of etofenamate (ETO, CAS 30544-47-9; Rheumon i.m.) and flufenamic acid (FLU, CAS 530-78-9) were investigated in plasma, synovial fluid, and tissues after single intramuscular application of etofenamate to patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 62 patients with indicated operative procedure in the knee-joint received a single dose of etofenamate dissolved in oil before operation. At definite times between 1.5 and 48 h post injectionem samples from 6 patients of each time group were collected. Samples of plasma, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, muscle, bone, hyaline cartilage, and fat tissue and in some cases meniscus cartilage were taken. Concentrations of ETO and its active metabolite, FLU, were determined by HPTLC. In all tissues investigated, concentration/time courses of ETO and FLU were observed. ETO and FLU were measured first in all matrices 1.5 h at the latest 3 h post injectionem. Pharmacokinetics in tissues follows that in plasma. Rate-limiting step is the liberation of drug from the oil depot. For a long period pharmacokinetics of ETO and FLU is mainly determined by the constant liberation from the oil depot (zero order kinetics of liberation). Zero order kinetics is deduced from the linear ascent of the cumulated AUC (in percent) vs. time plot. It is directly related to the liberation of drug from the galenical formulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1288513

  13. Prolonged treatment of genetically obese mice with conjugated linoleic acid improves glucose tolerance and lowers plasma insulin concentration: possible involvement of PPAR activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einerhand Alexandra WC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in rodents and some studies in humans have shown that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, especially its trans-10, cis-12 isomer, reduces body fat content. However, some but not all studies in mice and humans (though none in rats have found that CLA promotes insulin resistance. The molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are unclear, and there are conflicting reports on the effects of CLA on peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ activation and expression. We have conducted three experiments with CLA in obese mice over three weeks, and one over eleven weeks. We have also investigated the effects of CLA isomers in PPARγ and PPARα reporter gene assays. Results Inclusion of CLA or CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer in the diet of female genetically obese (lepob/lepob mice for up to eleven weeks reduced body weight gain and white fat pad weight. After two weeks, in contrast to beneficial effects obtained with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, CLA or CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer raised fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations, and exacerbated glucose tolerance. After 10 weeks, however, CLA had beneficial effects on glucose and insulin concentrations. At this time, CLA had no effect on the plasma TNFα concentration, but it markedly reduced the plasma adiponectin concentration. CLA and CLA enriched with either isomer raised the plasma triglyceride concentration during the first three weeks, but not subsequently. CLA enriched with its trans-10, cis-12 isomer, but not with its cis-9, trans-11 isomer, stimulated PPARγ-mediated reporter gene activity; both isomers stimulated PPARα-mediated reporter gene activity. Conclusions CLA initially decreased but subsequently increased insulin sensitivity in lepob/lepob mice. Activation of both PPARγ and PPARα may contribute to the improvement in insulin sensitivity. In the short term, however, another mechanism

  14. Influence of H on the composition and atomic concentrations of "N-rich" plasma deposited SiOxNyHz films

    OpenAIRE

    Mártil de la Plaza, Ignacio; González Díaz, Germán; Prado Millán, Álvaro del; San Andres Serrano, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    The influence of H on the composition and atomic concentrations of Si, O, and N of plasma deposited SiOxNyHz films was investigated. The bonding scheme of H was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The composition and absolute concentrations of all the species present in the SiOxNyHz, including H, was measured by heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). Samples were deposited from SiH4, O-2, and N-2 gas mixtures, with different gas flow ratios in order to obtain ...

  15. Lihula - loodusepealinna kandidaat / Aive Sarjas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sarjas, Aive

    2004-01-01

    23.-26.09. 2004 Matsalu II rahvusvaheline loodusfilmide festival. Peapreemia võitis "Pelikani odüsseia" : režissöör Moshe Alpert : Iisrael - Holland 2003. Kategoorias "Kaamera ees on linnud" sai esimese preemia rootsi režissööri Tina-Maria Qwibergi "Rõõm kohtuda, künnivares" ja kategoorias "Inimene ja loodus" saksa režissööri Aija Bley "Läti - kõnnumaa Venemaa ja Riia vahel". Žüriid juhtis Jeffery Boswall BBC-st

  16. Avaliku teenistuse eetikast / Aive Pevkur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pevkur, Aive

    2007-01-01

    Autor tutvustab ametniku eetika teoreetilisi lähtekohti, üle-euroopalisi ja Eestis läbi viidud uuringuid, nendib, et Eesti ametnikud kannavad samu avalike teenistuse väärtusi kui pikaajalise demokraatiakogemusega riikide avalikud teenistujad, näeb ette vajadust eestika juhtimise edasiseks arendamiseks. Graafikud: Põhiväärtused ametlikes dokumentides; Väärtused Eesti avalikus teenistuses

  17. Human plasma concentrations of five cytochrome P450 probes extrapolated from pharmacokinetics in dogs and minipigs using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, Satomi; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cytochrome P450 probes in humans can be extrapolated from corresponding data in cynomolgus monkeys using simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. In the current study, despite some species difference in drug clearances, this modeling methodology was adapted to estimate human plasma concentrations of P450 probes based on data from commonly used medium-sized experimental animals, namely dogs and minipigs. Using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data, the observed plasma concentrations of slowly eliminated caffeine and warfarin and rapidly eliminated omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in two young dogs were scaled to human oral monitoring equivalents. Using the same approach, the previously reported pharmacokinetics of the five P450 probes in minipigs was also scaled to human monitoring equivalents. The human plasma concentration profiles of the five P450 probes estimated by the simplified human PBPK models based on observed/reported pharmacokinetics in dogs/minipigs were consistent with previously published pharmacokinetic data in humans. These results suggest that dogs and minipigs, in addition to monkeys, could be suitable models for humans during research into new drugs, especially when used in combination with simple PBPK models. PMID:26652678

  18. Analysis of betamethasone in rat plasma using automated solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Determination of plasma concentrations in rat following oral and intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamvakopoulos, C S; Neugebauer, J M; Donnelly, M; Griffin, P R

    2002-09-01

    A method is described for the determination of betamethasone in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The analyte was recovered from plasma by solid-phase extraction and subsequently analyzed by LC-MS-MS. A Packard Multiprobe II, an automated liquid handling system, was employed for the preparation and extraction of a 96-well plate containing unknown plasma samples, standards and quality control samples in an automated fashion. Prednisolone, a structurally related steroid, was used as an internal standard. Using the described approach, a limit of quantitation of 2 ng/ml was achieved with a 50 microl aliquot of rat plasma. The described level of sensitivity allowed the determination of betamethasone concentrations and subsequent measurement of kinetic parameters of betamethasone in rat. Combination of automated plasma extraction and the sensitivity and selectivity of LC-MS-MS offers a valuable alternative to the methodologies currently used for the quantitation of steroids in biological fluids. PMID:12137997