WorldWideScience

Sample records for airways flying crew

  1. GASA Hybird Algorithm Applied in Airline Crew Rostering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yinghui; RAO Yunbo; ZHOU Mingtian

    2007-01-01

    Crew postering system is a daily grind in the management of both corporation and enterprise. A fair and reasonable rostering method plays a very important role in the arousing worker's enthusiasm and improving the work efficiency. This paper presents a method of building models for automatic crew rostering mode with computer and advancing the multi-objective optimum scheme. The method to build models for crew rostering system is also discussed. The question to crew rostering system model is solved by genetic algorithms and simulated annealing algorithms. Simulation results show the correctness of algorithms. The actual data of the airways have justified its reasonability and efficiency.

  2. Commercial Crew Program Crew Safety Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassberg, Nathan; Stover, Billy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to explain to our international partners (ESA and JAXA) how NASA is implementing crew safety onto our commercial partners under the Commercial Crew Program. It will show them the overall strategy of 1) how crew safety boundaries have been established; 2) how Human Rating requirements have been flown down into programmatic requirements and over into contracts and partner requirements; 3) how CCP SMA has assessed CCP Certification and CoFR strategies against Shuttle baselines; 4) Discuss how Risk Based Assessment (RBA) and Shared Assurance is used to accomplish these strategies.

  3. STS-47 Crew Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri answer questions from the press about the upcoming Endeavour mission and the crew's personal views of the mission.

  4. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  5. Crew Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  6. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  7. Coordination strategies of crew management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; Cano, Yvonne; Bryant, Don

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory study that describes and contrasts two three-person flight crews performing in a B-727 simulator is presented. This study specifically attempts to delineate crew communication patterns accounting for measured differences in performance across routine and nonroutine flight patterns. The communication patterns in the two crews evaluated indicated different modes of coordination, i.e., standardization in the less effective crew and planning/mutual adjustment in the more effective crew.

  8. Airway management in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid M Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma has assumed epidemic proportion. 10% of global road accident deaths occur in India. Hypoxia and airway mismanagement are known to contribute up to 34% of pre-hospital deaths in these patients. A high degree of suspicion for actual or impending airway obstruction should be assumed in all trauma patients. Objective signs of airway compromise include agitation, obtundation, cyanosis, abnormal breath sound and deviated trachea. If time permits, one should carry out a brief airway assessment prior to undertaking definitive airway management in these patients. Simple techniques for establishing and maintaining airway patency include jaw thrust maneuver and/or use of oro- and nas-opharyngeal airways. All attempts must be made to perform definitive airway management whenever airway is compromised that is not amenable to simple strategies. The selection of airway device and route- oral or -nasal, for tracheal intubation should be based on nature of patient injury, experience and skill level.

  9. Getting a Crew into Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Despite the temporary setback in our country's crewed space exploration program, there will continue to be missions requiring crews to orbit Earth and beyond. Under the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA should have its own heavy launch rocket and crew vehicle developed by 2016. Private companies will continue to explore space, as well. At the…

  10. Airway distensibility in Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Dirksen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    -20% (mild), 20%-30% (moderate) or >30% (severe). Spirometry was performed annually and participants were divided into severity groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Data were analysed in a mixed effects regression model with log(airway lumen diameter......Rationale – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which both may lead to airway obstruction. Under normal circumstances, airway dimensions vary as a function of inspiration level. We aim to study the influence of COPD and emphysema...... in causing airway narrowing, the latter most likely due to loss of elastic recoil of surrounding tissue....

  11. Crew decision making under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, J.

    1992-01-01

    Flight crews must make decisions and take action when systems fail or emergencies arise during flight. These situations may involve high stress. Full-missiion flight simulation studies have shown that crews differ in how effectively they cope in these circumstances, judged by operational errors and crew coordination. The present study analyzed the problem solving and decision making strategies used by crews led by captains fitting three different personality profiles. Our goal was to identify more and less effective strategies that could serve as the basis for crew selection or training. Methods: Twelve 3-member B-727 crews flew a 5-leg mission simulated flight over 1 1/2 days. Two legs included 4 abnormal events that required decisions during high workload periods. Transcripts of videotapes were analyzed to describe decision making strategies. Crew performance (errors and coordination) was judged on-line and from videotapes by check airmen. Results: Based on a median split of crew performance errors, analyses to date indicate a difference in general strategy between crews who make more or less errors. Higher performance crews showed greater situational awareness - they responded quickly to cues and interpreted them appropriately. They requested more decision relevant information and took into account more constraints. Lower performing crews showed poorer situational awareness, planning, constraint sensitivity, and coordination. The major difference between higher and lower performing crews was that poorer crews made quick decisions and then collected information to confirm their decision. Conclusion: Differences in overall crew performance were associated with differences in situational awareness, information management, and decision strategy. Captain personality profiles were associated with these differences, a finding with implications for crew selection and training.

  12. STS-99 Crew Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The STS-99 crew members designed the flight insignia for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. Two radar anternas, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, was used during the mission to map Earth's features. The goal was to provide a 3-dimensional topographic map of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. In the patch, the clear portion of Earth illustrates the radar beams penetrating its cloudy atmosphere and the unique understanding of the home planet that is provided by space travel. The grid on Earth reflects the mapping character of the SRTM mission. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting Earth in a star spangled universe. The rainbow along Earth's horizon resembles an orbital sunrise. The crew deems the bright colors of the rainbow as symbolic of the bright future ahead because of human beings' venturing into space. The crew of six launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on February 11, 2000 and completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  13. Flying Scared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Sie, Marco; Josiassen, Alexander

    service quality expectations and fear of flying affect travellers' flight choices on long-haul flights. The study was set in Bangkok and primary data were obtained from a large sample of travelers departing from Suvarnabhumi Airport. While service quality emerged as a relevant factor, fear of flying didn...

  14. Engineering Airway Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Soleas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway epithelium is constantly presented with injurious signals, yet under healthy circumstances, the epithelium maintains its innate immune barrier and mucociliary elevator function. This suggests that airway epithelium has regenerative potential (I. R. Telford and C. F. Bridgman, 1990. In practice, however, airway regeneration is problematic because of slow turnover and dedifferentiation of epithelium thereby hindering regeneration and increasing time necessary for full maturation and function. Based on the anatomy and biology of the airway epithelium, a variety of tissue engineering tools available could be utilized to overcome the barriers currently seen in airway epithelial generation. This paper describes the structure, function, and repair mechanisms in native epithelium and highlights specific and manipulatable tissue engineering signals that could be of great use in the creation of artificial airway epithelium.

  15. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  16. Apollo 15 Crew Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is the official three-member crew portrait of the Apollo 15 (SA-510). Pictured from left to right are: David R. Scott, Mission Commander; Alfred M. Worden Jr., Command Module pilot; and James B. Irwin, Lunar Module pilot. The fifth marned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. The astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

  17. Crew Interviews: Treschev

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Sergei Treschev is a Cosmonaut of the Rocket Space Corporation Energia, (RSC), from Volynsky District, Lipetsk Region (Russia). He graduated from Moscow Energy Institute. After years of intense training with RSC Energia, he was selected as International Space Station (ISS) Increment 5 flight engineer. The Expedition-Five crew (two Russian cosmonauts and one American astronaut) will stay on the station for approximately 5 months. The Multipurpose Logistics Module, or MPLM, will carry experiment racks and three stowage and resupply racks to the station. The mission will also install a component of the Canadian Arm called the Mobile Base System (MBS) to the Mobile Transporter (MT) installed during STS-110. This completes the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will now have the capability to "inchworm" from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites.

  18. Airway management in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao B

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway Management for the victims of major trauma is the first priority in the care of the trauma victim and is a core skill in emergency medicine and critical care. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard for trauma airway management. Airway management in trauma patients is not just the capability to insert an oral/nasal airway or endotracheal tube beyond the vocal cords. The five components integral to modern, sophisticated airway management in trauma patients include equipment, pharmacologic adjuncts, manual techniques, physical circumstances, and patient profile. A trauma patient may require airway management in a variety of physical circumstances. Whereas, the commonly used airway management algorithms may not suffice in all these situations, the construction of a truly complete decision tree is also virtually impossible. There is consensus that it is not the intervention per se but rather the conditions, skills, and performance that might be the possible variables that affect outcome. Paramedics have only limited experience and on-the-job skills for invasive airway management. Difficult airway management is best left for the experienced physicians to handle.

  19. STS-69 Crew members display 'Dog Crew' patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Following their arrival at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, the five astronauts assigned to Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 display the unofficial crew patch for their upcoming spaceflight: the Dog Crew II patch. Mission Commander David M. Walker (center) and Payload Commander James S. Voss (second from right) previously flew together on Mission STS-53, the final dedicated Department of Defense flight on the Space Shuttle. A close comradery formed among Walker, Voss and the rest of the crew, and they dubbed themselves the 'dogs of war', with each of the STS-53 'Dog Crew' members assigned a 'dog tag' or nickname. When the STS-69 astronauts also became good buddies, they decided it was time for the Dog Crew II to be named. Walker's dog tag is Red Dog, Voss's is Dogface, Pilot Kenneth D. Cockrell (second from left) is Cujo, space rookie and Mission Specialist Michael L. Gernhardt (left) is Under Dog, and Mission Specialist James H. Newman (right) is Pluato. The Dog Crew II patch features a bulldog peering out from a doghouse shaped like the Space Shuttle and lists the five crew member's dog names. The five astronauts are scheduled to lift off on the fifth Shuttle flight of the year at 11:04 a.m. EDT, August 31, aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  20. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  1. Indirect airway challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joos, GF; O'Connor, B; Anderson, SD; Chung, F; Cockcroft, DW; Dahlen, B; DiMaria, G; Foresi, A; Hargreave, FE; Holgate, ST; Inman, M; Lotvall, J; Magnussen, H; Polosa, R; Postma, DS; Riedler, J

    2003-01-01

    Indirect challenges act by causing the release of endogenous mediators that cause the airway smooth muscle to contract. This is in contrast to the direct challenges where agonists such as methacholine or histamine cause airflow limitation predominantly via a direct effect on airway smooth muscle. Di

  2. Pediatric airway nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, James

    2010-02-01

    Pediatric disorders that involve actual or potential airway compromise are among the most challenging cases that emergency department providers face. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of common and uncommon conditions in infants and children who may present with airway obstruction.

  3. Flight Crew Integration (FCI) ISS Crew Comments Database & Products Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This Crew Debrief Data provides support for design and development of vehicles, hardware, requirements, procedures, processes, issue resolution, lessons learned, consolidation and trending for current Programs; and much of the data is also used to support development of future Programs.

  4. Time flies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke

    , the LS fly might be able to spend energy more generously on different tasks. Therefor, the capacity of LS and C lines to locate resources in a natural environment was tested. It turns out that LS flies are less likely to find food than C flies in such a setting, yet that as they age, their ability...... to locate food decreases slower than that of C lines. Gene expression of 10 candidate genes for longevity was quantified in two types of C and LS lines at three different ages. One of these genes, CG32638, indeed appears to be involved in life span determination in both males and females, regardless...... of mating status. Generalising studies on ageing in D. melanogaster can be cumbersome, especially in light of discrepancy between correlated responses between studies. To elucidate which mechanisms might be conserved due to evolutionary constraints, life span of 13 species of Drosophila was determined...

  5. Crew Cerebral Oxygen Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposal is aimed at developing a non-invasive, optical method for monitoring crew member state of awareness in operational environments. All...

  6. Crew Cerebral Oxygen Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal is aimed at developing a non-invasive, optical method for monitoring the state of consciousness of crew members in operational...

  7. Emergency airway puncture - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... presentations/100113.htm Emergency airway puncture - series—Normal anatomy To ... larynx is a tubular structure in the neck, through which air passes to the lungs. The thryoid and cricoid cartilage form the narrowest ...

  8. Emergency airway puncture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inserted into the throat, just below the Adam's apple (cricoid cartilage), into the airway. In a hospital, ... Choking Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  9. Airway management in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeron, O; Birenbaum, A; Amour, J

    2009-05-01

    Maintenance of a patent and prevention of aspiration are essential for the management of the trauma patient, that requires experienced physicians in airway control techniques. Difficulties of the airway control in the trauma setting are increased by the vital failures, the risk of aspiration, the potential cervical spine injury, the combative patient, and the obvious risk of difficult tracheal intubation related to specific injury related to the trauma. Endotracheal intubation remains the gold standard in trauma patient airway management and should be performed via the oral route with a rapid sequence induction and a manual in-line stabilization maneuver, to decrease the risks previously mentioned. Different techniques to control the airway in trauma patients are presented: improvement of the laryngoscopic vision, lighted stylet tracheal intubation, retrograde technique for orotracheal intubation, the laryngeal mask and the intubating laryngeal mask airways, the combitube and cricothyroidotomy. Management of the airway in trauma patients requires regular training in these techniques and the knowledge of complementary techniques allowing tracheal intubation or oxygenation to overcome difficult intubation and to prevent major complications as hypoxemia and aspiration.

  10. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction. ...... and a potential application. We believe that it could become a new medium for creativity, and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance in the context of the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or language impairments....

  11. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  12. STS-88 crew goes through Crew Equipment Interface Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    -- In the Orbiter Processing Facility Bay 1, STS-88 Mission Specialists (left to right) Jerry L. Ross; Sergei Krikalev, a cosmonaut from Russia; and James H. Newman examine equipment that will be on the Space Shuttle Endeavour during their upcoming flight. Launch of Mission STS-88 is targeted for Dec. 3, 1998. The STS-88 crew members are participating in a Crew Equipment Interface Test (CEIT), familiarizing themselves with the orbiter's midbody and crew compartments. Other crew members are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot Frederick W. 'Rick' Sturckow and Mission Specialist Nancy J. Currie. STS-88 will be the first Space Shuttle launch for assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). The primary payload is the Unity connecting module which will be mated to the Russian-built Zarya control module, expected to be already on orbit after a November launch from Russia. The first major U.S.-built component of ISS, Unity will serve as a connecting passageway to living and working areas of the space station. Unity has two attached pressurized mating adapters (PMAs) and one stowage rack installed inside. PMA-1 provides the permanent connection point between Unity and Zarya; PMA-2 will serve as a Space Shuttle docking port. Zarya is a self-supporting active vehicle, providing propulsive control capability and power during the early assembly stages. It also has fuel storage capability.

  13. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    of providing a tangible correspondence between the two spaces. This interaction mean has proved to suit the artistic expression well but it also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from speech activity, a new medium for creativity and a way to visually perceive a vocal performance....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  14. Flying Fortress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    当欧洲的年轻人想到关于德国的两种熊,一个是传统的布娃娃熊,另一个就是充满欧洲街头墙上的Teddy熊涂鸦,而这个涂鸦熊的创作者就是著名的涂鸦艺术家“Flying Fortress”,他称这些熊军队为“Teddy Tmops”。

  15. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Addis, A.; Adcock, I.; Agache, I.; Agusti, A.; Alonso, A.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Anto, J. M.; Bachert, C.; Baena-Cagnani, C. E.; Bai, C.; Baigenzhin, A.; Barbara, C.; Barnes, P. J.; Bateman, E. D.; Beck, L.; Bedbrook, A.; Bel, E. H.; Benezet, O.; Bennoor, K. S.; Benson, M.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Bewick, M.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Blain, H.; Blasi, F.; Bonini, M.; Bonini, S.; Boulet, L. P.; Bourdin, A.; Bourret, R.; Bousquet, P. J.; Brightling, C. E.; Briggs, A.; Brozek, J.; Buh, R.; Bush, A.; Caimmi, D.; Calderon, M.; Calverley, P.; Camargos, P. A.; Camuzat, T.; Canonica, G. W.; Carlsen, K. H.; Casale, T. B.; Cazzola, M.; Sarabia, A. M. Cepeda; Cesario, A.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chkhartishvili, E.; Chavannes, N. H.; Chiron, R.; Chuchalin, A.; Chung, K. F.; Cox, L.; Crooks, G.; Crooks, M. G.; Cruz, A. A.; Custovic, A.; Dahl, R.; Dahlen, S. E.; De Blay, F.; Dedeu, T.; Deleanu, D.; Demoly, P.; Devillier, P.; Didier, A.; Dinh-Xuan, A. T.; Djukanovic, R.; Dokic, D.; Douagui, H.; Dubakiene, R.; Eglin, S.; Elliot, F.; Emuzyte, R.; Fabbri, L.; Wagner, A. Fink; Fletcher, M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Franco, A.; Frith, P.; Furber, A.; Gaga, M.; Garces, J.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gamkrelidze, A.; Gonzales-Diaz, S.; Gouzi, F.; Guzman, M. A.; Haahtela, T.; Harrison, D.; Hayot, M.; Heaney, L. G.; Heinrich, J.; Hellings, P. W.; Hooper, J.; Humbert, M.; Hyland, M.; Iaccarino, G.; Jakovenko, D.; Jardim, J. R.; Jeandel, C.; Jenkins, C.; Johnston, S. L.; Jonquet, O.; Joos, G.; Jung, K. S.; Kalayci, O.; Karunanithi, S.; Keil, T.; Khaltaev, N.; Kolek, V.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kull, I.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Le, L. T.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Louis, R.; MacNee, W.; Mair, A.; Majer, I.; Manning, P.; Keenoy, E. de Manuel; Masjedi, M. R.; Meten, E.; Melo-Gomes, E.; Menzies-Gow, A.; Mercier, G.; Mercier, J.; Michel, J. P.; Miculinic, N.; Mihaltan, F.; Milenkovic, B.; Molimard, M.; Mamas, I.; Montilla-Santana, A.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Morgan, M.; N'Diaye, M.; Nafti, S.; Nekam, K.; Neou, A.; Nicod, L.; O'Hehir, R.; Ohta, K.; Paggiaro, P.; Palkonen, S.; Palmer, S.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Papi, A.; Passalacqua, G.; Pavord, I.; Pigearias, B.; Plavec, D.; Postma, D. S.; Price, D.; Rabe, K. F.; Pontal, F. Radier; Redon, J.; Rennard, S.; Roberts, J.; Robine, J. M.; Roca, J.; Roche, N.; Rodenas, F.; Roggeri, A.; Rolland, C.; Rosado-Pinto, J.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sanchez-Borges, M.; Schunemann, H. J.; Sheikh, A.; Shields, M.; Siafakas, N.; Sibille, Y.; Similowski, T.; Small, I.; Sola-Morales, O.; Sooronbaev, T.; Stelmach, R.; Sterk, P. J.; Stiris, T.; Sud, P.; Tellier, V.; To, T.; Todo-Bom, A.; Triggiani, M.; Valenta, R.; Valero, A. L.; Valiulis, A.; Valovirta, E.; Van Ganse, E.; Vandenplas, O.; Vasankari, T.; Vestbo, J.; Vezzani, G.; Viegi, G.; Visier, L.; Vogelmeier, C.; Vontetsianos, T.; Wagstaff, R.; Wahn, U.; Wallaert, B.; Whalley, B.; Wickman, M.; Williams, D. M.; Wilson, N.; Yawn, B. P.; Yiallouros, P. K.; Yorgancioglu, A.; Yusuf, O. M.; Zar, H. J.; Zhong, N.; Zidarn, M.; Zuberbier, T.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy and will ad

  16. Effects of checklist interface on non-verbal crew communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Leon D.

    1994-01-01

    The investigation looked at the effects of the spatial layout and functionality of cockpit displays and controls on crew communication. Specifically, the study focused on the intra-cockpit crew interaction, and subsequent task performance, of airline pilots flying different configurations of a new electronic checklist, designed and tested in a high-fidelity simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. The first part of this proposal establishes the theoretical background for the assumptions underlying the research, suggesting that in the context of the interaction between a multi-operator crew and a machine, the design and configuration of the interface will affect interactions between individual operators and the machine, and subsequently, the interaction between operators. In view of the latest trends in cockpit interface design and flight-deck technology, in particular, the centralization of displays and controls, the introduction identifies certain problems associated with these modern designs and suggests specific design issues to which the expected results could be applied. A detailed research program and methodology is outlined and the results are described and discussed. Overall, differences in cockpit design were shown to impact the activity within the cockpit, including interactions between pilots and aircraft and the cooperative interactions between pilots.

  17. Airway reconstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background : Airway anomalies are infrequent but potentially life threatening in children. A program to care for these difficult children was set up at our institution, and this paper summarizes our experience. Methods: A total of 34 children were enrolled in the program over a period of three years. These children were evaluated as per the standard protocols. Treatment was individualized. Results: Of these 34 children, 28 had their airways restored and are doing well. Four children continue to remain on tracheostomy and two will require long term tracheostomy. There were two deaths. All children are under surveillance as there is a risk of recurrence. Conclusions: Airway anomalies are complex problems with significant morbidity and mortality. Current therapeutic modalities allow for good results. Most children were successfully decannulated and did well.

  18. Paediatric airway management: basic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Knudsen, R J; Rasmussen, L S

    2009-01-01

    . Airway obstruction can be avoided by paying close attention to the positioning of the head of the child and by keeping the mouth of the child open during mask ventilation. The use of oral and nasopharyngeal airways, laryngeal mask airways, and cuffed endotracheal tubes is discussed with special reference...... to the circumstances in infants. A slightly different technique during laryngoscopy is suggested. The treatment of airway oedema and laryngospasm is described....

  19. 46 CFR 185.420 - Crew training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crew training. 185.420 Section 185.420 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Crew Requirements § 185.420 Crew training. (a) The owner, charterer, master or managing operator... duties listed in the station bill required by § 185.514 of this part. (b) Training conducted on a...

  20. Distinct PKA and Epac compartmentalization in airway function and plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Racke, Kurt; Schmidt, Martina

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are obstructive lung diseases characterized by airway obstruction, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Next to inflammatory cells and airway epithelial cells, airway mesenchymal cells, including airway smooth muscle cells and (myo)fibro

  1. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...... pressure, noninvasive ventilation and physiotherapy....

  2. Advances in prehospital airway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Pe; Grabinsky, A

    2014-01-01

    Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts.

  3. Specific exercise training for reducing neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flight-related neck/shoulder pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew members. With a lifetime prevalence of 81 % for pilots and 84 % for crew members, the prevalence of neck pain is considered high compared to the general population. The aim of this study...... was to investigate whether a specifically tailored exercise intervention would reduce the prevalence and incidence rate of neck/shoulder pain among helicopter pilots and crew members. METHOD: This study used a prospective, parallel group, single blinded, randomized controlled design. Participants were military...... status at enrollment, and 3) operational flying within the previous 6 months. Primary outcome was change in neck and shoulder pain assessed by 1) a modified version of the "Standardized Nordic questionnaire for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms" and by 2) pressure pain threshold measurements...

  4. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck tests cushion outside the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch. Hauck, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, tumbles out CCT side hatch onto cushion as technicians look on. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  5. Upper airway imaging and its role in preoperative airway evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish G Sutagatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography (USG is well-known as a fast, safe, and noninvasive technique. Its application for imaging of the airway is now gaining momentum. The upper airway has a complex anatomy, and its assessment forms a vital part of every preanesthetic evaluation. Ultrasound (US imaging can help in upper airway assessment in the preoperative period. There are various approaches to upper airway USG. The technique has its own advantages, disadvantages, and limitations. This simple yet challenging imaging technique is all set to become an important part of routine preoperative airway evaluation. This article reviews the various approaches to upper airway US imaging, interpretation of the images, limitations, and disadvantages of the technique and its varied clinical applications in the preoperative period. The scientific material presented here was hand searched from textbooks and journals, electronically from PubMed, and Google scholar using text words.

  6. Relationship between airway pathophysiology and airway inflammation in older asthmatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsbjerg, Celeste M; Gibson, Peter G; Pretto, Jeffrey J;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Asthma-related morbidity is greater in older compared with younger asthmatics. Airway closure is also greater in older asthmatics, an observation that may be explained by differences in airway inflammation. We hypothesized that in older adult patients with asthma......: Mean patient age was 67 years (confidence interval: 63-71) with a mean FEV1 of 78 % predicted (confidence interval: 70-85%). AHR correlated with sputum eosinophils (r = 0.68, P = 0.005) and eNO (r = 0.71, P ... or eNO. CONCLUSIONS: In older patients with asthma, airway inflammatory cells are linked to abnormal airway physiology. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is associated with AHR while neutrophilic inflammation may be an important determinant of airflow limitation at rest and airway closure during...

  7. Integrated care pathways for airway diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Addis, A; Adcock, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of Integrated Care Pathways for Airway Diseases (AIRWAYS-ICPs) is to launch a collaboration to develop multi-sectoral care pathways for chronic respiratory diseases in European countries and regions. AIRWAYS-ICPs has strategic relevance to the European Union Health Strategy....... AIRWAYSICPs was initiated by Area 5 of the Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing. All stakeholders are involved (health and social care, patients, and policy makers)....

  8. Biomarkers in Airway Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M Leung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The inherent limitations of spirometry and clinical history have prompted clinicians and scientists to search for surrogate markers of airway diseases. Although few biomarkers have been widely accepted into the clinical armamentarium, the authors explore three sources of biomarkers that have shown promise as indicators of disease severity and treatment response. In asthma, exhaled nitric oxide measurements can predict steroid responsiveness and sputum eosinophil counts have been used to titrate anti-inflammatory therapies. In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory plasma biomarkers, such as fibrinogen, club cell secretory protein-16 and surfactant protein D, can denote greater severity and predict the risk of exacerbations. While the multitude of disease phenotypes in respiratory medicine make biomarker development especially challenging, these three may soon play key roles in the diagnosis and management of airway diseases.

  9. Ultrasound of the airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kundra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the role of ultrasound (US in anaesthesia-related airway assessment and procedural interventions is encouraging, though it is still ill defined. US can visualise anatomical structures in the supraglottic, glottic and subglottic regions. The floor of the mouth can be visualised by both transcutaneous view of the neck and also by transoral or sublinguial views. However, imaging the epiglottis can be challenging as it is suspended in air. US may detect signs suggestive of difficult intubation, but the data are limited. Other possible applications in airway management include confirmation of correct endotracheal tube placement, prediction of post-extubation stridor, evaluation of soft tissue masses in the neck prior to intubation, assessment of subglottic diameter for determination of paediatric endotracheal tube size and percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy. With development of better probes, high-resolution imaging, real-time picture and clinical experience, US has become the potential first-line noninvasive airway assessment tool in anaesthesia and intensive care practice.

  10. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document with its sister documents, Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes (CCT-PLN-1120), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), and Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT-STD-1150), and International Space Station (ISS) to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase of the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP).

  11. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi En Cheng

    Full Text Available The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  12. Flying insects and Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Skovgård, Henrik

    to broiler houses may be counted in thousands per broiler rotation during summer periods, even a low prevalence of Campylobacter positive flies constitute a risk of introduction of Campylobacter to the chickens. M. domestica – the house fly is the most important vector fly for Campylobacter transmission...... organisms, which may collect on their bodies or survive passage through the fly gut. Campylobacter and other pathogens are then easily transferred to other surfaces, for instance peoples food – or to broiler houses where they may be swallowed by chickens or contaminate the environment. On a large material...... of several species of flies collected outside broiler houses, merely ~1% of the flies were found Campylobacter positive. However, the prevalence varied considerably with fly species, time of the year, and availability of Campylobacter sources. Influx of flies to broiler houses As the influx of flies...

  13. Anticholinergic treatment in airways diseases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, Robert A

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of chronic airways diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma is increasing. They lead to symptoms such as a cough and shortness of breath, partially through bronchoconstriction. Inhaled anticholinergics are one of a number of treatments designed to treat bronchoconstriction in airways disease. Both short-acting and long-acting agents are now available and this review highlights their efficacy and adverse event profile in chronic airways diseases.

  14. Airway epithelium is a predominant source of endogenous airway GABA and contributes to relaxation of airway smooth muscle tone

    OpenAIRE

    Gallos, George; Townsend, Elizabeth; Yim, Peter; Virag, Laszlo; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Dingbang; Bacchetta, Matthew; Emala, Charles W.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma are characterized by hyperreactive airway responses that predispose patients to episodes of acute airway constriction. Recent studies suggest a complex paradigm of GABAergic signaling in airways that involves GABA-mediated relaxation of airway smooth muscle. However, the cellular source of airway GABA and mechanisms regulating its release remain unknown. We questioned whether epithelium is a major source of GABA in the airway and whether the ab...

  15. Pharmacology of airway smooth muscle proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinoud; Roscioni, Sara S.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Pera, Tonio; Schmidt, Martina; Schaafsma, Dedmer; Zaagsma, Johan; Meurs, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle thickening is a pathological feature that contributes significantly to airflow limitation and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Ongoing research efforts aimed at identifying the mechanisms responsible for the increased airway smooth muscle mass have indicated that hyperplasi

  16. Cholinergic regulation of airway inflammation and remodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolahian, Saeed; Gosens, Reinoud

    2012-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the predominant parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airways that regulates bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. Recent findings suggest that acetylcholine regulates additional functions in the airways, including inflammation and remodelling during inflammatory airway disease

  17. STS-65 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crew insignia (logo), the Official insignia of the NASA STS-65 International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission. Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-65 insignia features the IML-2 mission and its Spacelab module which will fly aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. IML-2 is reflected in the emblem by two gold stars shooting toward the heavens behind the IML lettering. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted orbiting the logo and reaching off into space, with Spacelab on an international quest for a better understanding of the effects of space flight on materials processing and life sciences. The STS-65 flight crewmembers are Commander Robert D. Cabana, Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, MS Carl E. Walz, MS Leroy Chiao, MS Donald A. Thomas, and Japanese Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai.

  18. Various Lifestyle Factors of Flight Crew Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Various Lifestyle Factors of Flight Crew Members The main aim of the research was to analyze certain lifestyle factors of flight crew members. This profession has rather high demands relating to body type, basic skills, as well as good mental and physical condition. The sample of respondents included 76 members of the Adria Airways d. d. cabin crew (19.7% men and 80.3% women with the average age of 30.3 years (SD = 9.88, most of them (74.1% finished high school and only one third had a full-time work contract. Using a questionnaire, we investigated the amount of exercise they get during work and in their free time, as well as their health conditions. Results show that in their free time most of the respondents participate in sports, with outdoor sports being the most popular form of exercise (running and walking, hiking, skiing, and swimming. The respondents spend most of their time at work standing up (18.4% and walking (27.6%. Many of them (35% find that they have to maintain postures that are uncomfortable. Most of them experience a combination of all the above. Most (38.2% do sports at least twice a week, and as many as 84.2% 3 to 5 times a week. Only 4% of the respondents participate in sports activities organized by their employer. Most (77.6% believe themselves to be in good health and only 6.6% believe themselves to be often under stress. Relatively many smoke. Among health problems, the highest percentage (46.1% of respondents list fatigue, followed by back pain (34.2% and neck pain (30.3%. Considering the characteristics of this profession, we recommend cabin crew members do aerobic exercise as well as more complex and preventative sport exercises intended to prevent back pain, and also to do more exercises for strength, core stability and flexibility. Různé faktory životního stylu členů letové posádky Hlavním cílem výzkumu bylo analyzovat některé faktory životního stylu členů letových posádek. Tato profese klade

  19. STS-114: Crew Interviews 1. Andy Thomas 2. Steve Robinson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    STS-114 Mission Specialists, Andy Thomas and Steve Robinson, are seen in this pre-flight interview. Andy Thomas begins by talking about his interest in spaceflight as a young boy growing up in Australia. He expresses that the chances of an Australian boy studying to eventually become an astronaut was very remote. His Mechanical Engineering Degree in Australia and a Doctorate enabled him to acquire unique skills to come to the United States to work for Lockheed Martin. On the topic of return to flight, he reflects on experiences that he had working with the Michael Anderson and Kalpana Chawla of the ill-fated Space Shuttle Columbia. He also talks about the safety of the Space Shuttle Discovery and repairs to its Thermal Protection system. He explains in detail the Logistics Flight (LF) 1, spacewalks, Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) and the External Stowage Platform (ESP)-2. Steve Robinson expresses that he had many interests as a child and becoming an astronaut was one of them. He was fascinated with things that fly and wanted to find out how they flew. He also designed hang gliders as a teenager. He expresses how his family feels about the risky business of spaceflight. He talks about how the space shuttle discovery crew will remember the Columbia crew by including seven stars on their patch so that they can bring them into orbit and then back home. Robinson also talks about his primary job, and the spacewalks that he and Soichi Noguchi will be performing.

  20. Crew Management in Passenger Rail Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.W. Abbink (Erwin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ Crew management in passenger rail transport is an important factor that contributes to both the quality of service to the railway passengers and to the operational costs of the train operating company. This thesis describes how the (railway) Crew Management process can be i

  1. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  2. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  3. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Ashby

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Commander Jeffrey Ashby is seen during this preflight interview, answering questions about his inspiration in becoming an astronaut and his career path and provides an overview of the mission. Ashby outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S1 truss) and the importance that the S1 truss will have in the development of the International Space Station (ISS). Ashby discusses the delivery and installation of the S1 truss scheduled to be done in the planned EVAs in some detail. He touches on the use and operation of the Canadarm 2 robotic arm in this process and outlines what supplies will be exchanged with the resident crew of the ISS during transfer activities. He ends with his thoughts on the value of the ISS in fostering international cooperation.

  4. Biomedical Wireless Ambulatory Crew Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.

  5. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Yurchikhin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.

  6. Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, P.; Sporring, J.; Ashraf, H.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. This is in contrast to previous works that use either intensity alone or hand crafted models of airway appearance. We show that the appearance model can be trained with a set of easily acquired, incomplete, airway tree segmentations. A vessel orientation...

  7. Group interaction and flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, H. Clayton; Helmreich, Robert L.

    1988-01-01

    The application of human-factors analysis to the performance of aircraft-operation tasks by the crew as a group is discussed in an introductory review and illustrated with anecdotal material. Topics addressed include the function of a group in the operational environment, the classification of group performance factors (input, process, and output parameters), input variables and the flight crew process, and the effect of process variables on performance. Consideration is given to aviation safety issues, techniques for altering group norms, ways of increasing crew effort and coordination, and the optimization of group composition.

  8. Airway complications after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuzak, Michael; Santacruz, Jose F; Gildea, Thomas; Murthy, Sudish C

    2015-01-01

    Airway complications after lung transplantation present a formidable challenge to the lung transplant team, ranging from mere unusual images to fatal events. The exact incidence of complications is wide-ranging depending on the type of event, and there is still evolution of a universal characterization of the airway findings. Management is also wide-ranging. Simple observation or simple balloon bronchoplasty is sufficient in many cases, but vigilance following more severe necrosis is required for late development of both anastomotic and nonanastomotic airway strictures. Furthermore, the impact of coexisting infection, rejection, and medical disease associated with high-level immunosuppression further complicates care.

  9. Airway vascular reactivity and vascularisation in human chronic airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Simon R; Boustany, Sarah; Burgess, Janette K; Hirst, Stuart J; Sharma, Hari S; Simcock, David E; Suravaram, Padmini R; Weckmann, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Altered bronchial vascular reactivity and remodelling including angiogenesis are documented features of asthma and other chronic inflammatory airway diseases. Expansion of the bronchial vasculature under these conditions involves both functional (vasodilation, hyperperfusion, increased microvascular

  10. Fly ash carbon passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  11. Airway Epithelium Stimulates Smooth Muscle Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Malavia, Nikita K.; Raub, Christopher B.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Reynold A Panettieri; George, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Communication between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding and increased smooth muscle proliferation are features of airway remodeling. Hence, we hypothesized that after injury the airway epithelium could modulate airway smooth muscle proliferation. Fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at an air–liquid interface were co-cultured with serum-deprived normal primary human airway smooth muscle cells (...

  12. Airway management and morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael S

    2010-01-01

    Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper...... in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based...... solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more...

  13. Crew Autonomy Measures and Models (CAMM) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SA Technologies will employ a two-part solution including measures and models for evaluating crew autonomy in exploratory space missions. An integrated measurement...

  14. Flight Crew State Monitoring Metrics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — eSky will develop specific crew state metrics based on the timeliness, tempo and accuracy of pilot inputs required by the H-mode Flight Control System (HFCS)....

  15. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  16. Methodology and algorithms for railway crew management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, R.; Gomide, F. [State Univ. of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Lagrimante, R. [MRS Logistica S.A, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    Crew management problems are highly important for many transportation systems such as airlines, railways and public bus transportation. Despite recent advances, scheduling methodologies and decision support systems still need improvement, especially their computational efficiency, practical feasibility and use. This paper briefly overview classic crew management approaches. It discusses various practical issues concerning classic methods and suggests a new approach and algorithms. Computational results and experience with actual data and real world situations are also reported. (orig.)

  17. STS-47 Astronaut Crew Training Clip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The crew of STS-47, Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Payload Commander Mark C. Lee, Mission Specialists N. Jan Davis, Jay Apt, and Mae C. Jemison, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, is seen during various parts of their training, including SAREX training in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT), firefighting training. A familiarization flight in the KC-135, a food tasting, photo training in the Crew Compartment Trainer, and bailout training in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) are also shown.

  18. 20 CFR 404.1010 - Farm crew leader as employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm crew leader as employer. 404.1010....1010 Farm crew leader as employer. A farm crew leader furnishes workers to do agricultural labor for another person, usually a farm operator. If the crew leader pays the workers (the money can be the...

  19. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  20. A new removable airway stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Amundsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant airway obstruction is a feared complication and will most probably occur more frequently in the future because of increasing cancer incidence and increased life expectancy in cancer patients. Minimal invasive treatment using airway stents represents a meaningful and life-saving palliation. We present a new removable airway stent for improved individualised treatment. Methods: To our knowledge, the new airway stent is the world's first knitted and uncovered self-expanding metal stent, which can unravel and be completely removed. In an in vivo model using two anaesthetised and spontaneously breathing pigs, we deployed and subsequently removed the stents by unravelling the device. The procedures were executed by flexible bronchoscopy in an acute and a chronic setting – a ‘proof-of-principle’ study. Results: The new stent was easily and accurately deployed in the central airways, and it remained fixed in its original position. It was easy to unravel and completely remove from the airways without clinically significant complications. During the presence of the stent in the chronic study, granulation tissue was induced. This tissue disappeared spontaneously with the removal. Conclusions: The new removable stent functioned according to its purpose and unravelled easily, and it was completely removed without significant technical or medical complications. Induced granulation tissue disappeared spontaneously. Further studies on animals and humans are needed to define its optimal indications and future use.

  1. Crew-Aided Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Greg N.

    2015-01-01

    A sextant provides manual capability to perform star/planet-limb sightings and offers a cheap, simple, robust backup navigation source for exploration missions independent from the ground. Sextant sightings from spacecraft were first exercised in Gemini and flew as the lost-communication backup for all Apollo missions. This study characterized error sources of navigation-grade sextants for feasibility of taking star and planetary limb sightings from inside a spacecraft. A series of similar studies was performed in the early/mid-1960s in preparation for Apollo missions. This study modernized and updated those findings in addition to showing feasibility using Linear Covariance analysis techniques. The human eyeball is a remarkable piece of optical equipment and provides many advantages over camera-based systems, including dynamic range and detail resolution. This technique utilizes those advantages and provides important autonomy to the crew in the event of lost communication with the ground. It can also provide confidence and verification of low-TRL automated onboard systems. The technique is extremely flexible and is not dependent on any particular vehicle type. The investigation involved procuring navigation-grade sextants and characterizing their performance under a variety of conditions encountered in exploration missions. The JSC optical sensor lab and Orion mockup were the primary testing locations. For the accuracy assessment, a group of test subjects took sextant readings on calibrated targets while instrument/operator precision was measured. The study demonstrated repeatability of star/planet-limb sightings with bias and standard deviation around 10 arcseconds, then used high-fidelity simulations to verify those accuracy levels met the needs for targeting mid-course maneuvers in preparation for Earth reen.

  2. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. This is in contrast to previous works that use either intensity alone or hand crafted models of airway appearance. We show that the appearance model can be trained with a set of easily acquired, incomplete, airway tree segmentations. A vessel orientation...... similarity measure is introduced, which indicates how similar the orientation of an airway candidate is to the orientation of the neighboring vessel. We use this vessel orientation similarity measure to overcome regions in the airway tree that have a low response from the appearance model. The proposed...

  3. Analysis of airways in computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is major cause of death and disability world-wide. It affects lung function through destruction of lung tissue known as emphysema and inflammation of airways, leading to thickened airway walls and narrowed airway lumen. Computed Tomography (CT) imaging...... have become the standard with which to assess emphysema extent but airway abnormalities have so far been more challenging to quantify. Automated methods for analysis are indispensable as the visible airway tree in a CT scan can include several hundreds of individual branches. However, automation...... of scan on airway dimensions in subjects with and without COPD. The results show measured airway dimensions to be affected by differences in the level of inspiration and this dependency is again influenced by COPD. Inspiration level should therefore be accounted for when measuring airways, and airway...

  4. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  5. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  6. Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.

    2013-09-01

    To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems ORAPWindª (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREWs reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.

  7. Treating asthma means treating airway smooth muscle cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuyderduyn, S; Sukkar, M B; Fust, A; Dhaliwal, S; Burgess, J K

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is characterised by airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and airway remodelling. Airway smooth muscle cells are known to be the main effector cells of airway narrowing. In the present paper, studies will be discussed that have led to a novel view of the role of airway smooth muscle

  8. Space shuttle crew training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    From 13 to 16 October, the crew of NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-134 came to CERN for a special physics training programme. Invited here by Samuel Ting, they will deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector to the International Space Station (ISS).   The STS134 crew in the Lodge at the Aiguille du Midi wearing CERN fleeces. From left to right: Captain Mark Kelly, US Navy; Pilot Gregory Johnson, USAF ret.; Mission Specialist Andrew Feustel; Mission Specialist Mike Fincke, USAF, Mission Specialist Gregory Chamitoff and Mission Specialist Roberto Vittori, ESA and Italian Air Force. Headed by Commander Mark Kelly, a US Navy captain, the crew included pilot Gregory Johnson, a US Air Force (USAF) colonel, and mission specialists Mike Fincke (also a USAF Colonel), Andrew Feustel, and Gregory Chamitoff of NASA, as well as Colonel Roberto Vittori of the European Space Agency (ESA). Two flight directors, Gary Horlache and Derek Hassmann of NASA, and the engineer responsible for the Ext...

  9. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the outcome of the NESC assessment. NASA/TM-2013-217380, "Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events." supercedes this document.

  10. Multiscale Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2009-01-01

    that is trained to differentiate between airway and non-airway voxels. Vessel and airway orientation information are used in the form of a vessel orientation similarity measure, which indicates how similar the orientation of the an airway candidate is to the orientation of the neighboring vessel. The method...... is evaluated within EXACT’09 on a diverse set of CT scans. Results show a favorable combination of a relatively large portion of the tree detected correctly with very few false positives....

  11. Pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics and airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Ian P

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The availability of a draft sequence for the human genome will revolutionise research into airway disease. This review deals with two of the most important areas impinging on the treatment of patients: pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Considerable inter-individual variation exists at the DNA level in targets for medication, and variability in response to treatment may, in part, be determined by this genetic variation. Increased knowledge about the human genome might also permit the identification of novel therapeutic targets by expression profiling at the RNA (genomics or protein (proteomics level. This review describes recent advances in pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics with regard to airway disease.

  12. STS-129 shuttle crew visits Stennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the STS-129 space shuttle crew visited NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 19 to share details of their November visit to the International Space Station. During their 11-day mission aboard shuttle Atlantis, crew members delivered equipment, supplies and spare parts to the ISS. Following their mission report, astronauts visited with Stennis employees during a brief reception. Astronauts visiting Stennis were Pilot Barry Wilmore, Mission Specialist Randy Bresnik, Commander Charles Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Mike Foreman and Robert Satcher.

  13. Functional phenotype of airway myocytes from asthmatic airways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, David B.; Trian, Thomas; Siddiqui, Sana; Pascoe, Chris D.; Ojo, Oluwaseun O.; Johnson, Jill R.; Dekkers, Bart G. J.; Dakshinamurti, Shyamala; Bagchi, Rushita; Burgess, Janette K.; Kanabar, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    In asthma, the airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell plays a central role in disease pathogenesis through cellular changes which may impact on its microenvironment and alter ASM response and function. The answer to the long debated question of what makes a 'healthy' ASM cell become 'asthmatic' still remai

  14. Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: Adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Chang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short-term exposure to high concentrations of ozone has been shown to increase airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR. Because the changes in AHR and airway inflammation and structure after chronic ozone exposure need to be determined, the goal of this study was to investigate these effects in a murine model of allergic airway disease. Methods We exposed BALB/c mice to 2 ppm ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We measured the enhanced pause (Penh to methacholine and performed cell differentials in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. We quantified the levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ in the supernatants of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids using enzyme immunoassays, and examined the airway architecture under light and electron microscopy. Results The groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks demonstrated decreased Penh at methacholine concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml, with a dose-response curve to the right of that for the filtered-air group. Neutrophils and eosinophils increased in the group exposed to ozone for 4 weeks compared to those in the filtered-air group. The ratio of IL-4 to INF-γ increased significantly after exposure to ozone for 8 and 12 weeks compared to the ratio for the filtered-air group. The numbers of goblet cells, myofibroblasts, and smooth muscle cells showed time-dependent increases in lung tissue sections from the groups exposed to ozone for 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the increase in AHR associated with the allergic airway does not persist during chronic ozone exposure, indicating that airway remodeling and adaptation following repeated exposure to air pollutants can provide protection against AHR.

  15. Flying in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Procházka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying all over the world is very challenging and demanding. Although ICAO is covering every specific detail by rules, there are some personal experiences which cannot be substituted. Some of them are point out in the article.

  16. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of

  17. Incidence of unanticipated difficult airway using an objective airway score versus a standard clinical airway assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Anders Kehlet; Rosenstock, Charlotte Valentin; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    the examination and registration of predictors for difficult mask ventilation with a non-specified clinical airway assessment on prediction of difficult mask ventilation.Method/Design: We cluster-randomized 28 Danish departments of anaesthesia to airway assessment either by the SARI or by usual non...... reduction equalling a number needed to treat of 180. Sample size estimation is adjusted for the study design and based on standards for randomization on cluster-level. With an average cluster size of 2,500 patients, 70,000 patients will be enrolled over a 1-year trial period. The database is programmed so...

  18. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  19. Vessel-guided Airway Tree Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, P.; Sporring, J.; Ashraf, H.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... method is evaluated on 250 low dose computed tomography images from a lung cancer screening trial. Our experiments showed that applying the region growing algorithm on the airway appearance model produces more complete airway segmentations, leading to on average 20% longer trees, and 50% less leakage...

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease and airway diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutcovici, Maria; Brassard, Paul; Bitton, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Airway diseases are the most commonly described lung manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the similarities in disease pathogenesis and the sharing of important environmental risk factors and genetic susceptibility suggest that there is a complex interplay between IBD and airway diseases. Recent evidence of IBD occurrence among patients with airway diseases and the higher than estimated prevalence of subclinical airway injuries among IBD patients support the hypothesis of a two-way association. Future research efforts should be directed toward further exploration of this association, as airway diseases are highly prevalent conditions with a substantial public health impact. PMID:27678355

  1. The Lung Microbiome and Airway Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Susan V

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has demonstrated relationships between the composition of the airway microbiota (mixed-species communities of microbes that exist in the respiratory tract) and critical features of immune response and pulmonary function. These studies provide evidence that airway inflammatory status and capacity for repair are coassociated with specific taxonomic features of the airway microbiome. Although directionality has yet to be established, the fact that microbes are known drivers of inflammation and tissue damage suggests that in the context of chronic inflammatory airway disease, the composition and, more importantly, the function, of the pulmonary microbiome represent critical factors in defining airway disease outcomes.

  2. Mucus hypersecretion in the airway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ke; WEN Fu-qiang; XU Dan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Mucus hypersecretion is a distinguishing feature of Chronic intlammation diseases,such as asthma,1chronic bronchitis.2 bronchiectasis3 and cystic fibrosis.4Mucus hypersecretion leads to impairment of mucociliary clearance,abnormal bacterial plantation,mucus plug in the airway,and dysfunction of gas exchange.5

  3. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volum...

  4. Airway nerves: in vitro electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alyson

    2002-06-01

    Recording the activity of single airway sensory fibres or neuronal cell bodies in vitro has allowed detailed characterisation of fibre types and membrane properties. Fibre types can be identified by their conduction velocities and further studied by the application of drugs to their receptive field. C-fibres are sensitive to mechanical stimuli and a range of irritant chemicals (bradykinin, capsaicin, low pH, platelet-activating factor), whereas Adelta-fibres are relatively insensitive to chemical stimuli and appear to correlate to the rapidly adapting receptors identified in airways in vivo. Their site of origin also differs: upper airway C-fibres arise predominantly from the jugular ganglion and Adelta-fibres from the jugular and nodose ganglia. Intracellular recording from cell bodies in the ganglia has revealed a calcium-dependent potassium current common to many putative C-fibre cell bodies. This slow after hyperpolarisation current may be inhibited by stimuli that excite and sensitise C-fibres - this could be an important mechanism underlying the sensitisation of C-fibres in airway irritability.

  5. Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L.; Thomas, Rayelle E. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria contains descriptions of technical, safety, and crew health medical processes and specifications, and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of the Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  6. Multifunctional Coating for Crew Cabin Surfaces and Fabrics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's crewed spacecrafts require routine cleaning of particulate, moisture, organic, and salt contaminants on the crew cabin surfaces and fabrics. Self-cleaning...

  7. Cosmic radiation exposure at aircraft crew workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latocha, M.; Beck, P.; Rollet, S. [ARC Seibersdorf Research, Seibersdorf (Austria); Latocha, M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    E.U.R.A.D.O.S. working group W.G.5. on air crew dosimetry coordinated research of some 24 international institutes to exchange experimental data and results of calculations of the radiation exposure in aircraft altitudes due to cosmic radiation. The purpose was to provide a data-set for all European Union Member States for the assessment of individual doses, the validity of different approaches, and to provide an input to technical recommendations by the Article 31 group of experts and the European Commission. The results of this work have been recently published and are available for the international community. The radiation protection quantity of interest is effective dose, E (ISO), but the comparison of measurement results and the results of calculations, is done in terms of the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent, H{sup *}(10). This paper gives an overview of the E.U.R.A.D.O.S. Aircraft Crew In-Flight Database which was implemented under the responsibility of A.R.C. Seibersdorf research. It discusses calculation models for air crew dose assessment comparing them with measurements contained in this database. Further it presents current developments using updated information of galactic cosmic radiation proton spectra and new results of the recently finalized European research project D.O.S.M.A.X. on dosimetry of aircraft crew at solar maximum. (authors)

  8. COMMUNICATION PROBLEMS IN A MIXED CREW ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ASTRATINEI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shipping has become a highly international and multicultural industry due to a globalised labour market of seafarers. About two thirds of the world`s merchant fleets, are manned by a mixed crew, which may include two to three different nationalities. The common language used on board ship is English. So the crewmembers must have a good command of this language. 80% of all maritime accidents are, according to incident reports, caused by human error i.e. negligence, fatigue, incompetence or communication breakdown. Another factor that may affect the safety of crew and cargo is the cultural differences within the mixed nationality crews which, if not appeased in time, may lead to very serious conflicts. This paper proposes to analyse some characteristics of the Asian culture and traditions and suggest some ways of improving the professional relationship among multinational crew members by making them aware of their shipmates identities. A questionnaire, which we intend to use as a research tool, will be provided and explained.

  9. Integrated and Dynamic Vehicle and Crew Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDue to increased competition in the public transport market and the pressure on governments to cut expenses, increasing attention has been paid to cost reductions in public transportation. Since the main resources used in public transportation are vehicles and crews, producing efficient

  10. 19 CFR 122.45 - Crew list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew list. 122.45 Section 122.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  11. Sarcoidosis of the upper and lower airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Teirstein, Alvin S

    2011-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease. It is one of a few interstitial lung diseases that affects the entire length of the respiratory tract - from the nose to the terminal bronchioles - and causes a broad spectrum of airways dysfunction. This article examines airway dysfunction in sarcoidosis. The anatomical structure of the airways is the organizational framework for our discussion. We discuss sarcoidosis involving the nose, sinuses, nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi and small airways. Common complications of airways disease, such as, atelectasis, fibrosis, bullous leions, bronchiectasis, cavitary lesions and mycetomas, are also reviewed.

  12. Airway remodeling in asthma: what really matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrenbach, Heinz; Wagner, Christina; Wegmann, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Airway remodeling is generally quite broadly defined as any change in composition, distribution, thickness, mass or volume and/or number of structural components observed in the airway wall of patients relative to healthy individuals. However, two types of airway remodeling should be distinguished more clearly: (1) physiological airway remodeling, which encompasses structural changes that occur regularly during normal lung development and growth leading to a normal mature airway wall or as an acute and transient response to injury and/or inflammation, which ultimately results in restoration of a normal airway structures; and (2) pathological airway remodeling, which comprises those structural alterations that occur as a result of either disturbed lung development or as a response to chronic injury and/or inflammation leading to persistently altered airway wall structures and function. This review will address a few major aspects: (1) what are reliable quantitative approaches to assess airway remodeling? (2) Are there any indications supporting the notion that airway remodeling can occur as a primary event, i.e., before any inflammatory process was initiated? (3) What is known about airway remodeling being a secondary event to inflammation? And (4), what can we learn from the different animal models ranging from invertebrate to primate models in the study of airway remodeling? Future studies are required addressing particularly pheno-/endotype-specific aspects of airway remodeling using both endotype-specific animal models and "endotyped" human asthmatics. Hopefully, novel in vivo imaging techniques will be further advanced to allow monitoring development, growth and inflammation of the airways already at a very early stage in life.

  13. 26 CFR 31.3121(o)-1 - Crew leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew leader. 31.3121(o)-1 Section 31.3121(o)-1... Contributions Act (Chapter 21, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) General Provisions § 31.3121(o)-1 Crew leader. The term “crew leader” means an individual who furnishes individuals to perform agricultural labor...

  14. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David M.;

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  15. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David M.; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    2010-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  16. Subsequence Generation for the Airline Crew Pairing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Lusby, Richard Martin; Ryan, David;

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  17. 14 CFR 27.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are not convenient to the flight crew, there must be flight crew emergency exits, on both sides of the rotorcraft...

  18. 14 CFR 29.805 - Flight crew emergency exits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.805 Flight crew emergency exits. (a) For rotorcraft with passenger emergency exits that are... rotorcraft or as a top hatch, in the flight crew area. (b) Each flight crew emergency exit must be...

  19. Solving the Airline Crew Pairing Problem using Subsequence Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Ryan, David; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    2009-01-01

    Good and fast solutions to the airline crew pairing problem are highly interesting for the airline industry, as crew costs are the biggest expenditure after fuel for an airline. The crew pairing problem is typically modelled as a set partitioning problem and solved by column generation. However...

  20. 14 CFR 121.385 - Composition of flight crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 121.385 Section... Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an airplane with less than the minimum flight crew in the airworthiness certificate or the airplane Flight Manual approved for that...

  1. Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Gangs and Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Edward M.; Wishard, Alison; Gallimore, Ronald; Rivera, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Controversies around definitions and perceptions of gangs are heightened by the scarcity of research on crews. In an open-ended interview, 77 Latino 10th graders from a random longitudinal sample provided information about gangs and crews. Although less than 10% reported having been in gangs or crews, 84% reported having personal contact with…

  2. Crew Scheduling Considering both Crew Duty Time Difference and Cost on Urban Rail System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenliang Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban rail crew scheduling problem is to allocate train services to crews based on a given train timetable while satisfying all the operational and contractual requirements. In this paper, we present a new mathematical programming model with the aim of minimizing both the related costs of crew duty and the variance of duty time spreads. In addition to iincorporating the commonly encountered crew scheduling constraints, it also takes into consideration the constraint of arranging crews having a meal in the specific meal period of one day rather than after a minimum continual service time. The proposed model is solved by an ant colony algorithm which is built based on the construction of ant travel network and the design of ant travel path choosing strategy. The performances of the model and the algorithm are evaluated by conducting case study on Changsha urban rail. The results indicate that the proposed method can obtain a satisfactory crew schedule for urban rails with a relatively small computational time.

  3. 19 CFR 122.75b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for crew members... THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Documents Required for Clearance and Permission To Depart; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  4. 19 CFR 122.49b - Electronic manifest requirement for crew members and non-crew members onboard commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for crew members... HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard...

  5. Periodontal diseases in military aviation crew: A pilot study in armed forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Thankappan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent literature suggests psychosomatic and occupational stresses have a bearing on the etiology of periodontitis. The aviation field is a high-risk environment and rich in potential stresses which can be potent environmental factors. The purpose of this pilot study was to clinically evaluate the incidence of periodontitis amongst military aviators and its management on the health-related quality of life recovery. Materials and Methods : A total of 252 individuals were examined, equally divided into ground duty and flying groups. In addition to standard parameters, the clinical attachment loss (CAL was estimated according to a three-point scale. Stress factor was evaluated as per short form of Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ. Numbers of visits after diagnosis, limitation from flying tasks due to the acute phase of disease and during treatment were recorded. The subjects who presented with active phases of disease were taken up for surgical mode of treatment. Results: Out of 252 individuals examined in this study, active periodontitis was found in 7.9% of the total population. Group 1 and 2 subjects presented an incidence rate of 5.6 and 10.3%, respectively. Among the aviators, 12.2% of the helicopter crews, 10.3% of fighter pilots, and 8.9% of the transport crews showed active form of periodontal diseases during routine annual medical examination. Ten cases presented limitation from flying due to acute phase of disease. Conclusions : Periodontitis causes early teeth loss and compromises the quality of life. It is mandatory for quick recovery and return to professional activities in the aviators. The annual medical checkup must include a thorough check up by a dental officer/periodontist and assessment with an appropriate radiograph once in every 3years advised. The screening examination used is suggested for use as part of each aviator′s annual dental examination.

  6. A NASA Perspective on Maintenance Activities and Maintenance Crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth Tim

    2007-01-01

    Proactive consideration of ground crew factors enhances the designs of space vehicles and vehicle safety by: (1) Reducing the risk of undetected ground crew errors and collateral damage that compromise vehicle reliability and flight safety (2) Ensuring compatibility of specific vehicle to ground system interfaces (3) Optimizing ground systems. During ground processing and launch operations, public safety, flight crew safety, ground crew safety, and the safety of high-value spacecraft are inter-related. For extended Exploration missions, surface crews perform functions that merge traditional flight and ground operations.

  7. Helicopter crew/passenger vibration sensitivity -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, R.; Reed, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Helicopter crew and passenger vibration sensitivity are presented. Pilot subjective ratings are established for discrete frequencies and the impact of combinations of harmonic frequencies is examined. A passenger long term comfort level and a short term limit are defined for discrete frequencies and compared with pilot ratings. The results show reasonable agreement between pilot and passenger. Subjective comfort levels obtained for mixed frequency environments clearly demonstrate the need for a multi-frequency criterion.

  8. The Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Justesen, Tor

    In the Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem (HCCSP) a staff of caretakers has to be assigned a number of visits, such that the total number of assigned visits is maximised. The visits have different locations and positions in time, and travelling time and time windows must be respected. The challenge...... clustering of the visits based on the problem structure. The algorithm is tested on real-life problem instances and we obtain solutions that are better than current practice in all cases....

  9. Crew goal setting for security control

    OpenAIRE

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Hofer, Franziska; Jonas, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness of simple goal setting in airport security control. As outcome, crew performance in terms of productivity (Experiment 1, field setting) was studied. Furthermore, the moderating role of negative and positive priming due to a previous task on the impact of goals (Experiment 2, laboratory setting) was analyzed. This research builds a bridge from goal setting theory to practice and prepares the grounds for its application in se...

  10. ANALYSIS OF FLYING BIKE

    OpenAIRE

    Momin Irfan Ali Nasir Husain *1, Shah mohd. Rafique rahmatullah *2, Naumanulhaq Barkatullah Shaikh *3, Khatib Mohd. Azimuddin Najimuddin *4, Ansari Mohammad Naasir Shamsudduha *5, Ansari Mohammad Parvez Abdul Qayyum*6, Momin Mohammad Rayyan Mohammad Shakeel*7, Ansari Peer Mohammed Munna *8, Prof. Mohd. Musharraf Aamir

    2016-01-01

    Flying Bike vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) type machine which also follows Newton’s third law. It is thought of as a conventional type of aircraft with special features added to enable it to rise vertically during take-off and to land from a vertical descent.  It flies with two propellers located at front and back side. These propellers are having hovering abilities. The vehicle is controlled by tilting the propellers by using lever mechanism. Rotation is carried out by diffe...

  11. Airway injury during emergency transcutaneous airway access: a comparison at cricothyroid and tracheal sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Salah, Nazar

    2009-12-01

    Oxygenation via the cricothyroid membrane (CTM) may be required in emergencies, but inadvertent tracheal cannulation may occur. In this study, we compared airway injury between the tracheal and CTM sites using different techniques for airway access.

  12. Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Parazynski, Scott; Kelly, Scott; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.

    2007-01-01

    Airway management techniques are necessary to establish and maintain a patent airway while treating a patient undergoing respiratory distress. There are situations where such settings are suboptimal, thus causing the caregiver to adapt to these suboptimal conditions. Such occurrences are no exception aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a result, the NASA flight surgeon (FS) and NASA astronaut cohorts must be ready to adapt their optimal airway management techniques for suboptimal situations. Based on previous work conducted by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) and other investigators, the MOST had members of both the FS and astronaut cohorts evaluate two oral airway insertion techniques for the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) to determine whether either technique is sufficient to perform in suboptimal conditions within a microgravity environment. Methods All experiments were conducted in a simulated microgravity environment provided by parabolic flight aboard DC-9 aircraft. Each participant acted as a caregiver and was directed to attempt both suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques following a preflight instruction session on the day of the flight and a demonstration of the technique by an anesthesiologist physician in the simulated microgravity environment aboard the aircraft. Results Fourteen participants conducted 46 trials of the suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques. Overall, 43 of 46 trials (94%) conducted were properly performed based on criteria developed by the MOST and other investigators. Discussion The study demonstrated the use of airway management techniques in suboptimal conditions relating to space flight. Use of these techniques will provide a crew with options for using the ILMA to manage airway issues aboard the ISS. Although it is understood that the optimal method for patient care during space flight is to have both patient and caregiver restrained, these techniques provide a needed backup should conditions not present

  13. Mobilization of iron from coal fly ash was dependent upon the particle size and the source of coal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K R; Veranth, J M; Lighty, J S; Aust, A E

    1998-12-01

    Particulate air pollution, including coal fly ash, contains iron, and some of the pathological effects after inhalation may be due to reactive oxygen species produced by iron-catalyzed reactions. The objective of this study was to determine whether iron, present in coal fly ash, was mobilized, leading to ferritin induction in human airway epithelial cells, and whether the size of the particles affected the amount of iron mobilized. Three types of coal were used to generate the three size fractions of fly ash collected. The Utah coal fly ash was generated from a bituminous b coal, the Illinois coal fly ash from a bituminous c coal, and the North Dakota coal fly ash from a lignite a coal. Three size fractions were studied to compare the amount of iron mobilized in human airway epithelial (A549) cells and by citrate in cell-free suspensions. The size fractions selected were fine (airborne particulate matter fraction greater than 10 microm. Coal fly ash samples were incubated with 1 mM citrate to determine if iron associated with coal fly ash could be mobilized. Iron was mobilized by citrate from all three size fractions of all three coal types to levels as high as 56.7 nmol of Fe/mg of coal fly ash after 24 h. With all three coal types, more iron was mobilized by citrate from the fraction than from the >2.5 microm fractions. Further, the mobilized iron was in the Fe(III) form. To determine if iron associated with the coal fly ash could be mobilized by A549 cells, cells were treated with coal fly ash, and the amount of the iron storage protein ferritin was determined after 24 h. Ferritin levels were increased by as much as 11.9-fold in cells treated with coal fly ash. With two of the three types of coal studied, more ferritin was induced in cells treated with the fraction than with the >2.5 microm fractions. Further, inhibition of the endocytosis of the coal fly ash by the cells resulted in ferritin levels that were near that of the untreated cells, suggesting that

  14. Method for 3D Airway Topology Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Grothausmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In lungs the number of conducting airway generations as well as bifurcation patterns varies across species and shows specific characteristics relating to illnesses or gene variations. A method to characterize the topology of the mouse airway tree using scanning laser optical tomography (SLOT tomograms is presented in this paper. It is used to test discrimination between two types of mice based on detected differences in their conducting airway pattern. Based on segmentations of the airways in these tomograms, the main spanning tree of the volume skeleton is computed. The resulting graph structure is used to distinguish between wild type and surfactant protein (SP-D deficient knock-out mice.

  15. Airway Tree Extraction with Locally Optimal Paths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to extract the airway tree from CT images by continually extending the tree with locally optimal paths. This is in contrast to commonly used region growing based approaches that only search the space of the immediate neighbors. The result is a much more robust method...... for tree extraction that can overcome local occlusions. The cost function for obtaining the optimal paths takes into account of an airway probability map as well as measures of airway shape and orientation derived from multi-scale Hessian eigen analysis on the airway probability. Significant improvements...

  16. Anatomic Optical Coherence Tomography of Upper Airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin Loy, Anthony; Jing, Joseph; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yong; Elghobashi, Said; Chen, Zhongping; Wong, Brian J. F.

    The upper airway is a complex and intricate system responsible for respiration, phonation, and deglutition. Obstruction of the upper airways afflicts an estimated 12-18 million Americans. Pharyngeal size and shape are important factors in the pathogenesis of airway obstructions. In addition, nocturnal loss in pharyngeal muscular tone combined with high pharyngeal resistance can lead to collapse of the airway and periodic partial or complete upper airway obstruction. Anatomical optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the potential to provide high-speed three-dimensional tomographic images of the airway lumen without the use of ionizing radiation. In this chapter we describe the methods behind endoscopic OCT imaging and processing to generate full three dimensional anatomical models of the human airway which can be used in conjunction with numerical simulation methods to assess areas of airway obstruction. Combining this structural information with flow dynamic simulations, we can better estimate the site and causes of airway obstruction and better select and design surgery for patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

  17. AIRWAY VISUALIZATION: EYES SEE WHAT MIND KNOWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbello, Massimiliano; Frova, Giulio; Zdravković, Ivana

    2016-03-01

    Airway management is basic for anesthesia practice, and sometimes it can represent a really dramatic scenario for both the patient and the physicians. Laryngoscopy has been the gold standard of airway visualization for more than 60 years, showing its limitations and failure rates with time. New technology has made available an opportunity to move the physician's eye inside patient airways thanks to video laryngoscopy and video assisted airway management technique. Undoubtedly, we have entered a new era of high resolution airway visualization and different approach in airway instrumentation. Nevertheless, each new technology needs time to be tested and considered reliable, and pitfalls and limitations may come out with careful and long lasting analysis, so it is probably not the right time yet to promote video assisted approach as a new gold standard for airway visualization, despite the fact that it certainly offers some new prospects. In any case, whatever the visualization approach, no patient dies because of missed airway visualization or failed intubation, but due to failed ventilation, which remains without doubt the gold standard of any patient safety goal and airway management technique.

  18. Cholinergic Regulation of Airway Inflammation and Remodelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kolahian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the predominant parasympathetic neurotransmitter in the airways that regulates bronchoconstriction and mucus secretion. Recent findings suggest that acetylcholine regulates additional functions in the airways, including inflammation and remodelling during inflammatory airway diseases. Moreover, it has become apparent that acetylcholine is synthesized by nonneuronal cells and tissues, including inflammatory cells and structural cells. In this paper, we will discuss the regulatory role of acetylcholine in inflammation and remodelling in which we will focus on the role of the airway smooth muscle cell as a target cell for acetylcholine that modulates inflammation and remodelling during respiratory diseases such as asthma and COPD.

  19. Ultrasonography in the management of the airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M S

    2011-01-01

    In this study, it is described how to use ultrasonography (US) for real-time imaging of the airway from the mouth, over pharynx, larynx, and trachea to the peripheral alveoli, and how to use this in airway management. US has several advantages for imaging of the airway - it is safe, quick...... or the esophagus by placing the ultrasound probe transversely on the neck at the level of the suprasternal notch during intubation, thus confirming intubation without the need for ventilation or circulation. US can be applied before anesthesia induction and diagnose several conditions that affect airway management...

  20. Airway smooth muscle dynamics : a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, S S; Bai, T R; Bates, J H T; Black, J L; Brown, R H; Brusasco, V; Chitano, P; Deng, L; Dowell, M; Eidelman, D H; Fabry, B; Fairbank, N J; Ford, L E; Fredberg, J J; Gerthoffer, W T; Gilbert, S H; Gosens, R; Gunst, S J; Halayko, A J; Ingram, R H; Irvin, C G; James, A L; Janssen, L J; King, G G; Knight, D A; Lauzon, A M; Lakser, O J; Ludwig, M S; Lutchen, K R; Maksym, G N; Martin, J G; Mauad, T; McParland, B E; Mijailovich, S M; Mitchell, H W; Mitchell, R W; Mitzner, W; Murphy, T M; Paré, P D; Pellegrino, R; Sanderson, M J; Schellenberg, R R; Seow, C Y; Silveira, P S P; Smith, P G; Solway, J; Stephens, N L; Sterk, P J; Stewart, A G; Tang, D D; Tepper, R S; Tran, T; Wang, L

    2007-01-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series o

  1. Pim1 kinase protects airway epithelial cells from cigarette smoke-induced damage and airway inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, M.; Heijink, Hilde; Gras, R.; den Boef, L. E.; Reinders-Luinge, M.; Pouwels, S. D.; Hylkema, Machteld; van der Toorn, Marco; Brouwer, U.; van Oosterhout, A. J. M.; Nawijn, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) is the main risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and can induce airway epithelial cell damage, innate immune responses, and airway inflammation. We hypothesized that cell survival factors might decrease the sensitivity of airway epithelial

  2. Kite-Flying Fun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s kite capital welcomes flying enthusiasts from across the world to its annual carnival Tens of thousands of kite enthusiast from all over the world gathered under the growing swarm of brightly colored kites. Some of the floating and billowing forms had been fashioned into

  3. Leader’s Guide to Crew Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-08-01

    32 Methylphenidate (RitalinT) and pemoline (CylertTM...due to their high addiction and abuse potential. Their use should be considered only in extreme "fly or die" combat scenarios and must be authorized...by the chain of command. Methylphenidate (RitalinTm) and pemoline (Cylert’") may offer advantages over caffeine, although systematic comparisons have

  4. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  5. Airway smooth muscle dynamics: a common pathway of airway obstruction in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, S S; Bai, T R; Bates, J H T; Black, J L; Brown, R H; Brusasco, V; Chitano, P; Deng, L; Dowell, M; Eidelman, D H; Fabry, B; Fairbank, N J; Ford, L E; Fredberg, J J; Gerthoffer, W T; Gilbert, S H; Gosens, R; Gunst, S J; Halayko, A J; Ingram, R H; Irvin, C G; James, A L; Janssen, L J; King, G G; Knight, D A; Lauzon, A M; Lakser, O J; Ludwig, M S; Lutchen, K R; Maksym, G N; Martin, J G; Mauad, T; McParland, B E; Mijailovich, S M; Mitchell, H W; Mitchell, R W; Mitzner, W; Murphy, T M; Paré, P D; Pellegrino, R; Sanderson, M J; Schellenberg, R R; Seow, C Y; Silveira, P S P; Smith, P G; Solway, J; Stephens, N L; Sterk, P J; Stewart, A G; Tang, D D; Tepper, R S; Tran, T; Wang, L

    2007-05-01

    Excessive airway obstruction is the cause of symptoms and abnormal lung function in asthma. As airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the effecter controlling airway calibre, it is suspected that dysfunction of ASM contributes to the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the precise role of ASM in the series of events leading to asthmatic symptoms is not clear. It is not certain whether, in asthma, there is a change in the intrinsic properties of ASM, a change in the structure and mechanical properties of the noncontractile components of the airway wall, or a change in the interdependence of the airway wall with the surrounding lung parenchyma. All these potential changes could result from acute or chronic airway inflammation and associated tissue repair and remodelling. Anti-inflammatory therapy, however, does not "cure" asthma, and airway hyperresponsiveness can persist in asthmatics, even in the absence of airway inflammation. This is perhaps because the therapy does not directly address a fundamental abnormality of asthma, that of exaggerated airway narrowing due to excessive shortening of ASM. In the present study, a central role for airway smooth muscle in the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma is explored.

  6. Cancer incidence among Nordic airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkala, Eero; Helminen, Mika; Haldorsen, Tor; Hammar, Niklas; Kojo, Katja; Linnersjö, Anette; Rafnsson, Vilhjálmur; Tulinius, Hrafn; Tveten, Ulf; Auvinen, Anssi

    2012-12-15

    Airline cabin crew are occupationally exposed to cosmic radiation and jet lag with potential disruption of circadian rhythms. This study assesses the influence of work-related factors in cancer incidence of cabin crew members. A cohort of 8,507 female and 1,559 male airline cabin attendants from Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden was followed for cancer incidence for a mean follow-up time of 23.6 years through the national cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were defined as ratios of observed and expected numbers of cases. A case-control study nested in the cohort (excluding Norway) was conducted to assess the relation between the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose and cumulative number of flights crossing six time zones (indicator of circadian disruption) and cancer risk. Analysis of breast cancer was adjusted for parity and age at first live birth. Among female cabin crew, a significantly increased incidence was observed for breast cancer [SIR 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.32-1.69], leukemia (1.89, 95% CI 1.03-3.17) and skin melanoma (1.85, 95% CI 1.41-2.38). Among men, significant excesses in skin melanoma (3.00, 95% CI 1.78-4.74), nonmelanoma skin cancer (2.47, 95% CI 1.18-4.53), Kaposi sarcoma (86.0, 95% CI 41.2-158) and alcohol-related cancers (combined SIR 3.12, 95% CI 1.95-4.72) were found. This large study with complete follow-up and comprehensive cancer incidence data shows an increased incidence of several cancers, but according to the case-control analysis, excesses appear not to be related to the cosmic radiation or circadian disruptions from crossing multiple time zones.

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  8. Extraction of Airways from CT (EXACT’09)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin; Ginneken, Bram van; Reinhardt, Joseph M.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for establishing a reference airway tree segmentation, which was used to quantitatively evaluate 15 different airway tree extraction algorithms in a standardized manner. Because of the sheer difficulty involved in manually constructing a complete reference standar...

  9. Crew participating in the ALICE TRD beamtests

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Photo 1: Sitting in front of the experimental setup is part of the crew participating in the ALICE TRD beamtests at pion/electron secondary beams at CERN Proton Synchrotron in October 2002. From left to right: Mircea Ciobanu, Andres Sandoval, Vojtech Petracek, Oliver Busch, Chilo Garabatos, Wilrid Ludolphs and Harald Appelshaeuser. photo 2: Two fierce experimental physicists, Chilo Garabatos (left) and Anton Andronic, guarding their most valuable asset: Transition Radiation Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment. These detectors are tested in electron/pion secondary beams at CERN Proton Synchrotron.

  10. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  11. STS-104 Crew Interview: Steve Lindsey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-104 Commander Steve Lindsey is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, its payload (the Joint Airlock and the external gas tanks), and the usefulness of the newly installed Canadian Robotic Arm (installed by STS-100 crew). Lindsey describes his role in the rendezvous, docking, undocking, and flyaround of the Atlantis Orbiter and the International Space Station (ISS) and discusses the mission's planned spacewalks.

  12. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  13. APOLLO 13: The Crew Makes Emergency Repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: Support on the ground design emergency equipment for the crew of Aquarius, and then radio instructions From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  14. Crew Management Processes Revitalize Patient Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, two physicians, former NASA astronauts, created LifeWings Partners LLC in Memphis, Tennessee and began using Crew Resource Management (CRM) techniques developed at Ames Research Center in the 1970s to help improve safety and efficiency at hospitals. According to the company, when hospitals follow LifeWings? training, they can see major improvements in a number of areas, including efficiency, employee satisfaction, operating room turnaround, patient advocacy, and overall patient outcomes. LifeWings has brought its CRM training to over 90 health care organizations and annual sales have remained close to $3 million since 2007.

  15. Extraction of airways from CT (EXACT’09)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Ginneken, Bram van; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for establishing a reference airway tree segmentation, which was used to quantitatively evaluate 15 different airway tree extraction algorithms in a standardized manner. Because of the sheer difficulty involved in manually constructing a complete reference standard...... or not it is a correctly segmented part of the airway tree. Finally, the reference airway trees are constructed by taking the union of all correctly extracted branch segments. Fifteen airway tree extraction algorithms from different research groups are evaluated on a diverse set of 20 chest computed tomography (CT) scans...... from the evaluation showed that no single algorithm could extract more than an average of 74% of the total length of all branches in the reference standard, indicating substantial differences between the algorithms. A fusion scheme that obtained superior results is presented, demonstrating...

  16. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  17. 77 FR 19148 - Special Conditions: Airbus, A350-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...-900 Series Airplane; Crew Rest Compartments AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... separate Crew Rest Compartments: a Flight Crew Rest Compartment (FCRC) intended to be occupied by flight crew members only, and a Cabin Crew Rest Compartment (CCRC) intended to be occupied by cabin...

  18. Effects of a single dose of Bilastine 20mg on flying ability in healthy volunteers under conditions of simulated cabin pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, P.J.L.; Jetten, A.M.; Simons, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background : Optimal physical and mental fitness of pilots is a prerequisite for flight safety. Pilots suffering from allergic rhinoconjuctivitis or other allergic upper airway diseases are not allowed to fly because ambient pressure changes may aggravate the symptoms and some antihistaminic medicat

  19. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  20. Helicopter vibration and risk of reversible myopia among military air crews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastaman Basuki

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We assessed to what extend the risk of reversible myopia of the different degree of helicopter vibrations and other risk factors among military helicopter pilots and flight engineers. The study was a nested case-control design using medical record at the Institute of Aerospace Medicine of the Indonesian Air Force and Medical Directorate of the Indonesian Army (Flying Wing. Cases and controls were military helicopter pilots and flight engineers who had ametropic visual acuity at the time of entry into military service from 1972 until 1992. Reversible myopia means visual acuity corrected of - 0.50 dioptri or less. The final model indicates there was a relationship between vibration level, duration of work and risk of reversible myopia. Helicopter crews exposed to high vibration level had 4.5 times to develop reversible myopia [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 4.47; 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.48 - 13.55] relative to those who exposed to weak vibration level. There was noted a healthy worker's survivor effect. Those who remain work for a longer peiod had less a chance to be myopia. Those who worked for 10 years or more had a lowered risk of 85% to be myopia compared with those who worked for 14 years (adjusted OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.03 - 0.87. Helicopter crews exposed to high helicopter vibration had 4.5 times to develop reversible myopia, and a higher risk occurred during the first four years of employment. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 93-6Keywords: helicopter vibration, reversible myopia, air crews

  1. Overview of Orion Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle Dynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Donald B.; Aibicjpm. Vamessa V.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is designing a new spacecraft, called Orion, to fly astronauts to low earth orbit and beyond. Characterization of the dynamic stability of the Orion spacecraft is important for the design of the spacecraft and trajectory construction. Dynamic stability affects the stability and control of the Orion Crew Module during re-entry, especially below Mach = 2.0 and including flight under the drogues. The Launch Abort Vehicle is affected by dynamic stability as well, especially during the re-orientation and heatshield forward segments of the flight. The dynamic stability was assessed using the forced oscillation technique, free-to-oscillate, ballistic range, and sub-scale free-flight tests. All of the test techniques demonstrated that in heatshield-forward flight the Crew Module and Launch Abort Vehicle are dynamically unstable in a significant portion of their flight trajectory. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Orion dynamic aero program and a high-level summary of the dynamic stability characteristics of the Orion spacecraft.

  2. The genus Prevotella in cystic fibrosis airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tyler R; Sibley, Christopher D; Parkins, Michael D; Rabin, Harvey R; Surette, Michael G

    2010-08-01

    Airway disease resulting from chronic bacterial colonization and consequential inflammation is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Although traditionally considered to be due to only a few pathogens, recent re-examination of CF airway microbiology has revealed that polymicrobial communities that include many obligate anaerobes colonize lower airways. The purpose of this study was to examine Prevotella species in CF airways by quantitative culture and phenotypic characterization. Expectorated sputum was transferred to an anaerobic environment immediately following collection and examined by quantitative microbiology using a variety of culture media. Isolates were identified as facultative or obligate anaerobes and the later group was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Prevotella spp. represented the majority of isolates. Twelve different species of Prevotella were recovered from 16 patients with three species representing 65% of isolates. Multiple Prevotella species were often isolated from the same sputum sample. These isolates were biochemically characterized using Rapid ID 32A kits (BioMérieux), and for their ability to produce autoinducer-2 and beta-lactamases. Considerable phenotypic variability between isolates of the same species was observed. The quantity and composition of Prevotella species within a patients' airway microbiome varied over time. Our results suggest that the diversity and dynamics of Prevotella in CF airways may contribute to airway disease.

  3. 19 CFR 122.49c - Master crew member list and master non-crew member list requirement for commercial aircraft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Master crew member list and master non-crew member... Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.49c Master crew member list and master non-crew member list requirement for commercial aircraft arriving in,...

  4. Upper airway collapsibility in anesthetized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Ronald S; McDonough, Joseph M; Marcus, Carole L; Schwartz, Alan R; Ward, Denham S

    2006-03-01

    We sought to establish the feasibility of measuring upper airway narrowing in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized children using dynamic application of negative airway pressure. A secondary aim was to compare differences in upper airway collapsibility after the administration of sevoflurane or halothane. Subjects were randomized to either drug for inhaled anesthetic induction. Each was adjusted to their 1 MAC value (0.9% for halothane and 2.5% for sevoflurane) and a blinded anesthesia provider held the facemask without performing manual airway opening maneuvers but with inclusion of an oral airway device. Inspiratory flows were measured during partial upper airway obstruction created by an adjustable negative pressure-generating vacuum motor inserted into the anesthesia circuit. Critical closing pressure of the pharynx (Pcrit) was obtained by plotting the peak inspiratory flow of the obstructed breaths against the corresponding negative pressure in the facemask and extrapolating to zero airflow using linear correlation. Fourteen children were enrolled, seven in each anesthetic group. Two children in the halothane group did not develop flow-limited airway obstruction despite negative pressures as low as -9 cm H2O. Pcrit for sevoflurane ranged from -6.7 to -11.6 (mean +/- sd, -9.8 +/- 1.9) cm H2O. Pcrit for halothane ranged from -8.1 to -33 (mean +/- sd, -19.4 +/- 9.3) cm H2O (sevoflurane versus halothane, P = 0.048). We conclude that when using dynamic application of negative airway pressure, halothane appears to cause less upper airway obstruction than sevoflurane at equipotent concentrations.

  5. Crew coordination issues of EVS approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Korn, Bernd R.

    2004-08-01

    Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS) are currently developed with the goal to alleviate restrictions in airspace and airport capacity in low visibility conditions. Existing EVS-systems are based on IR-sensors although the penetration of bad weather (dense fog and light rain) by MMW-radar is remarkably better than in the infrared spectrum. But the quality of MMW radar is rather poor compared to IR images. However, the analysis of radar images can be simplified dramatically when simple passive radar retro-reflectors are used to mark the runway. This presentation is the third in a series of studies investigating the use of such simple landing aids. In the first study the feasibility of the radar PAPI concept was determined; the second one provided first promising human performance results in a low-fidelity simulation. The present study examined pilot performance, workload, situation awareness, and crew coordination issues in a high-fidelity simulation of 'Radar-PAPI' visual aids supporting a precision straight-in landing in low visibility (CAT-II). Simulation scenarios were completed in a fixed-base cockpit simulator involving six two-pilot flight-deck crews. Pilots could derive visual cues to correct lateral glide-path deviations from 13 pairs of runway-marking corner reflectors. Vertical deviations were indicated by a set of six diplane reflectors using intensity-coding to provide the PAPI categories needed for the correction of vertical deviations. The study compared three display formats and associated crew coordination issues: (1) PF views a head-down B-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (2) PF views a head-down C-scope display and switches to visual landing upon PNF's call-out that runway is in sight; (3) PF views through a head-up display (HUD) that displays primary flight guidance information and receives vertical and lateral guidance from PNF who views a head-down B-scope. PNF guidance is terminated upon PF

  6. APOLLO SOYUZ TEST PROJECT [ASTP] CREWS ADDRESS PERSONNEL IN LCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Soviet and American crews for the July Apollo Soyuz Test Project [standing, center] addressed personnel assembled in a firing room at KSC on February 10. The crews for the joint manned space mission toured the Center during their three-day visit which also included inspection of ASTP equipment and facilities and a trip to Disney World.

  7. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Augmented flight crews. 91.1061 Section 91...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1061 Augmented flight crews. (a) No program manager may assign any...

  8. Rowing Crew Coordination Dynamics at Increasing Stroke Rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, Laura S.; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; de Poel, Harjo J.

    2015-01-01

    In rowing, perfect synchronisation is important for optimal performance of a crew. Remarkably, a recent study on ergometers demonstrated that antiphase crew coordination might be mechanically more efficient by reducing the power lost to within-cycle velocity fluctuations of the boat. However, couple

  9. High Speed Lunar Navigation for Crewed and Remotely Piloted Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, L.; Allan, M.; To, V.; Utz, H.; Wojcikiewicz, W.; Chautems, C.

    2010-01-01

    Increased navigation speed is desirable for lunar rovers, whether autonomous, crewed or remotely operated, but is hampered by the low gravity, high contrast lighting and rough terrain. We describe lidar based navigation system deployed on NASA's K10 autonomous rover and to increase the terrain hazard situational awareness of the Lunar Electric Rover crew.

  10. 14 CFR 135.99 - Composition of flight crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of flight crew. 135.99 Section... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.99 Composition of flight crew. (a) No certificate holder may operate an aircraft with...

  11. Airway smooth muscle growth in asthma: proliferation, hypertrophy, and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, J Kelley; Hershenson, Marc B

    2008-01-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle mass is present in fatal and non-fatal asthma. However, little information is available regarding the cellular mechanism (i.e., hyperplasia vs. hypertrophy). Even less information exists regarding the functional consequences of airway smooth muscle remodeling. It would appear that increased airway smooth muscle mass would tend to increase airway narrowing and airflow obstruction. However, the precise effects of increased airway smooth muscle mass on airway narrowing are not known. This review will consider the evidence for airway smooth muscle cell proliferation and hypertrophy in asthma, potential functional effects, and biochemical mechanisms.

  12. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Raghavendra; R L Raibagkar; A B Kulkarni

    2002-02-01

    This paper reports the dielectric properties of fly ash. The dielectric measurements were performed as a function of frequency and temperature. The sample of fly ash shows almost similar behaviour in the frequency and temperature range studied. The large value of dielectric constant in the typical frequency range is because of orientation polarization and tight binding force between the ions or atoms in the fly ash. The sample of fly ash is of great scientific and technological interest because of its high value of dielectric constant (104).

  13. Pharmacology of airway afferent nerve activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carr Michael J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Afferent nerves in the airways serve to regulate breathing pattern, cough, and airway autonomic neural tone. Pharmacologic agents that influence afferent nerve activity can be subclassified into compounds that modulate activity by indirect means (e.g. bronchial smooth muscle spasmogens and those that act directly on the nerves. Directly acting agents affect afferent nerve activity by interacting with various ion channels and receptors within the membrane of the afferent terminals. Whether by direct or indirect means, most compounds that enter the airspace will modify afferent nerve activity, and through this action alter airway physiology.

  14. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers have donned their new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Commander Frederick H. Hauck is in the center foreground. Hauck is flanked by fellow crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge, MS George D. Nelson, Pilot Richard O. Covey, and MS David C. Hilmers. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel, not assigned as crewmember but assisting in training, is at far right. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  15. Application of operational car crew universal speed stenogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Gradusov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimentally to check up possibility and efficiency of application of operative cars of universal speed shorthand records of unknown roads crews. Materials and Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization, pedagogical supervisions, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. In research took part 20 professional crews road patrol State Automobile Inspectorate, in all 40 persons, up-diffused on 2 groups for 10 crews: experimental and control. Results: application of methods of universal speed shorthand record of СД an experimental group allowed to shorten time-of-flight of segment of control distance on 7,37%. Conclusion: the results of pedagogical experiment at participation of professional crews road patrol State Automobile Inspectorate on official cars in the contention terms of the real route testify to possibility and efficiency of application of operative cars of the special setting of universal speed shorthand records of unknown roads crews during their professional activity.

  16. Flying over decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  17. Vision in flying insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelhaaf, Martin; Kern, Roland

    2002-12-01

    Vision guides flight behaviour in numerous insects. Despite their small brain, insects easily outperform current man-made autonomous vehicles in many respects. Examples are the virtuosic chasing manoeuvres male flies perform as part of their mating behaviour and the ability of bees to assess, on the basis of visual motion cues, the distance travelled in a novel environment. Analyses at both the behavioural and neuronal levels are beginning to unveil reasons for such extraordinary capabilities of insects. One recipe for their success is the adaptation of visual information processing to the specific requirements of the behavioural tasks and to the specific spatiotemporal properties of the natural input.

  18. STS-110 Crew Interview: Jerry Ross

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialist Jerry Ross is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Ross outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Ross discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  19. STS-88 Crew Interview: Jerry Ross

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Jerry Ross discusses the seven-day mission that will be highlighted by the mating of the U.S.-built Node 1 station element to the Functional Energy Block (FGB) which will already be in orbit, and two spacewalks to connect power and data transmission cables between the Node and the FGB. Node 1 will be the first Space Station hardware delivered by the Space Shuttle. He also disscusses the assembly sequence. The crew will conduct a series of rendezvous maneuvers similar to those conducted on other Shuttle missions to reach the orbiting FGB. Once the two elements are docked, Ross and Newman will conduct two scheduled spacewalks to connect power and data cables between the Node, PMAs and the FGB. The day following the spacewalks, Endeavour will undock from the two components, completing the first Space Station assembly mission.

  20. STS-110 Crew Interviews: Steve Smith

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 Mission Specialist Steve Smith is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Smith outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S0 Truss and Mobile Transporter) and the dry run installation of the S0 truss that will take place the day before the EVA for the actual installation. Smith discusses the planned EVAs in detail and outlines what supplies will be left for the resident crew of the International Space Station (ISS). He ends with his thoughts on the most valuable aspect of the ISS.

  1. The Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Matias Sevel; Justesen, Tor; Dohn, Anders

    In the Home Care Crew Scheduling Problem a staff of caretakers has to be assigned a number of visits to patients' homes, such that the overall service level is maximised. The problem is a generalisation of the vehicle routing problem with time windows. Required travel time between visits and time...... windows of the visits must be respected. The challenge when assigning visits to caretakers lies in the existence of soft preference constraints and in temporal dependencies between the start times of visits. We model the problem as a set partitioning problem with side constraints and develop an exact...... branch-and-price solution algorithm, as this method has previously given solid results for classical vehicle routing problems. Temporal dependencies are modelled as generalised precedence constraints and enforced through the branching. We introduce a novel visit clustering approach based on the soft...

  2. Airway resistance at maximum inhalation as a marker of asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor George T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthmatics exhibit reduced airway dilation at maximal inspiration, likely due to structural differences in airway walls and/or functional differences in airway smooth muscle, factors that may also increase airway responsiveness to bronchoconstricting stimuli. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the minimal airway resistance achievable during a maximal inspiration (Rmin is abnormally elevated in subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness. Methods The Rmin was measured in 34 nonasthmatic and 35 asthmatic subjects using forced oscillations at 8 Hz. Rmin and spirometric indices were measured before and after bronchodilation (albuterol and bronchoconstriction (methacholine. A preliminary study of 84 healthy subjects first established height dependence of baseline Rmin values. Results Asthmatics had a higher baseline Rmin % predicted than nonasthmatic subjects (134 ± 33 vs. 109 ± 19 % predicted, p = 0.0004. Sensitivity-specificity analysis using receiver operating characteristic curves indicated that baseline Rmin was able to identify subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20 min % predicted, FEV1 % predicted, and FEF25-75 % predicted, respectively. Also, 80% of the subjects with baseline Rmin min > 145% predicted had hyperresponsive airways, regardless of clinical classification as asthmatic or nonasthmatic. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline Rmin, a measurement that is easier to perform than spirometry, performs as well as or better than standard spirometric indices in distinguishing subjects with airway hyperresponsiveness from those without hyperresponsive airways. The relationship of baseline Rmin to asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness likely reflects a causal relation between conditions that stiffen airway walls and hyperresponsiveness. In conjunction with symptom history, Rmin could provide a clinically useful tool for assessing asthma and monitoring response to treatment.

  3. STS-96 Crew Training, Mission Animation, Crew Interviews, STARSHINE, Discovery Rollout and Repair of Hail Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-96, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Pilot Rick D. Husband, Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara E. Jernigan, Daniel T. Barry, Julie Payette and Valery Ivanovich Tokarev during various training activities. Scenes include astronaut suit-up, EVA training in the Virtual Reality Lab, Orbiter space vision training, bailout training, and crew photo session. Footage also shows individual crew interviews, repair activities to the external fuel tank, and Discovery's return to the launch pad. The engineers are seen sanding, bending, and painting the foam used in repairing the tank. An animation of the deployment of the STARSHINE satellite, International Space Station, and the STS-96 Mission is presented. Footage shows the students from Edgar Allen Poe Middle School sanding, polishing, and inspecting the mirrors for the STARSHINE satellite. Live footage also includes students from St. Michael the Archangel School wearing bunny suits and entering the clean room at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  4. An Analysis of Shuttle Crew Scheduling Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    From the early years of the Space Shuttle program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle crews have had a timeline of activities to guide them through their time on-orbit. Planners used scheduling constraints to build timelines that ensured the health and safety of the crews. If a constraint could not be met it resulted in a violation. Other agencies of the federal government also have scheduling constraints to ensure the safety of personnel and the public. This project examined the history of Space Shuttle scheduling constraints, constraints from Federal agencies and branches of the military and how these constraints may be used as a guide for future NASA and private spacecraft. This was conducted by reviewing rules and violations with regard to human aerospace scheduling constraints, environmental, political, social and technological factors, operating environment and relevant human factors. This study includes a statistical analysis of Shuttle Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) related violations to determine if these were a significant producer of constraint violations. It was hypothesized that the number of SCSC violations caused by EVA activities were a significant contributor to the total number of violations for Shuttle/ISS missions. Data was taken from NASA data archives at the Johnson Space Center from Space Shuttle/ISS missions prior to the STS-107 accident. The results of the analysis rejected the null hypothesis and found that EVA violations were a significant contributor to the total number of violations. This analysis could help NASA and commercial space companies understand the main source of constraint violations and allow them to create constraint rules that ensure the safe operation of future human private and exploration missions. Additional studies could be performed to evaluate other variables that could have influenced the scheduling violations that were analyzed.

  5. Special Purpose Crew Restraints for Teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina; Norris, Lena

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), and long duration space missions being planned for the moon and Mars, humans will be living and working in microgravity over increasingly long periods of time. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility, and access to the activity area. These challenges can result in prolonged periods of unnatural postures for the crew, ultimately causing pain, injury, and loss of productivity. Determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment is crucial to mission success. While a number of general purpose restraints have been used on ISS (handrails, foot loops), experience has shown that these general purpose restraints may not be optimal, or even acceptable for some tasks that have unique requirements. For example, some onboard activities require extreme stability (e.g., glovebox microsurgery), and others involve the use of arm, torso and foot movements in order to perform the task (e-g. robotic teleoperation); standard restraint systems will not work in these situations. The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (WAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center began evaluations of crew restraints for these special situations by looking at NASAs Robonaut. Developed by the Robot Systems Technology Branch, Robonaut is a humanoid robot that can be remotely operated through a tetepresence control system by an operator. It was designed to perform work in hazardous environments (e.g., Extra Vehicular Activities). A Robonaut restraint was designed, modeled for the population, and ultimately tested onboard the KC-135 microgravity aircraft. While in microgravity, participants were asked to get in and out of the restraint from different locations, perform maximum reach exercises, and finally to teleoperate Robonaut while in the restraint. The sessions were videotaped

  6. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  7. Flight Crew Training: Multi-Crew Pilot License Training versus Traditional Training and Its Relationship with Job Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the International Civil Aviation Organization promulgated requirements for a Multi-Crew Pilot License for First Officers, in which the candidate attends approximately two years of ground school and trains as part of a two-person crew in a simulator of a Boeing 737 or an Airbus 320 airliner. In the traditional method, a candidate qualifies…

  8. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  9. Physics of flying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.quote>

  10. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently suffer from asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation and training intensity. METHODS: 57 Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r=0.032, p=0.91). CONCLUSION: Airway hyperresponsiveness in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol...

  11. Central airways remodeling in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pini L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Laura Pini,1 Valentina Pinelli,2 Denise Modina,1 Michela Bezzi,3 Laura Tiberio,4 Claudio Tantucci1 1Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Spedali Civili di Brescia, 3Department Bronchoscopy, Spedali Civili di Brescia, 4Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Background: The contribution to airflow obstruction by the remodeling of the peripheral airways in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients has been well documented, but less is known about the role played by the large airways. Few studies have investigated the presence of histopathological changes due to remodeling in the large airways of COPD patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the presence of airway remodeling in the central airways of COPD patients, quantifying the airway smooth muscle (ASM area and the extracellular matrix (ECM protein deposition, both in the subepithelial region and in the ASM, and to verify the possible contribution to airflow obstruction by the above mentioned histopathological changes. Methods: Biopsies of segmental bronchi spurs were performed in COPD patients and control smoker subjects and immunostained for collagen type I, versican, decorin, biglycan, and alpha-smooth muscle actin. ECM protein deposition was measured at both subepithelial, and ASM layers. Results: The staining for collagen I and versican was greater in the subepithelial layer of COPD patients than in control subjects. An inverse correlation was found between collagen I in the subepithelial layer and both forced expiratory volume in 1 second and ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity. A statistically significant increase of the ASM area was observed in the central airways of COPD patients versus controls. Conclusion: These findings indicate that airway remodeling also affects

  12. Environmental and genetical factors in airway allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Idzik

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 23% of the European population is clinically diagnosed with allergies. In the past three decades, an increase in the incidence of respiratory allergies was noted. At the beginning of the 20th century allergic inflammations affected only around 1% of the world population. Medical symptoms of allergic airway inflammation are variable for different patients. Airways allergy are complex phenotypes, which are determined by both genetic and...

  13. Ultrasound: A novel tool for airway imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharthkumar Bhikhabhai Parmar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The scope of ultrasound is emerging in medical science, particularly outside traditional areas of radiology practice. Aims: We designed this study to evaluate feasibility of bedside sonography as a tool for airway assessment and to describe sonographic anatomy of airway. Settings and Design: A prospective, clinical study. Materials and Methods: We included 100 adult, healthy volunteers of either sex to undergo airway imaging systemically starting from floor of the mouth to the sternal notch in anterior aspect of neck by sonography. Results: We could visualize mandible and hyoid bone as a bright hyperechoic structure with hypoechoic acoustic shadow underneath. Epiglottis, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and tracheal rings appeared hypoechoic. Vocal cords were visualized through thyroid cartilage. Interface between air and mucosa lining the airway produced a bright hyperechoic linear appearance. Artifacts created by intraluminal air prevented visualization of posterior pharynx, posterior commissure, and posterior wall of trachea. Conclusions: Ultrasound is safe, quick, noninvasive, repeatable, and bedside tool to assess the airway and can provide real-time dynamic images relevant for several aspects of airway management.

  14. The laryngeal mask airway at altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Grant D; Sittig, Steven E; Schears, Gregory J

    2008-02-01

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) is an accepted adjunct for airway management in emergency patients. There are a number of case reports describing its use in transport medicine for infant to adult patients, including during flight. Although studies of the effect altitude has on air-filled tracheal tubes exists, we were unable to find documentation of the effect of altitude on laryngeal mask airways. Our objective was to assess the effect of altitude on the LMA in both fixed wing and rotary wing models. We performed an in vitro study of the effect of altitude on the LMA cuff. Infant and adult airway trainer mannequins with properly sized and inserted LMA-Classic laryngeal mask airways were monitored for cuff pressure changes while flown at altitudes commonly encountered during air medical transport. Both models demonstrated that LMA cuff pressures may exceed manufacturer recommended levels for safe use even at the relatively low altitudes experienced during rotor wing flight. Properly inserted and inflated laryngeal mask airways at ground level may result in overinflated LMA cuffs when flown to altitudes commonly used for rotor and fixed wing medical transport unless monitored and corrected.

  15. Link between vitamin D and airway remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berraies A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anissa Berraies, Kamel Hamzaoui, Agnes HamzaouiPediatric Respiratory Diseases Department, Abderrahmen Mami Hospital, Ariana, and Research Unit 12SP15 Tunis El Manar University, Tunis, TunisiaAbstract: In the last decade, many epidemiologic studies have investigated the link between vitamin D deficiency and asthma. Most studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of asthma and allergies. Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with asthma severity and loss of control, together with recurrent exacerbations. Remodeling is an early event in asthma described as a consequence of production of mediators and growth factors by inflammatory and resident bronchial cells. Consequently, lung function is altered, with a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second and exacerbated airway hyperresponsiveness. Subepithelial fibrosis and airway smooth muscle cell hypertrophy are typical features of structural changes in the airways. In animal models, vitamin D deficiency enhances inflammation and bronchial anomalies. In severe asthma of childhood, major remodeling is observed in patients with low vitamin D levels. Conversely, the antifibrotic and antiproliferative effects of vitamin D in smooth muscle cells have been described in several experiments. In this review, we briefly summarize the current knowledge regarding the relationship between vitamin D and asthma, and focus on its effect on airway remodeling and its potential therapeutic impact for asthma.Keywords: vitamin D, asthma, airway remodeling, airway smooth muscle, supplementation

  16. Comparison of spacecraft crew escape systems through dynamic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, William G., III

    Crew escape systems have been a vital component of ensuring safety onboard manned spacecraft. Although there have been only a few aborts involving their use, their operation helps decrease risk in what is known to be a hazardous field. But despite their high reliability, crew escape systems typically suffer from heavy weight, lack of control and hazardous chemical propellants. Hybrid propulsion systems could be a viable solution to all of these problems. With their inert components, ability to throttle and higher specific impulse than solids, hybrids have obtained interest in recent years. This dissertation presents a method that can be used to compare solid and hybrid propulsion systems for the crew escape systems of spacecraft. The concepts of dynamic optimization, Monte Carlo simulation and propulsion system design are combined to produce a tool which can predict the probability of survival for a given abort scenario. The method can also determine the effect of uncertain variables, such as reaction time or the payload of the vehicle, in the safety of the crew. The method is then used to compare crew escape systems for two separate vehicles: a separable crew cabin proposed for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle and the Launch Escape System for the Crew Exploration Vehicle scheduled to begin operation in 2012. The effects of uncertain parameters are also studied. The results show the utility of this method and the objective function, and how it could be used in the design process for future space vehicles.

  17. Observations of Crew Dynamics during Mars Analog Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy L.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reviews the crew dynamics during two simulations of Mars Missions. Using an analog of a Mars habitat in two locations, Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) which is located on Devon Island at 75 deg North in the Canadian Arctic, and the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) which is located in the south of Utah, the presentation examines the crew dynamics in relation to the leadership style of the commander of the mission. The difference in the interaction of the two crews were shown to be related to the leadership style and the age group in the crew. As much as possible the habitats and environment was to resemble a Mars outpost. The difference between the International Space Station and a Mars missions is reviewed. The leadership styles are reviewed and the contrast between the FMARS and the MDRS leadership styles were related to crew productivity, and the personal interactions between the crew members. It became evident that leadership styles and interpersonal skill had more affect on mission success and crew dynamics than other characteristics.

  18. Effects of lung inflation on airway heterogeneity during histaminergic bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W; Mitzner, Wayne; Brown, Robert H

    2013-09-01

    Lung inflation has been shown to dilate airways by altering the mechanical equilibrium between opposing airway and parenchymal forces. However, it is not known how heterogeneously such dilation occurs throughout the airway tree. In six anesthetized dogs, we measured the diameters of five to six central airway segments using high-resolution computed tomography, along with respiratory input impedance (Zrs) during generalized aerosol histamine challenge, and local histamine challenge in which the agonist was instilled directly onto the epithelia of the imaged central airways. Airway diameters and Zrs were measured at 12 and 25 cmH2O. The Zrs spectra were fitted with a model that incorporated continuous distributions of airway resistances. Airway heterogeneity was quantified using the coefficient of variation for predefined airway distribution functions. Significant reductions in average central airway diameter were observed at 12 cmH2O for both aerosolized and local challenges, along with significant increases upon inflation to 25 cmH2O. No significant differences were observed for the coefficient of variation of airway diameters under any condition. Significant increases in effective airway resistance as measured by Zrs were observed only for the aerosolized challenge at 12 cmH2O, which was completely reversed upon inflation. We conclude that the lung periphery may be the most dominant contributor to increases in airway resistance and tissue elastance during bronchoconstriction induced by aerosolized histamine. However, isolated constriction of only a few central airway segments may also affect tissue stiffness via interdependence with their surrounding parenchyma.

  19. The Single Crew Module Concept for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Many concepts have been proposed for exploring space. In early 2010 presidential direction called for reconsidering the approach to address changes in exploration destinations, use of new technologies and development of new capabilities to support exploration of space. Considering the proposed new technology and capabilities that NASA was directed to pursue, the single crew module (SCM) concept for a more streamlined approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions was developed. The SCM concept combines many of the new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that uses a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them prior to departure of the vicinity of Earth provides the capability of using the single habitat both in transit to an exploration destination and while exploring the destination. The concept employs the capability to return the habitat and interplanetary propulsion system to Earth vicinity so that those elements can be reused on subsequent exploration missions. This paper describes the SCM concept, provides a top level mass estimate for the elements needed and trades the concept against Many concepts have been proposed for exploring space. In early 2010 presidential direction called for reconsidering the approach to address changes in exploration destinations, use of new technologies and development of new capabilities to support exploration of space. Considering the proposed new technology and capabilities that NASA was directed to pursue, the single crew module (SCM) concept for a more streamlined approach to the infrastructure and conduct of exploration missions was developed. The SCM concept combines many of the new promising technologies with a central concept of mission architectures that uses a single habitat module for all phases of an exploration mission. Integrating mission elements near Earth and fully fueling them

  20. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii) bro...

  1. Full Airway Drainage by Fiber Bronchoscopy Through Artificial Airway in the Treatment of Occult Traumatic Atelectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Hong; Zhang, Yun; Liang, Zhong Yan; Zhang, Shao Yang; Yu, Wen Qiao; Huang, Fang-Fang

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of full airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway in the treatment of traumatic atelectasis with occult manifestations. From May 2006 to May 2011, 40 cases of occult traumatic atelectasis were enrolled into our prospective study. Group A (n = 18) received drainage by nasal bronchoscope; group B underwent airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway (n = 22). The effects of treatment were evaluated by the incidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), lung abscess, and the average length of hospital stay. Compared with nasal fiber-optic treatment, airway drainage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway reduced the incidence of ARDS (p = 0.013) and lung abscess (p = 0.062) and shortened the mean length of stay (p = 0.018). Making the decision to create an artificial airway timely and carry out lung lavage by fiber bronchoscopy through artificial airway played a significant role in the treatment of occult traumatic atelectasis.

  2. 75 FR 13079 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; MAHAN AIRWAYS; Mahan Airways, Mahan Tower, No. 21, Azadegan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Secretary Jackson issued an Order adding Blue Airways FZE and Blue Airways, both of Dubai, United Arab... conduct illustrates its refusal to comply with the TDO or U.S. export control laws.\\6\\ \\6\\ My findings are... full written statement in support of the appeal with the Office of the Administrative Law Judge,...

  3. Airway Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps and Asthma: The United Airways Concept Further Supported

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Kåre; Bachert, Claus; Konge, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been established that patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) often have co-existing asthma. Objective We aimed to test two hypotheses: (i) upper and lower airway inflammation in CRSwNP is uniform in agreement with the united airways concept; and (ii...

  4. Lipocalin2 protects against airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a murine model of allergic airway disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, A M; Krokowski, M; Meyer, H-A;

    2010-01-01

    Allergen-induced bronchial asthma is a chronic airway disease that involves the interplay of various genes with environmental factors triggering different inflammatory pathways.......Allergen-induced bronchial asthma is a chronic airway disease that involves the interplay of various genes with environmental factors triggering different inflammatory pathways....

  5. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  6. STS-41-D Crew Enjoying Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Crewmembers of NASA's 41-D mission take a group shot displaying their fun moments in space aboard the orbiter Discovery. Crewmembers are (counter-clockwise from center) crew commander Henry W. Harsfield Jr., pilot Michael L. Coats, mission specialist Steven A. Hawley, mission specialist Judith A. Resnik, payload specialist Charles D. Walker, and mission specialist Richard M. Mullane. Dr. Judith Resnik is shown enjoying the weightlessness of space during her first mission. Born on April 5, 1949 in Akron, Ohio, she received a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering from Carnegie-Mellon University in 1970, and a Doctorate in Electrical Engineering from University of Maryland in 1977. Dr. Resnik joined NASA in 1978 as a senior systems engineer in product development with Xerox Corporation at El Segundo, California. NASA later selected her as an astronaut candidate in January 1978; she completed a 1-year training and evaluation period in August 1979. Dr. Resnik died on January 28, 1986 on her second mission, during the failed launch of Challenger STS-51 L.

  7. Roll Control in Fruit Flies

    CERN Document Server

    Beatus, Tsevi; Cohen, Itai

    2014-01-01

    Due to aerodynamic instabilities, stabilizing flapping flight requires ever-present fast corrective actions. Here we investigate how flies control body roll angle, their most susceptible degree of freedom. We glue a magnet to each fly, apply a short magnetic pulse that rolls it in mid-air, and film the corrective maneuver. Flies correct perturbations of up to $100^{\\circ}$ within $30\\pm7\\mathrm{ms}$ by applying a stroke-amplitude asymmetry that is well described by a linear PI controller. The response latency is $\\sim5\\mathrm{ms}$, making the roll correction reflex one of the fastest in the animal kingdom.

  8. Cosmic rays score direct hits with Apollo crew

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 14 astronauts conduted experiments during the spaceflight to help scientists to understand why previous crews have seen flashes of light during missions, believed to be caused by cosmic rays (1 page).

  9. Crew Health And Recreation Gear Exercise Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A magneto-Rheological (MR) fluid based exoskeleton leg demonstrator was developed to help long duration exploration mission crews obtain exercise with entertainment...

  10. Avatar Robot for Crew Performance and Behavioral Health Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project investigates the effectiveness of using an avatar robotic platform as a crew assistant and a family member substitute. This type of avatar robot is...

  11. Planning for Crew Exercise for Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Exercise which is necessary for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to 1G can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Deep space missions will require further understanding of the physiological response to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, and designing the exercise systems to effectively provide mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  12. Crew Systems Laboratory/Building 7. Historical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovinac, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Building 7 is managed by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division of the JSC Engineering Directorate. Originally named the Life Systems Laboratory, it contained five major test facilities: two advanced environmental control laboratories and three human-rated vacuum chambers (8 , 11 , and the 20 ). These facilities supported flight crew familiarization and the testing and evaluation of hardware used in the early manned spaceflight programs, including Gemini, Apollo, and the ASTP.

  13. Definition of essence of concept approaches to crewing business conduct

    OpenAIRE

    Лукашевич, Виталий Матвеевич

    2014-01-01

    It is a research of conceptual approaches to crewing business conduct. It is ascertained that their essential basements are determined by the interests of ship owner as principal and crewing company acting as servant on seaman labor market. Seaman is object in this business process though which principal and servant performing the service pursue their own interests. They treat the seaman interests as secondary and limited to assigning of salary. On the other hand, seaman maximizing behavior i...

  14. Mars Conjunction Crewed Missions With a Reusable Hybrid Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Strange, Nathan J.; Qu, Min; Hatten, Noble

    2015-01-01

    A new crew Mars architecture has been developed that provides many potential benefits for NASA-led human Mars moons and surface missions beginning in the 2030s or 2040s. By using both chemical and electric propulsion systems where they are most beneficial and maintaining as much orbital energy as possible, the Hybrid spaceship that carries crew round trip to Mars is pre-integrated before launch and can be delivered to orbit by a single launch. After check-out on the way to cis-lunar space, it is refueled and can travel round trip to Mars in less than 1100 days, with a minimum of 300 days in Mars vicinity (opportunity dependent). The entire spaceship is recaptured into cis-lunar space and can be reused. The spaceship consists of a habitat for 4 crew attached to the Hybrid propulsion stage which uses long duration electric and chemical in-space propulsion technologies that are in use today. The hybrid architecture's con-ops has no in-space assembly of the crew transfer vehicle and requires only rendezvous of crew in a highly elliptical Earth orbit for arrival at and departure from the spaceship. The crew transfer vehicle does not travel to Mars so it only needs be able to last in space for weeks and re-enter at lunar velocities. The spaceship can be refueled and resupplied for multiple trips to Mars (every other opportunity). The hybrid propulsion stage for crewed transits can also be utilized for cargo delivery to Mars every other opportunity in a reusable manner to pre-deploy infrastructure required for Mars vicinity operations. Finally, the Hybrid architecture provides evolution options for mitigating key long-duration space exploration risks, including crew microgravity and radiation exposure.

  15. Three STS 26 astronauts training in the Crew Compartment trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Three astronauts named in January 1987 as part of a five-member crew for NASA's first flight since the Challenger accident are shown in a photo session of July 1986. Left to right are Astronauts John M. (Mike) Lounge, Richard O. Covey and David C. Hilmers. Lounge and Hilmers will serve as Mission specialists for the STS 26 flight and Covey will serve as pilot. The three are on the middeck of JSC's one-G Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  16. Preparation of the patient and the airway for awake intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Ramkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Awake intubation is usually performed electively in the presence of a difficult airway. A detailed airway examination is time-consuming and often not feasible in an emergency. A simple 1-2-3 rule for airway examination allows one to identify potential airway difficulty within a minute. A more detailed airway examination can give a better idea about the exact nature of difficulty and the course of action to be taken to overcome it. When faced with an anticipated difficult airway, the anaesthesiologist needs to consider securing the airway in an awake state without the use of anaesthetic agents or muscle relaxants. As this can be highly discomforting to the patient, time and effort must be spent to prepare such patients both psychologically and pharmacologically for awake intubation. Psychological preparation is best initiated by an anaesthesiologist who explains the procedure in simple language. Sedative medications can be titrated to achieve patient comfort without compromising airway patency. Additional pharmacological preparation includes anaesthetising the airway through topical application of local anaesthetics and appropriate nerve blocks. When faced with a difficult airway, one should call for the difficult airway cart as well as for help from colleagues who have interest and expertise in airway management. Preoxygenation and monitoring during awake intubation is important. Anxious patients with a difficult airway may need to be intubated under general anaesthesia without muscle relaxants. Proper psychological and pharmacological preparation of the patient by an empathetic anaesthesiologist can go a long way in making awake intubation acceptable for all concerned.

  17. 14 CFR 1214.403 - Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Station Crew. 1214.403 Section 1214.403 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.403 Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew. The Code of Conduct for the International Space Station Crew, which sets...

  18. Emergency surgical airway management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C V; Kehlet Nørskov, Anders; Wetterslev, J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergency surgical airway (ESA) is the final option in difficult airway management. We identified ESA procedures registered in the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) and described the performed airway management. METHODS: We extracted a cohort of 452 461 adult patients undergoing...... for difficult airway management. RESULTS: In the DAD cohort 27 out of 452 461 patients had an ESA representing an incidence of 0.06 events per thousand (95% CI; 0.04 to 0.08). A total of 12 149/452 461 patients underwent Ear-Nose and Throat (ENT) surgery, giving an ESA incidence among ENT patients of 1.6 events...... per thousand (95% CI; 1.0-2.4). A Supraglottic Airway Device and/or the administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent before ESA were used as a rescue in 6/27 and 13/27 of the patients, respectively. In 19/27 patients ENT surgeons performed the ESA's and anaesthetists attempted 6/27 of the ESAs...

  19. Acoustic simulation of a patient's obstructed airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, W C P; van Zuijlen, A H; de Jong, A T; Lynch, C T; Hoeve, L J; Bijl, H

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the numerical simulation of stridor; a high pitched, abnormal noise, resulting from turbulent airflow and vibrating tissue through a partially obstructed airway. Characteristics of stridor noise are used by medical doctors as indication for location and size of the obstruction. The relation between type of stridor and the various diseases associated with airway obstruction is unclear; therefore, simply listening to stridor is an unreliable diagnostic tool. The overall aim of the study is to better understand the relationship between characteristics of stridor noise and localization and size of the obstruction. Acoustic analysis of stridor may then in future simplify the diagnostic process, and reduce the need for more invasive procedures such as laryngoscopy under general anesthesia. In this paper, the feasibility of a coupled flow, acoustic and structural model is investigated to predict the noise generated by the obstruction as well as the propagation of the noise through the airways, taking into account a one-way coupled fluid, structure, and acoustic interaction components. The flow and acoustic solver are validated on a diaphragm and a simplified airway model. A realistic airway model of a patient suffering from a subglottic stenosis, derived from a real computed tomography scan, is further analyzed. Near the mouth, the broadband noise levels at higher frequencies increased with approximately 15-20 dB comparing the stridorous model with the healthy model, indicating stridorous sound.

  20. Silibinin attenuates allergic airway inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Ho [Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Institute for Medical Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Guang Yu [Department of Radiology, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133002 (China); Guo, Hui Shu [Centralab, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116011 (China); Piao, Hong Mei [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Yanbian University Hospital, YanJi 133000 (China); Li, Liang chang; Li, Guang Zhao [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China); Lin, Zhen Hua [Department of Pathology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, YanJi 133000 (China); Yan, Guang Hai, E-mail: ghyan@ybu.edu.cn [Department of Anatomy and Histology and Embryology, Yanbian University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 977 Gongyuan Road, YanJi 133002, Jilin (China)

    2012-10-26

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin diminishes ovalbumin-induced inflammatory reactions in the mouse lung. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin reduces the levels of various cytokines into the lung of allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin prevents the development of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silibinin suppresses NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity. -- Abstract: Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease regulated by coordination of T-helper2 (Th2) type cytokines and inflammatory signal molecules. Silibinin is one of the main flavonoids produced by milk thistle, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) pathway. Because NF-{kappa}B activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation, we have investigated the effect of silibinin on a mouse ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma model. Airway hyperresponsiveness, cytokines levels, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. Pretreatment of silibinin significantly inhibited airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and reduced the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, silibinin prevented the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated the OVA challenge-induced NF-{kappa}B activation. These findings indicate that silibinin protects against OVA-induced airway inflammation, at least in part via downregulation of NF-{kappa}B activity. Our data support the utility of silibinin as a potential medicine for the treatment of asthma.

  1. Macrophage adaptation in airway inflammatory resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manminder Kaur

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral infections (exacerbations are particularly problematic in those with underlying respiratory disease, including post-viral infection, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis. Patients experiencing exacerbations tend to be at the more severe end of the disease spectrum and are often difficult to treat. Most of the unmet medical need remains in this patient group. Airway macrophages are one of the first cell populations to encounter airborne pathogens and, in health, exist in a state of reduced responsiveness due to interactions with the respiratory epithelium and specific factors found in the airway lumen. Granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-β, surfactant proteins and signalling via the CD200 receptor, for example, all raise the threshold above which airway macrophages can be activated. We highlight that following severe respiratory inflammation, the airspace microenvironment does not automatically re-set to baseline and may leave airway macrophages more restrained than they were at the outset. This excessive restraint is mediated in part by the clearance of apoptotic cells and components of extracellular matrix. This implies that one strategy to combat respiratory exacerbations would be to retune airway macrophage responsiveness to allow earlier bacterial recognition.

  2. Design/Development of Spacecraft and Module Crew Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the design and development of crew compartments for spacecraft and for modules. The Crew Compartment or Crew Station is defined as the spacecraft interior and all other areas the crewman interfaces inside the cabin, or may potentially interface.It uses examples from all of the human rated spacecraft. It includes information about the process, significant drivers for the design, habitability, definitions of models, mockups, prototypes and trainers, including pictures of each stage in the development from Apollo, pictures of the space shuttle trainers, and International Space Station trainers. It further reviews the size and shape of the Space Shuttle orbiter crew compartment, and the Apollo command module and the lunar module. It also has a chart which reviews the International Space Station (ISS) internal volume by stage. The placement and use of windows is also discussed. Interestingly according to the table presented, the number 1 rated piece of equipment for recreation was viewing windows. The design of crew positions and restraints, crew translation aids and hardware restraints is shown with views of the restraints and handholds used from the Apollo program through the ISS.

  3. Intercultural crew issues in long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi

    2003-01-01

    Before long-duration flights with international crews can be safely undertaken, potential interpersonal difficulties will need to be addressed. Crew performance breakdown has been recognized by the American Institute of Medicine, in scientific literature, and in popular culture. However, few studies of human interaction and performance in confined, isolated environments exist, and the data pertaining to those studies are mostly anecdotal. Many incidents involving crew interpersonal dynamics, those among flight crews, as well as between flight crews and ground controllers, are reported only in non-peer reviewed books and newspapers. Consequently, due to this lack of concrete knowledge, the selection of astronauts and cosmonauts has focused on individual rather than group selection. Additional selection criteria such as interpersonal and communication competence, along with intercultural training, will have a decisive impact on future mission success. Furthermore, industrial psychological research has demonstrated the ability to select a group based on compatibility. With all this in mind, it is essential to conduct further research on heterogeneous, multi-national crews including selection and training for long-duration space missions.

  4. Adaptive coordination and heedfulness make better cockpit crews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, G; Kolbe, M; Zala-Mezö, E; Bienefeld-Seall, N; Künzle, B

    2010-02-01

    Team coordination during a simulated clean approach performed by 42 civil aviation cockpit crews was analysed. Several hypotheses regarding the adaptive use of implicit and explicit coordination, leadership and heedful interrelating were tested. The results indicate the adaptiveness of coordination to different levels of standardisation and task load and the general importance of explicit coordination for good performance. Leadership seems to be required mainly for work phases with little standardisation. In exploratory lag sequential analyses, heedful behaviour in the seven best and six worst performing crews was examined. The coordination sequences in high performance crews were found to be more succinct and well balanced, indicating that a shared sense of heedfulness is crucial for effectiveness. Theoretical implications for the conceptualisation of adaptive coordination and heedfulness and practical implications for improving crew training are discussed. Statement of Relevance: Analyses of team coordination during a simulated clean approach performed by civil aviation cockpit crews demonstrated the occurrence and effectiveness of adaptive coordination in response to different levels of task load and standardisation. Results also indicated the importance of heedful interrelating, both as a form of coordination and as a way of regulating the adaptiveness of coordination efforts. These findings have important implications for improving crew training, leadership practices and possibly also standard operating procedures.

  5. Subtropical Fruit Fly Invasions into Temperate Fruit Fly Territory in California's San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subtropical fruit fly species including peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders); melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett); oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel); and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata Weidemann, have been detected in the past decade in the San Joaquin Valley of Califo...

  6. Managing the Fruit Fly Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeszenszky, Arleen W.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a sophisticated version of the fruit fly experiment for teaching concepts about genetics to biology students. Provides students with the opportunity to work with live animals over an extended period. (JRH)

  7. Quantitative proteomics on the fly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms is characterized by complex processes that progressively transform essentially a single cell into a creature with complicated structures and highly specialized functions. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent model system to investigat

  8. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  9. Neutrophil elastase-mediated increase in airway temperature during inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Annika; Belaaouaj, Azzaq; Bissinger, Rosi

    2014-01-01

    Background How elevated temperature is generated during airway infections represents a hitherto unresolved physiological question. We hypothesized that innate immune defence mechanisms would increase luminal airway temperature during pulmonary infection. Methods We determined the temperature in t...

  10. Eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma is associated with an altered airway microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Kiilerich, Pia; Brejnrod, Asker

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjects with asthma have higher microbiome diversity, and an altered composition with more Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes compared to healthy controls. Studies comparing airway inflammation and airway microbiome are sparse, especially in subjects not on anti-inflammatory treat......BACKGROUND: Subjects with asthma have higher microbiome diversity, and an altered composition with more Proteobacteria and less Bacteroidetes compared to healthy controls. Studies comparing airway inflammation and airway microbiome are sparse, especially in subjects not on anti......-inflammatory treatment. OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between the airway microbiome and patterns of airway inflammation in steroid-free subjects with asthma and healthy controls. METHODS: Broncho-alveolar lavage was collected from 23 steroid-free, non-smoking subjects with asthma and 10 healthy controls....... The overall composition of the airway microbiome of asthmatics with the lowest levels of eosinophils, but not asthmatics with the highest levels of eosinophils deviated significantly from that of healthy individuals. Asthmatics with the lowest levels of eosinophils had an altered bacterial abundance profile...

  11. A Brief History of Airway Smooth Muscle’s Role in Airway Hyperresponsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Pascoe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A link between airway smooth muscle (ASM and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in asthma was first postulated in the midnineteenth century, and the suspected link has garnered ever increasing interest over the years. AHR is characterized by excessive narrowing of airways in response to nonspecific stimuli, and it is the ASM that drives this narrowing. The stimuli that can be used to demonstrate AHR vary widely, as do the potential mechanisms by which phenotypic changes in ASM or nonmuscle factors can contribute to AHR. In this paper, we review the history of research on airway smooth muscle’s role in airway hyperresponsiveness. This research has ranged from analyzing the quantity of ASM in the airways to testing for alterations in the plastic behavior of smooth muscle, which distinguishes it from skeletal and cardiac muscles. This long history of research and the continued interest in this topic mean that the precise role of ASM in airway responsiveness remains elusive, which makes it a pertinent topic for this collection of articles.

  12. Host-microbe interactions in distal airways: relevance to chronic airway diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clémence; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Lepage, Patricia; Andréjak, Claire; de Blic, Jacques; Bourdin, Arnaud; Brouard, Jacques; Chanez, Pascal; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Deslée, Gaetan; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; Touqui, Lhousseine; Dusser, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This article is the summary of a workshop, which took place in November 2013, on the roles of microorganisms in chronic respiratory diseases. Until recently, it was assumed that lower airways were sterile in healthy individuals. However, it has long been acknowledged that microorganisms could be identified in distal airway secretions from patients with various respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other chronic airway diseases (e.g. post-transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans). These microorganisms were sometimes considered as infectious agents that triggered host immune responses and contributed to disease onset and/or progression; alternatively, microorganisms were often considered as colonisers, which were considered unlikely to play roles in disease pathophysiology. These concepts were developed at a time when the identification of microorganisms relied on culture-based methods. Importantly, the majority of microorganisms cannot be cultured using conventional methods, and the use of novel culture-independent methods that rely on the identification of microorganism genomes has revealed that healthy distal airways display a complex flora called the airway microbiota. The present article reviews some aspects of current literature on host-microbe (mostly bacteria and viruses) interactions in healthy and diseased airways, with a special focus on distal airways.

  13. Host–microbe interactions in distal airways: relevance to chronic airway diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémence Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is the summary of a workshop, which took place in November 2013, on the roles of microorganisms in chronic respiratory diseases. Until recently, it was assumed that lower airways were sterile in healthy individuals. However, it has long been acknowledged that microorganisms could be identified in distal airway secretions from patients with various respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF and non-CF bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and other chronic airway diseases (e.g. post-transplantation bronchiolitis obliterans. These microorganisms were sometimes considered as infectious agents that triggered host immune responses and contributed to disease onset and/or progression; alternatively, microorganisms were often considered as colonisers, which were considered unlikely to play roles in disease pathophysiology. These concepts were developed at a time when the identification of microorganisms relied on culture-based methods. Importantly, the majority of microorganisms cannot be cultured using conventional methods, and the use of novel culture-independent methods that rely on the identification of microorganism genomes has revealed that healthy distal airways display a complex flora called the airway microbiota. The present article reviews some aspects of current literature on host–microbe (mostly bacteria and viruses interactions in healthy and diseased airways, with a special focus on distal airways.

  14. Flying in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-01-01

    Diversity and specialization of behavior in insects is unmatched. Insects hop, walk, run, jump, row, swim, glide and fly to propel themselves in a variety of environments. We have uncovered an unusual mode of propulsion of aerodynamic flight in two dimensions in Waterlilly Beetles \\emph{(Galerucella)}. The adult beetles, often found in water lilly ponds, propel themselves strictly in a two-dimensional plane on the surface of water via flapping wing flight. Here we analyze the aerodynamics of this peculiar flight mode with respect to forces exerted on the organism during flight. The complexity of 2-D flight is captured by accounting for additional forces beyond gravitational, thrust, lift and drag, exerted on the insect body in 3D flight. Understanding this constrained propulsion mode requires accounting for viscous drag, surface tension, buoyancy force, and capillary-wave drag. Moreover, dramatic differences exist in the magnitude of the resultant forces in 2D vs. 3D flight. Here, in this fluid dynamics video...

  15. Airway Clearance Devices for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The purpose of this evidence-based analysis is to examine the safety and efficacy of airway clearance devices (ACDs) for cystic fibrosis and attempt to differentiate between devices, where possible, on grounds of clinical efficacy, quality of life, safety and/or patient preference. Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common, inherited, life-limiting disease that affects multiple systems of the human body. Respiratory dysfunction is the primary complication and leading cause of death due to CF. CF causes abnormal mucus secretion in the airways, leading to airway obstruction and mucus plugging, which in turn can lead to bacterial infection and further mucous production. Over time, this almost cyclical process contributes to severe airway damage and loss of respiratory function. Removal of airway secretions, termed airway clearance, is thus an integral component of the management of CF. A variety of methods are available for airway clearance, some requiring mechanical devices, others physical manipulation of the body (e.g. physiotherapy). Conventional chest physiotherapy (CCPT), through the assistance of a caregiver, is the current standard of care for achieving airway clearance, particularly in young patients up to the ages of six or seven. CF patients are, however, living much longer now than in decades past. The median age of survival in Canada has risen to 37.0 years for the period of 1998-2002 (5-year window), up from 22.8 years for the 5-year window ending in 1977. The prevalence has also risen accordingly, last recorded as 3,453 in Canada in 2002, up from 1,630 in 1977. With individuals living longer, there is a greater need for independent methods of airway clearance. Airway Clearance Devices There are at least three classes of airway clearance devices: positive expiratory pressure devices (PEP), airway oscillating devices (AOD; either handheld or stationary) and high frequency chest compression (HFCC)/mechanical percussion (MP

  16. Developing the Navy’s NC Flying Boats: Transforming Aeronautical Engineering for the First Transatlantic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ft. Max Gross Weight 28,0001b Cruising Speed 84kts Range 1,278 nm Crew 6 Engines (4) 400 hp Liberty L-12 Figure 7. The NC flying boat. In...of the hull. The keel of the hull is built up from spruce while the bottom planking is laid up from two plies of cedar separated by a waterproofing...pilots could remain below decks and out of the weather if desired. The aircraft commander even had enough space to lie down on the planking that made up

  17. The airway in patients with craniofacial abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargozian, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Airway management for patients with craniofacial disorders poses many challenges. The anaesthesiologist must be familiar with the normal bony and soft-tissue anatomy in the airway and how anatomy is altered by various congenital disorders. Specific areas to assess include the oral cavity, anterior mandibular space, maxilla, temporomandibular joint and vertebral column. Congenital conditions that may alter normal anatomy and therefore anaesthetic management include cleft lip and palate with or without Pierre Robin syndrome, craniofacial dysostosis, mandibulofacial dysostosis/Treacher Collins syndrome, hemifacial microsomia, Klippel-Feil syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, trisomy 21/Down's syndrome, Freeman-Sheldon/whistling face syndrome/craniocarpotarsal dysplasia, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, mucopolysaccharidosis and vascular malformations.

  18. Automatic Airway Deletion in Pulmonary Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; ZHUANG Tian-ge

    2005-01-01

    A method of removing the airway from pulmonary segmentation image was proposed. This method firstly segments the image into several separate regions based on the optimum threshold and morphological operator,and then each region is labeled and noted with its mean grayscale. Therefore, most of the non-lung regions can be removed according to the tissue's Hounsfield units (HU) and the imaging modality. Finally, the airway region is recognized and deleted automatically through using the priori information of its HU and size. This proposed method is tested using several clinical images, yielding satisfying results.

  19. Regional & Topical Anaesthesia of Upper Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of techniques are required to adequately anaesthetise upper airway structures for awake intubation . The widest coverage is provided by the inhalational technique. This technique, however, does not always provide a dense enough level of anaesthesia for all patients. Supplementation of this technique with any of the specific nerve blocks is an excellent way to accomplish efficacious anaesthesia for awake inubation. Anaesthetising upper airway is not a difficult skill to master and should be in the armamentarium of all practising anaesthetist.

  20. Dysfunctional lung anatomy and small airways degeneration in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgel PR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clémence Martin, Justine Frija, Pierre-Régis BurgelDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP and Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, FranceAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by incompletely reversible airflow obstruction. Direct measurement of airways resistance using invasive techniques has revealed that the site of obstruction is located in the small conducting airways, ie, bronchioles with a diameter < 2 mm. Anatomical changes in these airways include structural abnormalities of the conducting airways (eg, peribronchiolar fibrosis, mucus plugging and loss of alveolar attachments due to emphysema, which result in destabilization of these airways related to reduced elastic recoil. The relative contribution of structural abnormalities in small conducting airways and emphysema has been a matter of much debate. The present article reviews anatomical changes and inflammatory mechanisms in small conducting airways and in the adjacent lung parenchyma, with a special focus on recent anatomical and imaging data suggesting that the initial event takes place in the small conducting airways and results in a dramatic reduction in the number of airways, together with a reduction in the cross-sectional area of remaining airways. Implications of these findings for the development of novel therapies are briefly discussed.Keywords: emphysema, small airways disease, airway mucus, innate immunity, adaptive immunity

  1. Airway remodeling: Effect of current and future asthma therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K.; Moir, Lyn M.

    2007-01-01

    Airway remodeling (the structural changes which occur in the airways) is one of the characteristic features of severe persistent asthma. These changes include thickening of the laminar reticularis, an increase in the bulk of the airway smooth muscle, thickening of the basement membrane and alteratio

  2. Rigid fibrescope Bonfils: use in simulated difficult airway by novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepho Tim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bonfils intubation fibrescope is a promising alternative device for securing the airway. We examined the success rate of intubation and the ease of use in standardized simulated difficult airway scenarios by physicians. We compared the Bonfils to a classical laryngoscope with Macintosh blade. Methods 30 physicians untrained in the use of rigid fibrescopes but experienced in airway management performed endotracheal intubation in an airway manikin (SimMan, Laerdal, Kent, UK with three different airway conditions. We evaluated the success rate using the Bonfils (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany or the Macintosh laryngoscope, the time needed for securing the airway, and subjective rating of both techniques. Results In normal airway all intubations were successful using laryngoscope (100% vs. 82% using the Bonfils (p Conclusion The Bonfils can be successfully used by physicians unfamiliar with this technique in an airway manikin. The airway could be secured with at least the same success rate as using a Macintosh laryngoscope in difficult airway scenarios. Use of the Bonfils did not delay intubation in the presence of a difficult airway. These results indicate that intensive special training is advised to use the Bonfils effectively in airway management.

  3. Vessel-guided airway segmentation based on voxel classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Sporring, Jon; Ashraf, Haseem;

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for improving airway tree segmentation using vessel orientation information. We use the fact that an airway branch is always accompanied by an artery, with both structures having similar orientations. This work is based on a  voxel classification airway segmentation...

  4. Association between peripheral airway function and neutrophilic inflammation in asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farah, Claude S.; Keulers, Laurien A. B.; Hardaker, Kate M.; Peters, Matthew J.; Berend, Norbert; Postma, Dirkje S.; Salome, Cheryl M.; King, Gregory G.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectiveSmall airway dysfunction is associated with asthma severity and control, but its association with airway inflammation is unknown. The aim was to determine the association between sputum inflammatory cells and the site of small airway dysfunction, measured by multiple breath n

  5. Research on airway inflammation: present status in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zeng-li

    2005-01-01

    @@ Airway inflammation involving activated eosinophils, mast cells and T lymphocytes is an established feature of asthma and has been the key target to treatment. Airway structural changes that occur in patients with asthma in response to persistent inflammation are termed airway remodeling.

  6. [Modern airway management--current concepts for more patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermann, Arnd

    2009-04-01

    Effective and safe airway management is one of the core skills among anaesthesiologists and all physicians involved in acute care medicine. However, failure in airway management is still the most frequent single incidence with the highest impact on patient's morbidity and mortality known from closed claims analyses. The anaesthesiologist has to manage the airway in elective patients providing a high level of safety with as little airway injury and interference with the cardio-vascular system as possible. Clinical competence also includes the management of the expected and unexpected difficult airway in different clinical environments. Therefore, it is the anaesthesiologist's responsibility not only to educate and train younger residents, but also all kinds of medical personnel involved in airway management, e.g. emergency physicians, intensive care therapists or paramedics. Modern airway devices, strategies and educational considerations must fulfill these sometimes diverse and large range requirements. Supraglottic airway devices will be used more often in the daily clinical routine. This is not only due the multiple advantages of these devices compared to the tracheal tube, but also because of the new features of some supraglottic airways, which separate the airway from the gastric track and give information of the pharyngeal position. For the event of a difficult airway, new airway devices and concepts should be trained and applied in daily practice.

  7. Bronchoconstriction and airway biology : potential impact and therapeutic opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Reinoud; Grainge, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that mechanical forces occurring in the airway as a consequence of bronchoconstriction are sufficient to not only induce symptoms but also influence airway biology. Animal and human in vitro and in vivo work demonstrates that the airways are structurally and functionally

  8. Picornavirus-Induced Airway Mucosa Immune Profile in Asymptomatic Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene M.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.; Birch, Sune;

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial airway colonization is known to alter the airway mucosa immune response in neonates whereas the impact of viruses is unknown. The objective was therefore to examine the effect of respiratory viruses on the immune signature in the airways of asymptomatic neonates. Nasal aspirates from 571...

  9. Planning for Crew Exercise for Future Deep Space Mission Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cherice; Ryder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Providing the necessary exercise capability to protect crew health for deep space missions will bring new sets of engineering and research challenges. Exercise has been found to be a necessary mitigation for maintaining crew health on-orbit and preparing the crew for return to earth's gravity. Health and exercise data from Apollo, Space Lab, Shuttle, and International Space Station missions have provided insight into crew deconditioning and the types of activities that can minimize the impacts of microgravity on the physiological systems. The hardware systems required to implement exercise can be challenging to incorporate into spaceflight vehicles. Exercise system design requires encompassing the hardware required to provide mission specific anthropometrical movement ranges, desired loads, and frequencies of desired movements as well as the supporting control and monitoring systems, crew and vehicle interfaces, and vibration isolation and stabilization subsystems. The number of crew and operational constraints also contribute to defining the what exercise systems will be needed. All of these features require flight vehicle mass and volume integrated with multiple vehicle systems. The International Space Station exercise hardware requires over 1,800 kg of equipment and over 24 m3 of volume for hardware and crew operational space. Improvements towards providing equivalent or better capabilities with a smaller vehicle impact will facilitate future deep space missions. Deep space missions will require more understanding of the physiological responses to microgravity, understanding appropriate mitigations, designing the exercise systems to provide needed mitigations, and integrating effectively into vehicle design with a focus to support planned mission scenarios. Recognizing and addressing the constraints and challenges can facilitate improved vehicle design and exercise system incorporation.

  10. Prehospital endotracheal tube airway or esophageal gastric tube airway: a critical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, S R; MacDonald, J R; Gruzinski, G

    1985-02-01

    This study compares two similar groups of patients in cardiopulmonary arrest with ventricular fibrillation (VF). In the survival study group of 296 patients, 148 patients received an endotracheal tube airway (ETA) and 148 patients received an esophageal gastric tube airway (EGTA), the improved version of the esophageal obturator airway (EOA). Survival rates, both short term (ETA = 35.8%, EGTA = 39.1%) and long term (ETA = 11.5%, EGTA = 16.2%), and neurological sequelae of survivors showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P greater than .05). In addition, we found that success and complication rates of intubation were similar. Training time was longer for the ETA. We conclude that both airways have a place in the prehospital setting.

  11. Automatic airway-artery analysis on lung CT to quantify airway wall thickening and bronchiectasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Rovira, Adria; Kuo, Wieying; Petersen, Jens;

    2016-01-01

    area percentage (WAP), wall thickness ratio (WTR), and airway diameters. Results: The method was thoroughly evaluated using 8000 manual annotations of airway-artery pairs from 24 full-inspiration pediatric CT scans (12 diseased and 12 controls). Limits of agreement between the automatically...... and manually measured diameters were comparable to interobserver limits of agreement. Differences in automatically obtained WAR, AAR, WAP, and WTR between bronchiectatic subjects and controls were similar as when manual annotations were used: WAR and outer AAR were significantly higher in the bronchiectatic......Purpose: Bronchiectasis and airway wall thickening are commonly assessed in computed tomography (CT) by comparing the airway size with the size of the accompanying artery. Thus, in order to automate the quantification of bronchiectasis and wall thickening following a similar principle...

  12. STS-47 crew and backups at MSFC's Payload Crew Training Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Spacelab Japan (SLJ) crewmembers and backup payload specialists stand outside SLJ module mockup at the Payload Crew Training Complex at Marshall SpaceFlight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. From left to right are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, MS N. Jan Davis, backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee. The MSFC-managed mission is a joint venture in space-based research between the United States and Japan. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). View provided with alternate number 92P-142.

  13. Crew Roles and Interactions in Scientific Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-01-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human spaceflight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future spaceflight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future spaceflights.

  14. Operational considerations for a crewed nuclear powered space transportation vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrer, Jerry L.; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    1993-01-01

    Applying nuclear propulsion technology to human space travel will require new approaches to conducting human operations in space. Due to the remoteness of these types of missions, the crew and their vehicle must be capable of operating independent from Earth-based support. This paper discusses current operational studies which address methods for performing these types of remote and autonomous missions. Methods of managing the hazards to humans who will operate these high-energy nuclear-powered transportation vehicles also is reviewed. Crew training for both normal and contingency operations is considered. Options are evaluated on how best to train crews to operate and maintain the systems associated with a nuclear engine. Methods of maintaining crew proficiency during the long months of space travel are discussed. Vehicle health maintenance also will be a primary concern during these long missions. A discussion is presented on how on-board vehicle health maintenance systems will monitor system trends, identified system weaknesses, and either isolate critical failures or provide the crew with adequate warning of impending problems.

  15. Crew roles and interactions in scientific space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Bleacher, Jacob E.

    2013-10-01

    Future piloted space exploration missions will focus more on science than engineering, a change which will challenge existing concepts for flight crew tasking and demand that participants with contrasting skills, values, and backgrounds learn to cooperate as equals. In terrestrial space flight analogs such as Desert Research And Technology Studies, engineers, pilots, and scientists can practice working together, taking advantage of the full breadth of all team members' training to produce harmonious, effective missions that maximize the time and attention the crew can devote to science. This paper presents, in a format usable as a reference by participants in the field, a successfully tested crew interaction model for such missions. The model builds upon the basic framework of a scientific field expedition by adding proven concepts from aviation and human space flight, including expeditionary behavior and cockpit resource management, cooperative crew tasking and adaptive leadership and followership, formal techniques for radio communication, and increased attention to operational considerations. The crews of future space flight analogs can use this model to demonstrate effective techniques, learn from each other, develop positive working relationships, and make their expeditions more successful, even if they have limited time to train together beforehand. This model can also inform the preparation and execution of actual future space flights.

  16. 联合气道疾病%Combined airway disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫占峰; 王宁宇

    2012-01-01

    datas of epidemiological, clinical, and immunopathology demonstrate there is an important link between upper and lower airways. The upper airways diseases including the allergy rhinitis, the professional rhinitis, the sleep apnea and hypoventilation syndrome, nose polyposis (with/without aspirin sensitive) , the chronic rhinosinusitis and so on,have an important contacting with lower airways diseases. Understanding how the upper airway does affect the lower airway disease, has the influential role to diagnosis, the treatment and the prognosis. This article made the brief summary on the important relation about among the nose, the paranasal sinus and the lung recent years.

  17. Vessel-guided airway tree segmentation: A voxel classification approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Haseem; Pedersen, Jesper J H; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method for airway tree segmentation that uses a combination of a trained airway appearance model, vessel and airway orientation information, and region growing. We propose a voxel classification approach for the appearance model, which uses a classifier that is trained...... method is evaluated on 250 low dose computed tomography images from a lung cancer screening trial. Our experiments showed that applying the region growing algorithm on the airway appearance model produces more complete airway segmentations, leading to on average 20% longer trees, and 50% less leakage...

  18. Mechanisms of Airway Remodeling in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuko Tagaya

    2007-01-01

    To date, many studies have identified candidate mechanisms and mediators for these observed structural changes, which are thus potential targets in the treatment of asthma. In this review, we describe the recent knowledge of the mechanisms and clinical implications of airway remodeling in asthma.

  19. Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C; Hansen, E G; Kristensen, M S;

    2006-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult airway management (DAM) is a major challenge for the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a risk of severe patient damage. We analysed 24 cases of unanticipated DAM for actual case management and anaesthesiologists knowledge, technical and non-technical skills. Anaesth...

  20. Fabry disease, respiratory symptoms, and airway limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Camilla Kara; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    abnormalities in patients with Fabry disease. Electron microscopy of lung biopsy and induced sputum show lamellar inclusion bodies (Zebra bodies) in the cytoplasm of cells in the airway wall. X-ray and CT scan have shown patchy ground-glass pulmonary infiltrations, fibrosis, and air trapping. Fibrosis diagnosed...

  1. Manual airway labeling has limited reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü;

    from low-dose chest CT scans. Methods and Materials: We selected 40 participants of the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 10 of each category: asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COPD. Each subject contributed 2 CT scans with an average interval of 4 years. The airways were segmented...

  2. Severe upper airway obstruction during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonekat, H William; Hardin, Kimberly A

    2003-10-01

    Few disorders may manifest with predominantly sleep-related obstructive breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, varies in severity and is associated with significant cardiovascular and neurocognitive morbidity. It is estimated that between 8 and 18 million people in the United States have at least mild OSA. Although the exact mechanism of OSA is not well-delineated, multiple factors contribute to the development of upper airway obstruction and include anatomic, mechanical, neurologic, and inflammatory changes in the pharynx. OSA may occur concomitantly with asthma. Approximately 74% of asthmatics experience nocturnal symptoms of airflow obstruction secondary to reactive airways disease. Similar cytokine, chemokine, and histologic changes are seen in both disorders. Sleep deprivation, chronic upper airway edema, and inflammation associated with OSA may further exacerbate nocturnal asthma symptoms. Allergic rhinitis may contribute to both OSA and asthma. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard treatment for OSA. Treatment with CPAP therapy has also been shown to improve both daytime and nighttime peak expiratory flow rates in patients with concomitant OSA and asthma. It is important for allergists to be aware of how OSA may complicate diagnosis and treatment of asthma and allergic rhinitis. A thorough sleep history and high clinical suspicion for OSA is indicated, particularly in asthma patients who are refractory to standard medication treatments.

  3. CT quantification of central airway in tracheobronchomalacia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Won Hyeong; Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To know which factors help to diagnose tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) using CT quantification of central airway. From April 2013 to July 2014, 19 patients (68.0 ± 15.0 years; 6 male, 13 female) were diagnosed as TBM on CT. As case-matching, 38 normal subjects (65.5 ± 21.5 years; 6 male, 13 female) were selected. All 57 subjects underwent CT with end-inspiration and end-expiration. Airway parameters of trachea and both main bronchus were assessed using software (VIDA diagnostic). Airway parameters of TBM patients and normal subjects were compared using the Student t-test. In expiration, both wall perimeter and wall thickness in TBM patients were significantly smaller than normal subjects (wall perimeter: trachea, 43.97 mm vs. 49.04 mm, p = 0.020; right main bronchus, 33.52 mm vs. 42.69 mm, p < 0.001; left main bronchus, 26.76 mm vs. 31.88 mm, p = 0.012; wall thickness: trachea, 1.89 mm vs. 2.22 mm, p = 0.017; right main bronchus, 1.64 mm vs. 1.83 mm, p = 0.021; left main bronchus, 1.61 mm vs. 1.75 mm, p = 0.016). Wall thinning and decreased perimeter of central airway of expiration by CT quantification would be a new diagnostic indicators in TBM.

  4. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger;

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane...

  5. Airway epithelial cell responses to ozone injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leikauf, G.D.; Simpson, L.G.; Zhao, Qiyu [Univ. of Cincinnati Medical Center, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The airway epithelial cell is an important target in ozone injury. Once activated, the airway epithelium responds in three phases. The initial, or immediate phase, involves activation of constitutive cells, often through direct covalent interactions including the formation of secondary ozonolysis products-hydroxyhydroperoxides, aldehydes, and hydrogen peroxide. Recently, we found hydroxyhydroperoxides to be potent agonists; of bioactive eicosanoid formation by human airway epithelial cells in culture. Other probable immediate events include activation and inactivation of enzymes present on the epithelial surface (e.g., neutral endopeptidase). During the next 2 to 24 hr, or early phase, epithelial cells respond by synthesis and release of chemotactic factors, including chemokines-macrophage inflammatory protein-2, RANTES, and interleukin-8. Infiltrating leukocytes during this period also release elastase, an important agonist of epithelial cell mucus secretion and additional chemokine formation. The third (late) phase of ozone injury is characterized by eosinophil or monocyte infiltration. Cytokine expression leads to alteration of structural protein synthesis, with increases in fibronectin evident by in situ hybridization. Synthesis of epithelial antiproteases, e.g., secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, may also increase locally 24 to 48 hr after elastase concentrations become excessive. Thus, the epithelium is not merely a passive barrier to ozone injury but has a dynamic role in directing the migration, activating, and then counteracting inflammatory cells. Through these complex interactions, epithelial cells can be viewed as the initiators (alpha) and the receptors (omega) of ozone-induced airway disease. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Walking with continuous positive airway pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, W.; Goorhuis, JF; de Weerd, W; Hazenberg, A; Zijistra, JG; Nijsten, MWN

    2006-01-01

    A ventilator-dependent child had been in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) ever since birth. As a result, she had fallen behind considerably in her development. After 18 months, continuous positive airway tracheostomy tube with a novel lightweight device device, the child was discharged home

  7. Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C; Hansen, E G; Kristensen, M S

    2006-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult airway management (DAM) is a major challenge for the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a risk of severe patient damage. We analysed 24 cases of unanticipated DAM for actual case management and anaesthesiologists knowledge, technical and non-technical skills...

  8. Essential ultrasound techniques of the pediatric airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafrace, Samuel; Engelhardt, Thomas; Teoh, Wendy H;

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound of the airways is a technique which has been described in a number of recent articles and reviews highlighting the diagnostic possibilities and simple methodology. However, there is a paucity of information focusing specifically on such methods in children where equipment, technique, a...

  9. Quantitative analysis of airway abnormalities in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Nielsen, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    A coupled surface graph cut algorithm for airway wall segmentation from Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. Using cost functions that highlight both inner and outer wall borders, the method combines the search for both borders into one graph cut. The proposed method is evaluated on 173 ...

  10. PPARγ as a Potential Target to Treat Airway Mucus Hypersecretion in Chronic Airway Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Shen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway mucus hypersecretion (AMH is a key pathophysiological feature of chronic airway inflammatory diseases such as bronchial asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. AMH contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic airway inflammatory diseases, and it is associated with reduced lung function and high rates of hospitalization and mortality. It has been suggested that AMH should be a target in the treatment of chronic airway inflammatory diseases. Recent evidence suggests that a key regulator of airway inflammation, hyperresponsiveness, and remodeling is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is expressed in structural, immune, and inflammatory cells in the lung. PPARγ is involved in mucin production, and PPARγ agonists can inhibit mucin synthesis both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that PPARγ is a novel target in the treatment of AMH and that further work on this transcription factor may lead to new therapies for chronic airway inflammatory diseases.

  11. [Use of airway stent subsequent to endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment in central airway obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaogi, E; Yuasa, H; Ishibashi, O; Inage, Y; Dai, Y; Sato, Y; Ishikawa, S; Morita, R; Onizuka, M; Mitsui, K

    1992-01-01

    Ten cases of central airway obstruction mainly caused by extrinsic compression due to the growth of extratracheal malignant tumors or longitudinal extension of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinomas, underwent palliative intubation subsequent to endoscopic Nd-YAG laser treatment. Mean length of the severe stenosis in these cases was 4.4 cm (3-7 cm). Sole application of endoscopic Nd-YAG laser to the stenosis failed relief of the symptom and an immediate palliative intubation was recommended. Mean time of the temporary intubation was 7 days (4-11 days). Airway was maintained by this intubation and also retained enough after extubation. Therefore, it seemed that, in a palliative treatment of the central airway severe stenosis, usefulness of the combination management of Nd-YAG laser with following temporary intubation was revealed. However, in order to maintain the airway for recurrence of the obstruction, use of indwelling airway stents seemed a better application. The longest period of follow-up in the cases treated by indwelling airway stents was 6 months and one of the cases is a now in comfortable state.

  12. Fly-in/Fly-out: Implications for Community Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Storey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available “Fly-in/fly-out” is a form of work organization that has become the standard model for new mining, petroleum and other types of resource development in remote areas. In many places this “no town” model has replaced that of the “new town.” The work system has both beneficial and adverse implications for the sustainability of both existing communities near new resource developments and for the more distant communities from which workers are drawn. This paper explores these outcomes drawing upon examples from North America and Australia.

  13. Escherichia coli fliAZY operon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mytelka, D S; Chamberlin, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have cloned the Escherichia coli fliAZY operon, which contains the fliA gene (the alternative sigma factor sigma F) and two novel genes, fliZ and fliY. Transcriptional mapping of this operon shows two start sites, one of which is preceded by a canonical E sigma F-dependent consensus and is dependent on sigma F for expression in vivo and in vitro. We have overexpressed and purified sigma F and demonstrated that it can direct core polymerase to E sigma F-dependent promoters. FliZ and FliY ar...

  14. Fiber optics that fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Michael J.; Thelen, Donald C., Jr.

    1996-11-01

    The need for autonomous systems to work under unanticipated conditions requires the use of smart sensors. High resolution systems develop tremendous computational loads. Inspiration from animal vision systems can guide us in developing preprocessing approaches implementable in real time with high resolution and deduced computational load. Given a high quality optical path and a 2D array of photodetectors, the resolution of a digital image is determined by the density of photodetectors sampling the image. In order to reconstruct an image, resolution is limited by the distance between adjacent detectors. However, animal eyes resolve images 10-100 times better than either the acceptance angle of a single photodetector or the center-to-center distance between neighboring photodetectors. A new model of the fly's visual system emulates this improved performance, offering a different approach to subpixel resolution. That an animal without a cortex is capable of this performance suggests that high level computation is not involved. The model takes advantage of a photoreceptor cell's internal structure for capturing light. This organelle is a waveguide. Neurocircuitry exploits the waveguide's optical nonlinearities, namely in the shoulder region of its gaussian sensitivity-profile, to extract high resolution information from the visual scene. The receptive fields of optically disparate inputs overlap in space. Photoreceptor input is continuous rather than discretely sampled. The output of the integrating module is a signal proportional to the position of the target within the detector array. For tracking a point source, resolution is 10 times better than the detector spacing. For locating absolute position and orientation of an edge, the model performs similarly. Analog processing is used throughout. Each element is an independent processor of local luminance. Information processing is in real time with continuous update. This processing principle will be reproduced in an

  15. Estimation of airway obstruction using oximeter plethysmograph waveform data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond Renee' A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Validated measures to assess the severity of airway obstruction in patients with obstructive airway disease are limited. Changes in the pulse oximeter plethysmograph waveform represent fluctuations in arterial flow. Analysis of these fluctuations might be useful clinically if they represent physiologic perturbations resulting from airway obstruction. We tested the hypothesis that the severity of airway obstruction could be estimated using plethysmograph waveform data. Methods Using a closed airway circuit with adjustable inspiratory and expiratory pressure relief valves, airway obstruction was induced in a prospective convenience sample of 31 healthy adult subjects. Maximal change in airway pressure at the mouthpiece was used as a surrogate measure of the degree of obstruction applied. Plethysmograph waveform data and mouthpiece airway pressure were acquired for 60 seconds at increasing levels of inspiratory and expiratory obstruction. At each level of applied obstruction, mean values for maximal change in waveform area under the curve and height as well as maximal change in mouth pressure were calculated for sequential 7.5 second intervals. Correlations of these waveform variables with mouth pressure values were then performed to determine if the magnitude of changes in these variables indicates the severity of airway obstruction. Results There were significant relationships between maximal change in area under the curve (P Conclusion The findings suggest that mathematic interpretation of plethysmograph waveform data may estimate the severity of airway obstruction and be of clinical utility in objective assessment of patients with obstructive airway diseases.

  16. The Diagnosis and Management of Airway Complications Following Lung Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Amit K; Folch, Erik; Khandhar, Sandeep J; Channick, Colleen L; Santacruz, Jose F; Mehta, Atul C; Nathan, Steven D

    2017-03-05

    Airway complications following lung transplantation result in considerable morbidity and are associated with a mortality of 2-4 percent. The incidence of lethal and non-lethal airway complications has decreased since the early experiences with double- and single-lung transplantation. The most common risk factor associated with post-lung transplant airway complications is anastomotic ischemia. Airway complications include development of exophytic granulation tissue, bronchial stenosis, bronchomalacia, airway fistula, endobronchial infection, and anastomotic dehiscence. The broadening array of bronchoscopic therapies has enhanced treatment options for lung transplant recipients with airway complications. This article reviews the risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatments of airway complications following lung transplantation, and provides our expert opinion where evidence is lacking.

  17. Occupational cosmic radiation exposure and cancer in airline cabin crew.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, K.

    2013-03-15

    Cosmic radiation dose rates are considerably higher at cruising altitudes of airplanes than at ground level. Previous studies have found increased risk of certain cancers among aircraft cabin crew, but the results are not consistent across different studies. Despite individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment is important for evaluating the relation between cosmic radiation exposure and cancer risk, only few previous studies have tried to develop an exposure assessment method. The evidence for adverse health effects in aircrews due to ionizing radiation is inconclusive because quantitative dose estimates have not been used. No information on possible confounders has been collected. For an occupational group with an increased risk of certain cancers it is very important to assess if the risk is related to occupational exposure. The goal of this thesis was to develop two separate retrospective exposure assessment methods for occupational exposure to cosmic radiation. The methods included the assessment based on survey on flight histories and based on company flight timetables. Another goal was to describe the cancer incidence among aircraft cabin crew with a large cohort in four Nordic countries, i.e., Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Also the contribution of occupational as well as non-occupational factors to breast and skin cancer risk among the cabin crew was studied with case-control studies. Using the survey method of cosmic radiation exposure assessment, the median annual radiation dose of Finnish airline cabin crew was 0.6 milliSievert (mSv) in the 1960s, 3.3 mSv in the 1970s, and 3.6 mSv in the 1980s. With the flight timetable method, the annual radiation dose increased with time being 0.7 mSv in the 1960 and 2.1 mSv in the 1995. With the survey method, the median career dose was 27.9 mSv and with the timetable method 20.8 mSv. These methods provide improved means for individual cosmic radiation exposure assessment compared to studies where cruder

  18. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) (Orion) Occupant Protection. Part 1; Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie-Gregg, Nancy J.; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lawrence, Charles; Somers, Jeffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nancy J. Currie, of the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC), Chief Engineer at Johnson Space Center (JSC), requested an assessment of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) occupant protection as a result of issues identified by the Constellation Program and Orion Project. The NESC, in collaboration with the Human Research Program (HRP), investigated new methods associated with occupant protection for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), known as Orion. The primary objective of this assessment was to investigate new methods associated with occupant protection for the CEV, known as Orion, that would ensure the design provided minimal risk to the crew during nominal and contingency landings in an acceptable set of environmental and spacecraft failure conditions. This documents contains the appendices to the NESC assessment report. NASA/TM-2013-217380, Application of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criterion to Spacecraft Transient Dynamic Events supersedes this document.

  19. Covered Bronchial Stent Insertion to Manage Airway Obstruction with Hemoptysis Caused by Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sae Ah; Kim, Do Hyeong [Dankook University College of Medicine, Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jen, Gyeong Sik [Bundang CHA General Hospital, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Malignant airway obstruction and hemoptysis are common in lung cancer patients. Recently, airway stent is commonly used to preserve airway in malignant airway obstruction. Hemoptysis can be managed through various methods including conservative treatment, endobronchial tamponade, bronchoscopic intervention, embolization and surgery. In our case studies, we sought to investigate the effectiveness of airway stents for re-opening the airway as well as tamponade effects in four patients with malignant airway obstruction and bleeding caused by tumors or lymph node invasions.

  20. NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    By incorporating rigorous engineering practices, innovative manufacturing processes and test techniques, a unique multi-center government/contractor partnership, and a clean-sheet design developed around the primary requirements for the International Space Station (ISS) and Lunar missions, the Upper Stage Element of NASA's Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), the "Ares I," is a vital part of the Constellation Program's transportation system. Constellation's exploration missions will include Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles required to place crew and cargo in low-Earth orbit (LEO), crew and cargo transportation systems required for human space travel, and transportation systems and scientific equipment required for human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Early Ares I configurations will support ISS re-supply missions. A self-supporting cylindrical structure, the Ares I Upper Stage will be approximately 84' long and 18' in diameter. The Upper Stage Element is being designed for increased supportability and increased reliability to meet human-rating requirements imposed by NASA standards. The design also incorporates state-of-the-art materials, hardware, design, and integrated logistics planning, thus facilitating a supportable, reliable, and operable system. With NASA retiring the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010, the success of the Ares I Project is essential to America's continued leadership in space. The first Ares I test flight, called Ares 1-X, is scheduled for 2009. Subsequent test flights will continue thereafter, with the first crewed flight of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), "Orion," planned for no later than 2015. Crew transportation to the ISS will follow within the same decade, and the first Lunar excursion is scheduled for the 2020 timeframe.

  1. STS-103 crew practice emergency egress in the slidewire basket

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the slidewire basket on Launch Pad 39B, STS-103 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) gets ready to pull the lever, which will release the basket. With Foale are fellow crew members Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland and John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.). The baskets are part of the emergency egress system for persons in the Shuttle vehicle or on the Rotating Service Structure. Seven slidewires extend from the orbiter access arm, with a netted, flatbottom basket suspended from each wire. The STS-103 crew are taking part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities in preparation for launch. The other crew members taking part are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, and Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The TCDT provides the crew with the emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  2. Susceptibility of low-chill blueberry cultivars to Mediterranean fruit fly, oriental fruit fly, and melon fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Zee, Francis T; Hamasaki, Randall T; Hummer, Kim; Nakamoto, Stuart T

    2011-04-01

    No-choice tests were conducted to determine whether fruit of southern highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., hybrids are hosts for three invasive tephritid fruit flies in Hawaii. Fruit of various blueberry cultivars was exposed to gravid female flies of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (oriental fruit fly), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Mediterranean fruit fly), or Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillet (melon fly) in screen cages outdoors for 6 h and then held on sand in the laboratory for 2 wk for pupal development and adult emergence. Each of the 15 blueberry cultivars tested were infested by oriental fruit fly and Mediterranean fruit fly, confirming that these fruit flies will oviposit on blueberry fruit and that blueberry is a suitable host for fly development. However, there was significant cultivar variation in susceptibility to fruit fly infestation. For oriental fruit fly, 'Sapphire' fruit produced an average of 1.42 puparia per g, twice as high as that of the next most susceptible cultivar 'Emerald' (0.70 puparia per g). 'Legacy', 'Biloxi', and 'Spring High' were least susceptible to infestation, producing only 0.20-0.25 oriental fruit fly puparia per g of fruit. For Mediterranean fruit fly, 'Blue Crisp' produced 0.50 puparia per g of fruit, whereas 'Sharpblue' produced only 0.03 puparia per g of fruit. Blueberry was a marginal host for melon fly. This information will aid in development of pest management recommendations for blueberry cultivars as planting of low-chill cultivars expands to areas with subtropical and tropical fruit flies. Planting of fruit fly resistant cultivars may result in lower infestation levels and less crop loss.

  3. Dermatobia, the neotropical warble fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E

    1988-09-01

    The neotropical warble fly, Dermatobia hominis (Fig. 1), has plagued neotropical America since preColombian times, and has become an economically important pest causing substantial losses to the meat, milk and leather industries from northern Mexico down to northern Argentina. Its life cycle (Box 1) is astonishingly complex, requiring another insect as a phoretic carrier of its eggs to the skin of its mammal hosts. Here Eugenio Sancho discusses factors that contribute to the current economic and public health importance of this myiasis-causing fly.

  4. Adaptive Attitude Control of the Crew Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muse, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    An H(sub infinity)-NMA architecture for the Crew Launch Vehicle was developed in a state feedback setting. The minimal complexity adaptive law was shown to improve base line performance relative to a performance metric based on Crew Launch Vehicle design requirements for all most all of the Worst-on-Worst dispersion cases. The adaptive law was able to maintain stability for some dispersions that are unstable with the nominal control law. Due to the nature of the H(sub infinity)-NMA architecture, the augmented adaptive control signal has low bandwidth which is a great benefit for a manned launch vehicle.

  5. The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Merritt, A. C.; Wilhelm, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we describe changes in the nature of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in commercial aviation, including its shift from cockpit to crew resource management. Validation of the impact of CRM is discussed. Limitations of CRM, including lack of cross-cultural generality are considered. An overarching framework that stresses error management to increase acceptance of CRM concepts is presented. The error management approach defines behavioral strategies taught in CRM as error countermeasures that are employed to avoid error, to trap errors committed, and to mitigate the consequences of error.

  6. Skylab 3 crew during training in Orbital Workshop trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The three prime crewmen of the Skylab 3 mission check over flight data during a training session in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at JSC. They are from left to right, Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot; and Astronauts Alan L. bean, commander, and Jack R. Lousma, pilot (28419); Skylab 3 crew work with Inflight Medical Support System (IMSS) resupply container atop the food table in the OWS. From left to right are Garriott, Lousma and Bean (28420).

  7. Analysis of a Dynamic Multi-Track Airway Concept for Air Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    The Dynamic Multi-track Airways (DMA) Concept for Air Traffic Management (ATM) proposes a network of high-altitude airways constructed of multiple, closely spaced, parallel tracks designed to increase en-route capacity in high-demand airspace corridors. Segregated from non-airway operations, these multi-track airways establish high-priority traffic flow corridors along optimal routes between major terminal areas throughout the National Airspace System (NAS). Air traffic controllers transition aircraft equipped for DMA operations to DMA entry points, the aircraft use autonomous control of airspeed to fly the continuous-airspace airway and achieve an economic benefit, and controllers then transition the aircraft from the DMA exit to the terminal area. Aircraft authority within the DMA includes responsibility for spacing and/or separation from other DMA aircraft. The DMA controller is responsible for coordinating the entry and exit of traffic to and from the DMA and for traffic flow management (TFM), including adjusting DMA routing on a daily basis to account for predicted weather and wind patterns and re-routing DMAs in real time to accommodate unpredicted weather changes. However, the DMA controller is not responsible for monitoring the DMA for traffic separation. This report defines the mature state concept, explores its feasibility and performance, and identifies potential benefits. The report also discusses (a) an analysis of a single DMA, which was modeled within the NAS to assess capacity and determine the impact of a single DMA on regional sector loads and conflict potential; (b) a demand analysis, which was conducted to determine likely city-pair candidates for a nationwide DMA network and to determine the expected demand fraction; (c) two track configurations, which were modeled and analyzed for their operational characteristic; (d) software-prototype airborne capabilities developed for DMA operations research; (e) a feasibility analysis of key attributes in

  8. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research Past Issues / Summer 2007 ... courtesy of NIGMS Neuroscientist Chiara Cirelli uses experimental fruit flies to study sleep. Although it may be tough ...

  9. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  10. Flight Crew Responses to the Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Wilson, Sara R.; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Roper, Roy D.

    2016-01-01

    Interval Management Alternative Clearances (IMAC) was a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment conducted to explore the efficacy and acceptability of three IM operations: CAPTURE, CROSS, and MAINTAIN. Two weeks of data collection were conducted, with each week using twelve subject pilots and four subject controllers flying ten high-density arrival scenarios into the Denver International Airport. Overall, both the IM operations and procedures were rated very favorably by the flight crew in terms of acceptability, workload, and pilot head down time. However, several critical issues were identified requiring resolution prior to real-world implementation, including the high frequency of IM speed commands, IM speed commands requiring changes to aircraft configuration, and ambiguous IM cockpit displays that did not trigger the intended pilot reaction. The results from this experiment will be used to prepare for a flight test in 2017, and to support the development of an advanced IM concept of operations by the FAA (Federal Aviation Agency) and aviation industry.

  11. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extrageni...

  12. Randomized crossover comparison of the laryngeal mask airway classic with i-gel laryngeal mask airway in the management of difficult airway in post burn neck contracture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to compare the performance of i-gel supraglottic airway with cLMA in difficult airway management in post burn neck contracture patients and assess the feasibility of i-gel use for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening. Methods: Prospective, crossover, randomized controlled trial was performed amongst forty eight post burn neck contracture patients with limited mouth opening and neck movement. i-gel and cLMA were placed in random order in each patient. Primary outcome was overall success rate. Other measurements were time to successful ventilation, airway leak pressure, fiberoptic glottic view, visualization of square wave pattern. Results: Success rate for the i-gel was 91.7% versus 79.2% for the cLMA. i-gel required shorter insertion time (19.3 seconds vs. 23.5 seconds, P=0.000. Airway leak pressure difference was statistically significant (i-gel 21.2 cm H20; cLMA 16.9 cm H 2 0; P=0.00. Fiberoptic view through the i-gel showed there were less epiglottic downfolding and better fiberoptic view of the glottis than cLMA. Overall agreement in insertion outcome for i-gel was 22/24 (91.7% successes and 2/24(8.3% failure and for cLMA, 19/24 (79.16% successes and 5/24 (16.7% failure in the first attempt. Conclusion: The i-gel is cheap, effective airway device which is easier to insert and has better clinical performance in the difficult airway management of the airway in the post burn contracture of the neck. Our study shows that i-gel is feasible for emergency airway management in difficult airway situation with reduced neck movement and limited mouth opening in post burn neck.

  13. Flies and Campylobacter infection of broiler flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Skovgård, Henrik; Bang, Dang Duong;

    2004-01-01

    A total of 8.2% of flies caught outside a broiler house in Denmark had the potential to transmit Campylobacter jejuni to chickens, and hundreds of flies per day passed through the ventilation system into the broiler house. Our study suggests that flies may be an important source of Campylobacter...

  14. Louse flies on birds of Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, J L; Rodríguez-Estrella, R; Blanco, G

    2000-01-01

    Louse flies were collected from 401 birds of 32 species captured in autumn of 1996 in Baja California Sur (Mexico). Only one louse fly species (Microlynchia pusilla) was found. It occurred in four of the 164 common ground doves (Columbina passerina) collected. This is a new a host species for this louse fly.

  15. DURABILITY OF HARDENED FLY ASH PASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties and durability ( mainly frost-resistance and carbonation resistance ) of fly ash-CaO-CaSO4 .2H2O hardened paste are studied. The relationship among durability of harden ed fly ash paste, the quantity and distribution of hydrates and the initial p aste texture of hardened fly ash paste is presented.

  16. Airway acidification initiates host defense abnormalities in cystic fibrosis mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Reznikov, Leah; Alaiwa, Mahmoud Abou; Ernst, Sarah E.; Karp, Philip H.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Heilmann, Kristopher P.; Leidinger, Mariah R.; Allen, Patrick D.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Stoltz, David A.; Randak, Christoph O.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the gene that encodes the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel. In humans and pigs, the loss of CFTR impairs respiratory host defenses, causing airway infection. But CF mice are spared. We found that in all three species, CFTR secreted bicarbonate into airway surface liquid. In humans and pigs lacking CFTR, unchecked H+ secretion by the nongastric H+/K+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATP12A) acidified airway surface liquid, which impaired airway host defenses. In contrast, mouse airways expressed little ATP12A and secreted minimal H+; consequently, airway surface liquid in CF and non-CF mice had similar pH. Inhibiting ATP12A reversed host defense abnormalities in human and pig airways. Conversely, expressing ATP12A in CF mouse airways acidified airway surface liquid, impaired defenses, and increased airway bacteria. These findings help explain why CF mice are protected from infection and nominate ATP12A as a potential therapeutic target for CF. PMID:26823428

  17. The Spider and the Fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellinger, Keith E.; Viglione, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The Spider and the Fly puzzle, originally attributed to the great puzzler Henry Ernest Dudeney, and now over 100 years old, asks for the shortest path between two points on a particular square prism. We explore a generalization, find that the original solution only holds in certain cases, and suggest how this discovery might be used in the…

  18. Effects of a single dose of Bilastine 20mg on flying ability in healthy volunteers under conditions of simulated cabin pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Valk, P.J.L.; Jetten, A. M.; M. Simons

    2015-01-01

    Background : Optimal physical and mental fitness of pilots is a prerequisite for flight safety. Pilots suffering from allergic rhinoconjuctivitis or other allergic upper airway diseases are not allowed to fly because ambient pressure changes may aggravate the symptoms and some antihistaminic medication may interfere with flight safety, probably due to their sedative effects. Bilastine is a new second-generation highly selective H1 antihistamine that has been developed for the treatment of all...

  19. Integrating Timetabling and Crew Scheduling at a Freight Railway Operator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Bach (Lucas); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ We investigate to what degree we can integrate a Train Timetabling / Engine Scheduling Problem with a Crew Scheduling Problem. In the Timetabling Problem we design a timetable for the desired lines by fixing the departure and arrival times. Also, we allocate time-slots

  20. Ergonomic and anthropometric issues of the forward Apache crew station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudenhuijzen, A.J.K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the anthropometric accommodation in the Apache crew systems. These activities are part of a comprehensive project, in a cooperative effort from the Armstrong Laboratory at Wright Patterson Air Force Base (Dayton, Ohio, USA) and TNO Human Factors Research Institute (TNO HFRI) in

  1. Bullying 101: The Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Bullying 101" is the Club Crew's Guide to Bullying Prevention. A visually-friendly, age-appropriate, 16-page colorful guide for students to read or for parents to use when talking with children, this guide describes and explains what bullying is and is not, the roles of other students, and tips on what each student can do to prevent…

  2. SCOPE : an intelligent maintenance system for supporting crew operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Breebaart, L.; Neerincx, M.A.; Wolff, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent maintenance system for Supporting Crew OPErations (SCOPE). SCOPE supports the astronauts onboard the ISS and helps them to maximize the availability of complex payload systems. SCOPE detects system failures, guides the isolation of the root causes of failure, and

  3. Routing helicopters for crew exchanges on off-shore locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, G.; Tijssen, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper deals with a vehicle routing problem with split demands, namely the problem of determining a flight schedule for helicopters to off-shore platform locations for exchanging crew people employed on these platforms. The problem is formulated as an LP model and solved by means of a column-gen

  4. 19 CFR 122.46 - Crew purchase list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew purchase list. 122.46 Section 122.46 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  5. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  6. Crew Endurance Management Practices: A Guide for Maritime Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Watchkeeping for Seafarers ( STCW ) regarding hours of work and rest. The fundamental purpose of this guide is to provide managers, captains, department...should use this information, along with the guidelines provided in OPA 90 and STCW : • To identify risk factors affecting crew endurance in specific

  7. STS-103 crew wait inside Discovery for simulated countdown exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. sits inside orbiter Discovery waiting for the start of a simulated countdown exercise. The simulation is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT also provides the crew with emergency egress training and opportunities to inspect their mission payload in the orbiter's payload bay. Other crew members taking part in the TCDT are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Jean-Fran'''ois Clervoy of France, and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  8. Mechanically patterning the embryonic airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Gleghorn, Jason P.; Miller, Erin; Radisky, Derek C.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2015-01-01

    Collections of cells must be patterned spatially during embryonic development to generate the intricate architectures of mature tissues. In several cases, including the formation of the branched airways of the lung, reciprocal signaling between an epithelium and its surrounding mesenchyme helps generate these spatial patterns. Several molecular signals are thought to interact via reaction-diffusion kinetics to create distinct biochemical patterns, which act as molecular precursors to actual, physical patterns of biological structure and function. Here, however, we show that purely physical mechanisms can drive spatial patterning within embryonic epithelia. Specifically, we find that a growth-induced physical instability defines the relative locations of branches within the developing murine airway epithelium in the absence of mesenchyme. The dominant wavelength of this instability determines the branching pattern and is controlled by epithelial growth rates. These data suggest that physical mechanisms can create the biological patterns that underlie tissue morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:26170292

  9. Endoscopic low coherence interferometry in upper airways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Yves; Boss, Daniel; Lang, Florian; Depeursinge, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We introduce Endoscopic Low Coherence Interferometry to obtain topology of upper airways through commonly used rigid endoscopes. Quantitative dimensioning of upper airways pathologies is crucial to provide maximum health recovery chances, for example in order to choose the correct stent to treat endoluminal obstructing pathologies. Our device is fully compatible with procedures used in day-to-day examinations and can potentially be brought to bedside. Besides this, the approach described here can be almost straightforwardly adapted to other endoscopy-related field of interest, such as gastroscopy and arthroscopy. The principle of the method is first exposed, then filtering procedure used to extract the depth information is described. Finally, demonstration of the method ability to operate on biological samples is assessed through measurements on ex-vivo pork bronchi.

  10. FliO Regulation of FliP in the Formation of the Salmonella enterica Flagellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Clive S.; Meshcheryakova, Irina V.; Kostyukova, Alla S.; Samatey, Fadel A.

    2010-01-01

    The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO43–125 or FliO1–95 was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO43–125, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO43–125-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners. PMID:20941389

  11. FliO regulation of FliP in the formation of the Salmonella enterica flagellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive S Barker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The type III secretion system of the Salmonella flagellum consists of 6 integral membrane proteins: FlhA, FlhB, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR. However, in some other type III secretion systems, a homologue of FliO is apparently absent, suggesting it has a specialized role. Deleting the fliO gene from the chromosome of a motile strain of Salmonella resulted in a drastic decrease of motility. Incubation of the ΔfliO mutant strain in motility agar, gave rise to pseudorevertants containing extragenic bypass mutations in FliP at positions R143H or F190L. Using membrane topology prediction programs, and alkaline phosphatase or GFPuv chimeric protein fusions into the FliO protein, we demonstrated that FliO is bitopic with its N-terminus in the periplasm and C-terminus in the cytoplasm. Truncation analysis of FliO demonstrated that overexpression of FliO₄₃-₁₂₅ or FliO₁-₉₅ was able to rescue motility of the ΔfliO mutant. Further, residue leucine 91 in the cytoplasmic domain was identified to be important for function. Based on secondary structure prediction, the cytoplasmic domain, FliO₄₃-₁₂₅, should contain beta-structure and alpha-helices. FliO₄₃-₁₂₅-Ala was purified and studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy; however, this domain was disordered, and its structure was a mixture of beta-sheet and random coil. Coexpression of full-length FliO with FliP increased expression levels of FliP, but coexpression with the cytoplasmic domain of FliO did not enhance FliP expression levels. Overexpression of the cytoplasmic domain of FliO further rescued motility of strains deleted for the fliO gene expressing bypass mutations in FliP. These results suggest FliO maintains FliP stability through transmembrane domain interaction. The results also demonstrate that the cytoplasmic domain of FliO has functionality, and it presumably becomes structured while interacting with its binding partners.

  12. Gingival hyperplasia by upper airway obstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Soriano, Ana; Docente Departamento Académico de Estomatología Biosocial.; Lévano Torres, Víctor; Docente Departamento Académico Médico Quirúrgico.; Pastor Yataco, Shamila; Alumnos del 3er año de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Vallejos Pulido, Arturo; Alumnos del 3er año de Odontología de la UNMSM.; Huamanyauri Gonzales, Lizbeth; Alumnos del 3er año de Odontología de la UNMSM.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of mouth breathing are the introduction of cold air, dry and dusty in the mouth and pharynx, the lost functions of heating, humedificacion and filtering the air entering the nose increases the oral mucosa irritation and pharyngeal. A case of a female patient 15 years old who comes for consultation of Periodontology with increase in volume and gingival redness in the upper anterior sector of upper airway obstruction caused by deviated septum right turbinate hypertrophy and maxillar...

  13. Small particles disrupt postnatal airway development

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of epidemiologic studies associate air pollution exposure in children with decreased lung function development. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to combustion-generated fine [230 and 212 nm number mean aerodynamic particle diameter (NMAD)] to ultrafine (73 nm NMAD) particles differing in elemental (EC) and organic (OC) carbon content on postnatal airway development in rats. Neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from postnatal day 7 thro...

  14. Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission Nominal Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gerald; williams, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the President announced that, in 2025, the U.S. intended to launch a human mission to an asteroid [1]. This announcement was followed by the idea of a Capability Driven Framework (CDF) [2], which is based on the idea of evolving capabilities from less demanding to more demanding missions to multiple possible destinations and with increased flexibility, cost effectiveness and sustainability. Focused missions, such as a NASA inter-Center study that examined the viability and implications of sending a crew to a Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) [3], provided a way to better understand and evaluate the utility of these CDF capabilities when applied to an actual mission. The long duration of the NEA missions were contrasted with a concept described in a study prepared for the Keck Institute of Space Studies (KISS) [4] where a robotic spacecraft would redirect an asteroid to the Earth-Moon vicinity, where a relatively short duration crewed mission could be conducted to the captured asteroid. This mission concept was included in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) fiscal year 2014 budget request, as submitted by the NASA Administrator [5]. NASA studies continued to examine the idea of a crewed mission to a captured asteroid in the Earth-Moon vicinity. During this time was an announcement of NASA's Asteroid Grand Challenge [6]. Key goals for the Asteroid Grand Challenge are to locate, redirect, and explore an asteroid, as well as find and plan for asteroid threats. An Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) study was being conducted, which supports this Grand Challenge by providing understanding in how to execute an asteroid rendezvous, capture it, and redirect it to Earth-Moon space, and, in particular, to a distant retrograde orbit (DRO). Subsequent to the returning of the asteroid to a DRO, would be the launch of a crewed mission to rendezvous with the redirected asteroid. This report examines that crewed mission by assessing the Asteroid Redirect Crewed

  15. Airway wall stiffening increases peak wall shear stress: a fluid-structure interaction study in rigid and compliant airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guohua; Tawhai, Merryn H; Hoffman, Eric A; Lin, Ching-Long

    2010-05-01

    The airflow characteristics in a computed tomography (CT) based human airway bifurcation model with rigid and compliant walls are investigated numerically. An in-house three-dimensional (3D) fluid-structure interaction (FSI) method is applied to simulate the flow at different Reynolds numbers and airway wall stiffness. As the Reynolds number increases, the airway wall deformation increases and the secondary flow becomes more prominent. It is found that the peak wall shear stress on the rigid airway wall can be five times stronger than that on the compliant airway wall. When adding tethering forces to the model, we find that these forces, which produce larger airway deformation than without tethering, lead to more skewed velocity profiles in the lower branches and further reduced wall shear stresses via a larger airway lumen. This implies that pathologic changes in the lung such as fibrosis or remodeling of the airway wall-both of which can serve to restrain airway wall motion-have the potential to increase wall shear stress and thus can form a positive feed-back loop for the development of altered flow profiles and airway remodeling. These observations are particularly interesting as we try to understand flow and structural changes seen in, for instance, asthma, emphysema, cystic fibrosis, and interstitial lung disease.

  16. Dynamic Properties of Human Bronchial Airway Tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jau-Yi; Pallai, Prathap; Corrigan, Chris J; Lee, Tak H

    2011-01-01

    Young's Modulus and dynamic force moduli were measured on human bronchial airway tissues by compression. A simple and low-cost system for measuring the tensile-strengh of soft bio-materials has been built for this study. The force-distance measurements were undertaken on the dissected bronchial airway walls, cartilages and mucosa from the surgery-removed lungs donated by lung cancer patients with COPD. Young's modulus is estimated from the initial slope of unloading force-displacement curve and the dynamic force moduli (storage and loss) are measured at low frequency (from 3 to 45 Hz). All the samples were preserved in the PBS solution at room temperature and the measurements were perfomed within 4 hours after surgery. Young's modulus of the human bronchial airway walls are fond ranged between 0.17 and 1.65 MPa, ranged between 0.25 to 1.96 MPa for cartilages, and between 0.02 to 0.28 MPa for mucosa. The storage modulus are found varying 0.10 MPa with frequency while the loss modulus are found increasing from ...

  17. Environmental and genetical factors in airway allergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Idzik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that approximately 23% of the European population is clinically diagnosed with allergies. In the past three decades, an increase in the incidence of respiratory allergies was noted. At the beginning of the 20th century allergic inflammations affected only around 1% of the world population. Medical symptoms of allergic airway inflammation are variable for different patients. Airways allergy are complex phenotypes, which are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Potential environmental factors include air pollution, tobacco smoke, diet and hygienic habits. The base of phenotypes diversity is still unknown. Genetic studies of allergic disease are complex , the disease derives from the global effect of a series of genes considered individually. What is more, there are epigenetic effects and interactions among the possible causal genes and a range of environmental factors. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in genes encoding chemokines and their receptors, interleukins and their receptors, eosinophil peroxidase and leukotrienes have been found as a possible factor for a development of allergic airway inflammation. It is known that SNPs are specific for different cohort.

  18. Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Laurie; DeVera, Jean; Vega, Leticia; Adam, Nik; Steele, John; Gazda, Daniel; Roberts, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), also known as Orion, will ferry a crew of up to six astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS), or a crew of up to four astronauts to the moon. The first launch of CEV is scheduled for approximately 2014. A stored water system on the CEV will supply the crew with potable water for various purposes: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain quality of the water transferred from the Orbiter to the ISS and stored in Contingency Water Containers (CWCs). In the CEV water system, the ionic silver biocide is expected to be depleted from solution due to ionic silver plating onto the surfaces of the materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Since the biocide depletion is expected to occur within a short amount of time after loading the water into the CEV water tanks at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), an additional microbial control is a 0.1 micron point of use filter that will be used at the outlet of the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD). Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for longterm missions that does not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point of use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform testing to help alleviate those concerns related to the CEV water system. Results from the test plans laid out in the paper presented to SAE last year (Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Potable Water System Verification Coordination, 2008012083) will be detailed in this paper. Additionally, recommendations for the CEV verification will be described for risk mitigation in meeting the physicochemical and microbiological requirements on the CEV PWS.

  19. STS-103 crew look over payload inside Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the STS-103 crew, with representatives from Goddard Space Flight Center, look over the Hubble servicing cargo in the payload bay of Space Shuttle Discovery at Launch Pad 39B. From left are Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland; Steve Pataki and Dave Southwick, with Goddard; and Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. Inspecting the payload is part of the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), which also provides the crew with emergency egress training and a simulated countdown exercise. Other crew members taking part in the TCDT are Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Jean- Fran'''ois Clervoy of France. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  20. Aerodynamics of the Smallest Flying Insects

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura A; Hedrick, Ty; Robinson, Alice; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind; Lowe, Audrey

    2011-01-01

    We present fluid dynamics videos of the flight of some of the smallest insects including the jewel wasp, \\textit{Ampulex compressa}, and thrips, \\textit{Thysanoptera} spp. The fruit fly, \\textit{Drosophila melanogaster}, is large in comparison to these insects. While the fruit fly flies at $Re \\approx 120$, the jewel wasp flies at $Re \\approx 60$, and thrips flies at $Re \\approx 10$. Differences in the general structures of the wakes generated by each species are observed. The differences in the wakes correspond to changes in the ratio of lift forces (vertical component) to drag forces (horizontal component) generated.

  1. A framework for understanding shared substrates of airway protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Shevon TROCHE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficits of airway protection can have deleterious effects to health and quality of life. Effective airway protection requires a continuum of behaviors including swallowing and cough. Swallowing prevents material from entering the airway and coughing ejects endogenous material from the airway. There is significant overlap between the control mechanisms for swallowing and cough. In this review we will present the existing literature to support a novel framework for understanding shared substrates of airway protection. This framework was originally adapted from Eccles' model of cough28 (2009 by Hegland, et al.42 (2012. It will serve to provide a basis from which to develop future studies and test specific hypotheses that advance our field and ultimately improve outcomes for people with airway protective deficits.

  2. Impact of airway morphological changes on pulmonary flows in scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, James; Garrido, Enrique; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between thoracic deformity in scoliosis and lung function is poorly understood. In a pilot study, we reviewed computed tomography (CT) routine scans of patients undergoing scoliosis surgery. The CT scans were processed to segment the anatomy of the airways, lung and spine. A three-dimensional model was created to study the anatomical relationship. Preliminary analysis showed significant airway morphological differences depending on the anterior position of the spine. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was also conducted on the airway geometry using the inspiratory scans. The CFD model assuming non-compliant airway walls was capable of showing pressure drops in areas of high airway resistance, but was unable to predict regional ventilation differences. Our results indicate a dependence between the dynamic deformation of the airway during breathing and lung function. Dynamic structural deformation must therefore be incorporated within any modelling approaches to guide clinicians on the decision to perform surgical correction of the scoliosis.

  3. 75 FR 18825 - Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC AGENCY: Department of Energy... intent to grant to: Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC, of... enhanced. Advantage Electronic Product Development Incorporated/Utility Crew Safety LLC, of...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1074 - Farm crew leader who is self-employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm crew leader who is self-employed. 404.1074 Section 404.1074 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND... § 404.1074 Farm crew leader who is self-employed. If you are a farm crew leader and are deemed...

  5. 75 FR 75 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ... Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... installation of an overhead crew rest compartment. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain... Design Features Crew rest compartments have been installed and certificated on several Boeing...

  6. 76 FR 10476 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 787-8 Airplane; Overhead Crew-Rest Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Crew- Rest Compartment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... will have novel or unusual design features associated with installation of an overhead crew-rest (OCR... Sec. 21.101. Novel or Unusual Design Features Crew-rest compartments have been installed...

  7. Formulation of consumables management models: Consumables analysis/crew simulator interface requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Consumables analysis/crew training simulator interface requirements were defined. Two aspects were investigated: consumables analysis support techniques to crew training simulator for advanced spacecraft programs, and the applicability of the above techniques to the crew training simulator for the space shuttle program in particular.

  8. 14 CFR 417.311 - Flight safety crew roles and qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety crew roles and qualifications... crew roles and qualifications. (a) A flight safety crew must operate the flight safety system hardware... must include: (1) Mission specific training programs to ensure team readiness. (2) Launch...

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Thoracic External Beam Radiotherapy After Airway Stenting in Malignant Airway Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochet, Nathalie, E-mail: nrochet@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Hauswald, Henrik; Schmaus, Martina; Hensley, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter [Department of Radiotherapy, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Eberhardt, Ralf; Herth, Felix J. [Department of Pulmonology and Respiratory Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik at University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen; Neuhof, Dirk [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome and toxicity of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after airway stents were placed in patients treated for malignant airway obstruction. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2009, we performed airway stenting followed by EBRT in 43 patients for symptomatic primary lung cancer (n = 31) or other thoracic malignancies (n = 12). The median time interval between stent placement and first irradiation was 14 days. A median total dose of 50 Gy was delivered. Sixty-seven percent of the patients had reduced performance status (Karnofsky performance score, {<=}70). Results: EBRT had to be stopped prematurely in 16 patients (37%), at a median total dose of 17 Gy, for various reasons. In this group of patients, the survival was poor, with a median overall survival (OS) of only 21 days. Twenty-seven patients (63%) completed radiotherapy as planned, with a median OS of 8.4 months. Fourteen of 43 patients (33%) developed at least one Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Event of grade 3 to 5. The most common event was a malignant restenosis of the stent leading to asphyxia (n = 7), followed by fistula formation (n = 4), necrosis (n = 3), mediastinitis with abscess (n = 1), secondary nonmalignant airway stenosis (n = 1), and hemoptysis (n = 1). With the exception of one event, all events were associated with a local progression of the tumor. Conclusions: Although the long-term prognosis for patients with malignant airway obstruction is poor, airway stenting combined with EBRT offers a possible therapeutic option, achieving fast relief of acute respiratory distress with an associated antitumor effect, resulting in a potential survival benefit. However, due to local advanced tumor growth, increased rates of adverse events are to be expected, necessitating careful monitoring.

  10. Motorcycle exhaust particles induce airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in BALB/C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2004-06-01

    A number of large studies have reported that environmental pollutants from fossil fuel combustion can cause deleterious effects to the immune system, resulting in an allergic reaction leading to respiratory tract damage. In this study, we investigated the effect of motorcycle exhaust particles (MEP), a major pollutant in the Taiwan urban area, on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in laboratory animals. BALB/c mice were instilled intratracheally (i.t.) with 1.2 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg of MEP, which was collected from two-stroke motorcycle engines. The mice were exposed 3 times i.t. with MEP, and various parameters for airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness were sequentially analyzed. We found that MEP would induce airway and pulmonary inflammation characterized by infiltration of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and inflammatory cell infiltration in lung. In addition, MEP treatment enhanced BALF interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) cytokine levels and serum IgE production. Bronchial response measured by unrestrained plethysmography with methacholine challenge showed that MEP treatment induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in BALB/c mice. The chemical components in MEP were further fractionated with organic solvents, and we found that the benzene-extracted fraction exerts a similar biological effect as seen with MEP, including airway inflammation, increased BALF IL-4, serum IgE production, and induction of AHR. In conclusion, we present evidence showing that the filter-trapped particles emitted from the unleaded-gasoline-fueled two-stroke motorcycle engine may induce proinflammatory and proallergic response profiles in the absence of exposure to allergen.

  11. Difficult Airway Management in Field Conditions: Somalia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ahmet Selim; Nasır, Serdar Nazif

    2015-10-01

    Difficult airway is defined as having the patient's mask ventilation or difficult tracheal intubation of an experienced anaesthesiologist. A number of reasons, such as congenital or acquired anatomical anomalies, can cause difficult intubation and difficult ventilation. Keeping all equipment ready for airway management of patients will reduce mortality and complications. In this case, it is intended that the submission of difficult airway management who encountered in mandibular reconstruction for mandible bone defect repairing with reconstruction plates before at the field conditions in Somalia.

  12. Oral and airway microbiota in HIV-infected pneumonia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, S.; Fei, M; Huang, D.; Fong, S.; Subramanian, A.; Grieco, K; Lynch, SV; Huang, L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased frequency of recurrent pneumonia in HIV-infected patients and recent studies linking the airway bacterial community (microbiota) to acute and chronic respiratory infection, little is known of the oral and airway microbiota that exist in these individuals and their propensity to harbor pathogens despite antimicrobial treatment for acute pneumonia. This pilot study compared paired samples of the oral and airway microbiota from 15 hospitalized HIV-infected patients receivin...

  13. Binocular interactions underlying the classic optomotor responses of flying flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Duistermars

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to imposed course deviations, the fast optomotor reactions of animals reduce motion blur and facilitate the maintenance of stable body posture. In flies, the monocular front-to-back (progressive and back-to-front (regressive visual motion components generated by horizontal rotation are selectively encoded, respectively, by homo and heterolateral motion sensitive circuits in the third optic ganglion, the lobula plate. To investigate the strength of such inter-ocular interactions and their role in compensatory sensory-motor transformations, we utilize a virtual reality flight simulator to record optomotor reactions by tethered flying flies in response to imposed binocular and monocular visual rotation. With stimulus parameters generating large contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation, we find that responses to monocular progressive motion are larger than those to panoramic rotation but contrast sensitive. Conversely, responses to monocular regressive motion are slower than those to rotation and peak at the lowest tested contrast. Together our results suggest that contrast insensitive optomotor responses to binocular rotation result from the dynamic interplay of contralateral inhibitory as well as excitatory circuit interactions and serve to maintain a stable optomotor equilibrium across a range of visual contrasts.

  14. Zinc supplementation alters airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness to a common allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Carrie I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc supplementation can modulate immunity through inhibition of NF-κB, a transcription factor that controls many immune response genes. Thus, we sought to examine the mechanism by which zinc supplementation tempers the response to a common allergen and determine its effect on allergic airway inflammation. Methods Mice were injected with zinc gluconate prior to German cockroach (GC feces (frass exposure and airway inflammation was assessed. Primary bone marrow-derived neutrophils and DMSO-differentiated HL-60 cells were used to assess the role of zinc gluconate on tumor necrosis factor (TNFα expression. NF-κB:DNA binding and IKK activity were assessed by EMSA and in vitro kinase assay. Protein levels of A20, RIP1 and TRAF6 were assessed by Western blot analysis. Establishment of allergic airway inflammation with GC frass was followed by administration of zinc gluconate. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum IgE levels, eosinophilia and Th2 cytokine production were assessed. Results Administration of zinc gluconate prior to allergen exposure resulted in significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration and TNFα cytokine release into the airways. This correlated with decreased NF-κB activity in the whole lung. Treatment with zinc gluconate significantly decreased GC frass-mediated TNFα production from bone-marrow derived neutrophils and HL-60 cells. We confirmed zinc-mediated decreases in NF-κB:DNA binding and IKK activity in HL-60 cells. A20, a natural inhibitor of NF-κB and a zinc-fingered protein, is a potential target of zinc. Zinc treatment did not alter A20 levels in the short term, but resulted in the degradation of RIP1, an important upstream activator of IKK. TRAF6 protein levels were unaffected. To determine the application for zinc as a therapeutic for asthma, we administered zinc following the establishment of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model. Zinc supplementation decreased airway hyperresponsiveness

  15. Comparison of Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway during Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the safety and efficacy of the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (S-LMA) with that of the ProSeal-LMA (P-LMA) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Methods: Sixty adults were randomly allocated. Following anaesthesia induction, experienced LMA users inserted the airway devices. Results: Oropharyngeal leak pressure was similar in groups (S-LMA, 27.8±2.9 cmH20; P-LMA, 27.0±4.7 cmH20; p=0.42) and did not change...

  16. Comparison of Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway and ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway during Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the safety and efficacy of the Supreme Laryngeal Mask Airway (S-LMA) with that of the ProSeal-LMA (P-LMA) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.Material and Methods: Sixty adults were randomly allocated. Following anaesthesia induction, experienced LMA users inserted the airway devices. Results: Oropharyngeal leak pressure was similar in groups (S-LMA, 27.8±2.9 cmH20; P-LMA, 27.0±4.7 cmH20; p=0.42) and did not change during the induction of and throughout pneumoperit...

  17. Practical advance in obtaining an emergency airway via cricothyroidotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, William G; Dahman, Marc H; Thomas, Deanna; Lipschutz, Joshua H

    2007-05-01

    By the time a cricothyroidotomy is deemed necessary, the patient is in critical need of an emergency airway before anoxic damage ensues. Two things are necessary for the delivery of the requisite oxygen. First, an airway must be rapidly established. Second, the airway must be large enough to facilitate ventilation. Present methods for emergency cricothyroidotomy include needle cricothyroidotomy, which suffers from difficulties in both establishment and ventilation. We describe here a practical and widely available method for establishing a timely effective airway that has been used successfully for five patients since 1992.

  18. Airway, responsiveness and inflammation in adolescent elite swimmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Lund, T.K.; Barnes, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    . There was no difference in FeNO, cellular composition of sputum, airway reactivity, or prevalence of having AHR to methacholine and/or EVH between swimmers with and without respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: Adolescent elite swimmers do not have significant signs of airway damage after only a few years of intense training...... and competition. This leads us to believe that elite swimmers do not have particularly susceptible airways when they take up competitive swimming when young, but that they develop respiratory symptoms, airway inflammation, and AHR during their swimming careers Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  19. Airway management in patients with burn contractures of the neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Smita; Mullick, Parul

    2015-12-01

    Airway management of patients with burn contracture of the neck (PBC neck) is a challenge to the anesthesiologist. Patient evaluation includes history, physical and airway examination. A safe approach in the airway management of a patient with moderate to severe PBC neck is to secure the airway with the patient awake. The anesthesiologist should have a pre-planned strategy for intubation of the difficult airway. The choices advocated for airway management of such patients include awake fiberoptic-guided intubation, use of intubating laryngeal mask airway, intubation without neuromuscular blocking agents, intubation with neuromuscular blocking agents after testing the ability to ventilate by mask, pre-induction neck scar release under local anesthesia and ketamine or sedation followed by direct laryngoscopy and intubation and video-laryngoscope guided intubation, amongst others. Preparation of the patient includes an explanation of the proposed procedure, sedation, administration of antisialogogues and regional anesthesia of the airway. The various options for intubation of patients with PBC neck, intraoperative concerns and safe extubation are described. Back-up plans, airway rescue strategies and a review of literature on this subject are presented.

  20. Airway management in patients with deep neck infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo Young; Woo, Jae Hee; Kim, Yoon Jin; Chun, Eun Hee; Han, Jong In; Kim, Dong Yeon; Baik, Hee Jung; Chung, Rack Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Securing the airway in patients undergoing surgical intervention to control a deep neck infection (DNI) is challenging for anesthesiologists due to the distorted airway anatomy, limited mouth opening, tissue edema, and immobility. It is critical to assess the risk of a potential difficult airway and prepare the most appropriate airway management method. We reviewed our anesthetic experiences managing patients with DNIs, focusing on the need for video-laryngoscope or awake fiberoptic intubation beyond a standard intubation from the anesthesiologist's perspective. When patients had infections in the masticatory space, mouth of floor, oropharyngeal mucosal space, or laryngopharynx, their airways tended to be managed using methods requiring more effort by the anesthesiologists, and more extensive equipment preparation, compared with use of a standard laryngoscope. The degree to which the main lesion influenced the airway anatomy, especially at the level of epiglottis and aryepiglottic fold was related to the airway management method selected. When managing the airways of patients undergoing surgery for DNIs under general anesthesia, anesthesiologists should use imaging with computed tomography to evaluate the preoperative airway status and a comprehensive understanding of radiological findings, comorbidities, and patients’ symptoms is needed. PMID:27399122

  1. KyoT2 downregulates airway remodeling in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mei; Ou-Yang, Hai-Feng; Han, Xing-Peng; Ti, Xin-Yu; Wu, Chang-Gui

    2015-01-01

    The typical pathological features of asthma are airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). KyoT2, a negative modulator of Notch signaling, has been linked to asthma in several previous studies. However, whether KyoT2 is involved in the regulation of airway remodeling or the modulation of airway resistance in asthma is unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of KyoT2 in preventing asthma-associated airway remodeling and AHR. BALB/c mice were used to generate a mouse model of asthma. Additionally, the expression of Hes1 and Notch1 in airway was analyzed using Immunofluorescence examination. The asthmatic mice were intranasally administered adenovirus expressing KyoT2 and were compared to control groups. Furthermore, subepithelial fibrosis and other airway remodeling features were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin staining, Van Gieson's staining and Masson's trichrome staining. AHR was also evaluated. This study revealed that KyoT2 downregulated the expression of Hes1, repressed airway remodeling, and alleviated AHR in asthmatic mice. It is reasonable to assume that KyoT2 downregulates airway remodeling and resistance in asthmatic mice through a Hes1-dependent mechanism. Therefore, KyoT2 is a potential clinical treatment strategy for asthma.

  2. Quantitative computed tomography imaging of airway remodeling in severe asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Philippe A; Fetita, Catalin I; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2016-02-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous condition and approximately 5-10% of asthmatic subjects have severe disease associated with structure changes of the airways (airway remodeling) that may develop over time or shortly after onset of disease. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) imaging of the tracheobronchial tree and lung parenchyma has improved during the last 10 years, and has enabled investigators to study the large airway architecture in detail and assess indirectly the small airway structure. In severe asthmatics, morphologic changes in large airways, quantitatively assessed using 2D-3D airway registration and recent algorithms, are characterized by airway wall thickening, luminal narrowing and bronchial stenoses. Extent of expiratory gas trapping, quantitatively assessed using lung densitometry, may be used to assess indirectly small airway remodeling. Investigators have used these quantitative imaging techniques in order to attempt severity grading of asthma, and to identify clusters of asthmatic patients that differ in morphologic and functional characteristics. Although standardization of image analysis procedures needs to be improved, the identification of remodeling pattern in various phenotypes of severe asthma and the ability to relate airway structures to important clinical outcomes should help target treatment more effectively.

  3. Reduction of Eosinophils in Small Airways by Inhaled Steroids is Insufficient in Patients with Adult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: It was speculated that inhaled CFC-BDP and DP-FP might deposit mainly in large airways and fail to fully reach small airways, consequently allowing eosinophilic inflammation to continue in small airways.

  4. NEUROTROPHIN MEDIATION OF ALLERGIC AIRWAYS RESPONSES TO INHALED DIESEL PARTICLES IN MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF) partially mediate many features of allergic airways disease including airway hyper-responsiveness. Diesel exhaust particulates (DEP) associated with the combustion of diesel fuel exacerbate many of these allergic airways respons...

  5. Serum cytokine levels, cigarette smoking and airway responsiveness among pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsunoda, M; Litonjua, AA; Kuniak, MP; Weiss, ST; Satoh, T; Guevarra, L; Tollerud, DJ

    2003-01-01

    Background. Five to twenty percent of healthy, nonasthmatic individuals exhibit airway hyperreactivity. Because cytokines are important intermediates in airway responses, we investigated the relationship between serum cytokines and airway responsiveness in a well-characterized population of pregnant

  6. Blockade of Airway Inflammation by Kaempferol via Disturbing Tyk-STAT Signaling in Airway Epithelial Cells and in Asthmatic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ju-Hyun Gong; Daekeun Shin; Seon-Young Han; Sin-Hye Park; Min-Kyung Kang; Jung-Lye Kim; Young-Hee Kang

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by bronchial inflammation causing increased airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia. The interaction between airway epithelium and inflammatory mediators plays a key role in the asthmatic pathogenesis. The in vitro study elucidated inhibitory effects of kaempferol, a flavonoid found in apples and many berries, on inflammation in human airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Nontoxic kaempferol at ≤20  μ M suppressed the LPS-induced IL-8 production through the TLR4 activat...

  7. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control demonstration of intelligent procedures to automatically initialize a rack onboard the International Space Station (ISS) with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). The autonomous operations concept includes a reduction of the amount of data a crew operator is required to verify during activation or de-activation, as well as integration of procedure execution status and relevant data in a single integrated display. During execution, the auto-procedures provide a step-by-step messaging paradigm and a high level status upon termination. This

  8. Ambient urban Baltimore particulate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, D.M.; Breysse, P.N.; Wills-Karp, M. [Childrens Hospital, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Medical Centre, Division of Immunobiology

    2001-10-15

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is hypothesized to play a role in increases in asthma prevalence, although a causal relationship has yet to be established. To investigate the effects of real-world PM exposure on airway reactivity (AHR) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellularity, mice were exposed to a single dose (0.5 mg/ mouse) of ambient PM, coal fly ash, or diesel PM. It was found that ambient PM exposure induced increases in AHR and BAL cellularity, whereas diesel PM induced significant increases in BAL cellularity, but not AHR. On the other hand, coal fly ash exposure did not elicit significant changes in either of these parameters. Ambient PM-induced temporal changes in AHR, BAL cells, and lung cytakine levels over a 2-wk period were then examined. Ambient PM-induced AHR was sustained over 7 d. The increase in AHR was preceded by dramatic increases in BAL eosinophils, whereas a decline in AHR was associated with increases in macrophages. It is concluded that ambient PM can induce asthmalike parameters in mice, suggesting that PM exposure may be an important factor in increases in asthma prevalence.

  9. "Fly me to the moon"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's first lunar probe Chang'e-I, named after a mythical Chinese goddess who, according to legend, made her home on the moon, blasted off on 24 October from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center in the southwestern province of Sichuan. In addition to making the dream cherished by Chinese people to fly to the moon come true, it is the first step into China's ambitious threestage moon mission, marking a new milestone in the country's space exploration history.

  10. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...... of the treated products for reuse in construction or farming sectors should be explored further, as should the possibility of recycling of valuable, extracted elements in the metallurgical industry....

  11. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  12. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers model the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for entry and launch phases before a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Pictured (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Pilot Richard O. Covey, MS John M. Lounge, and MS George D. Nelson. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  13. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Robert H.; Togias, Alkis

    2016-01-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolut...

  14. Airway management using laryngeal mask airway in insertion of the Montgomery tracheal tube for subglottic stenosis -A case report-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Sun; Kwon, Young-Suk; Lee, Sangseock; Yon, Jun Heum; Kim, Dong Won

    2010-12-01

    The Montgomery tracheal tube (T-tube) is a device used as a combined tracheal stent and airway after laryngotracheoplasty for patients with tracheal stenosis. This device can present various challenges to anesthesiologists during its placement, including the potential for acute loss of the airway, inadequate administration of inhalation agents, and inadequacy of controlled mechanical ventilation. The present case of successful airway management used a laryngeal mask airway under total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil in the insertion of a Montgomery T-tube in a tracheal resection and thyrotracheal anastomosis because of severe subglottic stenosis.

  15. Understanding the International Space Station Crew Perspective following Long-Duration Missions through Data Analytics & Visualization of Crew Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Cody; Meza, David; Schoenstein, Nicole; Schuh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) first became a home and research laboratory for NASA and International Partner crewmembers over 16 years ago. Each ISS mission lasts approximately 6 months and consists of three to six crewmembers. After returning to Earth, most crewmembers participate in an extensive series of 30+ debriefs intended to further understand life onboard ISS and allow crews to reflect on their experiences. Examples of debrief data collected include ISS crew feedback about sleep, dining, payload science, scheduling and time planning, health & safety, and maintenance. The Flight Crew Integration (FCI) Operational Habitability (OpsHab) team, based at Johnson Space Center (JSC), is a small group of Human Factors engineers and one stenographer that has worked collaboratively with the NASA Astronaut office and ISS Program to collect, maintain, disseminate and analyze this data. The database provides an exceptional and unique resource for understanding the "crew perspective" on long duration space missions. Data is formatted and categorized to allow for ease of search, reporting, and ultimately trending, in order to understand lessons learned, recurring issues and efficiencies gained over time. Recently, the FCI OpsHab team began collaborating with the NASA JSC Knowledge Management team to provide analytical analysis and visualization of these over 75,000 crew comments in order to better ascertain the crew's perspective on long duration spaceflight and gain insight on changes over time. In this initial phase of study, a text mining framework was used to cluster similar comments and develop measures of similarity useful for identifying relevant topics affecting crew health or performance, locating similar comments when a particular issue or item of operational interest is identified, and providing search capabilities to identify information pertinent to future spaceflight systems and processes for things like procedure development and training. In addition

  16. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  17. Deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in human upper airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chung; Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2016-01-01

    Graphene nanomaterials have attracted wide attention in recent years on their application to state-of-the-art technology due to their outstanding physical properties. On the other hand, the nanotoxicity of graphene materials also has rapidly become a serious concern especially in occupational health. Graphene naomaterials inevitably could become airborne in the workplace during manufacturing processes. The inhalation and subsequent deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in the human respiratory tract could potentially result in adverse health effects to exposed workers. Therefore, investigating the deposition of graphene nanomaterial aerosols in the human airways is an indispensable component of an integral approach to graphene occupational health. For this reason, this study carried out a series of airway replica deposition experiments to obtain original experimental data for graphene aerosol airway deposition. In this study, graphene aerosols were generated, size classified, and delivered into human airway replicas (nasal and oral-to-lung airways). The deposition fraction and deposition efficiency of graphene aerosol in the airway replicas were obtained by a novel experimental approach. The experimental results acquired showed that the fractional deposition of graphene aerosols in airway sections studied were all less than 4%, and the deposition efficiency in each airway section was generally lower than 0.03. These results indicate that the majority of the graphene nanomaterial aerosols inhaled into the human respiratory tract could easily penetrate through the head airways as well as the upper part of the tracheobronchial airways and then transit down to the lower lung airways, where undesired biological responses might be induced.

  18. Allergen-induced changes in airway responsiveness are related to baseline airway responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; RijssenbeekNouwens, LHM; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    1996-01-01

    In the literature, bronchial allergen challenge is usually reported to result in an increase in histamine-induced airway responsiveness (AR). The present study investigated the relation between baseline AR and allergen-induced changes in AR. The effect of allergen challenge on AR was investigated in

  19. Integrity of airway epithelium is essential against obliterative airway disease in transplanted rat tracheas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, N; de Vos, P; Schelfhorst, M; de Haan, A; Timens, W; Prop, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: The pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation requires further elucidation. In this study we used rat trachea transplantation to examine the role of epithelium in the progression of obliterative airway disease. Methods: Normal and denuded (i.e., epithelium rem

  20. Reduced Crew Operations Research at NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Summer L.; Lachter, Joel

    2017-01-01

    In 2012, NASA began exploring the feasibility of single pilot reduced crew operations (SPORCO) in the context of scheduled passenger air carrier operations (i.e., Parts 121 and 135). This research was spurred by two trends in aviation research: the trend toward reducing costs and a shortage of pilots. A series of simulations were conducted to develop tools and a concept of operations to support RCO. This slide deck is a summary of the NASA Ames RCO research prepared for an R T team at Airbus. Airbus is considering moving forward with reducing crew during the cruise phase of flight with long-haul flights and is interested in the work we have completed.

  1. Preflight and postflight microbiological results from 25 space shuttle crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Bassinger, Virginia J.; Molina, Thomas C.; Gunter, Emelie G.; Groves, Theron O.; Cioletti, Louis J.; Mishra, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Clinical-microbiological investigations are an important aspect of the crew health stabilization program. To ensure that space crews have neither active nor latent infections, clinical specimens, including throat and nasal swabs and urine samples, are collected at 10 days (L-10) and 2days (L-2) before launch, and immediately after landing (L+0). All samples are examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi. In addition, fecal samples are collected at L-10 and examined for bacteria, fungi and parasites. This paper describes clinical-microbiological findings from 144 astronauts participating in 25 Space Shuttle missions spanning Space Transportation System (STS)-26 to STS-50. The spectrum of microbiological findings from the specimens included 25 bacterial and 11 fungal species. Among the bacteria isolated most frequently were Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus agalactiae. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal pathogen.

  2. Croatian Airports as Potential European Flight Crew Training Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Gradišar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the possibilities of offering Croatianailports as potential flight crew training centres on the Europeanmarket of se!Vices. With her available ai1port capacities,mainly those located on the Adriatic coast, Croatia has significantadvantages compared to other countries of Westem andCentral Europe. The most important condition for establishinga specialised training centre for the European market is the harmonisationof the national aviation regulations i.e. the implementationof global and European standards of flight crewtraining, as well as conditions that have to be met by a specialisedtraining centre from the aspect of the necessary infrastructure.The study has evaluated the potential airports of Rijeka,Pula and Losinj, acc01ding to the basic criteria of their geo-Lraffic location, infrastructure resources (technical elements ofrunway, navigation equipment, abport se1vices, availability ofspecial equipment for flight crew training on the ground and inthe ail; as well as climate conditions.

  3. Reentry Thermal Analysis of a Generic Crew Exploration Vehicle Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Gong, Leslie; Quinn, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed on the heat-shielding characteristics of honeycomb-core sandwich panels fabricated with different materials for possible use as wall panels for the proposed crew exploration vehicle. Graphite/epoxy sandwich panel was found to outperform aluminum sandwich panel under the same geometry due to superior heat-shielding qualities and lower material density. Also, representative reentry heat-transfer analysis was performed on the windward wall structures of a generic crew exploration vehicle. The Apollo low Earth orbit reentry trajectory was used to calculate the reentry heating rates. The generic crew exploration vehicle has a graphite/epoxy composite honeycomb sandwich exterior wall and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich interior wall, and is protected with the Apollo thermal protection system ablative material. In the thermal analysis computer program used, the TPS ablation effect was not yet included; however, the results from the nonablation heat-transfer analyses were used to develop a "virtual ablation" method to estimate the ablation heat loads and the thermal protection system recession thicknesses. Depending on the severity of the heating-rate time history, the virtual ablation period was found to last for 87 to 107 seconds and the ablation heat load was estimated to be in the range of 86 to 88 percent of the total heat load for the ablation time period. The thermal protection system recession thickness was estimated to be in the range of 0.08 to 0.11 inches. For the crew exploration vehicle zero-tilt and 18-degree-tilt stagnation points, thermal protection system thicknesses of h = {0.717, 0.733} inches were found to be adequate to keep the substructural composite sandwich temperature below the limit of 300 F.

  4. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) 2009 Expedition Crew Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy; Ferrone, Kristine; Garvin, Christy; Kramer, W. Vernon; Palaia, Joseph, IV; Shiro, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS), located on the rim of the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, is a simulated Mars habitat that provides operational constraints similar to those which will be faced by future human explorers on Mars. In July 2009, a six-member crew inhabited the isolated habitation module and conducted the twelfth FMARS mission. The crew members conducted frequent EVA operations wearing mock space suits to conduct field experiments under realistic Mars-like conditions. Their scientific campaign spanned a wide range of disciplines and included many firsts for Mars analog research. Among these are the first use of a Class IV medical laser during a Mars simulation, helping to relieve crew stress injuries during the mission. Also employed for the first time in a Mars simulation at FMARS, a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was used by the space-suited explorers, aiding them in their search for mineral resources. Sites identified by the UAV were then visited by geologists who conducted physical geologic sampling. For the first time, explorers in spacesuits deployed passive seismic equipment to monitor earthquake activity and characterize the planet's interior. They also conducted the first geophysical electromagnetic survey as analog Mars pioneers to search for water and characterize geological features under the surface. The crew collected hydrated minerals and attempted to produce drinkable water from the rocks. A variety of equipment was field tested as well, including new cameras that automatically geotag photos, data-recording GPS units, a tele-presence rover (operated from Florida), as well as MIT-developed mission planning software. As plans develop to return to the Moon and go on to Mars, analog facilities like FMARS can provide significant benefit to NASA and other organizations as they prepare for robust human space exploration. The authors will present preliminary results from these studies as well as their

  5. Crew resource management training--clinicians' reactions and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Daniel J; Stiles, Renee; Gaffney, E Andrew; Seddon, Margaret R; Grogan, Eric L; Nixon, William R; Speroff, Theodore

    2005-08-01

    Many health care organizations are adopting crew resource management (CRM) training from the aviation industry as a patient safety practice. Although CRM has high face validity, its effects have not been thoroughly evaluated in aviation or health care. Its potential to improve team communication, coordination, and patient safety, however, makes efforts to study CRM necessary and worthwhile. This article evaluates clinicians' attitudes about and reactions to CRM after they participated in an eight-hour, commercially developed training program.

  6. Determining the Optimal C-130 Deployed Crew Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    factors such as circadian rhythm and sleep cycle disruption cannot be ignored. The target audience for Fundamentals of Shiftwork Scheduling is not...planning factors, intratheater airlift demand and less quantifiable aspects of crew ratio planning such as circadian rhythm disruption. The initial review...necessarily aircrews, but the principles are similar. Topics covered by Dr. Miller include “fatigue, safety, calendar arithmetic, circadian stability

  7. STS-97 Crew Interview: Carlos Noriega, MS3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The STS-97 Mission Specialist Carlos Noriega is seen being interviewed. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut, his career path, and his training. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, its payload, the rendez-vous with the International Space Station (ISS), and what it will be like to work knowing there is already a crew on board the ISS.

  8. Real-Time Simulation of Ship Impact for Crew Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    Real-time simulation of marine accidents and representation in a realistic, virtual environment may be an efficient way to train emergency procedures for ship?s crews and thus improve safety at sea. However, although various fast, simplified methods have been presented over the past decades...... be advantageous to use in other types of time simulation where it is desirable to switch between direct time integration and some other known, stabilized solution, without a major redesign of the program architecture....

  9. STS-103 crew pose in front of Pad 39B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TDCT) activities at Launch Pad 39B, the STS-103 crew pose in front of the flame trench, which is situated underneath the Mobile Launcher Platform holding Space Shuttle Discovery. Standing left to right are Mission Specialists Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who is with the European Space Agency (ESA), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), Pilot Scott J. Kelly, Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., and Mission Specialists Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, also with ESA, and Steven L. Smith. One of the solid rocket boosters and the external tank that are attached to Discovery can be seen in the photo. The flame trench is made of concrete and refractory brick, and contains an orbiter flame deflector on one side and solid rocket booster flame deflector on the other. The deflectors protect the flame trench floor and pad surface from the intense heat of launch. The TCDT provides the crew with emergency egress training, opportunities to inspect their mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay, and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  10. Cromoglycate and Nedocromil: Influence on Airway Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valletta, E. A.

    1994-01-01

    Although basic mechanisms of bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) are still incompletely understood, inflammation of airways is likely to play a fundamental role in modulating BHR in patients with asthma. The involvement of several inflammatory cells (eosinophils, mast cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and platelets) and of bioactive mediators secreted by these cells in the pathogenesis of asthma is well documented. Sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium are two pharmacological agents which have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. Their clinical effectiveness in mild to moderate asthma, and the capacity to reduce BHR under different natural and experimental conditions, make them valuable drugs for maintenance therapy in patients with asthma. PMID:18475597

  11. Quantitative analysis of airway abnormalities in CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lo, P.; Nielsen, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    A coupled surface graph cut algorithm for airway wall segmentation from Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. Using cost functions that highlight both inner and outer wall borders, the method combines the search for both borders into one graph cut. The proposed method is evaluated on 173...... Area (IA) and Wall Area percentage (WA%) was measured by the proposed method on a total of 723 CT scans from a lung cancer screening study. These measures were significantly different for participants with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) compared to asymptomatic participants. Furthermore...

  12. Mucoactive agents for airway mucus hypersecretory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Duncan F

    2007-09-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a feature of a number of severe respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and cystic fibrosis (CF). However, each disease has a different airway inflammatory response, with consequent, and presumably linked, mucus hypersecretory phenotype. Thus, it is possible that optimal treatment of the mucus hypersecretory element of each disease should be disease-specific. Nevertheless, mucoactive drugs are a longstanding and popular therapeutic option, and numerous compounds (eg, N-acetylcysteine, erdosteine, and ambroxol) are available for clinical use worldwide. However, rational recommendation of these drugs in guidelines for management of asthma, COPD, or CF has been hampered by lack of information from well-designed clinical trials. In addition, the mechanism of action of most of these drugs is unknown. Consequently, although it is possible to categorize them according to putative mechanisms of action, as expectorants (aid and/or induce cough), mucolytics (thin mucus), mucokinetics (facilitate cough transportability), and mucoregulators (suppress mechanisms underlying chronic mucus hypersecretion, such as glucocorticosteroids), it is likely that any beneficial effects are due to activities other than, or in addition to, effects on mucus. It is also noteworthy that the mucus factors that favor mucociliary transport (eg, thin mucus gel layer, "ideal" sol depth, and elasticity greater than viscosity) are opposite to those that favor cough effectiveness (thick mucus layer, excessive sol height, and viscosity greater than elasticity), which indicates that different mucoactive drugs would be required for treatment of mucus obstruction in proximal versus distal airways, or in patients with an impaired cough reflex. With the exception of mucoregulatory agents, whose primary action is unlikely to be directed against mucus, well-designed clinical trials are required to unequivocally determine the

  13. Mars Hybrid Propulsion System Trajectory Analysis. Part I; Crew Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Patrick R.; Merrill, Raymond G.; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    NASAs Human spaceflight Architecture team is developing a reusable hybrid transportation architecture in which both chemical and electric propulsion systems are used to send crew and cargo to Mars destinations such as Phobos, Deimos, the surface of Mars, and other orbits around Mars. By combining chemical and electrical propulsion into a single space- ship and applying each where it is more effective, the hybrid architecture enables a series of Mars trajectories that are more fuel-efficient than an all chemical architecture without significant increases in flight times. This paper provides the analysis of the interplanetary segments of the three Evolvable Mars Campaign crew missions to Mars using the hybrid transportation architecture. The trajectory analysis provides departure and arrival dates and propellant needs for the three crew missions that are used by the campaign analysis team for campaign build-up and logistics aggregation analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the impact of mass growth, departure window, and propulsion system performance on the hybrid transportation architecture. The results and system analysis from this paper contribute to analyses of the other human spaceflight architecture team tasks and feed into the definition of the Evolvable Mars Campaign.

  14. Ultrasonic vocalizations emitted by flying squirrels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Murrant

    Full Text Available Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus and southern (G. volans flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology.

  15. Inertial and interceptional deposition of fibers in a bifurcating airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Asgharian, B; Anjilvel, S

    1996-01-01

    A computer model of a three-dimensional bifurcating airway was constructed in which the parent and daughter airways had different lengths but equal diameters. A diameter of 0.6 cm was chosen for the airways based on the third generation of Weibel's symmetric lung model. Different bifurcation angles of 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees were studied. Airflow fields in the airway were obtained by a finite-element method (FIDAP, Fluid Dynamics International, Evanston, IL) for Reynolds numbers of 500 and 1000, assuming uniform parent inlet velocities. The equations of motion for fiber transport in the airways were obtained, and deposition by the combined mechanisms of impaction and interception was incorporated. A computer code was developed that utilized the flow field data and calculated fiber transport in the airways using the equations of motion for fibers. Deposition efficiency was obtained by simulating a large number of fibers of various sizes. Fiber entering the daughter airways tended to orient themselves parallel to the flow. A site of enhanced deposition (or hot spot) was observed at the carina. The dominant parameter for the deposition was the fiber Stokes number. Flow Reynolds number and airway bifurcation angle were also found to affect the deposition.

  16. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan;

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees....

  17. Mortality by Level of Emphysema and Airway Wall Thickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Ane; Skorge, Trude Duelien; Bottai, Matteo;

    2013-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) on mortality.......There is limited knowledge of the prognostic value of quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness (AWT) on mortality....

  18. A hierarchical scheme for geodesic anatomical labeling of airway trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feragen, Aasa; Petersen, Jens; Owen, Megan

    2012-01-01

    We present a fast and robust supervised algorithm for label- ing anatomical airway trees, based on geodesic distances in a geometric tree-space. Possible branch label configurations for a given unlabeled air- way tree are evaluated based on the distances to a training set of labeled airway trees...

  19. Repair of damaged supraglottic airway devices: A novel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Dheeraj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Damage of laryngeal mask airway and other supraglottic airway devices has always been a matter of concern. Although manufacturer recommends maximum 40 uses of LMA (and its congeners but damage before 40 uses needs to be evaluated. We hereby, describe a novel method of repair of supraglottic devices when damage occurs at mask inflation line or pilot balloon valve assembly.

  20. In vivo models of human airway epithelium repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coraux

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions. The in vivo study of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to reconstitute a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Humanised tracheal xenograft models have been developed in immunodeficient nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice in order to mimic the natural regeneration process of the human airway epithelium and to analyse the cellular and molecular events involved during the different steps of airway epithelial reconstitution. These models represent very powerful tools for analysing the modulation of the biological functions of the epithelium during its regeneration. They are also very useful for identifying stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration, as well as the characterisation of the epithelial stem and progenitor cells, may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.

  1. Nitrogen Dioxide Exposure and Airway Responsiveness in Individuals with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlled human exposure studies evaluating the effect of inhaled NO2 on the inherent responsiveness of the airways to challenge by bronchoconstricting agents have had mixed results. In general, existing meta-analyses show statistically significant effects of NO2 on the airway r...

  2. Inhaled corticosteroids and growth of airway function in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, PJFM; van Pelt, W; van Houwelingen, JC; van Essen-Zandvliet, LEM; Duiverman, EJ; Kerrebijn, KF; Quanjer, PH

    2004-01-01

    Airway inflammation and remodelling play an important role in the pathophysiology of asthma. Remodelling may affect childhood lung function, and this process may be reversed by anti-inflammatory treatment. The current study assessed longitudinaily whether asthma affects growth of airway function rel

  3. Numerical analysis of respiratory flow patterns within human upper airway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Yu, Shen; Gao, Fei

    2009-12-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is used to study the respiratory airflow dynamics within a human upper airway. The airway model which consists of the airway from nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx and trachea to triple bifurcation is built based on the CT images of a healthy volunteer and the Weibel model. The flow characteristics of the whole upper airway are quantitatively described at any time level of respiratory cycle. Simulation results of respiratory flow show good agreement with the clinical measures, experimental and computational results in the literature. The air mainly passes through the floor of the nasal cavity in the common, middle and inferior nasal meatus. The higher airway resistance and wall shear stresses are distributed on the posterior nasal valve. Although the airways of pharynx, larynx and bronchi experience low shear stresses, it is notable that relatively high shear stresses are distributed on the wall of epiglottis and bronchial bifurcations. Besides, two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction models of normal and abnormal airways are built to discuss the flow-induced deformation in various anatomy models. The result shows that the wall deformation in normal airway is relatively small.

  4. Does hyperbaric oxygen therapy prevent airway anastomosis from breakdown?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickhoff, C.; Daniels, J.M.; Brink, A. van den; Paul, M.A.; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia with subsequent necrosis of anastomoses, after central airway resection and reconstruction, remains a feared complication for thoracic surgeons and their patients. To date, there is no evidence to support the use of hyperbaric oxygen in the prevention of necrosis of airway reconstructions i

  5. Airway smooth muscle and fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Peter R A; Burgess, Janette K

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a disease characterized by marked structural changes within the airway wall. These changes include deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and an increase in the numbers of airway smooth muscle cells and subepithelial fibroblasts. Both these cell types possess properties that would ena

  6. 驾驶舱资源管理与飞行安全%Cockpit Resource Management & Flying Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冀玮

    2011-01-01

    在影响飞行安全的人、机、环境中,人处于主导和支配的地位。机组人员只有在使用先进的设备,掌握良好的飞行技术,遵守各类规章制度,具有良好安全意识和高度责任感时才具备了保障飞行安全的基本条件。%Human is dominant among factors affecting the flying safety such as human,aircraft and environment.For safety flying,the crew should possess the good safety awareness and high responsibility on the basis of advanced equipment,excellent skill,and compliance with various rules.

  7. Revised irradiation doses to control melon fly, Mediterranean fruit fly, and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a generic dose for tephritid fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follett, Peter A; Armstrong, John W

    2004-08-01

    Currently approved irradiation quarantine treatment doses for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet), melon fly; Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Mediterranean fruit fly; and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly, infesting fruits and vegetables for export from Hawaii to the continental United States are 210, 225, and 250 Gy, respectively. Irradiation studies were initiated to determine whether these doses could be reduced to lower treatment costs, minimize any adverse effects on quality, and support a proposed generic irradiation dose of 150 Gy for fruit flies. Dose-response tests were conducted with late third instars of wild and laboratory strains of the three fruit fly species, both in diet and in fruit. After x-ray irradiation treatment, data were taken on adult emergence, and adult female fecundity and fertility. Melon fly was the most tolerant of the three species to irradiation, and oriental fruit fly was more tolerant than Mediterranean fruit fly. Laboratory and wild strains of each species were equally tolerant of irradiation, and larvae were more tolerant when irradiated in fruit compared with artificial diet. An irradiation dose of 150 Gy applied to 93,666 melon fly late third instars in papayas resulted in no survival to the adult stage, indicating that this dose is sufficient to provide quarantine security. Irradiation doses of 100 and 125 Gy applied to 31,920 Mediterranean fruit fly and 55,743 oriental fruit fly late third instars, respectively, also resulted in no survival to the adult stage. Results support a proposed generic irradiation quarantine treatment dose of 150 Gy for all tephritid fruit flies.

  8. Airway Management of Two Patients with Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhattacharya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct trauma to the airway is a rare injury which can lead to disastrous consequences due to compounding effect of bleeding, aspiration of blood, airway obstruction and severe sympathetic stimulation. Here we are presenting two cases of open tracheal injury in two adult males following assault with sharp weapon. Two different techniques of securing the airways were employed depending upon the severity and urgency of the situation. In the first case, orotracheal intubation helped the surgeon to repair airway around the endotracheal tube whereas in the second patient this stenting effect was absent as he was intubated through the distal cut-end of trachea in the face of airway emergency.

  9. In-flight dose estimates for aircraft crew and pregnant female crew members in military transport missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, J G; Mairos, J C

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft fighter pilots may experience risks other than the exposure to cosmic radiation due to the characteristics of a typical fighter flight. The combined risks for fighter pilots due to the G-forces, hypobaric hypoxia, cosmic radiation exposure, etc. have determined that pregnant female pilots should remain on ground. However, several military transport missions can be considered an ordinary civil aircraft flight and the question arises whether a pregnant female crew member could still be part of the aircraft crew. The cosmic radiation dose received was estimated for transport missions carried out on the Hercules C-130 type of aircraft by a single air squad in 1 month. The flights departed from Lisboa to areas such as: the Azores, several countries in central and southern Africa, the eastern coast of the USA and the Balkans, and an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received on each flight was carried out. A monthly average cosmic radiation dose to the aircraft crew was determined and the dose values obtained were discussed in relation to the limits established by the European Union Council Directive 96/29/Euratom. The cosmic radiation dose estimates were performed using the EPCARD v3.2 and the CARI-6 computing codes. EPCARD v3.2 was kindly made available by GSF-National Research Centre for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany). CARI-6 (version July 7, 2004) was downloaded from the web site of the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute, Federal Aviation Administration (USA). In this study an estimate of the cosmic radiation dose received by military aircraft crew on typical transport missions is made.

  10. Flying qualities criteria and flight control design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D. T.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the application of sophisticated design methodology, newly introduced aircraft continue to suffer from basic flying qualities deficiencies. Two recent meetings, the DOD/NASA Workshop on Highly Augmented Aircraft Criteria and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center/Air Force Flight Test Center/AIAA Pilot Induced Oscillation Workshop, addressed this problem. An overview of these meetings is provided from the point of view of the relationship between flying qualities criteria and flight control system design. Among the items discussed are flying qualities criteria development, the role of simulation, and communication between flying qualities specialists and control system designers.

  11. D-558-1 on ramp with ground crew and NACA pilot Bob Champine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    NACA test pilot Robert Champine is seen in the cockpit of the Douglas D-558-1 Skystreak with the ground crew. Robert A. Champine was a research pilot with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from December 1947 to 1979, when he retired as Langley Research Center's senior research pilot. He began his career with the NACA at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in Hampton, Virginia (as Langley Research Center was then called). He transferred to the NACA's High-Speed Flight Research Station in the Mojave Desert of California in October 1948, where he flew the X-1 and D-558-1 and -2 research airplanes. On December 2, 1948, Bob became the 6th man and 3rd civilian to break the mysterious sound barrier. He exceeded Mach 1 on NACA flight 23 checking handling qualities and pressure distribution on the XS-1 #2, after having been dropped from the B-29 mother ship, above the Rogers Dry Lake in California. On August 4, 1949, NACA flight 32, he again exceeded Mach 1 performing rolls, pullups, sideslips, and check of stabilizer effectiveness. This was his 13th and last flight in the XS-1. He flew the first NACA research flight of the D-558-1 #3 (Skystreak) on April 22, 1949, and the first NACA research flight of the D-558-2 #2 (Skyrocket) on May 24, 1949, beginning the supersonic research program for these aircraft on June l, 1949. Conceived in 1945, the D558-1 Skystreak was designed by the Douglas Aircraft Company for the U.S. Navy Bureau of Aeronautics, in conjunction with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The Skystreaks were turojet powered aircraft that took off from the ground under their own power and had straight wings and tails. All three D-558-1 Skystreaks were powered by Allison J35-A-11 turbojet engines producing 5,000 pounds of thrust. All the Skystreaks were initially painted scarlet, which lead to the nickname 'crimson test tube.' NACA later had the color of

  12. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy: new generations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, John F

    2012-02-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, CPAP is not tolerated by all patients with OSAS and alternative modes of pressure delivery have been developed to overcome pressure intolerance, thereby improving patient comfort and adherence. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure (APAP) devices may be utilised for the long-term management of OSAS and may also assist in the initial diagnosis of OSAS and titration of conventional CPAP therapy. Newer modalities such as C-Flex and A-Flex also show promise as treatment options in the future. However, the evidence supporting the use of these alternative modalities remains scant, in particular with regard to long-term cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, not all APAP devices use the same technological algorithms and data supporting individual APAP devices cannot be extrapolated to support all. Further studies are required to validate the roles of APAP, C-Flex and A-Flex. In the interim, standard CPAP therapy should continue as the mainstay of OSAS management.

  13. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy: new generations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, John F

    2010-02-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). However, CPAP is not tolerated by all patients with OSAS and alternative modes of pressure delivery have been developed to overcome pressure intolerance, thereby improving patient comfort and adherence. Auto-adjustable positive airway pressure (APAP) devices may be utilised for the long-term management of OSAS and may also assist in the initial diagnosis of OSAS and titration of conventional CPAP therapy. Newer modalities such as C-Flex and A-Flex also show promise as treatment options in the future. However, the evidence supporting the use of these alternative modalities remains scant, in particular with regard to long-term cardiovascular outcomes. In addition, not all APAP devices use the same technological algorithms and data supporting individual APAP devices cannot be extrapolated to support all. Further studies are required to validate the roles of APAP, C-Flex and A-Flex. In the interim, standard CPAP therapy should continue as the mainstay of OSAS management.

  14. Mode of Glucocorticoid Actions in Airway Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Ito

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic glucocorticoids are the most potent anti-inflammatory agents used to treat chronic inflammatory disease, such as asthma. However, a small number (<5% of asthmatic patients and almost all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD do not respond well, or at all, to glucocorticoid therapy. If the molecular mechanism of glucocorticoid insensitivity is uncovered, it may in turn provide insight into the key mechanism of glucocorticoid action and allow a rational way to implement treatment regimens that restore glucocorticoid sensitivity. Glucocorticoids exert their effects by binding to a cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptor (GR, which is subjected to post-translational modifications. Receptor phosphorylation, acetylation, nitrosylation, ubiquitinylation, and other modifications influence hormone binding, nuclear translocation, and protein half-life. Analysis of GR interactions to other molecules, such as coactivators or corepressors, may explain the genetic specificity of GR action. Priming with inflammatory cytokine or oxidative/nitrative stress is a mechanism for the glucocorticoid resistance observed in chronic inflammatory airway disease via reduction of corepressors or GR modification. Therapies targeting these aspects of the GR activation pathway may reverse glucocorticoid resistance in patients with glucocorticoid-insensitive airway disease and some patients with other inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Foreign body in children?s airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassol Vitor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics and the results of bronchoscopic treatment of children due to foreign body aspiration in a university hospital. METHOD: Time series of children who underwent bronchoscopies for foreign bodies aspirated into the airway between March 1993 and July 2002. Each patient was analyzed for age, sex, initial clinical diagnosis, nature and location of the foreign body, duration of symptoms between aspiration and bronchoscopy, radiological findings, results of bronchoscopic removal, complications of bronchoscopy and presence of foreign bodies in the airways. RESULTS: Thirty-four children, 20 (59% boys, ages ranging from nine months to nine years (median = 23 months. In 32 (94% children the foreign body was removed by rigid bronchoscope, and two resulted in thoracotomy. Foreign bodies were more frequent in children under three years of age (66%. A clinical history of foreign body inhalation was obtained in 27 (80% cases. Most of the foreign bodies removed were organic (65% and more frequently found in the right bronchial tree (59%. Foreign bodies were removed within 24 hours in 18 (53% cases. The most frequent radiographic findings were: unilateral air trapping, atelectasis and radiopac foreign body. Major bronchoscopy complications occurred in seven children (22%, and there were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: More attention is necessary to the respiratory symptoms of aspirations, mainly in boys at early ages, with clinical history and compatible radiological findings. Most foreign bodies removed were of organic nature. In this case series, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy was effective with few complications.

  16. The cystic fibrosis lower airways microbial metagenome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran Losada, Patricia; Chouvarine, Philippe; Dorda, Marie; Hedtfeld, Silke; Mielke, Samira; Schulz, Angela; Wiehlmann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Chronic airway infections determine most morbidity in people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Herein, we present unbiased quantitative data about the frequency and abundance of DNA viruses, archaea, bacteria, moulds and fungi in CF lower airways. Induced sputa were collected on several occasions from children, adolescents and adults with CF. Deep sputum metagenome sequencing identified, on average, approximately 10 DNA viruses or fungi and several hundred bacterial taxa. The metagenome of a CF patient was typically found to be made up of an individual signature of multiple, lowly abundant species superimposed by few disease-associated pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, as major components. The host-associated signatures ranged from inconspicuous polymicrobial communities in healthy subjects to low-complexity microbiomes dominated by the typical CF pathogens in patients with advanced lung disease. The DNA virus community in CF lungs mainly consisted of phages and occasionally of human pathogens, such as adeno- and herpesviruses. The S. aureus and P. aeruginosa populations were composed of one major and numerous minor clone types. The rare clones constitute a low copy genetic resource that could rapidly expand as a response to habitat alterations, such as antimicrobial chemotherapy or invasion of novel microbes. PMID:27730195

  17. Disordered microbial communities in asthmatic airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hilty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A rich microbial environment in infancy protects against asthma [1], [2] and infections precipitate asthma exacerbations [3]. We compared the airway microbiota at three levels in adult patients with asthma, the related condition of COPD, and controls. We also studied bronchial lavage from asthmatic children and controls. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 5,054 16S rRNA bacterial sequences from 43 subjects, detecting >70% of species present. The bronchial tree was not sterile, and contained a mean of 2,000 bacterial genomes per cm(2 surface sampled. Pathogenic Proteobacteria, particularly Haemophilus spp., were much more frequent in bronchi of adult asthmatics or patients with COPD than controls. We found similar highly significant increases in Proteobacteria in asthmatic children. Conversely, Bacteroidetes, particularly Prevotella spp., were more frequent in controls than adult or child asthmatics or COPD patients. SIGNIFICANCE: The results show the bronchial tree to contain a characteristic microbiota, and suggest that this microbiota is disturbed in asthmatic airways.

  18. Airway Responsiveness to Psychological Processes in Asthma and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eRitz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial factors have been found to impact airway pathophysiology in respiratory disease with considerable consistency. Influences on airway mechanics have been studied particularly well. The goal of this article is to review the literature on airway responses to psychological stimulation, discuss potential pathways of influence, and present a well-established emotion-induction paradigm to study airway obstruction elicited by unpleasant stimuli. Observational studies have found systematic associations between lung function and daily mood changes. The laboratory –based paradigm of bronchoconstrictive suggestion has been used successfully to elicit airway obstruction in a substantial proportion of asthmatic individuals. Other studies have demonstrated an enhancement of airway responses to standard airway challenges with exercise, allergens, or methacholine. Standardized emotion-induction techniques have consistently shown airway constriction during unpleasant stimulation, with surgery, blood and injury stimuli being particularly powerful. Findings with various forms of stress induction have been more mixed. A number of methodological factors may account for variability across studies, such as choice of measurement technique, temporal association between stimulation and measurement, and the specific quality and intensity of the stimulus material, in particular the extent of implied action-orientation. Research has also begun to elucidate physiological processes associated with psychologically induced airway responses, with vagal excitation and ventilatory influences being the most likely candidate pathways, whereas the role of specific central nervous system pathways and inflammatory processes has been less studied. The technique of emotion-induction using films has the potential to become a standardized challenge paradigm for the further exploration of airway hyperresponsiveness mediated by central nervous system processes.

  19. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  20. Specific immune responses against airway epithelial cells in a transgenic mouse-trachea transplantation model for obliterative airway disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, N; de Haan, A; Harmsen, MC; Kroese, FGM; de Leij, LFMH; Prop, J

    2003-01-01

    Background. Immune injury to airway epithelium is suggested to play a central role in the pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) after clinical lung transplantation. In several studies, a rejection model of murine trachea transplants is used, resulting in obliterative airway disease (OAD) w

  1. What the fly's nose tells the fly's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Charles F

    2015-07-28

    The fly olfactory system has a three-layer architecture: The fly's olfactory receptor neurons send odor information to the first layer (the encoder) where this information is formatted as combinatorial odor code, one which is maximally informative, with the most informative neurons firing fastest. This first layer then sends the encoded odor information to the second layer (decoder), which consists of about 2,000 neurons that receive the odor information and "break" the code. For each odor, the amplitude of the synaptic odor input to the 2,000 second-layer neurons is approximately normally distributed across the population, which means that only a very small fraction of neurons receive a large input. Each odor, however, activates its own population of large-input neurons and so a small subset of the 2,000 neurons serves as a unique tag for the odor. Strong inhibition prevents most of the second-stage neurons from firing spikes, and therefore spikes from only the small population of large-input neurons is relayed to the third stage. This selected population provides the third stage (the user) with an odor label that can be used to direct behavior based on what odor is present.

  2. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  3. Airway responsiveness to mannitol in asthma is associated with chymase-positive mast cells and eosinophilic airway inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sverrild, Asger; Bergqvist, Anders; Baines, Katherine J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to inhaled mannitol is associated with indirect markers of mast cell activation and eosinophilic airway inflammation. It is unknown how AHR to mannitol relates to mast cell phenotype, mast cell function and measures of eosinophilic inflammation in airway...... tissue. We compared the number and phenotype of mast cells, mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes and number of eosinophils in airway tissue of subjects with asthma and healthy controls in relation to AHR to mannitol. METHODS: Airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled mannitol was measured in 23 non......-smoking, corticosteroid-free asthmatic individuals and 10 healthy controls. Mast cells and eosinophils were identified in mucosal biopsies from all participants. Mast cells were divided into phenotypes based on the presence of chymase. mRNA expression of mast cell-associated genes was measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS...

  4. Overexpression of mclca3 in airway epithelium of asthmatic murine models with airway inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-lan; HE Li

    2010-01-01

    Asthma is a worldwide prevalent disease that is a considerable health burden in many countries.1 In recent years, the airway epithelium is increasingly recognized as a central contributor to the pathogenesis of asthma.2 One of the most highly induced genes in epithelial cells in experimental allergic airway disease is the third murine calcium-activated chloride channel homologue (mclca3, alias gob-5). Its human homology protein is hCLCA1,3,4 which has been identified as clinically relevant molecules in diseases with secretory dysfunctions including asthma and cystic fibrosis. In initial studies, mclca3 was thought to be a member of calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCCs) family,whereas some new interesting reports suggest that the two mclca3 cleavage products cannot form an anion channel on their own but may instead act as extracellular signaling molecules with as yet unknown functions and interacting partners.5

  5. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Togias, Alkis

    2016-07-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.09), but the intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity did (P = 0.016). Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity was strongly correlated with airway tone (r = 0.78, P tone heterogeneity and conventional lung function outcomes. Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity appears to be an important characteristic of airway pathophysiology in asthma.

  6. Airway smooth muscle phenotype and function : interactions with current asthma therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halayko, A J; Tran, T; Ji, S Y; Yamasaki, A; Gosens, R

    2006-01-01

    Asthma incidence has climbed markedly in the past two decades despite an increased use of medications that suppress airway inflammation and repress contraction of smooth muscle that encircles the airways. Asthmatics exhibit episodes of airway inflammation that potentiates reversible airway smooth mu

  7. L-ornithine derived polyamines in cystic fibrosis airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Grasemann

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity contributes to airway nitric oxide (NO deficiency in cystic fibrosis (CF. Whether down-stream products of arginase activity contribute to CF lung disease is currently unknown. The objective of this study was to test whether L-ornithine derived polyamines are present in CF airways and contribute to airway pathophysiology. Polyamine concentrations were measured in sputum of patients with CF and in healthy controls, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The effect of spermine on airway smooth muscle mechanical properties was assessed in bronchial segments of murine airways, using a wire myograph. Sputum polyamine concentrations in stable CF patients were similar to healthy controls for putrescine and spermidine but significantly higher for spermine. Pulmonary exacerbations were associated with an increase in sputum and spermine levels. Treatment for pulmonary exacerbations resulted in decreases in arginase activity, L-ornithine and spermine concentrations in sputum. The changes in sputum spermine with treatment correlated significantly with changes in L-ornithine but not with sputum inflammatory markers. Incubation of mouse bronchi with spermine resulted in an increase in acetylcholine-induced force and significantly reduced nitric oxide-induced bronchial relaxation. The polyamine spermine is increased in CF airways. Spermine contributes to airways obstruction by reducing the NO-mediated smooth muscle relaxation.

  8. Coupled cellular therapy and magnetic targeting for airway regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordidge, Katherine L; Gregori, Maria; Kalber, Tammy L; Lythgoe, Mark F; Janes, Sam M; Giangreco, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Airway diseases including COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), cystic fibrosis and lung cancer are leading causes of worldwide morbidity and mortality, with annual healthcare costs of billions of pounds. True regeneration of damaged airways offers the possibility of restoring lung function and protecting against airway transformation. Recently, advances in tissue engineering have allowed the development of cadaveric and biosynthetic airway grafts. Although these have produced encouraging results, the ability to achieve long-term functional airway regeneration remains a major challenge. To promote regeneration, exogenously delivered stem and progenitor cells are being trialled as cellular therapies. Unfortunately, current evidence suggests that only small numbers of exogenously delivered stem cells engraft within lungs, thereby limiting their utility for airway repair. In other organ systems, magnetic targeting has shown promise for improving long-term robust cell engraftment. This technique involves in vitro cell expansion, magnetic actuation and magnetically guided cell engraftment to sites of tissue damage. In the present paper, we discuss the utility of coupling stem cell-mediated cellular therapy with magnetic targeting for improving airway regeneration.

  9. The airway epithelium is central to the pathogenesis of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgate, Stephen T

    2008-03-01

    Asthma is an inflammatory disorder principally involving the conducting airways and characterised by infiltration of the airway wall with a range of inflammatory cells driven in large part by activation of Th2-type lymphocytes, mast cells and eosinophils. However a key component of asthma is the structural change that involves all of the elements of the airway wall. Here evidence is presented to suggest that the airway epithelium in asthma is fundamentally abnormal with increased susceptibility to environmental injury and impaired repair associated with activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit (EMTU). In addition to adopting an activated phenotype, the barrier function of the epithelium is impaired through defective tight junction formation thereby facilitating penetration of potentially toxic or damaging environmental insults. Activated and repairing epithelial cells generate a range of growth factors that are involved in the early life origins of this disease as well as its progression in the form of mucous metaplasia and airway wall remodeling. By placing the epithelium at the forefront of asthma pathogenesis, different approaches to treatment can be devised focused more on protecting vulnerable airways against environmental injury rather than focusing on suppressing airway inflammation or manipulating the immune response.

  10. Low back pain and low level flying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.F.M. Aghina

    1989-01-01

    textabstractLow level flying is a very good tactical possibility to carry out a mission unseen by a hostile radarsystem. Nowadays, Western Europe in general and the Federal Republic of Germany in particular, decreased . the permissions to low level flying in assigned regions. That's why the Royal Ne

  11. Physicochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez-Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Cou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential.

  12. Physiochemical characterization of Spanish fly ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Querol, X.; Umana, J.C.; Alastuey, A.; Bertrana, C.; Lopez Soler, A.; Plana, F.

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained from the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characterization of 14 fly ash samples. Major features that influence the utilization of each fly ash for zeolite synthesis are evidenced, and several fly ash types were selected as potential high-quality starting material for zeolite synthesis and ceramic applications. The main parameters influencing this selection were relatively small grain size; high Al and Si contents; high glass content; low CaO, S, and Fe contents; and relatively low heavy metal concentration. The Compostilla and Dou He fly ashes have high potential applications because of the low content of major impurities (such as Ca, Fe, and S) and the low content of soluble hazardous elements. The Espiel, Escucha, Los Barrios, As Pontes, Soto de Ribera, Meirama, Narcea, and Teruel fly ashes have important application potential, but this potential is slightly limited by the intermediate content of nonreactive impurities, such as Fe and Ca. The La Robla fly ash is of moderate interest, since the relatively high Ca and Fe oxide contents may reduce its potential applications. Finally, the Puertollano fly ash also has limited application because of the very high concentration of some heavy metals such as As, Cd, Ge, Hg, Pb, and Zn. From a mineralogical point of view, the Compostilla, Espiel, and Soto de Ribera fly ashes show the highest aluminum-silicate glass content and, consequently, the highest industrial application potential. (author)

  13. Testing for Mutagens Using Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebl, Eric C.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a laboratory employed in undergraduate teaching that uses fruit flies to test student-selected compounds for their ability to cause mutations. Requires no prior experience with fruit flies, incorporates a student design component, and employs both rigorous controls and statistical analyses. (DDR)

  14. MODAL CONTROL OF PILOTLESS FLYING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Antanevich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem on synthesis of lateral movement control algorithms in a pilotless flying machine which is made on the basis of a modal control method providing a required root arrangement of a characteristic closed control system polynom. Results of the modeling at stabilization of a lateral pilotless flying machine co-ordinate are presented in the paper.

  15. Catch Composition of Tsetse Flies (Glossina: Glossinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Okoh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study to determine the composition of tsetse flies species was conducted between January and December, 2007 in Kamuku National Park, Nigeria, using Biconical and Nitse traps. Tsetse flies were trapped along gallery forest in five streams for two trapping days and were collected daily. Approach: All tsetse flies caught were identified to species level, sexed, separated into teneral and non-teneral, hunger staged and Mean Hunger Stage computed. Fly density were calculated, the age structure examined using wing fray techniques for males and ovarian technique for females; the reproductive status of female flies were assessed. Two species of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis palpalis robineau-desvoidy and Glossina tachinoides Westwood were caught in total of five hundred and two (502 flies. Out of these, 309(61.6% Glossina tachinoides and 193(38.4% G. palpalis were caught. Male catches (309, 61.6% were significantly (P Results: The estimated mean age for males was 11 days and females were 8 days. The insemination rate of 93.8% generally was high, G. tachinoides recorded 95.5% more than G. palpalis of 91.6%. Whereas parity rate (25.8% was low; G. palpalis was 37.4% while G. tachinoides parity rate is 17.2%. Conclusion: The study shows that two species of tsetse flies abound in the park although at low densities their presence may bear semblance to Trypanosomiasis and its impact to ecotourism.

  16. Flying Probe Tester: Architecture, Principle and Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu,Xu; Fang,Kangling; Chen,Guoqing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the flying probe tester, which is a testing device for PCB. The architecture and principle of flying probe tester are firstly introduced. Then the implementation of hardware and software is illuminated briefly. Finally, the optimizing method for the probe's moving path is researched based on the traveling salesman problem.

  17. NASA's Commercial Crew Program, The Next Step in U.S. Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Thomas, Rayelle E.

    2013-01-01

    The Commercial Crew Program (CCP) is leading NASA's efforts to develop the next U.S. capability for crew transportation and rescue services to and from the International Space Station (ISS) by the mid-decade timeframe. The outcome of this capability is expected to stimulate and expand the U.S. space transportation industry. NASA is relying on its decades of human space flight experience to certify U.S. crewed vehicles to the ISS and is doing so in a two phase certification approach. NASA Certification will cover all aspects of a crew transportation system, including development, test, evaluation, and verification; program management and control; flight readiness certification; launch, landing, recovery, and mission operations; sustaining engineering and maintenance/upgrades. To ensure NASA crew safety, NASA Certification will validate technical and performance requirements, verify compliance with NASA requirements, validate the crew transportation system operates in appropriate environments, and quantify residual risks.

  18. STS-26 crew trains in JSC full fuselage trainer (FFT) shuttle mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers are briefed during a training exercise in the Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Seated outside the open side hatch of the full fuselage trainer (FFT) (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, and Pilot Richard O. Covey. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel (left), positioned in the open side hatch, briefs the crew on the pole escape system as he demonstrates some related equipment. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. The photograph was taken by Keith Meyers of the NEW YORK TIMES.

  19. Nutrititional Status Assessment of International Space Station Crew Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Zwart, S. R.; Block, G.; Rice, B. I.; Davis-Street, J. F.

    2005-01-01

    Defining optimal nutrient requirements is imperative to ensure crew health on long-duration space exploration missions. To date, nutrient requirement data have been extremely limited because of small sample sizes and difficulties associated with collecting biological samples. In this study, we examined changes in body composition, bone metabolism, hematology, general blood chemistry, and blood levels of selected vitamins and minerals after long-duration (128-195 d) space flight aboard the International Space Station. Crew members consumed an average of 80% of the recommended energy intakes, and on landing day their body weight had decreased (P=0.051). After flight, hematocrit was less, and serum femtin was greater than before flight (Pretinol binding protein, transthyretin, and albumin were not changed after flight suggests that the changes in iron metabolism may not be strictly due to an inflammatory response. Urinary 8- hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine concentration was greater and superoxide dismutase was less after flight, indicating that oxidative damage had increased (P<0.05). Despite the reported use of vitamin D supplements during flight, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly decreased after flight (P<0.01). Bone resorption was increased after flight, as indicated by several urinary markers of bone resorption. Bone formation, assessed by serum concentration of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, was elevated only in crew members who landed in Russia, probably because of the longer time lapse between landing and sample collection. These data provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin D status, and oxidative damage remain critical concerns for long-duration space flight.

  20. Microbiology and Crew Medical Events on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Kadwa, Biniafer; Taiym, Wafa; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane; Baalen, Mary Van

    2014-01-01

    The closed environment of the International Space Station (ISS) creates an ideal environment for microbial growth. Previous studies have identified the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms throughout the space station environment. To ensure safety of the crew, microbial monitoring of air and surface within ISS began in December 2000 and continues to be monitored on a quarterly basis. Water monitoring began in 2009 when the potable water dispenser was installed on ISS. However, it is unknown if high microbial counts are associated with inflight medical events. The microbial counts are determined for the air, surface, and water samples collected during flight operations and samples are returned to the Microbiology laboratory at the Johnson Space Center for identification. Instances of microbial counts above the established microbial limit requirements were noted and compared inflight medical events (any non-injury event such as illness, rashes, etc.) that were reported during the same calendar-quarter. Data were analyzed using repeated measures logistic regression for the forty-one US astronauts flew on ISS between 2000 and 2012. In that time frame, instances of microbial counts being above established limits were found for 10 times for air samples, 22 times for surface samples and twice for water. Seventy-eight inflight medical events were reported among the astronauts. A three times greater risk of a medical event was found when microbial samples were found to be high (OR = 3.01; p =.007). Engineering controls, crew training, and strict microbial limits have been established to mitigate the crew medical events and environmental risks. Due to the timing issues of sampling and the samples return to earth, identification of particular microorganisms causing a particular inflight medical event is difficult. Further analyses are underway.

  1. Classification of pulmonary airway disease based on mucosal color analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Melissa; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Riker, David; Ferguson, John Scott; McLennan, Geoffrey

    2005-04-01

    Airway mucosal color changes occur in response to the development of bronchial diseases including lung cancer, cystic fibrosis, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. These associated changes are often visualized using standard macro-optical bronchoscopy techniques. A limitation to this form of assessment is that the subtle changes that indicate early stages in disease development may often be missed as a result of this highly subjective assessment, especially in inexperienced bronchoscopists. Tri-chromatic CCD chip bronchoscopes allow for digital color analysis of the pulmonary airway mucosa. This form of analysis may facilitate a greater understanding of airway disease response. A 2-step image classification approach is employed: the first step is to distinguish between healthy and diseased bronchoscope images and the second is to classify the detected abnormal images into 1 of 4 possible disease categories. A database of airway mucosal color constructed from healthy human volunteers is used as a standard against which statistical comparisons are made from mucosa with known apparent airway abnormalities. This approach demonstrates great promise as an effective detection and diagnosis tool to highlight potentially abnormal airway mucosa identifying a region possibly suited to further analysis via airway forceps biopsy, or newly developed micro-optical biopsy strategies. Following the identification of abnormal airway images a neural network is used to distinguish between the different disease classes. We have shown that classification of potentially diseased airway mucosa is possible through comparative color analysis of digital bronchoscope images. The combination of the two strategies appears to increase the classification accuracy in addition to greatly decreasing the computational time.

  2. The actin regulator zyxin reinforces airway smooth muscle and accumulates in airways of fatal asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankman, Elizabeth; Jensen, Christopher C.; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; James, Alan L.; Elliot, John G.; Green, Francis H.; Liu, Jeffrey C.; Seow, Chun Y.; Park, Jin-Ah; Beckerle, Mary C.; Paré, Peter D.; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Smith, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Bronchospasm induced in non-asthmatic human subjects can be easily reversed by a deep inspiration (DI) whereas bronchospasm that occurs spontaneously in asthmatic subjects cannot. This physiological effect of a DI has been attributed to the manner in which a DI causes airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells to stretch, but underlying molecular mechanisms–and their failure in asthma–remain obscure. Using cells and tissues from wild type and zyxin-/- mice we report responses to a transient stretch of physiologic magnitude and duration. At the level of the cytoskeleton, zyxin facilitated repair at sites of stress fiber fragmentation. At the level of the isolated ASM cell, zyxin facilitated recovery of contractile force. Finally, at the level of the small airway embedded with a precision cut lung slice, zyxin slowed airway dilation. Thus, at each level zyxin stabilized ASM structure and contractile properties at current muscle length. Furthermore, when we examined tissue samples from humans who died as the result of an asthma attack, we found increased accumulation of zyxin compared with non-asthmatics and asthmatics who died of other causes. Together, these data suggest a biophysical role for zyxin in fatal asthma. PMID:28278518

  3. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  4. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  5. Biomass fly ash in concrete: SEM, EDX and ESEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Larry Baxter; Fernando Fonseca [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    This document summarizes microscopy study of concrete prepared from cement and fly ash (25% fly ash and 75% cement by weight), which covers coal fly ash and biomass fly ash. All the fly ash concrete has the statistical equal strength from one day to one year after mix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) analysis show that both coal and biomass fly ash particles undergo significant changes of morphology and chemical compositions in concrete due to pozzolanic reaction, although biomass fly ash differs substantially from coal fly ash in its fuel resources. 8 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  6. First direct exposure to lunar material for Crew Reception personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    The first direct exposure to lunar material for Crew Reception personnel probably happened late Friday, July 25, 1969. Terry Slezak (displaying moon dust on his left hand fingers), Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) photographic technician, was removing film magazines from the first of two containers when the incident occurred. As he removed the plastic seal from Magazine S, one of the 70mm magazines taken during Apollo 11 Extravehicular Activity (EVA), it was apparent that the exterior of the cassette displayed traces of a black powdery substance. Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong reported during the mission that he had retrieved a 70mm cassette which had dropped to the lunar surface.

  7. The influence of the noise environment on crew communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverton, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The noise environment and how it affects crew communications in helicopters is considered. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio at the microphone and the effect of the attenuation provided by the helmet is discussed. This shows that the most important aspect is the S/N ratio at the microphone, particularly when helmets with improved attenuation characteristics are considered. Evidence is presented which shows that in high noise environments, the system S/N ratio is well below that required and hence there is an urgent need to reduce the cabin noise levels and improve the microphone rejection properties. Emphasis is placed on environmental/acoustic considerations.

  8. Multipurpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Ortiz, M. R.; Hua, L.; Sinnott, P.; Webb, L.

    2004-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a crew will be living and working in microgravity, interfacing with their physical environment. Without optimum restraints and mobility aids (R&MA' s), the crewmembers may be handicapped for perfonning some of the on-orbit tasks. In addition to weightlessness, the confined nature of a spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity area and may cause prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Thus, determining the right set of human factors requirements and providing an ergonomically designed environment are crucial to astronauts' well-being and productivity. The purpose of this project is to develop requirements and guidelines, and conceptual designs, for an ergonomically designed multi-purpose crew restraint. In order to achieve this goal, the project would involve development of functional and human factors requirements, design concept prototype development, analytical and computer modeling evaluations of concepts, two sets of micro gravity evaluations and preparation of an implementation plan. It is anticipated that developing functional and design requirements for a multi-purpose restraint would facilitate development of ergonomically designed restraints to accommodate the off-nominal but repetitive tasks, and minimize the performance degradation due to lack of optimum setup for onboard task performance. In addition, development of an ergonomically designed restraint concept prototype would allow verification and validation of the requirements defined. To date, we have identified "unique" tasks and areas of need, determine characteristics of "ideal" restraints, and solicit ideas for restraint and mobility aid concepts. Focus group meetings with representatives from training, safety, crew, human factors, engineering, payload developers, and analog environment representatives were key to assist in the development of a restraint

  9. Scanning transmission electron microscopy: Albert Crewe's vision and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Chisholm, Matthew F; Murfitt, Matthew F; Dellby, Niklas

    2012-12-01

    Some four decades were needed to catch up with the vision that Albert Crewe and his group had for the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) in the nineteen sixties and seventies: attaining 0.5Å resolution, and identifying single atoms spectroscopically. With these goals now attained, STEM developments are turning toward new directions, such as rapid atomic resolution imaging and exploring atomic bonding and electronic properties of samples at atomic resolution. The accomplishments and the future challenges are reviewed and illustrated with practical examples.

  10. 45130-Drilling Crew First Enter into the International Drilling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zhixian; Drilling

    1995-01-01

    @@ 45130-Drilling Crew subordinate to the Fourth Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau, won the two bids of risk exploration drilling projects, respectively for China Ltd. Co. of New Zealand Petroleum Exploration Company worked in the Dongtinghu Basin in 1992 and Amoco Orient Oil Co.worked in the Fuyang area, Anhui Province in November of 1993.According to the two contracts that have been signed, the two drilling wells were successfully completed,all drilling parameters are in accordance with the requirements of both contracts.

  11. [Style of communication between mission control centers and space crews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iusupova, A K; Gushchin, V I; Shved, D M; Cheveleva, L M

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with a pilot investigation into the audio communication of cosmonauts with ground controllers. The purpose was to verify in space flight the patterns and trends revealed in model tests of intergroup communication, and to pinpoint the signature of multinational crew communication with 2 national mission control centers (MCCs). The investigation employed authors' content-analysis adapted to the scenario of long-duration mission. The investigation resulted in a phenomenon of double-loop ground-orbit communication, divergence, difference in opinion predictable from the concept formulated by G.T.Beregovoi. Also, there was a notable difference of expressions used by controllers of 2 MCCs.

  12. Dynamic posture analysis of Spacelab-1 crew members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D J; Reschke, M F; Homick, J E; Werness, S A

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic posture testing was conducted on the science crew of the Spacelab-1 mission on a single axis linear motion platform. Tests took place in pre- and post-flight sessions lasting approximately 20 min each. The pre-flight tests were widely spaced over the several months prior to the mission while the post-flight tests were conducted over the first, second, fourth, and sixth days after landing. Two of the crew members were also tested on the day of landing. Consistent with previous postural testing conducted on flight crews, these crew members were able to complete simple postural tasks to an acceptable level even in the first few hours after landing. Our tests were designed to induce dynamic postural responses using a variety of stimuli and from these responses, evaluate subtle changes in the postural control system which had occurred over the duration of the flight. Periodic sampling post-flight allowed us to observe the time course of readaptation to terrestrial life. Our observations of hip and shoulder position, when subjected to careful analysis, indicated modification of the postural response from pre- to post-flight and that demonstrable adjustments in the dynamic control of their postural systems were taking place in the first few days after flight. For transient stimuli where the platform on which they were asked to stand quickly moved a few centimeters fore or aft then stopped, ballistic or open loop 'programs' would closely characterize the response. During these responses the desired target position was not always achieved and of equal importance not always properly corrected some 15 seconds after the platform ceased to move. The persistent observation was that the subjects had a much stronger dependence on visual stabilization post-flight than pre-flight. This was best illustrated by a slow or only partial recovery to an upward posture after a transient base-of-support movement with eyes open. Postural responses to persistent wideband pseudorandom

  13. American ASTP prime crew participate in photography mission briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three American ASTP prime crew astronauts participate in a photography mission briefing in bldg 5 with Dr. Farouk El-Baz (wearing face mask) during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) pre-flight activity at JSC. They are, left to right, Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; Dr. El-Baz; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot. Dr. El-Baz is with the Center for Earth and Planetary Studies, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution. The face mask is to protect the crewmen from possible exposure to disease prior to launch time.

  14. AIRWAY LABELING USING A HIDDEN MARKOV TREE MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Díaz, Alejandro A.; Okajima, Yuka; Wassermann, Demian; Washko, George R.; Dy, Jennifer; San José Estépar, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel airway labeling algorithm based on a Hidden Markov Tree Model (HMTM). We obtain a collection of discrete points along the segmented airway tree using particles sampling [1] and establish topology using Kruskal’s minimum spanning tree algorithm. Following this, our HMTM algorithm probabilistically assigns labels to each point. While alternative methods label airway branches out to the segmental level, we describe a general method and demonstrate its performance out to the subsubsegmental level (two generations further than previously published approaches). We present results on a collection of 25 computed tomography (CT) datasets taken from a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) study. PMID:25436039

  15. Management of the difficult airway in children. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Álvarez Bárzaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The anesthesiologist plays a unique role in the health care of all patients who will undergo a surgical procedure. In this sense, he is a key factor in the appropriate and timely management of the airway. There are special situations that condition a difficult airway and can have a profound impact on anesthetic morbidity and mortality. These risks increases in the case of children, that is why the case of a pediatric patient with a difficult airway caused by limitation of mouth opening, scheduled for elective surgery in order to treat this condition in the Pediatric University Hospital ¨Paquito González Cueto " in Cienfuegos, is presented.

  16. Airway Management in a Patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Andrea G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 3-month-old female with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) undergoing general anesthesia for laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement with a focus on airway management. WHS is a rare 4p microdeletion syndrome resulting in multiple congenital abnormalities, including craniofacial deformities. Microcephaly, micrognathia, and glossoptosis are common features in WHS patients and risk factors for a pediatric airway that is potentially difficult to intubate. We discuss anesthesia strategies for airway preparation and management in a WHS patient requiring general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. PMID:27752382

  17. Airway obstruction and hemophilia-A: epiglottis hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshoren, Nir; Varon, David; Weinberger, Jeffrey M; Gross, Menachem

    2010-07-01

    Acute upper airway obstruction is a potentially life-threatening event. Hemophilia-A is a coagulopathy with high risk for spontaneous bleeding. Here we describe for the first time a spontaneous epiglottic internal hemorrhage leading to upper airway narrowing in a hemophilia-A patient. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for airway observation and treatment with factor VIII supplementation. In the first 48 hours there was rapid respiratory improvement. The epiglottic swelling resolved on the 5th day. In this patient no oral intubation or surgical management was needed.

  18. Hallermann-Streiff syndrome: airway problems during anaesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malde A

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available In the patients with Hallermann-Streiff Syndrome, presence of mandibular hypoplasia and microstomia results in difficult intubation. The anaesthetic management of a three month old child with this syndrome for lensectomy is presented in this report. There was difficulty in maintaining the airway patency during induction which was solved with the help of a modified, improvised airway. Intubation was done after induction with a combination of inhalational and intravenous anaesthetic agents and muscle relaxant. Recognition of this syndrome should alert the physician to the possibility of difficulty in airway maintenance.

  19. Airways microbiota: Hidden Trojan horses in asbestos exposed individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouliotis, Dimitrios E; Tasiopoulou, Vasiliki S; Molyvdas, Paschalis-Adam; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Hatzoglou, Chrissi; Zarogiannis, Sotirios G

    2014-11-01

    Malignant pleura mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare type of cancer with devastating prognosis, which develops in the pleural cavity from transformed mesothelium. MPM has been directly associated with asbestos exposure however there are aspects of the pathophysiology involved in the translocation of asbestos fibers in the pleura that remain unclear. Here, we propose and discuss that certain proteins secreted by airways symbiotic microbiota create membrane pores to the airway epithelial cells, through which asbestos fibers can penetrate the lung parenchyma and reach the sub-pleural areas. We evaluate this hypothesis using data from the published literature regarding the airways microbiota toxins such as cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs).

  20. Airway Microbiota and the Implications of Dysbiosis in Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durack, Juliana; Boushey, Homer A; Lynch, Susan V

    2016-07-01

    The mucosal surfaces of the human body are typically colonized by polymicrobial communities seeded in infancy and are continuously shaped by environmental exposures. These communities interact with the mucosal immune system to maintain homeostasis in health, but perturbations in their composition and function are associated with lower airway diseases, including asthma, a developmental and heterogeneous chronic disease with various degrees and types of airway inflammation. This review will summarize recent studies examining airway microbiota dysbioses associated with asthma and their relationship with the pathophysiology of this disease.

  1. Ultrasonography - A viable tool for airway assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Preethi B; Punetha, Pankaj; Chalam, Kolli S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Accurate prediction of the Cormack-Lehane (CL) grade preoperatively can help in better airway management of the patient during induction of anaesthesia. Our aim was to determine the utility of ultrasonography in predicting CL grade. Methods: We studied 100 patients undergoing general endotracheal anaesthesia. Mallampati (MP) class, thyromental distance (TMD) and sternomental distance (SMD) were noted. Ultrasound measurements of the anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the hyoid (ANS-Hyoid), anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the vocal cords (ANS-VC) and ratio of the depth of the pre-epiglottic space (Pre-E) to the distance from the epiglottis to the mid-point of the distance between the vocal cords (E-VC) were obtained. CL grade was noted during intubation. Chi-square test was employed to determine if there was any statistical difference in the measurements of patients with different CL grades. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were calculated for the various parameters. Results: The incidence of difficult intubation was 14%. An ANS-VC >0.23 cm had a sensitivity of 85.7% in predicting a CL Grade of 3 or 4, which was higher than that of MP class, TMD and SMD. However, the specificity, PPV and accuracy were lower than the physical parameters. The NPV was comparable. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a useful tool in airway assessment. ANS-VC >0.23 cm is a potential predictor of difficult intubation. ANS-Hyoid is not indicative of difficult intubation. The ratio Pre-E/E-VC has a low to moderate predictive value. PMID:27942053

  2. Therapeutic Bronchoscopy for Malignant Central Airway Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Armin; Grosu, Horiana B.; Lei, Xiudong; Diaz-Mendoza, Javier; Slade, Mark; Gildea, Thomas R.; Machuzak, Michael S.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Toth, Jennifer; Kovitz, Kevin L.; Ray, Cynthia; Greenhill, Sara; Casal, Roberto F.; Almeida, Francisco A.; Wahidi, Momen M.; Eapen, George A.; Feller-Kopman, David; Morice, Rodolfo C.; Benzaquen, Sadia; Tremblay, Alain; Simoff, Michael; Kovitz, Kevin; Greenhill, Sara; Gildea, Thomas R.; Machuzak, Michael; Almeida, Francisco A.; Cicenia, Joseph; Wahidi, Momen; Mahmood, Kamran; MacEachern, Paul; Tremblay, Alain; Simoff, Michael; Diaz-Mendoza, Javier; Ray, Cynthia; Feller-Kopman, David; Yarmus, Lonny; Estrada-Y-Martin, Rosa; Casal, Roberto F.; Toth, Jennifer; Karunakara, Raj; Slade, Mark; Ernst, Armin; Rafeq, Samaan; Ost, David; Eapen, George A.; Jimenez, Carlos A.; Morice, Rodolfo C.; Benzaquen, Sadia; Puchalski, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is significant variation between physicians in terms of how they perform therapeutic bronchoscopy, but there are few data on whether these differences impact effectiveness. METHODS: This was a multicenter registry study of patients undergoing therapeutic bronchoscopy for malignant central airway obstruction. The primary outcome was technical success, defined as reopening the airway lumen to > 50% of normal. Secondary outcomes were dyspnea as measured by the Borg score and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as measured by the SF-6D. RESULTS: Fifteen centers performed 1,115 procedures on 947 patients. Technical success was achieved in 93% of procedures. Center success rates ranged from 90% to 98% (P = .02). Endobronchial obstruction and stent placement were associated with success, whereas American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) score > 3, renal failure, primary lung cancer, left mainstem disease, and tracheoesophageal fistula were associated with failure. Clinically significant improvements in dyspnea occurred in 90 of 187 patients measured (48%). Greater baseline dyspnea was associated with greater improvements in dyspnea, whereas smoking, having multiple cancers, and lobar obstruction were associated with smaller improvements. Clinically significant improvements in HRQOL occurred in 76 of 183 patients measured (42%). Greater baseline dyspnea was associated with greater improvements in HRQOL, and lobar obstruction was associated with smaller improvements. CONCLUSIONS: Technical success rates were high overall, with the highest success rates associated with stent placement and endobronchial obstruction. Therapeutic bronchoscopy should not be withheld from patients based solely on an assessment of risk, since patients with the most dyspnea and lowest functional status benefitted the most. PMID:25358019

  3. Ultrasonography - A viable tool for airway assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi B Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Accurate prediction of the Cormack-Lehane (CL grade preoperatively can help in better airway management of the patient during induction of anaesthesia. Our aim was to determine the utility of ultrasonography in predicting CL grade. Methods: We studied 100 patients undergoing general endotracheal anaesthesia. Mallampati (MP class, thyromental distance (TMD and sternomental distance (SMD were noted. Ultrasound measurements of the anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the hyoid (ANS-Hyoid, anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the vocal cords (ANS-VC and ratio of the depth of the pre-epiglottic space (Pre-E to the  distance from the epiglottis to the mid-point of the distance between the vocal cords (E-VC were obtained. CL grade was noted during intubation. Chi-square test was employed to determine if there was any statistical difference in the measurements of patients with different CL grades. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy were calculated for the various parameters. Results: The incidence of difficult intubation was 14%. An ANS-VC >0.23 cm had a sensitivity of 85.7% in predicting a CL Grade of 3 or 4, which was higher than that of MP class, TMD and SMD. However, the specificity, PPV and accuracy were lower than the physical parameters. The NPV was comparable. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a useful tool in airway assessment. ANS-VC >0.23 cm is a potential predictor of difficult intubation. ANS-Hyoid is not indicative of difficult intubation. The ratio Pre-E/E-VC has a low to moderate predictive value.

  4. TrackFly: virtual reality for a behavioral system analysis in free-flying fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Steven N; Rohrseitz, Nicola; Straw, Andrew D; Dickinson, Michael H

    2008-06-15

    Modern neuroscience and the interest in biomimetic control design demand increasingly sophisticated experimental techniques that can be applied in freely moving animals under realistic behavioral conditions. To explore sensorimotor flight control mechanisms in free-flying fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), we equipped a wind tunnel with a Virtual Reality (VR) display system based on standard digital hardware and a 3D path tracking system. We demonstrate the experimental power of this approach by example of a 'one-parameter open loop' testing paradigm. It provided (1) a straightforward measure of transient responses in presence of open loop visual stimulation; (2) high data throughput and standardized measurement conditions from process automation; and (3) simplified data analysis due to well-defined testing conditions. Being based on standard hardware and software techniques, our methods provide an affordable, easy to replicate and general solution for a broad range of behavioral applications in freely moving animals. Particular relevance for advanced behavioral research tools originates from the need to perform detailed behavioral analyses in genetically modified organisms and animal models for disease research.

  5. Avrocar: a real flying saucer

    CERN Document Server

    Fedrigo, Desire Francine G; Gobato, Alekssander

    2015-01-01

    One of the most unusual military aircraft programs V / STOL was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a real flying saucer, the Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete secrecy. Despite significant changes in the design, during flight tests, the Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after an expenditure of 10 million US dollars between 1954 and 1961. But the concept of a lift fan, driven by a turbojet engine is not dead, and lives today as a key component of Lockheed X-35 Joint Strike Fighter contender. Was held in a data research and information related to Avrocar project carried out during the Second World War, which was directly linked to advances in aircraft that were built after it, and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.

  6. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  7. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  8. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  9. Trapping tsetse flies on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveissière C.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Riverine tsetse flies such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides are the vectors of human and animal trypanosomoses in West Africa. Despite intimate links between tsetse and water, to our knowledge there has never been any attempt to design trapping devices that would catch tsetse on water. In mangrove (Guinea one challenging issue is the tide, because height above the ground for a trap is a key factor affecting tsetse catches. The trap was mounted on the remains of an old wooden dugout, and attached with rope to nearby branches, thereby allowing it to rise and fall with the tide. Catches showed a very high density of 93.9 flies/”water-trap”/day, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than all the catches from other habitats where the classical trap had been used. In savannah, on the Comoe river of South Burkina Faso, the biconical trap was mounted on a small wooden raft anchored to a stone, and catches were compared with the classical biconical trap put on the shores. G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides densities were not significantly different from those from the classical biconical one. The adaptations described here have allowed to efficiently catch tsetse on the water, which to our knowledge is reported here for the first time. This represents a great progress and opens new opportunities to undertake studies on the vectors of trypanosomoses in mangrove areas of Guinea, which are currently the areas showing the highest prevalences of sleeping sickness in West Africa. It also has huge potential for tsetse control using insecticide impregnated traps in savannah areas where traps become less efficient in rainy season. The Guinean National control programme has already expressed its willingness to use such modified traps in its control campaigns in Guinea, as has the national PATTEC programme in Burkina Faso during rainy season.

  10. Crew Exploration Vehicle Potable Water System Verification Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, George; Peterson, Laurie J.; Vega, Leticia M.

    2010-01-01

    A stored water system on the crew exploration vehicle (CEV) will supply the crew with potable water for: drinking and food rehydration, hygiene, medical needs, sublimation, and various contingency situations. The current baseline biocide for the stored water system is ionic silver, similar in composition to the biocide used to maintain the quality of the water, transferred from the orbiter to the International Space Station, stored in contingency water containers. In the CEV water system, a depletion of the ionic silver biocide is expected due to ionic silver-plating onto the surfaces of materials within the CEV water system, thus negating its effectiveness as a biocide. Because this may be the first time NASA is considering a stored water system for long-term missions that do not maintain a residual biocide, a team of experts in materials compatibility, biofilms and point-of-use filters, surface treatment and coatings, and biocides has been created to pinpoint concerns and perform the testing that will help alleviate concerns related to the CEV water system.

  11. Identification of Crew-Systems Interactions and Decision Related Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Evans, Joni K.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Ancel, Ersin; Barr, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    NASA Vehicle System Safety Technology (VSST) project management uses systems analysis to identify key issues and maintain a portfolio of research leading to potential solutions to its three identified technical challenges. Statistical data and published safety priority lists from academic, industry and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed by NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) systems analysis personnel to identify issues and future research needs related to one of VSST's technical challenges, Crew Decision Making (CDM). The data examined in the study were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aviation Accident and Incident Data System, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident/Incident Data System and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). In addition, this report contains the results of a review of safety priority lists, information databases and other documented references pertaining to aviation crew systems issues and future research needs. The specific sources examined were: Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementation (SERFIs), Flight Deck Automation Issues (FDAI) and NTSB Most Wanted List and Open Recommendations. Various automation issues taxonomies and priority lists pertaining to human factors, automation and flight design were combined to create a list of automation issues related to CDM.

  12. STS-114 Crew Interviews: 1. Eileen Collins 2. Wendy Lawrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    1) STS-114 Commander Eileen Collins emphasized her love for teaching, respect for teachers, and her plan to go back to teaching again someday. Her solid background in Math and Science, focus on her interests, with great support from her family, and great training and support during her career with the Air Force gave her confidence in pursuing her dream to become an astronaut. Commander Collins shares her thoughts on the Columbia, details the various flight operations and crew tasks that will take place during the mission and the importance of Shuttle missions to the International Space Station and space exploration. 2) STS-114 Mission Specialist Wendy Lawrence first dreamed of becoming an astronaut when she watched Neil Armstrong walk on the moon from their black and white TV set. She majored in Engineering and became a Navy pilot. She shares her thoughts on the Columbia, details her major role as the crew in charge of all the transfer operations; getting the MPLM unpacked and repacked; and the importance of Shuttle missions to the International Space Station and space exploration.

  13. Holographic Weapons Sight as Crew Optical Alignment Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Dehmlow, Brian; Brazzel, Jack P.

    2011-01-01

    Crew Optical Alignment Sights (COAS) are used by spacecraft pilots to provide a visual reference to a target spacecraft for lateral relative position during rendezvous and docking operations. NASA s Orion vehicle, which is currently under development, has not included a COAS in favor of automated sensors, but the crew office has requested such a device be added for situational awareness and contingency support. The current Space Shuttle COAS was adopted from Apollo heritage, weighs several pounds, and is no longer available for procurement which would make re-use difficult. In response, a study was conducted to examine the possibility of converting a commercially available weapons sight to a COAS for the Orion spacecraft. The device used in this study was the XPS series Holographic Weapon Sight (HWS) procured from L-3 EOTech. This device was selected because the targeting reticule can subtend several degrees, and display a graphic pattern tailored to rendezvous and docking operations. Evaluations of the COAS were performed in both the Orion low-fidelity mockup and rendezvous simulations in the Reconfigurable Operational Cockpit (ROC) by crewmembers, rendezvous engineering experts, and flight controllers at Johnson Space Center. These evaluations determined that this unit s size and mounting options can support proper operation and that the reticule visual qualities are as good as or better than the current Space Shuttle COAS. The results positively indicate that the device could be used as a functional COAS and supports a low-cost technology conversion solution.

  14. STS-103 crew on Pad 39-B during TCDT activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Taking a break during emergency egress training at Launch Pad 39B are (left to right) STS-103 Mission Specialists Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Scott J. Kelly, and Mission Specialists John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.) and Steven L. Smith. Clervoy and Nicollier are with the European Space Agency. The training is part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities that also include opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay and simulated countdown exercises. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope, including the gyroscopes that allow the telescope to point at stars, galaxies and planets. The STS-103 crew will be replacing a Fine Guidance Sensor, an older computer with a new enhanced model, an older data tape recorder with a solid-state digital recorder, a failed spare transmitter with a new one, and degraded insulation on the telescope with new thermal insulation. The crew will also install a Battery Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit to protect the spacecraft batteries from overcharging and overheating when the telescope goes into a safe mode. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  15. Integrating Human Factors into Crew Exploration Vehicle Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Campbell, paul

    2007-01-01

    With NASA's new Vision for Exploration to send humans beyond Earth orbit, it is critical to consider the human as a system that demands early and continuous user involvement, and an iterative prototype/test/redesign process. Addressing human-system interface issues early on can be very cost effective even cost reducing when performed early in the design and development cycle. To achieve this goal within Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) Project Office, human engineering (HE) team is formed. Key tasks are to apply HE requirements and guidelines to hardware/software, and provide HE design, analysis and evaluation of crew interfaces. Initial activities included many practice-orientated evaluations using low-fidelity CEV mock-ups. What follows is a description of such evaluations that focused on a HE requirement regarding Net Habitable Volume (NHV). NHV is defined as the total remaining pressurized volume available to on-orbit crew after accounting for the loss of volume due to deployed hardware and structural inefficiencies which decrease functional volume. The goal of the NHV evaluations was to develop requirements providing sufficient CEV NHV for crewmembers to live and perform tasks in support of mission goals. Efforts included development of a standard NHV calculation method using computer models and physical mockups, and crew/ stakeholder evaluations. Nine stakeholders and ten crewmembers participated in the unsuited evaluations. Six crewmembers also participated in a suited evaluation. The mock-up was outfitted with volumetric representation of sub-systems such as seats, and stowage bags. Thirteen scenarios were developed to represent mission/crew tasks and considered to be primary volume drivers (e.g., suit donning) for the CEV. Unsuited evaluations included a structured walkthrough of these tasks. Suited evaluations included timed donning of the existing launch and entry suit to simulate a contingency scenario followed by doffing/ stowing of the suits. All mockup

  16. [Causes of fatigue in civil aviation helicopter crews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskiĭ, Iu N

    1981-01-01

    Vibration and noise play an important part in fatiguing crewmembers of helicopters. The exposure to these factors during the flying shift results in an early and marked fatigue of pilots the level of which depends on the vibration effects to a larger extent than on the noise effects. The fatigue is followed by a decline of the psychophysiological parameters characterizing the visual and motor functions as well as the ratio of the basic processes in the central nervous system.

  17. Singapore Airlines and South African Airways Sign Codeshare Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ From 15 September 2006, Singapore Airlines' customers will be able to travel to more destinations in South Africa thanks to a new codeshare agreement signed by Singapore Airlines and South African Airways (SAA).

  18. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitch Lomax Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Abstract: The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. Keywords: exercise, aquatic athletes, bronchoconstriction

  19. Human airway xenograft models of epithelial cell regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puchelle Edith

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Regeneration and restoration of the airway epithelium after mechanical, viral or bacterial injury have a determinant role in the evolution of numerous respiratory diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma and cystic fibrosis. The study in vivo of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to restore a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Recently, human tracheal xenografts have been developed in immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and nude mice. In this review we recall that human airway cells implanted in such conditioned host grafts can regenerate a well-differentiated and functional human epithelium; we stress the interest in these humanized mice in assaying candidate progenitor and stem cells of the human airway mucosa.

  20. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  1. Maternal Diesel Inhalation Increases Airway Hyperreactivity in Ozone Exposed Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutant exposure is linked with childhood asthma incidence and exacerbations, and maternal exposure to airborne pollutants during pregnancy increases airway hyperreactivity (ARR) in offspring. To determine if exposure to diesel exhaust during pregnancy worsened postnatal oz...

  2. Kenya Airways Launches New Project to Reduce Carbon Emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Kenya Airways announced its new carbon offset project in May,aiming to have guests directly take part in a carbon emissions reduction plan for environmental protection.Titus Naikuni,Managing Director of

  3. Surface Airways Observations (SAO) Hourly Data 1928-1948 (CDMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset consists of hourly U.S. surface airways observations (SAO). These observations extend as far back as 1928, from the time when commercial aviation began...

  4. Rapid remodeling of airway vascular architecture at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Amy; Lashnits, Erin; Yao, Li-Chin; Baluk, Peter; McDonald, Donald M

    2010-09-01

    Recent advances have documented the development of lung vasculature before and after birth, but less is known of the growth and maturation of airway vasculature. We sought to determine whether airway vasculature changes during the perinatal period and when the typical adult pattern develops. On embryonic day 16.5 mouse tracheas had a primitive vascular plexus unlike the adult airway vasculature, but instead resembling the yolk sac vasculature. Soon after birth (P0), the primitive vascular plexus underwent abrupt and extensive remodeling. Blood vessels overlying tracheal cartilage rings regressed from P1 to P3 but regrew from P4 to P7 to form the hierarchical, segmented, ladder-like adult pattern. Hypoxia and HIF-1α were present in tracheal epithelium over vessels that survived but not where they regressed. These findings reveal the plasticity of airway vasculature after birth and show that these vessels can be used to elucidate factors that promote postnatal vascular remodeling and maturation.

  5. Changes in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Microbiota at Pulmonary Exacerbation

    OpenAIRE

    Carmody, Lisa A.; Zhao, Jiangchao; Patrick D. Schloss; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Murray, Susan; Young, Vincent B.; Jun Z Li; LiPuma, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: In persons with cystic fibrosis (CF), repeated exacerbations of pulmonary symptoms are associated with a progressive decline in lung function. Changes in the airway microbiota around the time of exacerbations are not well understood.

  6. Fly ash-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, X.F.; Yu, J.G.; Wang, N. [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China). School of Science

    2007-01-02

    As a by-product from the combustion of pulverized coal, fly ash was, respectively, used as the reinforcement for formamide and urea-plasticized thermoplastic starch (FUPTPS) and glycerol-plasticized thermoplastic starch (GPTPS). The introduction of fly ash improved tensile stress from 4.56 MPa to 7.78 MPa and Youngs modulus increased trebly from 26.8 MPa to 84.6 MPa for fly ash-reinforced FUPTPS (A-FUPTPS), while tensile stress increased from 4.55 MPa to 12.86 MPa and Youngs modulus increased six times from 76.4 MPa to 545 MPa for fly ash-reinforced GPTPS (A-GPTPS). X-ray diffractograms illustrated that fly ash destroyed the formation of starch ordered crystal structure, so both A-GPTPS and FUPTPS could resist the starch re-crystallization (retrogradation). Also fly ash improved water resistance of TPS. As shown by rheology, during the thermoplastic processing, the extruder screw speed effectively adjusted the flow behavior of A-FUPTPS, while the increasing of the processing temperature effectively ameliorated the flow behavior of A-GPTPS. However, superfluous ash contents (e.g., 20 wt%) worsened processing fluidity and resulted in the congregation of fly ash in FUPTPS matrix (tested by SEM) rather than in GPTPS matrix. This congregation decreased the mechanical properties and water resistance of the materials.

  7. Modeling the Nonlinear Motion of the Rat Central Airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, G; Rona, A; Hainsworth, S V

    2016-01-01

    Advances in volumetric medical imaging techniques allowed the subject-specific modeling of the bronchial flow through the first few generations of the central airways using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, a reliable CFD prediction of the bronchial flow requires modeling of the inhomogeneous deformation of the central airways during breathing. This paper addresses this issue by introducing two models of the central airways motion. The first model utilizes a node-to-node mapping between the discretized geometries of the central airways generated from a number of successive computed tomography (CT) images acquired dynamically (without breath hold) over the breathing cycle of two Sprague-Dawley rats. The second model uses a node-to-node mapping between only two discretized airway geometries generated from the CT images acquired at end-exhale and at end-inhale along with the ventilator measurement of the lung volume change. The advantage of this second model is that it uses just one pair of CT images, which more readily complies with the radiation dosage restrictions for humans. Three-dimensional computer aided design geometries of the central airways generated from the dynamic-CT images were used as benchmarks to validate the output from the two models at sampled time-points over the breathing cycle. The central airway geometries deformed by the first model showed good agreement to the benchmark geometries within a tolerance of 4%. The central airway geometry deformed by the second model better approximated the benchmark geometries than previous approaches that used a linear or harmonic motion model.

  8. Altered Epithelial Gene Expression in Peripheral Airways of Severe Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhania, Akul; Rupani, Hitasha; Jayasekera, Nivenka; Lumb, Simon; Hales, Paul; Gozzard, Neil; Davies, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    Management of severe asthma remains a challenge despite treatment with glucocorticosteroid therapy. The majority of studies investigating disease mechanisms in treatment-resistant severe asthma have previously focused on the large central airways, with very few utilizing transcriptomic approaches. The small peripheral airways, which comprise the majority of the airway surface area, remain an unexplored area in severe asthma and were targeted for global epithelial gene expression profiling in this study. Differences between central and peripheral airways were evaluated using transcriptomic analysis (Affymetrix HG U133 plus 2.0 GeneChips) of epithelial brushings obtained from severe asthma patients (N = 17) and healthy volunteers (N = 23). Results were validated in an independent cohort (N = 10) by real-time quantitative PCR. The IL-13 disease signature that is associated with an asthmatic phenotype was upregulated in severe asthmatics compared to healthy controls but was predominantly evident within the peripheral airways, as were genes related to mast cell presence. The gene expression response associated with glucocorticosteroid therapy (i.e. FKBP5) was also upregulated in severe asthmatics compared to healthy controls but, in contrast, was more pronounced in central airways. Moreover, an altered epithelial repair response (e.g. FGFBP1) was evident across both airway sites reflecting a significant aspect of disease in severe asthma unadressed by current therapies. A transcriptomic approach to understand epithelial activation in severe asthma has thus highlighted the need for better-targeted therapy to the peripheral airways in severe asthma, where the IL-13 disease signature persists despite treatment with currently available therapy. PMID:28045928

  9. Childhood asthma after bacterial colonization of the airway in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans; Hermansen, Mette Northman; Buchvald, Frederik;

    2007-01-01

    Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx in asymp......Pathological features of the airway in young children with severe recurrent wheeze suggest an association between bacterial colonization and the initiating events of early asthma. We conducted a study to investigate a possible association between bacterial colonization of the hypopharynx...

  10. Astragalin inhibits autophagy-associated airway epithelial fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, In-Hee; Choi, Yean-Jung; Gong, Ju-Hyun; Shin, Daekeun; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background Fibrotic remodeling of airway and lung parenchymal compartments is attributed to pulmonary dysfunction with an involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in chronic lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and asthma. Methods The in vitro study elucidated inhibitory effects of astragalin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside from leaves of persimmon and green tea seeds, on oxidative stress-induced airway fibrosis. The in vivo study explored the demoting effects of astragalin on ep...

  11. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  12. Robust system for human airway-tree segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael W.; Gibbs, Jason D.; Higgins, William E.

    2008-03-01

    Robust and accurate segmentation of the human airway tree from multi-detector computed-tomography (MDCT) chest scans is vital for many pulmonary-imaging applications. As modern MDCT scanners can detect hundreds of airway tree branches, manual segmentation and semi-automatic segmentation requiring significant user intervention are impractical for producing a full global segmentation. Fully-automated methods, however, may fail to extract small peripheral airways. We propose an automatic algorithm that searches the entire lung volume for airway branches and poses segmentation as a global graph-theoretic optimization problem. The algorithm has shown strong performance on 23 human MDCT chest scans acquired by a variety of scanners and reconstruction kernels. Visual comparisons with adaptive region-growing results and quantitative comparisons with manually-defined trees indicate a high sensitivity to peripheral airways and a low false-positive rate. In addition, we propose a suite of interactive segmentation tools for cleaning and extending critical areas of the automatically segmented result. These interactive tools have potential application for image-based guidance of bronchoscopy to the periphery, where small, terminal branches can be important visual landmarks. Together, the automatic segmentation algorithm and interactive tool suite comprise a robust system for human airway-tree segmentation.

  13. Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, K.K.W. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Karen.Siu@sync.monash.edu.au; Morgan, K.S.; Paganin, D.M. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Boucher, R. [CF Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States); Uesugi, K.; Yagi, N. [SPring-8/JASRI, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Parsons, D.W. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Women' s and Children' s Hospital, South Australia 5006 (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5006 (Australia); Women' s and Children' s Health Research Institute, South Australia, 5006 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    We seek to establish non-invasive imaging able to detect and measure aspects of the biology and physiology of surface fluids present on airways, in order to develop novel outcome measures able to validate the success of proposed genetic or pharmaceutical therapies for cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease. Reduction of the thin airway surface liquid (ASL) is thought to be a central pathophysiological process in CF, causing reduced mucociliary clearance that supports ongoing infection and destruction of lung and airways. Current outcome measures in animal models, or humans, are insensitive to the small changes in ASL depth that ought to accompany successful airway therapies. Using phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI), we have directly examined the airway surfaces in the nasal airways and tracheas of anaesthetised mice, currently to a resolution of {approx}2 {mu}m. We have also achieved high resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the small airways in mice using phase-contrast enhanced computed tomography (PC-CT) to elucidate the structure-function relationships produced by airway disease. As the resolution of these techniques improves they may permit non-invasive monitoring of changes in ASL depth with therapeutic intervention, and the use of 3D airway and imaging in monitoring of lung health and disease. Phase contrast imaging of airway surfaces has promise for diagnostic and monitoring options in animal models of CF, and the potential for future human airway imaging methodologies is also apparent.

  14. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    form branching bronchioalveolar-like structures in 3-D culture. This novel model of human airway morphogenesis can be used to study critical events in human lung development and suggests a supportive role for the endothelium in promoting branching of airway epithelium.

  15. Topical airway anesthesia for awake fiberoptic intubation: Comparison between airway nerve blocks and nebulized lignocaine by ultrasonic nebulizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview: Awake fiberoptic bronchoscope (FOB guided intubation is the gold standard of airway management in patients with cervical spine injury. It is essential to sufficiently anesthetize the upper airway before the performance of awake FOB guided intubation in order to ensure patient comfort and cooperation. This randomized controlled study was performed to compare two methods of airway anesthesia, namely ultrasonic nebulization of local anesthetic and performance of airway blocks. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 adult patients with cervical spine injury were randomly allocated into two groups. Group L received airway anesthesia through ultrasonic nebulization of 10 ml of 4% lignocaine and Group NB received airway blocks (bilateral superior laryngeal and transtracheal recurrent laryngeal each with 2 ml of 2% lignocaine and viscous lignocaine gargles. FOB guided orotracheal intubation was then performed. Hemodynamic variables at baseline and during the procedure, patient recall, vocal cord visibility, ease of intubation, coughing/gagging episodes, and signs of lignocaine toxicity were noted. Results: The observations did not reveal any significant differences in demographics or hemodynamic parameters at any time during the study. However, the time taken for intubation was significantly lower in Group NB as compared with the Group L. Group L had an increased number of coughing/gagging episodes as compared with Group NB. Vocal cord visibility and ease of intubation were better in patients who received airway blocks and hence the amount of supplemental lignocaine used was less in this group. Overall patient comfort was better in Group NB with fewer incidences of unpleasant recalls as compared with Group L. Conclusion: Upper airway blocks provide better quality of anesthesia than lignocaine nebulization as assessed by patient recall of procedure, coughing/gagging episodes, ease of intubation, vocal cord visibility, and time taken to intubate.

  16. Flying Through Dust From Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-11-01

    How can we tell what an asteroid is made of? Until now, weve relied on remote spectral observations, though NASAs recently launched OSIRIS-REx mission may soon change this by landing on an asteroid and returning with a sample.But what if we could learn more about the asteroids near Earth without needing to land on each one? It turns out that we can by flying through their dust.The aerogel dust collector of the Stardust mission. [NASA/JPL/Caltech]Ejected CluesWhen an airless body is impacted by the meteoroids prevalent throughout our solar system, ejecta from the body are flung into the space around it. In the case of small objects like asteroids, their gravitational pull is so weak that most of the ejected material escapes, forming a surrounding cloud of dust.By flying a spacecraft through this cloud, we could perform chemical analysis of the dust, thereby determining the asteroids composition. We could even capture some of the dust during a flyby (for example, by using an aerogel collector like in the Stardust mission) and bring it back home to analyze.So whats the best place to fly a dust-analyzing or -collecting spacecraft? To answer this, we need to know what the typical distribution of dust is around a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) a problem that scientists Jamey Szalay (Southwest Research Institute) and Mihly Hornyi (University of Colorado Boulder) address in a recent study.The colors show the density distribution for dust grains larger than 0.3 m around a body with a 10-km radius. The distribution is asymmetric, with higher densities on the apex side, shown here in the +y direction. [Szalay Hornyi 2016]Moon as a LaboratoryTo determine typical dust distributions around NEAs, Szalay and Hornyi first look at the distribution of dust around our own Moon, caused by the same barrage of meteorites wed expect to impact NEAs. The Moons dust cloud was measured in situ in 2013 and 2014 by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) on board the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment

  17. Small airway impairment in moderate to severe asthmatics without significant proximal airway obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Thierry; Chanez, Pascal; Dusser, Daniel; Devillier, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Asthma is a disease characterized by inflammation which affects both proximal and distal airways. We evaluated the prevalence of small airway obstruction (SAO) in a group of clinically stable asthmatics with both normal forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and normal FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and treated with an association of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Clinical evaluation included the measurement of dyspnea, asthma control test and drug compliance. The prevalence of SAO was estimated by spirometry and plethysmography and defined by the presence of one or more of the following criteria: functional residual capacity (FRC) > 120% predicted (pred), residual volume (RV) > pred + 1.64 residual standard deviation (RSD), RV/total lung capacity (TLC) > pred + 1.64 RSD, forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75% slow vital capacity (SVC) - FVC > 10%. Among the 441 patients who were included, 222 had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. At least one criteria of SAO was found in 115 (52%) mainly lung hyperinflation (39% based on high FRC, RV or RV/TLC) and more rarely distal airflow limitation (15% based on FEF25-75% or FEF50%) or expiratory trapping (10% based on increased SVC - FVC). In the patients with only SAO (no PAO), there was no relationship between SAO, asthma history and the scores of dyspnea, asthma control or drug compliance. These results suggest that in asthmatics with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, treated with ICSs and LABAs, SAO is found in more than half of the patients indicating that the routinely used lung function tests can underestimate dysfunctions occurring in the small airways.

  18. Don't Rock the Boat : How Antiphase Crew Coordination Affects Rowing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Brouwer, Anouk J.; de Poel, Harjo J.; Hofmijster, Mathijs J.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that crew rowing requires perfect synchronization between the movements of the rowers. However, a long-standing and somewhat counterintuitive idea is that out-of-phase crew rowing might have benefits over in-phase (i.e., synchronous) rowing. In synchronous rowing, 5 to 6% of

  19. 76 FR 9806 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I... forms of information. Title: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form...

  20. 77 FR 2561 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  1. 78 FR 26648 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... List (CBP Form I-418) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... concerning the Passenger List/Crew List (CBP Form I-418). This request for comment is being made pursuant to...: Passenger List/Crew List. OMB Number: 1651-0103. Form Number: CBP Form I-418. Abstract: CBP Form I-418...

  2. 49 CFR 230.65 - Steam blocking view of engine crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Leaks § 230.65 Steam blocking view of engine crew. The steam locomotive owner and/or... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam blocking view of engine crew. 230.65...

  3. More explicit communication after classroom-based crew resource management training: results of a pragmatic trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek-van Noord, I.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dyck, C. van; Wagner, C.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives: Aviation-based crew resource management trainings to optimize non-technical skills among professionals are often suggested for health care as a way to increase patient safety. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of a 2-day classroom-based crew resource management (CRM)

  4. Role of IRE1α/XBP-1 in Cystic Fibrosis Airway Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M. P. Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF pulmonary disease is characterized by chronic airway infection and inflammation. The infectious and inflamed CF airway environment impacts on the innate defense of airway epithelia and airway macrophages. The CF airway milieu induces an adaptation in these cells characterized by increased basal inflammation and a robust inflammatory response to inflammatory mediators. Recent studies have indicated that these responses depend on activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR. This review discusses the contribution of airway epithelia and airway macrophages to CF airway inflammatory responses and specifically highlights the functional importance of the UPR pathway mediated by IRE1/XBP-1 in these processes. These findings suggest that targeting the IRE1/XBP-1 UPR pathway may be a therapeutic strategy for CF airway disease.

  5. Effect of Fly Ash on the Electrical Conductivity of Concretes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The fly ash occasionally has high content of iron oxide and carbon that are good electrical conducting components. This paper investigates the effect of the fly ash used as mineral admixtures on the electrical conductivity of concretes. The electrical properties of concretes using 3 kinds of fly ash with different iron oxide contents have been studied. Experimental results show that at the same fly ash dosage the resistivity of concrete using fly ash with high content of iron oxide is slightly lower than that with low content of iron oxide. However, the concrete resistivity after 14d increases as fly ash dosage increases regardless of iron oxide content in fly ash.

  6. Chronic respiratory aeroallergen exposure in mice induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the large airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill R Johnson

    Full Text Available Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-polarized inflammation and leads to airway remodeling and fibrosis but the mechanisms involved are not clear. To determine whether epithelial-mesenchymal transition contributes to airway remodeling in asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM extract for up to 15 consecutive weeks. We report that respiratory exposure to HDM led to significant airway inflammation and thickening of the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the large airways. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1 levels increased in mouse airways while epithelial cells lost expression of E-cadherin and occludin and gained expression of the mesenchymal proteins vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA and pro-collagen I. We also observed increased expression and nuclear translocation of Snail1, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a potent inducer of EMT, in the airway epithelial cells of HDM-exposed mice. Furthermore, fate-mapping studies revealed migration of airway epithelial cells into the sub-epithelial regions of the airway wall. These results show the contribution of EMT to airway remodeling in chronic asthma-like inflammation and suggest that Th2-polarized airway inflammation can trigger invasion of epithelial cells into the subepithelial regions of the airway wall where they contribute to fibrosis, demonstrating a previously unknown plasticity of the airway epithelium in allergic airway disease.

  7. Comparative Study of laryngeal mask airway Supreme and laryngeal mask airway Classic in paralyzed patients

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: The present study was undertaken to compare the LMA Classic with LMA Supreme in assessing the ease of insertion, number of attempts, time for insertion, any unwanted responses, stability of device, peak airway pressure, leak volume and leak fraction and postoperative complications.Methods: A total of 274 patients of ASA grade 1 and 2 were included in the study and divided into two groups with 137 patients in each group: the LMA Classic group (group C) and LMA Supreme group...

  8. Dynamic Optimization Algorithm for Flying Trajectory of a Free-flying Space Robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new method of dynamic optimization for the flying trajectory of a free-flying space robot based on its flying motion characteristics is presented. The continuous flying trajectory is broken into a number of segment and the control efforts and the duration of the segment are chosen as the optimization parameters. The objective function is made by using the weighted sum of the fuel used and the time spent, and the constraint equations are selected. Finally, the internal point punishment function method is adopted in the optimization program, and the results of computer simulation are given.

  9. Biomass fly ash in concrete: Mixture proportioning and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuangzhen Wang; Amber Miller; Emilio Llamazos; Fernando Fonseca; Larry Baxter [Brigham Young University, Provo, UT (USA). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    ASTM C 618 prohibits use of biomass fly ashes in concrete. This document compares the properties of biomass fly ashes from cofired (herbaceous with coal), pure wood combustion and blended (pure wood fly ash blended with coal fly ash) to those of coal fly ash in concrete. The results illustrate that with 25% replacement (wt%) of cement by fly ash, the compressive strength (one day to one year) and the flexure strength (at 56th day curing) of cofired and blended biomass fly ash concrete is statistically equal to that of two coal fly ash concrete in this investigation (at 95% confidence interval). This implies that biomass fly ash with co-firing concentration within the concentration interest to commercial coal-biomass co-firing operations at power plants and blended biomass fly ash within a certain blending ratio should be considered in concrete. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Tsetse fly microbiota: form and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eWang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tsetse flies are the primary vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. These flies have also established symbiotic associations with bacterial and viral microorganisms. Laboratory-reared tsetse flies harbor up to four vertically transmitted organisms - obligate Wigglesworthia, commensal Sodalis, parasitic Wolbachia and Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus (SGHV. Field-captured tsetse can harbor these symbionts as well as environmentally acquired commensal bacteria. This microbial community influences several aspects of tsetse’s physiology, including nutrition, fecundity and vector competence. This review provides a detailed description of tsetse’s microbiome, and describes the physiology underlying host-microbe, and microbe-microbe, interactions that occur in this fly.

  11. Psychosocial issues affecting crews during long-duration international space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.

    1998-01-01

    Psychosocial issues can negatively impact on crew performance and morale during long-duration international space missions. Major psychosocial factors that have been described in anecdotal reports from space and in studies from analog situations on Earth include: 1) crew heterogeneity due to gender differences, cultural issues, and work experiences and motivations; 2) language and dialect variations; and 3) task versus supportive leadership roles. All of these factors can lead to negative sequelae, such as intra-crew tension and cohesion disruptions. Specific sequelae that can result from single factors include subgrouping and scapegoating due to crew heterogeneity; miscommunication due to major or subtle language differences; and role confusion, competition, and status leveling due to inappropriate leadership role definition. It is time to conduct research exploring the impact of these psychosocial factors and their sequelae on space crews during actual long-duration international space missions.

  12. STS-26 crew training in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers use a bit of orchestrated humor to demonstrate the aft (back) zipper feature on the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) before a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Left to right are Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, MS David C. Hilmers, MS John M. Lounge, and Pilot Richard O. Covey. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  13. 76 FR 26654 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... from Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados...

  14. 76 FR 18419 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY... Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded... quarantine regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados......

  15. 76 FR 43804 - Movement of Hass Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... Avocados From Areas Where Mediterranean Fruit Fly or South American Fruit Fly Exist AGENCY: Animal and... Mediterranean fruit fly quarantined areas in the United States with a certificate if the fruit is safeguarded... regulations to remove trapping requirements for Mediterranean fruit fly for Hass avocados imported from...

  16. As and Se interactions with fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Díaz-Somoano

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic and selenium are toxic elements present incoal in trace concentrations that may be emitted tothe environment during coal conversion processes.However, it is possible to retain volatile arsenic andselenium compounds in the fly ashes originated bythe process, the proportions retained depending onthe characteristics of the ashes and processconditions. This work is focused on the capture ofthese elements in fly ashes in simulated coalcombustion and gasification atmospheres inlaboratory scale reactors.

  17. Settling characteristics of some Indian fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kharapur (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2003-07-01

    The paper examines the aspects of the solid liquid separation (settling characteristics) of some of the fly ash obtained from coal-fired power plants in India. The application of a coagulating or flocculating agent (polymer) to improve the two properties as indicated is a typical industrial practice. The sources for this study comprise of fly ash, pond ash, and bottom ash and the settling characteristics are studied in conjunction with the flocculating agent polyacrylamide. 4 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. My Friendship with the Flying Tigers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang; Yingshan

    2015-01-01

    "I believe I owe a debt to the Chinese people...It’s so huge there’s no way I can pay it back."This is what Flying Tigers pilot Glen Beneda said to his family time and again.I have been working in the CPAFFC for over 10 years now,and my feelings for the Flying Tigers have deepened over time.I had heard of its

  19. Cross-cultural attitudes of flight crew regarding CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Ashleigh

    1993-01-01

    This study asks if the Cockpit Management Attitude Questionnaire (CMAQ) can detect differences across countries, and/or across occupations. And if so, can those differences be interpreted? Research has shown that the CMAQ is sensitive to attitude differences between and within organizations, thereby demonstrating its effectiveness with American populations. But the CMAQ was originally designed by American researchers and psychometrically refined for American pilots. The items in the questionnaire, though general in nature, still reflect the ubiquitous Western bias, because the items were written by researchers from and for the one culture. Recognizing this constraint, this study is nonetheless interested in attitudes toward crew behavior, and how those attitudes may vary across country and occupation.

  20. Experimental Evaluation of the Hydrodynamic Response of Crew Boat Hulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study on 3 different hulls of crew boats intended for service to offshore wind turbines. Their hydrodynamic behaviour has been tested in various sea states representing general wave conditions that could be expected at offshore wind farms. Two...... main setups were used during the tests, corresponding to the hulls being connected to an offshore windmill and being free floating. The following aspects were the main subjects of investigation: • The Response Amplitude Operators of the hulls in two different configurations and with waves coming from 3...... the supervision of Jens Peter Kofoed in the deep wave basin in the Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering laboratory at Aalborg University during spring 2012....