WorldWideScience

Sample records for airspace law

  1. Restricted Airspace

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Technical Test Center has restricted airspace up to 30,000 feet ASL. Airspace encompasses R-2104 (Redstone). Airspace is used extensively for airborne/UAV...

  2. National Airspace System Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Airspace System Resources (NASR) maintains the national aeronautical information database, containing static data related to NAS facilities and operations....

  3. Considerations for Domestic Law Enforcement Implementation of a UAS Program in the Proposed FAA Regulatory Environment of Integration into the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    2014/06/20/national-park-service- bans- drone -use-in-all-national-parks/. 29 authorities to conduct agricultural monitoring surveillance by UAS as...aircraft systems, UAS, law enforcement policy, public safety, airborne law enforcement, drones , civil liberties 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 87 16. PRICE...building public trust;  Educate the public with a focus on the dramatic differences between a large military predator drone reserved for combat

  4. Generic Airspace Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogford, Richard H.; Bridges, Wayne; Gujarl, Vimmy; Lee, Paul U.; Preston, William

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an extension of generic airspace research to explore the amount of memorization and specialized skills required to manage sectors with specific characteristics or factors. Fifty-five retired controllers were given an electronic survey where they rated the amount of memorization or specialized skills needed for sixteen generic airspace factors. The results suggested similarities in the pattern of ratings between different areas of the US (East, Central, and West). The average of the ratings for each area also showed some differences between regions, with ratings being generally higher in the East area. All sixteen factors were rated as moderately to highly important and may be useful for future research on generic airspace, air traffic controller workload, etc.

  5. 14 CFR 91.705 - Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace. 91.705 Section 91.705 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Operations within airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specification Airspace. (a) Except as... airspace designated as Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications airspace unless— (1) The aircraft...

  6. Special Use Airspace Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Special-Use Airspace Management System (SAMS) supports the FAA military operations (MILOPS) mission. It automates the coordination of FAA and U.S. Department of...

  7. Dynamic Airspace Configuration Tool (DACT) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metron Aviation will develop optimization algorithms and an automated tool for performing dynamic airspace configuration under different operational scenarios. The...

  8. 77 FR 32896 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... modify controlled airspace at Billings, MT (77 FR 20747). Interested parties were invited to participate... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY... airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT. Controlled airspace is necessary...

  9. 76 FR 2800 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT AGENCY... establishes Class E en route domestic airspace for the Lucin VORTAC, Lucin, UT. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC...) Airspace Docket No. 09-ANM-25, the airspace description for the Lucin VORTAC, Lucin, UT,...

  10. On-Demand Special Use Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We design and develop a Decision Support Tool (DST) that supports On-Demand Special Use Airspace (SUA) scheduling and flight plan optimization around SUA between...

  11. On-Demand Special Use Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We design and develope a Decision Support Tool (DST) that supports On-Demand Special Use Airspace (SUA) scheduling and flight plan optimization around SUA between...

  12. Trajectory Clustering with Applications to Airspace Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a framework aimed at monitoring the behavior of aircraft in a given airspace. Trajectories that constitute typical operations are determined and...

  13. Acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kakugawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, Kawabata et al. described a lesion which they termed “airspace enlargement with fibrosis” that could be included on the spectrum of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. This group also reported that patients with airspace enlargement with fibrosis but without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of another type had no acute exacerbations and favorable prognoses on clinical follow-up. Here we describe the first case, to our knowledge, of acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of another type. An 82-year-old man was referred to our department for worsening dyspnea and new alveolar opacities on chest radiograph following left pulmonary segmentectomy (S6 for cancer. A diagnosis of acute exacerbation of airspace enlargement with fibrosis without coexisting interstitial pneumonia of other types was made, based on pathological evidence of airspace enlargement with fibrosis and organizing diffuse alveolar damage. Treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone followed by tapered oral prednisolone resulted in gradual improvement of the clinical condition and chest radiographic findings. Clinicians should be aware that patients with airspace enlargement with fibrosis may experience acute exacerbation.

  14. 76 FR 52230 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Forest, VA AGENCY... Airspace at Forest, VA, to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at...

  15. 77 FR 15575 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Sheridan, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Sheridan, WY AGENCY... airspace at Sheridan County Airport, Sheridan, WY. Decommissioning of the Sheridan Tactical Air Navigation... controlled airspace at Sheridan, WY (76 FR 79563). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  16. 76 FR 36286 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Newcastle, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Newcastle, WY AGENCY... airspace at Newcastle, WY, to accommodate aircraft using the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... amend controlled airspace at Newcastle, WY (76 FR 20281). Interested parties were invited to...

  17. 75 FR 63708 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI AGENCY... E airspace at Kalaupapa, HI, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Kalaupapa, HI (75...

  18. 76 FR 18041 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI AGENCY... E airspace at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV... establish controlled airspace at Kahului, HI (76 FR 3571). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  19. 75 FR 57374 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fillmore, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fillmore, UT AGENCY... E airspace at Fillmore, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish controlled airspace at Fillmore, UT (75...

  20. 76 FR 1999 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT AGENCY... E airspace at Panguitch, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... Panguitch, UT (75 FR 36585). The FAA agreed with a comment received to also expand controlled airspace...

  1. 76 FR 45177 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT AGENCY... airspace at Nephi UT, to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System... proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Nephi, UT (76 FR 28382). Interested parties...

  2. 75 FR 57375 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Toledo, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Toledo, WA AGENCY... E airspace at Toledo, WA, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... controlled airspace at Toledo, WA (75 FR 33559). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  3. Sectorization and Configuration Transition in Airspace Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Current airspace is sectorized according to some predefined rules that are not flexible. To facilitate utilizing the airspace more efficiently, methods to design sectors need to be promoted. In this paper, we propose an undirected graph cut-based approach that employs a memetic local search-embedded constrained evolution algorithm, NSGA-II, to generate nondominated airspace configurations. We also propose a new concave hull-based method to automatically depict sector boundaries. In addition, we also study the configuration transition problem. We define the similarity of the two different configurations and calculate their similarity with a bisection diagram and a minimum cost flow algorithm. We build a forward network to represent configuration transitions across several consecutive time periods and use multiobjective dynamic programming to determine a series of nondominated configuration links from the first period to the end. We test our approaches by simulation in high-altitude airspace controlled by Beijing Area Control Center. The results show that our sectorization method outperforms the current configuration in practice, providing a lower sector number, lower intersector flow, more balanced workload distribution among the different sectors, and no constraint violations, so that the proposed approach shows its significant potential as practical applications for dynamic airspace configuration.

  4. Optimizing Integrated Terminal Airspace Operations Under Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle; Xue, Min; Zelinski, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    In the terminal airspace, integrated departures and arrivals have the potential to increase operations efficiency. Recent research has developed geneticalgorithm- based schedulers for integrated arrival and departure operations under uncertainty. This paper presents an alternate method using a machine jobshop scheduling formulation to model the integrated airspace operations. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. Because approximate solutions are computed, the proposed algorithm incorporates the computation of statistical bounds to estimate the optimality of the candidate solutions. A proof-ofconcept study is conducted on a baseline implementation of a simple problem considering a fleet mix of 14 aircraft evolving in a model of the Los Angeles terminal airspace. A more thorough statistical analysis is also performed to evaluate the impact of the number of scenarios considered in the sampled problem. To handle extensive sampling computations, a multithreading technique is introduced.

  5. CONCEPT OF ADVANCED FLEXIBLE USE OF AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Luppo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Concept of Flexible Use of Airspace (FUA allows to eliminate many problems on the basis of civil-military coordination, but there are still a lot of areas for improvement. These improvements will be implemented in the Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace (AFUA concept. Methods: We examine the airspace structure in the frames of AFUA concept, which includes variable profile areas, temporary reserved and temporary segregated areas, danger or restricted areas. Mission Trajectory in AFUA which allows designing ad-hoc structures delineation at short notice is also examined. Regarding the performance enhancements of AFUA we compare these with FUA concept. Examination of AFUA structure gives us better view of the functions and opportunities of this concept. Result: AFUA concept provides many advantages for the civil aviation stakeholders and includes many other positive sides. Variable Profile Areas provide more flexibility, particularly in a high density traffic area and any combination of basic volume possible. Collaborative decision-making will increase the situational awareness of both parties and help to decrease the transit between airbases and training areas, allows military to use larger airspaces for missions on an absolute time-limited basis. As a result of mission trajectory implementation in AFUA concept general air traffic crossing are possible in all type of airspace structures, after coordination or under specific permanent agreements. The use of Centralized AFUA Services will allow the central collection, integration and provision of ASM data in support of continuous collaborative network processes, in such a way improving operational performance during the planning and execution phases (predictability, flexibility, better use of capacity, enhanced flight efficiency, real time sharing of information, better management of available airspace. Discussion: Given the important contribution that AFUA brings into air traffic management

  6. A Seminar On Shanghai Airport Airspace Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>A seminar on Shanghai airport airspace, sponsored by the airport’s second-phase project headquarters and East China Air Traffic Administration, was held in Shanghai between March 21 and 23.Present at the seminar were Shanghai Vice-Mayor

  7. 75 FR 44719 - Amendment and Establishment of Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Razorback Range...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Razorback Range Airspace Complex, AR AGENCY: Federal... Airspace (SUA) Hog High North military operation area (MOA) that is contained in the Razorback...

  8. 75 FR 65229 - Amendment and Establishment of Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Razorback Range...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Restricted Areas and Other Special Use Airspace, Razorback Range Airspace Complex, AR AGENCY: Federal... Razorback Range Airspace Complex, AR (75 FR 44719). As a result of further review, the FAA's...

  9. Intelligent Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and, in particular, intelligent, autonomous aircraft operating in the National Airspace (NAS) have the potential to significantly...

  10. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  11. 78 FR 48298 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY: Federal... Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Commerce Municipal Airport. This action enhances the safety...

  12. 77 FR 66067 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Boone, IA... necessary for standard instrument approach procedures and for the safety and management of Instrument...

  13. 75 FR 62459 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Unalakleet, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ... for air traffic management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations. DATES: Effective 0901 UTC... Federal Register to revise Class E airspace at Unalakleet, AK (75 FR 32865). Interested parties were... amendments to existing SIAPs require that the orientation and dimensions of Class E airspace be revised...

  14. 75 FR 12163 - Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport has made this action necessary for the...

  15. 76 FR 75446 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport, Mercury, NV. Decommissioning of the Mercury Non-Directional Beacon (NDB)...

  16. 75 FR 39148 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT AGENCY..., UT, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) traffic from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. This will improve the safety and management of IFR operations for the Salt Lake City,...

  17. 78 FR 58158 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wasatch, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wasatch, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Wasatch, UT, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Wasatch, UT (78...

  18. 75 FR 28765 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Pine Mountain, GA, to accommodate the additional airspace... Mountain, GA to provide controlled airspace required to support the SIAPs for Harris County Airport....

  19. 76 FR 14802 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT AGENCY... airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using... a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT...

  20. 78 FR 46497 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... establishes Class E surface airspace at Oceana Naval Air Station, (NAS), VA, due to the Air Traffic Control Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) now operating on a part time basis. This action enhances...

  1. 78 FR 21084 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oceana NAS, VA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... operating hours, and establish Class E Airspace at Oceana Naval Air Station, (NAS), VA, due to the Air Traffic Control Tower at Oceana NAS (Apollo Soucek Field) operating on a part time basis. This...

  2. Commercial UAV operations in civil airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcome, Laurence R.

    2000-11-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is often portrayed as the major impediment to unmanned aerial vehicle expansion into civil government and commercial markets. This paper describes one company's record for successfully negotiating the FAA regulations and obtaining authorizations for several types of UAVs to fly commercial reconnaissance missions in civil airspace. The process and criteria for obtaining such authorizations are described. The mishap records of the Pioneer, Predator and Hunter UAVs are examined in regard to their impact on FAA rule making. The paper concludes with a discussion of the true impediments to UAV penetration of commercial markets to date.

  3. Dynamic Air Route Open-Close Problem for Airspace Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic airspace management plans and assigns airspace resources to airspace users on demand to increase airspace capacity. Although many studies of air traffic flow management (ATFM) have sought to optimally allocate air traffic to get the best use of given airspace resources, few studies have focused on how to build an efficient air traffic network or how to adjust the current network in real time. This paper presents an integer program model named the dynamic air route open-close problem (DROP). DROP has a cost-based objective function which takes into account constraints such as the shortest occupancy time of routes, which are not considered in ATFM models. The aim of DROP is to determine which routes will be opened to a certain user during a given time period. Simulation results show that DROP can facilitate utilization of air routes. DROP, a simplified version of an air traffic network constructing problem, is the first step towards realizing dynamic airspace management. The combination of ATFM and DROP can facilitate decisions toward more reasonable, efficient use of limited airspace resources.

  4. Software for creating an airspace in RAMS from Skyview2

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this project has been developed an application that creates an airspace defined by the user and creates the necessary files for RAMS Plus to simulate it. This application has been programed using the Ismael González's TFC named "Algoritmo de cálculo de rutas óptimas para aeronaves en el plano horizontal", therefore the application also allows to know the shortest route between two points of the ECAC airspace, if exists. In order to create the airspace the user can elect from 5 elements to ...

  5. Flight planning and flexible use of airspace in Free route airspace area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kodera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes changes in the flight planning caused by the introduction of Free Route Airspace Project and suggests possible measures needed to be adopted across the whole system in order to ensure military and civilian aircraft remain segregated in a way that is today ensured by the system of conditional routes. The paper suggests a possible solution in flight planning using existing flight planning tools provided by the CFMU.

  6. Network Centric Transponders for Airspace Integration of UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method and device for situational awareness for unmanned air vehicles is presented. This enables integration of UAVs into the national airspace in a safe manner,...

  7. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an increasing need to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) to perform missions of vital importance to national security...

  8. Massively Parallel Processing for Dynamic Airspace Configuration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Through extensive research conducted by Mosaic ATM in the area of Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC), we have identified the significant benefit of the use of...

  9. Airspace Simulation Through Indoor Operation of Subscale Flight Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An indoor environment for simulating airspace operations will be designed. Highly maneuverable subscale vehicles can be used to simulate the dynamics of full-scale...

  10. 76 FR 8625 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... (SIAPs) plus the creation of one new SIAP at the Savoonga Airport has made this action necessary to... amended SIAPs and one new SIAP at the Savoonga Airport, Savoonga, AK. This Class E airspace will...

  11. UAS Demand Generator for Discrete Airspace Density Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key component to solving many engineering challenges of UAS integration into the National Airspace System is the ability to state the numbers of forecasted UAS by...

  12. Trajectory Clustering and an Application to Airspace Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a framework aimed at monitoring the behavior of aircraft in a given airspace. Trajectories that constitute typical operations are determined and...

  13. Network Centric Transponders for Airspace Integration of UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for a small, lightweight, remotely-operable transponder for UAVs is identified. This would allow integration of UAVs into the national airspace while...

  14. A Method for Assessing Airspace Efficiency in Super Density Operations Using an Airspace Phase State Approach Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the challenges to assessing NextGen operational improvements in the National Airspace System (NAS) lies in the ability to understand and measure the...

  15. ACES-Based Testbed and Bayesian Game-Theoretic Framework for Dynamic Airspace Configuration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR effort is focused on developing a Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) concept where-in ARTCCs can benefit from re-configuring airspaces based on Traffic...

  16. Dynamic airspace configuration algorithms for next generation air transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jian

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is under great pressure to safely and efficiently handle the record-high air traffic volume nowadays, and will face even greater challenge to keep pace with the steady increase of future air travel demand, since the air travel demand is projected to increase to two to three times the current level by 2025. The inefficiency of traffic flow management initiatives causes severe airspace congestion and frequent flight delays, which cost billions of economic losses every year. To address the increasingly severe airspace congestion and delays, the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is proposed to transform the current static and rigid radar based system to a dynamic and flexible satellite based system. New operational concepts such as Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) have been under development to allow more flexibility required to mitigate the demand-capacity imbalances in order to increase the throughput of the entire NAS. In this dissertation, we address the DAC problem in the en route and terminal airspace under the framework of NextGen. We develop a series of algorithms to facilitate the implementation of innovative concepts relevant with DAC in both the en route and terminal airspace. We also develop a performance evaluation framework for comprehensive benefit analyses on different aspects of future sector design algorithms. First, we complete a graph based sectorization algorithm for DAC in the en route airspace, which models the underlying air route network with a weighted graph, converts the sectorization problem into the graph partition problem, partitions the weighted graph with an iterative spectral bipartition method, and constructs the sectors from the partitioned graph. The algorithm uses a graph model to accurately capture the complex traffic patterns of the real flights, and generates sectors with high efficiency while evenly distributing the workload among the generated sectors. We further improve

  17. 76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates for... the geographic coordinates, within Class D airspace, of the Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX,...

  18. 78 FR 33019 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Commerce, TX AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Commerce, TX. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Commerce Municipal Airport (AAF). The...

  19. 76 FR 20281 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Newcastle, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Newcastle, WY...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Newcastle, WY, to accommodate aircraft using the... Mondell Field Airport, Newcastle, WY. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using...

  20. 77 FR 56174 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Camp Guernsey, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Camp Guernsey, WY AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class D airspace and Class E airspace at Camp Guernsey Airport, Camp... holidays. An informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the Northwest...

  1. 75 FR 78645 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Kenton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Hardin County Airport. The FAA is taking... amending Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface for SIAPs operations at Hardin... airspace at Hardin County Airport, Kenton, OH. List of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71 Airspace,...

  2. 75 FR 29466 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... operations below flight level (FL) 160 within the territory and airspace of Afghanistan, when approved by the... territory and airspace of Afghanistan by all U.S. air carriers; U.S. commercial operators;...

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Somalia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 107 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 107—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Somalia 1... 1 may conduct flight operations within the territory and airspace of Somalia below flight level...

  4. 75 FR 42015 - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan; Supplemental Regulatory Flexibility Analysis AGENCY... Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan. DATES: Comments must be received on or... Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Afghanistan.\\1\\ The comment...

  5. 75 FR 79293 - Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend and remove Class E airspace at Vero Beach, FL (75 FR 65581... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment and Revocation of Class E Airspace; Vero Beach... removes Class E airspace designated as an extension to Class D surface area at Vero Beach...

  6. 76 FR 30298 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as the... at Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa, FL. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to...

  7. 77 FR 28243 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... in the Federal Register on April 11, 2012 that amends Class D airspace at Cocoa Beach, FL. DATES... D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. A typographical error was made in...

  8. 76 FR 3571 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kahului, HI...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI. Controlled airspace... approach procedures at Kahului Airport, Kahului, HI. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the...

  9. 75 FR 49868 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Kalaupapa, HI...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kalaupapa, HI, to accommodate aircraft using a... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Kalaupapa Airport, Kalaupapa, HI....

  10. 78 FR 41290 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Elbow Lake, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Elbow Lake, MN AGENCY... airspace at Elbow Lake, MN. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Elbow Lake Municipal--Pride of the Prairie Airport. The FAA...

  11. 78 FR 18267 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Elbow Lake, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Elbow Lake, MN...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Elbow Lake, MN. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Elbow Lake Municipal-Pride...

  12. 75 FR 51173 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Port Angeles, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Port Angeles, WA AGENCY... Class E airspace at Port Angeles, WA. The Ediz Hook Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB) has been... controlled airspace at Port Angeles, WA (75 FR 33556). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  13. 76 FR 3570 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ AGENCY... action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Taylor Airport, Taylor, AZ. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using the CAMBO One Departure Area Navigation (RNAV) out of Taylor...

  14. 76 FR 44258 - Removal of Class D and E Airspace; Willow Grove, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Removal of Class D and E Airspace; Willow Grove, PA AGENCY... and Class E airspace areas at Willow Grove, PA. The Willow Grove Naval Air Station (NAS) has closed... Class D and E airspace at Willow Grove, PA. The closing of the Willow Grove NAS and cancellation of...

  15. 76 FR 13505 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN AGENCY: Federal... amends Class E airspace in the La Porte, IN area. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC May 5, 2011. FOR FURTHER... amending Class E airspace in the La Porte, IN area (76 FR 5471), Docket No. FAA-2010-1030. Subsequent...

  16. 76 FR 78144 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anaktuvuk Pass, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anaktuvuk Pass, AK AGENCY... airspace at Anaktuvuk Pass Airport, Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The creation of two standard instrument approach... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at Anaktuvuk Pass,...

  17. 78 FR 6261 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Griffin, GA, as the Griffin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has... Griffin-Spalding County Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management...

  18. 77 FR 68716 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD...: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Hot Springs...

  19. 76 FR 22011 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch... amends Class E airspace for the Carizzo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX, airspace area, to accommodate... Springs, TX. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  20. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  1. 78 FR 14911 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hot Springs, SD AGENCY... airspace at Hot Springs, SD. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Hot Springs Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking...

  2. 76 FR 5305 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Raton, NM. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Raton Municipal Airport/Crews Field. The...

  3. 75 FR 48550 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pine Mountain, GA AGENCY... Airspace at Pine Mountain, GA, to accommodate the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) developed... proposed rulemaking to amend Class E airspace at Pine Mountain, GA (75 FR 28765) Docket No....

  4. 78 FR 19097 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Round Mountain, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Round Mountain, TX... Class E airspace at Round Mountain, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Area... the West Ranch Airport, Round Mountain, TX (77 FR 71367) Docket No. FAA-2012-0771. Interested...

  5. 78 FR 59806 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK... Class E airspace at White Mountain Airport, White Mountain, AK, to accommodate aircraft using new Area... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at White...

  6. 76 FR 44288 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Market, VA AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at New Market, VA, to accommodate the additional airspace needed for the Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for New Market Airport. This...

  7. 78 FR 25406 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Twin Falls Joslin Field-Magic Valley Regional Airport, Twin Falls, ID. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using the...

  8. 75 FR 33560 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fillmore, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fillmore, UT...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Fillmore, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Fillmore Municipal Airport, Fillmore,...

  9. 75 FR 76650 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT to accommodate Area Navigation... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Bryce Canyon Airport, Bryce Canyon,...

  10. 78 FR 63380 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; St. George, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; St. George, UT AGENCY... airspace at St. George Municipal Airport, St. George, UT, by removing the operating hours established by a... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend controlled airspace at St. George, UT...

  11. 78 FR 49116 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Brigham City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Brigham City, UT AGENCY... airspace at Brigham City Airport, Brigham City, UT. Decommissioning of the Brigham City Nondirectional... modify controlled airspace at Brigham City, UT (78 FR 33772). Interested parties were invited...

  12. 75 FR 36585 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ...; Panguitch, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking..., Panguitch UT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV... airspace at Panguitch Municipal Airport, Panguitch UT. Controlled airspace extending upward from 700...

  13. 78 FR 65238 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. Controlled airspace is... management of aircraft operations at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  14. 75 FR 33559 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Toledo, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Toledo...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Toledo, WA, to accommodate aircraft using a... Ed Carlson Memorial Field- South Lewis County Airport, Toledo, WA. Controlled airspace is...

  15. 75 FR 17202 - Proposed Establishment of Long Beach, CA, Class C Airspace Area and Revision of Santa Ana (John...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Revision of Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C Airspace Area; Public Meetings AGENCY: Federal Aviation... establish Class C airspace at Long Beach, CA, and revise the Santa Ana (John Wayne) Class C airspace area... Santa Ana (John Wayne), CA, Class C airspace area will be accepted. (b) The meetings will be open to...

  16. Dynamic airspace configuration method based on a weighted graph model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yangzhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method for dynamic airspace configuration based on a weighted graph model. The method begins with the construction of an undirected graph for the given airspace, where the vertices represent those key points such as airports, waypoints, and the edges represent those air routes. Those vertices are used as the sites of Voronoi diagram, which divides the airspace into units called as cells. Then, aircraft counts of both each cell and of each air-route are computed. Thus, by assigning both the vertices and the edges with those aircraft counts, a weighted graph model comes into being. Accordingly the airspace configuration problem is described as a weighted graph partitioning problem. Then, the problem is solved by a graph partitioning algorithm, which is a mixture of general weighted graph cuts algorithm, an optimal dynamic load balancing algorithm and a heuristic algorithm. After the cuts algorithm partitions the model into sub-graphs, the load balancing algorithm together with the heuristic algorithm transfers aircraft counts to balance workload among sub-graphs. Lastly, airspace configuration is completed by determining the sector boundaries. The simulation result shows that the designed sectors satisfy not only workload balancing condition, but also the constraints such as convexity, connectivity, as well as minimum distance constraint.

  17. Dynamic airspace configuration method based on a weighted graph model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yangzhou; Zhang Defu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for dynamic airspace configuration based on a weighted graph model. The method begins with the construction of an undirected graph for the given airspace, where the vertices represent those key points such as airports, waypoints, and the edges represent those air routes. Those vertices are used as the sites of Voronoi diagram, which divides the airspace into units called as cells. Then, aircraft counts of both each cell and of each air-route are computed. Thus, by assigning both the vertices and the edges with those aircraft counts, a weighted graph model comes into being. Accordingly the airspace configuration problem is described as a weighted graph partitioning problem. Then, the problem is solved by a graph par-titioning algorithm, which is a mixture of general weighted graph cuts algorithm, an optimal dynamic load balancing algorithm and a heuristic algorithm. After the cuts algorithm partitions the model into sub-graphs, the load balancing algorithm together with the heuristic algorithm trans-fers aircraft counts to balance workload among sub-graphs. Lastly, airspace configuration is com-pleted by determining the sector boundaries. The simulation result shows that the designed sectors satisfy not only workload balancing condition, but also the constraints such as convexity, connec-tivity, as well as minimum distance constraint.

  18. Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System Resource Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Marien, Ty V.; Viken, Jeffery K.; Neitzke, Kurt W.; Kwa, Tech-Seng; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.; Hinze, Nicolas K.

    2015-01-01

    This analysis is the deliverable for the Airspace Systems Program, Systems Analysis Integration and Evaluation Project Milestone for the Systems and Portfolio Analysis (SPA) focus area SPA.4.06 Identification and Analysis of National Airspace System (NAS) Resource Constraints and Mitigation Strategies. "Identify choke points in the current and future NAS. Choke points refer to any areas in the en route, terminal, oceanic, airport, and surface operations that constrain actual demand in current and projected future operations. Use the Common Scenarios based on Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM) projections of future demand developed under SPA.4.04 Tools, Methods and Scenarios Development. Analyze causes, including operational and physical constraints." The NASA analysis is complementary to a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) "Development of Tools and Analysis to Evaluate Choke Points in the National Airspace System" Contract # NNA3AB95C awarded to Logistics Management Institute, Sept 2013.

  19. A Virtual Laboratory for Aviation and Airspace Prognostics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan; Gorospe, George; Teubert, Christ; Quach, Cuong C.; Hogge, Edward; Darafsheh, Kaveh

    2017-01-01

    Integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomy, spacecraft, and other aviation technologies, in the airspace is becoming more and more complicated, and will continue to do so in the future. Inclusion of new technology and complexity into the airspace increases the importance and difficulty of safety assurance. Additionally, testing new technologies on complex aviation systems and systems of systems can be challenging, expensive, and at times unsafe when implementing real life scenarios. The application of prognostics to aviation and airspace management may produce new tools and insight into these problems. Prognostic methodology provides an estimate of the health and risks of a component, vehicle, or airspace and knowledge of how that will change over time. That measure is especially useful in safety determination, mission planning, and maintenance scheduling. In our research, we develop a live, distributed, hardware- in-the-loop Prognostics Virtual Laboratory testbed for aviation and airspace prognostics. The developed testbed will be used to validate prediction algorithms for the real-time safety monitoring of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the prediction of unsafe events. In our earlier work1 we discussed the initial Prognostics Virtual Laboratory testbed development work and related results for milestones 1 & 2. This paper describes the design, development, and testing of the integrated tested which are part of milestone 3, along with our next steps for validation of this work. Through a framework consisting of software/hardware modules and associated interface clients, the distributed testbed enables safe, accurate, and inexpensive experimentation and research into airspace and vehicle prognosis that would not have been possible otherwise. The testbed modules can be used cohesively to construct complex and relevant airspace scenarios for research. Four modules are key to this research: the virtual aircraft module which uses the X

  20. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  1. 78 FR 18799 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... controlled airspace at Richard I. Bong Airport (77 FR 71363) Docket No. FAA-2012-0656. Interested parties... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  2. 77 FR 29870 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Baraboo, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Baraboo, WI, area, creating additional controlled airspace at Reedsburg Municipal Airport (77 FR 4701... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  3. Mitigation of airspace congestion impact on airline networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Bo Valdemar; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In recent years European airspace has become increasingly congested and airlines can now observe that en-route capacity constraints are the fastest growing source of flight delays. In 2010 this source of delay accounted for 19% of all flight delays in Europe and has been increasing with an average...

  4. 76 FR 1512 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed for Savannah-Hardin County Airport. This action... SIAPs developed at Savannah-Hardin County Airport, Savannah, TN. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary... Savannah, TN Savannah-Hardin County Airport, TN (Lat. 35 10'13'' N., long. 88 13'00'' W.) That...

  5. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish controlled airspace at Rome, OR (78 FR 45475). Interested parties...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR,...

  6. 76 FR 35966 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY: Federal... Cocoa, FL, as the Merritt Island Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard... Merritt Island Airport, Cocoa, FL (75 FR 21266) Docket No. FAA-2011-0070. Interested parties were...

  7. 76 FR 8627 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum, AK AGENCY: Federal... Platinum, AK, to accommodate the addition of a Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP), at the Platinum Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  8. 77 FR 42427 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Grinnell, IA AGENCY:...

  9. 78 FR 76053 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ..., creating additional controlled airspace at Chariton Municipal Airport (78 FR 47237) Docket No. FAA-2013...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR...

  10. 75 FR 23580 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ..., reconfiguring controlled airspace at James G. Whiting Memorial Field Airport (75 FR 6595) Docket No. FAA-2009...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  11. 78 FR 18800 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ..., creating additional controlled airspace at Decorah Municipal Airport (77 FR 71362) Docket No. FAA-2011-1433... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  12. 76 FR 75447 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Centerville, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... E airspace for the Centerville, IA, area. (76 FR 53358) Docket No. FAA-2011-0830. Interested parties... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  13. 75 FR 23581 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ..., IA, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Emmetsburg Municipal Airport (75 FR 6592) Docket No. FAA... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  14. 77 FR 66069 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Perry, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... additional controlled airspace at Perry Municipal Airport (77 FR 50647) Docket No. FAA-2011-1435. Interested... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  15. 76 FR 75449 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... controlled airspace at the City of Stuart Helistop (76 FR 53360) Docket No. FAA-2011-0831. Interested parties... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963...

  16. 76 FR 8281 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Cleveland, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... final rule action. The development of the CLE Class B airspace modification was a dynamic, iterative... provided by the Hopkins International Airport website, as well as a Department of Transportation statistic... International Airport website is the total airport operations; which reflect the IFR and VFR...

  17. 76 FR 18378 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Taylor, AZ AGENCY: Federal... Taylor Airport, Taylor, AZ, to accommodate aircraft using the CAMBO One Departure, and the Area Navigation (RNAV) standard instrument approach procedures at Taylor Airport. This will improve the safety...

  18. 75 FR 37292 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Cherokee, IA. Decommissioning of the Pilot Rock non-directional beacon (NDB) at Cherokee County Regional Airport, Cherokee, IA has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA AGENCY:...

  19. 76 FR 73501 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Carroll, IA. Decommissioning of the Carroll non-directional beacon (NDB) at Arthur N. Neu Airport, Carroll, IA, has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA AGENCY:...

  20. 77 FR 68682 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA AGENCY: Federal... Guthrie, IA. Decommissioning of the Guthrie Center non-directional radio beacon (NDB) at Guthrie County... safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) operations at the airport. Geographic...

  1. 77 FR 34210 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL AGENCY: Federal... Orlando, FL, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Orlando Executive... coordinates of Orlando Executive Airport, Orlando International Airport, and Kissimmee Municipal...

  2. 78 FR 25382 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Griffin, GA AGENCY: Federal... Griffin, GA, as the Griffin Non-Directional Beacon (NDB) has been decommissioned and new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have been developed at Griffin-Spalding County Airport....

  3. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Robbins Field. This action enhances... accommodate the new RNAV GPS Standard Instrument Approach Procedures developed for Robbins Field. This action... within the scope of that authority as it establishes controlled airspace at Robbins Field, Oneonta,...

  4. 76 FR 22015 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Raton, NM AGENCY: Federal... Raton, NM, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Raton Municipal Airport/Crews Field, Raton, NM. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and...

  5. 78 FR 27025 - Modification of Class B Airspace; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to modify the Philadelphia, PA, Class B airspace area (77 FR 45290, July 31, 2012... effects of proposed or final rules that include a Federal mandate likely to result in the expenditure by State, local, or tribal governments, in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100 million or...

  6. 78 FR 67297 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Curtis Municipal Airport (78 FR 48838) Docket No. FAA...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  7. 78 FR 72009 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Star, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Star, NC (78 FR 54413... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565,...

  8. 75 FR 68551 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greensburg, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) for the Decatur County Memorial Hospital Heliport. The FAA is taking...) SIAP for the Decatur County Memorial Hospital Heliport, Greensburg, IN. Controlled airspace is...

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2017-01-01

    Conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line of sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Use build-a-little-test-a-little strategy remote areas to urban areas Low density: No traffic management required but understanding of airspace constraints. Cooperative traffic management: Understanding of airspace constraints and other operations. Manned and unmanned traffic management: Scalable and heterogeneous operations. UTM construct consistent with FAAs risk-based strategy. UTM research platform is used for simulations and tests. UTM offers path towards scalability

  10. Securing the Global Airspace System Via Identity-Based Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Current telecommunications systems have very good security architectures that include authentication and authorization as well as accounting. These three features enable an edge system to obtain access into a radio communication network, request specific Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements and ensure proper billing for service. Furthermore, the links are secure. Widely used telecommunication technologies are Long Term Evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) This paper provides a system-level view of network-centric operations for the global airspace system and the problems and issues with deploying new technologies into the system. The paper then focuses on applying the basic security architectures of commercial telecommunication systems and deployment of federated Authentication, Authorization and Accounting systems to provide a scalable, evolvable reliable and maintainable solution to enable a globally deployable identity-based secure airspace system.

  11. INTEGRATING UNMANNED AIRCRAFT VEHICLES IN THE ROMANIAN NATIONAL AIRSPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Alina Catinca POP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of unmanned aerial vehicles in the Romanian civil airspace brings us back to the 1920's, when the first aircraft started to fly over the Romanian sky. Little did the legislators at that time know how to create the proper legal framework for the use of such machines so that all aspects related to their use be covered, as well as identify all potential risks and effects. Nowadays, UAVs are the new aircraft and it is a challenge for the legislators to properly identify the legal framework so that the safety and security of civil aviation are not affected. The paper will address the challenges the regulator faces in the integration of the UAVs in the Romanian civil airspace, developments and issues raised by the current regulation, as well as aspects related to the national regulations expected to enter into force at the end of 2015, beginning of 2016.

  12. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  13. Joint Airspace Control, Doctrine Update 10-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    Defense Zone ADZ Amphibious Objective Area AOA Approach Corridor APPCOR Battlefield Coordination Line BCL Coordinated Air Defense Area CADA Carrier...transit or loiter. Amphibious Defense Zone ( ADZ ) An area encompassing the amphibious objective area and adjoining airspace as required for the...accompanying naval forces for the purpose of air defense. An ADZ provides an anti-air warfare area for protection of the amphibious task force. If

  14. Flight safety measurements of UAVs in congested airspace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Jinwu; Liu Yang; Luo Zhangping

    2016-01-01

    Describing spatial safety status is crucial for high-density air traffic involving multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in a complex environment. A probabilistic approach is proposed to measure safety situation in congested airspace. The occupancy distribution of the airspace is represented with conflict probability between spatial positions and UAV. The concept of a safety envelope related to flight performance and response time is presented first instead of the conventional fixed-size protected zones around aircraft. Consequently, the conflict probability is performance-dependent, and effects of various UAVs on safety can be distinguished. The uncer-tainty of a UAV future position is explicitly accounted for as Brownian motion. An analytic approximate algorithm for the conflict probability is developed to decrease the computational consumption. The relationship between safety and flight performance are discussed for different response times and prediction intervals. To illustrate the applications of the approach, an experi-ment of three UAVs in formation flight is performed. In addition, an example of trajectory planning is simulated for one UAV flying over airspace where five UAVs exist. The validation of the approach shows its potential in guaranteeing flight safety in highly dynamic environment.

  15. 76 FR 35369 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Airspace; Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class D airspace at Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, CA. Controlled airspace is necessary to contain potential missed approaches at...

  16. 76 FR 55298 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and E Airspace and Amendment of Class E; Brooksville, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... existing Class E airspace at Brooksville, FL. to accommodate a new air traffic control tower at Hernando County Airport. Controlled airspace is necessary for the support of air traffic operations at Hernando... surface at Hernando County Airport, Brooksville, FL. Controlled airspace is necessary to support...

  17. 76 FR 49285 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX AGENCY... Register June 2, 2011, ] amending Class D airspace at Cabaniss Navy Outlying Field (NOLF), Corpus Christi... Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX (76 FR 31821, Docket No. FAA-2010-1171). Subsequent to publication,...

  18. 75 FR 30746 - Proposed Revocation and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Northeast, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    .... The recent removal of a Colored Federal Airway near Kaktovik, AK, duplication of controlled airspace.... The Docket Office (telephone 1-800-647-5527) is on the plaza level of the Department of Transportation... allow commercial air operations through what is now uncontrolled airspace above 1,200 feet. Air...

  19. 78 FR 52114 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Macon, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... notice may be changed in light of the comments received. A report summarizing each substantive public... Web page at http://www.faa.gov/airports_airtraffic/air_traffic/publications/airspace_amendments/ . You... called Herbert Smart Downtown Airport. Airspace reconfiguration is necessary due to the...

  20. 76 FR 22014 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cable Union, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... E airspace for Cable Union, WI, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Cable Union Airport (76 FR 5300... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2....

  1. 77 FR 55776 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walsenburg, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... establish Class E airspace at Spanish Peaks Airfield, Walsenburg, CO. Controlled airspace is necessary to... submit comments through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... submit comments through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov . Commenters wishing the FAA...

  2. 76 FR 79563 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sheridan, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sheridan, WY AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Sheridan County Airport, Sheridan, WY. Decommissioning of the Sheridan Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has made this action necessary for the safety...

  3. 75 FR 65584 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Savannah, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Savannah-Hardin County Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of Instrument... surface to support new SIAPs developed at Savannah-Hardin County Airport, Savannah, TN. Airspace... at Savannah-Hardin County Airport, Savannah, TN. Lists of Subjects in 14 CFR Part 71...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77 Aeronautics and... No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq 1. Applicability... prohibition. No person may conduct flight operations over or within the territory of Iraq except as...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 87—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia 1... SFAR, no person described in paragraph 1 may conduct flight operations within the territory...

  6. 75 FR 20774 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort A.P. Hill, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Fort A.P. Hill, VA... Register December 7, 2009 that establishes Class E airspace at Fort A.P. Hill, VA. DATES: Effective Date..., Eastern Service Center, Federal Aviation Administration, P.O. Box 20636, Atlanta, Georgia 30320;...

  7. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have...

  8. 76 FR 3569 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to... procedures at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance...

  9. 75 FR 30295 - Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT... Class E airspace at West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at West Yellowstone...

  10. 76 FR 18040 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Yellowstone, MT AGENCY... airspace at Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, MT, to accommodate aircraft using Instrument Landing System (ILS) Localizer (LOC) standard instrument approach procedures at Yellowstone Airport. This...

  11. 76 FR 21266 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cocoa, FL AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Cocoa, FL, as ] the Merritt Island Non-Directional Beacon... surface to support new standard instrument approach procedures developed at Merritt Island Airport,...

  12. 77 FR 21662 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY... amends Class D airspace at Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL, by correcting the geographic... of Cape Canaveral Skid Strip, Cocoa Beach, FL. Also, the geographic coordinates for the airport...

  13. 75 FR 77572 - Proposed Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Revision of Class E Airspace; Platinum AK AGENCY... action proposes to revise Class E airspace at Platinum AK. The creation of a new Standard Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at the Platinum Airport has made this action necessary to enhance safety...

  14. 75 FR 38406 - Amendment of Norton Sound Low and Control 1234L Offshore Airspace Areas; Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... scope of that authority as it modifies offshore airspace areas in Alaska. ICAO Considerations As part of... accordance with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Standards and Recommended... airspace under the jurisdiction of a contracting state, derived from ICAO. Annex 11 provisions apply...

  15. 75 FR 51171 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation... E airspace at Kaneohe Bay Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Kaneohe, HI. The FAA is taking this... upward from 700 feet above the surface at Kaneohe Bay MCAS, Kaneohe Bay, HI. The geographic...

  16. 76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. The FAA is taking this action in response to a request from the Honolulu... E airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface for the Hawaiian Islands, HI....

  17. 78 FR 65241 - Proposed Modification of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kailua-Kona, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... Airspace; Kailua- Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Airport at Keahole, Kailua-Kona, HI. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate the Area Navigation... upward from 700 feet above the surface, at Kona International Airport at Keahole, Kailua-Kona, HI....

  18. 76 FR 70051 - Establishment of Class D and Amendment of Class E Airspace; Los Angeles, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ...; Los Angeles, CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class D airspace at Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, CA. Controlled airspace is necessary to contain potential missed approaches at Los Angeles International Airport....

  19. 78 FR 54412 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Chatom, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Roy Wilcox Airport... (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures for Roy Wilcox Airport. Controlled airspace extending... of that authority as it would establish Class E airspace at Roy Wilcox Airport, Chatom, AL....

  20. 75 FR 68556 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at La Porte, IN, to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) for the La Porte Hospital Heliport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance...

  1. 76 FR 5472 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Hampton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Center Heliport, New Hampton, IA. This action is necessary for the safety and management of IFR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; New Hampton, IA AGENCY... airspace at New Hampton, IA, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument...

  2. 78 FR 18798 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA AGENCY... airspace at West Union, IA. Decommissioning of the West Union non-directional beacon (NDB) at George L... and for the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) operations at the airport....

  3. 77 FR 20747 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Billings, MT AGENCY... action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Billings Logan International Airport, Billings, MT, to... feet or more above the surface of the earth. * * * * * ANM MT E5 Billings, MT Billings...

  4. 77 FR 16783 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Orlando, FL...: This action proposes to amend Class E Airspace at Orlando, FL, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures have been developed at Orlando Executive Airport. This action would enhance the safety...

  5. 77 FR 16668 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace; Brooksville, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... amends Class D and E airspace at Hernando County Airport, Brooksville, FL. The geographic coordinates of... Hernando County Airport, Brooksville, FL, to be in concert with the FAAs aeronautical database, which shows..., and Class E airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface, for Hernando County...

  6. 76 FR 56354 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anaktuvuk Pass, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Anaktuvuk Pass, AK...: This action proposes to revise Class E airspace at Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The creation of two standard instrument approach procedures at the Anaktuvuk Pass Airport has made this action necessary to enhance...

  7. 76 FR 58728 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Robbins Field. This... support the new RNAV GPS standard instrument approach procedures for Robbins Field. Controlled airspace... of that authority as it would establish Class E airspace at Robbins Field, Oneonta, AL. Lists...

  8. 77 FR 32393 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation... date for the amendment of Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO, until September 20, 2012. The FAA is taking this action to allow additional time...

  9. 76 FR 5303 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carrizo Springs, Glass Ranch Airport, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carrizo Springs... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace for the Carrizo Springs, Glass... Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Faith Ranch Airport, Carrizo Springs, TX. The FAA...

  10. 77 FR 30187 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rock Springs, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rock Springs, WY AGENCY... airspace at Rock Springs-Sweetwater County Airport, Rock Springs, WY. Decommissioning of the Rock Springs... Rock Springs, WY (77 FR 11796). Interested parties were invited to participate in this...

  11. 76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has...

  12. 78 FR 5754 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Class E Airspace; Reading, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class D and Class E Airspace at Reading... Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Reading Regional/Carl A. Spaatz Field. This action would enhance the...

  13. 78 FR 21044 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA... D and Class E Airspace at Reading, PA, as the SHAPP OM navigation aid has been decommissioned, requiring the modification of Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Reading Regional/Carl...

  14. 78 FR 68699 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV... airspace at the Battle Mountain VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV. A favorable comment from the National Business Aviation...

  15. 78 FR 41335 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Battle Mountain VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV, to...

  16. 78 FR 58159 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV... Class E airspace at the Battle Mountain VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Battle Mountain, NV, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules...

  17. 75 FR 29656 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mountain View, AR AGENCY... airspace for Mountain View, AR. Decommissioning of the Wilcox non-directional beacon (NDB) at Mountain View Wilcox Memorial Field Airport, Mountain View, AR, has made this action necessary to enhance the...

  18. 77 FR 71367 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Round Mountain, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Mountain, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Round Mountain, TX. Controlled... instrument approach procedures at West Ranch Airport, Round Mountain, TX. Controlled airspace is needed...

  19. 77 FR 75598 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; White Mountain...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at White Mountain Airport, White Mountain, AK... management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at White Mountain Airport. DATES: Comments must...

  20. 75 FR 12975 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Battle Mountain, NV... establish Class E airspace at Battle Mountain, NV, to accommodate aircraft using the VHF Omni-Directional... Battle Mountain Airport. This will improve the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules...

  1. 76 FR 56127 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mercury, NV AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport, Mercury, NV. Decommissioning of the Mercury Non- Directional Beacon (NDB) at Mercury, Desert Rock Airport has made this...

  2. 76 FR 28306 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Idaho Falls, ID... existing Class D and Class E airspace at Idaho Falls, ID, by changing the name of the airport to Idaho Falls Regional Airport, and adjusting the geographic coordinates of the airport. This action also...

  3. 75 FR 63706 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Klamath Falls, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Klamath Falls... amend Class D and Class E airspace at Klamath Falls, OR. Decommissioning of the Merrill ] Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) at Klamath Falls Airport has made this action necessary for the safety...

  4. 78 FR 40382 - Modification of Class D and E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class D and E Airspace; Twin Falls, ID... Class E airspace at Twin Falls Joslin Field-Magic Valley Regional Airport, Twin Falls, ID, to... areas, as well as corrects the airport name to Twin Falls Joslin Field-Magic Valley Regional...

  5. 75 FR 44727 - Proposed Revocation and Establishment of Class E Airspace; St. George, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... Airspace; St. George, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., St. George, UT, as the airport will be closing, eliminating the need for controlled airspace. This... Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at the new St. George Municipal Airport, St. George, UT. The FAA...

  6. 75 FR 39147 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT AGENCY... E airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... Bryce Canyon, UT (74 FR 59492). The comments received prompted the FAA on April 26, 2010, to publish...

  7. 75 FR 14383 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Lucin, UT... Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC), Lucin, UT, to facilitate ] vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) traffic from en route airspace to Salt Lake City, UT. This action would enhance the safety...

  8. 78 FR 27872 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT..., UT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global..., Salt Lake City, UT to accommodate aircraft using RNAV (GPS) and ILS or LOC standard instrument...

  9. 78 FR 45848 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY... airspace at Salt Lake City, UT, to accommodate aircraft using Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning... feet above the surface, at Salt Lake City, UT. DATES: Effective date, 0901 UTC, October 17, 2013....

  10. 76 FR 28382 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Nephi Municipal Airport, Nephi, UT. Controlled... (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Nephi Municipal Airport, Nephi, UT. The FAA...

  11. 78 FR 76781 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ...; Salt Lake City, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., 2012, the FAA published a final rule modifying the Salt Lake City, UT Class B airspace area (77 FR... of aircraft operations in the Salt Lake City, UT, terminal area. Class B airspace areas are...

  12. 78 FR 33772 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Brigham City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Brigham City, UT...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Brigham City Airport, Brigham City, UT. The proposed... Brigham City Airport, Brigham City, UT. The existing segment would extend from the 4.3-mile radius of...

  13. 78 FR 78298 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Phoenix, AZ... proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Phoenix VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Phoenix, AZ, to facilitate...

  14. Automatic construction of aerial corridor for navigation of unmanned aircraft systems in class G airspace using LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dengchao; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2016-05-01

    According to the airspace classification by the Federal Aviation Agency, Class G airspace is the airspace at 1,200 feet or less to the ground, which is beneath class E airspace and between classes B-D cylinders around towered airstrips. However, the lack of flight supervision mechanism in this airspace, unmanned aerial system (UAS) missions pose many safety issues. Collision avoidance and route planning for UASs in class G airspace is critical for broad deployment of UASs in commercial and security applications. Yet, unlike road network, there is no stationary marker in airspace to identify corridors that are available and safe for UASs to navigate. In this paper, we present an automatic LiDAR-based airspace corridor construction method for navigation in class G airspace and a method for route planning to minimize collision and intrusion. Our idea is to combine LiDAR to automatically identify ground objects that pose navigation restrictions such as airports and high-rises. Digital terrain model (DTM) is derived from LiDAR point cloud to provide an altitude-based class G airspace description. Following the FAA Aeronautical Information Manual, the ground objects that define the restricted airspaces are used together with digital surface model derived from LiDAR data to construct the aerial corridor for navigation of UASs. Preliminary results demonstrate competitive performance and the construction of aerial corridor can be automated with much great efficiency.

  15. Mapping a Path to Autonomous Flight in the National Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodding, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of autonomous flight, whether military, commercial, or civilian, into the National Airspace System (NAS) will present significant challenges. Minimizing the impact and preventing the changes from becoming disruptive, rather than an enhancing technology will not be without difficulty. From obstacle detection and avoidance to real-time verification and validation of system behavior, there are significant problems which must be solved prior to the general acceptance of autonomous systems. This paper examines some of the key challenges and the multi-disciplinary collaboration which must occur for autonomous systems to be accepted as equal partners in the NAS.

  16. Property Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Lueck; Thomas J. Miceli

    2004-01-01

    This chapter examines the economics of property rights and property law. Property law is a fundamental part of social organization and is also fundamental to the operation of the economy because it defines and protects the bundle of rights that constitute property. Property law thereby creates incentives to protect and invest in assets and establishes a legal framework within which market exchange of assets can take place. The purpose of this chapter is to show how the economics of property r...

  17. Airspace Flow Program Modeling in the Future ATC Concept Evaluation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Airspace Flow Program (AFP) is a new Traffic Flow Management (TFM) control technique that has entered operation in 2006. AFPs use two existing technologies,...

  18. 77 FR 49719 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sault Ste Marie, ON

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... control zone over Sault Ste Marie Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and..., creating additional controlled airspace to coincide with that portion of the control zone in...

  19. 78 FR 14653 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Sault Ste Marie, ON

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... control zone over Sault Ste Marie Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and... Airport, Sault Ste Marie, ON, to coincide with that portion of the control zone in Canadian airspace....

  20. Increasing NASA SSC Range Safety by Developing the Framework to Monitor Airspace and Enforce Restrictions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Engine testing at NASA SSC poses a significant risk to general aviation due to potential smoke and excessive turbulence. The airspace over Stennis has been...

  1. ACES-Based Testbed and Bayesian Game-Theoretic Framework for Dynamic Airspace Configuration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this effort is the development of algorithms and a framework for automated Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) using a cooperative Bayesian...

  2. 75 FR 11479 - Proposed Revision of Class E Airspace; Kaltag, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Instrument Approach Procedure (SIAP) at Kaltag Airport has made this action necessary to enhance safety and... accommodate an amended SIAP at Kaltag Airport. This Class E airspace would provide adequate...

  3. 75 FR 68554 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Lafayette, Purdue University Airport, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) for the Clarian Arnett Heliport. The FAA is...) SIAP at Clarian Arnett Heliport, Lafayette, IN. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety...

  4. 75 FR 77574 - Proposed Revision of Class E Airspace; Savoonga, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Approach Procedures (SIAPs) plus the creation of one new SIAP at the Savoonga Airport have made this action... the additional new SIAP at the Savoonga Airport. This Class E airspace would provide...

  5. Multi-scale analysis of the European airspace using network community detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Gurtner

    Full Text Available We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspace and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of several community detection algorithms, both with fixed and variable resolution, and also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace.

  6. Multi-scale analysis of the European airspace using network community detection

    CERN Document Server

    Gurtner, Gérald; Cipolla, Marco; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mantegna, Rosario Nunzio; Miccichè, Salvatore; Pozzi, Simone

    2013-01-01

    We show that the European airspace can be represented as a multi-scale traffic network whose nodes are airports, sectors, or navigation points and links are defined and weighted according to the traffic of flights between the nodes. By using a unique database of the air traffic in the European airspace, we investigate the architecture of these networks with a special emphasis on their community structure. We propose that unsupervised network community detection algorithms can be used to monitor the current use of the airspaces and improve it by guiding the design of new ones. Specifically, we compare the performance of three community detection algorithms, also by using a null model which takes into account the spatial distance between nodes, and we discuss their ability to find communities that could be used to define new control units of the airspace.

  7. Dynamic Airspace Concepts for Integration of UAS into the NAS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address these critical needs associated with the integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the airspace, we propose to conduct research on the...

  8. Shadow Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace (SMART NAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Develop a simulation and modeling capability that includes: (a) Assessment of multiple parallel universes, (b) Accepts data feeds, (c) Allows for live virtual constructive distribute environment, (d) Enables integrated examinations of concepts, algorithms, technologies and National Airspace System (NAS) architectures.

  9. Patterns in diurnal airspace use by migratory landbirds along an ecological barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anna C.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory bird populations and survival are affected by conditions experienced during migration. While many studies and conservation and management efforts focus on terrestrial stoppage and staging areas, the aerial environment through which migrants move also is subjected to anthropogenic impacts with potential consequences to migratory movement and survival. During autumn migration, the northern coastline of Lake Superior acts as an ecological barrier for many landbirds migrating out of the boreal forests of North America. From 24 observation points, we assessed the diurnal movements of birds throughout autumn migration, 2008-2010, within a 210 km by 10 km coastal region along the northern coast of Lake Superior. Several raptor species showed patterns in airspace associated with topographic features such as proximity to the coastline and presence of ridgelines. Funneling movement, commonly used to describe the concentration of raptors along a migratory diversion line that either prevents or enhances migration progress, occurred only for Bald and Golden Eagles. This suggests a "leaky" migration funnel for most migratory raptors (e.g., migrating birds exiting the purported migration corridor). Passerines migrating during the late season showed more spatial and temporal structure in airspace distribution than raptors, including funneling and an association with airspace near the coast. We conclude that a) the diurnal use of airspace by many migratory landbirds is patterned in space and time, b) autumn count sites situated along ecological barriers substantially underestimate the number of raptors due to 'leakage' out of these concentration areas, and c) the magnitude and structure of diurnal passerine movements in airspace have been overlooked. The heavy and structured use of airspace by migratory landbirds, especially the airspace associated with anthropogenic development (e.g., buildings, towers, turbines) necessitates a shift in focus to airspace management and

  10. [A case of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma showing air-space consolidation caused by aerogenic metastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kazue; Kurihara, Takeyuki; Ohba, Hideo; Nakamura, Junichi; Okimoto, Niro

    2004-05-01

    A 78-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea. A chest radiograph and a computed tomogram on admission showed air-space consolidation in the left upper lung field, and so pneumonia was diagnosed. Although antibiotics were administered, the air-space consolidation did not improve. A transbronchial lung biopsy was performed, yielding a pathologic diagnosis of poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma. Despite combination chemotherapy with docetaxel and UFT, the air-space consolidation expanded, and the patient finally died of respiratory failure 3 months after diagnosis. Autopsy revealed air-space consolidation due to poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma, with large atypical cells diffusely floating in the alveolar spaces. It has been recognized that bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma and well-differentiated lung adenocarcinoma present with air-space consolidation, reflecting the cancer cells lining the alveolar walls. However, in this case, the air-space consolidation was due to cancer cells diffusely floating in the alveolar spaces in aerogenic metastasis. It was considered that this is a rare case, which presented with a very interesting development pattern.

  11. Time of Closest Approach in Three-Dimensional Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    In air traffic management, the aircraft separation requirement is defined by a minimum horizontal distance and a minimum vertical distance that the aircraft have to maintain. Since this requirement defines a cylinder around each aircraft rather than a sphere, the three-dimensional Euclidean distance does not provide an appropriate basis for the definition of time of closest approach. For instance, conflicting aircraft are not necessarily in loss of separation at the time of closest three-dimensional Euclidean distance. This paper proposes a definition of time of closest approach that characterizes conflicts in a three-dimensional airspace. The proposed time is defined as the time that minimizes a distance metric called cylindrical norm. An algorithm that computes the time of closest approach between two aircraft is provided and the formal verification of its main properties is reported.

  12. Study on Airspace Covert Communication Algorithm of Covert Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinpu Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the security of information transmission through network in the information society, the paper puts forward covert communication technology which is more reliable than the prior encryption algorithm, analyzes channel covertness and information hiding of covert communication technology based on spread-spectrum communication technology, and establishes a covert communication system including image steganalysis, Arnold transformation and scrambling of carrier image, embedding of secret information, generation of encrypted image and recovering of carrier image by image-based covert communication technology. The simulation result shows: in order to ensure there is no serious degrading problem after embedding the secret information, the carrier image must have a large capacity; the larger the scrambling times is, the better the scrambling and encrypting effect is. Therefore, the airspace covert communication algorithm based on spread-spectrum communication technology well achieves safe transmission of information and has good application prospect.

  13. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  14. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  15. Share the Sky: Concepts and Technologies That Will Shape Future Airspace Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballin, Mark G.; Cotton, William; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2011-01-01

    The airspace challenge for the United States is to protect national sovereignty and ensure the safety and security of those on the ground and in the air, while at the same time ensuring the efficiency of flight, reducing the costs involved, protecting the environment, and protecting the freedom of access to the airspace. Many visions of the future NAS hold a relatively near-term perspective, focusing on existing uses of the airspace and assuming that new uses will make up a small fraction of total use. In the longer term, the skies will be filled with diverse and amazing new air vehicles filling our societal needs. Anticipated new vehicles include autonomous air vehicles acting both independently and in coordinated groups, unpiloted cargo carriers, and large numbers of personal air vehicles and small-scale point-to-point transports. These vehicles will enable new capabilities that have the potential to increase societal mobility, transport freight at lower cost and with lower environmental impact, improve the study of the Earth s atmosphere and ecosystem, and increase societal safety and security by improving or drastically lowering the cost of critical services such as firefighting, emergency medical evacuation, search and rescue, border and neighborhood surveillance, and the inspection of our infrastructure. To ensure that uses of the airspace can continue to grow for the benefit of all, a new paradigm for operations is needed: equitably and safely sharing the airspace. This paper is an examination of such a vision, concentrating on the operations of all types of air vehicles and future uses of the National Airspace. Attributes of a long-term future airspace system are provided, emerging operations technologies are described, and initial steps in research and development are recommended.

  16. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 91 - Operations in the North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace C Appendix C to Part 91 Aeronautics and... North Atlantic (NAT) Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) Airspace Section 1 NAT MNPS.... Section 2 The navigation performance capability required for aircraft to be operated in the...

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor, a determinant of airspace homeostasis in the murine lung.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Calvi

    Full Text Available The alveolar compartment, the fundamental gas exchange unit in the lung, is critical for tissue oxygenation and viability. We explored hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, a pleiotrophic cytokine that promotes epithelial proliferation, morphogenesis, migration, and resistance to apoptosis, as a candidate mediator of alveolar formation and regeneration. Mice deficient in the expression of the HGF receptor Met in lung epithelial cells demonstrated impaired airspace formation marked by a reduction in alveolar epithelial cell abundance and survival, truncation of the pulmonary vascular bed, and enhanced oxidative stress. Administration of recombinant HGF to tight-skin mice, an established genetic emphysema model, attenuated airspace enlargement and reduced oxidative stress. Repair in the TSK/+ mouse was punctuated by enhanced akt and stat3 activation. HGF treatment of an alveolar epithelial cell line not only induced proliferation and scattering of the cells but also conferred protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis, properties critical for alveolar septation. HGF promoted cell survival was attenuated by akt inhibition. Primary alveolar epithelial cells treated with HGF showed improved survival and enhanced antioxidant production. In conclusion, using both loss-of-function and gain-of-function maneuvers, we show that HGF signaling is necessary for alveolar homeostasis in the developing lung and that augmentation of HGF signaling can improve airspace morphology in murine emphysema. Our studies converge on prosurvival signaling and antioxidant protection as critical pathways in HGF-mediated airspace maintenance or repair. These findings support the exploration of HGF signaling enhancement for diseases of the airspace.

  18. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  19. Announced Strategy Types in Multiagent RL for Conflict-Avoidance in the National Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhuhn, Carrie; Knudson, Matthew D.; Tumer, Kagan

    2014-01-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the national airspace is of growing interest to the research community. Safety and scalability of control algorithms are key to the successful integration of autonomous system into a human-populated airspace. In order to ensure safety while still maintaining efficient paths of travel, these algorithms must also accommodate heterogeneity of path strategies of its neighbors. We show that, using multiagent RL, we can improve the speed with which conflicts are resolved in cases with up to 80 aircraft within a section of the airspace. In addition, we show that the introduction of abstract agent strategy types to partition the state space is helpful in resolving conflicts, particularly in high congestion.

  20. Metastatic breast cancer presenting as air-space consolidation on chest computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Haruta, Yoshinori; Yokoyama, Akihito; Nakashima, Taku; Hattori, Noboru; Kohno, Nobuoki

    2009-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman suffered from hepatic and bone metastases of breast cancer. Two months after starting combination chemotherapy with trastuzumab and docetaxel, air-space consolidation was observed in the right lower lung lobe on a chest computed tomography (CT) and a high serum KL-6 level was detected. Drug-induced pneumonitis with organizing pneumonia type was suspected, however, a transbronchial lung biopsy and cytological examination of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid provided evidence of metastatic breast cancer. While the lung is a frequently affected site from metastasis of breast cancer, we report a rare case presenting as air-space consolidation on a chest CT.

  1. A graph based algorithm for adaptable dynamic airspace configuration for NextGen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savai, Mehernaz P.

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is a complicated large-scale aviation network, consisting of many static sectors wherein each sector is controlled by one or more controllers. The main purpose of the NAS is to enable safe and prompt air travel in the U.S. However, such static configuration of sectors will not be able to handle the continued growth of air travel which is projected to be more than double the current traffic by 2025. Under the initiative of the Next Generation of Air Transportation system (NextGen), the main objective of Adaptable Dynamic Airspace Configuration (ADAC) is that the sectors should change to the changing traffic so as to reduce the controller workload variance with time while increasing the throughput. Change in the resectorization should be such that there is a minimal increase in exchange of air traffic among controllers. The benefit of a new design (improvement in workload balance, etc.) should sufficiently exceed the transition cost, in order to deserve a change. This leads to the analysis of the concept of transition workload which is the cost associated with a transition from one sectorization to another. Given two airspace configurations, a transition workload metric which considers the air traffic as well as the geometry of the airspace is proposed. A solution to reduce this transition workload is also discussed. The algorithm is specifically designed to be implemented for the Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) Algorithm. A graph model which accurately represents the air route structure and air traffic in the NAS is used to formulate the airspace configuration problem. In addition, a multilevel graph partitioning algorithm is developed for Dynamic Airspace Configuration which partitions the graph model of airspace with given user defined constraints and hence provides the user more flexibility and control over various partitions. In terms of air traffic management, vertices represent airports and waypoints. Some of the major

  2. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  3. Optimizing integrated airport surface and terminal airspace operations under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Christabelle S.

    In airports and surrounding terminal airspaces, the integration of surface, arrival and departure scheduling and routing have the potential to improve the operations efficiency. Moreover, because both the airport surface and the terminal airspace are often altered by random perturbations, the consideration of uncertainty in flight schedules is crucial to improve the design of robust flight schedules. Previous research mainly focused on independently solving arrival scheduling problems, departure scheduling problems and surface management scheduling problems and most of the developed models are deterministic. This dissertation presents an alternate method to model the integrated operations by using a machine job-shop scheduling formulation. A multistage stochastic programming approach is chosen to formulate the problem in the presence of uncertainty and candidate solutions are obtained by solving sample average approximation problems with finite sample size. The developed mixed-integer-linear-programming algorithm-based scheduler is capable of computing optimal aircraft schedules and routings that reflect the integration of air and ground operations. The assembled methodology is applied to a Los Angeles case study. To show the benefits of integrated operations over First-Come-First-Served, a preliminary proof-of-concept is conducted for a set of fourteen aircraft evolving under deterministic conditions in a model of the Los Angeles International Airport surface and surrounding terminal areas. Using historical data, a representative 30-minute traffic schedule and aircraft mix scenario is constructed. The results of the Los Angeles application show that the integration of air and ground operations and the use of a time-based separation strategy enable both significant surface and air time savings. The solution computed by the optimization provides a more efficient routing and scheduling than the First-Come-First-Served solution. Additionally, a data driven analysis is

  4. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  5. 77 FR 27666 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bar Harbor, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... at Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of... through the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Fornito, Operations Support Group, Eastern Service Center, Federal Aviation Administration, P.O. Box 20636,...

  6. Impacts of technology on the capacity needs of the US national airspace system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.; Simpson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the U.S. air transportation system is undertaken, focusing on airspace and airport capacity. Causes of delay and congestion are investigated. Aircraft noise is identified as the fundamental hindrance to capacity improvement. Research areas for NASA are suggested to improve capacity through technology.

  7. 75 FR 81442 - Revocation of Class E Airspace; Lone Star, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... rulemaking to remove Class E airspace for Lone Star, TX. (75 FR 64972) Docket No. FAA-2010-0772. Interested...) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  8. 76 FR 5300 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cable Union, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cable Union,...

  9. 78 FR 25402 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Sparta, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Airspace; Sparta, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  10. 78 FR 74006 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Green Bay, WI...

  11. 77 FR 71363 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The incorporation by... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI...

  12. 75 FR 13671 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; West Bend, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... additional controlled airspace at West Bend Municipal Airport (74 FR 68746) Docket No. FAA-2009-1149... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec....

  13. 77 FR 4701 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Baraboo, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Baraboo, WI...

  14. 76 FR 28687 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Newcastle, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Newcastle, WY Correction In proposed rule document 2011-8743 appearing on pages 20281-20282 in the issue of Tuesday,...

  15. 77 FR 65332 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Las Vegas, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... Grand Canyon Special Flight Rules Area. The FAA is unable to raise the proposed floor as requested. An 8... repositioned to the 30 NM arc to alleviate congestion between the Class B airspace and the Grand Canyon Special... the proposal on sport aircraft operations at 0L7, primarily in Areas F and R. In October 2011, a...

  16. 78 FR 33016 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Grand Forks AFB, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    .... Changes to the airspace description are necessary due to changes in air traffic control tower operating hours. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules... will be date/time stamped and returned to the commenter. Availability of NPRMs An electronic copy...

  17. 78 FR 45475 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR...

  18. 75 FR 27494 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Pauls Valley, OK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... with the FAA's National Aerospace Charting Office. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and... side of the 169 bearing from the Pauls Valley NDB extending from the 6.6-mile radius to 7.6 miles south of the airport, and within 4 miles each side of the 000 bearing from the airport extending from the...

  19. 75 FR 27493 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Center, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... with the FAA's National Aerospace Charting Office. Controlled airspace is needed for the safety and... 6.5-mile radius of Center Municipal Airport and within 2.5 miles each side of the 341 bearing from....3 miles each side of the 171 bearing from the airport extending from the 6.5-mile radius to...

  20. Application of Epidemiology Model on Complex Networks in Propagation Dynamics of Airspace Congestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoxu; Hu, Minghua; Tian, Wen; Xie, Daoyi; Hu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a propagation dynamics model for congestion propagation in complex networks of airspace. It investigates the application of an epidemiology model to complex networks by comparing the similarities and differences between congestion propagation and epidemic transmission. The model developed satisfies the constraints of actual motion in airspace, based on the epidemiology model. Exploiting the constraint that the evolution of congestion cluster in the airspace is always dynamic and heterogeneous, the SIR epidemiology model (one of the classical models in epidemic spreading) with logistic increase is applied to congestion propagation and shown to be more accurate in predicting the evolution of congestion peak than the model based on probability, which is common to predict the congestion propagation. Results from sample data show that the model not only predicts accurately the value and time of congestion peak, but also describes accurately the characteristics of congestion propagation. Then, a numerical study is performed in which it is demonstrated that the structure of the networks have different effects on congestion propagation in airspace. It is shown that in regions with severe congestion, the adjustment of dissipation rate is more significant than propagation rate in controlling the propagation of congestion.

  1. 75 FR 51661 - Amendment of the Pacific High and Low Offshore Airspace Areas; California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... separation procedures in lieu of ICAO separation and enhance system capacity and allow for more efficient... California. ICAO Considerations As part of this action relates to navigable airspace outside the United States, this notice is submitted in accordance with the ICAO International Standards and...

  2. 14 CFR Appendix G to Part 91 - Operations in Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the North Atlantic. (1) RVSM may be applied in the NAT in the following ICAO Flight Information... minutes north. (b) RVSM in the Pacific. (1) RVSM may be applied in the Pacific in the following ICAO..., Houston Oceanic ICAO FIR and Miami Oceanic ICAO FIR. (f) RVSM in Atlantic High Offshore Airspace and...

  3. 77 FR 49399 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City,...

  4. 77 FR 71362 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Decorah, IA...

  5. 75 FR 6592 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Emmetsburg,...

  6. 76 FR 53360 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stuart,...

  7. 77 FR 68683 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Forest City, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ..., area, creating additional controlled airspace at Forest City Municipal Airport (77 FR 49399) Docket No... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The...

  8. 77 FR 50650 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: ] Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Boone,...

  9. 78 FR 47237 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Chariton, IA...

  10. 75 FR 6595 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a Regulatory Evaluation... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Mapleton, IA...

  11. 76 FR 53353 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Carroll, IA...

  12. 75 FR 17637 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Cherokee, IA...

  13. 78 FR 48840 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hampton, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hampton, IA...

  14. 77 FR 45987 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Guthrie, IA...

  15. 77 FR 71361 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Union,...

  16. 76 FR 53356 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Greenfield,...

  17. Conflict detection and resolution system architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles in civil airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; van Kampen, E.J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel architecture for a general Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) system, in the context of their integration into the civilian airspace, is proposed in this paper. The architecture consists of layers of safety approaches ,each representing a combination of di

  18. 75 FR 33556 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Port Angeles, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Port Angeles, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... William R. Fairchild International Airport, Port Angeles, WA. The Ediz Hook Nondirectional Radio Beacon... feet above the surface, at William R. Fairchild International Airport, Port Angeles, WA. This action...

  19. 76 FR 12558 - Amendment to Special Use Airspace Restricted Areas R-2203, and R-2205; Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 73 Amendment to Special Use Airspace Restricted Areas R-2203, and R- 2205; Alaska AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the using agency of Restricted Areas R-2203 A, B, & C; Eagle...

  20. 76 FR 5471 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; La Porte, IN AGENCY: Federal... Porte, IN, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at La Porte Hospital Heliport, La Porte, IN. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety...

  1. 76 FR 77449 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omaha, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the... and management of IFR operations at the airport. Class E airspace areas are published in Paragraph...., long. 95 54'31'' W.) Council Bluffs, Council Bluffs Municipal Airport, IA (lat. 41 15'36'' N., long....

  2. 76 FR 77448 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Omaha, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the... and management of IFR operations at the airport. Class E airspace areas are published in Paragraph...., long. 95 54'31'' W.) Council Bluffs, Council Bluffs Municipal Airport, IA (Lat. 41 15'36'' N., long....

  3. 76 FR 41725 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Miles City, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... within a 34.5-mile radius of Frank Wiley Field. Issued in Seattle, Washington, on July 7, 2011. John... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Frank Wiley Field, Miles City... instrument approach procedures at Frank Wiley Field. Additionally, the geographic coordinates for Frank...

  4. 76 FR 64295 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntington, WV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Huntington,...

  5. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Cavolowsky, John

    2015-01-01

    Flexibility where possible, and structure where necessary. Consider the needs of national security, safe airspace operations, economic opportunities, and emerging technologies. Risk-based approach based on population density, assets on the ground, density of operations, etc. Digital, virtual, dynamic, and as needed UTM services to manage operations.

  6. 78 FR 78299 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Truth or Consequences, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Truth or... Truth or Consequences VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Truth or... feet above the surface at the Truth or Consequences VORTAC navigation aid, Truth or Consequences,...

  7. Research Initiatives and Preliminary Results In Automation Design In Airspace Management in Free Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA and the FAA have entered into a joint venture to explore, define, design and implement a new airspace management operating concept. The fundamental premise of that concept is that technologies and procedures need to be developed for flight deck and ground operations to improve the efficiency, the predictability, the flexibility and the safety of airspace management and operations. To that end NASA Ames has undertaken an initial development and exploration of "key concepts" in the free flight airspace management technology development. Human Factors issues in automation aiding design, coupled aiding systems between air and ground, communication protocols in distributed decision making, and analytic techniques for definition of concepts of airspace density and operator cognitive load have been undertaken. This paper reports the progress of these efforts, which are not intended to definitively solve the many evolving issues of design for future ATM systems, but to provide preliminary results to chart the parameters of performance and the topology of the analytic effort required. The preliminary research in provision of cockpit display of traffic information, dynamic density definition, distributed decision making, situation awareness models and human performance models is discussed as they focus on the theme of "design requirements".

  8. 77 FR 35617 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the Colorado Springs, CO, Class C...) information for the City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport. The operating requirements remain the...

  9. 76 FR 1511 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell Field), TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D Airspace; Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell Field), TX AGENCY... coordinates within the Fort Worth Naval Air Station (NAS) JRB (Carswell Field), TX, area and renames the... Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 by adjusting the geographic coordinates of the Fort Worth NAS JRB (Carswell...

  10. 76 FR 28685 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hannibal, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant ] rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hannibal, MO...

  11. 78 FR 48838 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis, NE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Curtis,...

  12. 78 FR 78300 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Albuquerque, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Albuquerque, NM... VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Albuquerque, NM, to facilitate... navigation aid, Albuquerque, NM. This action would contain aircraft while in IFR conditions under control...

  13. 75 FR 9538 - Proposed Modification of Class B Airspace; Charlotte, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... airspace to overlie the Chester- Catawba Regional airport (DCM) might have on its parachute jump activities... Charlotte to discuss parachute operations at Chester-Catawba Regional Airport (DCM). Attending the meeting...'' wherein the jump aircraft is instructed by ATC to withhold jumpers due to traffic, fly beyond the...

  14. 77 FR 4709 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Branson West, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Branson...

  15. 76 FR 9266 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Idaho Falls, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Falls, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend the Class D and Class E airspace areas at Idaho Falls, ID, by changing the name of the airport to Idaho Falls Regional Airport, and adjusting the...

  16. 75 FR 49866 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Klamath Falls, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Falls, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class D and Class E airspace at Klamath Falls, OR. Decommissioning of the Merrill Non-Directional Radio Beacon (NDB) at Klamath Falls Airport has made this...

  17. 75 FR 62461 - Revocation and Establishment of Class E Airspace; St. George, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    .... George, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action will remove Class E airspace at St. George, UT, as the airport will be closing, eliminating the need... Municipal Airport, St. George, UT (75 FR 44727). Interested parties were invited to participate in...

  18. 75 FR 63730 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panguitch, UT... Airport, Panguitch, UT. In an NPRM published in the Federal Register June 28, 2010, the FAA proposed to... Airport, Panguitch, UT (75 FR 36585). The comment period closed August 12, 2010. Two comments...

  19. 78 FR 41336 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wasatch, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wasatch, UT... Tactical Air Navigational Aid (VORTAC) navigation aid, Wasatch, UT, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument... navigation aid, Wasatch, UT. This action would contain aircraft while in IFR conditions under control of...

  20. 77 FR 49712 - Amendment to Class B Airspace; Salt Lake City, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ..., UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the Salt Lake City, UT, Class B airspace to contain aircraft conducting Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) instrument approach procedures to Salt Lake City International Airport (SLC), Salt Lake City,...

  1. 78 FR 45473 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; St. George, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; St. George, UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... St. George Municipal Airport, St. George, UT, by removing the operating hours established by a Notice... Airport, St. George, UT. DATES: Comments must be received on or before September 12, 2013. ADDRESSES:...

  2. 75 FR 21532 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ..., UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed... surface airspace at Bryce Canyon Airport, Bryce Canyon, UT. In a NPRM published in the Federal Register... Airport, Bryce Canyon, UT (74 FR 59492). The comment period closed January 4, 2010. Two comments...

  3. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... south by a 10-mile radius of the Palm Beach International Airport, and on the west by the Florida... Florida Turnpike (highway 91) and Lantana Road to the intersection of a 5-mile radius of the Palm Beach... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach...

  4. Development and benefit analysis of a sector design algorithm for terminal dynamic airspace configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciandra, Vincent

    The National Airspace System (NAS) is the vast network of systems enabling safe and efficient air travel in the United States. It consists of a set of static sectors, each controlled by one or more air traffic controllers. Air traffic control is tasked with ensuring that all flights can depart and arrive on time and in a safe and efficient matter. However, skyrocketing demand will only increase the stress on an already inefficient system, causing massive delays. The current, static configuration of the NAS cannot possibly handle the future demand on the system safely and efficiently, especially since it is projected to triple by 2025. To overcome these issues, the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is being enacted to increase the flexibility of the NAS. A major objective of NextGen is to implement Adaptable Dynamic Airspace Configuration (ADAC) which will dynamically allocate the sectors to best fit the traffic in the area. Dynamically allocating sectors will allow resources such as controllers to be better distributed to meet traffic demands. Currently, most DAC research has involved the en route airspace. This leaves the terminal airspace, which accounts for a large amount of the overall NAS complexity, in need of work. Using a combination of methods used in en route sectorization, this thesis has developed an algorithm for the dynamic allocation of sectors in the terminal airspace. This algorithm will be evaluated using metrics common in the evaluation of dynamic density, which is adapted for the unique challenges of the terminal airspace, and used to measure workload on air traffic controllers. These metrics give a better view of the controller workload than the number of aircraft alone. By comparing the test results with sectors currently used in the NAS using real traffic data, the algorithm xv generated sectors can be quantitatively evaluated for improvement of the current sectorizations. This will be accomplished by testing the

  5. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  6. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aerial System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2016-01-01

    Just a year ago we laid out the UTM challenges and NASA's proposed solutions. During the past year NASA's goal continues to be to conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line-of-sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Significant progress has been made, and NASA is continuing to move forward.

  7. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aircraft System Operations What is the problem? Many beneficial civilian applications of UAS have been proposed, from goods delivery and infrastructure surveillance, to search and rescue, and agricultural monitoring. Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations, regardless of the type of UAS. A UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace may be needed, perhaps leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today, whether the vehicles are driven by humans or are automated. What system technologies is NASA exploring? Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management for crewed aircraft, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that could develop airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. While incorporating lessons learned from the today's well-established air traffic management system, which was a response that grew out of a mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in the early days of commercial aviation, the UTM system would enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning and re-routing, separation management, sequencing and spacing, and contingency management. One of the attributes of the UTM system is that it would not require human operators to monitor every vehicle continuously. The system could provide to human managers the data to make strategic decisions related to initiation, continuation, and termination of airspace operations. This approach would ensure that only authenticated UAS could operate

  8. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  9. Conflict Resolution for Wind-Optimal Aircraft Trajectories in North Atlantic Oceanic Airspace with Wind Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Olga; Sridhar, Banavar; Ng, Hok K.

    2016-01-01

    Air traffic in the North Atlantic oceanic airspace (NAT) experiences very strong winds caused by jet streams. Flying wind-optimal trajectories increases individual flight efficiency, which is advantageous when operating in the NAT. However, as the NAT is highly congested during peak hours, a large number of potential conflicts between flights are detected for the sets of wind-optimal trajectories. Conflict resolution performed at the strategic level of flight planning can significantly reduce the airspace congestion. However, being completed far in advance, strategic planning can only use predicted environmental conditions that may significantly differ from the real conditions experienced further by aircraft. The forecast uncertainties result in uncertainties in conflict prediction, and thus, conflict resolution becomes less efficient. This work considers wind uncertainties in order to improve the robustness of conflict resolution in the NAT. First, the influence of wind uncertainties on conflict prediction is investigated. Then, conflict resolution methods accounting for wind uncertainties are proposed.

  10. Pulmonary cryptococcosis manifesting as diffuse air-space consolidations in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Won; Chong, Semin; Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, In Won

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an opportunity infection commonly occurred in the immunocompromised patients. However pulmonary cryptococcosis in the immunocompetent was reported up to 35% and these cases tend to show confined and localized radiologic findings than in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, extensive air-space consolidations have not frequently occurred in the immunocompetent patient. Therefore, in this case, we report a rare case of a 73-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pulmonary cryptococcosis, manifesting as diffuse air-space consolidations even though normal immune status. Thus, the possibility of pulmonary cryptococcosis should be considered when a patient with a normal immune status presents without respiratory symptoms are accompanied by consolidation on imaging.

  11. Uncorrelated Encounter Model of the National Airspace System, Version 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    between two IFR aircraft in oceanic airspace. The reason for this is that one cannot observe encounters of sufficient fidelity in the available data...does not observe a sufficient number of encounters between instrument flight rules ( IFR ) and non- IFR traffic beyond 12 NM from the shore. 4 TABLE 1...Encounter model categories. Aircraft of Interest Intruder Aircraft Location Flight Rule IFR VFR Noncooperative Noncooperative Conventional

  12. Development and Application of an Integrated Approach toward NASA Airspace Systems Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhydt, Richard; Fong, Robert K.; Abramson, Paul D.; Koenke, Ed

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Airspace Systems Program is contributing air traffic management research in support of the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Contributions support research and development needs provided by the interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO). These needs generally call for integrated technical solutions that improve system-level performance and work effectively across multiple domains and planning time horizons. In response, the Airspace Systems Program is pursuing an integrated research approach and has adapted systems engineering best practices for application in a research environment. Systems engineering methods aim to enable researchers to methodically compare different technical approaches, consider system-level performance, and develop compatible solutions. Systems engineering activities are performed iteratively as the research matures. Products of this approach include a demand and needs analysis, system-level descriptions focusing on NASA research contributions, system assessment and design studies, and common systemlevel metrics, scenarios, and assumptions. Results from the first systems engineering iteration include a preliminary demand and needs analysis; a functional modeling tool; and initial system-level metrics, scenario characteristics, and assumptions. Demand and needs analysis results suggest that several advanced concepts can mitigate demand/capacity imbalances for NextGen, but fall short of enabling three-times current-day capacity at the nation s busiest airports and airspace. Current activities are focusing on standardizing metrics, scenarios, and assumptions, conducting system-level performance assessments of integrated research solutions, and exploring key system design interfaces.

  13. Uncertainty in volcanic ash particle size distribution and implications for infrared remote sensing and airspace management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, L.; Watson, M.; Francis, P. N.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic ash particle size distributions are critical in determining the fate of airborne ash in drifting clouds. A significant amount of global airspace is managed using dispersion models that rely on a single ash particle size distribution, derived from a single source - Hobbs et al., 1991. This is clearly wholly inadequate given the range of magmatic compositions and eruptive styles that volcanoes present. Available measurements of airborne ash lognormal particle size distributions show geometric standard deviation values that range from 1.0 - 2.5, with others showing mainly polymodal distributions. This paucity of data pertaining to airborne sampling of volcanic ash results in large uncertainties both when using an assumed distribution to retrieve mass loadings from satellite observations and when prescribing particle size distributions of ash in dispersion models. Uncertainty in the particle size distribution can yield order of magnitude differences to mass loading retrievals of an ash cloud from satellite observations, a result that can easily reclassify zones of airspace closure. The uncertainty arises from the assumptions made when defining both the geometric particle size and particle single scattering properties in terms of an effective radius. This has significant implications for airspace management and emphasises the need for an improved quantification of airborne volcanic ash particle size distributions.

  14. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  15. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  16. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  17. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  18. On Boolean Stable Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Arizmendi, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    We determine which Boolean stable law is freely infinitely divisible and which is not. Some positive Boolean stable laws and a mixture of them have completely monotonic densities and they are both freely and classically infinitely divisible. Freely infinitely divisible Boolean stable laws and the corresponding free stable laws are non trivial examples whose free divisibility indicators are infinity.

  19. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  20. Law System in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lorena Ponaru

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  1. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  2. The Power of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  3. Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M E J

    2004-01-01

    When the probability of measuring a particular value of some quantity varies inversely as a power of that value, the quantity is said to follow a power law, also known variously as Zipf's law or the Pareto distribution. Power laws appear widely in physics, biology, earth and planetary sciences, economics and finance, computer science, demography and the social sciences. For instance, the distributions of the sizes of cities, earthquakes, solar flares, moon craters, wars and people's personal ...

  4. International Private Law and Communitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Posso Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Private international law is justified at a time when the legal systems of nation states seeking a way to extend their areas and competencies. This desire led to the conflict between national laws, which grew smaller as did the novel concept of "international community", but did not suppress national relativism. A new law began to settle, then, with the progress of the integration process. Community laws have mechanisms to be applied, even when states would try to ignore them or to fulfill a relative way.

  5. Design, Development, and Testing of a UAV Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed for Aviation and Airspace Prognostics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan; Teubert, Chris; Gorospe, George; Burgett, Drew; Quach, Cuong C.; Hogge, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The airspace is becoming more and more complicated, and will continue to do so in the future with the integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomy, spacecraft, other forms of aviation technology into the airspace. The new technology and complexity increases the importance and difficulty of safety assurance. Additionally, testing new technologies on complex aviation systems & systems of systems can be very difficult, expensive, and sometimes unsafe in real life scenarios. Prognostic methodology provides an estimate of the health and risks of a component, vehicle, or airspace and knowledge of how that will change over time. That measure is especially useful in safety determination, mission planning, and maintenance scheduling. The developed testbed will be used to validate prediction algorithms for the real-time safety monitoring of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the prediction of unsafe events. The framework injects flight related anomalies related to ground systems, routing, airport congestion, etc. to test and verify algorithms for NAS safety. In our research work, we develop a live, distributed, hardware-in-the-loop testbed for aviation and airspace prognostics along with exploring further research possibilities to verify and validate future algorithms for NAS safety. The testbed integrates virtual aircraft using the X-Plane simulator and X-PlaneConnect toolbox, UAVs using onboard sensors and cellular communications, and hardware in the loop components. In addition, the testbed includes an additional research framework to support and simplify future research activities. It enables safe, accurate, and inexpensive experimentation and research into airspace and vehicle prognosis that would not have been possible otherwise. This paper describes the design, development, and testing of this system. Software reliability, safety and latency are some of the critical design considerations in development of the testbed. Integration of HITL elements in

  6. Varying Levels of Automation on UAS Operator Responses to Traffic Resolution Advisories in Civil Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Caitlin; Fern, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Continuing demand for the use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has put increasing pressure on operations in civil airspace. The need to fly UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) in order to perform missions vital to national security and defense, emergency management, and science is increasing at a rapid pace. In order to ensure safe operations in the NAS, operators of unmanned aircraft, like those of manned aircraft, may be required to maintain separation assurance and avoid loss of separation with other aircraft while performing their mission tasks. This experiment investigated the effects of varying levels of automation on UAS operator performance and workload while responding to conflict resolution instructions provided by the Tactical Collision Avoidance System II (TCAS II) during a UAS mission in high-density airspace. The purpose of this study was not to investigate the safety of using TCAS II on UAS, but rather to examine the effect of automation on the ability of operators to respond to traffic collision alerts. Six licensed pilots were recruited to act as UAS operators for this study. Operators were instructed to follow a specified mission flight path, while maintaining radio contact with Air Traffic Control and responding to TCAS II resolution advisories. Operators flew four, 45 minute, experimental missions with four different levels of automation: Manual, Knobs, Management by Exception, and Fully Automated. All missions included TCAS II Resolution Advisories (RAs) that required operator attention and rerouting. Operator compliance and reaction time to RAs was measured, and post-run NASA-TLX ratings were collected to measure workload. Results showed significantly higher compliance rates, faster responses to TCAS II alerts, as well as less preemptive operator actions when higher levels of automation are implemented. Physical and Temporal ratings of workload were significantly higher in the Manual condition than in the Management by Exception and

  7. Validation Of The Airspace Concept Evaluation System Using Real World Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Shannon

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the process of performing a validation of the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) using real world historical flight operational data. ACES inputs are generated from select real world data and processed to create a realistic reproduction of a single day of operations within the National Airspace System (NAS). ACES outputs are then compared to real world operational metrics and delay statistics for the reproduced day. Preliminary results indicate that ACES produces delays and airport operational metrics similar to the real world with minor variations of delay by phase of flight. ACES is a nation-wide fast-time simulation tool developed at NASA Ames Research Center. ACES models and simulates the NAS using interacting agents representing center control, terminal flow management, airports, individual flights, and other NAS elements. These agents pass messages between one another similar to real world communications. This distributed agent based system is designed to emulate the highly unpredictable nature of the NAS, making it a suitable tool to evaluate current and envisioned airspace concepts. To ensure that ACES produces the most realistic results, the system must be validated. There is no way to validate future concepts scenarios using real world historical data, but current day scenario validations increase confidence in the validity of future scenario results. Each operational day has unique weather and traffic demand schedules. The more a simulation utilizes the unique characteristic of a specific day, the more realistic the results should be. ACES is able to simulate the full scale demand traffic necessary to perform a validation using real world data. Through direct comparison with the real world, models may continuee to be improved and unusual trends and biases may be filtered out of the system or used to normalize the results of future concept simulations.

  8. A Preliminary Evaluation of Supersonic Transport Category Vehicle Operations in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Matthew C.; Guminsky, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Several public sector businesses and government agencies, including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are currently working on solving key technological barriers that must be overcome in order to realize the vision of low-boom supersonic flights conducted over land. However, once these challenges are met, the manner in which this class of aircraft is integrated in the National Airspace System may become a potential constraint due to the significant environmental, efficiency, and economic repercussions that their integration may cause. Background research was performed on historic supersonic operations in the National Airspace System, including both flight deck procedures and air traffic controller procedures. Using this information, an experiment was created to test some of these historic procedures in a current-day, emerging Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) environment and observe the interactions between commercial supersonic transport aircraft and modern-day air traffic. Data was gathered through batch simulations of supersonic commercial transport category aircraft operating in present-day traffic scenarios as a base-lining study to identify the magnitude of the integration problems and begin the exploration of new air traffic management technologies and architectures which will be needed to seamlessly integrate subsonic and supersonic transport aircraft operations. The data gathered include information about encounters between subsonic and supersonic aircraft that may occur when supersonic commercial transport aircraft are integrated into the National Airspace System, as well as flight time data. This initial investigation is being used to inform the creation and refinement of a preliminary Concept of Operations and for the subsequent development of technologies that will enable overland supersonic flight.

  9. Managing the integration and harmonization of national airspace for unmanned and manned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Hans

    This dissertation examines the leadership challenge created by the requirement to integrate unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the national airspace system (NAS). The lack of UAV-related federal rules and regulations is a primary factor prolonging this integration. This effort focuses primarily on the leadership portion of the solution and not the technological requirements. The research explores an adaptation of the complexity theory that offers a potential leadership framework for the government, industry, and academia to use for achieving the full integration of UAVs into the NAS. Due to the large number of stakeholders and the multitude of interrelated issues, a complexity-theory-leadership methodology was created and examined as a potential way to help the FAA accelerate their rule-making efforts. This dissertation focuses on United States UAV issues. The United States is one of the leaders in the unmanned systems arena, to include the first significant use of recoverable autonomous weaponized systems in combat. Issues such as airspace, airworthiness, social issues, privacy issues, regulations, and the lack of policies, procedures, or governance are universal for all countries that are active in this technology area. This qualitative dissertation makes use of the grounded theory methodology as it combines a literature review and research along with interviews with subject matter experts, and information gained from attending UAV related gatherings/discussions. The investigation uncovered significant FAA process impediments as well as some possible break through concepts that could work well with the complexity-theory-leadership methodology. Keywords: Complexity theory, leadership, change management, UAV, unmanned aerial vehicle, National Airspace, NAS, FAA, Federal Aviation Administration.

  10. Serious Gaming for Test & Evaluation of Clean-Slate (Ab Initio) National Airspace System (NAS) Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, B. Danette; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Incremental approaches to air transportation system development inherit current architectural constraints, which, in turn, place hard bounds on system capacity, efficiency of performance, and complexity. To enable airspace operations of the future, a clean-slate (ab initio) airspace design(s) must be considered. This ab initio National Airspace System (NAS) must be capable of accommodating increased traffic density, a broader diversity of aircraft, and on-demand mobility. System and subsystem designs should scale to accommodate the inevitable demand for airspace services that include large numbers of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and a paradigm shift in general aviation (e.g., personal air vehicles) in addition to more traditional aerial vehicles such as commercial jetliners and weather balloons. The complex and adaptive nature of ab initio designs for the future NAS requires new approaches to validation, adding a significant physical experimentation component to analytical and simulation tools. In addition to software modeling and simulation, the ability to exercise system solutions in a flight environment will be an essential aspect of validation. The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Autonomy Incubator seeks to develop a flight simulation infrastructure for ab initio modeling and simulation that assumes no specific NAS architecture and models vehicle-to-vehicle behavior to examine interactions and emergent behaviors among hundreds of intelligent aerial agents exhibiting collaborative, cooperative, coordinative, selfish, and malicious behaviors. The air transportation system of the future will be a complex adaptive system (CAS) characterized by complex and sometimes unpredictable (or unpredicted) behaviors that result from temporal and spatial interactions among large numbers of participants. A CAS not only evolves with a changing environment and adapts to it, it is closely coupled to all systems that constitute the environment. Thus, the ecosystem that

  11. [A case of psittacosis showing a localized peripheral air-space consolidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayama, Masato; Inui, Naoki; Yasui, Hideki; Yamazaki, Sawa; Muramatsu, Eriko; Uto, Tomohiro; Morita, Satoru; Asada, Kazuhiro; Tsutiya, Tomoyoshi; Nakano, Yutaka; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2006-09-01

    A 29-year-old man was admitted with fever and anorexia. Radiographic examinations of the chest showed a localized peripheral non-segmental air-space consolidation in the right lower lobe. He had a history of exposure to parakeets, and psittacosis was diagnosed based on the elevated serum complement fixation titer against Chlamydia psittaci. The common radiographic finding of psittacosis is ground-glass attenuation radiating from the hilar areas. We report a rare case of psittacosis presenting a localized consolidation, clearly limited to the subpleural region of the lung.

  12. A Vision and Roadmap for Increasing User Autonomy in Flight Operations in the National Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan; Wing, David

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of Air Transportation is to move people and cargo safely, efficiently and swiftly to their destinations. The companies and individuals who use aircraft for this purpose, the airspace users, desire to operate their aircraft according to a dynamically optimized business trajectory for their specific mission and operational business model. In current operations, the dynamic optimization of business trajectories is limited by constraints built into operations in the National Airspace System (NAS) for reasons of safety and operational needs of the air navigation service providers. NASA has been developing and testing means to overcome many of these constraints and permit operations to be conducted closer to the airspace user's changing business trajectory as conditions unfold before and during the flight. A roadmap of logical steps progressing toward increased user autonomy is proposed, beginning with NASA's Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) concept that enables flight crews to make informed, deconflicted flight-optimization requests to air traffic control. These steps include the use of data communications for route change requests and approvals, integration with time-based arrival flow management processes under development by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), increased user authority for defining and modifying downstream, strategic portions of the trajectory, and ultimately application of self-separation. This progression takes advantage of existing FAA NextGen programs and RTCA standards development, and it is designed to minimize the number of hardware upgrades required of airspace users to take advantage of these advanced capabilities to achieve dynamically optimized business trajectories in NAS operations. The roadmap is designed to provide operational benefits to first adopters so that investment decisions do not depend upon a large segment of the user community becoming equipped before benefits can be realized. The issues of

  13. Air-spaced PDMS piezo-electret cantilevers for vibration energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachroudi, A.; Basrour, S.; Rufer, L.; Jomni, F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports a design of a new prototype of air-spaced cantilevers made from a micro-structured PDMS piezo-electret material for accelerometer and energy harvesting applications. The test performed on these cantilevers in a sensor mode exhibits a stable sensitivity of 385 mV/g for a frequency ranging from 5 Hz to 200 Hz that encompass most macro-scale vibrations. In the energy harvesting mode, the cantilever generates a power of 103 nW with a load resistance of 217 MΩ.

  14. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  15. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  16. A Healthy Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

  17. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  18. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

  19. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  20. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  1. The Laws Are Yours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  2. Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Evaluation of Impacts on the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.

    2005-01-01

    This report is one of a series that describes an ongoing effort in high-fidelity modeling/simulation, evaluation and analysis of the benefits and performance metrics of the Wake Vortex Advisory System (WakeVAS) Concept of Operations being developed as part of the Virtual Airspace Modeling and Simulation (VAMS) project. A previous study, determined the overall increases in runway arrival rates that could be achieved at 12 selected airports due to WakeVAS reduced aircraft spacing under Instrument Meteorological Conditions. This study builds on the previous work to evaluate the NAS wide impacts of equipping various numbers of airports with WakeVAS. A queuing network model of the National Airspace System, built by the Logistics Management Institute, Mclean, VA, for NASA (LMINET) was used to estimate the reduction in delay that could be achieved by using WakeVAS under non-visual meteorological conditions for the projected air traffic demand in 2010. The results from LMINET were used to estimate the total annual delay reduction that could be achieved and from this, an estimate of the air carrier variable operating cost saving was made.

  3. The relationship between nasal resistance to airflow and the airspace minimal cross-sectional area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Hariri, Benjamin M; Patel, Ruchin G; Rhee, John S

    2016-06-14

    The relationship between nasal resistance (R) and airspace minimal cross-sectional area (mCSA) remains unclear. After the introduction of acoustic rhinometry, many otolaryngologists believed that mCSA measurements would correlate with subjective perception of nasal airway obstruction (NAO), and thus could provide an objective measure of nasal patency to guide therapy. However, multiple studies reported a low correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency, and between mCSA and R. This apparent lack of correlation between nasal form and function has been a long-standing enigma in the field of rhinology. Here we propose that nasal resistance is described by the Bernoulli Obstruction Theory. This theory predicts two flow regimes. For mCSA>Acrit, the constriction is not too severe and there is not a tight coupling between R and mCSA. In contrast, when mCSAfluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were run in 3-dimensional models based on computed tomography scans of 15 NAO patients pre- and post-surgery (i.e., 60 unilateral nasal cavities). Airspace cross-sectional areas were quantified perpendicular to airflow streamlines. Our computational results are consistent with the theory. Given that in most people mCSA>Acrit (estimated to be 0.37cm(2)), this theory suggests that airway constrictions are rarely an exclusive contributor to nasal resistance, which may explain the weak correlation between mCSA and subjective nasal patency.

  4. Dynamic planning of navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in an automated flight test control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovtsov, D. A.; Karpov, D. S.

    2011-12-01

    This study considers an approach to planning navigation determinations of airspace and missile objects in the course of preparing for and carrying out an active flight test in an automated flight test control system. The approach is based on special information and mathematical software. The performance indices of the navigation determination subsystem are studied. Results of simulated modeling are provided.

  5. 76 FR 34627 - Proposed Modification of Offshore Airspace Areas: Norton Sound Low, Control 1234L and Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Areas: Norton Sound Low, Control 1234L and Control 1487L; Alaska AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This action proposes to modify the Norton... Norton Sound Low, Control 1234L, and Control 1487L Offshore Airspace Areas in Alaska. The Norton...

  6. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  7. Computational control of networks of dynamical systems: Application to the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, Alexandre M.

    The research presented in this thesis is motivated by the need for efficient analysis, automation, and optimization tools for the National Airspace System (NAS). A modeling framework based on hybrid system theory is developed, which captures congestion propagation into the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. This model is validated against Enhanced Traffic Management System (ETMS) data and used for analyzing low level actuation of the human Air Traffic Controller. This model enables us to quantify the capacity limit of the airspace in terms of geometry and traffic patterns, as well as the speed of propagation of congestion in the system. Once this setting is in place, maneuver assignment problems are posed as Mixed Integer Linear Programs (MILPs). Problem specific algorithms are designed to show that certain MILPs can be solved exactly in polynomial time. These algorithms are shown to run faster than CPLEX (the leading commercial software to solve MILPs). For other problems, approximation algorithms are designed, with guaranteed bounds on running time and performance. Flow control problems in the NAS are modeled using an Eulerian framework. A partial differential equation (PDE) model of high altitude traffic is derived, using a modified Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) PDE. High altitude traffic is modeled as a network of LWR PDEs linked through their boundary conditions. An adjoint-based method is developed for controlling network flow problems and applied to scenarios for the airspace between Chicago and the east coast. Accurate numerical analysis schemes are used and run very fast on this set of coupled one dimensional problems. The resulting simulations provide NAS-wide ATC control strategies in the form of flow patterns to apply to streams of aircraft. Finally, tactical control problems at the level of the dynamics of individual aircraft are studied. The problem of proving safety of conflict avoidance protocols is posed in the Hamilton-Jacobi framework. A proof

  8. The Main Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal law of a State is the expression of the sovereign will of that Sate; however, thereare some features common to all law systems. The evolution of the society as a whole gave rise tointernational bodies (such as the European Union, through which the signatory countries haveassimilated certain unitary regulations in the internal law system. The origin of this law system is thelaw book of Justinian, during whose time the Roman law was codified. Thus, in the year 528 a. d.Justinian arranged the legal rules of those times in a unitary whole, adapted to the realities of those days.In our country, as per the fundamental law - the Constitution, the treaties and conventions ratified byRomania prevail in case of a conflict between them and the internal legislation regarding the humanrights.

  9. Statistical laws in linguistics

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G

    2015-01-01

    Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...

  10. On Hack's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  11. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  12. Zipf's law, power laws, and maximum entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines - from astronomy to demographics to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation [RGF] attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present article I argue that the cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  13. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  14. How Law Affects Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Haselmann, Rainer; Pistor, Katharina; Vig, Vikrant

    2006-01-01

    A voluminous literature seeks to explore the relation between law and finance, but offers little insights into dynamic relation between legal change and behavioral outcomes or about the distributive effects of law on different market participants. The current paper disentangles the law-finance relation by using disaggregate data on banks’ lending patterns in 12 transition countries over a 8 year period. This allows us to control for country level heterogeneity and differentiate between differ...

  15. Environmental law: Course

    OpenAIRE

    Малярчук, Назар Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    In this course we tried to shed some light on the most important issues of the environmental law: notion, subject, method, system and sources of environmental law, we revealed the context of government management in the field of the protection of environment, legal regulation of conducting environmental examination. The separate subjects determines legal regime of each environmental law objects: lands, water, mineral wealth, forests, air, flora and fauna, natural protection fund of Ukraine. ...

  16. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  17. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  18. Enjoying the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2005-01-01

    of the concept of enjoyment is instructive, and looking at it more closely makes it possible to spell out why obedience in itself does not suffice for a moral existence. Subjecting ourselves to the prescriptions of positive law might actually function as a way of escaping the insatiable demands of the moral law....... In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

  19. Learning the Law

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Hardly any of the law's subjects know the text of the provisions that govern their conduct. Even less would they be able to handle this text properly, were they to get access to it. Nonetheless the law firmly believes that it is not feckless. This paper solves the puzzle by drawing on four bodies of knowledge: neurobiology, developmental psychology, the psychology of learning, and work form social scientists on learning.The paper makes the following claim: typically the law reaches its addres...

  20. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  1. CONSTANT ASPECTS OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANGHEL

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "Are we watching, in the succession of history, the appearance and disappearance of legal systems or assisting, in a greater or lesser extent, to what might be considered, in a sense, an evolution of those systems?"1 Law, indissolubly linked to the general evolution of society, has recorded a number of differences in time and space, both in terms of content of various types and positive law systems, and also in terms of forms that take the rules of law, authorities who have the ability to edict it or the procedure to be followed.Indeed, there is no law for all times and all places, as law is not an abstract product of our reason, it comes from the human experience, it is a product of history and that is why institutions of each society can only be different from one society to another.2 But, as in reality there are not quantities of history - many, little or very little - but just history3, we can say that in typology there is not socialist law absolutely different from bourgeois, feudal or slave law, so there is just law. By this approach, I wanted to bring back into question the existence of some factors of constancy in law, those "legal permanencies” investigated by Edmond Picard, believing that "there is something in the legal relationship that necessarily subsist anywhere”.4

  2. Law before Gratian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the third in the series, contains the proceedings of the conference 'Law before Gratian' and covers a wide range of topics from individual and local studies to broader reflections on the status and function of law in medieval European societies before the scholastic legal 'revolution......' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors...

  3. Thinking law: thinking law in motion

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Beth Nielsen

    2014-01-01

    This essay argues that one way to “think law” is to think “law in motion”. I will argue that a “law in motion” perspective embodies four core elements or ‘multiplicities’ which are: (1) multiple methodologies; (2) multiple perspectives; (3) multiple vocalities; and (4) multiple media including objects. As will become evident by the number of inspiring colleagues that have articulated rationales and perspectives for each of these multiplicities, these are not original ideas for which I can cla...

  4. Oceanic Flights and Airspace: Improving Efficiency by Trajectory-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alicia Borgman; Rebollo, Juan; Koch, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic operations suffer from multiple inefficiencies, including pre-departure planning that does not adequately consider uncertainty in the proposed trajectory, restrictions on the routes that a flight operator can choose for an oceanic crossing, time-consuming processes and procedures for amending en route trajectories, and difficulties exchanging data between Flight Information Regions (FIRs). These inefficiencies cause aircraft to fly suboptimal trajectories, burning fuel and time that could be conserved. A concept to support integration of existing and emerging capabilities and concepts is needed to transition to an airspace system that employs Trajectory Based Operations (TBO) to improve efficiency and safety in oceanic operations. This paper describes such a concept and the results of preliminary activities to evaluate the concept, including a stakeholder feedback activity, user needs analysis, and high level benefits analysis.

  5. A study on transmitted intensity's perturbance for air-spaced Glan-type polarizing prisms

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, J Y; Wu, F Q; Fan, Ji-Yang; Li, Hong-Xia; Wu, Fu-Quan

    2003-01-01

    The explanation for the perturbance of the transmitted intensity for air-spaced Glan-type polarizing prisms with varying rotation angle newly observed in the experiment is given. It is found that the transmitted intensity depends sensitively on the angle of incidence at the cut of the Glan-type prism. The minute fluctuation for values of the angle of incidence during the rotation of the stepmotor gives rise to the perturbance. The relation between the perturbance and the wavelength and the thickness of the air-gap is carefully investigated. Study shows that the disturbance for the Glan-Foucault prism is much stronger than that for the Glan-Taylor prism, as the experimental results have indicated. Theoretical results are perfectly in accordance with the experimental results. Effective measures for reducing the disturbance are presented.

  6. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  7. Analysis of Traffic Conflicts in a Mixed-Airspace Evaluation of Airborne Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    A pair of human-in-the-loop simulation evaluations of a distributed air/ground separation assurance system have been conducted to investigate the function allocation between humans and automation systems as well as ground-based and airborne agents in the Next Generation Air Transportation System and beyond. This paper focuses on an analysis of certain critical conflicts observed between self-separating aircraft and ground-managed traffic in the same airspace. The principal cause of each conflict is identified and potential mitigations are discussed, such as: the sharing of trajectory intent information between the ground and the air; more cautious trajectory planning by the self-separating aircraft; and more equitable rules-of-the-road between the self-separating aircraft and ground-managed aircraft. This analysis will inform the ongoing design of an airborne separation assurance automation tool.

  8. Identifying Functional Requirements for Flexible Airspace Management Concept Using Human-In-The-Loop Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul U.; Bender, Kim; Pagan, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Flexible Airspace Management (FAM) is a mid- term Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) concept that allows dynamic changes to airspace configurations to meet the changes in the traffic demand. A series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) studies have identified procedures and decision support requirements needed to implement FAM. This paper outlines a suggested FAM procedure and associated decision support functionality based on these HITL studies. A description of both the tools used to support the HITLs and the planned NextGen technologies available in the mid-term are presented and compared. The mid-term implementation of several NextGen capabilities, specifically, upgrades to the Traffic Management Unit (TMU), the initial release of an en route automation system, the deployment of a digital data communication system, a more flexible voice communications network, and the introduction of a tool envisioned to manage and coordinate networked ground systems can support the implementation of the FAM concept. Because of the variability in the overall deployment schedule of the mid-term NextGen capabilities, the dependency of the individual NextGen capabilities are examined to determine their impact on a mid-term implementation of FAM. A cursory review of the different technologies suggests that new functionality slated for the new en route automation system is a critical enabling technology for FAM, as well as the functionality to manage and coordinate networked ground systems. Upgrades to the TMU are less critical but important nonetheless for FAM to be fully realized. Flexible voice communications network and digital data communication system could allow more flexible FAM operations but they are not as essential.

  9. Do nanoparticles provide a new opportunity for diagnosis of distal airspace disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löndahl, Jakob; Jakobsson, Jonas Kf; Broday, David M; Aaltonen, H Laura; Wollmer, Per

    There is a need for efficient techniques to assess abnormalities in the peripheral regions of the lungs, for example, for diagnosis of pulmonary emphysema. Considerable scientific efforts have been directed toward measuring lung morphology by studying recovery of inhaled micron-sized aerosol particles (0.4-1.5 µm). In contrast, it is suggested that the recovery of inhaled airborne nanoparticles may be more useful for diagnosis. The objective of this work is to provide a theoretical background for the use of nanoparticles in measuring lung morphology and to assess their applicability based on a review of the literature. Using nanoparticles for studying distal airspace dimensions is shown to have several advantages over other aerosol-based methods. 1) Nanoparticles deposit almost exclusively by diffusion, which allows a simpler breathing maneuver with minor artifacts from particle losses in the oropharyngeal and upper airways. 2) A higher breathing flow rate can be utilized, making it possible to rapidly inhale from residual volume to total lung capacity (TLC), thereby eliminating the need to determine the TLC before measurement. 3) Recent studies indicate better penetration of nanoparticles than micron-sized particles into poorly ventilated and diseased regions of the lungs; thus, a stronger signal from the abnormal parts is expected. 4) Changes in airspace dimensions have a larger impact on the recovery of nanoparticles. Compared to current diagnostic techniques with high specificity for morphometric changes of the lungs, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with hyperpolarized gases, an aerosol-based method is likely to be less time consuming, considerably cheaper, simpler to use, and easier to interpret (providing a single value rather than an image that has to be analyzed). Compared to diagnosis by carbon monoxide (DL,CO), the uptake of nanoparticles in the lung is not affected by blood flow, hemoglobin concentration or alterations of the alveolar

  10. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  11. F-rough law and the discovery of rough law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Jinming; Shi Kaiquan

    2009-01-01

    By using function one direction S-rough sets (function one direction singular rough sets), this article presents the concepts of F-law, F-rough law, and the relation metric of rough law; by using these concepts, this article puts forward the theorem of F-law relation metric, two orders theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the attribute theorem of F-rough law band, the extremum theorem of F-rough law relation metric, the discovery principle of F-rough law and the application of F-rough law.

  12. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  13. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  14. Information Law and Copyright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Because of information law's inability to keep up with rapid changes in information technology and impreciseness of the law, copyrighting of databases poses unique problems. Interpretation of fair use doctrine, privately owned computer "downloading," impact of federal electronic filing, and questions concerning information businesses need to be…

  15. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  16. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  17. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  18. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  19. The law and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2008-11-06

    Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making.

  20. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  1. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation (a

  2. Women and Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WOMEN’S rights concern the world over. Even though China has a different legal tradition and social system, participants from the Beijing Sino-British Women and Law Symposium discovered that both Chinese and foreign scholars could reach agreement and understanding on many issues. Enacting Laws for Women Professor Yang Dawen, from the

  3. The impact of EU law on Belgian consumer law terminology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauffman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of EU directives in the field of consumer law distorted the Belgian legal terminology. In particular, consumer law terminology often differs from civil law terminology. The meaning of traditional civil law concepts is no longer respected in the field of consumer law. Moreover, the

  4. International resources law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  5. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  6. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  7. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  8. Anomalous law of cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  9. Anomalous law of cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  10. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  11. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    This book is a must-have for any business advisor that operates on a cross-border level in the European Union, EU. Regardless of whether you already have solid knowledge about doing business in the EU or you are just taking your first steps on this corporate scene, Business Law, Europe should...... be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  12. F-generation law and recognition of system law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Kaiquan; Yao Bingxue

    2007-01-01

    If a system is not disturbed (or invaded) by some law, there is no doubt that each system will move according to the expected law and keep stable. Although such a fact often appears, some unknown law breaks into the system and leads it into turbulence. Using function one direction S-rough sets, this article gives the concept of the F-generation law in the system, the generation model of the F-generation law and the recognition method of the system law. Function one direction singular rough sets is a new theory and method in recognizing the disturbance law existing in the system and recognizing the system law.

  13. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  14. Health Law: Notifiable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón Casaux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work made up the ultimate Health Law, latest new law branch from older date in the whole world but recently appearance in our country. As usual in other cases, we increase one of de most relevant events: the endless number of diseases that we advise obligatory, because they have been regulated for consecutive by-laws en the codex from 1946, 1958 and 2004. Since 2012 in order of the successful transformations in the modern technology with the change of rules in our order-law, it was necessary to recall their contents and we achieve in order of the promulgation the decree number 41/12 dated in February 16. In the second chapter we analyse one of the most bothersome contents: the diseases becoming from the food habitudes (named eia´s, whatever we considered a real significance for the common of the citizens and consumers, because they prevail notoriously in the human health.

  15. Bullying Policies and Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  16. Causal Newton Gravity Law

    CERN Document Server

    Zinoviev, Yury M

    2012-01-01

    The equations of the relativistic causal Newton gravity law for the planets of the solar system are studied in the approximation when the Sun rests at the coordinates origin and the planets do not iteract between each other.

  17. Online Law Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Online dictionaries that assist users in writing legal texts in English as a foreign language are important lexicographic tools. They can help law students bridge the factual and linguistic gaps between the two legal universes involved. However, existing online law dictionaries with English...... as the target language primarily focus on terms, but students also need to write the remainder of the texts in factually and linguistically correct English. It is therefore important to have a sound theoretical foundation before embarking on a dictionary project that aims to help law students communicate...... by containing the types of data that can best satisfy the needs of students at the three stages of legal text production: draft writing, revising and editing. The theoretical aspects discussed are supported by examples from the online CISG Dictionary, which is a lexicographic tool developed to help Danish law...

  18. Teaching Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  19. Law Enforcement Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Law Enforcement Plan clarifies U.S. Fish and Wildlife enforcement policies as they apply to the Refuge. It provides...

  20. Anomalous law of cooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Oliveira, Fernando A.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergo a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature ma...

  1. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  2. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  3. Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of airspace enlargement with fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yasutaka, E-mail: yasuyasu@omiya.jichi.ac.jp [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Kawabata, Yoshinori [Division of Diagnostic Pathology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kanauchi, Tetsu [Department of Radiology, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Hoshi, Eishin [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Kurashima, Kazuyoshi [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Saitama Prefectural Cardiovascular and Respiratory Center, 1696 Itai, Kumagaya City, Saitama 360-0105 (Japan); Koyama, Shinichiro [Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Amanuma-cho, Omiya City, Saitama 330-8503 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ 85259 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings of airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF), recently identified as a smoking related change. • Investigation was in 35 smokers. • They underwent lobectomy for lung cancer with pathological confirmation of AEF. • Multiple, thin-walled cysts are one of the HRCT features of AEF. - Abstract: Purpose: Airspace enlargement with fibrosis (AEF) has been identified pathologically as a smoking related change. We sought to identify the HRCT findings of AEF and search for distinguishing features from honeycombing. Materials and methods: 50 patients (47 males; mean age 69) were evaluated. All had undergone lobectomy for lung cancer and had confirmed AEF and/or usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) by pathological evaluation. HRCT findings were first evaluated preresection for resected lobes, and then correlated with the subsequent pathological findings in the resection specimens. Three groups were devised: one with AEF alone to determine the HRCT findings of AEF, a second with AEF and UIP and third with UIP alone. HRCT features of AEF and honeycombing were compared. Results: There were 11 patients (10 male; mean age 69) with AEF alone, 24 patients (22 male; mean age 69) with AEF and UIP, and 15 patients (15 male; mean age 68) with UIP alone. The HRCT on the AEF alone showed subpleural (but not abutting the pleura) multiple thin-walled cysts (MTWCs) in 7 and reticular opacities in 3. The HRCT in AEF and UIP showed MTWCs in 10, reticular opacities in 17; and honeycombing in 5. Among these 35 patients with the pathological finding of AEF (with or without UIP), 17 showed MTWCs. The maximum cyst wall thickness of MTWCs (mean 0.81 mm) was significantly thinner than that of honeycombing (mean 1.56 mm). MTWCs did not locate in lung base and was distant from the pleura. HRCT findings correlated with gross findings on both cysts and honeycombing. No MTWCs were seen in the 15 patients with UIP, 8 of 15 had

  4. Study on the Establishment of the South China Sea Air Defense Identification Zone from the Perspective of International Law---Talking from the Lost Affair of Malaysia Airliner MH370%从国际法角度探讨我国南海防空识别区的设立--从马航MH370失联客机谈起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽; 艾朝霞

    2014-01-01

    According to the provisions of convention on international civil aviation (1944) and United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the country has absolute sovereignty over its territorial airspace. Any foreign aircraft airspace is forbidden to enter the territorial airspace of a country unless allowed. Accordingly, after a long period of international practice, the United States and other countries have set up their own air defense identification area. Setting up air defense identification area beside the territorial airspace become an international habits. According to the above international treaty and international habits, setting up the south China sea air defense identification area is legal and reasonable. It is help to protect the security of the China ’s airspace and solve our country’s territorial disputes with its neighbors.%根据1944年《国际民航公约》和1982年《联合国海洋法公约》的规定,一国对其领空享有绝对的主权,非经一国同意,别国的航空器不得擅入本国领空。据此,经过长期的国际实践,美国等国家纷纷建立自己的防空识别区,使得在一国领空之外设立防空识别区成为国际习惯。根据以上国际条约和国际习惯,我国设立南海防空识别区合法合理,既有助于保卫我国领空的安全,又有助于解决我国与邻国的领土争端。

  5. Comparative law as method and the method of comparative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hage, J.C.; Adams, M.; Heirbaut, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses both the justificatory role of comparative law within legal research (comparative law as method) and the method of comparative law itself. In this connection two questions will be answered: 1. Is comparative law a method, or a set of methods, for legal research? 2. Does compar

  6. Consequences of Lotka's Law for the Law of Bradford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egghe, L.

    1985-01-01

    After discussion of the equivalency of the information laws of Bradford, Leimkuhler, Lotka, and Mandelbrot, aberrations from Leimkuhler's law (including "Groos droop" as encountered in practice) are studied. Other aberrations of Leimkuhler's law are explained, starting from generalization of verbal formulation of Bradford's Law. (18 references)…

  7. On the Law in The Law of Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婷

    2016-01-01

    This article discussed the two main laws in the novel, The Law of Life, written by the famous American realistic writer Jack London. The laws discussed in this article are Social Darwinism and Fatalism. By discussing those two laws, the article tries to look into the philosophy of life that Jack London trying to reveal in the novel.

  8. A Law and Economics View on Harmonization of Procedural Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Even though there exists an extensive Law and Economics literature on the topics of procedural law and harmonization of law, very little has been written on harmonization of procedural law as such. In this paper I first provide a brief overview of the economic approach to legal

  9. High Altitude Long Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft - National Airspace System Integration - Simulation IPT: Detailed Airspace Operations Simulation Plan. Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The primary goal of Access 5 is to allow safe, reliable and routine operations of High Altitude-Long Endurance Remotely Operated Aircraft (HALE ROAs) within the National Airspace System (NAS). Step 1 of Access 5 addresses the policies, procedures, technologies and implementation issues of introducing such operations into the NAS above pressure altitude 40,000 ft (Flight Level 400 or FL400). Routine HALE ROA activity within the NAS represents a potentially significant change to the tasks and concerns of NAS users, service providers and other stakeholders. Due to the complexity of the NAS, and the importance of maintaining current high levels of safety in the NAS, any significant changes must be thoroughly evaluated prior to implementation. The Access 5 community has been tasked with performing this detailed evaluation of routine HALE-ROA activities in the NAS, and providing to key NAS stakeholders a set of recommended policies and procedures to achieve this goal. Extensive simulation, in concert with a directed flight demonstration program are intended to provide the required supporting evidence that these recommendations are based on sound methods and offer a clear roadmap to achieving safe, reliable and routine HALE ROA operations in the NAS. Through coordination with NAS service providers and policy makers, and with significant input from HALE-ROA manufacturers, operators and pilots, this document presents the detailed simulation plan for Step 1 of Access 5. A brief background of the Access 5 project will be presented with focus on Steps 1 and 2, concerning HALE-ROA operations above FL400 and FL180 respectively. An overview of project management structure follows with particular emphasis on the role of the Simulation IPT and its relationships to other project entities. This discussion will include a description of work packages assigned to the Simulation IPT, and present the specific goals to be achieved for each simulation work package, along with the associated

  10. Aircraft avoidance for laser propagation at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory: life under a busy airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmer, Gustavo; Lefebvre, Michael; Christou, Julian C.

    2016-07-01

    A key aspect of LGS operations is the implementation of measures to prevent the illumination of airplanes flying overhead. The most basic one is the use of "aircraft spotters" in permanent communication with the laser operator. Although this is the default method accepted by the FAA to authorize laser propagation, it relies on the inherent subjectivity of human perception, and requires keeping a small army of spotters to cover all the nights scheduled for propagation. Following the successful experience of other observatories (Keck and APO), we have installed an automatic aircraft detection system developed at UCSD known as TBAD (Transponder-Based Aircraft Detection). The system has been in continuous operation since April 2015, collecting detection data every night the telescope is open. We present a description of our system implementation and operational procedures. We also describe and discuss the analysis of the TBAD detection data, that shows how busy our airspace is, and the expected impact on the operation efficiency of the observatory.

  11. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII. The Const

  12. Fractal probability laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Klafter, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    We explore six classes of fractal probability laws defined on the positive half-line: Weibull, Frechét, Lévy, hyper Pareto, hyper beta, and hyper shot noise. Each of these classes admits a unique statistical power-law structure, and is uniquely associated with a certain operation of renormalization. All six classes turn out to be one-dimensional projections of underlying Poisson processes which, in turn, are the unique fixed points of Poissonian renormalizations. The first three classes correspond to linear Poissonian renormalizations and are intimately related to extreme value theory (Weibull, Frechét) and to the central limit theorem (Lévy). The other three classes correspond to nonlinear Poissonian renormalizations. Pareto's law--commonly perceived as the "universal fractal probability distribution"--is merely a special case of the hyper Pareto class.

  13. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    Table of Contents: The Author List of Abbreviations General Introduction Chapter 1. General Background Chapter 2. Definitions and Notions Chapter 3. Historical Background Chapter 4. Role of Government Institutions in the Shaping and Administration of Labour and Industrial Relations Policy Chapter 5....... Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...... 9. Inventions by Employees Chapter 10. Settlement of Disputes Part II. Collective Labour Relations Chapter 1. Trade Union Freedom Chapter 2. Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Chapter 3. Institutionalised Relations between Employers and Employees Chapter 4. Collective Bargaining Chapter 5...

  14. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  15. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  16. Pulmonary Metastasis of Combined Hepatocellular and Cholangiocarcinoma: A Unique Radiographic Presentation with Air-space Consolidation Masquerading as Pneumonia and Primary Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takashi; Goto, Yasushi; Matsuzaki, Hirotaka; Ohishi, Nobuya; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Saito, Ruri; Matsusaka, Keisuke; Shibahara, Junji; Nagase, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Lung metastasis showing radiographic findings of air-space consolidation is considered to be rare. This report describes the case of a man with progressive left lower lobe air-space consolidation with a history of hepatocellular carcinoma. The pulmonary lesion was initially suspected to be infection and later clinically diagnosed as primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Although the patient was treated with systemic chemotherapy, the disease progressed very rapidly. A postmortem examination revealed that the alveolar spaces were filled with neoplastic cells subsequently proven to be metastases of combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma.

  17. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  18. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  19. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  20. Around the circular law

    CERN Document Server

    Bordenave, Charles

    2011-01-01

    These expository notes are centered around the circular law theorem, which states that the empirical spectral distribution of a n \\times n random matrix with i.i.d. entries of variance 1/n tends to the uniform law on the unit disc of the complex plane as the dimension n tends to infinity. This phenomenon is the non-Hermitian counterpart of the semi circular limit for Wigner random Hermitian matrices, and the quarter circular limit for Marchenko-Pastur random covariance matrices. We present a proof in a Gaussian case, due to Silverstein, based on a formula by Ginibre, and a proof of the universal case by revisiting the approach of Tao and Vu, based on the Hermitization of Girko, the logarithmic potential, and the control of the small singular values. Beyond the finite variance model, we also consider the case where the entries have heavy tails, by using the objective method of Aldous and Steele borrowed from randomized combinatorial optimization. The limiting law is then no longer the circular law and is relat...

  1. The Gas Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

  2. Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China establishes a comprehensive socialist legal system The Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (NPC),China’s top legislature,adopted an amendment to the Criminal Law at a bimonthly session in February,reducing the number of capital punishment by 13 to 55.

  3. Financial Disclosure Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Carol

    1983-01-01

    A study of school board presidents and superintendents in Washington, Missouri, and New Jersey reveals that strict financial disclosure laws tend to reduce the number of professionals on boards; however, board members with professional occupations differ from other board members on a number of measures. (MLF)

  4. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  5. Law... For what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Merino Barros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the work “El Derecho... ¿para qué?” of Jaime Baquero de la Calle. The overview analyzes the sources, the type of documents and examples that are used in it. Includes an explanation of the structure of the document, emphasizing the utility that provides this publication for students of law.

  6. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual Medi

  7. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  8. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  9. Presenting Distributive Laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.C.; Heckel, R.; Milius, S.

    2013-01-01

    Distributive laws of a monad over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specification of well-behaved structural operational semantics and, more recently, also for enhancements

  10. Presenting Distributive Laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Distributive laws of a monad T over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specication of well-behaved structural operational se- mantics and, more recently, also for enhancemen

  11. Presenting distributive laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsangue, M.M.; Hansen, H.H.; Kurz, A.; Rot, J.

    2015-01-01

    Distributive laws of a monad T over a functor F are categorical tools for specifying algebra-coalgebra interaction. They proved to be important for solving systems of corecursive equations, for the specification of well-behaved structural operational semantics and, more recently, also for enhancemen

  12. Law and the Consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K.

    One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

  13. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  14. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  15. Airborne Conflict Management within Confined Airspace in a Piloted Simulation of DAG-TM Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmore, Bryan; Johnson, Edward; Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was performed at the NASA Langley Research Center to study the feasibility of Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) autonomous aircraft operations in highly constrained airspace. The airspace was constrained by a pair of special use airspace (SUA) regions on either side of the pilot s planned route. The available airspace was further varied by changing the separation standard for lateral separation between 3 nm and 5 nm. The pilot had to maneuver through the corridor between the SUA s, avoid other traffic and meet flow management constraints. Traffic flow management (TFM) constraints were imposed as a required time of arrival and crossing altitude at an en route fix. This is a follow-up study to work presented at the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001. Nearly all of the pilots were able to meet their TFM constraints while maintaining adequate separation from other traffic. In only 3 out of 59 runs were the pilots unable to meet their required time of arrival. Two loss of separation cases are studied and it is found that the pilots need conflict prevention information presented in a clearer manner. No degradation of performance or safety was seen between the wide and narrow corridors. Although this was not a thorough study of the consequences of reducing the en route lateral separation, nothing was found that would refute the feasibility of reducing the separation requirement from 5 nm to 3 nm. The creation of additional, second-generation conflicts is also investigated. Two resolution methods were offered to the pilots: strategic and tactical. The strategic method is a closed-loop alteration to the Flight Management System (FMS) active route that considers other traffic as well as TFM constraints. The tactical resolutions are short-term resolutions that leave avoiding other traffic conflicts and meeting the TFM constraints to the pilot. Those that made use of the strategic tools avoided

  16. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  17. Development of a Portfolio Management Approach with Case Study of the NASA Airspace Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Kurt W.; Hartman, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    A portfolio management approach was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Airspace Systems Program (ASP). The purpose was to help inform ASP leadership regarding future investment decisions related to its existing portfolio of advanced technology concepts and capabilities (C/Cs) currently under development and to potentially identify new opportunities. The portfolio management approach is general in form and is extensible to other advanced technology development programs. It focuses on individual C/Cs and consists of three parts: 1) concept of operations (con-ops) development, 2) safety impact assessment, and 3) benefit-cost-risk (B-C-R) assessment. The first two parts are recommendations to ASP leaders and will be discussed only briefly, while the B-C-R part relates to the development of an assessment capability and will be discussed in greater detail. The B-C-R assessment capability enables estimation of the relative value of each C/C as compared with all other C/Cs in the ASP portfolio. Value is expressed in terms of a composite weighted utility function (WUF) rating, based on estimated benefits, costs, and risks. Benefit utility is estimated relative to achieving key NAS performance objectives, which are outlined in the ASP Strategic Plan.1 Risk utility focuses on C/C development and implementation risk, while cost utility focuses on the development and implementation portions of overall C/C life-cycle costs. Initial composite ratings of the ASP C/Cs were successfully generated; however, the limited availability of B-C-R information, which is used as inputs to the WUF model, reduced the meaningfulness of these initial investment ratings. Development of this approach, however, defined specific information-generation requirements for ASP C/C developers that will increase the meaningfulness of future B-C-R ratings.

  18. Discrete power law with exponential cutoff and Lotka's Law

    CERN Document Server

    Smolinsky, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The first bibliometric law appeared in Alfred J. Lotka's 1926 examination of author productivity in chemistry and physics. The result is that the productivity distribution is thought to be described by a power law. In this paper, Lotka's original data on author productivity in chemistry is reconsidered by comparing the fit of the data to both a discrete power law and a discrete power law with exponential cutoff.

  19. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  20. European Asylum Law : and its Relation to International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, H.

    2006-01-01

    In Chapter 1 I introduce the question of enquiry, the relation between Community and international law on asylum. Further, I sketch the content of the Refugee Convention, other relevant international law, the historical background of current Community asylum law (i.e. the asylum acquis from before 2

  1. Kidnapping Law Mapped Out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1994-01-01

    THE Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress Regarding the Severe Punishment of Criminals Who Abduct and Traffic in or Kidnap Women or Children (abbreviated to "Decision" in the following of the article), was adopted at the 21st Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People’s Congress on September 4, 1991. As an important lawful document on the protection of the personal safety of women and children, its publica-

  2. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  3. Ethics and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  4. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  5. Sovereignty in International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana MAFTEI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at highlighting in this paper, after analyzing the transformations that took place in the international society, the importance of a particularly sensitive and current topic for public international law, namely the sovereignty. A political and legal concept at the same time, the state sovereignty remains permanently into the attention of researchers in an attempt to determine its role in international relations governed by the international law. The concept of sovereignty is complex, it can be analyzed in terms of the national law, but as a member of international society, a State participates in international relations on the basis of sovereign equality principle, which causes another meaning of sovereignty, which completes the one specific to the internal life. We have analyzed the evolution of the concept of sovereignty and we have identified the causes that led to changes in its characteristics, in order to predict the tendencies in its development. We have highlighted the aspects of the exercise of sovereignty as a result of limiting the powers of state in the favor of international bodies. In preparing this article we have used as research methods the analysis of the problems generated by mentioned subject with reference to the doctrinal views expressed in specialized papers, documentary research, and interpretation of legal norms in the field.

  6. Sexuality and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care.

  7. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ronald F

    2014-01-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the distances to stars listed in the 2011 HYG database "follow well the probabilities predicted by Benford's law", the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why star distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. Conversely, with the logical derivation given here, the empirical observations may be viewed as new independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  8. Is law science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolien MC Roos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The question this contribution sets out to address is whether or not law can be regarded as a science. This notion is readily accepted by many, yet it is submitted that a proper theoretical justification for such an assumption is usually missing. The traditional primary sources of law, South African case law and legislation, distinguish between legal practice and legal science, but the basis of the distinction is not clear. However, an entire body of literature in the philosophy of science has developed around the question of when a discipline will amount to science. Various demarcation criteria proposed in the philosophy of science are considered. These include that science uses the scientific method, is susceptible to falsification, is puzzle-solving within a paradigm or renders beneficial results. None of these criteria offers a satisfactory solution to the problem. The proposition by a group of philosophers including Herman Dooyeweerd, Marinus Stafleu and DFM Strauss, that the answer to the demarcation question is to be found in modal abstraction, is then considered. Modal abstraction amounts to a consideration of reality (persons, things, theories and rules from one or more defined point(s of entry. It is an artificial and learnt manner of thinking as it approaches reality from the perspective of one of the modalities of being. For example, juridical abstraction would mean that a cow is considered as the object of someone's proprietary rights. An abstract idea of the cow's characteristics, from a juridical point of view, is formed and the rules of property law are applied. A number of South African legal philosophers, amongst others Van Zyl, Van der Vyver and LM du Plessis, have followed this approach. The South African legislature has also attempted to define the terms "science" and "research", mainly for funding purposes. These definitions are considered and the conclusion is that they do not provide the clear-cut answers one would expect

  9. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  10. Estimation in the Power Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hoben

    1981-01-01

    Psychophysicists neglect to consider how error should be characterized in applications of the power law. Failures of the power law to agree with certain theoretical predictions are examined. A power law with lognormal product structure is proposed and approximately unbiased parameter estimates given for several common estimation situations.…

  11. Principles of the continental copyright law

    OpenAIRE

    Matveev A.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are two key copyright law traditions: English–American and Roman–Germanic copyright laws. The French and German copyright law is in the vanguard of the continental copyright law, with the copyright law of Russia being among the others in this copyright law system. However, the Russian copyright law has some specific characteristics. Copyright law is based on the defined principles. The purpose of the present article is to define the principles Continental Copyright Law....

  12. Internationalization of law globalization, international law and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dias Varella, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an overview of how international law is today constructed through diverse macro and microprocesses that expand its traditional subjects and sources, with the attribution of sovereign capacity and power to the international plane (moving the international toward the national). Simultaneously, national laws approximate laws of other nations (moving among nations or moving the national toward the international) and new sources of legal norms emerge, independent of states and international organisations. This expansion occurs in many subject areas, with specific structures: commercial, environmental, human rights, humanitarian, financial, criminal and labor law contribute to the formation of post national law with different modes of functioning, different actors and different sources of law that should be understood as a new complexity of law.

  13. THE FRAMEWORK OF INSOLVENCY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA IANCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of ways to classify the legal systems or legal families of the world, but in general legal families across the globe will in many jurisdictions either have an English law, or what can broadly be termed a Civil law, orientated foundation. When analyzing the insolvency laws of various jurisdictions such foundation will also show up in the variety of insolvency laws. But certain aspect of insolvency law will be affected by local legal culture, basic rights and the way in which a system deals with related matters such as the security rights provided for, or the approach to labor issues for instance.

  14. International and European Security Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Herbach

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Security law, or more comprehensively conflict and security law, on the international level represents the intersection of three distinct but interrelated fields: international humanitarian law (the law of armed conflict, jus in bello, the law of collective security (most identified with the United Nations (UN system, jus ad bellum and arms control law (including non-proliferation. Security in this sense is multifaceted - interest security, military security and, as is often referred to in the context of the EU, human security. As such, the law covers a wide range of specific topics with respect to conflict, encompassing the use of force, including choice of weapons and fighting techniques, extending to the rules applicable in peacekeeping and peace enforcement, and yet also dictating obligations outside the context of conflict, such as safeguarding and securing dual-use materials (those with both peaceful and military applications to prevent malicious use.

  15. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  16. Government Contract Law Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    has available intelligence services whose reports are not and ought not to be published to the world. It would be intolerable that courts, without...on account of lack of standing. The law of standing is fundamentally artificial to the extent that one who is in fact harmed by adminis- trative...bus iness adverti s concerns and 1969 plain Santo, F 1 o r i u s i n e s lify a U. S. 1 Busi ant, i usines busine ct for se in Admin

  17. Conservation Laws with Dissipation,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    smooth, due to the formation of shock waves. However, global solutions exist in the class of functions of bounded variation ,/in the sense of Tonelli...hyperbolic conservation law (2.2) ut + f(u)x -0 The Cauchy problem for (2.2), with initial data u(x,O), of bounded variation , admits a solution in the class...BV of functions of bounded variation ,.in the sense of Tonelli-Cesari. No gain would be made by assuming that u(x,O) is smoother, even analytic! In

  18. Essentials of EU law

    CERN Document Server

    Reinisch, August

    2012-01-01

    This book explores the history and institutions of the EU, examines the interplay of its main bodies in its legislative process and illustrates the role played by the EU Courts and the importance of fundamental rights. The student is also introduced to the key principles of the internal market, in particular the free movement of goods and the free movement of workers. In addition a number of other EU policies, such as the Common Agricultural Policy, Environmental Protection and Social Policy are outlined, while a more detailed inquiry is made into European competition law.

  19. Market Sentiments Distribution Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Reyes-Molina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Stock Exchange is basically ruled by the extreme market sentiments of euphoria and fear. The type of sentiment is given by the color of the candlestick (white = bullish sentiments, black = bearish sentiments, meanwhile the intensity of the sentiment is given by the size of it. In this paper you will see that the intensity of any sentiment is astonishingly distributed in a robust, systematic and universal way, according to a law of exponential decay, the conclusion of which is supported by the analysis of the Lyapunov exponent, the information entropy and the frequency distribution of candlestick size.

  20. The Law of Reflux

    OpenAIRE

    Sproul, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The law of reflux is explained using an example of backed money. In the example, government-issued money is backed by the government’s assets (mainly taxes receivable) while bank-issued money is backed by the bank’s assets. The value of both kinds of money is determined by the amount of backing held per unit of money issued. The example shows that reflux maintains money’s value, not by assuring that excessive issues of money reflux to their issuers, but by providing people with access to the ...

  1. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  2. Challenges imposed by International Environmental Law to Classical International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Augusto Cárdenas Castañeda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of international environmental law has produced important challenges to the very foundations of public international law. Traditional concepts such as state sovereignty, subjects of international law, and the early perspectives of national security are being transformed. The needs of the contemporary international society differ from the ones of the Wesphalian conception, situations which clearly explains the raise of alternative views for the understanding of the current dynamics of international law, where concepts like res communis, common concerns and simply “commons” take a privileged place in the study of international law. The foregoing has been strengthened by the international development of the so called erga ommnes obligations, label which is being used by international environmental law as the perfect explanation of its own existence. This academic article presents and studies the abovementioned concepts trying to compare what international law used to be before the emergence of international environmental law and what it is and what it should be in order to attend the developments and challenges imposed by the contemporary international society, particularly by international environmental law, a new fi eld of the corpus juris of public international law.

  3. THE INTERFERENCE OF EUROPEAN UNION LAW WITH PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA-MARIANA POPESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Law is an unique legal phenomenon developed in the process of European integration within the framework of the European Communities and the European Union; a result of the implementation of the supranational authority of the European institutions. The European Union law is a specific legal system having independent sources and principles that developed at the border-line of international law and domestic law of the EU’s Member States. The authonomy of the European Union law is affirmed by a case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.The European Union has its own legal order which is separate from international law and forms an integral part of the legal systems of the Member States. The legal order of the Union is founded on various different sources of law. The different nature of these sources has imposed a hierarchy among them. At the pinnacle of this hierarchy we find primary law, represented by the Treaties and general legal principles, followed by international treaties concluded by the Union and secondary law founded on the Treaties.

  4. Generalized Kirchhoff law

    CERN Document Server

    Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Brucoli, Giovanni; Sakat, Emilie; Marquier, François

    2016-01-01

    Thermal emission can be conveniently described using Kirchhoff law which states that the emissivity is equal to the absorptivity for isothermal bodies. For a finite size system, absorptivity is replaced by an absorption cross section. Here, we study the link between thermal emission and absorption by a finite size object which is not isothermal. We define a local absorption rate for a given incident plane wave and we prove that it is equal to the local emissivity rate. Hence, Kirchhoff law can be extended to anisothermal media. A practical consequence is the possibility of analysing thermal radiation by a variety of non-equilibrium systems such as microwave radiation in geophysical remote sensing or X-UV radiation by plasmas. This result provides a theoretical framework to analyse thermal emission by hot electrons in quantum wells, tunnel junctions or graphene. It paves the way to the design of a new generation of incandescent emitters made of subwavelength hot emitters coupled to cold antennas. The antennas ...

  5. Interdisciplinary Success Of Law And Economy: Economic Analysis Of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of law defines as an application of economic theory and economic methods in studies of forming, structure, process and influence of the law and legal institution. Although many comment that it is the question of a new scientific discipline or contemporary intellectual movement, the economic analysis of law reaches even the classics of economic thought Adam Smith and David Hume but the real recognition of the analysis was the publishing of the famous article of Ronald Coase (1960 “Problem of Public Expense” . Here he discusses how the incentives for damage reduction and various negativities come from the allocation of property rights. The aim of this work is to present an economic analysis of law as an interdisciplinary success of two great fields – law and economy, i.e. to present the way on which economy helps to understand law in a new way. Realizing it, the economy uses mathematically precise theories (e.g. price theory, game theory etc. and empirically firm methods (statistics and econometrically to analyse the impact of prices, i.e. of sanctions on behaviour. The article shows basic economic analyses of law which especially cite the contract law and balance law.

  6. INDIRECT INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY LAW OVER NATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of influence of Community law over national criminal law is difficult to be solved even now, because criminal law is very closely related to state sovereignty. However, at European level it is a series of unifying trends in the field of criminal law. This includes: the Corpus Juris Project to develop a number of guiding principles on the protection through criminal law of financial interests of EU, within the European judiciary space; the project of founding a European Prosecutor , which would have extended jurisdiction over the entire European judicial area; at the doctrinaire level the project called ”The Criminal Code of the European Union ” result of encoding the provisions relevant for the Community criminal law and published likewise. Romanian criminal law could not remain outside these trends and this paper reveal some internal acts that reflect the trends observed at European level. Some of this acts have a direct influence, and some of them an indirect influence. An example is represented by art. 3022 of the Romanian Penal Code, which, in the basic variant, besides any operations regarding the import of wastes and residue of any kind or other dangerous goods for public health and environment, incriminates the placing or transit operations on the country without observing the laws. In this text, the phrase "without observing the laws" must be reported to both national regulations and international legal instruments.

  7. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  8. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined and furt......This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  9. EU Food Health Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    and rational dietary choices on the basis of the food information provided on food labels or generally available in society. In recent years, the EU legislative has shown increased commitment to further empower consumers in pace with the advancement of modern manufacturing and advertising techniques......This thesis shows that the distinction between food safety and non-safety issues in Regulation (EC) No 178/2002, the General Food Law (GFL), results in a grey area of regulation. This grey area comprises foods that do not pose a food safety risk in a legal sense, but that could pose a threat...... to human health because of other factors, such as their nutritional composition. The growing prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases are examples of contemporary health challenges that are difficult to fit into the rather narrow concept of food safety risks in the GFL. The conclusion is that EU...

  10. Three Laws of Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    经典的机器人三大定律,来自于科幻之父阿西莫夫的名著《I,Robot》The late Isaac Asimov(1920—1992),the prolific author of science fictionand books popularizing science,claimed credit for"robotics"as a term for thescience and technology of robots.In his 1942 sci-fi story"Runaround,"Asimovstated the ethical guidelines he called the"Three Laws of Robotics":1.A robot must not injure a human being,or,through inaction,allow a hu-man being to come to harm.2.A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except wherethose orders would ...

  11. Law Tackling Administrative Monopolies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ The long-anticipated anti-monopoly law needs to better address the crucial distinction between administrative and economic monopolies The first five months of 2oo6 saw a surge in the profits achieved by key State enterprises, especially in the eight sectors including petroleum, telecommunication and electricity, which achieved 285 billion yuan (US$36 billion) in profits, accounting for about 86 percent of the total, according to a July report. From the Stateowned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State (SASAC). This news was both heartening and disquieting, for the most profitable sectors happen to be monopolistic enterprises, mostly upstream the production chain, who achieve their profitability at the expense of those companies further downstream. For years these sectors have been at the centre of the "bust-the-trust" storm.

  12. Feminism, law, and bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, K H

    1996-03-01

    Feminist legal theory provides a healthy skepticism toward legal doctrine and insists that we reexamine even formally gender-neutral rules to uncover problematic assumptions behind them. The article first outlines feminist legal theory from the perspectives of liberal, cultural, and radical feminism. Examples of how each theory influences legal practice, case law, and legislation are highlighted. Each perspective is then applied to a contemporary bioethical issue, egg donation. Following a brief discussion of the common themes shared by feminist jurisprudence, the article incorporates a narrative reflecting on the integration of the common feminist themes in the context of the passage of the Maryland Health Care Decisions Act. The article concludes that gender does matter and that an understanding of feminist legal theory and practice will enrich the analysis of contemporary bioethical issues.

  13. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    CERN Document Server

    Mortensen, N A; Raza, S; Stenger, N; Yan, W; Jauho, A -P; Xiao, S; Wubs, M

    2012-01-01

    In tiny metallic nanostructures, quantum confinement and nonlocal response change the collective plasmonic behavior with important consequences for e.g. field-enhancement and extinction cross sections. We report on our most recent developments of a real-space formulation of an equation-of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples of applying the nonlocal framework to calculation of extinction cross sections and field enhancement in isolated particles, dimers, and corrugated surfaces.

  14. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    , examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from......Digital society challenges the traditional perception of legal sources. The use of maps as a basis for public administration dates far back, but e-Government’s use of digital maps that include legal information creates new legal obstacles. In the coming decades, the inspire directive of 2007...... will determine the interplay between geographic data and technology in the fields of environmental legislation, environmental policy and environmental management. This article examines the legal regulation of spatial information as established by the inspire directive, on one hand, and on the other hand...

  15. On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System Issues, Challenges, Operational Restrictions, Certification, and Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos; Piegl, Les A

    2012-01-01

    This book presents, in a comprehensive way, current unmanned aviation regulation, airworthiness certification, special aircraft categories, pilot certification, federal aviation requirements, operation rules, airspace classes and regulation development models. It discusses unmanned aircraft systems levels of safety derived mathematically based on the corresponding levels for manned aviation. It provides an overview of the history and current status of UAS airworthiness and operational regulation worldwide. Existing regulations have been developed considering the need for a complete regulatory framework for UAS. It focuses on UAS safety assessment and functional requirements, achieved in terms of defining an “Equivalent Level of Safety”, or ELOS, with that of manned aviation, specifying what the ELOS requirement entails for UAS regulations. To accomplish this, the safety performance of manned aviation is first evaluated, followed by a novel model to derive reliability requirements for achieving target lev...

  16. Corporate Mobility and Company Law

    OpenAIRE

    Ferran, Eilís

    2016-01-01

    Globalisation has given commercial parties more freedom to choose the company law system that best suits their private needs. The growing range of techniques to facilitate choice between systems of company law reshapes the mandatory/enabling debate in countries where corporate mobility is a relatively new business phenomenon and where the past focus has mostly been on degrees of flexibility within domestic law. This article examines relocations, both out of and into the UK, as a source of lea...

  17. Law system and legislation system

    OpenAIRE

    Boshno, Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of publication of the «Jurisprudence» textbook by Svetlana Vladimirovna Boshno. Law system is a key element of general theory of law. The major fundamentals of its construction are subject matter and method of legal regulation. Of great importance is the division of legal regulation methods into mandative and dispositive ones. The paper articulates the concepts of institute and branch of law demonstrated through various examples. An important classification of bra...

  18. European Law in the Making:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten

    Gend en Loos and Costa V. ENEL. The jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of the ECSC was allegedly conservative dominated by technical and economic considerations less than adventurous activism. Recent historical research has demonstrated the complexity of the legal landscape of the 1950s, in which...... the legal service of the High Authority from early on promoted a ‘constitutional’ interpretation of European law, but where the member state, as well as most legal experts, still considered European law a subset of international law. How did the Court of Justice of the ECSC manoeuvre between...... on European law in the making....

  19. Morality, care, and international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Held

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Whether we should respect international law is in dispute. In the United States, international law is dismissed by the left as merely promoting the interests of powerful states. It is attacked by the right as irrelevant and an interference with the interests and mission of the United States. And it follows from the arguments of many liberals that in the absence of world government the world is in a Hobbesian state of nature and international law inapplicable. This article reviews the thinking of Kant, Locke, and Rawls, among others and shows how arguments against respect for international law can be answered. It questions arguments based on the analogy between states and individuals, and between international law as it has developed and law based on an ideal social contract between individuals. It then turns to the ethics of care, a recent addition to moral theory, and examines its major characteristics and recommendations. It considers how the ethics of care would view international law and the guidance this moral approach could provide for international relations. The article shows how the ethics of care is compatible with various current trends, and how thinking about globalization and greater international interdependence would benefit from greater attention to it. The article argues that the ethics of care would clearly support respect for international law as it has developed, but that it would even more strongly support addressing current problems in ways that would, in the longer term, make appeals to law and its enforcements ever less necessary.

  20. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  1. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing…

  2. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing knowledge over…

  3. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  4. INTERFERENCES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LAW WITH THE URBAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena IFTIME

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the large, complex issue of influences that urbanization can have on the environment, requires first of all, some general considerations on the interferences between the urban law and the environmental law. The urban law investigates and regulates the affecting and planning of the urban space. Therefore, this type of regulations are at the interference with the environmental law , which, inter alia , deals with the protection and conservation of the environment in the urban settlements, in the built space and also the ecological deployment of the activities in this space. The interaction between the two is becoming increasingly important especially when the urban law is increasingly correlated with the environmental protection, the natural space and the ecological activities.

  5. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  6. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  7. International school of nuclear law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    This is a report about the second International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on August 26 to September 7, 2002, by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  8. International School of Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-12-01

    This is a report about the fourth International School of Nuclear Law (ISNL) held in Montpellier, France, on 23 August to 3 September 2004 by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the University of Montpellier 1 with the support of the International Nuclear Law Association (INLA), the European Commission, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). (orig.)

  9. International Law and Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Crimes Under Flags of Convenience: In a Depressed Shipping Market, Poor Nations Sell Flags for Criminal Ventures, 127 MARITIME STUDIES, Nov.-Dec...Planck Institute for International Law at Heidelberg (Germany), a Meltzer Visiting Professor of Inter- national Law at New York University and a

  10. Methodology of Law and Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pacces (Alessio Maria); L.T. Visscher (Louis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction A chapter on the methodology of law and economics, i.e. the economic analysis of law, concerns the methodology of economics. The above quote (Becker 1976, 5) shows that economics should not be defined by its subject, but by its method (also Veljanovski 2007, 19). This method

  11. Critical Introduction To Natural Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Javier Mosquera Cabrera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a comparison between the different editions of the famous work of Hervada, discussed here. The outcome of this analysis arise five new hermeneutical rules that analyze how to interpret positive law or agreement that eventually undermine the natural law. It is also evident that the principles proposed by Hervada are a good basis for general legal hermeneutics.

  12. Law and Morals. Prolegomena (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae V. DURĂ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the pages of this study we have emphasized the relation between Law and Morals, between what is just and in just, talking thus not only about the nature of the Law and of the Morals, but also about the relation between the juridical norms and the moral principles. An evaluation of the historical process of the emergence of Law and Morals – be it brief – has enabled us to notice that the Law has evolved step by step from the Moral norms and from the customs of a moral nature, hence the conclusion that the positive juridical norms should also express, in their content, values of a moral nature. In fact, from an ontological point of view, between Law and Morals could not be a divorce, since the notions of “righteousness” and of “justice” themselves are categories of Morals. That is why the theory of juridical positivism, according to which the rule of Law can exist in the absence of Morals since the state is the only source of Law, has no credibility both from a historical and philosophical and from a juridical point of view. Finally, the increasingly higher interest of the philosophers and jurists of our time to perceive and express the content of the nature of Law adequately and, ipso facto, the relation between this one and Morals, was also determined by the international and European legislation regarding the human fundamental rights and liberties.

  13. Interpretation of the Omori Law

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmi, Anatol V

    2016-01-01

    The known Omori law is presented in the form of differential equation that describes the evolution of the aftershock activity. This equation is derived hypothetically with taking into account deactivation of the faults in epicentral zone of the main shock. A generalization of the Omori law is proposed.

  14. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  15. Advanced Introduction to Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law, presenti

  16. Social Change and Criminal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  17. Anisotropic Power-law Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanno, Sugumi; Watanabe, Masa-aki

    2010-01-01

    We study an inflationary scenario in supergravity model with a gauge kinetic function. We find exact anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when both the potential function for an inflaton and the gauge kinetic function are exponential type. The dynamical system analysis tells us that the anisotropic power-law inflation is an attractor for a large parameter region.

  18. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    CERN Document Server

    Starke, R

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of relativistic generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic plasmas in astrophysics and cosmology. Here we propose an alternative route to this problem by introducing the most general Lorentz covariant first order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor $\\chi^\\mu_{~\

  19. Science without laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweber, Silvan S

    2009-01-01

    During the 1970s, something deeply consequential happened in the cultural, economic, and social relationships between science and technology. Paul Forman has proposed that the abrupt reversal of the culturally ascribed primacy in the science-technology relationship circa 1980 be taken as a demarcation of postmodernity from modernity. Modernity's most basic cultural presuppositions-the superiority of theory to practice, the elevation of the public over the private and that of the disinterested over the interested, and the belief that the means sanctify the ends-were ascribed to science. In postmodernity, science is subsumed under technology, and the status of technology relative to science reflects our pragmatic-utilitarian subordination of means to ends. These cultural changes have resonated with deep epistemological and ontological changes within the sciences themselves, and all these have manifested themselves in universities becoming entrepreneurial, and the consequences thereof. Science Without Laws insightfully illustrates some of the changes within the life and human sciences by analyzing the role played by model systems and case studies.

  20. Reflections on international medical law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattad, Mohammed S; Hrevtsova, Radmyla Yu

    2011-12-01

    Does international medical law exist, in the first place, as an independent area of study? If so, is it urgently required in an era of comparative studies? Namely, to what extent, if at all, international studies differ from comparative ones? Besides, what are the particular characteristics of such international discipline? Namely, what are the particular features of this field that elaborate on our legal and scientific understanding in sketching possible definition for this notion of "international medical law?" In addition, how does international medical law correlate with health, ethics and health policies in our globalized world? And finally, what are the challenges that might face the international community, once the concept of "international medical law" is acknowledged? This papers aims at establishing the conceptual grounds for these questions, thus calling for the acknowledgment of a new field of study described as "international medical law".

  1. On the ideal gas law

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaud, Jacques; Philippe, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    When a cylinder terminated by a piston, containing $N$ corpuscles, and with height $h$ is raised at temperature $\\theta$, the force that the corpuscles exerts on the piston is, to within constant factors: $F=N\\,\\theta/h$. This law, called the "ideal gas law", is valid at any temperature (except at very low temperatures when quantum effects are significant) and for any collection of corpuscles, in a space of arbitrary dimensions. It is usually derived under the assumption that the temperature is proportional to the corpuscle's kinetic energy. We show that this law rests only upon the democritian concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum, postulating that it is independent of the law of motion. This view-point puts aside restrictive assumptions that are sources of confusion. The present paper should accordingly facilitate the understanding of the physical meaning of the ideal gas law. The mathematics is elementary.

  2. Discovering Natural Laws by Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴轶华

    1989-01-01

    A polynomial algorithm.called Reduction,is presented to discover natural laws by analysing a set of experimental data.instead of a heuristic exploration which,when adopted in BACON,can only lead to rediscovering simple laws.A complex law with multiple variables involved can be discovered by reducing it to a search.This search is so efficient that it does not need any backtracking and is able to cover most of possible laws.A reduction-based discovery system,called DISCOVER 2.0,was developed with a flexible knowledge base and an ability of dealing with imperfect data.The system has been verified to be valid computationally,practically,and theoretically,by discovering a great number o complex laws,and can be also viewed as a leaming engine embodied in any intelligent systems to improve their performance by obtaining a general rule from the accumulated data.

  3. The Reorganization Law in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał ADAMUS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present general remarks of the legal structure of the Polish reorganization law. This is a completely new institution in Poland. The Act of 28 February 2003 the Bankruptcy and Reorganization Law (J.L. No 60, item 535 as amended, the articles 492 - 521 b.r.l. is the main source of law in the commented matter. The idea of the Polish regulation derives from the Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code of the United States. The statistics of the usage of the reorganization proceedings in Poland are not very impressive. In this respect some critics maintain that the legislative experiment called “reorganization proceedings” is unsuccessful. Nevertheless the Reorganization Law is a very important figure in the Polish commercial law. Reorganization proceedings seriously differ from bankruptcy proceedings

  4. Twentieth Century Internationalism in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiermann, Ole

    2007-01-01

    The 20th century saw the transformation of international law into a legal discipline concerned with the practical  application of law. It was fuelled by a manifold variety of treaties, procedures and institutions. Still, international lawyers persisted in conceiving and judging their discipline...... against a background coloured by national legal traditions. International lawyers did not overcome the optimist and evolutionary tradition based on the assumption that international law is but an ever closer approximation of national legal systems; nor did lawyers escape the fl ip side of this tradition......, i.e., doubt and insecurity about international law and its basis. Rather than facilitating international law as a practical discipline, a superfi cial understanding of internationalism reinforced fetishisms of the discipline's theoretical past, not least the axiom that states only are proper...

  5. Hack's Law: Sinuosity, convexity, elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemin, James H.

    2000-11-01

    Hack's law, an empirical, power law relationship between drainage basin area and the length of the main stream channel, has long been taken to imply that drainage basins become more elongate (relatively longer and narrower) with increasing basin size. A study of the geometry of 38 basins from three distinct geomorphic settings shows that this geometric interpretation of Hack's law is only occasionally true: Even though Hack's power law relationship holds between basin area and main channel length, these basins do not necessarily become more elongate with increasing size. Rather, Hack's law is an expression of a balance between changes in basin shape and changes in channel planform geometry. For the basins in this study, changes in channel sinuosity play the most important role in this balance; changes in basin shape are far less regular. Local conditions appear to determine the partitioning of importance between changes in basin shape and channel sinuosity.

  6. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  7. Mining and radiation protection law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the hazards of ionising radiation in the mining sector for the mining employees, the neighbouring population and the environment, with regard to prospecting, mining and processing radioactive ores. Due attention must also be paid to stockpiles, radioactive waste and imports of radioactive minerals. International radiation protection laws are to be applied on the basis of Euratom, IAEA, OECP/NEA and ICRP. The national law to be applied is Basic Law, Atomic Energy Law, and the Radiation Protection Ordinance of 1976. This law includes all activities having to do with mining of radioactive minerals, transport, imports and exports and waste management. Last not least, questions concerning the supervision carried out by the state and the administration are dealt with. (HSCH).

  8. Scaling Laws in Human Language

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Zipf's law on word frequency is observed in English, French, Spanish, Italian, and so on, yet it does not hold for Chinese, Japanese or Korean characters. A model for writing process is proposed to explain the above difference, which takes into account the effects of finite vocabulary size. Experiments, simulations and analytical solution agree well with each other. The results show that the frequency distribution follows a power law with exponent being equal to 1, at which the corresponding Zipf's exponent diverges. Actually, the distribution obeys exponential form in the Zipf's plot. Deviating from the Heaps' law, the number of distinct words grows with the text length in three stages: It grows linearly in the beginning, then turns to a logarithmical form, and eventually saturates. This work refines previous understanding about Zipf's law and Heaps' law in language systems.

  9. Flight Operations in the Sells Airspace Overlying the Tohono O’Odham Indian Reservation and Organ Pipe Cactus Nat’l Monument. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    document. --VThere are two additional listed species found under the S--lls Airspace. The desert pupfish ( Cyprinodon macularius ) was listed as endangered...on April 29, 1986, is found at several locations on the Tohono O’odham Indian Reservation. On March 31, 1986, the desert pupfish vI ( Cyprinodon ... macularius ) was also listed as endangered, and critical habitat was designated for Quitobaquito Spring on Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, where the

  10. Laws on Robots, Laws by Robots, Laws in Robots : Regulating Robot Behaviour by Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenes, R.E.; Lucivero, F.

    2015-01-01

    Speculation about robot morality is almost as old as the concept of a robot itself. Asimov’s three laws of robotics provide an early and well-discussed example of moral rules robots should observe. Despite the widespread influence of the three laws of robotics and their role in shaping visions of fu

  11. ITKIN’S LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Bolotov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper clarifies  a set of conditions for Itkin’s law (ѣ [ě] and я [ѧ, ę] to ё [ë, jo] transition,  i.e.,   [ě¨, joˇ] and я [ѧ¨ , ę¨, jö˛] formation and provides some foundations for the phonetic  nature of such conditions. Those include (1 a stem being of the accent paradigm (a.p. b [so called right-accentuality of this a.p. correlates with the rightward accomodational  orientation,  i.e., a stem is characterized by an increased propensity to anticipatory  change of vowel timbre across the dividing  consonantal barrier and under the influence of the next vowel]; (2 positioning of such ѣ or я in front of the consonant cluster [this position results in — after the rule of “rising (ascending sonority” (or “sonority wave”, “open syllable” stops acting, the reduced vowels begin to fall and a syllable is restructured anew — in a syllabic border rightward drift, up to formation of a syllable closed by the first consonant in the cluster; (3 limitation on the structure of the abovementioned  consonant cluster which is manifested in a ban on two voiceless (± sonorant consonants conjunction;  this conjunction,  due to thereby precipitated relatively  longer voice interrupt, prevents a full-scaled accomodation of ѣ or я to a back vowel of the following syllable. Some closer phenomena in cognate languages (Ukrainian,  Slovene  are adduced. All available  relevant material is listed, a single example being analyzed in some greater detail to demonstrate the impossibility of contesting the presence of ѣ as a root vowel within its stem.

  12. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  13. Law Enforcement Proxies Matter for the Law and Finance Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Toci

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper employs various measures of law enforcement to provide new evidence on the importance of legal institutions for different dimensions of financial development in transition economies. It offers a critical assessment of law enforcement measures employed in recent studies by showing that some proxies for law enforcement in the credit market may not be appropriate. Hence, care should be taken in how the quality of institutions is measured and the context which it represents. An original approach to measuring law enforcement in the credit market is developed by embodying the legal theory of dispute resolution and assessing this approach by collecting primary data for Kosovo. The findings suggest that Kosovo compares well with countries in the region and other transition economies in terms of the enforcement of creditor rights.

  14. Community and law: identifying the locus of law in community

    OpenAIRE

    Yaylali, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    "Community and law approach" provides an illuminating insight into alternative legal orderings within a social unit. The comprehensiveness of legal systems within a community or a social unit, provides a suitable basis for a structural framework of alternative legal systems or Legal Pluralism, which is missing in the discourse on Legal Pluralism. "Identifying the locus of law within a community", provides us with an indication on how autopoetic a legal system can be within a social unit, taki...

  15. Time, history and international law

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Matthew; Vogiatzi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and practical issues concerning the relationship between international law, time and history. Problems relating to time and history are ever-present in the work of international lawyers, whether understood in terms of the role of historic practice in the doctrine of sources, the application of the principle of inter-temporal law in dispute settlement, or in gaining a coherent insight into the role that was played by international law in past events. But very little has been written about the various different ways in which international lawyers approach or unders

  16. On the ideal gas law

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud, Jacques; Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The air density on earth decays as a function of altitude $z$ approximately according to an $\\exp(-w\\,z/\\theta)$-law, where $w$ denotes the weight of a nitrogen molecule and $\\theta=\\kB T$ where $k_B$ is a constant and $T$ the thermodynamic temperature. To derive this law one usually invokes the Boltzmann factor, itself derived from statistical considerations. We show that this (barometric) law may be derived solely from the democritian concept of corpuscles moving in ...

  17. PROSPECTIVE ISLAMIC LAW IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohdar Yanlua

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Prospective Islamic law in Indonesia. The enforcement of Islamic law in Indonesia experienced the ups and downs, ranging from the colonial period with the Government of Indonesia to the Netherlands in order to reform it.In this study it was found that a prospective law of Islam in Indonesia the development of any regime of the Government of Indonesia is experiencing developments. By the Government of Indonesia does not accept or reject the extremes, but instead selectively receive (not the totality and gradual.Such a step is done for the sake of maintaining the stability and integrity of the country.

  18. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Furusawa, C; Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2002-01-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1, i.e., they obey Zipf's law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intra-cellular reaction network, we found that Zipf's law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  19. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-02-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1; i.e., they obey Zipf’s law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intracellular reaction network, we found that Zipf’s law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  20. English for International Trade Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilová Štĕpánka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law at Masaryk University in Brno, the Czech Re- public, offers several fields of studies, one of them being the three-year Bachelor’s degree programme of International Trade Law. This programme includes two semesters of English for specific purposes which the students take in their first year of studies. However, as the programme is offered as a part time study, there are only 10 lessons of English taught within two days per semester. Preparing a course which would develop the students’ language abilities and skills in the international trade law environment appears to be rather challenging under such conditions.